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Sample records for long-term daily administration

  1. Lack of tissue accumulation of grape seed flavanols after daily long-term administration in healthy and cafeteria-diet obese rats.

    PubMed

    Margalef, Maria; Pons, Zara; Iglesias-Carres, Lisard; Bravo, Francisca Isabel; Muguerza, Begoña; Arola-Arnal, Anna

    2015-11-18

    After ingestion flavanols are metabolized by phase-II enzymes and the microbiota and are distributed throughout the body depending on several factors. Herein we aim to evaluate whether flavanols are tissue-accumulated after the long-term administration of a grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) in rats and to study if compounds present in tissues differ in a cafeteria-diet obesity state. For that, plasma, liver, mesenteric white adipose tissue (MWAT), brain, and aorta flavanol metabolites from standard chow-diet-fed (ST) and cafeteria-diet-fed (CAF) rats were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) 21 h after the last 12-week-daily GSPE (100 mg/kg) dosage. Results showed that long-term GSPE intake did not trigger a flavanol tissue accumulation, indicating a clearance of products at each daily dosage. Therefore, results suggest that polyphenol benefits in a disease state would be due to a daily pulsatile effect. Moreover, obesity induced by diet also influences the metabolism and bioavailability of flavanols in rats. PMID:26496863

  2. Effects of Long-Term Daily Administration of Prostaglandin-E2 on Maintaining Elevated Proximal Tibial Metaphyseal Cancellous Bone Mass in Male Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Jee, Webster S. S.; Mori, Satoshi; Li, Xiao Jian; Kimmel, Donald B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of long-term prostaglandin E(sub 2) (PGE(sub 2)) on cancellous bone in proximal tibial metaphysis were studied in 7 month old male Sprague-Dawley rats given daily subcutaneous injections of 0, 1, 3, and 6 mg PGE(sub 2)/kg/day and sacrificed after 60, 120, and 180 days. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double fluorescent-labeled undecalcified bone specimens. After 60 days of treatment, PGE(sub 2) produced diffusely labeled trabecular bone area, increased trabecular bone area, eroded and labeled trabecular perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate at all dose levels when compared with age-matched controls. In rats given PGE(sub 2) for longer time periods (120 and 180 days), trabecular bone area, diffusely labeled trabecular bone area, labeled perimeter, mineral apposition, and bone formation rates were sustained at the elevated levels achieved earlier at 60-day treatment. The eroded perimeter continued to increase until 120 days, then plateau. The observation that continuous systemic PGE(sub 2) administration to adult male rats elevated metaphyseal cancellous bone mass to 3.5-fold of the control level within 60 days and maintained it for another 120 days indicates that the powerful skeletal anabolic effects of PGE2 can be sustained with continuous administration .

  3. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Vanessa Manchim; Yonamine, Maurício; Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition. This study evaluated the effects of long-term administration of ayahuasca on Morris water maze (MWM), fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM) performance in rats. Behavior tests started 48h after the end of treatment. Freeze-dried ayahuasca doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg were used, with water as the control. Long-term administration consisted of a daily oral dose for 30 days by gavage. The behavioral data indicated that long-term ayahuasca administration did not affect the performance of animals in MWM and EPM tasks. However the dose of 120 mg/kg increased the contextual conditioned fear response for both background and foreground fear conditioning. The tone conditioned response was not affected after long-term administration. In addition, the increase in the contextual fear response was maintained during the repeated sessions several weeks after training. Taken together, these data showed that long-term ayahuasca administration in rats can interfere with the contextual association of emotional events, which is in agreement with the fact that the beverage activates brain areas related to these processes. PMID:26716991

  4. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Favaro, Vanessa Manchim; Yonamine, Maurício; Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition. This study evaluated the effects of long-term administration of ayahuasca on Morris water maze (MWM), fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM) performance in rats. Behavior tests started 48h after the end of treatment. Freeze-dried ayahuasca doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg were used, with water as the control. Long-term administration consisted of a daily oral dose for 30 days by gavage. The behavioral data indicated that long-term ayahuasca administration did not affect the performance of animals in MWM and EPM tasks. However the dose of 120 mg/kg increased the contextual conditioned fear response for both background and foreground fear conditioning. The tone conditioned response was not affected after long-term administration. In addition, the increase in the contextual fear response was maintained during the repeated sessions several weeks after training. Taken together, these data showed that long-term ayahuasca administration in rats can interfere with the contextual association of emotional events, which is in agreement with the fact that the beverage activates brain areas related to these processes. PMID:26716991

  5. 42 CFR 488.446 - Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility... PROCEDURES Enforcement of Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.446 Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures. Any individual who is or was the administrator of a...

  6. 42 CFR 488.446 - Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility... PROCEDURES Enforcement of Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.446 Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures. Any individual who is or was the administrator of a...

  7. 42 CFR 488.446 - Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility... PROCEDURES Enforcement of Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.446 Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures. Any individual who is or was the administrator of a...

  8. 42 CFR 488.446 - Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility... PROCEDURES Enforcement of Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.446 Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures. Any individual who is or was the administrator of a...

  9. Interest in Long-Term Care among Health Services Administration Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, April; Thompson, Jon M.

    2011-01-01

    The aging of the population has created increased opportunities for health administrators in long-term care. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of 68 undergraduate health services administration students to explore factors related to interest in a career in long-term care administration. One third expressed interest working in the…

  10. Long-term oscillations in rainfall extremes in a 268 year daily time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marani, Marco; Zanetti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We analyze long-term fluctuations of rainfall extremes in 268 years of daily observations (Padova, Italy, 1725-2006), to our knowledge, the longest existing instrumental time series of its kind. We identify multidecadal oscillations in extremes estimated by fitting the GEV distribution, with approximate periodicities of about 17-21, 30-38, 49-68, 85-94, and 145-172 years. The amplitudes of these oscillations exceed the changes associated with the observed trend in intensity. This finding implies that even if climatic trends are absent or negligible, rainfall and its extremes exhibit an apparent nonstationarity if analyzed over time intervals shorter than the longest periodicity in the data (about 170 years for the case analyzed here). These results suggest that because long-term periodicities may likely be present elsewhere, in the absence of observational time series with length comparable to such periodicities (possibly exceeding one century), past observations cannot be considered to be representative of future extremes. We also find that observed fluctuations in extreme events in Padova are linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation: increases in the NAO Index are on average associated with an intensification of daily extreme rainfall events. This link with the NAO global pattern is highly suggestive of implications of general relevance: long-term fluctuations in rainfall extremes connected with large-scale oscillating atmospheric patterns are likely to be widely present and undermine the very basic idea of using a single stationary distribution to infer future extremes from past observations.

  11. Augmentation of Intercoronary Anastomosis by Long-Term Administration of a Vasodilator Drug, Dipyridamole (Persantin)

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Wadie M.; Ragheb, Samir; Hoeschen, Robert J.

    1964-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the ability of dipyridamole to promote intercoronary anastomotic channels in the dog. Nineteen normal dogs received 150-300 mg. dipyridamole daily for 73 to 162 days and were compared with 18 control animals. Employing pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) anesthesia and positive pressure ventilation, the chest was opened and the circumflex coronary artery was tied and cannulated distal to the tie. The average retrograde flow in the treated group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.02). Acute administration of dipyridamole intravenously produced comparable reduction of blood pressure and retrograde flow in both groups of animals. Thus the long-term administration of dipyridamole appears capable of promoting the growth of intercoronary anastomotic pathways in some animals even in the absence of any known ischemic stimulus. This would appear to be the result of sustained vasodilator action. PMID:14139998

  12. Cardiotoxicity in rabbits after long-term nandrolone decanoate administration.

    PubMed

    Vasilaki, Fotini; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Germanakis, Ioannis; Tzardi, Marias; Kavvalakis, Matthaios; Ozcagli, Eren; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-01-22

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids is linked to a variety of cardiovascular complications. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible cardiovascular effects of nandrolone decanoate on young rabbits using echocardiography, histology and monitoring of telomerase activity, oxidative stress and biochemical markers. Fourteen rabbits were divided into three administration groups and the control group. Doses of 4mg/kg and 10mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate, given intramuscularly and subcutaneously, two days per week for six months were applied. A 4-months wash-out period followed. Focal fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrations of cardiac tissue were observed in the high dose groups. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) levels were significantly increased in the high dose groups, while catalase activity decreased. Myocardial Performance Index (MPI) is the main echocardiographic index primarily affected by nandrolone administration in rabbits. Despite the preserved systolic performance, histological lesions observed associated with distorted MPI values, point to diastolic impairment of the thickened myocardium due to nandrolone treatment. Oxidative stress accumulates and telomerase activity in cardiac tissue rises. Subcutaneous administration seems to be more deleterious to the cardiovascular system, as oxidative stress, telomerase activity and biochemical markers do not appear to return into normal values in the wash-out period. PMID:26541207

  13. Long-Term Administration of Artesunate Induces Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Olumide, Stephen Akinsomisoye; Raji, Yinusa

    2011-01-01

    Background Artesunate is commonly used in malaria therapy. Many antimalarial drugs have been associated with male reproductive dysfunction. The effect of artesunate on male reproductive activities was studied using in–vivo and in-vitro experimental models. Methods Adult male rats (n=6) were orally given artesunate (2.9 mg/kg body weight) on daily basis for five days. Artesunate (2.9 mg/kg body weight) was administered to another group of rats daily for six weeks, while there was a recovery group of rats too. The control animals received the vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, sperm characteristics, serum follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels, testicular and epididymal histology and fertility were assessed. Cultured Sertoli cells were treated with 0.3 µM to 10 µM artesunate for five days after which Sertoli cell viability, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ds-DNA) integrity and genetic expression of Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and transferrin were assessed. The data were analyzed using Graphpad Instat Statistical software. A probability value of p <0.05 was considered significant. Results Artesunate did not cause any significant effects in short-term administration but significantly reduced the aforesaid parameters in long-term administration. There were visible lesions in the testicular and epididymal histological studies, although fertility was not significantly reduced. These changes were restored in the recovery experiment. In-vitro studies showed dose and duration dependent changes in Sertoli cell viability and ds-DNA integrity. However, transferrin and GDNF gene expressions were normal. Conclusion The results suggest that long-term administration of artesunate could induce reversible infertility in rats which may act via distortion of blood–testis barrier formed by Sertoli cells. PMID:23926511

  14. Long-term drug administration in the adult zebrafish using oral gavage for cancer preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Michelle; Henderson, Rachel E.; Garraway, Levi A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zebrafish are a major model for chemical genetics, and most studies use embryos when investigating small molecules that cause interesting phenotypes or that can rescue disease models. Limited studies have dosed adults with small molecules by means of water-borne exposure or injection techniques. Challenges in the form of drug delivery-related trauma and anesthesia-related toxicity have excluded the adult zebrafish from long-term drug efficacy studies. Here, we introduce a novel anesthetic combination of MS-222 and isoflurane to an oral gavage technique for a non-toxic, non-invasive and long-term drug administration platform. As a proof of principle, we established drug efficacy of the FDA-approved BRAFV600E inhibitor, Vemurafenib, in adult zebrafish harboring BRAFV600E melanoma tumors. In the model, adult casper zebrafish intraperitoneally transplanted with a zebrafish melanoma cell line (ZMEL1) and exposed to daily sub-lethal dosing at 100 mg/kg of Vemurafenib for 2 weeks via oral gavage resulted in an average 65% decrease in tumor burden and a 15% mortality rate. In contrast, Vemurafenib-resistant ZMEL1 cell lines, generated in culture from low-dose drug exposure for 4 months, did not respond to the oral gavage treatment regimen. Similarly, this drug treatment regimen can be applied for treatment of primary melanoma tumors in the zebrafish. Taken together, we developed an effective long-term drug treatment system that will allow the adult zebrafish to be used to identify more effective anti-melanoma combination therapies and opens up possibilities for treating adult models of other diseases. PMID:27482819

  15. Chronic alcohol self-administration in monkeys shows long-term quantity/frequency categorical stability

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Erich J.; Farro, Jonathan; Gonzales, Steven; Helms, Christa; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The current criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUD) do not include consumption (quantity/frequency) measures of alcohol intake, in part due to the difficulty of these measures in humans. Animal models of ethanol self-administration have been fundamental in advancing our understanding of the neurobiological basis of (AUD) and can address quantity/frequency measures with accurate measurements over prolonged periods of time. The non-human primate (NHP) model of voluntary oral alcohol self-administration has documented both binge drinking and drinking to dependence and can be used to test the stability of consumption measures over time. Methods and Results Here, an extensive set of alcohol intakes (g/kg/day) was analyzed from a large multi-cohort population of Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys (n=31). Daily ethanol intake was uniformly distributed over chronic (12 months) access for all animals. Underlying this distribution of intakes were subpopulations of monkeys that exhibited distinctive clustering of drinking patterns, allowing us to categorically define very heavy drinking (VHD), heavy drinking (HD), binge drinking (BD), and low drinking (LD). These categories were stable across the 12-month assessed by the protocol, but exhibited fluctuations when examined at shorter intervals. Conclusions The establishment of persistent drinking categories based on quantity/frequency suggests that consumption variables can be used to track long-term changes in behavioral, molecular or physiochemical mechanisms related to our understanding of diagnosis, prevention, intervention and treatment efficacies. PMID:25421519

  16. Daily and Long Term Variations of Out-Door Gamma Dose Rate in Khorasan Province, Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Toossi, M. T. Bahreyni; Bayani, SH.

    2008-08-07

    In Iran before 1996, only a few hot spots had been identified, no systematic study had been envisaged. Since then preparation of out-door environmental gamma radiation map of Iran was defined as a long term goal in our center, at the same time simultaneous monitoring of outdoor gamma level in Khorasan was also proposed. A Rados area monitoring system (AAM-90) including 10 intelligent RD-02 detector and all associated components were purchased. From 2003 gradually seven stations have been setup in Khorasan. For all seven stations monthly average and one hour daily average on four time intervals have been computed. Statistically no significant differences have been observed. This is also true for monthly averages. The overall average dose rate for present seven stations varies from 0.11 {mu}Sv{center_dot}h{sup -1} for Ferdows, to 0.04 {mu}Sv{center_dot}h{sup -1} for Dargaz. Based on our data, 50 minutes sample in any time interval is an accurate sample size to estimate out door Gamma dose rate.

  17. Development of a Self-Assessment Tool to Facilitate Decision-Making in Choosing a Long Term Care Administration Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johs-Artisensi, Jennifer L.; Olson, Douglas M.; Nahm, Abraham Y.

    2016-01-01

    Long term care administrators need a broad base of knowledge, skills, and interests to provide leadership and be successful in managing a fiscally responsible, quality long term care organization. Researchers developed a tool to help students assess whether a long term care administration major is a compatible fit. With input from professionals in…

  18. Daily intermittent hypoxia augments spinal BDNF levels, ERK phosphorylation and respiratory long-term facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Julia E.R.; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2009-01-01

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) elicits a form of respiratory plasticity known as long-term facilitation (LTF). We hypothesized that: 1) daily AIH (dAIH) preconditioning enhances phrenic and hypoglossal (XII) LTF in a rat strain with low constitutive LTF expression; 2) dAIH induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a critical protein for phrenic LTF (pLTF) in the cervical spinal cord; and 3) dAIH increases post-AIH extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) activation. Phrenic and XII motor output were monitored in anesthetized dAIH- or sham-treated Brown Norway rats with and without acute AIH. pLTF was observed in both sham (18 ± 9% baseline; 60 min post-hypoxia; p < 0.05; n = 18) and dAIH treated rats (37 ± 8%; p < 0.05; n = 14), but these values were not significantly different (p = 0.13). XII LTF was not observed in sham-treated rats (4 ± 5%), but was revealed in dAIH pretreated rats (48 ± 18%; p < 0.05). dAIH preconditioning increased basal ventral cervical BDNF protein levels (24 ± 8%; p < 0.05), but had no significant effect on ERK phosphorylation. AIH increased BDNF in sham (25 ± 8%; p < 0.05), but not dAIH-pretreated rats (−7 ± 4%), and had complex effects on ERK phosphorylation (ERK2 increased in shams whereas ERK1 increased in dAIH-treated rats). Thus, dAIH elicits metaplasticity in LTF, revealing XII LTF in a rat strain with no constitutive XII LTF expression. Increased BDNF synthesis may no longer be necessary for phrenic LTF following dAIH preconditioning since BDNF concentration is already elevated. PMID:19416672

  19. Cessation of Long-term Naltrexone Administration: Longitudinal Follow-Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crews, W. David, Jr.; Rhodes, Robert D.; Bonaventura, Sharon H.; Rowe, Frederick B.; Goering, Aaron M.

    1999-01-01

    Longitudinal follow-ups of the cessation of long-term Naltrexone administration were conducted with a women with profound mental retardation who had previously displayed dramatic decreases in self-injurious behavior (SIB). After two and four years post-Naltrexone therapy, the subject exhibited near-zero rates of SIB despite changes in staff and in…

  20. 41 CFR 301-11.15 - What expenses may be considered part of the daily lodging cost when I rent on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... considered part of the daily lodging cost when I rent on a long-term basis? When you rent a room, apartment, house, or other lodging on a long-term basis (e.g., weekly, monthly), the following expenses may be... considered part of the daily lodging cost when I rent on a long-term basis? 301-11.15 Section...

  1. 41 CFR 301-11.15 - What expenses may be considered part of the daily lodging cost when I rent on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... considered part of the daily lodging cost when I rent on a long-term basis? When you rent a room, apartment, house, or other lodging on a long-term basis (e.g., weekly, monthly), the following expenses may be... considered part of the daily lodging cost when I rent on a long-term basis? 301-11.15 Section...

  2. The steps that can take us miles: Examining the short-term dynamics of long-term daily goal pursuit.

    PubMed

    Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Ferguson, Elizabeth Louise

    2016-04-01

    Cybernetic models suggest that to achieve one's long-term goals, one must create specific plans, enact these plan, monitor progress toward the goal, and resist temptations. Although many studies have examined these proposals in laboratory settings, few studies have examined such processes in daily life. This was the explicit purpose of the current investigation. Participants identified 4 long-term goals during an orientation session. They then completed a diary protocol in which they reported on these self-regulatory processes. The results were largely consistent with predictions. Of the 20 hypotheses examined, 17 were significant in the expected direction. For example, testing led to the initiation of long-term goal operations, which in turn led to goal progress. Likewise, temptations led to self-control operations, which in turn led to the successful resistance of temptations. The investigation thus suggests that cybernetic principles have broad relevance to understanding goal pursuit in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26913617

  3. 41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? 301-11.14 Section 301-11.14 Public Contracts... computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? When you obtain lodging on a long-term basis (e.g., weekly or monthly) your daily lodging rate is computed by dividing the total lodging cost by the...

  4. 41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? 301-11.14 Section 301-11.14 Public Contracts... computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? When you obtain lodging on a long-term basis (e.g., weekly or monthly) your daily lodging rate is computed by dividing the total lodging cost by the...

  5. 41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? 301-11.14 Section 301-11.14 Public Contracts... computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? When you obtain lodging on a long-term basis (e.g., weekly or monthly) your daily lodging rate is computed by dividing the total lodging cost by the...

  6. 41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? 301-11.14 Section 301-11.14 Public Contracts... computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? When you obtain lodging on a long-term basis (e.g., weekly or monthly) your daily lodging rate is computed by dividing the total lodging cost by the...

  7. Long-term ecological impacts of antibiotic administration on the human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jernberg, Cecilia; Löfmark, Sonja; Edlund, Charlotta; Jansson, Janet K

    2007-05-01

    Antibiotic administration is known to cause short-term disturbances in the microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract, but the potential long-term consequences have not been well studied. The aims of this study were to analyse the long-term impact of a 7-day clindamycin treatment on the faecal microbiota and to simultaneously monitor the ecological stability of the microbiota in a control group as a baseline for reference. Faecal samples from four clindamycin-exposed and four control subjects were collected at nine different time points over 2 years. Using a polyphasic approach, we observed highly significant disturbances in the bacterial community that persisted throughout the sampling period. In particular, a sharp decline in the clonal diversity of Bacteroides isolates, as assessed by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and long-term persistence of highly resistant clones were found as a direct response to the antibiotic exposure. The Bacteroides community never returned to its original composition during the study period as assessed using the molecular fingerprinting technique, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Furthermore, using real-time PCR we found a dramatic and persistent increase in levels of specific resistance genes in DNA extracted from the faeces after clindamycin administration. The temporal variations in the microbiota of the control group were minor compared to the large and persistent shift seen in the exposed group. These results demonstrate that long after the selection pressure from a short antibiotic exposure has been removed, there are still persistent long term impacts on the human intestinal microbiota that remain for up to 2 years post-treatment. PMID:18043614

  8. Effect of long-term administration of arachidonic acid on n-3 fatty acid deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Harauma, Akiko; Tomita, Makiko; Muto, Daiki; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-04-01

    The effect of long-term oral administration of arachidonic acid (ARA, 240 mg/kg/day) on brain function was assessed for mice maintained on an n-3 fatty acid adequate or deficient diet. The administration of ARA for 13 weeks resulted in an elevation of spontaneous motor activity, or the tendency thereof, in both the n-3 fatty acid adequate and deficient groups. However, the n-3 fatty acid deficient mice that were administered with ARA revealed marked deterioration in motor function in a motor coordination test. In the experiment to investigate changes over time, the motor activity of the ARA-administered group continued to increase mildly in n-3 deficient mice, although that of the control group showed a decrease involving habituation for both diet groups from the second week. The fatty acid composition of the brain at the end of the behavioral experiments indicated an increase in the levels of ARA and other n-6 fatty acids, as well as a decrease in the levels of docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that long-term administration of ARA causes an increase of futile spontaneous motor activity and the diminution of motor function by aggravation of n-3 fatty acid deficiency. PMID:25650363

  9. Medication administration errors for older people in long-term residential care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Older people in long-term residential care are at increased risk of medication prescribing and administration errors. The main aim of this study was to measure the incidence of medication administration errors in nursing and residential homes using a barcode medication administration (BCMA) system. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 13 care homes (9 residential and 4 nursing). Data on all medication administrations for a cohort of 345 older residents were recorded in real-time using a disguised observation technique. Every attempt by social care and nursing staff to administer medication over a 3-month observation period was analysed using BCMA records to determine the incidence and types of potential medication administration errors (MAEs) and whether errors were averted. Error classifications included attempts to administer medication at the wrong time, to the wrong person or discontinued medication. Further analysis compared data for residential and nursing homes. In addition, staff were surveyed prior to BCMA system implementation to assess their awareness of administration errors. Results A total of 188,249 medication administration attempts were analysed using BCMA data. Typically each resident was receiving nine different drugs and was exposed to 206 medication administration episodes every month. During the observation period, 2,289 potential MAEs were recorded for the 345 residents; 90% of residents were exposed to at least one error. The most common (n = 1,021, 45% of errors) was attempting to give medication at the wrong time. Over the 3-month observation period, half (52%) of residents were exposed to a serious error such as attempting to give medication to the wrong resident. Error incidence rates were 1.43 as high (95% CI 1.32-1.56 p < 0.001) in nursing homes as in residential homes. The level of non-compliance with system alerts was very low in both settings (0.075% of administrations). The pre-study survey revealed that only 12

  10. Long-term (5 years), high daily dosage of dietary agmatine--evidence of safety: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gilad, Gad M; Gilad, Varda H

    2014-11-01

    There is presently a great interest in the therapeutic potential of agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, for various diseases. Recent clinical studies have already shown that oral agmatine sulfate given for up to 3 weeks provides a safe and, as compared with current therapeutics, more effective treatment for neuropathic pain. These studies have ushered in the use of dietary agmatine as a nutraceutical. However, in view of information paucity, assessment of long-term safety of oral agmatine treatment is now clearly required. The authors of this report undertook to assess their own health status during ongoing consumption of a high daily dosage of oral agmatine over a period of 4-5 years. A daily dose of 2.67 g agmatine sulfate was encapsulated in gelatin capsules; the regimen consists of six capsules daily, each containing 445 mg, three in the morning and three in the evening after meals. Clinical follow-up consists of periodic physical examinations and laboratory blood and urine analyses. All measurements thus far remain within normal values and good general health status is sustained throughout the study period, up to 5 years. This case study shows for the first time that the recommended high dosage of agmatine may be consumed for at least 5 years without evidence of any adverse effects. These initial findings are highly important as they provide significant evidence for the extended long-term safety of a high daily dosage of dietary agmatine--a cardinal advantage for its utility as a nutraceutical. PMID:25247837

  11. Long-term administration of fluvoxamine attenuates neuropathic pain and involvement of spinal serotonin receptors in diabetic model rats.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takahiro; Kajiyama, Seiji; Hamada, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic neuropathic pain management is difficult even with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and narcotic analgesics such as morphine. Fluvoxamine, a class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), is widely used to treat depression. Its analgesic effects are also documented for diabetic neuropathic pain, but they are limited because it is administered as a single-dose. In this study, we examined the time course of the antiallodynic effect of fluvoxamine in a rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain, which was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (75 mg/kg). In addition, the involvement of spinal serotonin (5-HT) receptors in long-term fluvoxamine treatment was studied by intrathecal administration of 5-HT receptor antagonists. In this study the development of mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed by measuring the hind paw withdrawal threshold using von Frey filaments. The results demonstrated that daily oral administration of fluvoxamine (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) to diabetic rats from 3 to 8 weeks after streptozotocin administration resulted in a dose-dependent antiallodynic effect. The antiallodynic effect was sustained from 2 to 5 weeks after fluvoxamine administration. The antiallodynic effect of fluvoxamine in the diabetic rats was attenuated by WAY-100635 (a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) intrathecally administered 1 week after the onset of daily administration of fluvoxamine, whereas no significant attenuation was seen when the antagonist was administered 3 and 5 weeks after fluvoxamine administration. The antiallodynic effect of fluvoxamine was also attenuated by ketanserin (a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist) and ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) intrathecally administered 1 and 3 weeks after the onset of daily fluvoxamine administration. However, no significant attenuation was observed when the antagonist was administered 5 weeks after fluvoxamine administration. This study demonstrated that daily oral

  12. Repeated neonatal propofol administration induces sex-dependent long-term impairments on spatial and recognition memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Yang, Sung Min; Choi, Chang Soon; Mabunga, Darine Froy N; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Shin, Chan Young

    2015-05-01

    Propofol is an anesthetic agent that gained wide use because of its fast induction of anesthesia and rapid recovery post-anesthesia. However, previous studies have reported immediate neurodegeneration and long-term impairment in spatial learning and memory from repeated neonatal propofol administration in animals. Yet, none of those studies has explored the sex-specific long-term physical changes and behavioral alterations such as social (sociability and social preference), emotional (anxiety), and other cognitive functions (spatial working, recognition, and avoidance memory) after neonatal propofol treatment. Seven-day-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats underwent repeated daily intraperitoneal injections of propofol or normal saline for 7 days. Starting fourth week of age and onwards, rats were subjected to behavior tests including open-field, elevated-plus-maze, Y-maze, 3-chamber social interaction, novel-object-recognition, passive-avoidance, and rotarod. Rats were sacrificed at 9 weeks and hippocampal protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot. Results revealed long-term body weight gain alterations in the growing rats and sex-specific impairments in spatial (female) and recognition (male) learning and memory paradigms. A markedly decreased expression of hippocampal NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit in female- and increased expression of AMPA GluR1 subunit protein expression in male rats were also found. Other aspects of behaviors such as locomotor activity and coordination, anxiety, sociability, social preference and avoidance learning and memory were not generally affected. These results suggest that neonatal repeated propofol administration disrupts normal growth and some aspects of neurodevelopment in rats in a sex-specific manner. PMID:25995824

  13. Repeated Neonatal Propofol Administration Induces Sex-Dependent Long-Term Impairments on Spatial and Recognition Memory in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Yang, Sung Min; Choi, Chang Soon; Mabunga, Darine Froy N.; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Shin, Chan Young

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is an anesthetic agent that gained wide use because of its fast induction of anesthesia and rapid recovery post-anesthesia. However, previous studies have reported immediate neurodegeneration and long-term impairment in spatial learning and memory from repeated neonatal propofol administration in animals. Yet, none of those studies has explored the sex-specific long-term physical changes and behavioral alterations such as social (sociability and social preference), emotional (anxiety), and other cognitive functions (spatial working, recognition, and avoidance memory) after neonatal propofol treatment. Seven-day-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats underwent repeated daily intraperitoneal injections of propofol or normal saline for 7 days. Starting fourth week of age and onwards, rats were subjected to behavior tests including open-field, elevated-plus-maze, Y-maze, 3-chamber social interaction, novel-object-recognition, passive-avoidance, and rotarod. Rats were sacrificed at 9 weeks and hippocampal protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot. Results revealed long-term body weight gain alterations in the growing rats and sex-specific impairments in spatial (female) and recognition (male) learning and memory paradigms. A markedly decreased expression of hippocampal NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit in female- and increased expression of AMPA GluR1 subunit protein expression in male rats were also found. Other aspects of behaviors such as locomotor activity and coordination, anxiety, sociability, social preference and avoidance learning and memory were not generally affected. These results suggest that neonatal repeated propofol administration disrupts normal growth and some aspects of neurodevelopment in rats in a sex-specific manner. PMID:25995824

  14. Intrahippocampal glutamine administration inhibits mTORC1 signaling and impairs long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Rozas, Natalia S.; Redell, John B.; Pita-Almenar, Juan D.; Mckenna, James; Moore, Anthony N.; Gambello, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1), a key regulator of protein synthesis and cellular growth, is also required for long-term memory formation. Stimulation of mTORC1 signaling is known to be dependent on the availability of energy and growth factors, as well as the presence of amino acids. In vitro studies using serum- and amino acid-starved cells have reported that glutamine addition can either stimulate or repress mTORC1 activity, depending on the particular experimental system that was used. However, these experiments do not directly address the effect of glutamine on mTORC1 activity under physiological conditions in nondeprived cells in vivo. We present experimental results indicating that intrahippocampal administration of glutamine to rats reduces mTORC1 activity. Moreover, post-training administration of glutamine impairs long-term spatial memory formation, while coadministration of glutamine with leucine had no influence on memory. Intracellular recordings in hippocampal slices showed that glutamine did not alter either excitatory or inhibitory synaptic activity, suggesting that the observed memory impairments may not result from conversion of glutamine to either glutamate or GABA. Taken together, these findings indicate that glutamine can decrease mTORC1 activity in the brain and may have implications for treatments of neurological diseases associated with high mTORC1 signaling. PMID:25878136

  15. [Long-term effect of organic nitrates in angina pectoris: dependence on the form of administration and mode of stress].

    PubMed

    Schneider, W; Bussmann, W D; Kober, G; Kaltenbach, M

    1989-01-01

    ISDN (standard release formulation) 40 mg administered 6 times daily (= 240 mg) remained effective during a 4-week treatment of patients with stable angina in terms of decreasing anginal attacks and reducing ischemic ST segment depression at stress testing in the upright position (step climbing test). The sustained antianginal activity is explained by fluctuating plasma levels, provided by rapid drug release from the standard formulation, short administration intervals and an 7-hour-night pause. When comparing acute and chronic antianginal activity of ISDN (40 mg) administered 4 times daily with regard to the type of stress testing it became evident that a marked attenuation of antiischemic activity (-35%; p less than 0.01) occurred in the supine (bicycle ergometry) but not in the upright (step climbing test) position. The most probable explanation for the significant attenuation of efficacy in the supine position is marked blood redistribution into central compartments with increase of cardiac filling pressures during chronic therapy. Rapid development of tolerance both to the hemodynamic and antiischemic effects of glycerol trinitrate within 24 hours could be shown during intravenous administration (3 mg/h) in patients with stable angina. It is concluded that the antiischemic effects of oral ISDN (standard release formulation) administered 4-6 times daily is preserved during long-term therapy due to fluctuating plasma levels. Nitrate therapy providing constant doses over time (e.g. I.V. nitroglycerin) leads to a rapid attenuation of efficacy most probably due to counter regulatory mechanisms. PMID:2531510

  16. Long-term testosterone administration increases visceral fat in female to male transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Elbers, J M; Asscheman, H; Seidell, J C; Megens, J A; Gooren, L J

    1997-07-01

    The amount of intraabdominal (visceral) fat is an important determinant of disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. Cross-sectional studies in women have found associations between high androgen levels and visceral fat accumulation. The causal relation between these phenomena is unknown. We, therefore, studied prospectively the effect of testosterone administration on body fat distribution in 10 young, nonobese, female to male transsexuals undergoing sex reassignment. Before, after 1 yr, and after 3 yr of testosterone administration, magnetic resonance images were obtained at the level of the abdomen, hip, and thigh to quantify both sc and visceral fat depots. After 1 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots at all levels showed significant reductions compared to baseline measurements. The mean visceral fat area did not change significantly, but subjects who gained weight in the first year after testosterone administration showed an increase in visceral fat. After 3 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots were no longer significantly lower compared to pretreatment measurements, but the mean visceral fat depot had increased significantly by 13 cm2 (95% confidence interval, 4-22 cm2), a relative increase of 47% (95% confidence interval, 8-91%) from baseline. The increase in visceral fat was most pronounced in those subjects who had gained weight. We conclude that long term testosterone administration in young, nonobese, female subjects increases the amount of visceral fat. In addition, an increase in weight in this hyperandrogenic state leads to a preferential storage of fat in the visceral depot. PMID:9215270

  17. Long-term variation in the ionosphere and lower thermosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Hori, T.; Nose, M.; Otsuka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate characteristics of the long-term variation in the ionosphere and lower thermosphere, we analyzed the amplitude of geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) field daily variation using 1-h geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic stations within the period of 1947-2013. In the present data analysis, we took advantage of the Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET) products (metadata database and analysis software) for finding and handling the long-term observation data obtained at many observatories. The Sq amplitude observed at these geomagnetic stations showed a clear solar activity dependence and tended to be enhanced during each solar maximum phase. The Sq amplitude was the smallest around the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008-2009. This significant depression implies that the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation responsible for ionization of the upper atmosphere decreased during this solar cycle minimum. In order to examine a global distribution of the long-term trend in the Sq amplitude, we derived the residual Sq amplitude from the deviation from the fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude. As a result, a majority of the trends in the residual Sq amplitude showed negative values over a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. Moreover, we estimate the neutral wind in the lower thermosphere from the Sq amplitude and height-integrated ionospheric conductivity in order to know the physical mechanism of the long-term trend in the residual Sq amplitude. As a result, the estimated thermospheric zonal and meridional winds showed a seasonal variation with a period of one year or less, but the solar activity dependence was unclear. This result suggests that the solar cycle dependence of the Sq amplitude may be mainly attributed to the variation of the ionospheric conductivity.

  18. The effects of long-term leptin administration on morphometrical changes of mice testicular tissue

    PubMed Central

    Esmaili-Nejad, Mohammad-Reza; Babaei, Homayoon; Kheirandish, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Leptin is a novel and interesting hormone for anyone trying to lose weight, but its effects on male gonad structure in longitudinal study is unknown. The present study was designed to explore morphometrical changes of mouse testicular tissue after long-term administration of leptin. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy mature male mice were randomly assigned to either control (n=15) or treatment (n=15) groups. Leptin was intraperitoneally injected to the treatment group (0.1 µg/100 µl of physiological saline) once a day for 30 consecutive days, and control animals received normal saline with the same volume and route. Five mice from each experimental group were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 days after the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed, weighted and then fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosine for morphometrical assays. Results: Except for sertoli cell nucleus diameter, which was affected from 30th day, evaluation of other morphometrical parameters such as Johnsen’s score, meiotic index, spermatogenesis, epithelial height, seminiferous tubules diameter and spermatogonial nucleus diameter revealed significant decrease from 15th day after leptin administration compare to those of the control group (P<0.05). Thus, meiotic index and spermatogonial cell nucleus diameter were two parameters that were further disturbed on 30th day compare to the day 15 (3.09±0.03 vs. 3.23±0.03, P=0.006 and 5.50±0.09 vs. 6.08±0.14, P=0.007, respectively). Conclusion: Our results showed that long-term administration of leptin could disturb testicular tissue structure and delay spermatogenesis process. PMID:26877846

  19. Association between long-term exposure to traffic particles and blood pressure in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Joel; Alexeeff, Stacey E; Mordukhovich, Irina; Gryparis, Alexandros; Vokonas, Pantel; Suh, Helen; Coull, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular events, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The main objective was to assess the relationship between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and blood pressure (BP). Methods The authors used longitudinal data from 853 elderly men participating in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, followed during 1996–2008. Long-term average exposures to traffic particles were created from daily predictions of black carbon (BC) exposure at the geocoded address of each subject, using a validated spatiotemporal model based on ambient monitoring at 82 Boston-area locations. The authors examined the association of these exposures with BP using a mixed model. The authors included the following covariates: age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, fasting glucose, creatinine clearance, use of cardiovascular medication, education, census-level poverty, day of week and season of clinical visit. Results The authors found significant positive associations between 1-year average BC exposure and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. An IQR increase in 1-year average BC exposure (0.32 µg/m3) was associated with a 2.64 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure (95% CI 1.47 to 3.80) and a 2.41 mm Hg increase in diastolic blood pressure (95% CI 1.77 to 3.05). Conclusions Long-term exposure to traffic particles is associated with increased BP, which may explain part of the association with myocardial infarctions and cardiovascular deaths reported in cohort studies. PMID:22383587

  20. Treatment of Hypothyroidism due to Iodine Deficiency Using Daily Powdered Kelp in Patients Receiving Long-term Total Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Takako; Kamasaki, Hotaka; Hotsubo, Tomoyuki; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated thyroid function and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in seven patients with severe motor intellectual disabilities. All seven received total enteral nutrition (TEN) for more than three years with a daily iodine intake of less than 20 µg. They were diagnosed as hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency (HID) because of high TSH levels (7.6–82.3 µIU/ml), lower free T4 (FT4 0.4–1.5 ng/dl), negative anti-thyroid antibodies (anti-thyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroidal peroxidase antibody) and extremely low UIC (<25–58 µg/l) levels. We gave them 1–2 g powdered kelp (200–400 µg as iodine) once a day, which restored their thyroid function and normalized their UICs. We proposed that daily powdered kelp would be effective and safe to treat HID in patient receiving long term TEN. PMID:23926395

  1. [A Case of Advanced Colon Cancer with Long-Term and Re-Administration of Regorafenib].

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Tohru; Kato, Takuya; Kuratani, Yuki; Yamada, Kenji; Kenno, Sachiko; Shibaki, Taiichiro; Yanagida, Naoyuki; Inagaki, Mitsuhiro; Ikeue, Sunao; Akabane, Hiromitsu; Nakano, Shiro

    2016-05-01

    A 54-year-old woman diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer and multiple liver metastases underwent sigmoidectomy, partial hepatectomy, and RFA in September 2009. Because of postoperative liver and lung recurrence, 5 regimens with combinations of L-OHP/CPT-11 plus anti-VEGF antibody/anti-EGFR antibody was performed. Following these treatments, she underwent hepatic arterial infusion therapy with UFT/Krestin for progressive liver metastases. Starting in November 2014, regorafenib was administered, with an immediate decrease in tumor marker levels; tumor reduction demonstrated enhanced effect against liver metastases. After 8 months of administration, we stopped regorafenib and changed to TAS-102 due to diarrhea and eating disorders. However, TAS-102 was not effective; there were significant increases in tumor markers, liver function tests, and tumor size on computed tomography, and worsening of abdominal pain. After re-administration of regorafenib, a rapid decrease in tumor marker levels and improvement of liver dysfunction and abdominal pain were observed. Re-administration continued for 8 months until best supportive care was instituted. In cases with observed therapeutic effect of regorafenib, long-term or re-administration is possible, with extension of the prognosis depending on the adjustment, and without size reduction of metastatic tumors. PMID:27210098

  2. The Nature of Martian Dust Storms as Revealed by Long Term Daily Global Atmospheric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Richardson, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    The Martian dust cycle is composed of dust lifting and transport events that span a very wide spectrum of temporal and spatial scales. The largest storm events occur with sufficiently low frequency that we are only beginning to be able to provide an observational baseline for these events after seven Martian years of roughly continuous global atmospheric imaging. Creation of daily global maps from Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Wide Angle and Mars Color Imager (MARCI) images allows the occurrence, evolutionary pathway and development style of large dust storms to be examined in detail. For the period of observations with Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) or Mars Climate Sounder (MCS), we can also examine commensurate changes in atmospheric opacity, temperature and crudely track those in surface dust cover (for TES). These observations allow us to construct a "climatology" of large dust storms, which shows distinct families of dust storm types on the basis of the season and location of storm origin, replacing prior simplified descriptions of a single "dust storm season". We are also able to describe common transport and evolutionary pathways for storms, including very different behaviors of storms originating in the northern versus the southern mid- and high-latitudes. For some of the larger storms during Mars Years 24-26, we are also able to show how the storms modified the surface dust cover, and on what time scales and by what processes the surface dust distribution "recovers" to pre-storm conditions. The results from MOC and MARCI suggest that we have only just begun to collect enough data for a statistically-meaningful climatology of regional-scale storms, and that substantially longer time series would be needed to understanding the diversity and nature of the very largest, global-scale storms. A planned successor for MARCI is greatly needed for our prospects of adequately understanding these dust storm systems, not only for the current and past climate

  3. Long-term bone retention of C-14 following oral administration of C-14-xylose

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, L.C.; Siegel, J.; Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    Oral administration of C-14-labeled xylose followed by measurement of C-14 activity in the breath has become a clinically useful test for diagnosis of small bowel bacterial overgrowth. However, accurate biodistribution and radiation dosimetry information was not available in the literature, so the true radiation exposure of the human subjects was not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the actual biodistribution data for orally administered C-14-xylose. A series of rats were given the material orally and sacrificed at various ages, up to 1 month after dosing. Tissues and fluids were solubilized and counted by liquid scintillation counting. Exhaled C-14-carbon dioxide was measured by trapping the gas in ethanolamine. Approximately two-thirds of the administered dose was absorbed from the GI tract and eventually appeared in the breath and urine. Much of the dose was not found in the major organs within the first day; it was presumed to be in the fatty tissue or muscle, which were not sampled. After most of the C-14 had disappeared from the GI and urinary tract, however, the bone retained a significant amount of radioactivity: approximately 5-6% of the administered dose was found in bone at one week, and remained at one month. These findings suggest that radiation exposure to the skeleton is long-term, much greater in magnitude than previously estimated, and suggests that the value of the test should be reevaluated in the light of the long-term radiation burden to the skeleton, especially in young patients.

  4. Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.

    2012-12-01

    It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by the global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region, which are generated by dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere. Recently, Elias et al. [2010] reported that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes in a period of 1961-2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is due to ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effect in the thermosphere due to increasing greenhouse gas. In the present study, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 solar flux as a good indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range as well as geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour observed at 184 geomagnetic stations. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum every day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude at all the geomagnetic stations shows a strong correlation with the solar F10.7 flux which depends on 11-year solar activity. The relationship between the Sq amplitude and F10.7 flux was not linear but nonlinear. This nonlinearity could be interpreted as the decrease of production rate of electrons and ions in the ionosphere for the strong EUV and UV fluxes as already reported by Balan et al. [1993]. In order to minimize the solar

  5. Mild ischemic Injury Leads to Long-Term Alterations in the Kidney: Amelioration by Spironolactone Administration

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan; Pérez-Villalva, Rosalba; Ortega, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Andrea; Rodríguez-Romo, Roxana; Durand, Marta; Jaisser, Frederic; Bobadilla, Norma A.

    2015-01-01

    Administration of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone prevents the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) after a severe ischemic injury. However, whether brief periods of ischemia lead to CKD and whether spironolactone administration after ischemia may be a useful therapeutic strategy to prevent the gradual deterioration of structure and function remains unexplored. Nineteen male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: rats that underwent renal bilateral ischemia for 10, 20, or 45 min were compared with sham operated rats. Additionally, thirteen male Wistar rats that underwent renal bilateral ischemia for 20 min were divided into an untreated ischemic group (I) and two groups receiving spironolactone, 20 mg/kg by gavage, at either 0 (Sp0) or 1.5-h after ischemia (Sp1.5). The rats were followed up and studied after 9 months. Mild (20 min) and severe (45 min) ischemia induced a progressive increase in proteinuria at varying magnitudes, whereas minor ischemia (10 min) did not modify proteinuria. CKD induced by moderate ischemia was characterized by renal hypertrophy and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. These effects were associated with activation of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway and up-regulation of endothelin receptor A (ETA) and alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA). Spironolactone treatment immediately or 1.5-h after the ischemic insult prevented the onset of these disorders. Our results show that moderate ischemic insult leads to long-term structural and molecular changes that may compromise renal function in later stages. Additionally, we demonstrate that spironolactone administration after mild ischemia prevents this detrimental effect. PMID:26157344

  6. Methods for long-term 17β-estradiol administration to mice.

    PubMed

    Ingberg, E; Theodorsson, A; Theodorsson, E; Strom, J O

    2012-01-01

    Rodent models constitute a cornerstone in the elucidation of the effects and biological mechanisms of 17β-estradiol. However, a thorough assessment of the methods for long-term administration of 17β-estradiol to mice is lacking. The fact that 17β-estradiol has been demonstrated to exert different effects depending on dose emphasizes the need for validated administration regimens. Therefore, 169 female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and administered 17β-estradiol using one of the two commonly used subcutaneous methods; slow-release pellets (0.18 mg, 60-day release pellets; 0.72 mg, 90-day release pellets) and silastic capsules (with/without convalescence period, silastic laboratory tubing, inner/outer diameter: 1.575/3.175 mm, filled with a 14 mm column of 36 μg 17β-estradiol/mL sesame oil), or a novel peroral method (56 μg 17β-estradiol/day/kg body weight in the hazelnut cream Nutella). Forty animals were used as ovariectomized and intact controls. Serum samples were obtained weekly for five weeks and 17β-estradiol concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. The peroral method resulted in steady concentrations within--except on one occasion--the physiological range and the silastic capsules produced predominantly physiological concentrations, although exceeding the range by maximum a factor three during the first three weeks. The 0.18 mg pellet yielded initial concentrations an order of magnitude higher than the physiological range, which then decreased drastically, and the 0.72 mg pellet produced between 18 and 40 times higher concentrations than the physiological range during the entire experiment. The peroral method and silastic capsules described in this article constitute reliable modes of administration of 17β-estradiol, superior to the widely used commercial pellets. PMID:22137913

  7. Mild ischemic injury leads to long-term alterations in the kidney: amelioration by spironolactone administration.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan; Pérez-Villalva, Rosalba; Ortega, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Andrea; Rodríguez-Romo, Roxana; Durand, Marta; Jaisser, Frederic; Bobadilla, Norma A

    2015-01-01

    Administration of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone prevents the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) after a severe ischemic injury. However, whether brief periods of ischemia lead to CKD and whether spironolactone administration after ischemia may be a useful therapeutic strategy to prevent the gradual deterioration of structure and function remains unexplored. Nineteen male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: rats that underwent renal bilateral ischemia for 10, 20, or 45 min were compared with sham operated rats. Additionally, thirteen male Wistar rats that underwent renal bilateral ischemia for 20 min were divided into an untreated ischemic group (I) and two groups receiving spironolactone, 20 mg/kg by gavage, at either 0 (Sp0) or 1.5-h after ischemia (Sp1.5). The rats were followed up and studied after 9 months. Mild (20 min) and severe (45 min) ischemia induced a progressive increase in proteinuria at varying magnitudes, whereas minor ischemia (10 min) did not modify proteinuria. CKD induced by moderate ischemia was characterized by renal hypertrophy and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. These effects were associated with activation of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway and up-regulation of endothelin receptor A (ETA) and alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA). Spironolactone treatment immediately or 1.5-h after the ischemic insult prevented the onset of these disorders. Our results show that moderate ischemic insult leads to long-term structural and molecular changes that may compromise renal function in later stages. Additionally, we demonstrate that spironolactone administration after mild ischemia prevents this detrimental effect. PMID:26157344

  8. Repeated cocaine administration promotes long-term potentiation induction in rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Chun; Lin, Hsiao-Ju; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2007-08-01

    Although drug-induced adaptations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may contribute to several core aspects of addictive behaviors, it is not clear yet whether drugs of abuse elicit changes in synaptic plasticity at the PFC excitatory synapses. Here we report that, following repeated cocaine administration (15 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal injection for 5 consecutive days) with a 3-day withdrawal, excitatory synapses to layer V pyramidal neurons in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) become highly sensitive to the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) by repeated correlated presynaptic and postsynaptic activity. This promoted LTP induction is caused by cocaine-induced reduction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of mPFC pyramidal neurons. In contrast, in slices from rats treated with saline or a single dose of cocaine, the same LTP induction protocol did not induce significant LTP unless the blockade of GABA(A) receptors. Blockade of the D1-like receptors specifically prevented the cocaine-induced enhancement of LTP. Repeated cocaine exposure reduced the GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic currents in mPFC pyramidal neurons. Biotinylation experiments revealed a significant reduction of surface GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit expression in mPFC slices from repeated cocaine-treated rats. These findings support an important role for cocaine-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity in the PFC in the development of drug-associated behavioral plasticity. PMID:17050645

  9. Long-term administration of magnesium after acoustic trauma caused by gunshot noise in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Abaamrane, L; Raffin, F; Gal, M; Avan, P; Sendowski, I

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we observed that a 7-day post-trauma magnesium treatment significantly reduced auditory threshold shifts measured 7 days after gunshot noise exposure. However this improvement was only temporary, suggesting that it could be potentially beneficial to prolong this treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a long-term (1 month) magnesium treatment after an impulse noise trauma, in comparison with either a 7-day magnesium treatment, an administration of methylprednisolone (conventional treatment), or a placebo (NaCl). Guinea pigs were exposed to impulse noise (three blank gunshots, 170 dB SPL peak). They received one of the four treatments, 1 h after the noise exposure. Auditory function was explored by recording the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and measuring the distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) over a 3-month recovery period after the gunshot exposure. The functional hearing study was supplemented by a histological analysis. The results showed that a 1-month treatment with magnesium was the most effective treatment in terms of hair cell preservation. The DPOAE confirmed this effectiveness. Methylprednisolone accelerated recovery but its final efficacy remained moderate. It is probable that magnesium acts on the later metabolic processes that occur after noise exposure. Multiple mechanisms could be involved: calcium antagonism, anti-ischaemic effect or NMDA channel blockage. Regardless of the specific mechanism, a 1-month treatment with magnesium clearly attenuates NIHL, and presents the advantage of being safe for use in humans. PMID:19084059

  10. APHRODITE: Constructing a Long-term Daily Gridded Precipitation Dataset for Asia Based on a Dense Network of Rain Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, A.; Yasutomi, N.; Hamada, A.; Kitoh, A.; Kamiguchi, K.; Arakawa, O.

    2012-04-01

    A daily gridded precipitation dataset for the period 1951-2007 was created by collecting and analyzing rain-gauge observation data across Asia through the activities of the Asian Precipitation - Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE's water resources) project. APHRODITE's daily gridded precipitation is presently the only long-term continental-scale high-resolution daily product. Our product is based on data collected at 5000 to 12,000 stations, which represents 2.3 to 4.5 times the data available through the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) network that are used for most daily gridded precipitation products. Hence, the APHRODITE project has substantially improved the depiction of the areal distribution and variability of precipitation around the Himalayas, Southeast Asia and mountainous regions of the Middle East. The APHRODITE project now contributes to studies such as the determination of Asian monsoon precipitation change, evaluation of water resources, verification of high-resolution model simulations and satellite precipitation estimates, and improvement of forecasts. We released APHRO_V1101 datasets for Monsoon Asia, the Middle East and Russia (on 0.5 × 0.5 degree and 0.25 × 0.25 degree grids) and the APHRO_JP_V1005 dataset for Japan (on a 0.05 × 0.05 degree grid) on the website (http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/precip/ and http://aphrodite.suiri.tsukuba.ac.jp/). The major differences of APHRO_V1101 to that of the previous version (APHRO_V1003R1) are 1) improved quality control (QC) scheme and more input data (Belarus, Bhutan, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Taiwan and E-Obs). We are developing a daily gridded temperature dataset for Asia and a flag to discriminate between rain and snow will be added to the APHRODITE daily precipitation product. The combination of daily mean temperature, precipitation and rain/snow information in this high-resolution gridded format would be useful as input to river

  11. Long-term efficacy and safety of once-daily mesalazine granules for the treatment of active ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Stephan Karl; Kruis, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    demonstrated that OD administration of 5-ASA is as effective as conventional dosing in mild to moderate active UC. The three 5-ASA products MMX, Salofalk®, and Pentasa® employed in those studies so far have not shown differences in efficacy between OD and conventional dosing. No differences regarding safety outcomes have been detected between OD and conventional dosing, including incidence of adverse events, serious adverse events, or withdrawal from treatment due to an adverse event. Although the majority of patients prefer OD dosing to conventional dosing, it was not possible to detect differences in adherence between OD and multiple dose regimens in the clinical trial setting. Well-designed and controlled large-scale community-based studies are necessary to further investigate and prove the point of improved long-term adherence and treatment efficacy in OD dosing. PMID:25285021

  12. Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the amplitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Tsuda, T.

    2011-12-01

    It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region from middle latitudes to the magnetic equator. These currents are generated by a dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the thermosphere and ionosphere. From the Ohm's equation, the ionospheric currents strongly depend on the ionospheric conductivity, polarization electric field and neutral wind. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the thermosphere and ionosphere. Elias et al. [2010] found that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes from 1961 to 2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effects in the thermosphere due to increasing the greenhouse gases. In this talk, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. These observation data have been provided by the IUGONET (Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork) project. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 flux as an indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range, geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum per day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the Sq amplitude at all the stations strongly depends on 11-year solar activity, and tends to enhance more during the high activities (19- and 22- solar cycles) than during the low activity (20-solar cycle). The Fourier spectra of the F10.7 flux and Sq

  13. Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, Atsuki; Koyama, Yukinobu; Nose, Masahito; Hori, Tomoaki; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yatagai, Akiyo

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics of long-term variation in the amplitude of solar quiet (Sq) geomagnetic field daily variation have been investigated using 1-h geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic observation stations within the period of 1947 to 2013. The Sq amplitude observed at these geomagnetic stations showed a clear dependence on the 10- to 12-year solar activity cycle and tended to be enhanced during each solar maximum phase. The Sq amplitude was the smallest around the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008 to 2009. The relationship between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude was approximately linear but about 53% of geomagnetic stations showed a weak nonlinear relation to the solar F10.7 index. In order to remove the effect of solar activity seen in the long-term variation of the Sq amplitude, we calculated a linear or second-order fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude during 1947 to 2013 and examined the residual Sq amplitude, which is defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. As a result, the majority of trends in the residual Sq amplitude that passed through a trend test showed negative values over a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. The relationship between the magnetic field intensity at 100-km altitude and residual Sq amplitude showed an anti-correlation for about 71% of the geomagnetic stations. Furthermore, the residual Sq amplitude at the equatorial station (Addis Ababa) was anti-correlated with the absolute value of the magnetic field inclination. This implies movement of the equatorial electrojet due to the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field.

  14. [Effect of the long term administration of bromantan on the reproductive function in rats].

    PubMed

    Khamidova, T V; Bugaeva, L I; Morozov, I S; Spasov, A A

    2000-01-01

    Bromantan is a new psychostimulator possessing actoprotector properties. The drug was administered to rats over two months (males) and two weeks (females) at a daily dose of 30 and 200-mg/kg, and the reproduction function parameters were monitored. Then the experimental animals were coupled and the embryonal characteristics of the breed were determined. Upon termination of the drug administration, the functional state of sperm and the morphology of gonads were studied again. It was found that bromantan (30 mg/kg) unreliably decreases the absolute amount of sperm in males. In females, the drug did not affect the ovary weight coefficient and increased the gestation index. After termination of the drug administration, the ovary weight coefficient increased. Bromantan affected neither the fertilizing capacity of male and female gametes nor the embryonal characteristics of the breed. PMID:10934594

  15. Clostridium difficile Infections in Veterans Health Administration Long-Term Care Facilities.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Jeffrey S; Evans, Martin E; Simbartl, Loretta A; Kralovic, Stephen M; Kelly, Allison A; Jain, Rajiv; Roselle, Gary A

    2016-03-01

    OBJECTIVE A nationwide initiative was implemented in February 2014 to decrease Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in Veterans Affairs (VA) long-term care facilities. We report a baseline of national CDI data collected during the 2 years before the Initiative. METHODS Personnel at each of 122 reporting sites entered monthly retrospective CDI case data from February 2012 through January 2014 into a national database using case definitions similar to those used in the National Healthcare Safety Network Multidrug-Resistant Organism/CDI module. The data were evaluated using Poisson regression models to examine infection occurrences over time while accounting for admission prevalence and type of diagnostic test. RESULTS During the 24-month analysis period, there were 100,800 admissions, 6,976,121 resident days, and 1,558 CDI cases. The pooled CDI admission prevalence rate (including recurrent cases) was 0.38 per 100 admissions, and the pooled nonduplicate/nonrecurrent community-onset rate was 0.17 per 100 admissions. The pooled long-term care facility-onset rate and the clinically confirmed (ie, diarrhea or evidence of pseudomembranous colitis) long-term care facility-onset rate were 1.98 and 1.78 per 10,000 resident days, respectively. Accounting for diagnostic test type, the long-term care facility-onset rate declined significantly (P=.05), but the clinically confirmed long-term care facility-onset rate did not. CONCLUSIONS VA long-term care facility CDI rates were comparable to those in recent reports from other long-term care facilities. The significant decline in the long-term care facility-onset rate but not in the clinically confirmed long-term care facility-onset rate may have been due to less testing of asymptomatic patients. Efforts to decrease CDI rates in long-term care facilities are necessary as part of a coordinated approach to decrease healthcare-associated infections. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(3):295-300. PMID:26686361

  16. Effects of long-term chloroquine administration on the natural history of aortic aneurysms in mice.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Azza; Wheatcroft, Mark D; Quan, Adrian; Singh, Krishna K; Lovren, Fina; Dhingra, Natasha; Teoh, Hwee; Al-Omran, Mohammed; Leong-Poi, Howard; Verma, Subodh

    2015-08-01

    Autophagy regulates cellular homeostasis and integrates the cellular pro-survival machinery. We investigated the role of autophagy in the natural history of murine abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). ApoE(-/-) mice were implanted with saline- or angiotensin II (Ang-II)-filled miniosmotic pumps then treated with either the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ; 50 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), by intraperitoneal injection) or saline. Ang-II-elicited aneurysmal expansion of the suprarenal aorta coupled with thrombus formation were apparent 8 weeks later. CQ had no impact on the incidence (50% for Ang-II compared with 46.2% for Ang-II + CQ; P = NS) and categorical distribution of aneurysms. The markedly reduced survival rate observed with Ang-II (57.1% for Ang-II compared with 100% for saline; P < 0.05) was unaffected by CQ (61.5% for Ang-II + CQ; P = NS compared with Ang-II). CQ did not affect the mean maximum suprarenal aortic diameter (1.91 ± 0.19 mm for Ang-II compared with 1.97 ± 0.21 mm for Ang-II + CQ; P = NS). Elastin fragmentation, collagen accumulation, and smooth muscle attrition, which were higher in Ang-II-treated mice, were unaffected by CQ treatment. Long-term CQ administration does not affect the natural history and prognosis of experimental AAA, suggesting that global loss of autophagy is unlikely to be a causal factor in the development of aortic aneurysms. Manipulation of autophagy as a mechanism to reduce AAA may need re-evaluation. PMID:26099030

  17. Influence of Long-Term Zinc Administration on Spatial Learning and Exploratory Activity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2016-08-01

    Animal brain contains a significant amount of zinc, which is a cofactor for more than 300 enzymes. Moreover, it provides the basis for functioning of more than 2000 transcription factors, and it is necessary for memory formation and learning processes in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc supplementation on behavior in 3-month-old rats. For this purpose, the Morris water maze paradigm, hole-board, and T-maze were used. Wistar rats received a solution of ZnSO4 in drinking water at the doses of 16 mg/kg (Zn16 group) and 32 mg/kg (Zn32 group). In rats pretreated with the lower dose of zinc, the improvement of the mean escape latency was observed in comparison to the control group and Zn32 group. During memory task, both ZnSO4-supplemented groups showed an increase in crossings over the previous platform position. Furthermore, the exploratory activity in Zn16 group was improved in comparison to Zn32 and control group. In the brains of zinc-supplemented rats, we observed the higher content of zinc, both in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Hippocampal zinc level correlated positively with the mean annulus crossings of the Zn16 group during the probe trial. These findings show that the long-term administration of ZnS04 can improve learning, spatial memory, and exploratory activity in rats. Graphical Abstract Improvement of spatial learning, memory, and exploratory behavior. PMID:26740219

  18. Evaluation of a once-daily moisturizer used to treat xerosis in long-term care patients.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dasie; Nix, Denise

    2005-11-01

    The pruritic, erythemic, dry, scaly, cracked, or fissured skin characteristic of xerosis is a result of the loss of natural moisturization factors and barrier abilities, as well as epidermal water loss. To determine if a new 24-hour moisturizer provides clinical benefit by reducing dry skin, scratching, and erythema, a 5-day prospective study was conducted that involved 16 residents (6 men, 10 women) with end-stage renal disease (average age 76 years) in a long-term care facility unit with an 18% prevalence of xerosis. Extent of xerosis was measured by evaluating each of the symptoms (dry scaly skin, erythema, and pruritus) using a four-point ordinal scale where 0 = absence of symptom and 3 = severe symptom. Photographs and patient comments were obtained at the time of the assessments on Day 1 (before the first product application) and on Day 5 (after four once-daily applications). One resident was discharged before the day 5 evaluation. Resulting data from the 15 patients completing the study were analyzed using a paired-sign test. Reduction in dry, scaly skin, erythema, and pruritus were statistically significant (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.016, respectively). Implementing a 24-hour moisturizer was found to significantly decrease symptoms of xerosis. Additional study to further validate use of the product in this and other settings where patients experience dry, red, itchy skin is warranted. PMID:16319447

  19. Intrahippocampal Glutamine Administration Inhibits mTORC1 Signaling and Impairs Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozas, Natalia S.; Redell, John B.; Pita-Almenar, Juan D.; McKenna, James, III.; Moore, Anthony N.; Gambello, Michael J.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1), a key regulator of protein synthesis and cellular growth, is also required for long-term memory formation. Stimulation of mTORC1 signaling is known to be dependent on the availability of energy and growth factors, as well as the presence of amino acids. In vitro studies using serum- and amino…

  20. Long-term trends in daily precipitation over the Yangtze River Delta region during 1960-2012, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chunsheng; Xu, Youpeng; Han, Longfei; Yang, Liu; Xu, Guanglai

    2016-07-01

    Based on daily precipitation data from 24 stations over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, the long-term trends of daily precipitation are analyzed during the period 1960-2012 using 12 precipitation indices. The results indicate that the following. (1) For the regional average trends of precipitation, nine indices [i.e., RR, SDII, PCI(day), R25mm, R50mm, R25mmT, R50mmT, R25mmTOT, and R50mmTOT] show the increasing trends, while three indices [i.e., RX1day, RR1 and PCI(month)] display the decreasing trends. Furthermore, the annual total precipitation (RR) is correlated strongly with most of the other precipitation indices, especially indices represent the heavy precipitation which is responsible for more than 90 % of the total increase of precipitation. (2) The central and southern parts of the study area become more humid than the northern parts, although the daily precipitation undergo a consistent concentrated trend over almost all of the study area. Moreover, the frequency and contribution of the heavy precipitation also arise dramatically in almost the entire study area, and the precipitation events show the significant trend of extremeness. (3) The abrupt changes for RR, RX1day, SDII, R50mm, R50mmT, and R50mmTOT are detected in 1984, 1988, 1987, 1984, 1988, and 1988, respectively, which indicate the abrupt change of precipitation occurred consistently in the mid-1980s. Three major cycles of precipitation detected are 5-6-year cycle, 13-year cycle, and 20-year cycle, with a nonsignificant 2-year cycle coexisted. In addition, a significant change of cycles occurred in the 1980s, when the short cycle was set to overtake the long cycle, resulting in high-frequency and instability of precipitation changes over the YRD region in recent decades. (4) There are three factors (the global warming, the East Asian summer monsoon change, and the urbanization development) might potentially impact on the frequency and volume of precipitation. The variation of East Asian

  1. Prevalence of nosocomial infection in long-term-care Veterans Administration medical centers.

    PubMed

    Steinmiller, A M; Robb, S S; Muder, R R

    1991-06-01

    Prevention and control of nosocomial infections are major goals of institutional risk-management programs. However, variations in criteria and denominator parameters make comparison of rates across settings difficult. This study addressed those problems by reporting criteria used to identify infections and applying the same denominator across long-term-care facilities. Findings demonstrated a 9.8% prevalence rate for nosocomial infections in four long-term-care VA facilities. Most of the identified infections were consistent with Centers for Disease Control definitions of nosocomial infections. The most frequent indicators of nosocomial infections that did not fully meet those definitions were (1) documented symptoms, (2) antibiotic therapy, and (3) physician diagnosis. PMID:1907438

  2. Risk-Adjusted Impact of Administrative Costs on the Distribution of Terminal Wealth for Long-Term Investment

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Montserrat; Jarner, Søren Fiig; Pérez-Marín, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of administrative costs on the distribution of terminal wealth is approximated using a simple formula applicable to many investment situations. We show that the reduction in median returns attributable to administrative fees is usually at least twice the amount of the administrative costs charged for most investment funds, when considering a risk-adjustment correction over a reasonably long-term time horizon. The example we present covers a number of standard cases and can be applied to passive investments, mutual funds, and hedge funds. Our results show investors the potential losses they face in performance due to administrative costs. PMID:25180200

  3. Long-Term Oral Administration of Hop Flower Extracts Mitigates Alzheimer Phenotypes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sasaoka, Norio; Sakamoto, Megumi; Kanemori, Shoko; Kan, Michiru; Tsukano, Chihiro; Takemoto, Yoshiji; Kakizuka, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Coincident with the expanding population of aged people, the incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is rapidly increasing in most advanced countries. At present, no effective prophylactics are available. Among several pathological mechanisms proposed for AD, the “amyloid hypothesis” has been most widely accepted, in which accumulation or deposition of Aβ is considered to be the initial event. Thus, prevention of Aβ production would be an ideal strategy for the treatment or prevention of AD. Aβ is produced via the proteolytic cleavage of its precursor protein, APP (amyloid precursor protein), by two different enzymes, β and γ-secretases. Indeed, inhibitors against either or both enzymes have been developed and tested for clinical efficacy. Based on the “amyloid hypothesis”, we developed a luciferase-based screening method to monitor γ-secretase activity, screened more than 1,600 plant extracts, most of which have long been used in Chinese medicine, and observed that Hop extracts significantly inhibit Aβ production in cultured cells. A major component of the inhibitory activity was purified, and its chemical identity was determined by NMR to be Garcinielliptone HC. In vivo, oral administration of Hop extracts to AD model mice decreased Aβ depositions in the cerebral cortex of the parietal lobe, hippocampus, and artery walls (amyloid angiopathy) in the brains. In a Morris water maze test, AD model mice that had daily consumed Hop extracts in their drinking water showed significant mitigation of memory impairment at ages of 9 and 12 months. Moreover, in the open field test oral administration of Hop extracts also prevented an emotional disturbance that appeared in the AD mice at 18 months. Despite lifelong consumption of Hop extracts, no deleterious side effects were observed at any age. These results support the “amyloid hypothesis”, and indicate that Hop extract is a promising candidate for an effective prophylactic for AD. PMID:24489866

  4. Long-term oral administration of hop flower extracts mitigates Alzheimer phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, Norio; Sakamoto, Megumi; Kanemori, Shoko; Kan, Michiru; Tsukano, Chihiro; Takemoto, Yoshiji; Kakizuka, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Coincident with the expanding population of aged people, the incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is rapidly increasing in most advanced countries. At present, no effective prophylactics are available. Among several pathological mechanisms proposed for AD, the "amyloid hypothesis" has been most widely accepted, in which accumulation or deposition of Aβ is considered to be the initial event. Thus, prevention of Aβ production would be an ideal strategy for the treatment or prevention of AD. Aβ is produced via the proteolytic cleavage of its precursor protein, APP (amyloid precursor protein), by two different enzymes, β and γ-secretases. Indeed, inhibitors against either or both enzymes have been developed and tested for clinical efficacy. Based on the "amyloid hypothesis", we developed a luciferase-based screening method to monitor γ-secretase activity, screened more than 1,600 plant extracts, most of which have long been used in Chinese medicine, and observed that Hop extracts significantly inhibit Aβ production in cultured cells. A major component of the inhibitory activity was purified, and its chemical identity was determined by NMR to be Garcinielliptone HC. In vivo, oral administration of Hop extracts to AD model mice decreased Aβ depositions in the cerebral cortex of the parietal lobe, hippocampus, and artery walls (amyloid angiopathy) in the brains. In a Morris water maze test, AD model mice that had daily consumed Hop extracts in their drinking water showed significant mitigation of memory impairment at ages of 9 and 12 months. Moreover, in the open field test oral administration of Hop extracts also prevented an emotional disturbance that appeared in the AD mice at 18 months. Despite lifelong consumption of Hop extracts, no deleterious side effects were observed at any age. These results support the "amyloid hypothesis", and indicate that Hop extract is a promising candidate for an effective prophylactic for AD. PMID:24489866

  5. Chronic administration of sulbutiamine improves long term memory formation in mice: possible cholinergic mediation.

    PubMed

    Micheau, J; Durkin, T P; Destrade, C; Rolland, Y; Jaffard, R

    1985-08-01

    Thiamine deficiency in both man and animals is known to produce memory dysfunction and cognitive disorders which have been related to an impairment of cholinergic activity. The present experiment was aimed at testing whether, inversely, chronic administration of large doses of sulbutiamine would have a facilitative effect on memory and would induce changes in central cholinergic activity. Accordingly mice received 300 mg/kg of sulbutiamine daily for 10 days. They were then submitted to an appetitive operant level press conditioning test. When compared to control subjects, sulbutiamine treated mice learned the task at the same rate in a single session but showed greatly improved performance when tested 24 hr after partial acquisition of the same task. Parallel neurochemical investigations showed that the treatment induced a slight (+ 10%) but significant increase in hippocampal sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake. The present findings and previous results suggest that sulbutiamine improves memory formation and that this behavioral effect could be mediated by an increase in hippocampal cholinergic activity. PMID:4059305

  6. Antihypertensive Effect of Long-Term Oral Administration of Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) Collagen Peptides on Renovascular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Yufeng; Liu, Gaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides (JCP) on renovascular hypertension rats (RVHs) was evaluated. The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the RVHs were significantly reduced with administration of JCP (p < 0.05), compared with model control group. However, the arterial blood pressure of normal rats showed no significant changes during long-term oral treatment with high dose JCP (p > 0.05). Furthermore, effect of JCP on angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration of plasma had no significance (p > 0.05), but JCP significantly inhibited the Ang II concentration in RVHs’ kidney (p < 0.05). The kidney should be the target site of JCP. PMID:22412809

  7. Novel aspects of striatal plasticity associated with long-term levo-dopa administration.

    PubMed

    Busceti, Carla Letizia; Biagioni, Francesca; Calierno, Maria Teresa; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Ruggieri, Stefano; Fornai, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    "Striatal plasticity" is a term describing a variety of morphological and functional changes occurring both at pre- and post-synaptic level within the basal ganglia. In most cases striatal plasticity occurs when a loss of dopamine (DA) fibers in the striatum, in the course of Parkinsonism takes place. Plastic events include early pre-synaptic and long-term post-synaptic changes. In the context of long-term changes associated with striatal plasticity the role of intrinsic striatal catecholamine cells is emerging. This neuronal population expresses both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT). These TH-positive cells are normally resident within the human caudate putamen but they dramatically increase during parkinsonism reaching an amount roughly corresponding to 50% of nigrostriatal neurons counted in control brains. This evidence led to hypothesize fascinating mechanisms bridging these neurons either with compensatory changes or the onset of aberrant behavioral activity. Very recently  the occurrence of these neurons was described during DA replacement therapy in parkinsonism, thus suggesting that these cells may represent the anatomical basis for plastic phenomena.  Thus, the present article, in the attempt to describe novel mechanisms generating striatal plasticity, details these cells in development and adult life and their potential role in maturation phenomena occurring in parkinsonism. PMID:24873927

  8. [Long-term oxygen therapy in chronic respiratory insufficiency. Usefulness, indications, modes of administration].

    PubMed

    Weitzenblum, E

    1992-03-01

    Long-term oxygen therapy improves the life expectancy of hypoxaemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), provided the hypoxaemia is sufficiently pronounced under stable conditions (PaO2 less than 55 mmHg) and oxygen is given for more than 16 out of 24 hours. By extension, the same indications are applicable to hypoxaemia due to other causes (diffuse fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, cystic fibrosis, etc.). Long-term oxygen therapy improves the patients' quality of life and also has favourable effects on oxygen transport, neuropsychological status, polycythaemia and pulmonary hypertension. It is usually delivered by means of O2 extractors, to which may be added small flasks of O2 gas for walking and moving about. Liquid O2 is a good solution for subjects who are motivated and are obliged to do a great deal of walking. The O2 flow rate administered must be such that it rises the PaO2 level above 60 mmHg. Oxygen therapy is only a symptomatic treatment and cannot replace other types of therapy, such as bronchodilators, physiotherapy, etc. It gives satisfactory results but it has not transformed the prognosis of severe hypoxaemic COPD. PMID:1533036

  9. Shoshin Beriberi Induced by Long-Term Administration of Diuretics: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Misumida, Naoki; Umeda, Hisashi; Iwase, Mitsunori

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that diuretic therapy for heart failure may lead to thiamine deficiency due to the increased urinary thiamine excretion. Herein, we present the case of a 61-year-old man with shoshin beriberi, a fulminant form of wet beriberi, induced by long-term diuretic therapy. The patient had a history of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and was receiving furosemide and trichlormethiazide therapy. He presented with worsening exertional dyspnea and was admitted for heart failure exacerbation. His condition failed to improve even after intensive treatment. A hemodynamic evaluation with the Swan-Ganz catheter revealed high-output heart failure with low peripheral vascular resistance. Thiamine was administered for suspected shoshin beriberi; his hemodynamic status improved dramatically within the next six hours. The serum thiamine level was below the normal range; the patient was therefore diagnosed with shoshin beriberi. The common causes of thiamine deficiency were not identified. Long-term diuretic therapy with furosemide and thiazide was thought to have played a major role in the development of thiamine deficiency. This case illustrates the importance of considering wet beriberi as a possible cause of heart failure exacerbation in patients taking diuretics, even when the common thiamine deficiency causes are not identified with history-taking. PMID:25105030

  10. Shoshin beriberi induced by long-term administration of diuretics: a case report.

    PubMed

    Misumida, Naoki; Umeda, Hisashi; Iwase, Mitsunori

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that diuretic therapy for heart failure may lead to thiamine deficiency due to the increased urinary thiamine excretion. Herein, we present the case of a 61-year-old man with shoshin beriberi, a fulminant form of wet beriberi, induced by long-term diuretic therapy. The patient had a history of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and was receiving furosemide and trichlormethiazide therapy. He presented with worsening exertional dyspnea and was admitted for heart failure exacerbation. His condition failed to improve even after intensive treatment. A hemodynamic evaluation with the Swan-Ganz catheter revealed high-output heart failure with low peripheral vascular resistance. Thiamine was administered for suspected shoshin beriberi; his hemodynamic status improved dramatically within the next six hours. The serum thiamine level was below the normal range; the patient was therefore diagnosed with shoshin beriberi. The common causes of thiamine deficiency were not identified. Long-term diuretic therapy with furosemide and thiazide was thought to have played a major role in the development of thiamine deficiency. This case illustrates the importance of considering wet beriberi as a possible cause of heart failure exacerbation in patients taking diuretics, even when the common thiamine deficiency causes are not identified with history-taking. PMID:25105030

  11. Final Report on the Development of a Baccalaureate External Degree Program in Health Services Administration With a Major in Long Term Care Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleppick, Annabelle L.; And Others

    A project undertaken at the Graduate School of Public Health of the University of Pittsburgh to develop an undergraduate external degree program in health services administration with a major in long-term care administration is described. Program activities were designed to: develop a work plan, identify the parameters of knowledge and skills…

  12. Refinement of a macaque transplantation model: application of a subcutaneous port as a means for long-term enteral drug administration and nutritional supplementation.

    PubMed

    Fante, F; Baldan, N; De Benedictis, G M; Boldrin, M; Furian, L; Sgarabotto, D; Ravarotto, L; Besenzon, F; Ramon, D; Cozzi, E

    2012-04-01

    A new application of a device enabling the long-term enteral administration of drugs or nutritional supplementation was developed for implementing in research entailing the use of macaques (Macaca fascicularis). After implanting a subcutaneous port, a surgically-placed gastrostomy (SPG) was completed to afford access to the gastric lumen and enable the administration of substances. In this study, the device was left in place for a period ranging between two and 12 months in macaques (n= 16). In five cases, the SPG was used successfully for 8-12 months, until the experimental endpoint was reached. In six cases, the SPG had to be removed earlier due to local infection at the implant site, which promptly regressed after the SPG was removed and antibiotic treatment was administered. One SPG-implanted macaque was euthanized for reasons unrelated to the SPG or the xenotransplantation procedure. In four cases, the SPG was implanted without any complications but has yet to be used to administer substances to the animals. From an ethical standpoint, the SPG device described here minimizes the forced handling of macaques otherwise needed for the oral administration of viscous or unpalatable substances by gavage. The device thus represents an effective refinement that fully complies with the tenet of the '3 Rs' that should be considered by primate centres exposing non-human primates to the long-term daily administration of substances by oral gavage. PMID:22334877

  13. Long-Term Tolerability and Effectiveness of Once-Daily Mixed Amphetamine Salts (Adderall XR) in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, James J.; Biederman, Joseph; Wigal, Sharon B.; Lopez, Frank A.; McCracken, James T.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Yuxin; Tulloch, Simon J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term tolerability and effectiveness of extended-release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS XR; Adderall XR[R]) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: This was a 24-month, multicenter, open-label extension of TWO placebo-controlled studies of MAS XR in children with ADHD aged 6 to 12…

  14. Neurotoxic effects of berberine on long-term L-DOPA administration in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Keon Sung; Choi, Hyun Sook; Zhao, Ting Ting; Suh, Kwang Hoon; Kwon, Ik Hyun; Choi, Soon Ok; Lee, Myung Koo

    2013-06-01

    The effects of berberine on long-term administration of L-DOPA in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) were investigated. Rat models of PD were prepared by 6-OHDA lesions in the ipsilateral sides, and then were treated with berberine (5 and 15 mg/kg) and/or L-DOPA (10 mg/kg) once daily for 21 days. Treatments with either concentration of berberine (5 and 15 mg/kg) in 6-OHDA-lesioned groups decreased the numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive neurons in the substantia nigra and the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the striatum as compared to 6-OHDA-lesioned groups. In addition, dopaminergic neuronal cell death of the ipsilateral sides in 6-OHDA-lesioned groups was attenuated by L-DOPA administration. However, both concentrations of berberine in 6-OHDA-lesioned groups treated with L-DOPA aggravated the numbers of TH-immunopositive neurons in the substantia nigra and the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, DOPAC and HVA in the striatum as compared to rats not treated with berberine. These results suggest that berberine leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neuronal cells in the substantia nigra in the rat model of PD with chronic L-DOPA administration. Long-term L-DOPA therapy that may involve possibly neurotoxic isoquinoline agents including berberine should involve monitoring for adverse symptoms. PMID:23539311

  15. LONG-TERM BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF INTRADENTATE ADMINISTRATION OF COLCHICINE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that the intradentate administration of colchicine produces time-dependent behavioral and neurochemical changes. eficits in learning and memory and alterations In the signal transduction process for the cholinergic muscarinic receptor have been observed up...

  16. Short-term and long-term ethanol administration inhibits the placental uptake and transport of valine in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Patwardhan, R.V.; Schenker, S.; Henderson, G.I.; Abou-Mourad, N.N.; Hoyumpa, A.M. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    Ethanol ingestion during pregnancy causes a pattern of fetal/neonatal dysfunction called the FAS. The effects of short- and long-term ethanol ingestion on the placental uptake and maternal-fetal transfer of valine were studied in rats. The in vivo placental uptake and fetal uptake were estimated after injection of 0.04 micromol of /sub 14/C-valine intravenously on day 20 of gestation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Short-term ethanol ingestion (4 gm/kg) caused a significant reduction in the placental uptake of /sub 14/C-valine by 33%, 60%, and 30%, and 31% at 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 min after valine administration, respectively (p less than 0.01), and a similar significant reduction occurred in the fetal uptake of /sub 14/C-valine (p less than 0.01). Long-term ethanol ingestion prior to and throughout gestation resulted in a 47% reduction in placental valine uptake (p less than 0.01) and a 46% reduction in fetal valine uptake (p less than 0.01). Long-term ethanol feeding from day 4 to day 20 of gestation caused a 32% reduction in placental valine uptake (p less than 0.01) and a 26% reduction in fetal valine uptake (p less than 0.01). We conclude that both short- and long-term ingestion of ethanol inhibit the placental uptake and maternal-fetal transfer of an essential amino acid--valine. An alteration of placental function may contribute to the pathogenesis of the FAS.

  17. Long-Term Administration of Oxandrolone Improves Lung Function in Pediatric Burned Patients.

    PubMed

    Sousse, Linda E; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Lee, Jong O; Andersen, Clark R; Zovath, Andrew J; Finnerty, Celeste C; Suman, Oscar E

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary dysfunction is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in the pediatric burned population. We have previously reported that the administration of a synthetic testosterone derivative, oxandrolone, significantly reduced hypermetabolism, and significantly increased height percentile, bone mineral content, lean body mass, and strength in pediatric burned patients. We hypothesize that the administration of oxandrolone will improve pulmonary function in burned pediatric subjects. A subset of severely burned pediatric subjects from a prospective clinical trial (n = 222) were included in our study (n = 54, 7-18 years, ≥30% TBSA burn). The subjects were previously randomized to either the control arm (n = 35) or the oxandrolone arm (0.1 mg/kg twice/day for 12 months, n = 19). Maximum voluntary ventilation, the ratio between forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity, and diffusion capacity were measured 6 months following burn injury, and results were compared between burned subjects with and without oxandrolone administration. Maximum expired ventilation (VEmax) was also measured in a subset of burned subjects. Subjects treated with oxandrolone had a significantly higher maximum voluntary ventilation (98 ± 53 L/min vs 115 ± 56 with treatment, P = .03). During maximal exercise, subjects treated with oxandrolone had a significantly higher VEmax compared with untreated subjects (32.0 ± 8.7 L/min vs 43.7 ± 13.6 with treatment, P = .02). The administration of oxandrolone was associated with improved lung function in pediatric burned patients. PMID:27171844

  18. Effects of long-term salicylate administration on synaptic ultrastructure and metabolic activity in the rat CNS.

    PubMed

    Yi, Bin; Hu, Shousen; Zuo, Chuantao; Jiao, Fangyang; Lv, Jingrong; Chen, Dongye; Ma, Yufei; Chen, Jianyong; Mei, Ling; Wang, Xueling; Huang, Zhiwu; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is associated with neural hyperactivity in the central nervous system (CNS). Salicylate is a well-known ototoxic drug, and we induced tinnitus in rats using a model of long-term salicylate administration. The gap pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle test was used to infer tinnitus perception, and only rats in the chronic salicylate-treatment (14 days) group showed evidence of experiencing tinnitus. After small animal positron emission tomography scans were performed, we found that the metabolic activity of the inferior colliculus (IC), the auditory cortex (AC), and the hippocampus (HP) were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group compared with saline group (treated for 14 days), which was further supported by ultrastructural changes at the synapses. The alterations all returned to baseline 14 days after the cessation of salicylate-treatment (wash-out group), indicating that these changes were reversible. These findings indicate that long-term salicylate administration induces tinnitus, enhanced neural activity and synaptic ultrastructural changes in the IC, AC, and HP of rats due to neuroplasticity. Thus, an increased metabolic rate and synaptic transmission in specific areas of the CNS may contribute to the development of tinnitus. PMID:27068004

  19. Efficacy of long term cyclic administration of the poorly absorbed antibiotic Rifaximin in symptomatic, uncomplicated colonic diverticular disease

    PubMed Central

    Colecchia, Antonio; Vestito, Amanda; Pasqui, Francesca; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Roda, Enrico; Pistoia, Francesca; Brandimarte, Giovanni; Festi, Davide

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To comparatively evaluate the long term efficacy of Rifaximin and dietary fibers in reducing symptoms and/or complication frequency in symptomatic, uncomplicated diverticular disease. METHODS: 307 patients (118 males, 189 females, age range: 40-80 years) were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to: Rifaximin (400 mg bid for 7 d every month) plus dietary fiber supplementation (at least 20 gr/d) or dietary fiber supplementation alone. The study duration was 24 mo; both clinical examination and symptoms’ questionnaire were performed every two months. RESULTS: Both treatments reduced symptom frequency, but Rifaximin at a greater extent, when compared to basal values. Symptomatic score declined during both treatments, but a greater reduction was evident in the Rifaximin group (6.4 ± 2.8 and 6.2 ± 2.6 at enrollment, p = NS, 1.0 ± 0.7 and 2.4 ± 1.7 after 24 mo, p < 0.001, respectively). Probability of symptom reduction was higher and complication frequency lower (Kaplan-Meyer method) in the Rifaximin group (p < 0.0001 and 0.028, respectively). CONCLUSION: In patients with symptomatic, uncomplicated diverticular disease, cyclic administration of Rifaximin plus dietary fiber supplementation is more effective in reducing both symptom and complication frequency than simple dietary fiber supplementation. Long term administration of the poorly absorbed antibiotic Rifaximin is safe and well tolerated by the patients, confirming the usefulness of this therapeutic strategy in the overall management of diverticular disease. PMID:17226906

  20. Observation of hepatotoxicity during long-term gefitinib administration in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingjing; Wu, Yanlin; He, Xiaohui; Wang, Ziping; Li, Junling; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    To observe drug-induced hepatotoxicity by long-term gefitinib administration in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. The data of 101 patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer, for which gefitinib had been used orally for 3 months or longer, were retrospectively analyzed. The median duration of gefitinib administration was 14 months (3–60 months). Forty patients (39.6%) developed abnormal hepatic function, among whom 30 patients (29.7%) had grade I hepatotoxicity, six patients (5.9%) had grade II, and four patients (4.0%) had grade III, respectively. The median time from starting gefitinib oral therapy to developing liver dysfunction was 4 months (1–23 months) for the entire cohort. The incidence of hepatotoxicity in the group with a duration of more than 14 months was much higher than that in the group with a duration of less than 14 months (52.0 vs. 27.5%, P=0.012). In thirty-two patients (32/40), abnormal liver function resolved with hepatoprotective treatment, whereas eight patients (8/40) had persistent grade I hepatotoxicity until the last follow-up. Our study showed that long-term gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity was a common adverse event, especially for the cohort with a duration of longer than 14 months. In most patients with hepatotoxicity, normal liver function was restored and discontinuation of gefitinib was not necessary. PMID:26633888

  1. Observation of hepatotoxicity during long-term gefitinib administration in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Wu, Yanlin; Dong, Mei; He, Xiaohui; Wang, Ziping; Li, Junling; Wang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    To observe drug-induced hepatotoxicity by long-term gefitinib administration in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. The data of 101 patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer, for which gefitinib had been used orally for 3 months or longer, were retrospectively analyzed. The median duration of gefitinib administration was 14 months (3-60 months). Forty patients (39.6%) developed abnormal hepatic function, among whom 30 patients (29.7%) had grade I hepatotoxicity, six patients (5.9%) had grade II, and four patients (4.0%) had grade III, respectively. The median time from starting gefitinib oral therapy to developing liver dysfunction was 4 months (1-23 months) for the entire cohort. The incidence of hepatotoxicity in the group with a duration of more than 14 months was much higher than that in the group with a duration of less than 14 months (52.0 vs. 27.5%, P=0.012). In thirty-two patients (32/40), abnormal liver function resolved with hepatoprotective treatment, whereas eight patients (8/40) had persistent grade I hepatotoxicity until the last follow-up. Our study showed that long-term gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity was a common adverse event, especially for the cohort with a duration of longer than 14 months. In most patients with hepatotoxicity, normal liver function was restored and discontinuation of gefitinib was not necessary. PMID:26633888

  2. Long-term ascorbic acid administration causes anticonvulsant activity during moderate and long-duration swimming exercise in experimental epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tutkun, Erkut; Arslan, Gokhan; Soslu, Recep; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of regular exercise on brain health are undeniable. Long-term exercise increases the production of reactive oxygen species in brain. Therefore, athletes often consume antioxidant supplements to remedy exercise-related damage and fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of ascorbic acid in the effects of different intensities of swimming exercise on the brain susceptibility to experimental epilepsy in rats. Ascorbic acid was administered intraperitoneally (ip) during three different swimming exercise programme for 90 days (15 min, 30 min, 90 min/day). The anticonvulsant activity regarding the frequency of epileptiform activity appeared in the 80 min after 500 units intracortical penicillin injection in 30 min and 90 min/day exercise groups. The administration of ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg, ip) did not alter the anticonvulsant properties seen in the in short-duration (15 min/day) swimming exercise group. The amplitude of epileptiform activity also became significant in the 110 and 120 min after penicillin injection in the moderate (30 min/day) and long duration (60 min/day) groups, respectively. The results of the present study provide electrophysiologic evidence that long-term administration of ascorbic acid causes anticonvulsant activities in the moderate and long-duration swimming exercise. Antioxidant supplementation such as ascorbic acid might be suggested for moderate and long-duration swimming exercise in epilepsy. PMID:26232995

  3. Effects of long-term salicylate administration on synaptic ultrastructure and metabolic activity in the rat CNS

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Bin; Hu, Shousen; Zuo, Chuantao; Jiao, Fangyang; Lv, Jingrong; Chen, Dongye; Ma, Yufei; Chen, Jianyong; Mei, Ling; Wang, Xueling; Huang, Zhiwu; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is associated with neural hyperactivity in the central nervous system (CNS). Salicylate is a well-known ototoxic drug, and we induced tinnitus in rats using a model of long-term salicylate administration. The gap pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle test was used to infer tinnitus perception, and only rats in the chronic salicylate-treatment (14 days) group showed evidence of experiencing tinnitus. After small animal positron emission tomography scans were performed, we found that the metabolic activity of the inferior colliculus (IC), the auditory cortex (AC), and the hippocampus (HP) were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group compared with saline group (treated for 14 days), which was further supported by ultrastructural changes at the synapses. The alterations all returned to baseline 14 days after the cessation of salicylate-treatment (wash-out group), indicating that these changes were reversible. These findings indicate that long-term salicylate administration induces tinnitus, enhanced neural activity and synaptic ultrastructural changes in the IC, AC, and HP of rats due to neuroplasticity. Thus, an increased metabolic rate and synaptic transmission in specific areas of the CNS may contribute to the development of tinnitus. PMID:27068004

  4. Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2012-01-01

    Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment. PMID:22765049

  5. Peripheral fibroblast metabolic pathway alterations in juvenile rhesus monkeys undergoing long-term fluoxetine administration.

    PubMed

    Su, Shu-Yi; Hogrefe-Phi, Casey E; Asara, John M; Turck, Christoph W; Golub, Mari S

    2016-07-01

    We report on biochemical pathways perturbed upon chronic fluoxetine administration to juvenile macaques using global metabolomics analyses of fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies. After exposure to tissue culture conditions confounding environmental factors are eliminated and identification of metabolites whose levels are affected by the drug become apparent with a better signal-to-noise ratio compared to data obtained from plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Levels of more than 200 metabolites were analyzed to interrogate affected molecular pathways and identify biomarkers of drug response. In addition, we have correlated the metabolomics results with monoamine oxidase (MAOA) genotype and impulsivity behavioral data. Affected pathways include Purine and Pyrimidine metabolisms that have been previously implicated to contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27084303

  6. The effect of acute stress and long-term corticosteroid administration on plasma metabolites in an urban and desert songbird.

    PubMed

    Davies, Scott; Rodriguez, Natalie S; Sweazea, Karen L; Deviche, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In response to stressful stimuli, animals activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which can result in transition to the "emergency life history stage." A key adaptive characteristic of this life history stage is the mobilization of energy stores. However, few data are available on the metabolic response to acute stress in wild-caught, free-ranging birds. We quantified the effect of acute capture and restraint stress on plasma glucose, free fatty acid, and uric acid in free-ranging Abert's towhees Melozone aberti. Furthermore, birds were caught from urban and desert localities of Phoenix, Arizona, to investigate potential effects of urban versus desert habitats on the corticosterone (CORT) and metabolic response to acute stress. Complementing work on free-ranging birds, captive towhees received CORT-filled Silastic capsules to investigate the response of urban and desert conspecifics to long-term CORT administration. We quantified the effect of CORT administration on baseline plasma glucose and uric acid, liver and pectoralis muscle glycogen stores, kidney phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C, a key gluconeogenic enzyme), and body mass. Acute stress increased plasma CORT and glucose and decreased plasma uric acid but had no effect on plasma free fatty acid. There was no difference between urban and desert localities in body mass, fat scores, and the response to acute stress. CORT administration decreased body mass but had no effect on glucose and uric acid, pectoral muscle glycogen, or kidney PEPCK-C. However, liver glycogen of CORT-treated urban birds increased compared with corresponding controls, whereas glycogen decreased in CORT-treated desert birds. This study suggests that Abert's towhees principally mobilize glucose during acute stress but urban and desert towhees do not differ in their CORT and metabolic response to acute stress or long-term CORT administration. PMID:23303320

  7. Evaluation of NASA satellite- and assimilation model-derived long-term daily temperature date over the continental US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural research increasingly is expected to provide precise, quantitative information with an explicit geographic coverage. Limited availability of continuous daily meteorological records often constrains efforts to provide such information through integrated use of simulation models, spatial ...

  8. Fialuridine accumulates in DNA of dogs, monkeys, and rats following long-term oral administration.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, F C; Engelhardt, J A; Bowsher, R R

    1994-01-01

    Accumulation of the antiviral nucleoside analogue fialuridine (FIAU; 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arab-inofuranosyl-5-iodouracil) in genomic DNA was examined with a modified version of a recently developed RIA for FIAU. DNA was obtained from tissues of dogs administered FIAU at 0, 1, 2, or 3 mg/kg of body weight per day for 90 days, monkeys administered FIAU at 0 or 25 mg/kg per day for 30 days, and rats administered FIAU at 0, 255, or 510 mg/kg per day for 70 days. FIAU incorporation was observed in all species. In the rat, FIAU was incorporated into DNA of all tissues examined, with highest concentrations in the liver followed by jejunum, spleen, and heart. FIAU was also incorporated into sperm DNA. Incorporation rates were as high as 11,000 pmol of FIAU per mumol of thymidine or 1 FIAU molecule per 90 thymidine molecules. In dogs and rats, the extent of incorporation was dose-dependent. Across species, FIAU concentrations in DNA were not singly dependent on the total dose administered but also may have been dependent on the duration of exposure. These studies show that FIAU accumulates to high concentrations in genomic DNA of liver as well as other tissues during chronic oral administration and suggest that net accumulation of FIAU in DNA may be a critical step in FIAU-induced toxicity. PMID:7991573

  9. Long term efficacy, safety, and tolerabilitity of low daily doses of isosmotic polyethylene glycol electrolyte balanced solution (PMF-100) in the treatment of functional chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Corazziari, E; Badiali, D; Bazzocchi, G; Bassotti, G; Roselli, P; Mastropaolo, G; Luca, M; Galeazzi, R; Peruzzi, E

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To assess the long term therapeutic effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of low daily doses of isosmotic PEG electrolyte solutions (PMF-100) administered for a six month period for the treatment of functional constipation, in a double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study.
METHODS—After an initial four week run in period with PMF-100 (250 ml twice daily; PEG 14.6 g twice daily), 70 patients suffering from chronic constipation (58 females, aged 42 (15) years) with normalised bowel frequency (>3 bowel movements (bm)/week) were randomly allocated to receive either PMF-100 or placebo, contained in sachets (one sachet in 250 ml of water twice daily) for 20 weeks. Patients were assessed at four week intervals, and reported frequency and modality of evacuation, laxative use, and relevant symptoms on a diary card. At weeks 1, 12, and 24, a physical examination and laboratory tests were performed.
RESULTS—Complete remission of constipation was reported by a significantly (p<0.01) higher number of patients treated with PMF-100 compared with placebo at each four week visit. At the end of the study, 77% of the PMF-100 group and 20% of the placebo group were asymptomatic. Compared with placebo, patients treated with PMF-100 reported hard/pellety stools and straining at defecation less frequently, a significantly higher bowel frequency (week 12: 7.4 (3.1) v 4.3 (2.5) bm/week, 95% CI 1.64, 4.42; week 24: 7.4 (3.2) v 5.4 (2.1) bm/week, 95% CI 0.13,3.93), reduced consumption of laxative/four weeks (week 12: 0.7 (2.7) v 2.2 (3.3), 95% CI −2.29, 0.03; week 24: 0.2 (0.8) v 1.4 (2), 95% CI −2.07, −0.023), reduced mean number of sachets used (week 12: 33 (13) v 43 (12), 95% CI −17.24, 4.56; week 24: 33 (13) v 44 (12), 95% CI −19.68, −2.24), and reduced number of drop outs for therapy failure (16 v 3; p<0.005). Adverse events, physical findings, laboratory values, palatability, and overall tolerance of the solutions did not

  10. Long-term mTOR inhibitors administration evokes altered calcium homeostasis and platelet dysfunction in kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    López, Esther; Berna-Erro, Alejandro; Bermejo, Nuria; Brull, José María; Martinez, Rocío; Garcia Pino, Guadalupe; Alvarado, Raul; Salido, Ginés María; Rosado, Juan Antonio; Cubero, Juan José; Redondo, Pedro Cosme

    2013-05-01

    The use of the mammal target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors has been consolidated as the therapy of election for preventing graft rejection in kidney transplant patients, despite their immunosuppressive activity is less strong than anti-calcineurin agents like tacrolimus and cyclosporine A. Furthermore, as mTOR is widely expressed, rapamycin (a macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus) is recommended in patients presenting neoplasia due to its antiproliferative actions. Hence, we have investigated whether rapamycin presents side effects in the physiology of other cell types different from leucocytes, such as platelets. Blood samples were drawn from healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients long-term medicated with rapamycin: sirolimus and everolimus. Platelets were either loaded with fura-2 or directly stimulated, and immunoassayed or fixed with Laemmli's buffer to perform the subsequent analysis of platelet physiology. Our results indicate that rapamycin evokes a biphasic time-dependent alteration in calcium homeostasis and function in platelets from kidney transplant patients under rapamycin regime, as demonstrated by the reduction in granule secretion observed and subsequent impairment of platelet aggregation in these patients compared with healthy volunteers. Platelet count was also reduced in these patients, thus 41% of patients presented thrombocytopenia. All together our results show that long-term administration of rapamycin to kidney transplant patients evokes alteration in platelet function. PMID:23577651

  11. ADHD Treatment with Once-Daily OROS Methylphenidate: Final Results from a Long-term Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy; McBurnett, Keith; Stein, Mark; Lerner, Marc; Spencer, Thomas; Wolraich, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have assessed effectiveness and tolerability of stimulants when used for prolonged periods in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article presents final results from an open-label, multisite study of a once-daily formulation of methylphenidate (MPH), OROS[R] MPH. Method: Subjects received OROS…

  12. Long-term methamphetamine administration in the vervet monkey models aspects of a human exposure: brain neurotoxicity and behavioral profiles.

    PubMed

    Melega, William P; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Laćan, Goran; Way, Baldwin M; Pham, Jamie; Morton, Grenvill; Cho, Arthur K; Fairbanks, Lynn A

    2008-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH)-associated alterations in the human striatal dopamine (DA) system have been identified with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and post-mortem studies but have not been well correlated with behavioral changes or cumulative METH intake. Animal studies that model some aspects of human long-term METH abuse can establish dose-dependency profiles of both behavioral changes and potential brain neurotoxicities for identifying consequences of particular cumulative exposures. Based on parameters from human and our monkey pharmacokinetic studies, we modeled a prevalent human METH exposure of daily multiple doses in socially housed vervet monkeys. METH doses were escalated over 33 weeks, with final dosages resulting in estimated peak plasma METH concentrations of 1-3 microM, a range measured in human abusers. With larger METH doses, progressive increases in abnormal behavior and decreases in social behavior were observed on 'injection' days. Anxiety increased on 'no injection' days while aggression decreased throughout the study. Thereafter, during 3 weeks abstinence, differences in baseline vs post-METH behaviors were not observed. Post-mortem analysis of METH brains showed 20% lower striatal DA content while autoradiography studies of precommissural striatum showed 35% lower [3H]WIN35428 binding to the DA transporter. No statistically significant changes were detected for [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding to the vesicular monoamine transporter (METH-lower by 10%) or for [3H]SCH 23390 and [3H]raclopride binding to DA D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Collectively, this long-term, escalating dose METH exposure modeling a human abuse pattern, not associated with high-dose binges, resulted in dose-dependent behavioral effects and caused persistent changes in presynaptic striatal DA system integrity. PMID:17625500

  13. Effects of long-term administration of omeprazole on bone mineral density and the mechanical properties of the bone☆

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Gabriela Rezende; de Paiva, Aline Goulart; Neto, Maurílio Pacheco; Torres, Larissa Helena; Shimano, Antônio Carlos; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Annoni, Raquel; de Oliveira Penoni, Álvaro César

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between long-term use of proton pump inhibitors and bone metabolism. However, this relationship has not yet become established. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mechanical properties and bone mineral density (BMD) of rats that were subjected to long-term omeprazole use. Methods Fifty Wistar rats weighing between 200 and 240 g were divided equally into five groups: OMP300 (omeprazole intake at a dose of 300 μmoL/kg/day); OMP200 (200 μmoL/kg/day); OMP40 (40 μmoL/kg/day); OMP10 (10 μmoL/kg/day); and Cont (control group; intake of dilution vehicle). The solutions were administered for 90 consecutive days. After the rats had been sacrificed, their BMD, the mechanical properties of the dissected femurs and their serum Ca++ levels were analyzed. Results The BMD of the OMP300 group was lower than that of the controls (p = 0.006). There was no difference on comparing the OMP200, OMP40 and OMP10 groups with the controls. The maximum strength and rigidity of the femur did not differ in the experimental groups in comparison with the controls. The OMP300 group had a statistically lower serum Ca++ concentration than that of the controls (p = 0.049), but the other groups did not show any difference in relation to the controls. Conclusion Daily intake of 300 μmoL/kg/day of omeprazole decreased the BMD of the femur, but without changes to the rigidity and strength of the femur in adult rats. PMID:26229922

  14. Long-term prediction of solar and geomagnetic activity daily time series using singular spectrum analysis and fuzzy descriptor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmomeni, M.; Kamaliha, E.; Shafiee, M.; Lucas, C.

    2009-09-01

    Of the various conditions that affect space weather, Sun-driven phenomena are the most dominant. Cyclic solar activity has a significant effect on the Earth, its climate, satellites, and space missions. In recent years, space weather hazards have become a major area of investigation, especially due to the advent of satellite technology. As such, the design of reliable alerting and warning systems is of utmost importance, and international collaboration is needed to develop accurate short-term and long-term prediction methodologies. Several methods have been proposed and implemented for the prediction of solar and geomagnetic activity indices, but problems in predicting the exact time and magnitude of such catastrophic events still remain. There are, however, descriptor systems that describe a wider class of systems, including physical models and non-dynamic constraints. It is well known that the descriptor system is much tighter than the state-space expression for representing real independent parametric perturbations. In addition, the fuzzy descriptor models as a generalization of the locally linear neurofuzzy models are general forms that can be trained by constructive intuitive learning algorithms. Here, we propose a combined model based on fuzzy descriptor models and singular spectrum analysis (SSA) (FD/SSA) to forecast a number of geomagnetic activity indices in a manner that optimizes a fuzzy descriptor model for each of the principal components obtained from singular spectrum analysis and recombines the predicted values so as to transform the geomagnetic activity time series into natural chaotic phenomena. The method has been applied to predict two solar and geomagnetic activity indices: geomagnetic aa and solar wind speed (SWS) of the solar wind index. The results demonstrate the higher power of the proposed method-- compared to other methods -- for predicting solar activity.

  15. Prospective evaluation of long-term safety of dual-release hydrocortisone replacement administered once daily in patients with adrenal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, A G; Marelli, C; Fitts, D; Bergthorsdottir, R; Burman, P; Dahlqvist, P; Ekman, B; Edén Engström, B; Olsson, T; Ragnarsson, O; Ryberg, M; Wahlberg, J; Lennernäs, H; Skrtic, S; Johannsson, G

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to assess the long-term safety profile of dual-release hydrocortisone (DR-HC) in patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI). Design Randomised, open-label, crossover trial of DR-HC or thrice-daily hydrocortisone for 3 months each (stage 1) followed by two consecutive, prospective, open-label studies of DR-HC for 6 months (stage 2) and 18 months (stage 3) at five university clinics in Sweden. Methods Sixty-four adults with primary AI started stage 1, and an additional 16 entered stage 3. Patients received DR-HC 20–40 mg once daily and hydrocortisone 20–40 mg divided into three daily doses (stage 1 only). Main outcome measures were adverse events (AEs) and intercurrent illness (self-reported hydrocortisone use during illness). Results In stage 1, patients had a median 1.5 (range, 1–9) intercurrent illness events with DR-HC and 1.0 (1–8) with thrice-daily hydrocortisone. AEs during stage 1 were not related to the cortisol exposure-time profile. The percentage of patients with one or more AEs during stage 1 (73.4% with DR-HC; 65.6% with thrice-daily hydrocortisone) decreased during stage 2, when all patients received DR-HC (51% in the first 3 months; 54% in the second 3 months). In stages 1–3 combined, 19 patients experienced 27 serious AEs, equating to 18.6 serious AEs/100 patient-years of DR-HC exposure. Conclusions This long-term prospective trial is the first to document the safety of DR-HC in patients with primary AI and demonstrates that such treatment is well tolerated during 24 consecutive months of therapy. PMID:24944332

  16. Daily nitrate losses: implication on long-term river quality in an intensive agricultural catchment of southwestern france.

    PubMed

    Boithias, Laurie; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Sauvage, Sabine; Macary, Francis; Sánchez-Pérez, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    High nitrate concentrations in streams have become a widespread problem throughout Europe in recent decades, damaging surface water and groundwater quality. The European Nitrate Directive fixed a potability threshold of 50 mg L for European rivers. The performance of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model was assessed in the 1110-km Save catchment in southwestern France for predicting water discharge and nitrate loads and concentrations at the catchment outlet, considering observed data set uncertainty. Simulated values were compared with intensive and extensive measurement data sets. Daily discharge fitted observations (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient = 0.61, = 0.7, and PBIAS = -22%). Nitrate simulation (1998-2010) was within the observed range (PBIAS = 10-21%, considering observed data set uncertainty). Annual nitrate load at the catchment outlet was correlated to the annual water yield at the outlet ( = 0.63). Simulated annual catchment nitrate exportation ranged from 21 to 49 kg ha depending on annual hydrological conditions (average, 36 kg ha). Exportation rates ranged from 3 to 8% of nitrogen inputs. During floods, 34% of the nitrate load was exported, which represented 18% of the 1998-2010 period. Average daily nitrate concentration at the outlet was 29 mg L (1998-2010), ranging from 0 to 270 mg L. Nitrate concentration exceeded the European 50 mg L potability threshold during 244 d between 1998 and 2010. A 20% reduction of nitrogen input reduced crop yield by between 5 and 9% and reduced by 62% the days when the 50 mg L threshold was exceeded. PMID:25602539

  17. PET study in a patient with spinocerebellar degeneration before and after long-term administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Tanji, H; Nagasawa, H; Hayashi, T; Onodera, H; Fujiwara, T; Itoh, M; Ido, T; Itoyama, Y

    1996-01-01

    We studied the chronic effect of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in a patient with spinocerebellar degeneration by measuring cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRG1c) using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET). A 56-year-old female, who had suffered from progressive ataxia for 2 years, was treated by intravenous administration of 2 mg TRH for 3 weeks, and CMRG1c of the brain was measured before and after treatment. CMRG1c was markedly decreased in the cerebellum and there was no significant difference before and after the treatment, i.e. mean CMRG1c values were 4.92 and 4.90 mg/100 g/min, and the ratios of the cerebellum versus the frontal cortex were 0.50 and 0.51, respectively. The degree of disequilibrium of her body examined with stabilography became better by the 19th day and further improved by the 26th day after the start of TRH treatment. Based on the present study we conclude that long-term administration of TRH did not improve CMRG1c in the cerebellum, but evidently improved the sway of gravity center by stabilography. We speculate that the chronic effect of TRH was not necessarily due to an improvement of cerebellar function, because TRH receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system. PMID:24487517

  18. Lactation traits associated with short- and long-term once-daily milking performance in New Zealand crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Davis, S R; Turner, S-A; Obolonkin, V; Tiplady, K; Spelman, R J; Phyn, C V C

    2015-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to establish the relative value of milk yields under twice-daily milking (TDM) as a predictor of yield and yield loss under once-daily milking (ODM), and to understand the role of residual milk and udder storage capacity-related traits in regulating yield and yield loss during ODM. A Holstein-Friesian × Jersey crossbred herd was established over 2 seasons (years), as 2 individual cohorts on the same farm, managed on a pasture-based system over 4 lactations. Short-term (1-wk) ODM studies, with a starting total of 690 cows, were undertaken in mid- and late-lactation in lactation 2 and in mid-lactation in lactation 3 for each cohort. A 10-wk study of ODM performance began in mid-lactation in lactation 3, whereas lactation 4 was a full-lactation assessment of ODM. In the short-term studies, milk yield under ODM was well predicted (R(2)=0.7 to 0.8 in 5 of 6 studies) by the daily yield under TDM in the week before ODM. Yield loss (kg/d) increased with increasing milk yield and with increasing somatic cell count (SCC), although predictions were relatively poor (R(2)=0.09 to 0.30). Yield loss (%) decreased with increasing TDM yield in 3 of the 6 studies and was positively correlated with SCC during ODM. Nevertheless, ODM yield loss, in absolute or percentage terms, was a poorly repeatable trait in grazing cows. Part of the variation in yield loss percentage (30%) was positively associated with residual milk (%), measured pretrial, during measurement of functional udder capacity in lactation 3. Total production (kg of milk) over the full-lactation ODM study in lactation 4 was correlated with total production in the 10-wk trial in lactation 3 (r=0.72 and 0.63 for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively). Identifying the highest- and lowest-producing 10% of animals during the full lactation of ODM indicated that poor production was associated with high yields of residual milk (measured in lactation 3) and, conversely, high production was

  19. Qualitative alterations of cortical bone in female rats after long-term administration of growth hormone and glucocorticoid.

    PubMed

    Ortoft, G; Oxlund, H

    1996-06-01

    A serious side effect of glucocorticoid treatment is the development of osteoporosis. We have earlier shown that long-term glucocorticoid administration results in a decrease in longitudinal bone growth, cortical bone mass, and biomechanical strength, while growth hormone administration increases these parameters. The result of biomechanical testing also indicates that glucocorticoid administration reduces the quality of bone. The glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia could not be inhibited by concomitant administration of large doses of growth hormone. The aim of the present study was to evaluate why glucocorticoid administration decreases the quality of cortical bone and why growth hormone administration had no beneficial effect on glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia. Five groups of female rats (3 1/2 months old) were treated for 80 days as follows: (1) glucocorticoid (prednisolone: Delcortol 5 mg/kg/day); (2) glucocorticoid and growth hormone; (3) saline; (4) growth hormone (recombinant human growth hormone 5 mg/kg/day); (5) Food restriction (consisting of restricted access to food to reduce their weight gain to match with that of the glucocorticoid injected rats). The animals were injected with tetracycline (15 mg/kg), 18 and 3 days before sacrifice, respectively. Furthermore, a baseline group (3 1/2-month-old female rats) was examined in order to enable us to differentiate between age-related changes and changes due to the hormone administration. Cortical mid-diaphysial cross sections of the femora were prepared and used for histological examination including determination of bone porosity, bone formation rate, and determination of the area of endosteal cavities as an indication of bone resorption. Furthermore, a cortical bone cylinder was cut from the mid-diaphysis and used for examinations of wet weight, dry weight, ash weight, volume, collagen content, and apparent density. Glucocorticoid administration resulted in an almost complete arrest of bone formation as

  20. Long-term experience with implanted intrathecal drug administration systems for failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, JH; Southall, JL; Gnanadurai, TV; Treharne, GJ; Kitas, GD

    2002-01-01

    Background Continuous intrathecal drug delivery has been shown in open studies to improve pain and quality of life in those with intractable back pain who have had spinal surgery. There is limited data on long term effects and and even less for patients with mechanical back pain without prior spinal surgery. Methods We have investigated spinal drug administration systems for patients with failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain by patient questionnaire study of the efficacy of this therapy and a case notes review. Results 36 patients (97% of 37 approached) completed questionnaires, 24 with failed back syndrome and 12 with chronic mechanical low back pain. Recalled pre-treatment levels with current post-treatment levels of pain and a range of quality of life measures (recorded on 11-point numerical rating scales) were compared. Pain improved significantly in both groups (Wilcoxan signed ranks test, p < 0.005). The majority of quality of life measures improved significantly in the failed back syndrome group (Wilcoxan signed ranks test, p < 0.005) although work interruption and the effect of pain on sex life did not change. There was a trend towards improvement in the majority of quality of life measures in the mechanical back pain group but this did not reach statistical significance due to the smaller numbers in this cohort (p > 0.005, Wilcoxan signed ranks test with Bonferroni correction). Diamorphine was used in all 37 patients, bupivacaine in 32, clonidine in 27 and baclofen in 3. The mean dose of diamorphine increased for the first 2 years but did not change 2–6 years post implant, averaging 4.5 mg/day. Revision surgery was required in 24% of cases, but reduced to 12% in the later years of our experience. Conclusions We conclude that spinal drug administration systems appear to be of benefit in alleviating pain in the failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain but need to be examined prospectively. PMID:12076357

  1. Heat wave phenomenon in southern Slovakia: long-term changes and variability of daily maximum air temperature in Hurbanovo within the 1901-2009 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecho, J.; Výberči, D.; Jarošová, M.; Å¥Astný, P. Å.

    2010-09-01

    Analysis of long-term changes and temporal variability of heat waves incidence in the region of southern Slovakia within the 1901-2009 periods is a goal of the presented contribution. It is expected that climate change in terms of global warming would amplify temporal frequency and spatial extension of extreme heat wave incidence in region of central Europe in the next few decades. The frequency of occurrence and amplitude of heat waves may be impacted by changes in the temperature regime. Heat waves can cause severe thermal environmental stress leading to higher hospital admission rates, health complications, and increased mortality. These effects arise because of one or more meteorology-related factors such as higher effective temperatures, sunshine, more consecutive hot days and nights, stagnation, increased humidity, increased pollutant emissions, and accelerated photochemical smog and particulate formation. Heat waves bring about higher temperatures, increased solar heating of buildings, inhibited ventilation, and a larger number of consecutive warm days and nights. All of these effects increase the thermal loads on buildings, reduce their ability to cool down, and increase indoor temperatures. The paper is focused to analysis of long-term and inter-decadal temporal variability of heat waves occurrence at meteorological station Hurbanovo (time-series of daily maximum air temperature available from at least 1901). We can characterize the heat waves by its magnitude and duration, hence both of these characteristics need to be investigated together using sophisticated statistical methods developed particularly for the analysis of extreme hydrological events. We investigated particular heat wave periods either from the severity point of view using HWI index. In the paper we also present the results of statistical analysis of daily maximum air temperature within 1901-2009 period. Apart from these investigation efforts we also focused on synoptic causes of heat wave

  2. Antihypertensive Properties of a Pea Protein Hydrolysate during Short- and Long-Term Oral Administration to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Girgih, Abraham T; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Onuh, John O; Malomo, Sunday A; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated short-term (24 h) and long-term (5 wk) systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of a 5 kDa membrane pea protein hydrolysate permeate (PPH-5) produced through thermoase hydrolysis of pea protein isolate (PPI). Amino acid analysis showed that the PPH-5 had lower contents of sulfur-containing amino acids than the PPI. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated mainly low molecular weight (<10 kDa) peptides in PPH-5 but not in the PPI. The PPH-5 had renin and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition IC50 values of 0.57 and 0.10 mg/mL (P < 0.05), respectively, and consisted mainly of peptides with 2 to 6 amino acids. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed mainly hydrophilic tetrapeptide sequences. After a single oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to SHR, the unheated PPI showed weakest (P < 0.05) SBP-lowering effect with a -4 mm Hg maximum when compared to -25 mm Hg for heat-treated PPI and -36 mm Hg for PPH-5. Incorporation of the PPH-5 as 0.5% or 1% (w/w) casein substitute in the SHR diet produced maximum SBP reductions of -22 or -26 mm Hg (P < 0.05), respectively after 3 wk. In comparison, the unhydrolyzed PPI produced a maximum SBP reduction of -17 mm Hg also after 3 wk. Potency of the pea products decreased in the 4th and 5th wk, though SBP values of the treated rats were still lower than the untreated control. We conclude that the antihypertensive potency of PPH-5 may have been due to the presence of easily absorbed hydrophilic peptides. PMID:27037677

  3. Regional and subcellular localization of Li+ and other cations in the rat brain following long-term lithium administration.

    PubMed

    Lam, H R; Christensen, S

    1992-10-01

    Rats were given LiCl in their diet (40 mmol/kg dry weight) for at least 3 months to elucidate the regional and subcellular localization of Li+ in the brain as well as the effect of chronic lithium administration on the distribution of other cations. At steady-state the mean concentrations of Li+ were 0.66 mmol/kg wet weight in the whole brain and 0.52 mM in plasma. The tissue/plasma concentration ratio exceeded unity in all anatomical regions. No region showed excessive accumulation of Li+. Whole brain or regional contents of Na+ or K+ were unaffected by lithium treatment. Subcellular Li+ localization was demonstrated in nuclear, crude mitochondrial, and microsomal fractions of whole brain homogenate. Subfractionation of the crude mitochondrial fraction revealed energy-independent intrasynaptosomal and intramitochondrial Li+ and K+ localization at 0-4 degrees C. Li+ administered in vivo disappeared within 10 min from synaptosomes incubated at 37 degrees C. Li+ added in vitro at 1 mM attained a synaptosomal steady-state concentration within 30 min at 37 degrees C. In control rats, synaptosomal concentrations and synaptosomal/medium concentration gradients of cations paralleled their respective in vivo concentrations and gradients. Lithium treatment caused synaptosomal depletion of K+ and Mg2+ and hence probably partial membrane depolarization. Addition of 1 mM Li+ in vitro also caused synaptosomal Mg2+ depletion. The results indicate that Li+ is "accumulated" in brain sediments and synaptosomes following its long-term treatment. The estimated intracellular and intrasynaptosomal Li+ concentrations are lower than predicted by passive distribution according to the Nernst equation, evidencing active extrusion of Li+. PMID:1402889

  4. Chronic cocaine administration induces long-term impairment in the drive to obtain natural reinforcers in high- but not low-demanding tasks.

    PubMed

    Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Gal, Ram; Zangen, Abraham

    2016-03-01

    Repeated drug exposure induces short- and long-term neuroadaptations in brain reward circuitries that are normally involved in the regulation of motivation. Hence, repeated drug exposure has been suggested to also affect the drive to acquire natural reinforcers. Here, we tested how chronic exposure of rats to cocaine, as well as a subsequent withdrawal period, affects acquisition of natural reinforcers in high- and low-demanding tasks (HD and LD tasks, respectively). We chronically administered cocaine (i.p., 15 mg/kg once daily, or saline in control) for 30 days, followed by a 30-day withdrawal period. We tested the effect of this treatment on the acquisition of two natural appetitive reinforcers, namely self-administering a 10% sucrose solution and mounting a receptive female, under LD and HD conditions. During the cocaine exposure period, behavioral testing took place 18 hours after cocaine injection, namely after the acute pharmacologic effect of the drug dissipated. We show that chronic i.p. cocaine exposure decreased procurement of both reinforcers in HD but not in LD tasks. The effect was observed throughout the administration period with partial recovery after withdrawal. Taken together, we present empirical evidence that chronic exposure to a constant dose of cocaine is sufficient to reduce natural reinforcement, and that this decrease can outlast drug exposure. Importantly, such effects are observed only when high demands are opposing the consumption of the natural reinforcer. PMID:25393705

  5. Determining the Long-term Effect of Antibiotic Administration on the Human Normal Intestinal Microbiota Using Culture and Pyrosequencing Methods.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Zaura, Egijia; Buijs, Mark J; Keijser, Bart J F; Crielaard, Wim; Nord, Carl Erik; Weintraub, Andrej

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of ciprofloxacin (500 mg twice daily for 10 days) or clindamycin (150 mg 4 times daily for 10 days) on the fecal microbiota of healthy humans for a period of 1 year as compared to placebo. Two different methods, culture and microbiome analysis, were used. Fecal samples were collected for analyses at 6 time-points. The interval needed for the normal microbiota to be normalized after ciprofloxacin or clindamycin treatment differed for various bacterial species. It took 1-12 months to normalize the human microbiota after antibiotic administration, with the most pronounced effect on day 11. Exposure to ciprofloxacin or clindamycin had a strong effect on the diversity of the microbiome, and changes in microbial composition were observed until the 12th month, with the most pronounced microbial shift at month 1. No Clostridium difficile colonization or C. difficile infections were reported. Based on the pyrosequencing results, it appears that clindamycin has more impact than ciprofloxacin on the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25922405

  6. Homogenised daily lake surface water temperature data generated from multiple satellite sensors: A long-term case study of a large sub-Alpine lake

    PubMed Central

    Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images since the 1980’s, which cover three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the changing dynamics of bio-physical characteristics of land and water. In this study, we introduce a new methodology to develop homogenised Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT) from multiple polar orbiting satellites. Precisely, we developed homogenised 1 km daily LSWT maps covering the last 30 years (1986 to 2015) combining data from 13 satellites. We used a split-window technique to derive LSWT from brightness temperatures and a modified diurnal temperature cycle model to homogenise data which were acquired between 8:00 to 17:00 UTC. Gaps in the temporal LSWT data due to the presence of clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The satellite derived LSWT maps were validated based on long-term monthly in-situ bulk temperature measurements in Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy. We found the satellite derived homogenised LSWT being significantly correlated to in-situ data. The new LSWT time series showed a significant annual rate of increase of 0.020 °C yr−1 (*P < 0.05), and of 0.036 °C yr−1 (***P < 0.001) during summer. PMID:27502177

  7. Comparisons of social interaction and activities of daily living between long-term care facility and community-dwelling stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong-Ae; Park, Se-Gwan; Roh, Hyo-Lyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to compare the correlation between social interaction and activities of daily living (ADL) between community-dwelling and long-term care facility stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The Subjects were 65 chronic stroke patients (32 facility-residing, 33 community-dwelling). The Evaluation Social Interaction (ESI) tool was used to evaluate social interaction and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) measure was used to evaluate ADL. [Results] Both social interaction and ADL were higher in community-dwelling than facility-residing stroke patients. There was a correlation between ESI and ADL for both motor and process skills among facility-residing patients, while only ADL process skills and ESI correlated among community-dwelling patients. In a partial correlation analysis using ADL motor and process skills as control variables, only process skills correlated with ESI. [Conclusion] For rehabilitation of stroke patients, an extended treatment process that combines ADL and social activities is likely to be required. Furthermore, treatment programs and institutional systems that can improve social interaction and promote health maintenance for community-dwelling and facility-residing chronic stroke patients are needed throughout the rehabilitation process. PMID:26644659

  8. Homogenised daily lake surface water temperature data generated from multiple satellite sensors: A long-term case study of a large sub-Alpine lake.

    PubMed

    Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images since the 1980's, which cover three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the changing dynamics of bio-physical characteristics of land and water. In this study, we introduce a new methodology to develop homogenised Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT) from multiple polar orbiting satellites. Precisely, we developed homogenised 1 km daily LSWT maps covering the last 30 years (1986 to 2015) combining data from 13 satellites. We used a split-window technique to derive LSWT from brightness temperatures and a modified diurnal temperature cycle model to homogenise data which were acquired between 8:00 to 17:00 UTC. Gaps in the temporal LSWT data due to the presence of clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The satellite derived LSWT maps were validated based on long-term monthly in-situ bulk temperature measurements in Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy. We found the satellite derived homogenised LSWT being significantly correlated to in-situ data. The new LSWT time series showed a significant annual rate of increase of 0.020 °C yr(-1) (*P < 0.05), and of 0.036 °C yr(-1) (***P < 0.001) during summer. PMID:27502177

  9. Homogenised daily lake surface water temperature data generated from multiple satellite sensors: A long-term case study of a large sub-Alpine lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images since the 1980’s, which cover three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the changing dynamics of bio-physical characteristics of land and water. In this study, we introduce a new methodology to develop homogenised Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT) from multiple polar orbiting satellites. Precisely, we developed homogenised 1 km daily LSWT maps covering the last 30 years (1986 to 2015) combining data from 13 satellites. We used a split-window technique to derive LSWT from brightness temperatures and a modified diurnal temperature cycle model to homogenise data which were acquired between 8:00 to 17:00 UTC. Gaps in the temporal LSWT data due to the presence of clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The satellite derived LSWT maps were validated based on long-term monthly in-situ bulk temperature measurements in Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy. We found the satellite derived homogenised LSWT being significantly correlated to in-situ data. The new LSWT time series showed a significant annual rate of increase of 0.020 °C yr‑1 (*P < 0.05), and of 0.036 °C yr‑1 (***P < 0.001) during summer.

  10. Long-term outcome of a phase 2 trial with nilotinib 400 mg twice daily in first-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gugliotta, Gabriele; Castagnetti, Fausto; Breccia, Massimo; Levato, Luciano; D’Adda, Mariella; Stagno, Fabio; Tiribelli, Mario; Salvucci, Marzia; Fava, Carmen; Martino, Bruno; Cedrone, Michele; Bocchia, Monica; Trabacchi, Elena; Cavazzini, Francesco; Usala, Emilio; Rossi, Antonella Russo; Bochicchio, Maria Teresa; Soverini, Simona; Alimena, Giuliana; Cavo, Michele; Pane, Fabrizio; Martinelli, Giovanni; Saglio, Giuseppe; Baccarani, Michele; Rosti, Gianantonio

    2015-01-01

    Nilotinib is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been approved for the first-line treatment of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia, based on the results of a prospective randomized study of nilotinib versus imatinib (ENESTnd). Apart from this registration study, very few data are currently available on first-line nilotinib treatment. We report here the long-term, 6-year results of the first investigator-sponsored, GIMEMA multicenter phase 2, single-arm trial with nilotinib 400 mg twice daily as first-line treatment in 73 patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia. Six-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 96%, with one death after progression to blast phase. At 6 years, 75% of the patients were still on nilotinib. The cumulative incidence of major molecular response was 98%; only one patient had a confirmed loss of major molecular response. The cumulative incidence of deep molecular response (MR 4.0) was 76%. Deep molecular response was stable (≥2 years) in 34% of these patients. Cardiovascular adverse events, mainly due to arterial thrombosis, occurred in 11/73 patients (15%), after 24 to 76 months of therapy. They were more frequent in elderly patients, and in those with baseline cardiovascular risk factors. None was fatal, although there was a relevant morbidity. This is the study with the longest follow-up of a high dose of nilotinib (400 mg twice daily): it highlights the high efficacy and the cardiovascular toxicity of the drug (CTG.NCT.00481052). PMID:26113419

  11. Long-term outcome of a phase 2 trial with nilotinib 400 mg twice daily in first-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gugliotta, Gabriele; Castagnetti, Fausto; Breccia, Massimo; Levato, Luciano; D'Adda, Mariella; Stagno, Fabio; Tiribelli, Mario; Salvucci, Marzia; Fava, Carmen; Martino, Bruno; Cedrone, Michele; Bocchia, Monica; Trabacchi, Elena; Cavazzini, Francesco; Usala, Emilio; Russo Rossi, Antonella; Bochicchio, Maria Teresa; Soverini, Simona; Alimena, Giuliana; Cavo, Michele; Pane, Fabrizio; Martinelli, Giovanni; Saglio, Giuseppe; Baccarani, Michele; Rosti, Gianantonio

    2015-09-01

    Nilotinib is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been approved for the first-line treatment of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia, based on the results of a prospective randomized study of nilotinib versus imatinib (ENESTnd). Apart from this registration study, very few data are currently available on first-line nilotinib treatment. We report here the long-term, 6-year results of the first investigator-sponsored, GIMEMA multicenter phase 2, single-arm trial with nilotinib 400 mg twice daily as first-line treatment in 73 patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia. Six-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 96%, with one death after progression to blast phase. At 6 years, 75% of the patients were still on nilotinib. The cumulative incidence of major molecular response was 98%; only one patient had a confirmed loss of major molecular response. The cumulative incidence of deep molecular response (MR 4.0) was 76%. Deep molecular response was stable (≥ 2 years) in 34% of these patients. Cardiovascular adverse events, mainly due to arterial thrombosis, occurred in 11/73 patients (15%), after 24 to 76 months of therapy. They were more frequent in elderly patients, and in those with baseline cardiovascular risk factors. None was fatal, although there was a relevant morbidity. This is the study with the longest follow-up of a high dose of nilotinib (400 mg twice daily): it highlights the high efficacy and the cardiovascular toxicity of the drug (CTG.NCT.00481052). PMID:26113419

  12. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children Suffering From Epilepsy with and without Administration of Long Term Liquid Oral Medication

    PubMed Central

    Bhadravathi, Manjunath Chaluvaiah; Kumar, Adarsh; Narang, Ridhi; Gupta, Ambika; Singh, Harneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sucrose is added as sweetening agent in liquid oral medication (LOM) to mask the acrid taste of medicines which may be potentially cariogenic. Many children under long term LOM therapy for treatment of epilepsy may be susceptible to dental caries. Aim To assess and compare dental caries experience in children under long term liquid oral medication with those not under such medication among 2-12 years old children suffering from epilepsy. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a total of 84 children aged 2–12 years, who were suffering from epilepsy receiving liquid oral medication for more than 3 months were selected (study group) and for comparison 106 children of similar age group and disease but on other forms of medication were included as control group. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT/DMFS (Decayed, Missing, Fillled Teeth / Surfaces), dmft/dft and dmfs/dfs indices. One-way ANOVA and t-test were used with p-value fixed at 0.05. Univariate logistic regression was applied. Results Children on LOM were at increased risk of dental caries than those with other forms of medications (OR: 2.55, 95% CI (2.37-4.15) p=0.000, HS). Caries prevalence was high in the study group (76.1%) when compared to control group (55.6%). Conclusion Long term use of liquid medicines containing sucrose is a risk factor for dental caries among children with epilepsy. PMID:27504416

  13. Are the "worst of the worst" self-injurious prisoners more likely to end up in long-term maximum-security administrative segregation?

    PubMed

    Lanes, Eric Charles

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the association of extent of prisoner self-injurious behavior (SIB) and placement in long-term maximum-security administrative segregation. A prisoner subgroup (n=132) defined by extent of SIB was matched by conviction prefix and security level to a group of prisoners who had never engaged in SIB (n=132) and compared on selected variables. Relative to prisoners who either engaged in less extensive SIB or none at all, prisoners who engaged in three or more forms of SIB while in prison were found to be twice as likely to be housed in long-term administrative segregation, less educated, began their criminal careers at an earlier age, engaged in more violence in the community and in prison, involved in property destruction, and experienced a much greater degree of housing instability in prison. PMID:20668209

  14. Evaluation of the long-term energy analysis program used for the 1978 EIA Administrator's Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, R. W.; Weisbin, C. R.; Alsmiller, Jr., R. G.

    1981-10-01

    An evaluation of the Long-Term Energy Analysis Program (LEAP), a computer model of the energy portion of the US economy that was used for the 1995-2020 projections in its 1978 Annual Report to Congress, is presented. An overview of the 1978 version, LEAP Model 22C, is followed by an analysis of the important results needed by its users. The model is then evaluated on the basis of: (1) the adequacy of its documentation; (2) the local experience in operating the model; (3) the adequacy of the numerical techniques used; (4) the soundness of the economic and technical foundations of the model equations; and (5) the degree to which the computer program has been verified. To show which parameters strongly influence the results and to approach the question of whether the model can project important results with sufficient accuracy to support qualitative conclusions, the numerical sensitivities of some important results to model input parameters are described. The input data are categorized and discussed, and uncertainties are given for some parameters as examples. From this background and from the relation of LEAP to other available approaches for long-term energy modeling, an overall evaluation is given of the model's suitability for use by the EIA.

  15. Alteration in plasma corticosterone levels following long term oral administration of lead produces depression like symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Shamim, Saima; Batool, Zehra; Parveen, Tahira; Inam, Qurat-ul-ain; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2013-03-01

    Lead toxicity is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunctions that may result in adverse effects on several organs, including the central nervous system. Long-term exposure to low levels of lead (Pb(2+)) has been shown to produce behavioral deficits in rodents and humans by affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These deficits are thought to be associated with altered brain monoamine neurotransmission and due to changes in glucocorticoids levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Pb(2+)exposure on growth rate, locomotor activity, anxiety, depression, plasma corticosterone and brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in rats. Rats were exposed to lead in drinking water (500 ppm; lead acetate) for 5 weeks. The assessment of depression was done using the forced swimming test (FST). Estimation of brain 5-HT was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma corticosterone was determined by spectrofluorimetric method. The present study showed that long term exposure to Pb(2+) significantly decreased the food intake followed by the decrease in growth rate in Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control group. No significant changes in open field activity were observed following Pb(2+)exposure while significant increase in anxiogenic effect was observed. Increased plasma corticosterone and decreased 5-HT levels were exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to controls. A significant increase in depressive like symptoms was exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control rats. The results are discussed in the context of Pb(2+) inducing a stress-like response in rats leading to changes in plasma corticosterone and brain 5-HT levels via altering tryptophan pyrrolase activity. PMID:23315312

  16. Short and long-term safety of lenograstim administration in healthy peripheral haematopoietic progenitor cell donors: a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Martino, M; Console, G; Dattola, A; Callea, I; Messina, G; Moscato, T; Massara, E; Irrera, G; Fedele, R; Gervasi, A; Bresolin, G; Iacopino, P

    2009-08-01

    Healthy donors (HDs) who were mobilized using lenograstim (LENO) and who were undergoing peripheral haematopoietic progenitor cell collection with apheresis (HPC-A) were enrolled in a surveillance protocol. In all, 184 HDs have been assessed with a median follow-up of 62 months (range 2-155). HDs received LENO at a median dose of 10 microg/kg (range 5-15). Bone pain was reported as the most frequent short-term adverse event (71.2%). Other commonly observed short-term symptoms included fatigue (19.0%), fever (5.4%), headache (27.7%), nausea (12.0%) and insomnia (22.3%). Spleen size increased in 4.3% of the donors. No vascular disorders or cardiac disease occurred. Long-term follow-up included monitoring of adverse events, neoplastic disease or other pathologies. Transit ischaemic attack occurred in one donor (39 months post-donation). One autoimmune event was reported at 28 months post-recombinant human granulocyte (rhG)-CSF (ankylosing spondylitis); one donor with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed secondary polyglobulia (50 months post-rhG-CSF). One donor was diagnosed with lung cancer at 19 months post-donation. No haematological disease was observed. In conclusion, the short-term safety appears to be verified, whereas, although the study identified no increased risks of malignancy among HDs who received rhG-CSF, long-term safety requires more complete data sets, especially a longer follow-up and a larger number of HDs. PMID:19182833

  17. Exploration of long-term care institution managers' perceptions of institutional indoor environment quality and ease of administration.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yen Ping; Lin, Chia Ching; Huang, Ying Chia

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the level of management's perception of the importance of indoor environment indicators at long-term care facilities as well as the differences between the level of perceived importance and the level of implementation. This study also analyzed the indicators for improving indoor environments. This study selected Taiwanese long-term care facility managers as its subjects to whom questionnaires were distributed by mail Descriptive statistics, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and an importance-performance analysis were used to conduct analyses on the data retrieved from the questionnaires. The results indicate that, of the indoor environment indicators of four facility spaces, bedrooms had the highest perceived level of importance. The lounge was the easiest space in which to implement the indicators. Differences were found between the perceived level of importance and the level of implementation for six of the indoor environment indicators of the four facility spaces. In these four spaces, the ventilation indicator was the most important, whereas implementing the temperature and humidity indicators was the most difficult. The highest priority for indicator improvement was given to the temperature in the bedrooms and bathrooms, whereas control over temperature, humidity, and sound had a low priority. The indicators seen as requiring continuous maintenance were lighting and ventilation. Facility managers had a high level of awareness and competence in implementing the ventilation indicator. However, although they were aware of the importance of the temperature, humidity, and sound indicators, their implementation was difficult, suggesting that they needed to be improved. PMID:23072176

  18. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  19. Role of prolactin in the modulation of NK and LAK cell activity after short- or long-term morphine administration in neoplastic patients.

    PubMed

    Provinciali, M; Di Stefano, G; Stronati, S; Raffaeli, W; Pari, G; Fabris, N

    1996-10-01

    In a previous work we demonstrated that chronic in vivo antalgic therapy of cancer patients with morphine reduced the endogenous cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells, while increasing the development of lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell cytotoxicity. In order to investigate the mechanisms by which morphine affects NK and LAK cell function further, we evaluated the modulation exerted by short- or long-term morphine administration on either NK/LAK cell cytotoxicities or plasma levels of prolactin (PRL) and other immunomodulating neurohormones. An intravenous morphine injection (10 mg) significantly increased the plasma levels of PRL, reduced the cytotoxic activity of NK cells, and increased the development of LAK cell activity 30 min after drug injection in neoplastic patients. The administration of bromocriptine before the injection of morphine prevented both PRL augmentation and the increase in LAK cell activation, although it did not prevent the inhibition of NK cytotoxicity. The chronic oral administration of morphine (90 +/- 30 mg/day for 1 month) also resulted in higher PRL levels; the NK and LAK cell activities were, respectively, lower than or higher than those found in neoplastic patients untreated with morphine. The plasma levels of thyrotropin (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol were not significantly modified in either short- or long-term experiments. The absolute number and the percentages of lymphocyte populations, as well as the percentage of IL-2 receptors, were not modified after short-term morphine administration whereas little changes of T lymphocyte populations and NK cell number were observed after oral treatment with morphine. In vitro morphine did not affect the development of LAK cell activity. In conclusion, our findings indicate that morphine reduces NK cytotoxicity and increases the development of LAK cell cytotoxicity after short- and long-term administration. The effect of morphine on LAK cell activation

  20. Long-term retention of /sup 133/Ba in the rat trachea following local administration as barium sulfate particles

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, S.; Patrick, G.

    1987-06-01

    Long-term retention of /sup 133/Ba in the trachea from intratracheally administered BaSO/sub 4/ particles was determined by both serial sacrifice and external scanning methods up to 6 months after injection. The amount of /sup 133/Ba retained 1 week after injection in the caudal region of the trachea, where the tip of the cannula had been at injection, was 0.41% of the initial dose. Thereafter the /sup 133/Ba was cleared exponentially with a mean half-time of 88 days, as determined from the autopsy samples. The cranial region of the trachea, including the site of the tracheostomy, contained /sup 133/Ba at 10 times the level in the caudal region 1 week after injection and was cleared with a half-time of 66 days. These clearance rates were confirmed by repeated external scanning over the trachea. The 133Ba was drained to the lymph nodes not only in the thoracic cavity but also in the cervical region, suggesting the possibility of lymphatic drainage from the trachea to the cervical lymph nodes.

  1. Canakinumab efficacy and long-term tocilizumab administration in tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS).

    PubMed

    La Torre, Francesco; Muratore, Maurizio; Vitale, Antonio; Moramarco, Fulvio; Quarta, Laura; Cantarini, Luca

    2015-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene. Treatment is aimed at preventing acute disease attacks, improving quality of life, and preventing long-term complications such as systemic reactive amyloidosis. Biologic agents have significantly improved TRAPS management. In particular, interleukin 1 (IL-1) inhibition either with the recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra or with the human IgG1 anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody canakinumab has recently shown to induce a prompt and stable disease remission. Conversely, the successful experience with IL-6 inhibition is nowadays limited to a single patient. Anyway, introduction of new treatment options for patients requiring a lifelong therapy is desirable. We describe two TRAPS patients (son and father) successfully treated with canakinumab and tocilizumab, respectively. In particular, we highlight the clinical and laboratory efficacy as well as the good safety profile of tocilizumab during a 42-month follow-up period. PMID:26048626

  2. The evaluation of long-term effects of cinnamon bark and olive leaf on toxicity induced by streptozotocin administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Onderoglu, S; Sozer, S; Erbil, K M; Ortac, R; Lermioglu, F

    1999-11-01

    The effects of cinnamon bark and olive leaf have been investigated on streptozotocin-induced tissue injury, and some biochemical and haematological changes in rats. The effects on glycaemia were also evaluated. Long-term administration of olive leaf caused significant improvement in tissue injury induced by streptozotocin treatment; the effect of cinnamon bark was less extent. No effects on blood glucose levels were detected. However, significant decreases in some increased biochemical and haematological parameters of streptozotocin-treated rats were observed. Aspartate aminotransferase, urea and cholesterol levels were significantly decreased by treatment with both plant materials, and alanine aminotransferase by treatment with olive leaf. Cinnamon bark also caused a significant decrease in platelet counts. In addition, any visible toxicity, except decrease in body weight gain, attributable to the long-term use of plant materials was not established in normal rats. The data indicate that long-term use of olive leaf and cinnamon bark may provide benefit against diabetic conditions. Determination of underlying mechanism(s) of beneficial effects, toxicity to other systems and clinical assessments of related plant materials are major topics requiring further studies. PMID:10632089

  3. Long-term retention on treatment with lumiracoxib 100 mg once or twice daily compared with celecoxib 200 mg once daily: A randomised controlled trial in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fleischmann, Roy; Tannenbaum, Hyman; Patel, Neha P; Notter, Marianne; Sallstig, Peter; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Background The efficacy, safety and tolerability of lumiracoxib, a novel selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, has been demonstrated in previous studies of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). As it is important to establish the long-term safety and efficacy of treatments for a chronic disease such as OA, the present study compared the effects of lumiracoxib at doses of 100 mg once daily (o.d.) and 100 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) with those of celecoxib 200 mg o.d. on retention on treatment over 1 year. Methods In this 52-week, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study, male and female patients (aged at least 40 years) with symptomatic primary OA of the hip, knee, hand or spine were randomised (1:2:1) to lumiracoxib 100 mg o.d. (n = 755), lumiracoxib 100 mg b.i.d. (n = 1,519) or celecoxib 200 mg o.d. (n = 758). The primary objective of the study was to demonstrate non-inferiority of lumiracoxib at either dose compared with celecoxib 200 mg o.d. with respect to the 1-year retention on treatment rate. Secondary outcome variables included OA pain in the target joint, patient's and physician's global assessments of disease activity, Short Arthritis assessment Scale (SAS) total score, rescue medication use, and safety and tolerability. Results Retention rates at 1 year were similar for the lumiracoxib 100 mg o.d., lumiracoxib 100 mg b.i.d. and celecoxib 200 mg o.d. groups (46.9% vs 47.5% vs 45.3%, respectively). It was demonstrated that retention on treatment with lumiracoxib at either dose was non-inferior to celecoxib 200 mg o.d. Similarly, Kaplan-Meier curves for the probability of premature discontinuation from the study for any reason were similar across the treatment groups. All three treatments generally yielded comparable results for the secondary efficacy variables and all treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion Long-term treatment with lumiracoxib 100 mg o.d., the recommended dose for OA, was as effective and well tolerated as celecoxib

  4. Oral administration of sunitinib malate for long-term survival of a patient with multiple lung metastases from renal leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyan; Gao, Hongjun; Tang, Chuanhao; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Sunitinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and imatinib-refractory gastrointestinal stromal tumor. In non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor soft tissue sarcomas, the activity of this small-molecule drug has been rarely reported. Herein, we report a patient with lung metastases from renal leiomyosarcoma who responded favorably to sunitinib after the failure of conventional chemotherapy. Adverse effects of sunitinib, which include fatigue, hand-foot syndrome, and stomatitis were observed following its administration. Withdrawal of sunitinib led to progression of disease, and resuming use of sunitinib was still effective for multiple lung metastases. Sunitinib might be an effective treatment for renal leiomyosarcoma, especially when conventional chemotherapy fails. PMID:27536137

  5. Disappearance of a uterine arteriovenous malformation following long-term administration of oral norgestrel/ethinyl estradiol.

    PubMed

    Oride, Aki; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2014-06-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can cause sudden massive hemorrhage. We report a case of uterine AVM following curettage in a patient treated conservatively with an intermediate-dose pill. An 18-year-old gravida 2 para 0 underwent curettage at 12 weeks of gestation and was examined for massive genital hemorrhage that occurred in postoperative month 4. Abundant blood flow in a mass within the uterine lumen was observed on color Doppler ultrasonography, and the patient was diagnosed with AVM. Six days after starting oral norgestrel/ethinyl estradiol, the hemorrhage ceased, and computed tomography on day 37 of administration showed disappearance of the abnormal vasculature. After 12 months, the patient's course remains favorable without relapse. Transarterial embolization for AVM can cause ovarian failure and subsequent placental malpositioning. Administration of oral norgestrel/ethinyl estradiol may be an alternative conservative treatment option for patients who wish to maintain fertility. PMID:24888954

  6. Oral administration of sunitinib malate for long-term survival of a patient with multiple lung metastases from renal leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyan; Gao, Hongjun; Tang, Chuanhao; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Sunitinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and imatinib-refractory gastrointestinal stromal tumor. In non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor soft tissue sarcomas, the activity of this small-molecule drug has been rarely reported. Herein, we report a patient with lung metastases from renal leiomyosarcoma who responded favorably to sunitinib after the failure of conventional chemotherapy. Adverse effects of sunitinib, which include fatigue, hand-foot syndrome, and stomatitis were observed following its administration. Withdrawal of sunitinib led to progression of disease, and resuming use of sunitinib was still effective for multiple lung metastases. Sunitinib might be an effective treatment for renal leiomyosarcoma, especially when conventional chemotherapy fails. PMID:27536137

  7. Long-term maintenance combination chemotherapy with OPEC/MPEC (vincristine or methotrexate, prednisolone, etoposide and cyclophosphamide) or with daily oral etoposide and prednisolone can improve survival and quality of life in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, K; Matsumoto, T; Ohtsubo, H; Fujiwara, H; Imamura, N; Hidaka, S; Kukita, T; Tei, C; Matsumoto, M; Arima, N

    1999-12-01

    Acute leukemia and lymphoma varieties of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) usually carry a poor prognosis. While etoposide is generally useful for treating ATL, especially as a daily oral maintenance regimen, etoposide has not proven effective in severe types of ATL efficient in some patients. Of 87 ATL patients whom we have treated, 51 had acute leukemia, 22 lymphoma and 14 progressive chronic leukemia. Seventy-nine patients were treated with a long term maintenance combination protocol, OPEC/MPEC (weekly doses of vincristine, 0.7 mg/m2 or methotrexate, 14 mg/m2; prednisolone, 20 mg/m2; etoposide, 70 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide, 200 mg/m2). The other 8 patients, 3 with acute leukemia, 2 with lymphoma and 3 with progressive chronic leukemia, were treated with daily oral administration of 25 mg of etoposide and 10 mg of prednisolone (DOEP). The dose administered was modified in individual cases to maintain the granulocyte count and reduce the number of ATL cells. Considering both protocols, a complete response and a partial response were achieved in 31.0% and 58.6% patients, respectively. Median survival times (MST) of all patients and, acute leukemia, lymphoma and progressive chronic leukemia types were 7.5, 6.7, 9.6 and 12.4 months, respectively. Respective MST of patients treated with OPEC/MPEC or DOEP protocols were 7.1 and 18.0 months. Relatively normal WBC counts, lower lactate dehydrogenase concentration and normal calcium concentration, limited numbers of anatomic sites involved, good performance status and good response to chemotherapy were significantly associated with long survival time. Drug toxicity was not apparent, and about half of patients were treated in an outpatient setting. PMID:10613451

  8. Effect of long-term administration of melatonin on adrenal histomorphology of the Indian desert gerbil Meriones hurrianae Jerdon.

    PubMed

    Joshi, B N; Sujathakumari, M

    1995-11-01

    Melatonin treatment for 8 weeks resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.01) in weights of the adrenal glands, in both male and female, M. hurrianae. The weight increase was not related to the time of administration of melatonin. Histology of adrenal glands in melatonin treated gerbils revealed a stimulatory response. In treated gerbils, adrenal cortex exhibited significant hypertrophy with enlarged nuclei and degranulated cytoplasm. Signs of hypertrophy were also evident in the adrenal medulla. The physiological significance of this response is not yet clear. It remains to be clarified if the hypertrophy indicates enhanced synthesis of corticosteroids. PMID:8786156

  9. Long-term vascular access ports as a means of sedative administration in a rodent fMRI survival model

    PubMed Central

    Hettinger, Patrick C.; Li, Rupeng; Yan, Ji-Geng; Matloub, Hani S.; Cho, Younghoon R.; Pawela, Christopher P.; Rowe, Daniel B.; Hyde, James S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a rodent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) survival model with the use of heparin-coated vascular access devices. Such a model would ease the administration of sedative agents, reduce the number of animals required in a survival experiment, and eliminate animal-to-animal variability seen in previous designs. Seven male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgical placement of an MRI-compatible vascular access port, followed by implantable electrode placement on the right median nerve. Functional MRI during nerve stimulation and resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) were performed at times 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively using a 9.4 T scanner. Anesthesia was maintained using intravenous dexmedetomidine and reversed using atipamezole. There were no fatalities or infectious complications during this study. All vascular access ports remained patent. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation by electrical stimulation of the median nerve using implanted electrodes was seen within the forelimb sensory region (S1FL) for all animals at all time points. The number of activated voxels decreased at time points 4 and 8 weeks, returning to a normal level at 12 weeks, which is attributed to scar tissue formation and resolution around the embedded electrode. The applications of this experiment extend far beyond the scope of peripheral nerve experimentation. These vascular access ports can be applied to any survival MRI study requiring repeated medication administration, intravenous contrast, or blood sampling. PMID:21726581

  10. Enzyme Changes in the Offspring of Female Rats due to Long-Term Administration of Cyclic AMP and Insulin before Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Strumilo, S A; Czyzewska, U; Siemieniuk, M; Strumilo, J; Tylicki, A

    2016-07-01

    We studied the effects of insulin and cAMP on the offspring of female rats after daily treatment with these substances over 4 weeks. In adult offspring from cAMP-treated females, activities of pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased in the liver and brain and activities of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decreased in the liver. In the offspring of insulin-treated females, we observed only activation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in the liver and only in females. Enzyme activity probably correlates with their content, as no changes in their kinetic properties were observed under these conditions. Long-term hormone treatment before pregnancy can affect the expression of genes for some enzymes in the offspring due to transmission of epigenetic signals by the ovum. However, further studies are required to confirm this mechanism. PMID:27502537

  11. Long-Term Oral Administration of Capsicum baccatum Extracts Does Not Alter Behavioral, Hematological, and Metabolic Parameters in CF1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Leonardi, Bianca; Kalinine, Eduardo; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Gosmann, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Our group showed that crude ethanol (CE) and butanol (BUT) extracts of Capsicum baccatum presented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the flavonoid and total phenolic contents were positively correlated with both of these properties observed for C. baccatum extracts. The present study demonstrated that 60 days of oral administration of CE and BUT (200 mg/kg) in mice did not cause significant differences in the following parameters evaluated: hematological profile, body weight and relative weight of visceral organs, systemic lipid profile, glucose homeostasis (GTT), kidney and hepatic biochemical markers, and spontaneous locomotion and anxiety-like behavior. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time that the long-term oral administration of C. baccatum extracts does not affect specific aspects of CF1 mice physiology, suggesting their safety, building up the venue to test their efficacy in animal models underlying persistent activation of oxidative and inflammatory pathways. PMID:23320023

  12. Long-Term Oral Administration of Capsicum baccatum Extracts Does Not Alter Behavioral, Hematological, and Metabolic Parameters in CF1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Leonardi, Bianca; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Kalinine, Eduardo; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Gosmann, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Our group showed that crude ethanol (CE) and butanol (BUT) extracts of Capsicum baccatum presented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the flavonoid and total phenolic contents were positively correlated with both of these properties observed for C. baccatum extracts. The present study demonstrated that 60 days of oral administration of CE and BUT (200 mg/kg) in mice did not cause significant differences in the following parameters evaluated: hematological profile, body weight and relative weight of visceral organs, systemic lipid profile, glucose homeostasis (GTT), kidney and hepatic biochemical markers, and spontaneous locomotion and anxiety-like behavior. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time that the long-term oral administration of C. baccatum extracts does not affect specific aspects of CF1 mice physiology, suggesting their safety, building up the venue to test their efficacy in animal models underlying persistent activation of oxidative and inflammatory pathways. PMID:23320023

  13. A mathematical model for long-term effect of diethylcarbamazine-albendazole mass drug administration on lymphatic filariasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasman, H.; Supali, T.; Supriatna, A. K.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we discuss a mathematical model for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis disease. The human population is divided into susceptible, latent, acute and chronic subpopulations. Treatment is carried out within the scheme of mass drug administration (MDA) by giving the diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB) to all individuals. In the model, we assume that the treatments have direct killing effect to microfilariae, increase of immune-mediated effect. The treated individuals are assumed to remain susceptible to the disease. This is due to the fact that the treatment is only partially effective against macrofilaria. Simulations of the model reveals that DEC-ALB treatment does give significant reduction of acute and chronic compartments at the end of the treatment period and slow down the growth after the treatment before eventually tend to the endemic state. It showed that repeated treatment during MDA is effective to decrease the transmission. This suggests that terminating MDA program after a long period of its application may still effective in controlling the disease.

  14. Direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations. Addendum to the Insolation Data Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, C. L.; Stoffel, T. L.

    1982-07-01

    Average monthly data are presented that depict the long-term geographic distribution of direct normal solar radiation in the US. Some terms are defined, the model for estimating hourly direct normal insolation is described, and its validation is discussed. Direct normal radiation is then tabulated for 235 National Weather Service Stations, given as monthly and annual averages in units of kJ/m(2)-day, Btu/ft(2)-day, and kWh/m(2)-day. Direct normal solar radiation contour maps are then given for each month, and station histories are tabulated giving the station location and number, latitude, longitude, elevation, and period recorded.

  15. Histological changes in kidney structure following a long-term administration of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ucheya, R E; Igweh, J C

    2006-01-01

    Histological changes in kidney structure following paracetamol administration in pregnant Sprague - Dawley rats were studied. Ten (10) Sprague-Dawley rats divided into five animals per group were used for the study. They were divided into two groups (A and B). Group A served as a control group, while group B received 7.3 mg x 3/kg/day of paracetamol from 10th day of gestation till the 13th day after parturition. The drug was administered by gavage. They were allowed free access to feed and water ad libitum. The maternal rats were then sacrificed for tissue processing. Three deaths were recorded amongst the maternal rats in the paracetamol treated group during parturition and a prolonged gestation period was also observed in the same animals while two maternal rats had a normal gestation period and a safe parturition. Histopathology results of the maternal control animals showed normal kidney architecture (very minimal capsular spaces and rounded glomeruli intimately surrounded by the Bowman's capsule). Two of the paracetamol treated maternal rats that had a safe parturition at the end of the normal gestation period and showed vascular congestion and glomeruli haemorrhage, while one of the maternal rats that had prolonged gestation period (44 days) with signs of abnormally high bleeding during parturition showed higher degree of kidney derangement which was evidenced by shrunken glomerulus's plus droplets in the tubules, vascular congestion, haemorrhage and tubular necrosis. These findings reflect derangement of kidney architecture. The results suggest that paracetamol though considered safe at a considerable low dose especially in pregnant state, could cause kidney derangement during pregnancy. PMID:17242723

  16. Cycles of Transient High-Dose Cyclophosphamide Administration and Oncolytic Adenovirus Vector Intratumoral Injection for Long Term Tumor Suppression in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Debanjan; Toth, Karoly; Wold, William S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Immune responses against oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) vectors are thought to limit vector anti-tumor efficacy. In Syrian hamsters, which are immunocompetent and whose tumors and normal tissues are permissive for replication of Ad5-based oncolytic Ad vectors, treating with high-dose cyclophosphamide to suppress the immune system and exert chemotherapeutic effects enhances Ad vector anti-tumor efficacy. However, long term cyclophosphamide treatment and immunosuppression can lead to anemia and vector spread to normal tissues. Here we employed three cycles of transient high-dose cyclophosphamide administration plus intratumoral injection of the oncolytic Ad vector VRX-007 followed by withdrawal from cyclophosphamide. Each cycle lasted 4-6 weeks. This protocol allowed the hamsters to remain healthy so the study could be continued for ~100 days. The tumors were very well suppressed throughout the study. With immunocompetent hamsters, the vector retarded tumor growth initially, but after 3-4 weeks the tumors resumed rapid growth and further injections of vector were ineffective. Preimmunization of the hamsters with Ad5 prevented vector spillover from the tumor to the liver yet still allowed for effective long term anti-tumor efficacy. Our results suggest that a clinical protocol might be developed with cycles of transient chemotherapy plus intratumoral vector injection to achieve significant anti-tumor efficacy while minimizing the side effects of cytostatic treatment. PMID:24722357

  17. Improvement in Long-Term Memory following Chronic Administration of Eryngium planum Root Extract in Scopolamine Model: Behavioral and Molecular Study.

    PubMed

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Thiem, Barbara; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Bogacz, Anna; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Budzianowski, Jaromir; Kędziora, Izabela; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Eryngium planum L. (EP) is as a rare medicinal plant with a lot of potentials as pharmaceutical crops. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 70% ethanol extract of EP roots (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in Wistar rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. On the last day of experiment, 30 min after the last dose of EP or Huperzine A (HU), scopolamine (SC) was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. The results of a passive avoidance test showed an improvement in long-term memory produced by the EP extract in both scopolamine-induced rats and control group. EP caused an insignificant inhibition of AChE and BuChE activities in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. EP decreased mRNA AChE, BuChE, and BACE-1 levels, especially in the cortex. Our results suggest that the EP extract led to the improvement of the long-term memory in rats coupled with total saponin content. The mechanism of EP action is probably complicated, since HPLC-MS analysis showed 64 chemical compounds (phenolics, saponins) in the extract of EP roots. PMID:26483842

  18. Improvement in Long-Term Memory following Chronic Administration of Eryngium planum Root Extract in Scopolamine Model: Behavioral and Molecular Study

    PubMed Central

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Thiem, Barbara; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Bogacz, Anna; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Budzianowski, Jaromir; Kędziora, Izabela; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Eryngium planum L. (EP) is as a rare medicinal plant with a lot of potentials as pharmaceutical crops. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 70% ethanol extract of EP roots (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in Wistar rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. On the last day of experiment, 30 min after the last dose of EP or Huperzine A (HU), scopolamine (SC) was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. The results of a passive avoidance test showed an improvement in long-term memory produced by the EP extract in both scopolamine-induced rats and control group. EP caused an insignificant inhibition of AChE and BuChE activities in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. EP decreased mRNA AChE, BuChE, and BACE-1 levels, especially in the cortex. Our results suggest that the EP extract led to the improvement of the long-term memory in rats coupled with total saponin content. The mechanism of EP action is probably complicated, since HPLC-MS analysis showed 64 chemical compounds (phenolics, saponins) in the extract of EP roots. PMID:26483842

  19. Initial results and long-term clinical follow-up of an amorphous hydrogenated silicon-carbide-coated stent in daily practice.

    PubMed

    Hanekamp, Clara EE; Bonnier, Hans JRM; Michels, Rolf H; Peels, Kathinka H; Heijmen, Eric PCM; Hagen Ev, Eduard van; Koolen, Jacques J

    1998-01-01

    The hemocompatibility and biocompatibility of a stent are determined by the physical and electrochemical properties of the stent surface. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility, safety and efficacy of implantation of a stent coated with silicon carbide. Baseline characteristics were collected prospectively. The occurrence of cardiac adverse events and the angina score were assessed at clinical follow-up. A total of 193 Tensum stents were implanted in 174 patients. In hospital, one patient experienced stent thrombosis and in 6% of the patients a creatinine kinase elevation to 240 U/l or more occurred. Long-term follow-up was performed in 172 patients, with a mean follow-up of 454 +/- 181 days. Ninety-seven per cent were still alive, 15% had undergone target-vessel revascularization, and 2% had angiographic restenosis and were treated with medication only. Seventy-one per cent of the patients were free of anginal complaints, and 20% had anginal complaints in Canadian Cardiac Society class I or II. The Tensum coronary stent showed to be a safe and efficacious device in this study, with a high primary success rate and favorable long-term clinical followup. PMID:12623396

  20. Safety and efficacy of long-term esomeprazole 20 mg in Japanese patients with a history of peptic ulcer receiving daily non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are an effective and common treatment for chronic pain disorders, but long-term use is associated with risk of potentially life-threatening gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs). The proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole has been found to be effective for gastroprotection in NSAID users, but few long-term studies have been conducted in Japan. Methods This was an open-label, multicentre, single-arm, prospective 1-year study of treatment with esomeprazole (20 mg once daily) in Japanese patients (aged ≥20 years) with endoscopic evidence of previous peptic ulcer and receiving daily oral NSAID therapy (at a stable dose) for a chronic condition. Eligibility was not dictated by type of oral NSAID. The primary objective was to determine long-term safety and tolerability of esomeprazole. Efficacy for prevention of peptic ulcers was also determined (Kaplan-Meier method). All statistical analyses were descriptive. Results A total of 130 patients (73.1% women, mean age 62.1 years, 43.8% Helicobacter pylori-positive) received treatment with esomeprazole in addition to long-term NSAID therapy (most commonly for rheumatoid arthritis [n=42] and osteoarthritis [n=34]). Loxoprofen, meloxicam and diclofenac were the most commonly used NSAIDs; cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 selective agents were used by 16.2% of patients (n=21). Long-term compliance with esomeprazole (capsule counts) was >75% for the majority of patients. Although 16.9% of patients (n=22) experienced AEs judged to be possibly related to treatment with esomeprazole, they were mostly mild and transient. The most commonly reported possibly treatment-related AEs were abnormal hepatic function, headache, increased γ-glutamyltransferase levels and muscle spasms (2 patients each). Overall, 95.9% (95% confidence interval: 92.3, 99.4) of patients remained ulcer free at 1 year. Conclusion Long-term treatment with esomeprazole (20 mg once daily) is well tolerated and

  1. Performance of a Predictive Model for Long-Term Hemoglobin Response to Darbepoetin and Iron Administration in a Large Cohort of Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Carlo; Bolzoni, Elena; Mari, Flavio; Cattinelli, Isabella; Bellocchio, Francesco; Martin, José D; Amato, Claudia; Stopper, Andrea; Gatti, Emanuele; Macdougall, Iain C; Stuard, Stefano; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Anemia management, based on erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) and iron supplementation, has become an increasingly challenging problem in hemodialysis patients. Maintaining hemodialysis patients within narrow hemoglobin targets, preventing cycling outside target, and reducing ESA dosing to prevent adverse outcomes requires considerable attention from caregivers. Anticipation of the long-term response (i.e. at 3 months) to the ESA/iron therapy would be of fundamental importance for planning a successful treatment strategy. To this end, we developed a predictive model designed to support decision-making regarding anemia management in hemodialysis (HD) patients treated in center. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm for predicting hemoglobin concentrations three months into the future was developed and evaluated in a retrospective study on a sample population of 1558 HD patients treated with intravenous (IV) darbepoetin alfa, and IV iron (sucrose or gluconate). Model inputs were the last 90 days of patients' medical history and the subsequent 90 days of darbepoetin/iron prescription. Our model was able to predict individual variation of hemoglobin concentration 3 months in the future with a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 0.75 g/dL. Error analysis showed a narrow Gaussian distribution centered in 0 g/dL; a root cause analysis identified intercurrent and/or unpredictable events associated with hospitalization, blood transfusion, and laboratory error or misreported hemoglobin values as the main reasons for large discrepancy between predicted versus observed hemoglobin values. Our ANN predictive model offers a simple and reliable tool applicable in daily clinical practice for predicting the long-term response to ESA/iron therapy of HD patients. PMID:26939055

  2. Performance of a Predictive Model for Long-Term Hemoglobin Response to Darbepoetin and Iron Administration in a Large Cohort of Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Carlo; Bolzoni, Elena; Mari, Flavio; Cattinelli, Isabella; Bellocchio, Francesco; Martin, José D.; Amato, Claudia; Stopper, Andrea; Gatti, Emanuele; Macdougall, Iain C.; Stuard, Stefano; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Anemia management, based on erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) and iron supplementation, has become an increasingly challenging problem in hemodialysis patients. Maintaining hemodialysis patients within narrow hemoglobin targets, preventing cycling outside target, and reducing ESA dosing to prevent adverse outcomes requires considerable attention from caregivers. Anticipation of the long-term response (i.e. at 3 months) to the ESA/iron therapy would be of fundamental importance for planning a successful treatment strategy. To this end, we developed a predictive model designed to support decision-making regarding anemia management in hemodialysis (HD) patients treated in center. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm for predicting hemoglobin concentrations three months into the future was developed and evaluated in a retrospective study on a sample population of 1558 HD patients treated with intravenous (IV) darbepoetin alfa, and IV iron (sucrose or gluconate). Model inputs were the last 90 days of patients’ medical history and the subsequent 90 days of darbepoetin/iron prescription. Our model was able to predict individual variation of hemoglobin concentration 3 months in the future with a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 0.75 g/dL. Error analysis showed a narrow Gaussian distribution centered in 0 g/dL; a root cause analysis identified intercurrent and/or unpredictable events associated with hospitalization, blood transfusion, and laboratory error or misreported hemoglobin values as the main reasons for large discrepancy between predicted versus observed hemoglobin values. Our ANN predictive model offers a simple and reliable tool applicable in daily clinical practice for predicting the long-term response to ESA/iron therapy of HD patients. PMID:26939055

  3. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Renal Function in Older Men: The Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Amar J.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Bind, Marie-Abele C.; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Schwartz, Joel D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unknown if ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with lower renal function, a cardiovascular risk factor. Objective: We investigated whether long-term PM2.5 exposure was associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a cohort of older men living in the Boston Metropolitan area. Methods: This longitudinal analysis included 669 participants from the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study with up to four visits between 2000 and 2011 (n = 1,715 visits). Serum creatinine was measured at each visit, and eGFR was calculated according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. One-year exposure to PM2.5 prior to each visit was assessed using a validated spatiotemporal model that utilized satellite remote-sensing aerosol optical depth data. eGFR was modeled in a time-varying linear mixed-effects regression model as a continuous function of 1-year PM2.5, adjusting for important covariates. Results: One-year PM2.5 exposure was associated with lower eGFRs; a 2.1-μg/m3 interquartile range higher 1-year PM2.5 was associated with a 1.87 mL/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR [95% confidence interval (CI): –2.99, –0.76]. A 2.1 μg/m3-higher 1-year PM2.5 was also associated with an additional annual decrease in eGFR of 0.60 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year (95% CI: –0.79, –0.40). Conclusions: In this longitudinal sample of older men, the findings supported the hypothesis that long-term PM2.5 exposure negatively affects renal function and increases renal function decline. Citation: Mehta AJ, Zanobetti A, Bind MC, Kloog I, Koutrakis P, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz JD. 2016. Long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter and renal function in older men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1353–1360; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510269 PMID:26955062

  4. Short communication: Modulation of the small intestinal microbial community composition over short-term or long-term administration with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiong; Pan, Mingfang; Huang, Renhui; Tian, Ximei; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua; Wan, Cuixiang

    2016-09-01

    The small intestinal (SI) microbiota has an essential role in the maintenance of human health. However, data about the indigenous bacteria in SI as affected by probiotics are limited. In our study, the short-term and long-term effects of a probiotic candidate, Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013, on the SI microbiota of C57BL/6J mice were investigated by the Illumina HiSeq (Novogene Bioinformatics Technology Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China) platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. A total of 858,011 sequences in 15 samples were read. The α diversity analysis revealed that oral administration with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk led to a significant increase in the richness and diversity of the SI bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis showed a clear alteration in the SI microbiota composition after 3 wk of L. plantarum ZDY2013 treatment, although these changes were not found 6 wk after ceasing L. plantarum ZDY2013 administration. Species annotation showed that the dominant phyla in SI microbiota were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Interestingly, operational taxonomic unit cluster analysis showed that administration with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk significantly increased the abundance of Proteobacteria, but decreased that of Bacteroidetes. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 18 bacterial taxa (e.g., Ruminococcus spp. and Clostridium spp.) that overgrew in the SI microbiota of the mice administered with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk, and most of them belonged to the phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. However, only one bacterial taxon (e.g., Nocardioides spp.) was over-represented in the SI microbiota of mice 6 wk after L. plantarum ZDY2013 administration. Overall, this study shows that oral administration with probiotic results in an important but transient alteration in the microbiota of SI. PMID:27320669

  5. Stereology and immunohistochemistry of the myocardium in experimental hypertension: long-term and low-dosage administration of inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gomes Pessanha, M; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A; Dumas Hahn, M

    1999-01-01

    Morphological changes in the myocardium after left ventricular hypertrophy, due to chronic experimental hypertension, require an understanding of the quantitative relationship between myocyte and nonmyocyte compartments forming the structural framework of the myocardium. Hypertension was induced by long-term low-dosage inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in rats. L-NAME (12 mg/kg) was given to animals in water ad libitum during 15 weeks. After this period, systolic blood pressure increased almost 50% as compared with that in the control group. Morphological changes in control and L-NAME animals were investigated with stereology and immunohistochemistry. Comparing control and L-NAME animals, the surface density of myocytes decreased 73.7% while the mean cross-sectional area increased 97.6% in L-NAME rats. The volume density of myocytes decreased 45.9% and the volume density of the interstitium increased 71.7% in L-NAME rats. No stereological difference was found in blood vessels comparing the two groups. Remodeling of the cardiac interstitium occurred with increased deposition of both fibronectin and type III collagen. Fibronectin was seen in both early and latter responses to infarction while type III collagen was seen mainly in areas of incomplete healing among myocytes and around intramyocardial branches of the coronary arteries. The long-term low-dosage administration of an inhibitor of the NO synthase such as L-NAME causes myocyte hypertrophy and early interstitial and perivascular fibrosis without important quantitative changes in microcirculation. PMID:9873225

  6. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    PubMed

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, P<0.001) and a quadratic trend (β=0.02, P<0.01) over time, but no group difference (β=-0.23, P=0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, P<0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76%±5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. PMID:22709772

  7. Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days, and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations and direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-07-01

    The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data, generally from 1952 to 1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/sq m per day, Btu/sq ft per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global KT (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global KT is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

  8. Synthesis of functionalized triple-doped zinc gallogermanate nanoparticles with superlong near-infrared persistent luminescence for long-term orally administrated bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Jie; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2016-08-11

    Near-infrared persistent luminescence nanoparticles (NIR-PLNPs) have great potential for bioimaging because of no need for in situ excitation, negligible autofluorescence background and deep tissue penetration in optical detection. However, it is challenging to synthesize monodispersed nanosize NIR-PLNPs along with high quantum yield and long afterglow. Here, we show a surfactant-aided hydrothermal method in combination with a short time calcination and a post hydrothermal procedure for the synthesis of ultra-bright monodispersed triple-doped zinc gallogermanate nanostructures with super-long near-infrared persistent luminescence (ZGGO:Cr(3+),Yb(3+),Er(3+)). The ZGGO:Cr(3+),Yb(3+),Er(3+) exhibits NIR emission with high quantum yield (9.86%), superlong afterglow time (>20 days), monodispersed nanosize, red light renewability, excellent biocompatibility, and low toxicity. The effective red LED light activation of the persistent luminescence of ZGGO:Cr(3+),Yb(3+),Er(3+) with no need for UV pre-irradiation permits the material for long-term in vivo bioimaging application. We also show for the first time the better targeting performance of the oral administration of folate acid functionalized ZGGO:Cr(3+),Yb(3+),Er(3+) for tumor-targeting bioimaging than conventional intravenous injection. We believe that the ZGGO:Cr(3+),Yb(3+),Er(3+) will open new perspectives for orally administrated optical imaging and for diagnosis applications. PMID:27466048

  9. Developmental Associations between Short-Term Variability and Long-Term Changes: Intraindividual Correlation of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life and Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time within individuals, that it differs across individuals, and that a less negative iCorr is associated with better resilience and less vulnerability. However, little is known about how the iCorr of PA and NA relates to cognitive aging. This project examined how the association between PA and NA in everyday life is associated with long-term cognitive aging trajectories. To do so, we linked micro-longitudinal data on PA and NA obtained on up to 33 occasions over six consecutive days with macro-longitudinal data on fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities obtained over 15 years from a subsample of Berlin Aging Study participants (N = 81, mean age at the micro-longitudinal study = 81 years, range 73–98; 41% women). Over and above age, gender, education, overall levels of PA and NA, and number of health conditions, a less negative iCorr of PA and NA was associated with lower levels of cognitive ability and steeper cognitive declines, particularly for fluency and knowledge abilities. We discuss possible mechanisms for this finding and argue that a less negative iCorr of PA and NA may be indicative of deficits in emotional integration that are tied to changes in crystallized aspects of cognitive abilities. PMID:26010386

  10. scAAVIL-1ra dosing trial in a large animal model and validation of long-term expression with repeat administration for osteoarthritis therapy.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, L R; Grieger, J C; Phillips, J N; Khan, N; Gray, S J; McIlwraith, C W; Samulski, R J

    2015-07-01

    A gene therapeutic approach to treat osteoarthritis (OA) appears to be on the horizon for millions of people who suffer from this disease. Previously we described optimization of a scAAVIL-1ra gene therapeutic vector and initially tested this in an equine model verifying long-term intrasynovial IL-1ra protein at therapeutic levels. Using this vector, we carried out a dosing trial in six horses to verify protein levels and establish a dose that would express relevant levels of therapeutic protein for extended periods of time (8 months). A novel arthroscopic procedure used to detect green fluorescence protein (GFP) fluorescence intrasynovially confirmed successful transduction of the scAAVGFP vector in both the synovial and cartilage tissues. No evidence of intra-articular toxicity was detected. Immune responses to vector revealed development of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) within 2 weeks of administration, which persisted for the duration of the study but did not lower protein expression intra-articularly. Re-dosing with a different serotype to attain therapeutic levels of protein confirmed establishment of successful transduction. This is the first study in an equine model to establish a dosing/redosing protocol, as well as examine the Nab response to capsid and supports further clinical investigation to determine the clinical efficacy of scAAVIL-1ra to treat OA. PMID:25902762

  11. Rescue administration of a helper-dependent adenovirus vector with long-term efficacy in dogs with glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    PubMed

    Crane, B; Luo, X; Demaster, A; Williams, K D; Kozink, D M; Zhang, P; Brown, T T; Pinto, C R; Oka, K; Sun, F; Jackson, M W; Chan, L; Koeberl, D D

    2012-04-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) stems from glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency and causes hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, hypercholesterolemia and lactic acidemia. Three dogs with GSD-Ia were initially treated with a helper-dependent adenovirus encoding a human G6Pase transgene (HDAd-cG6Pase serotype 5) on postnatal day 3. Unlike untreated dogs with GSD-Ia, all three dogs initially maintained normal blood glucose levels. After 6-22 months, vector-treated dogs developed hypoglycemia, anorexia and lethargy, suggesting that the HDAd-cG6Pase serotype 5 vector had lost efficacy. Liver biopsies collected at this time revealed significantly elevated hepatic G6Pase activity and reduced glycogen content, when compared with affected dogs treated only by frequent feeding. Subsequently, the HDAd-cG6Pase serotype 2 vector was administered to two dogs, and hypoglycemia was reversed; however, renal dysfunction and recurrent hypoglycemia complicated their management. Administration of a serotype 2 HDAd vector prolonged survival in one GSD-Ia dog to 12 months of age and 36 months of age in the other, but the persistence of long-term complications limited HDAd vectors in the canine model for GSD-Ia. PMID:21654821

  12. Long-Term Reduction of Cocaine Self-Administration in Rats Treated with Adenoviral Vector-Delivered Cocaine Hydrolase: Evidence for Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zlebnik, Natalie E; Brimijoin, Stephen; Gao, Yang; Saykao, Amy T; Parks, Robin J; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2014-01-01

    A new pharmacokinetic approach treating cocaine addiction involves rapidly metabolizing cocaine before it reaches brain reward centers using mutated human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) or cocaine hydrolase (CocH). Recent work has shown that helper-dependent adenoviral (hdAD) vector-mediated plasma CocH reduced the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine and prevented reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior up to 6 months in rats. The present study investigated whether hdAD-CocH could decrease ongoing intravenous cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) self-administration. The hdAD-CocH vector was injected into self-administering rats, and after accumulation of plasma CocH, there was a dramatic reduction in cocaine infusions earned under a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement that lasted for the length of the study (>2 months). Pretreatment with the selective BChE and CocH inhibitor iso-OMPA (1.5 mg/kg) restored cocaine intake; therefore, the decline in self-administration was likely due to rapid CocH-mediated cocaine metabolism. Direct measurements of cocaine levels in plasma and brain samples taken after the conclusion of behavioral studies provided strong support for this conclusion. Further, rats injected with hdAD-CocH did not experience a deficit in operant responding for drug reinforcement and self-administered methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg) at control levels. Overall, these outcomes suggest that viral gene transfer can yield plasma CocH levels that effectively diminish long-term cocaine intake and may have potential treatment implications for cocaine-dependent individuals seeking to become and remain abstinent. PMID:24407266

  13. Long-Term Blockade of Cocaine Self-Administration and Locomotor Activation in Rats by an Adenoviral Vector-Delivered Cocaine Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Smethells, John R; Swalve, Natashia; Brimijoin, Stephen; Gao, Yang; Parks, Robin J; Greer, Adam; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2016-05-01

    A promising approach in treating cocaine abuse is to metabolize cocaine in the blood using a mutated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) that functions as a cocaine hydrolase (CocH). In rats, a helper-dependent adenoviral (hdAD) vector-mediated delivery of CocH abolished ongoing cocaine use and cocaine-primed reinstatement of drug-seeking for several months. This enzyme also metabolizes ghrelin, an effect that may be beneficial in maintaining healthy weights. The effect of a single hdAD-CocH vector injection was examined in rats on measures of anxiety, body weight, cocaine self-administration, and cocaine-induced locomotor activity. To examine anxiety, periadolescent rats were tested in an elevated-plus maze. Weight gain was then examined under four rodent diets. Ten months after CocH-injection, adult rats were trained to self-administer cocaine intravenously and, subsequently, cocaine-induced locomotion was tested. Viral gene transfer produced sustained plasma levels of CocH for over 13 months of testing. CocH-treated rats did not differ from controls in measures of anxiety, and only showed a transient reduction in weight gain during the first 3 weeks postinjection. However, CocH-treated rats were insensitive to cocaine. At 10 months postinjection, none of the CocH-treated rats initiated cocaine self-administration, unlike 90% of the control rats. At 13 months postinjection, CocH-treated rats showed no cocaine-induced locomotion, whereas control rats showed a dose-dependent enhancement of locomotion. CocH vector produced a long-term blockade of the rewarding and behavioral effects of cocaine in rats, emphasizing its role as a promising therapeutic intervention in cocaine abuse. PMID:26968195

  14. Lipid peroxidation and apoptotic response in rat brain areas induced by long-term administration of nandrolone: the mutual crosstalk between ROS and NF-kB.

    PubMed

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Neri, Margherita; Cerretani, Daniela; Cantatore, Santina; Frati, Paola; Moltoni, Laura; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the played by oxidative stress in the apoptotic response in different brain areas of rats chronically treated with supra-physiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND). Immunohistochemical study and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate cells' apoptosis and to measure the effects of expression of specific mediators, such as NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), SMAC/DIABLO (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct IAP-binding protein with low PI) and VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2) on apoptosis. The results of the present study indicate that a long-term administration of ND promotes oxidative injury in rat brain specific areas. A link between oxidative stress and NF-κB signalling pathways is supported by our results. In addition to high levels of oxidative stress, we consistently observed a strong immunopositivity to NF-κB. It has been argued that one of the pathways leading to the activation of NF-κB could be under reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated control. In fact, growing evidence suggests that although in limited doses, endogenous ROS may play an activating role in NF-κB signalling, while above a certain threshold, they may negatively impact upon this signalling. However, a mutual crosstalk between ROS and NF-κB exists and recent studies have shown that ROS activity is subject to negative feedback regulation by NF-κB, and that this negative regulation of ROS is the means through which NF-κB counters programmed cells. PMID:26828721

  15. Long term study of deoxyribozyme administration to XT-1 mRNA promotes corticospinal tract regeneration and improves behavioral outcome after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Brigitte; Pape, Daniel; Chao, Owen; Bauer, Jordana; Grimpe, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects approximately 3 million people around the world, who are desperately awaiting treatment. The pressing need for the development of therapeutics has spurred medical research for decades. To respond to this pressing need, our group developed a potential therapeutic to reduce the presence of proteoglycans at the injury site after acutely traumatizing the spinal cord of rats. With the aid of a DNA enzyme against the mRNA of xylosyltransferase-1 (DNAXT-1as) we adjourn the glycosylation and prevent the assembly of the proteoglycan core protein into the extracellular matrix. Hence, endogenous repair is strengthened due to the allocation of a more growth permissive environment around the lesion site. Here, we present data on a long term study of animals with a dorsal hemisection treated with DNAXT-1as, DNAXT-1mb (control DNA enzyme) or PBS via osmotic minipumps. After successful digestion of the XT-1 mRNA shown by qPCR we observed an overall behavioral improvement of DNAXT-1as treated rats at 8, 10 and 14 weeks after insult to the spine compared to the control animals. This is accompanied by the growth of the cortical spinal tract (CST) in DNAXT-1as treated animals after a 19 week survival period. Furthermore, after evaluating the lesion size tissue-protective effects in the DNAXT-1as treated animals compared to DNAXT-1mb and PBS treated rats are revealed. The results yield new insights into the regeneration processes and provide confirmation to involve DNA enzyme administration in future therapeutic strategies to medicate SCI. PMID:26428904

  16. Absence of long-term behavioral effects after sub-chronic administration of low doses of methamidophos in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Temerowski, M; van der Staay, F J

    2005-01-01

    Putative long-term learning and memory effects of low-dose exposure to the cholinesterase inhibitor organophosphate methamidophos (Tamaron) early in life were studied in two parallel studies in middle-aged rats. Methamidophos was administered via the drinking water to female and male Wistar rats using nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 0.5, 1.5 and 4.5 ppm active ingredient for 16 weeks. Animals were then maintained for a recovery period of about 14 months without treatment. They were tested in the standard and repeated acquisition version of the Morris water escape task in two series of tests starting 33 and 55 weeks after termination of the methamidophos treatment. Functional observations and motor activity measurements preceded each series of testing. Exposure to methamidophos was confirmed by measurement of brain cholinesterase (ChE-B) at the end of the 16 weeks of treatment in satellite animals. At 4.5 ppm a biologically relevant reduction in ChE-B activity was observed without clinical signs of intoxication (males: 66%, females: 64% of control activity). Mid- and low-dose exposure to methamidophos revealed ChE-B activity of 90% and 100% in males and 88% and 97% in females, respectively. General examinations of the animals during treatment revealed no clinical signs suggesting cholinergic stimulation. Functional observations and motor activity measurements exhibited no relevant differences between treatment groups and controls. Neither the performance in the standard Morris water escape task that predominantly measures spatial reference memory, nor in the repeated acquisition task in the Morris tank, which predominantly measures spatial working memory, was affected by treatment with methamidophos. A small number of statistically significant differences were noted in the mean performance level between treatment groups, or between treatment by sex groups in both versions of the Morris task. However, these findings appeared to be idiosyncratic for a

  17. Characteristics of long-term variation in the amlitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation using the Inter-university Upper atmosphere Gobal Observation NETwork (IUGONET) data analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics of long-term variation in the amplitude of solar quiet geomagnetic field daily variation (Sq) have been investigated using 1-hour geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic stations in a period of 1947-2013. In the present data analysis, we took advantage of the IUGONET data analysis system. The Sq amplitude clearly showed a 10-12 year solar activity dependence and it tended to enhance during each solar maximum. During the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008-2009, the Sq amplitude became the smallest in the investigated period. The relationship between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude is approximately linear but 64 percent of geomagnetic stations show a weak nonlinear dependence on the solar F10.7 index. In order to remove the effect of solar activity seen in the long-term variation of the Sq amplitude, we calculated a linear or second order fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude during 1947-2013, and examined the residual Sq amplitude, which is defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. As a result, a majority of the trends in the residual Sq amplitude that passed through a trend test showed a negative value in a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. The relationship between the magnetic field intensity and residual Sq amplitude showed an anti-correlation for about 71 percent of geomagnetic stations. On the other hand, the residual Sq amplitude in the equatorial station (Addis Ababa) was anti-correlated with the absolute value of the magnetic field inclination. This implies the movement of the equatorial electrojet due to the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field.

  18. Induction of testicular damage by daily methamphetamine administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ji-Fan; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Chia; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Chen, Hung-En; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2014-02-28

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced brain damage and apoptosis within the central nervous system are well documented. This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of daily METH administration on the testes in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5 weeks old, ~100 g, n = 64) were divided into two groups and treated with vehicle (saline, control) or METH (10 mg/kg) for 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. The results showed that daily administration of METH decreased the body, testicular and epididymis weights as well as the serum levels of total testosterone. The increased apoptotic index (Bad/Bcl2 expression ratio) and levels of cleaved caspase-3 indicated that apoptosis had occurred in the testes of the METH-treated rats. The oxidative stress levels increased as the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio decreased. The overall sperm counts decreased at 15 and 90 days, where- as morphologically abnormal sperm counts increased at 30, 60 and 90 days in the METH-treated rats. This study demonstrates that daily exposure to METH significantly reduced the number and quality of sperm in rats. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms likely include the reduction of serum testosterone levels and the increase of oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat testes. PMID:24621335

  19. Long-Term Once-Daily Tiotropium Respimat® Is Well Tolerated and Maintains Efficacy over 52 Weeks in Patients with Symptomatic Asthma in Japan: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Ken; Ichinose, Masakazu; Tohda, Yuji; Engel, Michael; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Kunimitsu, Satoko; Sakamoto, Wataru; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Background This study assessed the long-term safety and efficacy of tiotropium Respimat, a long-acting inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator, in asthma, added on to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with or without long-acting β2-agonist (LABA). Methods 285 patients with symptomatic asthma, despite treatment with ICS±LABA, were randomised 2:2:1 to once-daily tiotropium 5 μg, tiotropium 2.5 μg or placebo for 52 weeks (via the Respimat SoftMist inhaler) added on to ICS±LABA, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study (NCT01340209). Primary objective: to describe the long-term safety profile of tiotropium. Secondary end points included: trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) response; peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) response; seven-question Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-7) score. Results At Week 52, adverse-event (AE) rates with tiotropium 5 μg, 2.5 μg and placebo were 88.6%, 86.8% and 89.5%, respectively. Commonly reported AEs with tiotropium 5 μg, 2.5 μg and placebo were nasopharyngitis (48.2%, 44.7%, 42.1%), asthma (28.9%, 29.8%, 38.6%), decreased PEFR (15.8%, 7.9%, 21.1%), bronchitis (9.6%, 13.2%, 7.0%), pharyngitis (7.9%, 13.2%, 3.5%) and gastroenteritis (10.5%, 3.5%, 5.3%). In the tiotropium 5 μg, 2.5 μg and placebo groups, 8.8%, 5.3% and 5.3% of patients reported drug-related AEs; 3.5%, 3.5% and 15.8% reported serious AEs. Asthma worsening was the only serious AE reported in more than one patient. At Week 52, adjusted mean trough FEV1 and trough PEFR responses were significantly higher with tiotropium 5 μg (but not 2.5 μg) versus placebo. ACQ-7 responder rates were higher with tiotropium 5 μg and 2.5 μg versus placebo at Week 24. Conclusions The long-term tiotropium Respimat safety profile was comparable with that of placebo Respimat, and associated with mild to moderate, non-serious AEs in patients with symptomatic asthma despite ICS±LABA therapy. Compared with placebo, tiotropium 5 μg, but not 2.5

  20. Long-term sustained-released in situ gels of a water-insoluble drug amphotericin B for mycotic arthritis intra-articular administration: preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shan-Bin, Guo; Yue, Tian; Ling-Yan, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) was often used in intra-articular injection administration for fungal arthritis, because it could often bring a satisfactory therapeutic efficacy and a minimum systemic toxic side effect. However, because of the multiple operations and the frequent injections, the compliance of the patients was bad. Therefore, to develop a long-term sustained-released preparation of AMB for mycotic arthritis intra-articular administration is of great significance. The purpose of present study was to develop a long-term sustained-released in situ gel of a water-insoluble drug AMB for mycotic arthritis intra-articular administration. Based on the evaluations of the in vitro properties of the formulations, the formulation containing 10% (w/w) ethanol, 15% (w/w) PG, 0.75% (w/w) HA, 5% (w/w) purified soybean oil, 0.03% (w/w) α-tocopherol, 15% (w/w) water and 55% (w/w) glyceryl monooleate was selected as a suitable intra-articular injectable in situ gel drug delivery system for water-insoluble drug AMB. Furthermore, the results of the in vivo study on rabbits showed that the selected formulation was a safe and effective long-term sustained-released intra-articular injectable AMB preparation. Therefore, the presented in situ AMB gel could reduce the frequency of the administration in the AMB treatment of fungal arthritis, and then would get a good patient compliance. PMID:24502270

  1. Protection against cognitive deficits and markers of neurodegeneration by long-term oral administration of melatonin in a transgenic model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Olcese, James M; Cao, Chuanhai; Mori, Takashi; Mamcarz, Malgorzata B; Maxwell, Anne; Runfeldt, Melissa J; Wang, Li; Zhang, Chi; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Guixin; Arendash, Gary W

    2009-08-01

    The neurohormone melatonin has been reported to exert anti-beta-amyloid aggregation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory actions in various in vitro and animal models. To comprehensively determine the potential for long-term melatonin treatment to protect Alzheimer's transgenic mice against cognitive impairment and development of beta-amyloid (Abeta) neuropathology, we administered melatonin (100 mg/L drinking water) to APP + PS1 double transgenic (Tg) mice from 2-2.5 months of age to their killing at age 7.5 months. A comprehensive behavioral battery administered during the final 6 weeks of treatment revealed that Tg mice given melatonin were protected from cognitive impairment in a variety of tasks of working memory, spatial reference learning/memory, and basic mnemonic function; Tg control mice remained impaired in all of these cognitive tasks/domains. Immunoreactive Abeta deposition was significantly reduced in hippocampus (43%) and entorhinal cortex (37%) of melatonin-treated Tg mice. Although soluble and oligomeric forms of Abeta1-40 and 1-42 were unchanged in the hippocampus and cortex of the same melatonin-treated Tg mice, their plasma Abeta levels were elevated. These Abeta results, together with our concurrent demonstration that melatonin suppresses Abeta aggregation in brain homogenates, are consistent with a melatonin-facilitated removal of Abeta from the brain. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were decreased in hippocampus (but not plasma) of Tg+ melatonin mice. Finally, the cortical mRNA expression of three antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) was significantly reduced to non-Tg levels by long-term melatonin treatment in Tg mice. Thus, melatonin's cognitive benefits could involve its anti-Abeta aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and/or antioxidant properties. Our findings provide support for long-term melatonin therapy as a primary or complementary strategy for abating the progression of

  2. Nonresected Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Stages I Through IIIB: Accelerated, Twice-Daily, High-Dose Radiotherapy-A Prospective Phase I/II Trial With Long-Term Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Wurstbauer, Karl; Deutschmann, Heinz; Kopp, Peter; Kranzinger, Manfred; Merz, Florian; Nairz, Olaf; Studnicka, Michael; Sedlmayer, Felix

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to investigate the tolerability of accelerated, twice-daily, high-dose radiotherapy. The secondary endpoints were survival and locoregional tumor control. Methods and Materials: Thirty consecutive patients with histologically/cytologically proven non-small-cell lung cancer were enrolled. Tumor Stage I, II, IIIA, and IIIB was found in 7, 3, 12, and 8 patients, respectively. We applied a median of 84.6 Gy (range, 75.6-90.0 Gy) to the primary tumors, 63.0 Gy (range, 59.4-72.0 Gy) to lymph nodes, and 45 Gy to nodes electively (within a region of about 6 cm cranial to macroscopically involved sites). Fractional doses of 1.8 Gy twice daily, with an interval of 11 hours, were given, resulting in a median treatment time of 35 days. In the majority of patients the conformal target-splitting technique was used. In 19 patients (63%) two cycles of induction chemotherapy were given. The median follow-up time of survivors is 72 months (range, 62-74 months). Results: We found Grade 1, 2 and 3 acute esophageal toxicity in 11 patients (37%), 2 patients (7%), and 2 patients (7%), respectively. Grade 2 acute pneumonitis was seen in 2 patients (7%). No late toxicity greater than Grade 1 was observed. The actual overall survival rates at 2 and 5 years are 63% and 23%, respectively; the median overall survival, 27.7 months. In 9 patients a local failure occurred, 7 of them presenting initially with an atelectasis without availability of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography staging at that time. In 4 patients recurrence occurred regionally. Conclusions: This Phase I/II trial with long-term follow-up shows low toxicity with promising results for survival and locoregional tumor control.

  3. Long-term fixed income market structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Luca

    2004-02-01

    Long-term fixed income market securities present a strong positive correlation in daily returns. By using a metrical approach and considering “modified” time series, I show how it is possible to show a more complex structure which depends strictly on the maturity date.

  4. The Short- and Long-Term Effects of Quality Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    2005-01-01

    The short- and long-term effects of quality physical education programs have been a subject of considerable debate by educational administrators and state legislators during the past decade. While physical educators have repeatedly demonstrated the importance of daily moderate and vigorous physical activity on the immediate health and wellbeing of…

  5. Long-term testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  6. Long-term testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000--10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  7. Long term results of comparison of concurrent low-dose daily cisplatin versus the standard weekly cisplatin with six fractions per week radiotherapy in locally advanced head neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pramod Kumar; Lal, Punita; Bajpai, Ranjeet; Goel, Anshu; Yadav, Rajan; Verma, Mranalini; Kumar, Shaleen

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objective: Weekly administration of cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [CDDP]) appears more feasible and substantially more popular than the 3 weekly schedules due to better compliance. Different concurrent cisplatin schedules have been attempted including a daily schedule. We did a comparison of two consecutive single arm studies, i.e., use of weekly cisplatin versus daily cisplatin when used with concurrently with a moderately accelerated radiotherapy (RT) schedule. Patients and Methods: Two prospective feasibility, safety and efficacy studies were carried out consecutively within the department. The weekly CDDP study was done from August 2003 to August 2005 and daily CDDP study was conducted from November 2005 to June 2007. Both studies included locally advanced stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region with RT dose of 70 Gy. Concurrent single-agent cisplatin was administered weekly (35 mg/m2) in the first and daily (6 mg/m2) in the second study. Results: Weekly cisplatin study had 68 and daily CDDP study had 52 patients. The median follow-up in the two studies was 93 and 63 months, respectively. Compliance in the two studies was comparable. Acute Grade III/IV mucositis and dysphagia were significantly higher in weekly cisplatin study. Late Grade II/III toxicities such as xerostomia, dysphagia, ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity were similar. The 5 years locoregional control was 18% and 25% and 5 years overall survival rate was 32% and 31% in weekly and daily cisplatin studies, respectively. Conclusions: Modest acceleration along with either weekly or daily cisplatin, whichever is possible in one's setup, is do-able, provided due attention is paid to patient selection and supportive care. PMID:27275456

  8. 78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging 45 CFR Parts 1321 and 1327 RIN 0985-AA08 State Long-Term Care... request for comments, to implement provisions of the Older Americans Act, the State Long-Term Care... determining State compliance in carrying out the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program functions. This...

  9. Long-term learning deficits and changes in unlearned behaviors following in utero exposure to multiple daily doses of cocaine during different exposure periods and maternal plasma cocaine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, C V; Reed, T M; Acuff-Smith, K D; Schilling, M A; Cappon, G D; Fisher, J E; Pu, C

    1995-01-01

    Although the possible behavioral neurotoxic effects of in utero exposure to cocaine have been the subject of numerous experiments, only a limited number of different types of animal models of cocaine exposure, critical periods, or long-term effects of such exposures have been investigated. In the present experiment, the effects of multiple daily SC exposures to cocaine (20 mg/kg/dose x 5 doses per day) were investigated when administered to gravid Sprague-Dawley CD rats on embryonic days E7-12 or E13-18 compared to weight-matched, vehicle injected, pair-fed controls. Effects of exposure were assessed on general development, olfactory orientation behavior, early locomotion, startle reactivity, spontaneous motor activity, and learning on two different tasks (Morris and Cincinnati water mazes). The multiple cocaine dosing regimen produced maternal peak serum concentrations of cocaine 3 times higher than that of a single dose (approximately 1550 vs. approximately 550 ng/mL). Early-exposed cocaine offspring had lower olfactory orientation scores and reduced postweaning rearing and hole-poke motor activity, whereas late-exposed cocaine offspring had increased postweaning locomotor, rearing, and hole-poke activity. On the Morris hidden platform maze, the cocaine early-exposed females had longer latencies on acquisition than controls. On the Cincinnati multiple-T water maze, the early-exposed cocaine females and the late-exposed cocaine males had increased errors, whereas the early-exposed cocaine males had reduced errors. The effects on measures of learning, when taken together, and in light of their being in the early-exposed group, suggest that embryonic cocaine exposure may have subtle effects on cognition in the offspring as adults. Such effects represent a form of neurotoxicity not previously associated with prenatal cocaine exposure. PMID:7623735

  10. Long-Term, Open-Label, Safety Study of Edivoxetine 12 to 18 mg Once Daily as Adjunctive Treatment for Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Who Are Partial Responders to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ball, Susan G; Atkinson, Sarah; Sparks, JonDavid; Bangs, Mark; Goldberger, Celine; Dubé, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of adjunctive edivoxetine hydrochloride (hereafter edivoxetine), a highly selective and potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was assessed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing partial response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Data are from a multicenter, 54-week, open-label trial of adjunctive edivoxetine 12 to 18 mg once daily in patients with MDD who had experienced partial response by history to 6 or more weeks of current selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy and who had a 17-item GRID Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score 16 or higher at study entry. Safety measures included discontinuation rate, treatment-emergent adverse events, serious adverse events, and vital signs. Efficacy measures included the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Of 608 patients, 328 (54%) completed the open-label adjunctive treatment. Study discontinuation due to adverse events occurred in 17.0%, and there were 13 serious adverse events (1 death). Treatment-emergent adverse events 5% or higher were nausea, hyperhidrosis, constipation, headache, dry mouth, dizziness, vomiting, insomnia, and upper respiratory tract infection. Mean increases were observed in systolic blood pressure (range, 0.0-2.3 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (range, 1.9-3.3 mm Hg), and pulse (range, 5.9-8.4 beats per minute). Mean improvements on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (-17.0) were observed from baseline to week 54. The safety profile from this study provides an overview of outcomes associated with edivoxetine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition as an adjunctive treatment in patients with MDD who were treated up to 1 year. PMID:25815754

  11. Therapeutic administration of IL-15 superagonist complex ALT-803 leads to long-term survival and durable antitumor immune response in a murine glioblastoma model.

    PubMed

    Mathios, Dimitrios; Park, Chul-Kee; Marcus, Warren D; Alter, Sarah; Rhode, Peter R; Jeng, Emily K; Wong, Hing C; Pardoll, Drew M; Lim, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous system malignancy with a poor prognosis in patients. Despite the need for better treatments against glioblastoma, very little progress has been made in discovering new therapies that exhibit superior survival benefit than the standard of care. Immunotherapy has been shown to be a promising treatment modality that could help improve clinical outcomes of glioblastoma patients by assisting the immune system to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor environment. Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a cytokine shown to activate several effector components of the immune system, may serve as an excellent immunotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of an IL-15 superagonist complex (IL-15N72D:IL-15RαSu-Fc; also known as ALT-803) in a murine GL261-luc glioblastoma model. We show that ALT-803, as a single treatment as well as in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody or stereotactic radiosurgery, exhibits a robust antitumor immune response resulting in a prolonged survival including complete remission in tumor bearing mice. In addition, ALT-803 treatment results in long-term immune memory against glioblastoma tumor rechallenge. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor infiltrating immune cells shows that ALT-803 leads to increased percentage of CD8+-cell infiltration, but not the NK cells, and IFN-γ production into the tumor microenvironment. Cell depletion studies, in accordance with the flow cytometric results, show that the ALT-803 therapeutic effect is dependent on CD4+ and CD8+ cells. These results provide a rationale for evaluating the therapeutic activity of ALT-803 against glioblastoma in the clinical setting. PMID:26174883

  12. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  13. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  14. Differential long-term neuroadaptations of glutamate receptors in the basolateral and central amygdala after withdrawal from cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Dempsey, Jack; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T

    2005-07-01

    Humans and laboratory animals remain highly vulnerable to relapse to cocaine-seeking after prolonged periods of withdrawal from the drug. It has been hypothesized that this persistent cocaine relapse vulnerability involves drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic synapses within the mesolimbic dopamine reward system. Previous studies have shown that cocaine self-administration induces long-lasting neuroadaptations in glutamate neurons of the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens. Here, we determined the effect of cocaine self-administration and subsequent withdrawal on glutamate receptor expression in the amygdala, a component of the mesolimbic dopamine system that is involved in cocaine seeking and craving induced by drug-associated cues. Rats were trained for 10 days to self-administer intravenous cocaine (6 h/day) or saline (a control condition) and were killed after one or 30 withdrawal days. Basolateral and central amygdala tissues were assayed for protein expression of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits (GluR1 and GluR2) and the NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A and NR2B). In the basolateral amygdala, GluR1 but not GluR2 levels were increased on days 1 and 30, NR2A levels were increased on day 1, and NR2B levels were decreased on day 30 of withdrawal from cocaine. In the central amygdala, GluR2 but not GluR1 levels were increased on days 1 and 30, NR1 levels were increased on day 30 and NR2A or NR2B levels were not altered after withdrawal from cocaine. These results indicate that cocaine self-administration and subsequent withdrawal induces long-lasting and differential neuroadaptations in basolateral and central amygdala glutamate receptors. PMID:15953359

  15. Administration of memantine during ethanol withdrawal in neonatal rats: effects on long-term ethanol-induced motor incoordination and cerebellar Purkinje cell loss

    PubMed Central

    Idrus, Nirelia M.; McGough, Nancy N.H.; Riley, Edward P.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can damage the developing fetus, illustrated by central nervous system dysfunction and deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Binge drinking has been associated with an increased risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, likely due to increased episodes of ethanol withdrawal. We hypothesized that overactivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor during ethanol withdrawal leads to excitotoxic cell death in the developing brain. Consistent with this, administration of NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g. MK-801) during withdrawal can attenuate ethanol's teratogenic effects. The aim of this study was to determine if administration of memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, during ethanol withdrawal could effectively attenuate ethanol-related deficits, without the adverse side effects associated with other NMDA receptor antagonists. Methods Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 6.0 g/kg ethanol or isocaloric maltose solution via intubation on postnatal day 6, a period of brain development equivalent to a portion of the 3rd trimester. Twenty-four and 36 hours after ethanol, subjects were injected with 0, 10 or 15 mg/kg memantine, totaling doses of 0, 20, or 30 mg/kg. Motor coordination was tested on a parallel bar task and the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells was estimated using unbiased stereology. Results Alcohol exposure induced significant parallel bar motor incoordination and reduced Purkinje cell number. Memantine administration significantly attenuated both ethanol-associated motor deficits and cerebellar cell loss in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions Memantine was neuroprotective when administered during ethanol withdrawal. These data provide further support that ethanol withdrawal contributes to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:21070252

  16. [The dynamics of behavioral and neuroreceptor effects after acute and long-term noopept administration in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, G I; Kondrakhin, E A; Salimov, R M; Neznamov, G G

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acute, 7-fold and 14-fold noopept (1 mg/kg/day) administration on the dynamics of anxiolitic and nootropic behavioral effects in cross-maze, as well as their correlations with NMDA- and BDZ-receptor density was studied in inbred mice strains, differing in exploratory and emotional status--C57BL/6 and BALB/c. The dipeptide failed to affect the anxiety and exploration activity in C57BL/6 mice at each of 3 steps of experimental session. In this strain the B(max) values of [3H]-MK-801 and [3H]-Flunitrazepam binding changed only after single administration. In respect to BALB/c mice noopept induced both the anxiolitic and nootropic effects reaching their maximum on 7th day. In BALB/c strain the dynamics of hippocampal NMDA-receptor binding corresponds to the dynamics of exploratory efficacy whereas the dynamics of BDZ-receptors in prefrontal cortex was reciprocally to dynamics of anxiety level. PMID:25739185

  17. Long term complications of diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long term complications of diabetes To use the sharing ... sores and infections. If it goes on too long, your toes, foot, or leg may need to ...

  18. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  19. [Taiwan long-term care insurance and the evolution of long-term care in Japan].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Wen; Liu, Shu-Hui; Pai, Yu-Chu

    2010-08-01

    The proportion of elderly (65 years of age and older) in Taiwan has exceeded 10% since 2008. With more elderly, the number of patients suffering from dementia and disabilities has also been rapidly increasing. Japan also has been facing increasing demand for long-term care due to an aging society. Prior to 2000, social welfare programs in Japan, working to cope with changing needs, typically provided insufficient services, and geriatric patients were hospitalized unnecessarily, wasting medical resources and causing undue patient hardship. In response, Japan launched its long-term care insurance program in April 2000. Under the program, city, town and village-based organizations should take responsibility for providing care to the elderly in their place of residence. The program significantly improved previous financial shortfalls and long-term care supply and demand has been met by existing social welfare organization resources. In Taiwan, the provision of long-term care by county / city authorities has proven inconsistent, with performance deemed poor after its first decade of long-term care operations. Service was found to be affected by differences in available resources and insufficient long-term care administration. The cultures of Taiwan and Japan are similar. The authors visited the Japan Long-Term Care Insurance Institute in August 2009. Main issues involved in the implementation and evolution of the Japan long-term Care Insurance are reported on in this paper. We hope such may be useful information to those working to develop long-term care programs in Taiwan. PMID:20661859

  20. The long-term effects of FSH and triiodothyronine administration during the pubertal period on Connexin 43 expression and spermatogenesis efficiency in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Marchlewska, Katarzyna; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Oszukowska, Elzbieta; Filipiak, Eliza; Kula, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and triiodothyronine (T3) are known regulatory factors of spermatogenesis initiation. Hyperstimulation of both hormones evokes regressional changes in connexin 43 expression and the seminiferous epithelium in young rats during testicular maturation. However, separate treatments with T3 reduce Sertoli cell number, which seems to be closely connected with the maturation of connexin 43 gap junctions. FSH elevates Sertoli cell number and function, but this effect may take place regardless of the presence of connexin 43-dependent intercellular communication. The aim of the study was to evaluate the later effects of such treatments. Newborn, male Wistar rats were divided randomly into experimental groups receiving daily subcutaneous injections of either 7.5 IU/animal FSH, or 100 mg/kg b.w. T3, or both substances or the same volume of vehicle (control group) until day 15 of life. The animals were sacrificed on day 50. Morphometric analysis and immunohistochemical reactions were performed using antibodies against Vimentin, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and Connexin 43 in the testis. Sertoli cell count, efficiency of spermatogenesis, and hormonal pattern were examined. Disturbances in the connexin 43 expression reduced the number of Sertoli cells, the efficiency of spermatogenesis and impaired endocrine function of testes in adult rats treated with FSH and T3 during puberty. Stimulation with FSH alone increased Sertoli cell number, but was associated with a negative effect on cell-to-cell connexin 43-dependent communication, with a consequential reduction of spermatogenesis efficiency. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 256-265, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25739512

  1. [Effect of long-term monosodium glutamate administration on structure and functional state of the stomach and body weight in rats].

    PubMed

    Falalieieva, T M; Kukhars'kyĭ, V M; Berehova, T V

    2010-01-01

    The influence of prolonged administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on basal gastric acid secretion, body weight and gastric mucosa in rats was studied. We found that 10-, 20-, 30-days feeding by MSG in doses 15 to 30 mg/kg (equivalent to I and 2 g/person) leads to erosive and ulcerative lesions of the gastric mucosa and an increased secretion of hydrochloric acid and an increased body weight. It is concluded that the stimulating effect of MSG on the basal secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach may be implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of acid-dependent diseases. An excessive consumption of MSG can cause a "Chinese Restaurant Syndrome" and gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers. Therefore, the maximum dose of MSG should be reconsidered taking into account its influence on the secretory capacity of the stomach. We also conclude that prolonged, excessive and systemic consumption of MSG causes obesity. PMID:20968043

  2. Tolerance to Ethanol or Nicotine Results in Increased Ethanol Self-Administration and Long-Term Depression in the Dorsolateral Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Abburi, Chandrika; Wolfman, Shannon L.; Metz, Ryan A. E.; Kamber, Rinya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine are the most widely coabused drugs. Tolerance to EtOH intoxication, including motor impairment, results in greater EtOH consumption and may result in a greater likelihood of addiction. Previous studies suggest that cross-tolerance between EtOH and nicotine may contribute to the abuse potential of these drugs. Here we demonstrate that repeated intermittent administration of either EtOH or nicotine in adult male Sprague Dawley rats results in tolerance to EtOH-induced motor impairment and increased EtOH self-administration. These findings suggest that nicotine and EtOH cross-tolerance results in decreased aversive and enhanced rewarding effects of EtOH. Endocannabinoid signaling in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) has been implicated in both EtOH tolerance and reward, so we investigated whether nicotine or EtOH pretreatment might modulate endocannabinoid signaling in this region. Using similar EtOH and nicotine pretreatment methods resulted in increased paired-pulse ratios of evoked EPSCs in enkephalin-positive medium spiny neurons in DLS slices. Thus, EtOH and nicotine pretreatment may modulate glutamatergic synapses in the DLS presynaptically. Bath application of the CB1 receptor agonist Win 55,2-212 increased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs in control slices, while Win 55,2-212 had no effect on paired-pulse ratio in slices from either EtOH- or nicotine-pretreated rats. Consistent with these effects, nicotine pretreatment occluded LTD induction by high-frequency stimulation of the corticostriatal inputs to the dorsolateral striatum. These results suggest that nicotine and EtOH pretreatment modulates striatal synapses to induce tolerance to the motor-impairing effects of EtOH, which may contribute to nicotine and EtOH coabuse. PMID:27517088

  3. Tolerance to Ethanol or Nicotine Results in Increased Ethanol Self-Administration and Long-Term Depression in the Dorsolateral Striatum.

    PubMed

    Abburi, Chandrika; Wolfman, Shannon L; Metz, Ryan A E; Kamber, Rinya; McGehee, Daniel S; McDaid, John

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine are the most widely coabused drugs. Tolerance to EtOH intoxication, including motor impairment, results in greater EtOH consumption and may result in a greater likelihood of addiction. Previous studies suggest that cross-tolerance between EtOH and nicotine may contribute to the abuse potential of these drugs. Here we demonstrate that repeated intermittent administration of either EtOH or nicotine in adult male Sprague Dawley rats results in tolerance to EtOH-induced motor impairment and increased EtOH self-administration. These findings suggest that nicotine and EtOH cross-tolerance results in decreased aversive and enhanced rewarding effects of EtOH. Endocannabinoid signaling in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) has been implicated in both EtOH tolerance and reward, so we investigated whether nicotine or EtOH pretreatment might modulate endocannabinoid signaling in this region. Using similar EtOH and nicotine pretreatment methods resulted in increased paired-pulse ratios of evoked EPSCs in enkephalin-positive medium spiny neurons in DLS slices. Thus, EtOH and nicotine pretreatment may modulate glutamatergic synapses in the DLS presynaptically. Bath application of the CB1 receptor agonist Win 55,2-212 increased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs in control slices, while Win 55,2-212 had no effect on paired-pulse ratio in slices from either EtOH- or nicotine-pretreated rats. Consistent with these effects, nicotine pretreatment occluded LTD induction by high-frequency stimulation of the corticostriatal inputs to the dorsolateral striatum. These results suggest that nicotine and EtOH pretreatment modulates striatal synapses to induce tolerance to the motor-impairing effects of EtOH, which may contribute to nicotine and EtOH coabuse. PMID:27517088

  4. Concurrent administration of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery enhances late toxicities: Long-term results of the ARCOSEIN multicenter randomized study

    SciTech Connect

    Toledano, Alain . E-mail: alain.toledano@gmail.com; Garaud, Pascal; Serin, Daniel; Fourquet, Alain; Bosset, Jean-Francois; Breteau, Noel; Body, Gilles; Azria, David; Le Floch, Olivier; Calais, Gilles

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: In 1996, a multicenter randomized study was initiated that compared sequential vs. concurrent adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) with radiation therapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (ARCOSEIN study). After a median follow-up of 6.7 years (range, 4.3-9 years), we decided to prospectively evaluate the late effects of these 2 strategies. Methods and Materials: A total of 297 patients from the 5 larger participating institutions were asked to report for a follow-up examination. Seventy-two percent (214 patients) were eligible for evaluation of late toxicity. After breast-conserving surgery, patients were treated either with sequential treatment with CT first followed by RT (Arm A) or CT administered concurrently with RT (Arm B). In all patients, CT regimen consisted of mitoxantrone (12 mg/m{sup 2}), 5-FU (500 mg/m{sup 2}), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m{sup 2}), 6 cycles (Day 1 to Day 21). Conventional RT was delivered to the whole breast by administration of a 2 Gy per fraction protocol to a total dose of 50 Gy ({+-} boost to the primary tumor bed). The assessment of toxicity was blinded to treatment and was graded by the radiation oncologist, according to the LENT/SOMA scale. Skin pigmentation was also evaluated according to a personal 5-points scoring system (excellent, good, moderate, poor, very poor). Results: Among the 214 evaluable patients, 107 were treated in each arm. The 2 populations were homogeneous for patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Subcutaneous fibrosis (SF), telangectasia (T), skin pigmentation (SP), and breast atrophy (BA) were significantly increased in Arm B. No statistical difference was observed between the 2 arms of the study concerning Grade 2 or higher pain, breast edema, or lymphedema. No deaths were caused by late toxicity. Conclusion: After breast-conserving surgery, the concurrent use of CT with RT is significantly associated with an increase incidence of Grade 2 or greater late side effects.

  5. Reduced risk of hypoglycemia with once-daily glargine versus twice-daily NPH and number needed to harm with NPH to demonstrate the risk of one additional hypoglycemic event in type 2 diabetes: Evidence from a long-term controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstock, Julio; Fonseca, Vivian; Schinzel, Stefan; Dain, Marie-Paule; Mullins, Peter; Riddle, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Aims This analysis evaluated HbA1c-adjusted hypoglycemia risk with glargine versus neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) over a 5-year study in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Clinical significance was assessed using number needed to harm (NNH) to demonstrate the risk of one additional patient experiencing at least one hypoglycemic event. Methods Individual patient-level data for symptomatic documented hypoglycemia and HbA1c values from a 5-year randomized study comparing once-daily glargine (n = 513) with twice-daily NPH (n = 504) were analyzed. Symptomatic hypoglycemia was categorized according to concurrent self-monitoring blood glucose levels and need for assistance. Hypoglycemic events per patient-year as a function of HbA1c were fitted by negative binomial regression using treatment and HbA1c at endpoint as independent variables. An estimate of NNH was derived from logistic regression models. Results The cumulative number of symptomatic hypoglycemia events was consistently lower with glargine compared with NPH over 5 years. Compared with twice-daily NPH, once-daily glargine treatment resulted in significantly lower adjusted odds ratios (OR) for all daytime hypoglycemia (OR 0.74; p = 0.030) and any severe event (OR 0.64; p = 0.035), representing a 26% and 36% reduction in the odds of daytime and severe hypoglycemia, respectively. Our model predicts that, if 25 patients were treated with NPH instead of glargine, then one additional patient would experience at least one severe hypoglycemic event. Conclusions This analysis of long-term insulin treatment confirms findings from short-term studies and demonstrates that glargine provides sustained, clinically meaningful reductions in risk of hypoglycemia compared with NPH in patients with T2DM. PMID:24856612

  6. Long Term Illness and Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

  7. Effects of daily morphine administration and deprivation on choice and demand for remifentanil and cocaine in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wade-Galuska, Tammy; Galuska, Chad M; Winger, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Choice procedures have indicated that the relative reinforcing effectiveness of opioid drugs increases during opioid withdrawal. The demand curve, an absolute measure of reinforcer value, has not been applied to this question. The present study assessed whether mild morphine withdrawal would increase demand for or choice of remifentanil or cocaine. Four rhesus monkeys chose between remifentanil and cocaine during daily sessions. Demand curves for both drugs were subsequently obtained. The effects of daily injections of 3.2 mg/kg morphine on both choice and demand for these drugs was assayed 3 and 20.5 hr after each morphine injection, and then during a postmorphine period. Three hours following morphine injections, choice of remifentanil over cocaine decreased and demand for remifentanil--but not cocaine--became more elastic. During morphine withdrawal (20.5 hr postinjection), choice of remifentanil increased and remifentanil demand became more inelastic in 3 of 4 monkeys. Cocaine demand also became more inelastic during this period. Four to five weeks following the morphine regimen, demand for both drugs was more inelastic relative to the initial determination. The results suggest that both the relative and absolute reinforcing effectiveness of remifentanil decreased following morphine administration and increased during morphine withdrawal. The absolute reinforcing effectiveness of cocaine also increased during morphine withdrawal. In addition, extended exposure to drug self-administration and/or exposure to the morphine regimen produced long-term increases in demand for both drugs. PMID:21541117

  8. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  9. Modulation of axonal sprouting along rostro-caudal axis of dorsal hippocampus and no neuronal survival in parahippocampal cortices by long-term post-lesion melatonin administration in lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ganjkhani, Mahin; Ali, Rostami; Iraj, Jafari Anarkooli

    2016-01-01

    Feature outcome of hippocampus and extra-hippocampal cortices was evaluated in melatonin treated lithium-pilocarpine epileptic rats during early and chronic phases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). After status epilepticus (SE) induction, 5 and 20 mg/kg melatonin were administered for 14 days or 60 days. All animals were killed 60 days post SE induction and the histological features of the rosrto-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus, piriform and entorhinal cortices were evaluated utilizing Nissl, Timm, and synapsin I immunoflorescent staining. Melatonin (20 mg/kg) effect on CA1 and CA3 neurons showed a region-specific pattern along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus. The number of counted granular cells by melatonin (20 mg/kg) treatment increased along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus in comparison to the untreated epileptic group. The density of Timm granules in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus decreased significantly in all melatonin treated groups in comparison to the untreated epileptic animals. The increased density of synapsin I immunoreactivity in the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus of untreated epileptic rats showed a profound decrease following melatonin treatment. There was no neuronal protection in the piriform and entorhinal cortices whatever the melatonin treatment. Long-term melatonin administration as a co-adjuvant probably could reduce the post-lesion histological consequences of TLE in a region-specific pattern along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:27051565

  10. Lessons from the past: Long-term safety and survival outcomes of a prematurely terminated randomized controlled trial on prophylactic vs. hemoglobin-based administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia

    PubMed Central

    MOUNTZIOS, GIANNIS; ARAVANTINOS, GERASIMOS; ALEXOPOULOU, ZOI; TIMOTHEADOU, ELENI; MATSIAKOU, FOTINI; CHRISTODOULOU, CHRISTOS; LASCHOS, KONSTANTINOS; GALANI, ELENI; KOUTRAS, ANGELOS; BAFALOUKOS, DIMITRIOS; LINARDOU, HELENA; PECTASIDES, DIMITRIOS; VARTHALITIS, IOANNIS; PAPAKOSTAS, PAVLOS; KALOFONOS, HARALAMBOS P.; FOUNTZILAS, GEORGE

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) administration for chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) is not supported by current guidelines. Long-term follow-up of patients WHO had been treated with ESA for CIA in the past may provide useful information. In 2002, we undertook a prospective, randomized phase III trial of prophylactic vs. hemoglobin (Hb)-based (threshold: 11 mg/dl) ESA administration in patients with solid tumors and CIA. ESA administration FOR CIA was permanently suspended in 2007 in view of published data at that time, while patient surveillance continued. Among 630 evaluable patients, 38.6% were male, 50.9% had advanced cancer at diagnosis, 40.6% had Hb levels <12 mg/dl at baseline and 47.9% received ESA prophylactically (1:1 randomization). The major tumor types included colorectal (36.0%), breast (20.6%), non-prostate genitourinary (11.0%) and lung CANCER (8.4%). After a median follow-up of 85.4 months, 358 patients had relapsed and 380 had succumbed to the disease. Patients in the prophylactic ESA group (GROUP A; experimental arm), as compared with those in the Hb-based group (GROUP B; iron supplementation alone), exhibited A significantly more prominent increase in median Hb levels, particularly in the subset of patients with non-metastatic disease (two-sided P<0.01) among patients receiving chemotherapy for advanced cancer, those who received ESAs prophylactically exhibited a lower incidence of CIA (all grades: P=0.014, grades 3–4: P=0.034) and fatigue (all grades: P<0.001, grades 3–4: P=0.055), but a higher rate of a composite outcome encompassing all thrombosis-related events (all grades: P=0.043, grades 3–4: P=0.099). These differences were less prominent in the group of patients who received adjuvant treatment. There were no significant differences in overall mortality and relapse/progression rates between the two groups. therefore, prophylactic, compared with Hb-based, administration of ESAs for CIA in patients with solid

  11. Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Petursson, H; Lader, M H

    1981-01-01

    Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels over the next two to four weeks. Other features of the withdrawal included disturbance of sleep and appetite and noticeable weight loss. Electroencephalography showed appreciable reduction in fast-wave activity as the drugs were withdrawn, and an improvement in psychological performance was recorded by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Because of the risk of dependence on benzodiazepines these agents should probably not be given as regular daily treatment for chronic anxiety. PMID:6114776

  12. Strategies to meet the need for long-term data.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Borghi, Claudio; Manolis, Athanasios; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Chronic diseases afflict patients for many years, often to the end of life, and there is increasing need for estimating lifelong risk and for evaluating the effects of treatment in the long term. Yet recommendations for lifelong treatment are most frequently based on findings from randomized clinical trials lasting only a few years. There is therefore a clear need for much longer term data, and here we present the advantages and disadvantages of many strategies, including the use of long-term posttrial follow-up, of long-term prospective cohort studies, registry databases, and of administrative databases. We also emphasize the need for long-term cost-effectiveness studies. One of the most promising strategies comes from linkage of data gathered through the ever-expanding pool of administrative databases worldwide with data from other sources, including randomized trials and the many forms of observational study. PMID:27270189

  13. Short- and Long-term Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    PubMed Central

    Rellini, Alessandra H.; Telch, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) facilitates blood flow, influences nitric oxide systems, and has a relaxant effect on smooth muscle tissue. These processes are important to the sexual response in women and, hence, it is feasible that GBE may have a therapeutic effect. The present study was the first to provide an empirical examination of the effects of both short- and long-term GBE administration on subjective and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmography) measures of sexual function in women with Sexual Arousal Disorder. A single dose of 300 mg GBE had a small but significant facilitatory effect on physiological, but not subjective, sexual arousal compared to placebo in 99 sexually dysfunctional women. The long-term effects of GBE on sexual function were assessed in 68 sexually dysfunctional women who were randomly assigned to 8 weeks treatment of either (1) GBE (300 mg/daily), (2) placebo, (3) sex therapy which focused on training women to attend to genital sensations, or (4) sex therapy plus GBE. When combined with sex therapy, but not alone, long-term GBE treatment significantly increased sexual desire and contentment beyond placebo. Sex therapy alone significantly enhanced orgasm function compared with placebo. Long-term GBE administration did not significantly enhance arousal responses beyond placebo. It was concluded that (1) neither short- or long-term administration of GBE alone substantially impacts sexual function in women, (2) a substantial placebo effect on sexual function exists in women with sexual concerns, and (3) teaching women to focus on genital sensations during sex enhances certain aspects of women’s sexual functioning. PMID:18274887

  14. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens. PMID:26118934

  15. Stapedectomy - long-term report.

    PubMed

    Shea, J J

    1982-01-01

    The long-term results with large fenestra stapedectomy with vein graft and Teflon piston are compared with results with the small fenestra stapedectomy with teflon piston directly into the vestibule. There were 1,943 operations in the former group and 2,155 in the latter when compared in 1970. One hundred consecutive patients from the beginning of each group with follow-up to present were compared. Results were generally the same with no great change in 15 and 20 years as compared to those at 5 years. The complication of perilymph fistula was caused by creating an opening in the footplate much larger than the prosthesis and was eliminated by interposing a living oval window seal if the opening was much larger than the prosthesis and a flap of lining membrane from the promontory when it was not. Other factors that influence a good result are discussed, including the type and the diameter of the piston used, the type of living oval window seal and the method of attachment to the incus. The small fenestra operation was found to be superior to the large, not only for the hearing gain achieved, but the case of performance and the freedom from complications due to migration of the prosthesis and/or the oval window seal. At present we have done about all that can be done for the conductive components. What remains is the sensorineural component which our studies indicate may be due to an autoimmune response. PMID:6897157

  16. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  17. Suppression of acute proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine upregulation by post-injury administration of a novel small molecule improves long-term neurologic outcome in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Eric; Somera-Molina, Kathleen; Van Eldik, Linda J; Watterson, D Martin; Wainwright, Mark S

    2008-01-01

    with TBI. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that proinflammatory cytokines contribute to a glial activation cycle that produces neuronal dysfunction or injury following TBI. The improvement in long-term functional neurologic outcome following suppression of cytokine upregulation in a clinically relevant therapeutic window indicates that selective targeting of neuroinflammation may lead to novel therapies for the major neurologic morbidities resulting from head injury, and indicates the potential of Mzc as a future therapeutic for TBI. PMID:18590543

  18. Long-term U. S. energy outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, G.

    1984-01-01

    Each year Chase Econometrics offers its clients a brief summary of the assumptions underlying the long-term energy forecast for the U.S. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they choose to compare forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Particular emphasis is placed on Scenario B, which is the mid-range reference case. As the introduction to the supplement emphasizes, the NEPP projections should not be considered a statement of the policy goals of the Reagan Administration. They represent an analysis of the possible evolution of U.S. energy markets, given current information and existing policies. The purpose of providing Scenario B as a reference case as well as Scenarios A and C as alternate cases is to show the sensitivity of oil price projections to small swings in energy demand.

  19. Long-Term Administration of Dehydroepiandrosterone Accelerates Glucose Catabolism via Activation of PI3K/Akt-PFK-2 Signaling Pathway in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jian; Ge, Chongyang; Yu, Lei; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a fat-reducing effect, while little information is available on whether DHEA regulates glucose metabolism, which would in turn affect fat deposition. To investigate the effects of DHEA on glucose metabolism, rats were administered a high-fat diet containing either 0 (HCG), 25 (HLG), 50 (HMG), or 100 (HHG) mg·kg-1 DHEA per day via gavage for 8 weeks. Results showed that long-term administration of DHEA inhibited body weight gain in rats on a high-fat diet. No statistical differences in serum glucose levels were observed, whereas hepatic glycogen content in HMG and HHG groups and muscle glycogen content in HLG and HMG groups were higher than those in HCG group. Glucokinase, malate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase-2 activities in HMG and HHG groups, pyruvate kinase and succinate dehydrogenase activities in HMG group, and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in all DHEA treatment groups were increased compared with those in HCG group. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogen phosphorylase mRNA levels were decreased in HMG and HHG groups, whereas glycogen synthase-2 mRNA level was increased in HMG group compared with those in HCG. The abundance of Glut2 mRNA in HMG and HHG groups and Glut4 mRNA in HMG group was higher than that in HCG group. DHEA treatment increased serum leptin content in HMG and HHG groups compared with that in HCG group. Serum insulin content and insulin receptor mRNA level in HMG group and insulin receptor substrate-2 mRNA level in HMG and HHG group were increased compared with those in HCG group. Furthermore, Pi3k mRNA level in HMG and Akt mRNA level in HMG and HHG groups were significantly increased than those in HCG group. These data showed that DHEA treatment could enhance glycogen storage and accelerate glucose catabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet, and this effect may be associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt-PFK-2 signaling pathway. PMID:27410429

  20. Long-Term Administration of Dehydroepiandrosterone Accelerates Glucose Catabolism via Activation of PI3K/Akt-PFK-2 Signaling Pathway in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jian; Ge, Chongyang; Yu, Lei; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a fat-reducing effect, while little information is available on whether DHEA regulates glucose metabolism, which would in turn affect fat deposition. To investigate the effects of DHEA on glucose metabolism, rats were administered a high-fat diet containing either 0 (HCG), 25 (HLG), 50 (HMG), or 100 (HHG) mg·kg-1 DHEA per day via gavage for 8 weeks. Results showed that long-term administration of DHEA inhibited body weight gain in rats on a high-fat diet. No statistical differences in serum glucose levels were observed, whereas hepatic glycogen content in HMG and HHG groups and muscle glycogen content in HLG and HMG groups were higher than those in HCG group. Glucokinase, malate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase-2 activities in HMG and HHG groups, pyruvate kinase and succinate dehydrogenase activities in HMG group, and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in all DHEA treatment groups were increased compared with those in HCG group. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogen phosphorylase mRNA levels were decreased in HMG and HHG groups, whereas glycogen synthase-2 mRNA level was increased in HMG group compared with those in HCG. The abundance of Glut2 mRNA in HMG and HHG groups and Glut4 mRNA in HMG group was higher than that in HCG group. DHEA treatment increased serum leptin content in HMG and HHG groups compared with that in HCG group. Serum insulin content and insulin receptor mRNA level in HMG group and insulin receptor substrate-2 mRNA level in HMG and HHG group were increased compared with those in HCG group. Furthermore, Pi3k mRNA level in HMG and Akt mRNA level in HMG and HHG groups were significantly increased than those in HCG group. These data showed that DHEA treatment could enhance glycogen storage and accelerate glucose catabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet, and this effect may be associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt-PFK-2 signaling pathway. PMID:27410429

  1. 21 CFR 868.5610 - Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. 868.5610 Section 868.5610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... for long-term pulmonary support. (a) Identification. A membrane lung for long-term pulmonary...

  2. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  3. Long-term administration of the TNF blocking drug Remicade (cV1q) to mdx mice reduces skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis, but negatively impacts cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Ermolova, N V; Martinez, L; Vetrone, S A; Jordan, M C; Roos, K P; Sweeney, H L; Spencer, M J

    2014-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative skeletal muscle disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin (DYS). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis since short-term treatment of mdx mice with TNF blocking drugs proved beneficial; however, it is not clear whether long-term treatment will also improve long-term outcomes of fibrosis and cardiac health. In this investigation, short and long-term dosing studies were carried out using the TNF blocking drug Remicade and a variety of outcome measures were assessed. Here we show no demonstrable benefit to muscle strength or morphology with 10mg/kg or 20mg/kg Remicade; however, 3mg/kg produced positive strength benefits. Remicade treatment correlated with reductions in myostatin mRNA in the heart, and concomitant reductions in cardiac and skeletal fibrosis. Surprisingly, although Remicade treated mdx hearts were less fibrotic, reductions in LV mass and ejection fraction were also observed, and these changes coincided with reductions in AKT phosphorylation on threonine 308. Thus, TNF blockade benefits mdx skeletal muscle strength and fibrosis, but negatively impacts AKT activation, leading to deleterious changes to dystrophic heart function. These studies uncover a previously unknown relationship between TNF blockade and alteration of muscle growth signaling pathways. PMID:24844454

  4. Effects of daily delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment on heroin self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; France, Charles P

    2016-04-01

    Opioid abuse remains a significant public health problem; together with the greater availability of marijuana in some regions there is an increasing likelihood that opioids and marijuana will be used together. Polydrug abuse is associated with increased toxicity and poorer treatment outcome; thus, a better understanding of the consequences of repeated coadministration of these drugs will facilitate the development of better prevention and treatment strategies. This study examined the effects of daily treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC) and its discontinuation on self-administration of heroin in rhesus monkeys (n=4) lever-pressing under a fixed-ratio 30 schedule. Heroin self-administration (0.32-32 μg/kg/infusion, intravenously) generated an inverted U-shaped dose-effect curve. Administered acutely, Δ-THC (0.01-0.32 mg/kg, subcutaneously) dose dependently decreased responding for heroin and flattened the self-administration dose-effect curve. Daily treatment with Δ-THC (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/12 h, subcutaneously) either had no effect on or decreased responding for heroin. In addition, daily treatment did not significantly impact extinction of heroin self-administration or resumption of responding for heroin after extinction. Discontinuation of daily Δ-THC treatment did not systematically impact rates of heroin self-administration. These data suggest that repeated administration of a cannabinoid receptor agonist likely does not increase, and possibly decreases, the positive reinforcing effects of a mu opioid receptor agonist. PMID:26397756

  5. Suicidal Behavior in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Nancy J.; Brant, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed administrators of 463 long-term care facilities concerning overt suicides and intentional life-threatening behaviors. Data revealed that White males were highest risk group. Refusal to eat, drink, or take medications were most common suicidal behaviors. Depression, loneliness, feelings of family rejection, and loss were significant…

  6. Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

  7. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  8. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  9. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  10. Mitigating effects of vaccination on influenza outbreaks given constraints in stockpile size and daily administration capacity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Influenza viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Vaccination remains a powerful tool for preventing or mitigating influenza outbreaks. Yet, vaccine supplies and daily administration capacities are limited, even in developed countries. Understanding how such constraints can alter the mitigating effects of vaccination is a crucial part of influenza preparedness plans. Mathematical models provide tools for government and medical officials to assess the impact of different vaccination strategies and plan accordingly. However, many existing models of vaccination employ several questionable assumptions, including a rate of vaccination proportional to the population at each point in time. Methods We present a SIR-like model that explicitly takes into account vaccine supply and the number of vaccines administered per day and places data-informed limits on these parameters. We refer to this as the non-proportional model of vaccination and compare it to the proportional scheme typically found in the literature. Results The proportional and non-proportional models behave similarly for a few different vaccination scenarios. However, there are parameter regimes involving the vaccination campaign duration and daily supply limit for which the non-proportional model predicts smaller epidemics that peak later, but may last longer, than those of the proportional model. We also use the non-proportional model to predict the mitigating effects of variably timed vaccination campaigns for different levels of vaccination coverage, using specific constraints on daily administration capacity. Conclusions The non-proportional model of vaccination is a theoretical improvement that provides more accurate predictions of the mitigating effects of vaccination on influenza outbreaks than the proportional model. In addition, parameters such as vaccine supply and daily administration limit can be easily adjusted to simulate conditions in developed and developing

  11. Rural long-term care work, gender, and restructuring.

    PubMed

    Leach, Belinda; Joseph, Gillian

    2011-06-01

    Restructuring--the introduction of changes that alter the way health care is delivered for maximum efficiency and least cost--layered with rurality and with rural gender ideologies and practices, results in rural long-term care settings that have particular consequences for the women working in them, and for the residents and communities that they serve. This research investigated how rurality affects the implementation of patient classification in Ontario long-term care homes. Methods involved interviews and focus groups with front-line long-term care workers, administrators, and key participants. The findings revealed that rural long-term care delivery takes place when a restructured work environment intersects with gender ideologies and practices that take on particular characteristics when developed and sustained in a rural context. These factors shape the labor market and working conditions for rural women. We argue that this produces a uniquely rural experience for long-term care workers and conclude that those implementing classification systems must consider contextual factors as well as practical and financial exigencies. PMID:24650670

  12. The long-term costs of career interruptions.

    PubMed

    Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available. PMID:12592867

  13. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  14. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic ... and sprinkle forms are available for young children. Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists Medications in the beta 2 - ...

  15. Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

  16. Long-term theranostic hydrogel system for solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Il; Lee, Beom Suk; Chun, Changju; Cho, Jung-Kyo; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Song, Soo-Chang

    2012-03-01

    The long-term theranostic hydrogel system for solid tumors was prepared via simple physical mixing, which consisted of three major parts: the thermosensitive/biodegradable poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel, PEGylated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, and paclitaxel (PTX). The PEGylated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed extremely low cytotoxicity due to the surface modification using PEG chains. The long-term theranostic hydrogel system showed adequate properties to be used for long-term MR theragnosis. In particular, the theranostic hydrogel gradually degraded over 28 days, and the PTX was sustainedly released out from the theranostic hydrogel over the same period in vitro. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of long-term MR theragnosis using the theranostic hydrogel system was estimated successfully over 3 weeks by using high field (4.7 T) animal MRI and solid tumor-bearing mice. Based on our results, we expect that this system can supply multiple data regarding a) the progress of therapy and b) the treatment processes via one- or two-time i.t. administration for cases in which surgical approaches are difficult to apply. Meanwhile, cancer patients can be free from the pain of multiple surgical treatments and have the advantage of therapy through a simple i.t. administration. PMID:22189146

  17. Long-term behavioral effects in a rat model of prolonged postnatal morphine exposure.

    PubMed

    Craig, Michael M; Bajic, Dusica

    2015-10-01

    Prolonged morphine treatment in neonatal pediatric populations is associated with a high incidence of opioid tolerance and dependence. Despite the clinical relevance of this problem, our knowledge of long-term consequences is sparse. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether prolonged morphine administration in a neonatal rat is associated with long-term behavioral changes in adulthood. Newborn animals received either morphine (10 mg/kg) or equal volume of saline subcutaneously twice daily for the first 2 weeks of life. Morphine-treated animals underwent 10 days of morphine weaning to reduce the potential for observable physical signs of withdrawal. Animals were subjected to nonstressful testing (locomotor activity recording and a novel-object recognition test) at a young age (Postnatal Days [PDs] 27-31) or later in adulthood (PDs 55-56), as well as stressful testing (calibrated forceps test, hot plate test, and forced swim test) only in adulthood. Analysis revealed that prolonged neonatal morphine exposure resulted in decreased thermal but not mechanical threshold. Importantly, no differences were found for total locomotor activity (proxy of drug reward/reinforcement behavior), individual forced swim test behaviors (proxy of affective processing), or novel-object recognition test. Performance on the novel-object recognition test was compromised in the morphine-treated group at the young age, but the effect disappeared in adulthood. These novel results provide insight into the long-term consequences of opioid treatment during an early developmental period and suggest long-term neuroplastic differences in sensory processing related to thermal stimuli. PMID:26214209

  18. Long-term ozone monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.

    Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov) This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.

  19. Long-term Ozone monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.

    Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov) This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.

  20. Practical guidance for nurses caring for stoma patients with long-term conditions.

    PubMed

    Readding, Linda

    2016-02-01

    As the population ages and the number of people living with a long-term condition grows, it is likely that community nurses may be presented with increasing numbers of people requiring assessment, support, and advice for complex needs. Many of the long-term conditions affect the patient's ability to live and manage aspects of daily life independently and may affect the ability to manage a stoma. The purpose of this article is to consider how long-term conditions affect daily living and stoma care, and make practical suggestions for stoma management. Sources of further help and information for people living with a stoma (ostomates) and a long-term condition have also been included. It is hoped that by reading this article, the nurse will become more familiar with the difficulties with dexterity associated with long-term conditions experienced by ostomates, and how they can be assisted in managing and living as independently as possible. PMID:26844603

  1. Noncontact ECG system for unobtrusive long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Neil J; Anumula, Harini A; Duff, Eric; Soussou, Walid

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes measurements made using an ECG system with QUASAR's capacitive bioelectrodes integrated into a pad system that is placed over a chair. QUASAR's capacitive bioelectrode has the property of measuring bioelectric potentials at a small separation from the body. This enables the measurement of ECG signals through fabric, without the removal of clothing or preparation of skin. The ECG was measured through the subject's clothing while the subject sat in the chair without any supporting action from the subject. The ECG pad system is an example of a high compliance system that places minimal requirements upon the subject and, consequently, can be used to generate a long-term record from ECG segments collected on a daily basis, providing valuable information on long-term trends in cardiac health. PMID:23366215

  2. Effect of daily morphine administration and its discontinuation on delay discounting of food in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; Gerak, Lisa R; France, Charles P

    2016-04-01

    Opioid abusers discount delayed reinforcers more rapidly than nonusers; however, it is unclear whether chronic drug administration or its discontinuation impacts discounting. This study examined the impact of daily morphine administration and its discontinuation on delay discounting of food in rhesus monkeys. Responding on one lever delivered one food pellet immediately; responding on another lever delivered two food pellets either immediately or after a delay (30-120 s) that increased within the session. Monkeys (n=3) responded for the large reinforcer when both reinforcers were delivered immediately and more for the smaller, immediately available reinforcer as the delay to delivery of the large reinforcer increased. When administered acutely, morphine (0.032-5.6 mg/kg) increased trial omissions and had variable effects on choice, with small doses decreasing and large doses increasing choice of the large delayed reinforcer. Chronic morphine administration (0.1 mg/kg/day to 3.2 mg/kg twice daily) reduced choice of the large delayed reinforcer in two monkeys, while increasing choice in a third monkey. Despite the development of tolerance to some effects (i.e. rightward shifts in dose-effect curves for the number of trials omitted) and evidence of mild opioid dependence (e.g. decrease in the number of trials completed, as well as body weight), discontinuation of treatment did not appear to systematically impact discounting. Overall, these results suggest that repeated opioid administration causes persistent effects on choice under a delay discounting procedure; however, differences in the direction of effect among individuals suggest that factors other than, or in addition to, changes in discounting might play a role. PMID:26397762

  3. Long-term Multiwavelength Observations of Polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Joshua; Mason, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Polars are cataclysmic variables with the highest magnetic field strengths (10-250 MG). Matter is accreted after being funneled by the strong magnetic field of the white dwarf. We perform a meta-study of multi-wavelength data of polars. Many polars have been observed in surveys, such as SDSS, 2MASS, ROSAT, just to name a few. Some polars have now been detected by the JVLA, part of an expanding class of radio CVs. A large subset of polars have long-term optical light curves from CRTS and AAVSO. We suggest that the long term light curves of polars display a variety of signature behaviors and may be grouped accordingly. Additional characteristics such a binary period, magnetic field strengths, X-ray properties, and distance estimates are examined in context with long-term observations.

  4. Combined Administration of MF59-Adjuvanted A/H5N1 Prepandemic and Seasonal Influenza Vaccines: Long-Term Antibody Persistence and Robust Booster Responses 1 Year after a One-Dose Priming Schedule

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Pio; Caicedo, Yolanda; Sierra, Alexandra; Tilman, Sandrine; Clemens, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Having previously demonstrated the feasibility of administering A/H5N1 and seasonal influenza vaccine antigens in an MF59-adjuvanted tetravalent formulation, we now report on long-term antibody persistence and responses to a booster dose of a combined seasonal-pandemic, tetravalent influenza vaccine in adults. The primary objective was the evaluation of responses to a booster dose of tetravalent influenza vaccine containing seasonal (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B) and avian (A/H5N1, clade 2) influenza virus strains administered to 265 healthy 18- to 40-year-old volunteers 1 year after priming with one or two clade 1 A/H5N1 doses. Secondary objectives were assessment of reactogenicity, safety, and antibody persistence 1 year after priming with a combined seasonal-pandemic, tetravalent vaccine. Responses to seasonal strains met all European licensure criteria; seroprotection rates were 94 to 100%, 100%, and 61 to 90% for A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B strains, respectively. Anamnestic responses were observed against homologous and heterologous A/H5N1 strains whether priming with one or two A/H5N1 doses, with a monovalent A/H5N1 vaccine, or with a tetravalent vaccine. A single dose of MF59-adjuvanted A/H5N1 vaccine given alone or as part of a fixed combination with a seasonal influenza vaccine was sufficient to prime adult subjects, resulting in robust antigen-specific and cross-reactive antibody responses to heterologous booster immunization 1 year later. These data support the feasibility of incorporating prepandemic priming into seasonal influenza vaccination programs. (This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov under registration no. NCT00481065.) PMID:23536690

  5. Scenarios for long-term analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis of High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments data is described and summarized in this talk. The summary covers information presented at the First Workshop on Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis. Experiments representing e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions (LEP, B Factories and CLEO), ep collisions (H1 and ZEUS), p{bar p} collisions (CDF and D0) and others presented interesting information related to utilizing the large datasets collected over many years at these HEP facilities. Many questions and issues remain to be explored.

  6. Long-Term Use of Benzodiazepines

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Nicholas L.S.; Krishnan, K. Ranga R.

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with physical dependence and abuse of benzodiazepines by a small percentage of patients have reduced their popularity from the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in the 1970s to being prescribed for mainly short periods. Patients who benefit from long-term benzodiazepine use are nearly ignored by the medical community as a whole. This article details what patient population can improve from long-term benzodiazepine therapy, the risks and benefits of treatment, and how to select appropriate candidates. PMID:21229127

  7. Long-term Outcomes after Severe Shock

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Cristina M.; Hirshberg, Eliotte L.; Jones, Jason P.; Kuttler, Kathryn G.; Lanspa, Michael J.; Wilson, Emily L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Brown, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Methods Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 mcg/kg/min of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured three-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. Results The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years: 82% (62/76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of five years after hospital admission. The patients’ Physical Functioning scores were below US population norms (p<0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full time. Conclusions Early survivors of severe shock had a high three-year survival rate. Patients’ long term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill ICU survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term

  8. Docosahexaenoic Acid Rescues Synaptogenesis Impairment and Long-Term Memory Deficits Caused by Postnatal Multiple Sevoflurane Exposures.

    PubMed

    Tao, Guorong; Luo, Yan; Xue, Qingsheng; Li, Guohui; Tan, Yongchang; Xiao, Jinglei; Yu, Buwei

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane exposures were demonstrated to induce neurotoxicity in the developing brain in both human and animal studies. However, there is no effective approach to reverse it. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to prevent sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. P6 (postnatal 6 days) mice were administrated DHA after exposure to 3% sevoflurane for two hours daily in three consecutive days. Molecular expressions of synaptic makers (PSD95, synaptophysin) and synaptic morphological changes were investigated by Western blot analysis and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test was used to assess spatial memory of mice at P31 (postnatal 31 days). DHA restored sevoflurane-induced decreased level of PSD95 and synaptophysin expressions and increased PSD areas and also improved long-term spatial memory. These results suggest that DHA could rescue synaptogenesis impairment and long-term memory deficits in postnatal caused by multiple sevoflurane exposures. PMID:27597963

  9. Docosahexaenoic Acid Rescues Synaptogenesis Impairment and Long-Term Memory Deficits Caused by Postnatal Multiple Sevoflurane Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Guorong; Luo, Yan; Xue, Qingsheng; Li, Guohui; Tan, Yongchang

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane exposures were demonstrated to induce neurotoxicity in the developing brain in both human and animal studies. However, there is no effective approach to reverse it. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to prevent sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. P6 (postnatal 6 days) mice were administrated DHA after exposure to 3% sevoflurane for two hours daily in three consecutive days. Molecular expressions of synaptic makers (PSD95, synaptophysin) and synaptic morphological changes were investigated by Western blot analysis and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test was used to assess spatial memory of mice at P31 (postnatal 31 days). DHA restored sevoflurane-induced decreased level of PSD95 and synaptophysin expressions and increased PSD areas and also improved long-term spatial memory. These results suggest that DHA could rescue synaptogenesis impairment and long-term memory deficits in postnatal caused by multiple sevoflurane exposures. PMID:27597963

  10. Long-term NMDAR antagonism correlates reduced astrocytic glutamate uptake with anxiety-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Eduardo R.; Torrez, Vitor R.; Kalinine, Eduardo; Augustin, Marina C.; Zenki, Kamila C.; Almeida, Roberto F.; Hansel, Gisele; Muller, Alexandre P.; Souza, Diogo O.; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Portela, Luis V.

    2015-01-01

    The role of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction has been extensively studied in schizophrenia; however, less is known about its role in anxiety disorders. Recently, it was demonstrated that astrocytic GLT-1 blockade leads to an anxiety-like phenotype. Although astrocytes are capable of modulating NMDAR activity through glutamate uptake transporters, the relationship between astrocytic glutamate uptake and the development of an anxiety phenotype remains poorly explored. Here, we aimed to investigative whether long-term antagonism of NMDAR impacts anxiety-related behaviors and astrocytic glutamate uptake. Memantine, an NMDAR antagonist, was administered daily for 24 days to healthy adult CF-1 mice by oral gavage at doses of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg. The mice were submitted to a sequential battery of behavioral tests (open field, light–dark box and elevated plus-maze tests). We then evaluated glutamate uptake activity and the immunocontents of glutamate transporters in the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that long-term administration of memantine induces anxiety-like behavior in mice in the light–dark box and elevated plus-maze paradigms. Additionally, the administration of memantine decreased glutamate uptake activity in both the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus without altering the immunocontent of either GLT-1 or GLAST. Remarkably, the memantine-induced reduction in glutamate uptake was correlated with enhancement of an anxiety-like phenotype. In conclusion, long-term NMDAR antagonism with memantine induces anxiety-like behavior that is associated with reduced glutamate uptake activity but that is not dependent on GLT-1 or GLAST protein expression. Our study suggests that NMDAR and glutamate uptake hypofunction may contribute to the development of conditions that fall within the category of anxiety disorders. PMID:26089779

  11. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-10-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4-6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects ('good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1-51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of 'good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  12. Long Term Care Aide. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbee, Judy

    This course outline is intended to assist the instructor in the development of a curriculum for a long-term care aide program by specifying one component of the curriculum--the objectives. These objectives, or competencies expected as outcomes for student performance on completion of the program, describe the capabilities an individual must…

  13. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  14. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  15. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  16. NATIONAL LONG TERM CARE SURVEY (NLTCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...

  17. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  18. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  19. The Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program: What Does the Complaint Reporting System Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netting, F. Ellen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Long-term care ombudsman programs are charged with resolving complaints and solving problems of elderly persons in long-term care settings. Conducted content analysis of annual ombudsman program reports sent to Administration on Aging from 49 states in 1990. Found substantial variation in documented information at both state and local levels and…

  20. Fostering Humane Care of Dying Persons in Long-Term Care. Guidebook for Staff Development Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sarah A.; Daley, Barbara

    This guide is intended for staff development instructors responsible for inservice education on the topic of fostering humane care for dying persons in long-term care. The introduction discusses the guide's development based on input from administrators, staff, and families of residents in long-term care facilities and focus group interviews in…

  1. Quantitative study of long-term solar and climatic changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Long term variations in the diameter and the shape of the Sun were studied. Daily observations of the Sun's diameter made at the Greenwich Observatory between 1836 and 1953 were analysed and interpreted. The data was converted into digital form and then screened and processed. It was found that the horizontal diameter of the Sun measured at Greenwich appears to have decreased systematically between 1880 and 1953 at a rate of 1.2 plus or minus 0.6 minutes of arc per century.

  2. Infants long-term memory for complex music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examined infants' long-term memory for two complex pieces of music. A group of thirty 7.5 month-old infants was exposed daily to one short piano piece (i.e., either the Prelude or the Forlane by Maurice Ravel) for ten consecutive days. Following the 10-day exposure period there was a two-week retention period in which no exposure to the piece occurred. After the retention period, infants were tested on the Headturn Preference Procedure. At test, 8 different excerpts of the familiar piece were mixed with 8 different foil excerpts of the unfamiliar one. Infants showed a significant preference for the familiar piece of music. A control group of fifteen nonexposed infants was also tested and showed no preferences for either piece of music. These results suggest that infants in the exposure group retained the familiar music in their long-term memory. This was demonstrated by their ability to discriminate between the different excerpts of both the familiar and the unfamiliar pieces of music, and by their preference for the familiar piece. Confirming previous findings (Jusczyk and Hohne, 1993; Saffran et al., 2000), in this study we suggest that infants can retain complex pieces of music in their long-term memory for two weeks.

  3. Equivalent Steady-State Pharmacokinetics of Lamivudine in Plasma and Lamivudine Triphosphate within Cells following Administration of Lamivudine at 300 Milligrams Once Daily and 150 Milligrams Twice Daily

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Geoffrey J.; Lou, Yu; Bumgarner, Nancy F.; Bishop, Jim P.; Smith, Glenn A.; Otto, Victoria R.; Hoelscher, David D.

    2004-01-01

    Once-daily administration of 300 mg of lamivudine in combination with other antiretroviral agents has been proposed as a possible way to optimize anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and to facilitate adherence. A single-center, randomized, two-way, crossover study was conducted in 60 healthy subjects to compare the steady-state pharmacokinetics of lamivudine in plasma and its putative active anabolite, lamivudine 5′-triphosphate (lamivudine-TP), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following 7 days of treatment with lamivudine at 300 mg once daily and 7 days of the standard regimen of 150 mg twice daily. Serial blood samples were collected over 24 h for determination of plasma lamivudine concentrations by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and intracellular lamivudine-TP concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by high-performance liquid chromatography/radioimmunoassay methods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on lamivudine and lamivudine-TP concentration-time data. Regimens were considered bioequivalent if 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the ratio (once daily/twice daily) of geometric least-squares (GLS) means for lamivudine and lamivudine-TP pharmacokinetic values fell within the acceptance range of 0.8 to 1.25. Steady-state plasma lamivudine pharmacokinetics following the once- and twice-daily regimens were bioequivalent with respect to the area under the drug concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h at steady state (AUC24,ss) (GLS mean ratio, 0.94; 90% CI, 0.92, 0.97) and average plasma lamivudine concentration over the dosing interval (Cave,ss) (GLS mean ratio, 0.94; 90% CI, 0.92, 0.97). Steady-state intracellular lamivudine-TP pharmacokinetics after the once- and twice-daily regimens were bioequivalent with respect to AUC24,ss (GLS mean ratio, 0.99; 90% CI, 0.88, 1.11), Cave,ss (GLS mean ratio, 0.99; 90% CI, 0.88, 1.11), and maximum lamivudine concentration (Cmax,ss) (GLS mean ratio, 0.93; 90% CI, 0

  4. Long-term weather predictability: Ural case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubyshen, Alexander; Shopin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of the state-of-the-art long-term meteorological forecast (at the seasonal level) is still low. Here it is presented approach (RAMES method) realizing different forecasting methodology. It provides prediction horizon of up to 19-22 years under equal probabilities of determination of parameters in every analyzed period [1]. Basic statements of the method are the following. 1. Long-term forecast on the basis of numerical modeling of the global meteorological process is principally impossible. Extension of long-term prediction horizon could be obtained only by the revealing and using a periodicity of meteorological situations at one point of observation. 2. Conventional calendar is unsuitable for generalization of meteorological data and revealing of cyclicity of meteorological processes. RAMES method uses natural time intervals: one day, synodic month and one year. It was developed a set of special calendars using these natural periods and the Metonic cycle. 3. Long-term time series of meteorological data is not a uniform universal set, it is a sequence of 28 universal sets appropriately superseding each other in time. The specifics of the method are: 1. Usage of the original research toolkit consisting of - a set of calendars based on the Metonic cycle; - a set of charts (coordinate systems) for the construction of sequence diagrams (of daily variability of a meteorological parameter during the analyzed year; of daily variability of a meteorological parameter using long-term dynamical time series of periods-analogues; of monthly and yearly variability of accumulated value of meteorological parameter). 2. Identification and usage of new virtual meteorological objects having several degrees of generalization appropriately located in the used coordinate systems. 3. All calculations are integrated into the single technological scheme providing comparison and mutual verification of calculation results. During the prolonged testing in the Ural region, it was

  5. Shift work and long-term injury among police officers

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Hartley, Tara A; Vila, Bryan; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our previous work has suggested that the incidence of any occurrence of injury leave among police officers is higher on night shifts. In this study, we extended our inquiry to determine whether the incidence of long-term injury leave varies across shifts. Methods Police officers (N=419) from an urban department were included in the analysis. Daily payroll work history data from 1994–2010 was collected. Injury leave duration was examined ranging from ≥1–≥90 days. Poisson regression models were used to compute incidence rates (IR) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) of long-term injury. Results Cumulative incidence of injury for different durations of leave defined as ≥1, ≥5, ≥10, ≥15, ≥30, and ≥90 days were 61.3%, 45.4%, 39.9%, 33.9%, 26.5%, and 9.6% respectively. Age-and gender adjusted IRR of long-term injury (≥90 days) for night versus day shifts was IRR 3.12, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.35–7.21 and IRR 2.21, 95% CI 1.04–4.68, for night versus afternoon shifts. Among all durations examined, the largest IRR was for injury ≥90 days, night versus day shifts (IRR 3.12, 95% CI 1.35–7.21). Conclusions Night shift work was significantly associated with long-term injury among police officers after adjustment for age and gender. Although type of injury was not available, it is possible that variation in injury type across shifts might account for some of this association. PMID:23503596

  6. Update on osteoporosis management in long-term care: focus on bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Hosam K

    2007-09-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are potentially devastating and associated with high morbidity and substantial economic burden. Residents of long-term care facilities are at greater risk of osteoporosis and its related fractures than those living in the community, yet osteoporosis is underdiagnosed and undertreated in these settings. Bisphosphonates are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. As a class, bisphosphonates have been shown to increase bone mineral density, decrease the markers of bone resorption, and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. The 3 approved bisphosphonates are alendronate, risedronate, and ibandronate. Alendronate and risedronate are dosed daily or weekly and ibandronate, the most recently approved bisphosphonate, has been approved for monthly oral dosing or as an intravenous formulation to be given intermittently (every 3 months). In addition, other products with different mechanisms of action are in the pharmaceutical pipeline and may offer additional management options. PMID:17845945

  7. Long-term expression and safety of administration of AAVrh.10hCLN2 to the brain of rats and nonhuman primates for the treatment of late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Sondhi, Dolan; Johnson, Linda; Purpura, Keith; Monette, Sebastien; Souweidane, Mark M; Kaplitt, Michael G; Kosofsky, Barry; Yohay, Kaleb; Ballon, Douglas; Dyke, Jonathan; Kaminksy, Stephen M; Hackett, Neil R; Crystal, Ronald G

    2012-10-01

    Late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL), a fatal, lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the CLN2 gene, results in a deficiency of tripeptidyl-peptidase I (TPP-I) activity in neurons. Our prior studies showed that delivery of the human CLN2 cDNA directly to the CNS, using an adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vector, is safe in children with LINCL. As a second-generation strategy, we have demonstrated that AAVrh.10hCLN2, a rhesus-derived AAV vector, mediates wide distribution of TPP-I through the CNS in a murine model. This study tests the hypothesis that direct administration of AAVrh.10hCLN2 to the CNS of rats and nonhuman primates at doses scalable to humans has an acceptable safety profile and mediates significant CLN2 expression in the CNS. A dose of 10(11) genome copies (GC) was administered bilaterally to the striatum of Sprague Dawley rats with sacrifice at 7 and 90 days with no significant impact except for mild vector-related histopathological changes at the site of vector administration. A dose of 1.8×10(12) GC of AAVrh.10hCLN2 was administered to the CNS of 8 African green monkeys. The vector-treated monkeys did not differ from controls in any safety parameter except for mild to moderate white matter edema and inflammation localized to the administration sites of the vector. There were no clinical sequelae to these localized findings. TPP-I activity was >2 SD over background in 31.7±8.1% of brain at 90 days. These findings establish the dose and safety profile for human clinical studies for the treatment of LINCL with AAVrh.10hCLN2. PMID:23131032

  8. Long term mortality in burned children

    PubMed Central

    Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  9. Long term mortality in burned children.

    PubMed

    Rosanova, María Teresa; Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  10. Long-term safety of retinoid therapy.

    PubMed

    Vahlquist, A

    1992-12-01

    The concern about long-term toxicity of oral synthetic retinoids has developed because many patients, especially those with genodermatoses, require lifelong therapy. Several organ systems are at risk, especially the hepatic, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Although acute hepatotoxicity is a rare side effect of etretinate and acitretin therapy, prospective studies have not demonstrated chronic liver toxicity. The frequency of bone changes induced by retinoids is difficult to estimate, because this adverse effect is usually asymptomatic and requires x-ray or scintigraphic examination for detection. Atherosclerosis develops in many patients who receive long-term retinoid therapy, but the extent to which the process is aggravated by drug-induced hyperlipidemia is not known. Many patients have now been treated with either etretinate or isotretinoin continuously for as many as 15 years and have not developed any signs of severe chronic toxicity. However, continued intense surveillance is recommended for patients expected to require lifelong therapy. PMID:1460122

  11. 75 FR 53976 - Risks and Benefits of Long-Term Use of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Therapy Products; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... risks and benefits associated with the long- term use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)...

  12. Long-term orbital lifetime predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreher, P. E.; Lyons, A. T.

    1990-10-01

    Long-term orbital lifetime predictions are analyzed. Predictions were made for three satellites: the Solar Max Mission (SMM), the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), and the Pegasus Boiler Plate (BP). A technique is discussed for determining an appropriate ballistic coefficient to use in the lifetime prediction. The orbital decay rate should be monitored regularly. Ballistic coefficient updates should be done whenever there is a significant change in the actual decay rate or in the solar activity prediction.

  13. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  14. Long-term Variation of AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Xie, G. Z.; Adam, G.; Copin, Y.; Lin, R. G.; Bai, J. M.; Quin, Y. P.

    In this paper we will present the long-term variation in the optical and the infrared bands for some selected AGNs. 1. Some new optical data observed by us have been presented for BL Lacertae (1995-1996) and OJ 287 (1994-1995), and new infrared data are presented for OJ 287 (Nov=2E 1995), which corresponds to the second optical peak (Sillanpaa et al. 1996; Takalo et al. 1996) and during last outburst. 2. For objects with long term observations, the Jurkevich's method has been used to analyses the long-term variation period. It is interesting that the reported periods of AGNs are of the similar value of about 10 years: 3C 345 11.4 years (Webb et al. 1988), 3C 120 15 years (Belokon et al. 1987; Hagen-Thorn et al. 1997), ON 231 13.6 years (Liu et al. 1995), OJ 287 12 years (Sillanpaa et al. 1988; Kidger et al. 1992), PKS 0735+178 14 years (Fan et al. 1997), NGC 4151 15 years (Fan et al. 1998a), BL Lacertae 14.0 years (Fan et al. 1998b). Is the mechanism for the long-term variation the same for different AGNs? 3. The DCF method has been adopted to analysis the variation correlation in the optical and infrared bands for BL Lac object OJ 287, the results show that these two bands are strongly correlated, which suggest that the emission mechanism in the two bands is the same. 4. For the optical and infrared bands, the maximum variations are correlated.

  15. Long-term home hemodialysis in children

    PubMed Central

    Borra, Sonia; Kaye, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Experience with chronic hemodialysis as a definitive form of therapy is described for six children aged 11 to 15 years at the onset. Duration on dialysis in the home has been between one and 4½ years. All patients are alive and rehabilitated without serious complications. It is concluded that although transplantation is the most desirable form of treatment for children, long-term hemodialysis is an alternative acceptable second choice. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:5150193

  16. Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

  17. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  18. [Long-term survival after severe trauma].

    PubMed

    Mutschler, W; Mutschler, M; Graw, M; Lefering, R

    2016-07-01

    Long-term survival after severe trauma is rarely addressed in German trauma journals although knowledge of life expectancy and identification of factors contributing to increased mortality are important for lifetime care management, development of service models, and targeting health promotion and prevention interventions. As reliable data in Germany are lacking, we compiled data mainly from the USA and Australia to describe life expectancy, risk factors, and predictors of outcome in patients experiencing traumatic spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma. Two years after trauma, life expectancy in all three categories was significantly lower than that of the general population. It depends strongly on severity of disability, age, and gender and is quantifiable. Whereas improvements in medical care have led to a marked decline in short-term mortality, surprisingly long-term survival in severe trauma has not changed over the past 30 years. Therefore, there is need to intensify long-term trauma patient care and to find new strategies to limit primary damage. PMID:27342106

  19. The long-term performance of DXA bone densitometers.

    PubMed

    Wells, J; Ryan, P J

    2000-07-01

    Long-term performance of a bone mass measuring device is an important criterion when considering the purchase of such equipment and has been regarded as an important feature of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The performance of a 6-year-old bone densitometer, the Lunar DPX alpha, which has undertaken 1500 scans annually over this period, was assessed. The short-term coefficient of variation calculated from 15 measurements with repositioning on a single day, using the Lunar aluminium phantom, was 0.242%. Long-term precision, also calculated by the coefficient of variation, was 0.548%. The manufacturer's quality control (QC) procedure was performed daily and allowed the machine to be used except on 15 occasions when bone density measurements could be acquired after rebooting. However, a 2.2% shift in phantom values occurred in July 1996 owing to a photomultiplier tube failure, but this did not produce a failure in the Lunar QC. The optical disc drive was replaced in July 1997. The machine failed to back up on six occasions over the last 2 years owing to software corruption and the acquired femur data were not saved on seven occasions owing to overloading of the memory buffer. In conclusion, expected hardware failure and minor software problems have occurred. We were concerned that the manufacturer's QC failed to detect a 2% shift in the phantom bone mineral density values and recommend regular measurements of the Lunar aluminum phantom in addition to the daily QC measurement of the tissue-equivalent block. We were nevertheless impressed by the long-term stability and reproducibility of the Lunar DPX alpha. PMID:11089465

  20. Economic evaluation in long-term clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hlatky, Mark A; Boothroyd, Derek B; Johnstone, Iain M

    2002-10-15

    Economic endpoints have been increasingly included in long-term clinical trials, but they pose several methodologic challenges, including how best to collect, describe, analyse and interpret medical cost data. Cost of care can be measured by converting billed charges, performing detailed micro-costing studies, or by measuring use of key resources and assigning cost weights to each resource. The latter method is most commonly used, with cost weights based either on empirical regression models or administratively determined reimbursement rates. In long-term studies, monetary units should be adjusted to reflect cost inflation and discounting. The temporal pattern of accumulating costs can be described using a modification of the Kaplan-Meier curve. Regression analyses to evaluate factors associated with cost are best performed on the log of costs due to their typically skewed distribution.Cost-effectiveness analysis attempts to measure the value of a new therapy by calculating the difference in cost between the new therapy and the standard therapy, divided by the difference in benefit between the new therapy and the standard therapy. The cost-effectiveness ratio based on the results of a randomized trial may change substantially with longer follow-up intervals, particularly for therapies that are initially expensive but eventually improve survival. A model that projects long-term patterns of cost and survival expected beyond the end of completed follow-up can provide an important perspective in the setting of limited trial duration. PMID:12325104

  1. Anesthesiology Devices; Reclassification of Membrane Lung for Long-Term Pulmonary Support; Redesignation as Extracorporeal Circuit and Accessories for Long-Term Respiratory/Cardiopulmonary Failure. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-02-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to redesignate membrane lung devices for long-term pulmonary support, a preamendments class III device, as extracorporeal circuit and accessories for long-term respiratory/cardiopulmonary failure, and to reclassify the device to class II (special controls) in patients with acute respiratory failure or acute cardiopulmonary failure where other available treatment options have failed, and continued clinical deterioration is expected or the risk of death is imminent. A membrane lung device for long-term pulmonary support (>6 hours) refers to the oxygenator in an extracorporeal circuit used during long-term procedures, commonly referred to as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Because a number of other devices and accessories are used with the oxygenator in the circuit, the title and identification of the regulation are revised to include extracorporeal circuit and accessories for long-term respiratory/cardiopulmonary failure. Although an individual device or accessory used in an ECMO circuit may already have its own classification regulation when the device or accessory is intended for short-term use (<=6 hours), such device or accessory will be subject to the same regulatory controls applied to the oxygenator (i.e., class II, special controls) when evaluated as part of the ECMO circuit for long-term use (>6 hours). On its own initiative, based on new information, FDA is revising the classification of the membrane lung device for long-term pulmonary support. PMID:26878739

  2. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be

  3. Timber beams subjected to long - term loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sógel, K.

    2010-09-01

    Wood is a significant structural material, which is often used for timber bearing structures. Elements of timber structures must especially satisfy safety requirements, which are expressed by the ultimate limit states in the established standards. The structure must also satisfy the serviceability limit states. Local and global deformations make it impossible for the structure to serve the purpose it was designed for. It is important to take the deflections and their possible increase into account in the design to provide a structure which can be used during the whole period of service. Based on earlier examinations, it is known that a timber element over the course of long-term loading shows creep behavior. The structure of wood is able to adapt to the conditions of the surrounding environment. The properties of wood are especially affected by the relative humidity of the air and then by the type, intensity and duration of the loading. The most important factors affecting the serviceability of timber structures are volume changes caused by humidity and additional deflections caused by the effects of long-term loading. These phenomena emphasize the importance of serviceability limit states for timber structures. The paper deals with a long-term experimental investigation of timber girders that are currently often used. The aim was to obtain the deflection curves and mark the time dependence and the final deflections. The paper will also define the approximations for simulating the time-dependent deflections and obtain the creep coefficients for calculating the final deflections of the girders investigated.

  4. [Long-term treatment with amiodarone].

    PubMed

    Baedeker, W; Goedel-Meinen, L; Schmidt, G; Hofmann, M; Barthel, P; Blömer, H

    1991-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and the side effects of a long-term treatment with amiodarone. We analyzed the data of 41 patients in whom amiodarone therapy had been initiated between 1974 and 1984. Twenty-one patients had dilative cardiomyopathy, 14 patients had chronic myocardial infarction, four patients suffered from WPW syndrome with intermittent atrial fibrillation, one patient had aortic valve surgery, whereas in one patient there was no clinical evidence of a heart disease. All patients had salvos of ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular tachycardia or documented intermittent ventricular fibrillation. There have been seven drop-outs up to the present time. In each patient, the lowest antiarrhythmically effective dose was applied, which was generally higher in patients with low ejection fraction. Effective treatment of the ventricular tachycardia was achieved in 55-92% of patients and did not depend on the duration of treatment. In 10 patients in whom amiodarone therapy had to be stopped for various reasons. Sudden cardiac death was slightly more frequent than in the 24 patients treated with amiodarone, though the difference was not significant. In cases with a history of syncope the prognosis was poor, even with amiodarone therapy. Due to side effects, a dosage reduction or discontinuation of amiodarone treatment became necessary in 14 patients. Amiodarone proved to be an effective drug also for the long-term treatment of ventricular tachycardia, and possibly for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. With the exception of blue skin color, there was no accumulation of side effects, even during long-term treatment of several years. PMID:1711739

  5. Long Term Archiving and CCSDS Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucon, Danièle

    This article presents some conceptual and implementation CCSDS -Consultative Committee for Space Data Systemsstandards for long term archiving. It focuses on the most recent one, the Producer Archive Interface Specification (PAIS) standard. This standard, currently available as a draft on the CCSDS web site, will be published by the beginning of 2014. It will enable the Producer to share with the Archive a sufficiently precise and unambiguous formal definition of the Digital Objects to be produced and transferred, by means of a model. It will also enable a precise definition of the packaging of these objects in the form of Submission Information Packages (SIPs), including the order in which they should be transferred.

  6. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  7. Long-term outcomes in multiple gestations.

    PubMed

    Rand, Larry; Eddleman, Keith A; Stone, Joanne

    2005-06-01

    Children born from a multiple gestation are at increased risk for cerebral palsy, learning disability, and language and neurobehavioral deficits. With the increased incidence of multiple pregnancies and use of assisted reproductive technology (ART), these issues are more commonly affecting parents. Long-term outcomes are a critical part of preconceptual and early pregnancy counseling for parents faced with a multiple gestation or considering ART, and the provider should be well versed on issues surrounding zygosity, gestational age, higher-order multiples, and the effects of options such as multifetal pregnancy reduction. PMID:15922795

  8. Long-Term Solar Irradiance Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the solar energy throughout the solar spectrum and understanding its variability provide important information about the physical processes and structural changes in the solar interior and in the solar atmosphere...The aim of this paper is to discuss the solar-cycle-related long-term changes in solar total and UV irradiances. The spaceborne irradiance observations are compared to ground-based indices of solar magnetic activity, such as the Photometric Sunspot Index, full disk magnetic flux, and the Mt. Wilson Magnetic Plage Strength Index.

  9. Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

  10. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  11. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support....

  12. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support....

  13. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  14. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Raja, Waseem K.; Wang, Rebecca Y.; Stinson, Jordan A.; Glettig, Dean L.; Burke, Kelly A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogensis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  15. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  16. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers. PMID:26808468

  17. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  18. Long-term intracranial pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    de Jong, D A; Maas, A I; den Ouden, A H; de Lange, S A

    Continuous or intermittent measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is important in patients at risk for raised ICP. Indications exist for short- and long-term measurements. The various methods used for short-term monitoring are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages. For long-term measurements of ICP use of a completely implantable telemetric epidural pressure transducer is indicated. No such device is commercially available. We have developed an inexpensive passive telemetric transducer for this purpose. Results obtained up till now have demonstrated its reliability for measurements of two to three months duration. The life span of the device is limited by degrading of the epoxy utilized for sealing of the titanium pressure sensing part to the radiolucent ceramic cap of the transducer, causing leakage of water into the transducer and false low measurements. Because of these problems new hermetic sealing techniques were tested. Both active metal brazing and glass bonding yielded good results and hermetic sealing could be obtained. The metal to ceramic bonding presented is generally applicable within the design of implants. Besides the technical progress reported, the experience with clinical use in 12 patients is presented. PMID:6674738

  19. Long-term habituation to food in obese and nonobese women123

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Katelyn A; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A; Bouton, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Background: Habituation is a form of learning in which repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to a decrease in responding. Eating involves repeated presentation of the same food stimulus in a meal, and habituation is reliably observed within a meal such that faster rates of habituation are associated with less energy intake. It is possible that repeated presentation of the same food over days will lead to long-term habituation, such that subjects habituate to foods repeated over meals. However, no research on long-term habituation to food in humans has been conducted. Objective: The current study was designed to assess long-term habituation in 16 obese and 16 nonobese premenopausal women. Design: Obese and nonobese women (aged 20–50 y) were randomly assigned to receive a macaroni and cheese meal presented 5 times, either daily for 1 wk or once per week for 5 wk. Results: In both obese and nonobese women, daily presentation of food resulted in faster habituation and less energy intake than did once-weekly presentation of food. Conclusions: Long-term habituation was observed when the same food was presented at daily meals but not when presented once weekly for 5 wk. These results provide the first evidence of long-term habituation to food in women and show that memory of food over daily meals can increase the rate of habituation and reduce energy intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01208870. PMID:21593492

  20. Homocysteine induced cardiovascular events: a consequence of long term anabolic‐androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse

    PubMed Central

    Graham, M R; Grace, F M; Boobier, W; Hullin, D; Kicman, A; Cowan, D; Davies, B; Baker, J S

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The long term effects (>20 years) of anabolic‐androgenic steroid (AAS) use on plasma concentrations of homocysteine (HCY), folate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index, urea, creatinine, haematocrit (HCT), vitamin B12, and urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, were examined in a cohort of self‐prescribing bodybuilders. Methods Subjects (n = 40) were divided into four distinct groups: (1) AAS users still using AAS (SU; n = 10); (2) AAS users abstinent from AAS administration for 3 months (SA; n = 10); (3) non‐drug using bodybuilding controls (BC; n = 10); and (4) sedentary male controls (SC; n = 10). Results HCY levels were significantly higher in SU compared with BC and SC (p<0.01), and with SA (p<0.05). Fat free mass was significantly higher in both groups of AAS users (p<0.01). Daily energy intake (kJ) and daily protein intake (g/day) were significantly higher in SU and SA (p<0.05) compared with BC and SC, but were unlikely to be responsible for the observed HCY increases. HCT concentrations were significantly higher in the SU group (p<0.01). A significant linear inverse relationship was observed in the SU group between SHBG and HCY (r = −0.828, p<0.01), indicating a possible influence of the sex hormones in determining HCY levels. Conclusions With mounting evidence linking AAS to adverse effects on some clotting factors, the significantly higher levels of HCY and HCT observed in the SU group suggest long term AAS users have increased risk of future thromboembolic events. PMID:16488899

  1. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil

  2. Long term outcome of Aldosteronism after target treatments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vin-Cent; Wang, Shuo-Meng; Chang, Chia-Hui; Hu, Ya-Hui; Lin, Lian-Yu; Lin, Yen-Hung; Chueh, Shih-Chieh Jeff; Chen, Likwang; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2016-01-01

    There exists a great knowledge gap in terms of long-term effects of various surgical and pharmacological treatments on outcomes among primary aldosteronism (PA) patients. Using a validated algorithm, we extracted longitudinal data for all PA patients diagnosed in 1997-2010 and treated in the Taiwan National Health Insurance. We identified 3362 PA patients for whom the mean length of follow-up was 5.75 years. PA has higher major cardiovascular events (MACE) than essential hypertension (23.3% vs 19.3%, p = 0.015). Results from the Cox model suggest a strong effect of adrenalectomy on lowering mortality (HR = 0.23 with residual hypertension and 0.21 with resolved hypertension). While need for receptor antagonist (MRA) MRA after diagnosis suggests that a defined daily dose (DDD) of MRA between 12.5 and 50 mg may alleviate risk of death in a U-shape pattern. A specificity test identified patients who has aldosterone producing adenoma (HR = 0.50, p = 0.005) also confirmed adrenalectomy attenuated all-cause mortality. Adrenalectomy decreases long-term all-cause mortality independently from PA cure from hypertension. Prescription corresponding to a DDD between 12.5 and 50 mg may decrease mortality for patients needing MRA. It calls for more attention on early diagnosis, early treatment and prescription of appropriate dosage of MRA for PA patients. PMID:27586402

  3. Long term outcome of Aldosteronism after target treatments

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Vin-Cent; Wang, Shuo-Meng; Chang, Chia-Hui; Hu, Ya-Hui; Lin, Lian-Yu; Lin, Yen-Hung; Chueh, Shih-Chieh Jeff; Chen, Likwang; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2016-01-01

    There exists a great knowledge gap in terms of long-term effects of various surgical and pharmacological treatments on outcomes among primary aldosteronism (PA) patients. Using a validated algorithm, we extracted longitudinal data for all PA patients diagnosed in 1997–2010 and treated in the Taiwan National Health Insurance. We identified 3362 PA patients for whom the mean length of follow-up was 5.75 years. PA has higher major cardiovascular events (MACE) than essential hypertension (23.3% vs 19.3%, p = 0.015). Results from the Cox model suggest a strong effect of adrenalectomy on lowering mortality (HR = 0.23 with residual hypertension and 0.21 with resolved hypertension). While need for receptor antagonist (MRA) MRA after diagnosis suggests that a defined daily dose (DDD) of MRA between 12.5 and 50 mg may alleviate risk of death in a U-shape pattern. A specificity test identified patients who has aldosterone producing adenoma (HR = 0.50, p = 0.005) also confirmed adrenalectomy attenuated all-cause mortality. Adrenalectomy decreases long-term all-cause mortality independently from PA cure from hypertension. Prescription corresponding to a DDD between 12.5 and 50 mg may decrease mortality for patients needing MRA. It calls for more attention on early diagnosis, early treatment and prescription of appropriate dosage of MRA for PA patients. PMID:27586402

  4. 13-week repeated dose toxicity study of l-tyrosine in rats by daily oral administration.

    PubMed

    Shibui, Yusuke; Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kodama, Terutaka; Gonsho, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of l-tyrosine, 4 groups of Crl:CD(SD) rats of both sexes were administered l-tyrosine in water suspension by gavage once daily for 13 weeks at doses of 0 (vehicle), 200, 600 or 2000 mg/kg bw/day. Findings related to l-tyrosine administration were as follows. Edema of the cornified layer at the limiting ridge or forestomach was seen in 600 mg/kg bw/day female group and in both sexes of 2000 mg/kg bw/day group. In the liver, increased weight and hypertrophy of centrilobular hepatocytes were seen in both sexes at 2000 mg/kg bw/day, associated with slight increases in ALT and AST. Regarding the kidney morphology and function, increased hyaline droplets in the proximal tubules and increased urinary protein were seen in the 2000 mg/kg bw/day male group. In addition, increased kidney weight was also observed in both sexes of the 2000 mg/kg bw/day group, although the histological changes attributable to the weight increase remained unclear. As for blood chemistry, increases in triglycerides, total cholesterol, phospholipids, potassium ion, calcium, total protein, and α1 globulin were also seen in both sexes at 2000 mg/kg bw/day. Thus, in this study the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of l-tyrosine was considered to be 600 mg/kg bw/day for males and 200 mg/kg bw/day for females. PMID:26646752

  5. Long-term control of root growth

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  6. Long-term control of root growth

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin. 7 figs.

  7. Long term thermoelectric module testing system.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy

    2009-10-01

    Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period. PMID:19895086

  8. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  9. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  10. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, John V.; Gueretta, Jeanie

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy

  11. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  12. Thermospheric hydrogen - The long-term solar influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breig, E. L.; Sanatani, S.; Hanson, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric Explorer C and E satellite data are employed for a long-term analysis of the behavior of thermospheric hydrogen with respect to the 11 yr solar cycle. The data covered the period 1974-79 (increasing solar activity) and comprised in situ ionospheric (F region) and neutral atmospheric data. The data were analyzed statistically to characterize low latitude hydrogen behavior, e.g., the diurnal variation and mean concentration over the 5 yr data sampling period. Both the mean and daily maximum/minimum ratio (DMMR) varied with the solar F index. The escaping flux of H ions became a contant around 1000 K. Increasing thermospheric temperatures lowered the DMMR value. However, the DMMR values calculated were consistently large enough to require inclusion of neutral winds and/or diurnal variations in charge exchange fluxes moving in and out of the plasmasphere in any model for thermospheric hydrogen behavior.

  13. The long-term safety and tolerability of ispaghula husk.

    PubMed

    Oliver, S D

    2000-06-01

    The safety and tolerability of ispaghula husk, which can now be used as an adjunct to diet for the treatment of mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolaemia, was assessed in 93 healthy subjects over a 52-week period. The study looked at the nutritional, biochemical, and haematological effects of ispaghula. Over the study period there were small but statistically significant changes in some measurements of minerals and vitamin levels, and in some haematological and biochemical parameters. However, none of these were of clinical significance, with the possible exception of changes in vitamin B12 levels. A daily dose of 10.5 g ispaghula was well tolerated and the majority of adverse events recorded were minor, of short duration and either unrelated or possibly related to the study treatment. The results suggest that ispaghula husk can be used with confidence for the long-term treatment of mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:10944885

  14. On the long-term behavior of SS Cygni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizzo, John K.; Mattei, Janet A.

    1992-01-01

    The complete historical light curve of the dwarf nova SS Cygni taken by the American Association of Variable Star Observers from September 27, 1896 to April 7, 1992 is examined. The data consist of 29,387 daily means based on 180,233 individual observations. The statistical properties of the outburst durations, quiescence intervals, and cycle times associated with the 705 outbursts which occurred during this time are investigated. No significant difference is found between the correlations of the duration of a burst with the length of the following cycle time and the duration of a burst with the length of the preceding cycle time. On the basis of long-term moving averages, the inverse relation between cycle time and quiescent magnitude pointed out by Warner (1987, 1988) is confirmed.

  15. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Timothy V.P.; Cooke, Sam F

    2011-01-01

    Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke. PMID:21779718

  16. Long term transtracheal oxygen delivery through microcatheter in patients with hypoxaemia due to chronic obstructive airways disease.

    PubMed Central

    Banner, N R; Govan, J R

    1986-01-01

    Transtracheal administration of oxygen is a new technique for long term treatment. Twenty patients with hypoxaemia due to chronic obstructive airways disease were studied while receiving oxygen through a microcatheter inserted percutaneously into the trachea. By bypassing most of the dead space and avoiding oxygen wastage at the face this method of delivery reduced oxygen requirements by roughly half compared with delivery through nasal cannulas, thus reducing costs and facilitating portable treatment. Twelve of these patients continued to use the system for up to 13 months in preference to using nasal cannulas. Two important complications were a staphylococcal infection and a fractured catheter. Transtracheal oxygen reduced breathlessness and helped patients with routine daily activities. Transtracheal administration of oxygen is a practical method of treatment which may have an important role in rehabilitating patients with chronic lung disease. Images p112-a PMID:3089412

  17. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-07-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  18. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  19. Pain management in a long-term care facility: compliance with JCAHO standards.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Craig R; Wild, Teresa L

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of the treatment of nonmalignant pain in the elderly at a long-term facility was conducted to allow development of a pain management program that complies with both JCAHO guidelines for pain management and with the Tennessee Medicaid (TennCare) reimbursement schedule, and to determine if tramadol can meet the standards of pain management under these new guidelines. Inclusion criteria were residence in our long-term care facility; a pain intensity score > 4 on a modified Wong Baker Pain Scale; the patient having prescription orders for one or more of the following drugs: propoxyphene, meperidine, or high dosages of acetaminophen (approaching 4 g/day); suspected neuropathic or mixed nociceptive/neuropathic pain; and/or a diagnosis of diabetes, osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease. Exclusion criteria were history of seizures, history of opioid or alcohol abuse, and demonstrated hypersensitivity to tramadol or opioids. Tramadol administration began at a dose of 25 mg/day titrated up to a maximum of 300 mg/day over a 16-day period. Data were collected from computer records, dispensing reports, medication administration reports (MARs), current federal minimum data set (MDS) data, and weekly care plan meetings. Data were tabulated at baseline and 4-6 weeks after a stable dose of tramadol had been established. Fourteen residents (mean age 85 years, 1 male, 13 female) met the criteria and received tramadol up to 300 mg/day (qid). Tramadol reduced the residents' pain scores from an average of 6 to 2 using the Modified Wong Baker Pain Scale, reduced the percentage of residents taking propoxyphene from 50% to 14%, and reduced those taking high doses of APAP or APAP products from 43% to 14%. Tramadol reduced the percentage of residents falling, losing weight, showing no change or decline in activities in daily living (ADLs), displaying inappropriate behavioral symptoms, suffering depression, and/or taking psychotropic medications. In the state of Tennessee

  20. Treatment for childhood cancer -- long-term risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000849.htm Treatment for childhood cancer - long-term risks To use the sharing features on ... has. Being aware of your child's risk of long-term health problems can help you follow-up ...

  1. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  2. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  3. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  5. [Long term adherence to HAART in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Bastard, M; Fall, M Basty Koita

    2014-10-01

    Adherence is one of the main predictors of antiretroviral treatment success. A governmental initiative was launched in 1998 for HIV-infected patients in Senegal to provide access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Adherence measurements, defined as pills taken/pills prescribed, were assessed between November 1999 and June 2010 using a pill count along with a questionnaire for 330 patients. Predictors of adherence and identification of adherence trajectories were explored through latent class mixed model. We also performed a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard model. Three adherence behaviours were revealed as well as a better adherence for women. A third of patients had a high adherence trajectory over time and a third had an intermediate one. Male gender and low adherence behaviour over time were independently associated with a higher mortality rate. This study shows that an overall good adherence can be obtained in the long term in Senegal, suggests a better adherence for women and points out a large subsample of patients with intermediate level of adherence behaviour who are at risk for developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:24615434

  6. Long-term outcome in aqueductal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Villani, R; Tomei, G; Gaini, S M; Grimoldi, N; Spagnoli, D; Bello, L

    1995-03-01

    In this study, 78 patients with aqueductal stenosis were submitted to detailed neurodevelopmental assessment with a follow-up of 5-25 years. Sixty-eight percent of patients were categorized as normal; they either attended normal school courses or had regular jobs. Among these, 34% had some motor abnormalities (ataxia, mild hemiparesis, visual disturbances). Twenty-four percent (19 cases) were moderately disabled (trainable retardation) and 8% (6 cases) were severely handicapped. Epilepsy was observed in 13% of the cases. Incidence of recurrent and generalized seizures paralleled neurodevelopmental outcome (5% in normal, 16% in moderately disabled and 50% in severely disabled patients). Endocrine dysfunctions were evident in 28% of the cases and were characterized by precocious or delayed puberty, amenorrhea and somatic underdevelopment. No patient with ventricular enlargement and a cortical mantle width below 20 mm showed a good outcome. Large ventricles were compatible with normal mental development when compensated with a corresponding cranial vault enlargement. In patients with normal mental status and motor abnormalities, long-term CT scan findings revealed the presence of focal brain abnormalities (poroencephaly, brain atrophy, calcifications, extracerebral collections). PMID:7773981

  7. Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestroy, O.

    2009-04-01

    Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

  8. Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.

    PubMed Central

    Todnem, K; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Svihus, R; Rinck, P; Kambestad, B K; Riise, T; Aarli, J A

    1991-01-01

    Forty commercial saturation divers, mean age 34.9 (range 24-49) years, were examined one to seven years after their last deep dive (190-500 metres of seawater). Four had by then lost their divers' licence because of neurological problems. Twenty seven (68%) had been selected by neurological examination and electroencephalography before the deep dives. The control group consisted of 100 men, mean age 34.0 (range 22-48) years. The divers reported significantly more symptoms from the nervous system. Concentration difficulties and paraesthesia in feet and hands were common. They had more abnormal neurological findings by neurological examination compatible with dysfunction in the lumbar spinal cord or roots. They also had a larger proportion of abnormal electroencephalograms than the controls. The neurological symptoms and findings were highly significantly correlated with exposure to deep diving (depth included), but even more significantly correlated to air and saturation diving and prevalence of decompression sickness. Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show more abnormal findings in the divers. Four (10%) divers had had episodes of cerebral dysfunction during or after the dives; two had had seizures, one had had transitory cerebral ischaemia and one had had transitory global amnesia. It is concluded that deep diving may have a long term effect on the nervous system of the divers. PMID:2025592

  9. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Cristina; Montanari, Alberto; José Polo, María

    2016-05-01

    How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  10. The long-term variability of Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkovskaya, V.; Plachinda, S.; Valyavin, G.; Baklanova, D.; Lee, B.-C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the time of 60 years Vega (α Lyrae = HD 172167, A0V) has been generally accepted as a standard star in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet regions. But is the spectrophotometric standard Vega really non-variable star? Researchers give very different answers to this question. We aim to search a periodicity in our results of spectropolarimetric study of Vega, namely periodic variations in equivalent width of the spectral lines and longitudinal magnetic field measurements. High-accuracy spectropolarimetric observations of Vega have been performed during 26 nights from 1997 to 2010 using the Coudé spectrograph of the 2.6-m Shain reflector at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO, Ukraine) and during 4 nights in 2007 and 2008 using the echelle spectrograph BOES at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO, South Korea). The long-term (year-to-year) variability of Vega was confirmed. It was concluded that this variability does not have magnetic nature. The paper is dedicated to the memory of V.P. Merezhin.

  11. Long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, H A; Saudek, C D; Zacur, H A

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, 21 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have been managed at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions with variable rate, remotely controlled implanted insulin pumps. To date, nearly 70 patient-years of experience has been gained with intraperitoneal delivery of a new U-400 insulin with a surfactant. All 21 patients are alive after a mean of 39.3 months (range, 10 to 65 months) after insulin pump implantation. Nineteen of the 21 patients remain on intraperitoneal insulin, for a 5-year actuarial system survival of 90%. Glucose control was improved, especially during the first 16 months after pump implantation, without an increased incidence of severe hypoglycemia. Catheter blockage has been a significant problem, occurring in nine of the 21 patients (43%). Catheter occlusion has been successfully managed, however, with laparoscopic repair in seven of 10 attempts or with catheter change in four of five patients. Nevertheless, quality of life and patient acceptance remain excellent. Moreover, pre-existing nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy have been surprisingly stable. With an aggressive policy of catheter change or laparoscopic clearance of catheter blockage, long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery is now a safe and effective treatment for type I diabetics. PMID:1417197

  12. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R

    1996-04-30

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. PMID:11607658

  13. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, L R

    1996-01-01

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

  14. Long-term adequacy of metal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Although the earth's crust contains vast quantities of metals, extraction technologies and associated costs are inextricably bound to three fundamental geological factors - the amount of metal available in the earth's crust in each range of grades, the mineralogical form and chemical state of the metal, and the spatial distribution of the metal. The energy required to recover a given amount of metal increases substantially as grade declines. Most metal is produced from sulphide or oxide minerals, whereas most metal in the crust may be locked in the structures of the more refractory silicates. Recovery from silicate minerals could require orders of magnitude more energy than that used at present as also could exploitation of small, widely scattered or thin, deeply buried deposits. Although specific information on the fundamental factors is not available, each factor must in turn tend to further restrict exploitation. Independence of average grade and tonnage for many deposit types further reduces the availability of rock as a source of metal. In the long term, effects of these factors will be large increases in price for many metals. ?? 1977.

  15. Long Term Storage of Lyophilized Liposomal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Xu, Y.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Because aqueous liposomal formulations containing multiply unsaturated lipids are susceptible to chemical degradation, these formulations are often lyophilized. Despite their limited chemical stability, interest in the use of multiply unsaturated lipids to promote intracellular delivery has increased considerably in recent years. The goal of the current study was to examine the long term storage stability of lyophilized formulations containing lipids with increasing levels of unsaturation, and various strategies which can be employed to improve stability. Aqueous lipid-trehalose formulations containing 1,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLinPC) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were lyophilized and stored at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. We observed that the lipid degradation rate increased as the storage temperature and unsaturation level were increased. Even the cleanest sugars which are available commercially contain iron contaminants, and it was observed that the chelation of these iron contaminants significantly improved the stability of DLPC during storage. However, the glass transition temperature of the sugar which was included in the formulation, the reduction of the oxygen in the aqueous sample prior to lyophilization, the inclusion of helper lipids (i.e., cholesterol), and the rate of freezing did not significantly improve stability. PMID:25308534

  16. [Long-term care services in Spain: an overview].

    PubMed

    Casado-Marín, David

    2006-03-01

    To date, both in Spain and virtually all the other European Union (EU) countries, dependency has been seen to be a fundamentally private problem to be dealt with by the family concerned. In this way, whether through informal carers or contracted professionals, in the domestic environment or in care homes, it is the dependent person themselves and their families who currently bear the majority of the costs. In light of this, current concern lies in the social change that is coming on, mainly the accelerated aging process and the increased participation of middle-aged women in the labour market, which heighten the need for collective organisation of that which until now has been resolved within family circles. In this context, at the same time that the Government announces to issue a <Long Term Care Law> by the end of 2005, our paper briefly analyzes what we consider the four crucial issues in this area: the current scope of dependency problems and its possible future evolution, the characteristics of the current spanish long-term care system and its main problems; the role that health services should have in the dependency issue; and finally, the benefits and drawbacks of the main alternatives that the Administration could manage in case it intends to increase its involvement in this field. PMID:16539976

  17. Long-term Solar Irradiance Variability: 1984-1989 Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III

    1990-01-01

    Long-term variability in the total solar irradiance has been observed in the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) solar monitor measurements. The monitors have been used to measure the irradiance from the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 spacecraft platforms since October 25, 1984, January 23, 1985, and October 22, 1986, respectively. Before September 1986, the ERBS irradiance values were found to be decreasing -0.03 percent per year. This period was marked by decreasing solar magnetic activity. Between September 1986 and mid-1989, the irradiance values increased approximately 0.1 percent. The latter period was marked by increasing solar activity which was associated with the initiations of the sunspot cycle number 22 and of a new 22-year Hale solar magnetic cycle. Therefore, long-term solar-irradiance variability appears to be correlated directly with solar activity. The maximum smoothed sunspot number occurred during September 1989, according to the Sunspot Index Data Center. Therefore, the recent irradiance increasing trend should disappear during early 1990 and change into a decreasing trend if the observed irradiance variability is correlated more so with the 11-year sunspot cycle than the 22-year Hale cycle. The ERBE irradiance values are presented and compared with sunspot activity for the 1984 to 1989 period. The ERBE values are compared with those available from the Nimbus-7 and Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft experiments.

  18. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  19. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  20. Long-Term Information Preservation and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    An unprecedented amount of information encompassing almost every facet of human activities across the world is generated daily in the form of zeros and ones, and that is often the only form in which such information is recorded. A good fraction of this information needs to be preserved for periods of time ranging from a few years to centuries.…

  1. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  2. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  3. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  4. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  5. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  6. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

  7. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

  8. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  9. 3 CFR - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 30, 2010 Long-Term Gulf Coast... help the Gulf Coast and its people recover from this tragedy. A long-term plan to restore the...

  10. Long-Term Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mhatre, Dimpi; Bapat, Deepa; Udani, Vrajesh

    2016-01-01

    We investigated long-term outcomes in children with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score). Information about outcomes such as speech, friendships and activities of daily living (ADLs) was collected through telephone-based interviews. Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 and Vineland Social Maturity…

  11. Long-term consumption of oats in adult celiac disease patients.

    PubMed

    Kaukinen, Katri; Collin, Pekka; Huhtala, Heini; Mäki, Markku

    2013-11-01

    Many celiac disease patients tolerate oats, but limited data are available on its long-term consumption. This was evaluated in the present study, focusing on small-bowel mucosal histology and gastrointestinal symptoms in celiac adults maintaining a strict gluten-free diet with or without oats. Altogether 106 long-term treated celiac adults were enrolled for this cross-sectional follow-up study. Daily consumption of oats and fiber was assessed, and small-bowel mucosal morphology and densities of CD3+, αβ+ and γσ+ intraepithelial lymphocytes determined. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by a validated Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire. Seventy (66%) out of the 106 treated celiac disease patients had consumed a median of 20 g of oats (range 1-100 g) per day for up to eight years; all consumed oat products bought from general stores. Daily intake and long-term consumption of oats did not result in small-bowel mucosal villous damage, inflammation, or gastrointestinal symptoms. Oat-consumers had a significantly higher daily intake of fiber than those who did not use oats. Two thirds of celiac disease patients preferred to use oats in their daily diet. Even long-term ingestion of oats had no harmful effects. PMID:24201240

  12. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  13. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  14. A new long-term care manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for. PMID:26035606

  15. Long-term Behavior of DNAPL Residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Illangasekare, T.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding and being able to predict the long-term behavior of DNAPL (i.e., TCE) residuals in the source zone are significant in the evaluation of plume spreading. We apply both theoretical analysis and pore-scale simulations to investigate the mass transfer and the effect of reductive dechlorination, in which the contaminant behaves as electron acceptor. At the upfront of the source zone, where the boundary layer has not fully developed, the mass transfer increases as a power-law function of the Peclet number, and is enhanced by biodegradation. These results are consistent with past findings. Under certain conditions, further downstream inside the source zone, the rate of dissolution is slower due to the diluted mass from upstream. Widely applied first-order biodegradation implicitly assumes that the reaction solely depends on the concentration of the contaminant. However, in the slow dilution region, the limitation of electron donor on biodegradation is not negligible. For the reaction between an electron donor and an electron acceptor with intrinsic second-order kinetics, the late-time bio-reaction demonstrates a first-order decay macroscopically with respect to the mass of electron donor, not with respect to that of the contaminant. The late-time decay rate only depends on the intrinsic rate and the solubility of the contaminant. During the intermediate time, affecting by both the concentrations of electron donor and electron acceptor, the first-order decay is not valid. We show that the electron donor decays as exp(-t^2), instead of exp(-t). Moreover, the intermediate-time decay rate is a function of the spatial distribution of DNAPL residuals and the initial conditions.he relationship of the Sherwood number and Peclet number (Comparison of pore-scale simulations and best-fitting curve) he decay of electron donor as a function of t^2

  16. LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

    2003-07-23

    Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are

  17. Modeling Maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation in Clustered Synapses: Long-Term Memory without Bistability

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Memories are stored, at least partly, as patterns of strong synapses. Given molecular turnover, how can synapses maintain strong for the years that memories can persist? Some models postulate that biochemical bistability maintains strong synapses. However, bistability should give a bimodal distribution of synaptic strength or weight, whereas current data show unimodal distributions for weights and for a correlated variable, dendritic spine volume. Thus it is important for models to simulate both unimodal distributions and long-term memory persistence. Here a model is developed that connects ongoing, competing processes of synaptic growth and weakening to stochastic processes of receptor insertion and removal in dendritic spines. The model simulates long-term (>1 yr) persistence of groups of strong synapses. A unimodal weight distribution results. For stability of this distribution it proved essential to incorporate resource competition between synapses organized into small clusters. With competition, these clusters are stable for years. These simulations concur with recent data to support the “clustered plasticity hypothesis” which suggests clusters, rather than single synaptic contacts, may be a fundamental unit for storage of long-term memory. The model makes empirical predictions and may provide a framework to investigate mechanisms maintaining the balance between synaptic plasticity and stability of memory. PMID:25945261

  18. Long-term follow-up of buserelin-induced enteric neuropathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    JÖNSSON, ANETTE; SAND, ELIN; EKBLAD, EVA; OHLSSON, BODIL

    2016-01-01

    A few patients have been shown to develop severe abdominal pain and gastrointestinal dysmotility during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs. A rat model of enteric neuropathy has been developed by administration of the GnRH analog buserelin to rats. Loss of enteric neurons and ganglioneuritis throughout the gastrointestinal tract has been described, without other histopathological changes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of this rat model on body weight, and on morphology and inflammatory changes in the gastrointestinal tract. Rats were administered subcutaneous injections of buserelin or saline once daily for 5 days and allowed to recover for 3 weeks. This regimen was repeated four times. The rats were weighed weekly and were sacrificed 16 weeks after the fourth treatment. The bowel wall was measured by morphometry, and the presence of enteric neurons, mast cells, eosinophils and T-lymphocytes was evaluated. Buserelin-treated rats were shown to have a lower body weight at sacrifice, as compared with the controls (P<0.05). Compared with controls, buserelin treatment caused loss of myenteric neurons in the ileum and colon (P<0.01), a thinner circular muscle layer in ileum (P<0.05) and longitudinal muscle layer in colon (P<0.05), increased number of eosinophils in the submucosa of the ileum (P<0.05), and an increased number of T-lymphocytes in the submucosa and circular muscle layer of the fundus (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) and circular muscle layer of the colon (P<0.05). Mast cells were equally distributed in the two groups. Thus, long-term follow-up of buserelin-induced enteric neuropathy reveals reduced body weight, loss of myenteric neurons, thinning of muscle layers, and increased numbers of eosinophils and T-lymphocytes in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26935850

  19. Propofol effects on cerebellar long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwan Young; Kim, Young Im; Kim, Se Hoon; Park, Hyung Seo; Park, Youn Joon; Ha, Myung Sook; Jin, Yunju; Kim, Dong Kwan

    2015-11-16

    Propofol is an intravenously administered anesthetic that induces γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibition in the central nervous system. It has been implicated in prolonged movement disorders. Since the cerebellum is important for motor coordination and learning, we investigated the potential effects of propofol on cerebellar circuitry. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in Wister rat cerebellar slices, we demonstrated that propofol administration impaired long-term depression from the parallel fiber (PF) to Purkinje cell (PC) synapses (PF-LTD). Also, propofol reduced metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1)-mediated and group I mGluR agonist-induced slow currents in PCs. These results suggest that the propofol-induced PF-LTD impairment may be related to an alteration in mGluR1 signaling, which is essential to motor learning. PMID:26455962

  20. Long-Term Lunar Radiation Degradation Effects on Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; ORourke, Mary Jane; Koontz, Steve; Alred, John; Hill, Charles; Devivar, Rodrigo; Morera-Felix, Shakira; Atwell, William; Nutt, Steve; Sabbann, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is focused on developing technologies for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit. These technologies are to advance the state-of-the-art and provide for longer duration missions outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere. One technology of great interest for large structures is advanced composite materials, due to their weight and cost savings, enhanced radiation protection for the crew, and potential for performance improvements when compared with existing metals. However, these materials have not been characterized for the interplanetary space environment, and particularly the effects of high energy radiation, which is known to cause damage to polymeric materials. Therefore, a study focusing on a lunar habitation element was undertaken to investigate the integrity of potential structural composite materials after exposure to a long-term lunar radiation environment. An overview of the study results are presented, along with a discussion of recommended future work.

  1. Strategic alliance: adapting to the business environment in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Mara, Cynthia Massie; Ziegenfuss, James T

    2002-01-01

    This article is addressed to long-term-care administrators and planners as well as purchasers of long-term care. Believing the current and future business environment will force continued adaptation in long-term-care organizations, the authors utilize nine categories to map pressures for change: cultural, technological, educational, political, legal, natural resource, demographic, sociologic, and economic. Long-term-care organizations, especially those that are not-for-profit, are becoming members of alliances as one way of addressing these pressures. This article describes and presents a case example of a composite alliance to demonstrate the advantages of membership in a strategic alliance. We also present examples of ways in which alliance members use strategic partnerships to improve their ability to manage these forces. PMID:12847938

  2. Long-Term Effects of Frequent In-Center Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chertow, Glenn M; Levin, Nathan W; Beck, Gerald J; Daugirdas, John T; Eggers, Paul W; Kliger, Alan S; Larive, Brett; Rocco, Michael V; Greene, Tom

    2016-06-01

    The Frequent Hemodialysis Network Daily Trial randomized 245 patients to receive six (frequent) or three (conventional) in-center hemodialysis sessions per week for 12 months. As reported previously, frequent in-center hemodialysis yielded favorable effects on the coprimary composite outcomes of death or change in left ventricular mass and death or change in self-reported physical health. Here, we determined the long-term effects of the 12-month frequent in-center hemodialysis intervention. We determined the vital status of patients over a median of 3.6 years (10%-90% range, 1.5-5.3 years) after randomization. Using an intention to treat analysis, we compared the mortality hazard in randomized groups. In a subset of patients from both groups, we reassessed left ventricular mass and self-reported physical health a year or more after completion of the intervention; 20 of 125 patients (16%) randomized to frequent hemodialysis died during the combined trial and post-trial observation periods in contrast to 34 of 120 patients (28%) randomized to conventional hemodialysis. The relative mortality hazard for frequent versus conventional hemodialysis was 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.93); with censoring of time after kidney transplantation, the relative hazard was 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.99). Bayesian analysis suggested a relatively high probability of clinically significant benefit and a very low probability of harm with frequent hemodialysis. In conclusion, a 12-month frequent in-center hemodialysis intervention significantly reduced long-term mortality, suggesting that frequent hemodialysis may benefit selected patients with ESRD. PMID:26467779

  3. Long-term cognitive dysfunction in the rat following docetaxel treatment is ameliorated by the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, rolipram.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Charlotte K; O'Mara, Shane M

    2015-09-01

    Clinical studies report evidence of long-term cognitive and other deficits following adjunctive chemotherapy treatment, which is often termed "chemobrain" or "chemo-fog". The neurological bases of these impairments are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that systemic chemotherapy treatment causes long-term neurobehavioral deficits, and that these deficits are reversed by manipulation of cAMP by the PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram. Male han Wistar rats were treated with docetaxel (an adjunctive chemotherapeutic agent (1mg/kg i.v.)) or control solution (ethanol/Tween 20/0.9% Saline - 5/5/90) once per week for 4 weeks. They were allowed to recover for 4 weeks, administration of rolipram (0.5mg/kg po) or vehicle (maple syrup) then began and continued daily for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment regime animals were tested for spatial and recognition memory deficits with the object exploration task and for depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and open field exploration. We report docetaxel treatment impaired spatial memory but not object recognition memory, compared to control rats. Docetaxel-treated rats also spent significantly more time immobile than controls in the FST. Chronic rolipram treatment attenuated all of these docetaxel-associated changes, recovering spatial memory and reducing immobility. In conclusion, docetaxel-treated rats exhibit alterations in spatial memory and depressive-like behavior, which are reversed following chronic rolipram administration. These results detect long-term cognitive and mood changes following docetaxel treatment and identify PDE4 inhibition as a target treatment of neuropsychological changes associated with "chemobrain". PMID:25940764

  4. Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowark, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for our Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program (NRA 94-OSS-12) grant NAG 5-3225. The proposal is entitled 'Spectral and Temporal Properties of Black Hole Candidates', and began funding in May 1995, and ran through 31 Aug 2000. The project summary from the original proposal was as follows: 'We will study the spectral and temporal properties of black hole candidates (BHC) by using data from archival sources (e.g., EXOSAT, Ginga, ROSAT) and proposed follow-up observations with modern instruments (e.g., ASCA, XTE). Our spectral studies will focus on identifying the basic characteristics and luminosities of the emission components in the various 'states' of BHC. We hope to understand and quantify the global energetics of these states. Our temporal studies will focus on expanding and classifying our knowledge of BHC variability properties in each state. We will explore the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in BHC. We will combine our spectral and temporal studies by analyzing time lags and variability coherence between energy channels. In addition, we will investigate ways of correlating observed variability behavior with specific emission components.' We have accomplished many of these goals laid out within the original proposal. As originally proposed, we have utilized both archival and proprietary satellite data. In terms of archival data, we have utilized data from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), ROSAT, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We also obtained proprietary data from ASCA, RXTE, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). In terms of sources, we have examined a wide variety of both galactic black hole candidates and extra-galactic black holes. For the galactic black holes we have observed and analyzed both the low/hard state and the high/soft state. We have performed both spectral and timing analyses on all of these objects. In addition, we have also examined a number of neutron stars or

  5. Long term property prediction of polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaito, Ali Al-Abed

    properties of the nanocomposites was analyzed by examining tensile and creep-recovery behavior of the films at temperatures in the range of 25 to -100°C. Within the measured temperature range, the materials showed a nonlinear temperature dependent response. The time-temperature superposition principle was successfully used to predict the long term behavior of LLDPE nanocomposites.

  6. LOP- LONG-TERM ORBIT PREDICTOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is

  7. Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Leirisalo-Repo, M; Helenius, P; Hannu, T; Lehtinen, A; Kreula, J; Taavitsainen, M; Koskimies, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Reactive joint complications triggered by salmonella gastroenteritis are increasingly reported, but the outcome and long term prognosis of the patients is incompletely known. This study looked at the prognosis of salmonella arthritis in patients hospitalised in 1970-1986.
METHODS—Hospital records from two hospitals in southern Finland were screened for patients with the discharge diagnosis of salmonellosis or reactive, postinfectious arthritis or Reiter's disease. For the patients with confirmed diagnosis of reactive salmonella arthritis, data about the acute disease were collected from the hospital records. A follow up study was performed.
RESULTS—There were 63 patients (28 women, 35 men, mean age 36.5 years) with salmonella arthritis. Urethritis occurred in 27%, eye inflammation in 13%, and low back pain in 44% of the patients. HLA-B27 was present in 88%. More men than women were HLA-B27 positive. HLA-B27 positive patients had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mean 80.9 v 46.5 mm 1st h, p = 0.0180). Also, extra-articular features and radiological sacroiliitis were seen only in HLA-B27 positive patients. A follow up study was performed on 50 patients mean 11.0 (range 5-22 years) later. Twenty patients had recovered completely. Ten patients had mild joint symptoms, 11 patients had had a new acute transient arthritis, and five acute iritis. Eight patients had developed chronic spondyloarthropathy. Radiological sacroiliitis was seen in six of 44 patients, more frequently in male than in female patients (32% v 0%; p = 0.0289). Recurrent or chronic arthritis, iritis or radiological sacroiliitis developed only in HLA-B27 positive patients.
CONCLUSION—Joint symptoms are common after reactive salmonella arthritis. HLA-B27 contributes to the severity of acute disease and to the late prognosis.

 PMID:9370874

  8. Daily administration of atorvastatin and simvastatin for one week improves cardiac function in type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Maria J; Cruz, Nildris; Quidgley, Jose; Torres, Hector; Hernandez, Cesar; Casiano, Hector; Rivera, Karines

    2014-01-01

    Short-term administration of statins during the perioperative period has been suggested to improve cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac and vascular surgery. The effectiveness of this therapy, the optimal administration time and the statin best suited to improve cardiac performance under hyperglycemic conditions, however, are unknown. In this study, we compared the effects of 10 mg/kg/day simvastatin (SV), pravastatin (PV) and atorvastatin (AV), on the CV status of fully anesthetized streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats 4 weeks following diabetes induction. At this stage, cardiac function is compromised. The rats were anesthetized to mimic presurgical conditions. Cardiac status was evaluated twice by echocardiography, first 24 h after statin administration, and then after daily statin administration for 1 week. After 24 h of statin administration, CV parameters were not improved. Continued daily administration of SV and AV over a 1-week period, by contrast, significantly improved ejection fraction from 52.20 ± 2.33% before treatment to 64.89 ± 1.12% with AV and to 69.71 ± 2.30% with SV (n = 9, p < 0.05). The cardiac output index was also significantly improved from 51.13 ± 6.86 ml/min × 100 g body weight (BW) before treatment to 98.74 ± 13.78 ml/min × 100 g BW with AV and to 84.94 ± 8.64 ml/min × 100 g BW with SV. Only AV increased stroke volume from 0.50 ± 0.08 to 0.83 ± 0.13 ml (n = 9, p < 0.05). Unlike the other statins tested, PV provided no beneficial effects, regardless of the regimen of administration. Our results indicate that daily administration of AV and SV for 1 week enhances cardiac performance in fully anesthetized diabetic rats. This study of short-term statin administration may have strong clinical implications for improving perioperative outcomes in diabetic patients. PMID:24556594

  9. Extreme Values Analysis of McMurdo Dry Valleys Long Term Ecological Research (LTER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Gooseff, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica is often referred to as an extreme environment because of cold mean annual temperatures (-20 degrees C), and very dry conditions (<10 cm water equivalent precipitation annually). However, the long-term database of the McMurdo Long Term Ecological Research project (>20 years in some cases) has not yet formally been analyzed to determine if statistically extreme events occur in this otherwise "extreme" ecosystem. We analyzed limnology, stream, and meteorology datasets with the extRemes R software package. For each time series read, the extRemes package produced a Probability Plot, a Quantile Plot, a Return Level Plot, and a Density Plot of Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) Distribution. The four plots indicate the extent to which the observed distribution fits the GEV distribution. We found that, in particular, the conductivity of Delta Stream and Lost Seal Stream has all of daily means, daily maximums and daily minimums well fitted in GEV. The relative humidity of Commonwealth Glacier, Howard Glacier and Taylor Glacier is only well fitted in daily means and daily minimums, but daily maximums. On the contrary, radiation levels and soil temperatures never fit the GEV distribution. The other time series are fitted only in one or none of daily means, daily maximums and daily minimums.; ;

  10. Long-term evolution is surprisingly predictable in lattice proteins

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Michael E.; Moudgil, Arnav; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been debated whether natural selection acts primarily upon individual organisms, or whether it also commonly acts upon higher-level entities such as lineages. Two arguments against the effectiveness of long-term selection on lineages have been (i) that long-term evolutionary outcomes will not be sufficiently predictable to support a meaningful long-term fitness and (ii) that short-term selection on organisms will almost always overpower long-term selection. Here, we use a computational model of protein folding and binding called ‘lattice proteins’. We quantify the long-term evolutionary success of lineages with two metrics called the k-fitness and k-survivability. We show that long-term outcomes are surprisingly predictable in this model: only a small fraction of the possible outcomes are ever realized in multiple replicates. Furthermore, the long-term fitness of a lineage depends only partly on its short-term fitness; other factors are also important, including the ‘evolvability’ of a lineage—its capacity to produce adaptive variation. In a system with a distinct short-term and long-term fitness, evolution need not be ‘short-sighted’: lineages may be selected for their long-term properties, sometimes in opposition to short-term selection. Similar evolutionary basins of attraction have been observed in vivo, suggesting that natural biological lineages will also have a predictive long-term fitness. PMID:23466559

  11. Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in long-term care (LTC) patients: validation of the 2014 STOPP-START and 2012 Beers criteria in a LTC population—a protocol for a cross-sectional comparison of clinical and health administrative data

    PubMed Central

    Bjerre, Lise M; Halil, Roland; Catley, Christina; Farrell, Barbara; Hogel, Matthew; Black, Cody D; Williams, Margo; Ryan, Cristín; Manuel, Douglas G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) is frequent and problematic in older patients. Identifying PIP is necessary to improve prescribing quality; ideally, this should be performed at the population level. Screening Tool of Older Persons’ potentially inappropriate Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (STOPP/START) and Beers criteria were developed to identify PIP in clinical settings and are useful at the individual patient level; however, they are time-consuming and costly to apply. Only a subset of these criteria is applicable to routinely collected population-level health administrative data (HAD) because the clinical information necessary to implement these tools is often missing from databases. The performance of subsets of STOPP/START and Beers criteria in HAD compared with clinical data from the same patients is unknown; furthermore, the performance of the updated 2014 STOPP-START and 2012 Beers criteria compared with one another is also unknown. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional study of linked HAD and clinical data will be conducted to validate the subsets of STOPP/START and Beers criteria applicable to HAD by comparing their performance when applied to clinical and HAD for the same patients. Eligible patients will be 66 years and over and recently admitted to 1 of 6 long-term care facilities in Ottawa, Ontario. The target sample size is 275, but may be less if statistical significance can be achieved sooner. Medication, diagnostic and clinical data will be collected by a consultant pharmacist. The main outcome measure is the proportion of PIP missed by the subset of STOPP/START and Beers criteria applied to HAD when compared with clinical data. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ottawa Health Services Network Research Ethics Board, the Bruyère Continuing Care Research Ethics Board and the ethics board of the City of Ottawa Long Term Care Homes. Dissemination will occur via

  12. Implications of Chronic Daily Anti-Oxidant Administration on the Inflammatory Response to Intracortical Microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Potter-Baker, Kelsey A.; Stewart, Wade G.; Tomaszewski, William H.; Wong, Chun T.; Meador, William D.; Ziats, Nicholas P.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Oxidative stress events have been implicated to occur and facilitate multiple failure modes of intracortical microelectrodes. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the ability of a sustained concentration of an anti-oxidant and to reduce oxidative stress-mediated neurodegeneration for the application of intracortical microelectrodes. Approach Non-functional microelectrodes were implanted into the cortex of male Sprague Dawley rats for up to sixteen weeks. Half of the animals received a daily intraperitoneal injection of the natural anti-oxidant resveratrol, at 30 mg/kg. The study was designed to investigate the biodistribution of the resveratrol, and the effects on neuroinflammation/neuroprotection following device implantation. Main Results Daily maintenance of a sustained range of resveratrol throughout the implantation period resulted in fewer degenerating neurons in comparison to control animals at both two and sixteen weeks post implantation. Initial and chronic improvements in neuronal viability in resveratrol-dosed animals were correlated with significant reductions in local superoxide anion accumulation around the implanted device at two weeks after implantation. Controls, receiving only saline injections, were also found to have reduced amounts of accumulated superoxide anion locally and less neurodegeneration than controls at sixteen weeks post-implantation. Despite observed benefits, thread-like adhesions were found between the liver and diaphragm in resveratrol-dosed animals. Significance Overall, our chronic daily anti-oxidant dosing scheme resulted in improvements in neuronal viability surrounding implanted microelectrodes, which could result in improved device performance. However, due to the discovery of thread-like adhesions, further work is still required to optimize a chronic anti-oxidant dosing regime for the application of intracortical microelectrodes. PMID:26015427

  13. Implications of chronic daily anti-oxidant administration on the inflammatory response to intracortical microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter-Baker, Kelsey A.; Stewart, Wade G.; Tomaszewski, William H.; Wong, Chun T.; Meador, William D.; Ziats, Nicholas P.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Oxidative stress events have been implicated to occur and facilitate multiple failure modes of intracortical microelectrodes. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the ability of a sustained concentration of an anti-oxidant and to reduce oxidative stress-mediated neurodegeneration for the application of intracortical microelectrodes. Approach. Non-functional microelectrodes were implanted into the cortex of male Sprague Dawley rats for up to sixteen weeks. Half of the animals received a daily intraperitoneal injection of the natural anti-oxidant resveratrol, at 30 mg kg-1. The study was designed to investigate the biodistribution of the resveratrol, and the effects on neuroinflammation/neuroprotection following device implantation. Main results. Daily maintenance of a sustained range of resveratrol throughout the implantation period resulted in fewer degenerating neurons in comparison to control animals at both two and sixteen weeks post implantation. Initial and chronic improvements in neuronal viability in resveratrol-dosed animals were correlated with significant reductions in local superoxide anion accumulation around the implanted device at two weeks after implantation. Controls, receiving only saline injections, were also found to have reduced amounts of accumulated superoxide anion locally and less neurodegeneration than controls at sixteen weeks post-implantation. Despite observed benefits, thread-like adhesions were found between the liver and diaphragm in resveratrol-dosed animals. Significance. Overall, our chronic daily anti-oxidant dosing scheme resulted in improvements in neuronal viability surrounding implanted microelectrodes, which could result in improved device performance. However, due to the discovery of thread-like adhesions, further work is still required to optimize a chronic anti-oxidant dosing regime for the application of intracortical microelectrodes.

  14. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression.

    PubMed

    Antunes, G; Roque, A C; Simoes-de-Souza, F M

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca(2+) induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca(2+) signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca(2+) thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  15. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, G.; Roque, A. C.; Simoes-de-Souza, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca2+ induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca2+ signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca2+ thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  16. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in the brain caused by the long-term intake of aspartame by rats.

    PubMed

    Finamor, Isabela A; Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Bressan, Caroline A; Scheid, Taína; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Llesuy, Susana F; Partata, Wânia A; Pavanato, Maria A

    2014-09-01

    Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily dose causes oxidative stress in rodent brain mainly due to the dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. N-Acetylcysteine provides the cysteine that is required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment (150 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat brain after chronic aspartame administration by gavage (40 mg kg(-1)). N-Acetylcysteine led to a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and carbonyl protein levels, which were increased due to aspartame administration. N-Acetylcysteine also resulted in an elevation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, as well as non-protein thiols, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased after aspartame exposure. However, N-acetylcysteine was unable to reduce serum glucose levels, which were increased as a result of aspartame administration. Furthermore, catalase and glutathione S-transferase, whose activities were reduced due to aspartame treatment, remained decreased even after N-acetylcysteine exposure. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine treatment may exert a protective effect against the oxidative damage in the brain, which was caused by the long-term consumption of the acceptable daily dose of aspartame by rats. PMID:24970110

  17. A prospective study of long-term care institutionalization among the aged.

    PubMed

    Branch, L G; Jette, A M

    1982-12-01

    A statewide probability sample of 1,625 elders living in Massachusetts are studied prospectively to identify key determinants of long-term care (LTC) institutionalization. One-hundred forty-seven elders, 9 per cent of the original cohort, entered a LTC institution during the six-year investigation. Using logistic multiple regression, we examine the predictive power of 19 independent variables grouped into six categories: demographic characteristics, attitude, social context, long-term care needs, physical disability, and mental/emotional disability. Five variables are significantly related to institutionalization: advancing age, using ambulatory aids, mental disorientation, living alone, and using assistance to perform "instrumental" ADL (activities of daily living). These results may be helpful to those trying to target non-institutional services to elders for use as substitutes for institutional long-term care. They may also help explain why recent experimental tests of substituting non-institutional care for institutional services have been less than successful. PMID:6814269

  18. Long-term care financing: options for the future.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Janemarie; Li, Annelise

    2002-01-01

    The aging of the baby boomers will have an enormous impact on the future of long-term care costs. This article projects the magnitude of that impact, discusses sources of financing, and considers the cost and feasibility of three options for financing future long-term care services. The authors investigate the alternatives of increasing personal savings, raising payroll taxes and expanding employer-sponsored private long-term care insurance coverage, respectively. PMID:12004582

  19. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. (Editor); Rossow, W. (Editor); Fung, I. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

  20. Long term variability of B supergiant winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck L.

    1995-01-01

    The object of this observing proposal was to sample wind variability in B supergiants on a daily basis over a period of several days in order to determine the time scale with which density variability occurs in their winds. Three stars were selected for this project: 69 Cyg (B0 Ib), HD 164402 (B0 Ib), and HD 47240 (B1 Ib). Three grey scale representations of the Si IV lambda lambda 1400 doublet in each star are attached. In these figures, time (in days) increases upward, and the wavelength (in terms of velocity relative to the rest wavelength of the violet component of the doublet) is the abscissa. The spectra are normalized by a minimum absorption (maximum flux) template, so that all changes appear as absorptions. As a result of these observations, we can now state with some certainty that typical B supergiants develop significant wind inhomogeneities with recurrence times of a few days, and that some of these events show signs of strong temporal coherence.

  1. LONG-TERM PERIODICITY VARIATIONS OF THE SOLAR RADIUS

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Z. N.; Xie, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the long-term periodicity variations of the solar radius, daily solar radius data from 1978 February to 2000 September at the Calern Observatory are used. Continuous observations of the solar radius are difficult due to the weather, seasonal effects, and instrument characteristics. Thus, to analyze these data, we first use the Dixon criterion to reject suspect values, then we measure the cross-correlation between the solar radius and sunspot numbers. The result indicates that the solar radius is in complete antiphase with the sunspot numbers and shows lead times of 74 months relative to the sunspot numbers. The Lomb-Scargle and date compensated discrete Fourier transform methods are also used to investigate the periodicity of the solar radius. Both methods yield similar significance periodicities around {approx}1 yr, {approx}2.6 yr, {approx}3.6 yr, and {approx}11 yr. Possible mechanisms for these periods are discussed. The possible physical cause of the {approx}11 yr period is the cyclic variation of the magnetic pressure of the concentrated flux tubes at the bottom of the solar convection zone.

  2. Effects of long-term FK 506 therapy on the alveolar bone and cementum of rats.

    PubMed

    Nassar, C A; Nassar, P O; Andia, D C; Guimarães, M R; Spolidorio, L C

    2009-06-01

    Cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK 506) exert complex, incompletely understood actions on bone. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of long-term tacrolimus therapy on the periodontium. Rats were treated for 60, 120, 180, and 240 days with daily subcutaneous injections of 1 mg/kg body weight of FK 506. After the experimental period, we obtained serum levels of calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). After histological processing, the alveolar bone and cementum, as well as volume densities of bone (V(b)) and osteoclasts (V(o)), were assessed at the regions of the lower first molar. There was a tendency toward a statistically significant decrease in ALP levels with FK 506; however, serum calcium levels increased during the long periods. At 60, 180, and 240 days of treatment with FK 506, we did not observe V(b) and V(o) alterations. At 120 days of treatment, there was an evident decrease in V(b), but it did not show alveolar bone loss. We did not observe any alterations of cementum among rats treated with FK 506. It may be concluded that FK 506 administration did not induce side effects on the periodontium. PMID:19545747

  3. Aluminium-maltolate-induced impairment of learning, memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rui-Feng; Li, Wei-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Hui-Fang; Wang, Hong; Wang, Jun-Xia; Zhang, Yu; Wan, Ming-Tao; Pan, Bao-Long; Niu, Qiao

    2012-01-01

    Recently, aluminium (Al) has been proposed to be one of the environmental factors responsible for cause Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the relationship between Al and AD is controversial. To investigate the effects of subchronic Aluminium-maltolate (Al (mal)(3)) exposure on the behavioral, electrophysiological functions. Forty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly distributed into five groups. Over two months, rats in the saline group received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections 0.9% saline, rats in the maltolate group received 7.56 mg/kg maltolate, and rats in the 0.27, 0.54, 1.08 mg/kg Al (mal)(3) groups received i.p. administrations of these three doses, respectively. Neural behavior was assessed in Morris water maze. Long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampus was recorded. Al content in the neocortex was determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our studies indicate that subchronic Al (mal)(3) exposure significantly impaired spatial learning and memory abilities, suppressed the LTP in the CA1 hippocampal area, and elevated Al levels in cerebral cortex in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, low doses of Al (mal)(3) can still lead to dramatic Al accumulation in the brain, severely impair learning and memory capacities, and hippocampal LTP. PMID:22878356

  4. Long-term ozone and temperature correlations above SANAE, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodeker, Gregory E.; Scourfield, Malcolm W. J.

    1994-01-01

    A significant decline in Antarctic total column ozone and upper air temperatures has been observed in recent years. Furthermore, high correlations between monthly mean values of ozone and stratospheric temperature have been measured above Syowa, Antarctica. For the observations reported here, data from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite have been used to examine the 1980 to 1990 decrease in total column ozone above the South African Antarctic base of SANAE (70 deg 18 min S, 2 deg 21 min W). The cooling of the Antarctic stratosphere above SANAE during this period has been investigated by examining upper air temperatures at the 150, 100, 70, 50, and 30 hPa levels obtained from daily radiosonde balloon launches. Furthermore, these two data sets have been used to examine long-term, medium-term, and short-term correlations between total column ozone and the temperatures at each of the five levels. The trend in SANAE total column ozone has been found to be -4.9 DU/year, while upper air temperatures have been found to decrease at around 0.3 C/year. An analysis of monthly average SANAE total column ozone has shown the decrease to be most severe during the month of September with a trend of -7.7 DU/year. A strong correlation (r(exp 2) = 0.92) has been found between yearly average total column ozone and temperature at the 100 hPa level. Daily ozone and temperature correlations show high values from September to November, at a time when the polar vortex is breaking down.

  5. Safety, Tolerability, and Compliance with Long-Term Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in American Soldiers in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Saunders, David L; Garges, Eric; Manning, Jessica E; Bennett, Kent; Schaffer, Sarah; Kosmowski, Andrew J; Magill, Alan J

    2015-09-01

    Long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis is currently used by deployed U.S. military personnel. Previous small, short-term efficacy studies have shown variable rates of side effects among patients taking various forms of chemoprophylaxis, though reliable safety and tolerability data on long-term use are limited. We conducted a survey of troops returning to Fort Drum, NY following a 12-month deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom, Afghanistan from 2006 to 2007. Of the 2,351 respondents, 95% reported taking at least one form of prophylaxis during their deployment, and 90% were deployed for > 10 months. Compliance with daily doxycycline was poor (60%) compared with 80% with weekly mefloquine (MQ). Adverse events (AEs) were reported by approximately 30% with both MQ and doxycycline, with 10% discontinuing doxycycline compared with 4% of MQ users. Only 6% and 31% of soldiers reported use of bed nets and skin repellents, respectively. Compliance with long-term malaria prophylaxis was poor, and there were substantial tolerability issues based on these anonymous survey results, though fewer with MQ than doxycycline. Given few long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis options, there is an unmet medical need for new antimalarials safe for long-term use. PMID:26123954

  6. Process auditing in long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, S M; LeSage, J; Roberts, K L; Ellor, J R

    1985-01-01

    The ECC tool development and audit experiences indicated that there is promise in developing a process audit tool to monitor quality of care in nursing homes; moreover, the tool selected required only one hour per resident. Focusing on the care process and resident needs provided useful information for care providers at the unit level as well as for administrative personnel. Besides incorporating a more interdisciplinary focus, the revised tool needs to define support services most appropriate for nursing homes, includes items related to discharge planning and increases measurement of significant others' involvement in the care process. Future emphasis at the ECC will focus on developing intervention plans to maintain strengths and correct deficiencies identified in the audits. Various strategies to bring about desired changes in the quality of care will be evaluated through regular, periodic monitoring. Having a valid and reliable measure of quality of care as a tool will be an important step forward for LTC facilities. PMID:3919355

  7. Long-term effects of fingolimod in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Paul; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Polman, Chris; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Selmaj, Krzysztof; Ritter, Shannon; Schlosshauer, Rolf; von Rosenstiel, Philipp; Zhang-Auberson, Lixin; Francis, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess long-term safety and efficacy of fingolimod in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: Patients completing FTY720 Research Evaluating Effects of Daily Oral Therapy in MS (FREEDOMS) were eligible for this dose-blinded, parallel-group extension study, continuing fingolimod 0.5 mg/day or 1.25 mg/day, or switching from placebo to either dose, randomized 1:1. Efficacy variables included annualized relapse rate (ARR), brain volume loss (BVL), and confirmed disability progression (CDP). Between-group analyses were conducted in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population from FREEDOMS baseline to end of study. Within-group analyses compared years 0–2 (FREEDOMS) and years 2–4 (extension) in the extension ITT population. Results: Of 1,272 patients (FREEDOMS ITT population), 1,033 were eligible, and 920 enrolled in the extension study (continuous-fingolimod: 0.5 mg [n = 331], 1.25 mg [n = 289]; placebo–fingolimod: 0.5 mg [n = 155], 1.25 mg [n = 145]); 916 formed the extension ITT population (n = 330; n = 287; n = 154; n = 145) and 773 (84%) completed. In the continuous-fingolimod groups, ARR was lower (p < 0.0001), BVL was reduced (p < 0.05), and proportionately more patients were free from 3-month CDP (p < 0.05) than in a group comprising all placebo–fingolimod patients. Within each placebo–fingolimod group, ARR was lower (p < 0.001, both) and BVL was reduced after switching (p < 0.01, placebo–fingolimod 0.5 mg). Rates and types of adverse events were similar across groups; no new safety issues were reported. Conclusion: Efficacy benefits of fingolimod during FREEDOMS were sustained during the extension; ARR and BVL were reduced after switching. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that long-term fingolimod treatment is well-tolerated and reduces relapse rates, disability progression, and MRI effects in patients with RRMS. PMID:25795646

  8. Long-Term Treatment with Low Doses of Methamphetamine Promotes Neuronal Differentiation and Strengthens Long-Term Potentiation of Glutamatergic Synapses onto Dentate Granule Neurons.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Sofia; Lourenço, Joana; Milhazes, Nuno; Borges, Fernanda; Silva, Ana Paula; Bacci, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant, affecting hippocampal function with disparate cognitive effects, which depends on the dose and time of administration, ranging from improvement to impairment of memory. Importantly, in the United States, METH is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Modifications of long-term plasticity of synapses originating from the entorhinal cortex onto dentate granule cells (DGCs) have been proposed to underlie cognitive alterations similar to those seen in METH users. However, the effects of METH on synaptic plasticity of the dentate gyrus are unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of long-term administration of METH (2 mg/kg/d) on neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity of immature and mature DGCs of juvenile mice. We used a mouse model of neurogenesis (the G42 line of GAD67-GFP), in which GFP is expressed by differentiating young DGCs. METH treatment enhanced the differentiation of GFP(+) cells, as it increased the fraction of GFP(+) cells expressing the neuronal marker NeuN, and decreased the amount of immature DGCs coexpressing doublecortin. Interestingly, METH did not change the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) in more immature neurons, but facilitated LTP induction in more differentiated GFP(+) and strengthened plasticity in mature GFP(-) DGCs. The METH-induced facilitation of LTP in GFP(+) neurons was accompanied with spine enlargement. Our results reveal a specific action of long-term use of METH in the long-term plasticity of excitatory synapses onto differentiating DGCs and might have important implications toward the understanding of the synaptic basis of METH-induced cognitive alterations. PMID:27419216

  9. Long-Term Treatment with Low Doses of Methamphetamine Promotes Neuronal Differentiation and Strengthens Long-Term Potentiation of Glutamatergic Synapses onto Dentate Granule Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Milhazes, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant, affecting hippocampal function with disparate cognitive effects, which depends on the dose and time of administration, ranging from improvement to impairment of memory. Importantly, in the United States, METH is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Modifications of long-term plasticity of synapses originating from the entorhinal cortex onto dentate granule cells (DGCs) have been proposed to underlie cognitive alterations similar to those seen in METH users. However, the effects of METH on synaptic plasticity of the dentate gyrus are unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of long-term administration of METH (2 mg/kg/d) on neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity of immature and mature DGCs of juvenile mice. We used a mouse model of neurogenesis (the G42 line of GAD67-GFP), in which GFP is expressed by differentiating young DGCs. METH treatment enhanced the differentiation of GFP+ cells, as it increased the fraction of GFP+ cells expressing the neuronal marker NeuN, and decreased the amount of immature DGCs coexpressing doublecortin. Interestingly, METH did not change the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) in more immature neurons, but facilitated LTP induction in more differentiated GFP+ and strengthened plasticity in mature GFP− DGCs. The METH-induced facilitation of LTP in GFP+ neurons was accompanied with spine enlargement. Our results reveal a specific action of long-term use of METH in the long-term plasticity of excitatory synapses onto differentiating DGCs and might have important implications toward the understanding of the synaptic basis of METH-induced cognitive alterations. PMID:27419216

  10. Long-Term Delivery of Protein Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Ravi; Khurana, Varun; Patel, Sulabh; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Proteins are effective biotherapetics with applications in diverse ailments. Despite being specific and potent, their full clinical potential has not yet been realized. This can be attributed to short half-lives, complex structures, poor in vivo stability, low permeability frequent parenteral administrations and poor adherence to treatment in chronic diseases. A sustained release system, providing controlled release of proteins, may overcome many of these limitations. Areas covered This review focuses on recent development in approaches, especially polymer-based formulations, which can provide therapeutic levels of proteins over extended periods. Advances in particulate, gel based formulations and novel approaches for extended protein delivery are discussed. Emphasis is placed on dosage form, method of preparation, mechanism of release and stability of biotherapeutics. Expert opinion Substantial advancements have been made in the field of extended protein delivery via various polymer-based formulations over last decade despite the unique delivery-related challenges posed by protein biologics. A number of injectable sustained-release formulations have reached market. However, therapeutic application of proteins is still hampered by delivery related issues. A large number of protein molecules are under clinical trials and hence there is an urgent need to develop new methods to deliver these highly potent biologics. PMID:25251334

  11. Projected Use of Long-Term-Care Services by Enrolled Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinosian, Bruce; Stallard, Eric; Wieland, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe the projected use for long-term-care services through 2012. Design and Methods: We constructed a static-component projection model using age, function, and other covariates. We obtained enrollee projections from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and combined these with nursing home and…

  12. Building Long-Term Support for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Davidson, Laurie

    This publication describes actions and basic principles that campus-based alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention coordinators can take to develop long-term administrative and financial support for campus AOD programs. The first section covers types of prevention programs that increase the probability of success. These programs include:…

  13. Long-term prevention of estrus in the bitch and queen using chlormadinone acetate.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Hiromichi; Kawate, Noritoshi; Inaba, Toshio; Sawada, Tsutomu

    2003-05-01

    Estrus was prevented with weekly oral administration of 2 mg chlormadinone acetate for 2.0 to 9.8 y in bitches and queens. Abnormalities, including mammary or uterine disorders, or both, were noted in 7 out of 14 bitches and 9 out of 24 queens during this long-term treatment. PMID:12757134

  14. Long-term prevention of estrus in the bitch and queen using chlormadinone acetate

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, Hiromichi; Kawate, Noritoshi; Inaba, Toshio; Sawada, Tsutomu

    2003-01-01

    Estrus was prevented with weekly oral administration of 2 mg chlormadinone acetate for 2.0 to 9.8 y in bitches and queens. Abnormalities, including mammary or uterine disorders, or both, were noted in 7 out of 14 bitches and 9 out of 24 queens during this long-term treatment. PMID:12757134

  15. Dignity Versus Dehumanization in Long-Term Care Settings for Older Persons: A Training Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampfe, Charlene M.

    This paper describes the types of attitudes and behaviors that might be destructive to an individual's sense of self-worth, and suggests that counselors in long-term care settings face the challenge of changing these. One strategy for counteracting potential dehumanization, offering in-service training to all levels of staff and administrators, is…

  16. Career Program Completers, 1993-94: A Long-Term Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Karen A.

    This long-term follow-up study, conducted in the summer of 1998 by Johnson County Community College (JCCC, Kansas) focused on graduates, certificate recipients, and students identified by career program administrators as leaving with marketable skills in 1993-94. Since first administering this type of survey in 1989, JCCC has gained a broader…

  17. Psychotropic Medication of Mentally Retarded Residents in Community Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Jeffrey A.; Sprague, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Medicaid billing information was used to examine the administration of psychotropic medication to residents of community long-term care facilities providing mental retardation services. Results indicated 28.9 percent of such residents in Illinois received at least one psychotropic medication with little or no influence of demographic and facility…

  18. 46 CFR 356.43 - Long-term or exclusive sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Long-term or exclusive sales contracts. 356.43 Section 356.43 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS FOR VESSELS OF 100 FEET OR GREATER IN REGISTERED LENGTH TO OBTAIN A FISHERY ENDORSEMENT TO THE...

  19. Ensuring climate information guides long-term development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lindsey; Dougill, Andrew; Jones, Richard G.; Steynor, Anna; Watkiss, Paul; Kane, Cheikh; Koelle, Bettina; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; Padgham, Jon; Ranger, Nicola; Roux, Jean-Pierre; Suarez, Pablo; Tanner, Thomas; Vincent, Katharine

    2015-09-01

    Many sub-Saharan countries are failing to include climate information in long-term development planning. Ensuring climate-resilient development requires a step change in how medium- to long-term climate information is produced, communicated and utilized in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere.

  20. Long Term Agroecosystem Research in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at USDA-ARS’s Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita ...

  1. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  2. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  3. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  4. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  5. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  6. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  7. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  8. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  9. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  10. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  11. Standards for Psychological Services in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Smith, Michael; Frazer, Deborah; Molinari, Victor; Rosowsky, Erlene; Crose, Royda; Stillwell, Nick; Kramer, Nanette; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Qualls, Sara; Salamon, Michael; Duffy, Michael; Parr, Joyce; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of standards for psychological practice in long-term care facilities. The standards, which were developed by Psychologists in Long-Term Care, address provider characteristics, methods of referral, assessment practices, treatment, and ethical issues. Offers suggestions for use of the standards. (MKA)

  12. [Developing the core competencies of long-term care professionals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huey-Tzy; Lee, Kuang-Ting

    2012-12-01

    Longer average life expectancies and an ageing society have made long-term care an urgent and important issue in Taiwan. Although the implementation of Long-Term Care Ten-year Project four years ago has begun showing success in terms of assessing Taiwan's needs in terms of long-term care services and resources, there has been little forward progress in terms of training, recruiting and maintaining more competent professionals in the long-term care sector. This paper explores the current state of long-term care competency in Taiwan and educational strategies in place to improve the competency of long-term care professionals. Results indicate that the term geriatric competency embraces sub-competencies in direct care, communication, assessment, teamwork, cultural sensitivities and career care competencies. The term long-term care competency embraces the sub-competencies of supervision, management, information technology, resource management, and organizational skill. As a main contributor to effective long-term care, the nursing profession must employ effective strategies to develop competency-based education. Also, the profession must have an adequate supply of competent manpower to effectively respond to Taiwan's aging society. PMID:23212250

  13. Helping People Make Better Long-Term-Care Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Boston, Krista; Chilvers, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative online system to support long-term-care decision making. Design and Methods: The Long-Term Care Choices tool is a web-based system that uses expert opinion and structures decision making. Results: The system has been well accepted, and most users find it easy to use. Implications:…

  14. LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES: A CORNUCOPIA OF VIRAL PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study sought to determine the frequency and types of respiratory viruses circulating in 33 Boston long term care facilities during a three year period and correlate rates of infection with serum zinc levels. Participants were residents of long term care that had previously participated in a tria...

  15. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  16. Long-term trends in precipitation and surface water chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter shows long-term data and trends in precipitation and surface water chemistry for each site. It contains a brief introduction to the topic, and methods of measurements, selection of variables, and their data source. It consists primarily of a large number of figures showing long-term da...

  17. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  18. Sex, season and melatonin administration affects daily activity rhythms in a marsupial, the brown antechinus, Antechinus stuartii.

    PubMed

    McAllan, B M; Westman, W; Körtner, G; Cairns, S C

    2008-01-28

    The carnivorous marsupial Antechinus stuartii relies on photoperiodic changes to time reproductive activities, including behaviour, in spring. Similar to other mammals, the administration of the hormone melatonin is known to affect the synchronisation of reproduction in A. stuartii. The present study sought to explore the alterations in locomotor activity from the winter solstice in both males (body mass 35 g) and females (body mass 20 g) as a result of the influences of the changes in the natural photocycle and also of melatonin administration while under the natural photocycle. The total daily activity was found to differ between sexes, with males more active than females, irrespective of melatonin or control treatments. Daily activity patterns were significantly different between male groups but not female treatment groups. Activity patterns were also found to differ between males and females. The significance of these differences is discussed with relation to the profound physiological differences between the sexes, in this mammal where an irreversible stress response is part of the complete post-mating mortality of all males, but not females. PMID:17884113

  19. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual and long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.

  20. Long-term variation of energetic electron precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asikainen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    The long-term evolution of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) is of considerable interest, e.g., because of its atmospheric and climatic effects. However, the long-term evolution of EEP over several solar cycles has been problematic due to the lack of reliable long-term data. The NOAA/POES satellites have measured energetic particles for more than 35 years. This dataset has been used widely but it has been plagued by several instrumental problems, which have restricted its use for long-term studies. However, we have recently corrected and recalibrated the entire NOAA/POES energetic particle dataset. Using this unique dataset we present here an overview of the long-term evolution of EEP paying particular attention to the role of different types of solar wind disturbances in driving the EEP.

  1. Prenatally diagnosed urinary tract abnormalities: long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D F M

    2008-06-01

    The long-term outcomes of prenatally detected uropathies are poorly documented. Limited data on fetal intervention show a possible reduction in early mortality from pulmonary hypoplasia, but no beneficial effect on long-term prognosis for renal function. Prenatally detected vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is characterised by males with high-grade primary reflux, who are at long-term risk of renal impairment. Prenatal diagnosis and surgical intervention have contributed to a reduction in long-term morbidity in children with pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction. By the same token, many children have almost certainly undergone unnecessary early pyeloplasty for an obstruction that would have resolved spontaneously. Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) carries a low (1%) risk of hypertension in childhood. The limited evidence on the long-term outcome of mild dilatation (pelvicaliectasis) indicates this is a largely innocent finding, which carries no increased risk of morbidity. PMID:18037084

  2. Long-Term Dynamics of Autonomous Fractional Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Yong; Han, Qun

    This paper aims to investigate long-term dynamic behaviors of autonomous fractional differential equations with effective numerical method. The long-term dynamic behaviors predict where systems are heading after long-term evolution. We make some modification and transplant cell mapping methods to autonomous fractional differential equations. The mapping time duration of cell mapping is enlarged to deal with the long memory effect. Three illustrative examples, i.e. fractional Lotka-Volterra equation, fractional van der Pol oscillator and fractional Duffing equation, are studied with our revised generalized cell mapping method. We obtain long-term dynamics, such as attractors, basins of attraction, and saddles. Compared with some existing stability and numerical results, the validity of our method is verified. Furthermore, we find that the fractional order has its effect on the long-term dynamics of autonomous fractional differential equations.

  3. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  4. Medical monitoring in long-term space missions.

    PubMed

    Grigoriev, A I; Egorov, A D

    1997-01-01

    diseases; the possibility to assess the dynamics of physiological parameters and the status of the regulatory systems, and to predict possible developments in the body; the possibility to check the efficiency of countermeasures; the possibility to differentiate a physiological state adapted to the current environment from a pathological state; the possibility to differentiate between specific and non-specific reactions; the possibility to differentiate defensive, adaptive or compensatory phenomena from pathological manifestations. This paper describes the application of single- and multidimensional, statistical methods to process diagnostic information, to reduce the vector dimension of the chosen parameters, and to classify and identify individual and crew physiological standards providing the ability to assign an individual to a suitable team. Thus it will be possible to acquire comprehensive and statistically reliable information in compact format, and thus to perform a more incisive analysis and diagnosis of various states by comparing them with the baseline preflight data. These theoretical considerations constitute the basis for a conceptual model for medical diagnosis in long-term orbital and interplanetary missions. The paper contains a section dealing with the practical aspects of medical monitoring and diagnostic examinations during Mir missions. The program of medical monitoring for long-term Mir missions incorporates on-line monitoring during intravehicular and extravehicular activities, routine daily examinations, periodic extensive medical examinations accomplished on schedule or an indication. The Mir program includes cardiovascular investigations at rest and during functional loading, testing of the cosmonaut muscular systems, validation of the standard training protocols, occasional blood and urine analysis, incl. serum immunoglobulins, and blood cell counts. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9048138

  5. Worldwide impact of aerosol's time scale on the predicted long-term concentrating solar power potential.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Arias, Jose A; Gueymard, Christian A; Santos-Alamillos, Francisco J; Pozo-Vázquez, David

    2016-01-01

    Concentrating solar technologies, which are fuelled by the direct normal component of solar irradiance (DNI), are among the most promising solar technologies. Currently, the state-of the-art methods for DNI evaluation use datasets of aerosol optical depth (AOD) with only coarse (typically monthly) temporal resolution. Using daily AOD data from both site-specific observations at ground stations as well as gridded model estimates, a methodology is developed to evaluate how the calculated long-term DNI resource is affected by using AOD data averaged over periods from 1 to 30 days. It is demonstrated here that the use of monthly representations of AOD leads to systematic underestimations of the predicted long-term DNI up to 10% in some areas with high solar resource, which may result in detrimental consequences for the bankability of concentrating solar power projects. Recommendations for the use of either daily or monthly AOD data are provided on a geographical basis. PMID:27507711

  6. Long-term anabolic effects of prostaglandin-E2 on tibial diaphyseal bone in male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, Webster S. S.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Xiao Jian

    1991-01-01

    The effects of long-term prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on tibial diaphyseal bone were studied in 7-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats given daily subcutaneous injections of 0, 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day for 60, 120 and 180 days. The tibial shaft was measured by single photon absorptiometry and dynamic histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent labeled undecalcified tibial diaphyseal bone samples. Exogenous PGE2 administration produced the following transient changes in a dose-response manner between zero and 60 days: (1) increased bone width and mineral density; (2) increased total tissue and total bone areas; (3) decreased marrow area; (4) increased periosteal and corticoendosteal lamellar bone formation; (5) activated corticoendosteal lamellar and woven trabecular bone formation; and (6) activated intracortical bone remodeling. A new steady-state of increased tibial diaphyseal bone mass and elevated bone activities were observed from day 60 onward. The elevated bone mass level attained after 60 days of PGE2 treatment was maintained at 120 and 180 days. These observations indicate that the powerful anabolic effects of PGE2 will increase both periosteal and corticoendosteal bone mass and sustain the transient increase in bone mass with continuous daily administration of PGE2.

  7. Abstracts 1987. New Horizons in Long Term Care: A Report on the Long Term Care Research and Demonstration Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Aid, Springfield.

    This booklet provides a description of 14 projects which were awarded funds during fiscal year 1987 for collaborative research in long-term care to find new ways to treat long-term care patients in Illinois nursing homes. It includes the organization or institution receiving the award, an abstract of the research proposal, and the name of the…

  8. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  9. Compliance with Once-Daily versus Twice or Thrice-Daily Administration of Antibiotic Regimens: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Falagas, Matthew E.; Karagiannis, Apostolos K. A.; Nakouti, Theodora; Tansarli, Giannoula S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether compliance of patients to antibiotic treatment is better when antibiotics are administered once than multiple times daily. Methods We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Scopus databases. Only randomized controlled trials were considered eligible for inclusion. Compliance to antibiotic treatment was the outcome of the meta-analysis. Results Twenty-six studies including 8246 patients with upper respiratory tract infections in the vast majority met the inclusion criteria. In total, higher compliance was found among patients treated with once-daily treatment than those receiving treatment twice, thrice or four times daily [5011 patients, RR=1.22 (95% CI, 1.11, 1.34]. Adults receiving an antibiotic once-daily were more compliant than those receiving the same antibiotic multiple times daily [380 patients, RR=1.09 (95% CI, 1.02, 1.16)]. Likewise, children that received an antibiotic twice-daily were more compliant than those receiving the same antibiotic thrice-daily [2118 patients, RR=1.10 (95% CI, 1.02, 1.19)]. Higher compliance was also found among patients receiving an antibiotic once compared to those receiving an antibiotic of different class thrice or four times daily [395 patients, RR=1.20 (95% CI, 1.12, 1.28)]. The finding of better compliance with lower frequency daily was consistent regardless of the study design, and treatment duration. Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that compliance to antibiotic treatment might be associated with higher when an antibiotic is administered once than multiple times daily for the treatment of specific infections and for specific classes of antibiotics. PMID:25559848

  10. Fat tissue morphology of long-term sex steroid deficiency and estrogen treatment in female rats.

    PubMed

    Santana, Aluana Carlos; Soares da Costa, Carlos Alberto; Armada, Luciana; de Paula Lopes Gonzalez, Gabrielle; dos Santos Ribeiro, Mariana; de Sousa dos Santos, Aline; de Carvalho, Jorge Jose; do Nascimento Saba, Celly Cristina A

    2011-03-15

    After long-term estradiol deficiency, female rats displayed body mass gain accompanied by an increase in the size of adipocytes, an increase in hyperglycemia, and a decrease in insulinemia. The effects were reversed by daily estradiol treatment. Adiposity was suggested by the increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression in castrated rats, whereas the proliferative effect of estradiol was suggested by the increased fibronectin expression in treated rats. PMID:21315340

  11. The economics of long-term global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report is intended to provide an overview of economic issues and research relevant to possible, long-term global climate change. It is primarily a critical survey, not a statement of Administration or Department policy. This report should serve to indicate that economic analysis of global change is in its infancy few assertions about costs or benefits can be made with confidence. The state of the literature precludes any attempt to produce anything like a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis. Moreover, almost all the quantitative estimates regarding physical and economic effects in this report, as well as many of the qualitative assertions, are controversial. Section I provides background on greenhouse gas emissions and their likely climatic effects and on available policy instruments. Section II considers the costs of living with global change, assuming no substantial efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Section III considers costs of reducing these emissions, though the available literature does not contain estimates of the costs of policies that would, on the assumptions of current climate models, prevent climate change altogether. The individual sections are not entirely compartmentalized, but can be read independently if necessary.

  12. Unexpected long-term stability of a cyanine dye bioconjugate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorshow, Richard B.; Rajagopalan, Raghavan

    2005-04-01

    Biocompatible organic dyes, in general, exhibit poor photostability in aqueous solution. This is especially true at the high concentrations needed for bolus administration in a clinical application. Several years ago, we showed that by using carefully chosen macromolecular additives, the stability of aqueous dye solutions may be enhanced significantly. We now report the observation of an unexpected long-term stability of a near infrared dye-peptide conjugate. The Mallinckrodt developed dye-peptide conjugate known as Cytate is an indocyanine type dye attached to the peptide octreotate. We have previously shown that this compound targets somatostatin receptor rich tumors and provides unambiguous contrast for optical imaging. A freshly prepared aqueous solution of Cytate was mixed with blood (from a rat) in a small glass bottle. An optical image was taken soon after, along with several control samples. The Cytate-blood bottle fluoresced quite nicely. The sample bottles were then left in a lab for three plus years, at room temperature with ordinary exposure to lab lights. The sample bottles were imaged after the three year period, and the Cytate-blood bottle fluoresces still.

  13. The long-term use of cyproterone acetate in pedophilia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Cernovsky, Z; Magnus, R V

    1992-01-01

    This investigation reports the long-term use of the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate (CPA) in a pedophile, who was studied continuously over 38 months. Measures of sexual arousal, serum testosterone, and gonadotropin levels were significantly reduced by the drug as compared with placebo and no treatment; prolactin levels were significantly elevated. Some workers have observed that long-term administration of CPA (more than one year, which was then discontinued) produced enduring (in some cases apparently permanent) anti-libidinal effects; however, in the case described, within three weeks of stopping the drug, all measures had returned to pretrial levels. The importance of continuous long-term monitoring in sex offenders receiving an antiandrogen is discussed. PMID:1291700

  14. Long-term benefits of full-day kindergarten: a longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, M.D.; Nickel, N.C.; Chateau, D.; Martens, P.J.; Taylor, C.; Crockett, L.; Katz, A.; Sarkar, J.; Burland, E.; Goh, C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the first longitudinal, population-based study of full-day kindergarten (FDK) outcomes beyond primary school in Canada, we used linked administrative data to follow 15 kindergarten cohorts (n ranging from 112 to 736) up to grade 9. Provincial assessments conducted in grades 3, 7, and 8 and course marks and credits earned in grade 9 were compared between FDK and half-day kindergarten (HDK) students in both targeted and universal FDK programmes. Propensity score matched cohort and stepped-wedge designs allowed for stronger causal inferences than previous research on FDK. We found limited long-term benefits of FDK, specific to the type of programme, outcomes examined, and subpopulations. FDK programmes targeted at low-income areas showed long-term improvements in numeracy for lower income girls. Our results suggest that expectations for wide-ranging long-term academic benefits of FDK are unwarranted. PMID:25632172

  15. Long-term care: dignity, autonomy, family integrity, and social sustainability: the Hong Kong experience.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ho Mun; Pang, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This article reveals the outcome of a study on the perceptions of elders, family members, and healthcare professionals and administration providing care in a range of different long-term care facilities in Hong Kong with primary focus on the concepts of autonomy and dignity of elders, quality and location of care, decision making, and financing of long term care. It was found that aging in place and family care were considered the best approaches to long term care insofar as procuring and balancing the values of dignity, autonomy, family integrity and social sustainability were concerned. An elder having the final say was generally accepted. The results also initiated the importance of sharing of financial responsibility among elders, children and government albeit the emphasis was placed on individuals. Furthermore, dignity of elders was not considered purely a synonym of autonomy, but it had also to do with respect, family and social connections. PMID:17924269

  16. Long-term behavioral and pharmacodynamic effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in female rats depend on ovarian hormone status.

    PubMed

    Winsauer, Peter J; Daniel, Jill M; Filipeanu, Catalin M; Leonard, Stuart T; Hulst, Jerielle L; Rodgers, Shaefali P; Lassen-Greene, Caroline L; Sutton, Jessie L

    2011-01-01

    Abuse of Δ⁹-THC by females during adolescence may produce long-term deficits in complex behavioral processes such as learning, and these deficits may be affected by the presence of ovarian hormones. To assess this possibility, 40 injections of saline or 5.6 mg/kg of Δ⁹-THC were administered i.p. daily during adolescence to gonadally intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats, yielding four treatment groups (intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline, and OVX/ THC). Δ⁹-THC (0.56-10 mg/kg) was then re-administered to each of the four groups during adulthood to examine their sensitivity to its disruptive effects. The behavioral task required adult subjects to both learn (acquisition component) different response sequences and repeat a known response sequence (performance component) daily. During baseline (no injection) and control (saline injection) sessions, OVX subjects had significantly higher response rates and lower percentages of error in both behavioral components than the intact groups irrespective of saline or Δ⁹-THC administration during adolescence; the intact group that received Δ⁹-THC had the lowest response rates in each component. Upon re-administration of Δ⁹-THC, the groups that received adolescent ovariectomy alone, adolescent Δ⁹-THC administration alone, or both treatments were found to be less sensitive to the rate-decreasing effects, and more sensitive to the error-increasing effects of Δ⁹-THC than the control group (i.e. intact subjects that received saline during adolescence). Neurochemical analyses of the brains from each adolescent-treated group indicated that there were also persistent effects on cannabinoid type-1 (CB-1) receptor levels in the hippocampus and striatum that depended on the brain region and the presence of ovarian hormones. In addition, autoradiographic analyses of the brains from adolescent-treated, but behaviorally naïve, subjects indicated that ovariectomy and Δ⁹-THC administration produced effects on

  17. Fingolimod in the treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: long-term experience and an update on the clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Bhupendra O.

    2016-01-01

    Since the approval in 2010 of fingolimod 0.5 mg (Gilenya; Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland) in the USA as an oral therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, long-term clinical experience with this therapy has been increasing. This review provides a summary of the cumulative dataset from clinical trials and their extensions, plus postmarketing studies that contribute to characterizing the efficacy and safety profile of fingolimod in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Data from the controlled, phase III, pivotal studies [FREEDOMS (FTY720 Research Evaluating Effects of Daily Oral therapy in Multiple Sclerosis), FREEDOMS II and TRANSFORMS (Trial Assessing Injectable Interferon versus FTY720 Oral in Relapsing–Remitting Multiple Sclerosis)] in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis have shown that fingolimod has a robust effect on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes. The respective study extensions show that effects on annualized relapse rates are sustained with continued fingolimod treatment. Consistent, significant reductions in magnetic resonance imaging lesion counts and brain volume loss have also been sustained with long-term treatment. The safety profile of fingolimod is also examined, particularly in light of its long-term use. A summary of the adverse events of interest that are associated with fingolimod treatment and associated label guidelines are also considered, which include cardiac effects following first-dose administration, infections, lymphopenia, macular edema and pregnancy. Historic hurdles to the prescription of fingolimod and how these challenges are being met are also discussed. PMID:27006700

  18. Long-term prognostic impact of the attenuated plaque in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Okura, Hiroyuki; Kataoka, Toru; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Several intravascular ultrasound studies have reported that culprit lesion-attenuated plaque (AP) is related to slow flow/no reflow after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Long-term prognostic impact of the AP is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate acute and long-term clinical impact of the AP in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A total of 110 ACS patients who underwent successful PCI were enrolled. Acute and long-term clinical outcomes were compared between patients with AP (AP group: n = 73) and those without AP (non-AP group: n = 37). Long-term cardiac event was defined as a composite of death and ACS. Baseline characteristics in 2 groups were similar. AP was associated with higher TIMI frame count immediately after the first balloon inflation. After thrombectomy and intracoronary drug administration, final TIMI frame count became similar between AP and non-AP group. Although AP was associated with higher incidence of fatal arrhythmia during hospitalization, in-hospital mortality did not differ between the 2 groups. During follow-up (median 6.2 years), cardiac event-free survival did not differ between the 2 groups. Despite the initial unfavorable effect on coronary reflow, presence of AP did not affect acute as well as long-term clinical outcome in patients with ACS. PMID:25183306

  19. Long-term depot antipsychotics. A risk-benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Barnes, T R; Curson, D A

    1994-06-01

    The main advantage of depot antipsychotic medication is that it overcomes the problem of covert noncompliance. Patients receiving depot treatment who refuse their injection or fail to receive it for any other reason can be immediately identified and appropriate action taken. In the context of a carefully monitored management programme, depot treatment can have a major impact on compliance and, consequently, the risk of relapse and hospitalisation can be reduced. Another major advantage is that the considerable individual variation in bioavailability and metabolism with oral antipsychotic drugs is markedly reduced with depot treatment. A better correlation between the dose administered and the concentration of medication found in blood or plasma is achieved with depot treatment, and thus, the clinician has greater control over the amount of drug being delivered to the site of activity. A further benefit of depot treatment is the achievement of stable plasma concentrations over long periods, allowing injections to be given every few weeks. However, this also represents a potential disadvantage in that there is a lack of flexibility of administration. Should adverse effects develop, the drug cannot be rapidly withdrawn. Furthermore, adjustment to the optimal dose becomes a long term strategy. The controlled studies of low dose maintenance therapy with depot treatment suggest that it can take months or years for the consequences of dose reduction, in terms of increased risk of relapse, to become manifest. When weighing up the risks and benefits of long term antipsychotic treatment for the individual patient with schizophrenia, the clinician must take into account the nature, severity and frequency of past relapses, and the degree of distress and disability related to any adverse effects. However, the clinical decision to prescribe either a depot or an oral antipsychotic for maintenance treatment will probably rest largely on an assessment of the risk of poor compliance

  20. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  1. Long-term prognosis of patients with surgical wound infections.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, K B; Gottschau, A

    1997-10-01

    This study examined if surgical wound infections (SWI) result in a severe prognosis regarding general health and increase the consumption of social resources. A group of 1301 patients were interviewed by self-administered questionnaires during 1993-1994, while operated during hospitalization in seven Danish hospitals. These patients were followed up at least once by similar questionnaires at a median time of 5.5 and 10.0 months postoperatively. The consequences of surgically diagnosed SWI were analyzed in a hospital cohort of 58 infected patients and 648 controls. Postdischarge infections were analyzed in a patient cohort of 263 cases and 767 controls. Changes in health was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, Activities of Daily Living index, and self-assessed health. Consumption of resources were estimated by reliance on assistance from family and friends, use of home services, and contacts to doctors. It was found that the long-term prognosis of general health was unaffected by SWIs. However significantly increased social dependence was found for patients with SWIs compared to uninfected patients. Almost one-fourth of the operations were complicated by an SWI. Most of the infections were recognized only after discharge and were thought to be of minor importance, which may explain why no chronic impairment of the health was found for patients with an SWI. A bias toward no-effect may have been introduced if patients with severe SWIs abstained from participation. The societal cost of care for patients with minor infections seems to be large. The causal relation between outcome and SWI needs to be further investigated. PMID:9327669

  2. Evaluation of hand function in patients undergoing long term haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, V; Frankham, A; Disney, A; Pile, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Haemodialysis is associated with the deposition of β2 microglobulin in musculoskeletal structures, leading to the syndrome of dialysis related amyloidosis and impairment of hand function. This study aimed at assessing hand function using the Sollerman test in a cross section of patients undergoing haemodialysis.
METHODS—Recipients of haemodialysis underwent the Sollerman test of hand grip function, which assesses 20 activities of daily living using eight grip types, and the JAMAR grip strength test, visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain (VAS-P) and function (VAS-F), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) were determined. Results—Thirty five subjects (26 male), with mean age 53.2 years, participated. The average duration of haemodialysis was 6.2 years (range one month to 25 years). The median Sollerman score was 77, with 19/35 (54%) patients receiving haemodialysis having a score below the lower normal value of 78-80. The log Sollerman score correlated poorly with age (rs=0.16, p=0.35), and significantly with the HAQ score (rs=−0.66, p<0.00005), duration of haemodialysis (rs=−0.39, p<0.05), VAS-F (rs=−0.41, p<0.05), VAS-P (rs=−0.34, p<0.05), and JAMAR score (rs=0.57, p<0.05). Sollerman scores were highly correlated between dominant and non-dominant hands (rs=0.69, p<000005).
CONCLUSIONS—Hand dysfunction is a common finding among patients undergoing long term haemodialysis. The Sollerman test accurately reflects patient function as measured by HAQ, VAS-F, and grip strength, but less so pain. Its use for the early detection of dialysis related amyloidosis and in the serial monitoring of the effects of hand treatment programmes is encouraged.

 PMID:11171692

  3. What nursing diagnoses do nurses use in long term care?

    PubMed

    Daly, J M; Maas, M; Buckwalter, K

    1995-01-01

    The results of this survey validate that the NANDA nursing diagnoses classification is appropriate for use in long term care. Although ninety three percent of the current NANDA nursing diagnoses are used in practice, there remains a need for the development and testing of additional nursing diagnoses to describe patient problems encountered in long term care. Nurses in education and practice settings must work collaboratively to continue to identify, refine and validate the nursing diagnoses that are most appropriate for frail, older and/or chronically ill residents of long term care facilities. PMID:7648273

  4. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  5. Home therapy with LMWH in deep vein thrombosis: randomized study comparing single and double daily administrations.

    PubMed

    Bellosta, Raffaello; Ferrari, Patrizio; Luzzani, Luca; Carugati, Claudio; Cossu, Luisa; Talarico, Matteo; Sarcina, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    thrombosed vessel, especially in cases of sural and/or popliteal DVT. Administration can be carried out with the same degree of safety at the therapeutic dose throughout the period of treatment or can be halved after the first month of treatment. In patients with active neoplasia, treatment with oral anticoagulant therapy must be considered. PMID:17626986

  6. Long-term monitoring for nanomedicine implants and drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michaela; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-01

    Increasing globalization means that traditional occupational epidemiological approaches may no longer apply, suggesting a need for an alternative model to assess the long-term impact of nanomaterial exposure on health.

  7. Earth's Long-Term Warming Trend, 1880-2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization illustrates Earth’s long-term warming trend, showing temperature changes from 1880 to 2015 as a rolling five-year average. Orange colors represent temperatures that are warmer th...

  8. Long-term Career Goals for Professional Women in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, Betty

    1986-01-01

    Encourages the formation of long-term career goals for women in agronomy. Offers perspectives and practical suggestions for obtaining positions, maintaining professional credentials, and managing personal and career related obligations. (ML)

  9. Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160606.html Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects Early head ... 000 Swedes who suffered at least one traumatic brain injury (TBI) before age 25 with their unaffected ...

  10. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  11. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated. PMID:27252935

  12. The market for long-term care services.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, David C

    2008-01-01

    Although a large literature has established the importance of market and regulatory forces within the long-term care sector, current research in this field is limited by a series of data, measurement, and methodological issues. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these issues with an emphasis on identifying initiatives that will increase the volume and quality of long-term care research. Recommendations include: the construction of standard measures of long-term care market boundaries, the broader dissemination of market and regulatory data, the linkage of survey-based data with market measures, the encouragement of further market-based studies of noninstitutional long-term care settings, and the standardization of Medicaid cost data. PMID:18524292

  13. Long term combination treatment for severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Affuso, Flora; Cirillo, Plinio; Ruvolo, Antonio; Carlomagno, Guido; Fazio, Serafino

    2010-01-01

    We report the long-term follow-up of 3 cases of severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, in whom tadalafil plus sitaxentan combination therapy improved the clinical condition and exercise performance without any relevant adverse event. PMID:21160759

  14. Long-Term Quiescent Fibroblast Cells Transit into Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Hemmerich, Peter; Klement, Karolin; Diekmann, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development. PMID:25531649

  15. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  16. Influenza in long-term care facilities: preventable, detectable, treatable.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2009-09-01

    Influenza in long-term care facilities is an ever more challenging problem. Vaccination of residents and health care workers is the most important preventive measure. Although vaccine efficacy has been questioned, the preponderance of data favors vaccination. Antiviral resistance complicates postexposure chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Factors that limit the choice of antiviral agents in this patient population include limited vaccine supplies and impaired dexterity and confusion in long-term care residents. PMID:19726556

  17. Endoscopic Management of Attic Cholesteatoma: Long-Term Results.

    PubMed

    Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Marchioni, Daniele; Kakehata, Seiji; Presutti, Livio; Villari, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The main application of endoscopic surgery relies on the middle ear cholesteatoma surgical treatment, although for a definitive validation and acceptance by scientific community, long-term results are needed about recurrent and residual rates of the pathology. The aim of the present paper was to analyze the single institution experience with the long-term results of surgical treatment of attic cholesteatoma. PMID:27565391

  18. Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

  19. Long-term effects of sludge application to land

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, W.S. ); Knocke, W.R.; Novak, J.T.; Dove, D. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term environmental effects of applying alum sludge to land. Investigations at the original field site included soil analysis, soil water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and analysis of tissues from pine needles. No long-term (30 months) effects were observed, and the authors conclude that alum coagulant sludges can be applied to forest lands at loading rates of at least 1.5 to 2.5% by dry weight without adverse effect.

  20. Cortical thickness of the femur and long-term bisphosphonate use.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Rui; Kono, Toshibumi; Nishihara, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Matsumine, Akihiko; Kono, Toshihiko; Sudo, Akihiro

    2015-02-01

    Femoral cortical thickening has been mentioned in reports of atypical subtrochanteric/femoral shaft (ST/FS) fractures, which are associated with long-term bisphosphonate (BP) use. However, whether thickening precedes BP use or results from BP use, as well as the role BPs may play in cortical thickening remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cortical thickness and BP use. We enrolled 142 patients (mean age 79 years) who had taken BPs for more than 5 years, and enrolled 426 osteoporosis patients who had not used BPs as controls. We performed a case-control study of patients with long-term BP use and controls matched for age, sex, and levels of activities of daily living (ADLs) (1:3 ratio). On femoral radiographs, we measured femoral cortical thickness in three regions: 5 cm and 12.5 cm below the lesser trochanter and in the region of maximal cortical thickness. We compared cortical thicknesses between patients taking BP and controls and evaluated longitudinal changes in cortical thickness. There were no significant differences in cortical thickness between long-term BP users and controls. In addition, after further use of BP for a minimum of 1 year, we observed no significant differences in the changes in cortical thickness at any level of the femur. In conclusion, our study did not find evidence of cortical thickening at the ST/FS area of the femur with long-term BP use. PMID:25156261

  1. Ambient Tremor Triggered by Long-term Slow Slip Event in Bungo Channel, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, K.; Hirose, H.; Matsuzawa, T.; Tanaka, S.; Maeda, T.

    2014-12-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) is a stick-slip in the transition zone between locked and stable sliding zones on the plate interface in Southwest Japan and Cascadia. ETS episode with duration of several days usually recurs at interval of several months at each segment. On the other hand, in the Bungo channel region where is the western edge of the ETS zone in SW Japan, tremor activity continued for several months during the long-term slow slip event (SSE) in 2003 and 2010. In this paper, the relationship between long-term SSE and surrounded triggered tremor is discussed. Tremor triggered by the long-term SSE is spatially localized in the narrow width of about 10 km at the shallowest part of the tremor zone, and at the neighboring area just downdip from the source fault of the SSE. The frequency distribution of tremor along the dip direction during the SSE period is consistent with the spatial distribution of total slip estimated for 2010 SSE. Therefore, the slip of the long-term SSE penetrated in the ETS zone may generate tremor. The daily number of the activated tremor is 12-14 during the SSE; however, it is 40-50 for regular ETS episode during the inter-SSE period. On the other hand, slip rates of the long-term SSE and ETS are typically 1 mm/d and 3 mm/d, respectively. Therefore, tremor rate may be controlled by slip rate. After SSEs in 2003 and 2010, tremor activity seems to slightly increase in the east region within 50 km from the triggered tremor area. Such 7-year period variation in tremor activity is observed in only the shallower side of the tremor zone. Moreover, pattern of the long-term variation seems to slightly migrate to east during a few years. We interpret that a tiny transient slip after the long-term SSE slowly propagates between transition and locked zones. Tremor activity at the shallowest part of the tremor zone in the Bungo channel continued longer than that of regular ETS in the late 2006 during the inter-SSE period. Associated tiny GPS

  2. Private Financing Options for Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Barbara L.; Simon, Harold J.; Smallwood, Dennis E.

    1987-01-01

    Private financing for long-term care now comes almost exclusively from out-of-pocket payments. Long-term-care costs quickly impoverish most elderly, resulting in Medicaid dependency. The consequences are profound for the western Sun Belt with its rapidly growing elderly population. Key private financing options are long-term-care individual retirement accounts (LTC/IRAs), home equity conversion, social-health maintenance organizations and long-term-care insurance. Study of data from the past half century suggests that the LTC/IRA approach would prove unsatisfactory for the purpose despite the intuitive appeal of this mechanism. Experience with home equity conversions is still very limited, and unresolved questions limit this approach to the role of a reserve option for now. While promising, social-health maintenance organizations are still in the experimental stages and not yet commercially available. Long-term-care insurance is currently sold on a thin market and emphasizes nursing home coverage. New approaches to private financing through long-term-care insurance seem to offer the best approach for immediate implementation. PMID:3118576

  3. Commentary: The Broader Context of Long-Term Care Ethics.

    PubMed

    Lesandrini, Jason; O'Connell, Carol

    2016-07-01

    Ethical issues in long-term care settings, although having received attention in the literature, have not in our opinion received the appropriate level they require. Thus, we applaud the Cambridge Quarterly for publishing this case. We can attest to the significance of ethical issues arising in long-term care facilities, as Mr. Hope's case is all too familiar to those practicing in these settings. What is unique about this case is that an actual ethics consult was made in a long-term care setting. We have seen very little in the published literature on the use of ethics structures in long-term care populations. Our experience is that these healthcare settings are ripe for ethical concerns and that providers, patients, families, and staff need/desire ethics resources to actively and preventively address ethical concerns. The popular press has begun to recognize the ethical issues involved in long-term care settings and the need for ethics structures. Recently, in California a nurse refused to initiate CPR for an elderly patient in a senior residence. In that case, the nurse was quoted as saying that the facility had a policy that nurses were not to start CPR for elderly patients. 1 Although this case is not exactly the same as that of Mr. Hope, it highlights the need for developing robust ethics program infrastructures in long-term care settings that work toward addressing ethical issues through policy, education, and active consultation. PMID:27348841

  4. GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide reverses long-term atypical antipsychotic treatment associated behavioral depression and metabolic abnormalities in rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajaykumar N; Ligade, Sagar S; Sharma, Jay N; Shukla, Praveen; Elased, Khalid M; Lucot, James B

    2015-04-01

    Mood disorder patients that are on long-term atypical antipsychotics treatment frequently experience metabolic dysfunctions. In addition to this, accumulating evidences points to increased risk of structural abnormalities, brain volume changes, altered neuroplasticity and behavioral depression with long-term antipsychotics use. However, there is paucity of preclinical evidences for long-term antipsychotic associated depression-like behavior. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to evaluate influence of long-term antipsychotic (olanzapine) treatment on rat behavior in forced swim test (FST) as a model for depression and; (2) to examine impact of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide - an antidiabetic medication for type II diabetes, on long-term olanzapine associated metabolic and behavioral changes in rats. Daily olanzapine treatment (0.5 mg/kg; p.o.) for 8-9 weeks significantly increased body weights, food and water intake, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides and immobility time in FST with parallel reduction in plasma HDL cholesterol levels. These results points to development of metabolic abnormalities and depression-like behavior with long-term olanzapine treatment. Acute liraglutide (50 μg/kg; i.p.) and imipramine (10 mg/kg, i. p.) treatment per se significantly decreased duration of immobility in FST compared to vehicle treated rats. Additionally, 3-week liraglutide treatment (50 μg/kg; i.p., daily) partially reversed metabolic abnormalities and depression-like behavior with long-term olanzapine-treatment in rats. None of these treatment regimens affected locomotor behavior of rats. In summary, add-on GLP-1 receptor agonists promise novel alternatives to counteract long-term antipsychotics associated behavioral and metabolic complications. PMID:25023888

  5. Long-term prescription opioids and/or benzodiazepines and mortality among HIV-infected and uninfected patients

    PubMed Central

    Weisberg, DF; Gordon, KS; Barry, DT; Becker, WC; Crystal, S; Edelman, EJ; Gaither, J; Gordon, AJ; Goulet, J; Kerns, RD; Moore, BA; Tate, J; Justice, AC; Fiellin, DA

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased long-term prescribing of opioids and/or benzodiazepines necessitates evaluating risks associated with their receipt. We sought to evaluate the association between long-term opioids and/or benzodiazepines and mortality in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy and uninfected patients. Methods Prospective analysis of all-cause mortality using multivariable methods and propensity score matching among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy and uninfected patients. Results From 64,602 available patients (16,989 HIV-infected and 47,613 uninfected), 27,128 (long-term opioids and/or benzodiazepines exposed and unexposed) were 1:1 matched by propensity score. The hazard ratio (HR) for death was 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-1.61) for long-term opioid receipt, 1.26 (95% CI 1.08-1.48) for long-term benzodiazepine receipt, and 1.56 (95% CI 1.26-1.92) for long-term opioid and benzodiazepine receipt. There was an interaction (p= 0.01) between long-term opioid receipt and HIV status with mortality. For long-term opioid receipt, the HR was 1.46 (95% CI 1.15-1.87) among HIV-infected patients, and 1.25 (95% CI 1.05 – 1.49) among uninfected patients. Mortality risk was increased for patients receiving both long-term opioids and benzodiazepines when opioid doses were ≥20mg morphine equivalent daily dose (MEDD) and for patients receiving long-term opioids alone when doses were ≥50mg MEDD. Conclusions Long-term opioid receipt was associated with an increased risk of death; especially with long-term benzodiazepine receipt, higher opioid doses and among HIV-infected patients. Long-term benzodiazepine receipt was associated with an increased risk of death regardless of opioid receipt. Strategies to mitigate risks associated with these medications, and caution when they are co-prescribed, are needed particularly in HIV-infected populations. PMID:26009831

  6. Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride as a long-term sedative

    PubMed Central

    Kunisawa, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine undoubtedly is a useful sedative in the intensive care setting because it has a minimal effect on the respiratory system. Dexmedetomidine infusions lasting more than 24 hours have not been approved since the first approval was acquired in the US in 1999. However, in 2008, dexmedetomidine infusions for prolonged use were approved in Colombia and in the Dominican Republic, and the number of countries that have granted approval for prolonged use has been increasing every year. This review discusses the literature examining prolonged use of dexmedetomidine and confirms the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine when it is used for more than 24 hours. Dexmedetomidine was administered at varying doses (0.1–2.5 μg/kg/hour) and durations up to 30 days. Dexmedetomidine seems to be an alternative to benzodiazepines or propofol for achieving sedation in adults because the incidences of delirium and coma associated with dexmedetomidine are lower than the corresponding incidences associated with benzodiazepines and propofol, although dexmedetomidine administration can cause mild adverse effects such as bradycardia. Controlled comparative studies on the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and other sedatives in pediatric patients have not been reported. However, dexmedetomidine seems to be effective in managing extubation, reducing the use of conventional sedatives, and as an alternative for inducing sedation in patients for whom traditional sedatives induce inadequate sedation. Prolonged dexmedetomidine infusion has not been reported to have any serious adverse effects. Dexmedetomidine appears to be an alternative long-term sedative, but further studies are needed to establish its efficacy and safety. PMID:21845052

  7. Long-Term Outcomes of Radiotherapy for Pituitary Adenomas

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Felicia E. Amdur, Robert J. M.D.; Morris, Christopher G. M.S.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term local control and toxicity for pituitary adenomas treated with fractionated radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The records of 100 patients with pituitary adenomas treated between 1983 and 2003 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-one patients had hormone-secreting tumors; 69 patients were treated with surgery and postoperative RT. Median follow-up was 6.7 years (range, 0.6-20.2 years) for all patients and 6.2 years (range, 2-20.2 years) for living patients. The mean dose delivered was 45 Gy (range, 43-50.4 Gy). Results: The 10-year actuarial local control rates for nonsecreting and secreting adenomas were 98% and 73%, respectively (p 0.0015). Actuarial 10-year cause-specific survival (CSS) rates were 95% and 88%, and overall survival rates were 66% and 79% for nonsecreting and secreting adenomas, respectively. Involvement of the sphenoid sinus was found to be significantly associated with decreased 10-year CSS (p = 0.0453). When compared with the two- or three-field techniques, stereotactic RT was associated with improved CSS (p = 0.0775). CSS was not significantly associated with hormone excretion, extent of surgery, or whether RT was administrated postoperatively or for salvage after a postsurgical recurrence. New cases of hypopituitarism occurred in 35 patients. One patient experienced vision loss, and one patient developed a post-treatment glioma. Conclusions: This is one of the most mature series in the literature that documents excellent results with fractionated RT for pituitary adenoma. We recommend 45 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction using stereotactic noncoplanar fields.

  8. Factors influencing exercise participation by clients in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Ingrid, Brenner; Marsella, A

    Lack of participation in regular physical activity by the frail elderly is associated with a decline in physical functioning and an inability to carry out activities of daily living. This in turn, poses greater demands on nursing care that may be required by the client. This study explored factors that influence exercise adherence in frail elderly clients who are living in a long-term care facility. Twelve long-term care clients (5 males and 7 females), aged 74-95 years, participated in the study. Participants were divided into two groups according to their activity patterns (sedentary controls and regular exercisers) and completed a brief questionnaire addressing factors that have been associated with exercise adherence. Data analysis revealed two key factors which determined whether or not clients participated in physical activity programs. The amount of social support provided by significant others and the extent of chronic pain experienced by the client were the best predictors of engagement in regular exercise. Incorporating an understanding of these factors into nursing practice can help the nurse encourage regular physical activity in patients who are living in a long-term care setting. This in turn will help the client maintain his or her ability to carry out activities of daily living. PMID:19323001

  9. Design innovations and baseline findings in a long-term Parkinson’s trial: NET-PD LS-1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Based on the pre-clinical and the results of a phase 2 futility study, creatine was selected for an efficacy trial in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We present the design rationale and a description of the study cohort at baseline. Methods A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel group, placebo controlled Phase 3 study of creatine (10 gm daily) in participants with early, treated PD, the Long-term Study – 1 (LS-1) is being conducted by the NINDS Exploratory Trials in Parkinson’s Disease (NET-PD) network. The study utilizes a global statistical test (GST) encompassing multiple clinical rating scales to provide a multidimensional assessment of disease progression. Results A total of 1,741 PD participants from 45 sites in the U.S. and Canada were randomized 1:1 to either 10-gm creatine/day or matching placebo. Participants are being evaluated for a minimum of 5 years. The LS-1 baseline cohort includes participants treated with dopaminergic therapy and generally mild PD. Conclusions LS-1 represents the largest cohort of patients with early treated PD ever enrolled in a clinical trial. The GST approach should provide high power to test the hypothesis that daily administration of creatine (10gm/day) is more effective than placebo in slowing clinical decline in PD between baseline and the 5 year follow-up visit against the background of dopaminergic therapy and best PD care. PMID:23079770

  10. Evaluation of urinary bladder fibrogenesis in a mouse model of long-term ketamine injection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Huang; Wang, Shou-Chieh; Wang, Shou-Tsung; Lin, Shu-Mei; Wu, Jiann-Der; Lin, Chang-Te; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Long-term ketamine abuse has been shown to affect the lower urinary tract and result in interstitial cystitis-like syndrome. However, the causative mechanism of ketamine-induced dysfunction remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the physiological, histological and molecular changes on ketamine‑associated cystitis (KC) in a mouse model. Both male and female Balb/c mice were separately distributed into the control group (normal saline) and ketamine group, which received ketamine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg/day) daily by intraperitoneal injection for a total period of 20 weeks. In each group, the urine was analyzed by gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry to measure the concentration of ketamine and its metabolites. Urinary frequency and urine volume were examined to investigate the urinary voiding functions. Mice bladders were excised for cDNA microarray and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The ketamine and metabolites were detected only in ketamine‑treated mice urine. The voiding interval was reduced in the male mice group after 20 week ketamine administration. Additionally, the result of cDNA array analysis revealed a number of gene expression levels involved in chronic wound healing response and collagen accumulation, which were closely associated with fibrosis progression in the connective tissue. In HE staining of the bladder tissue, the ketamine-injected mice exhibited prominently denser blood vessel distribution in the submucosal layer. Based on the evidence in the present study, a mechanism that delineates fibrosis formation of urinary bladder induced by the pathogenesis of ketamine abuse can be constructed. PMID:27431428

  11. Nalbuphine Sedation in a Patient with Long Term, High Dose Chemotherapeutically Controlled Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Maureen; Howell, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration of which pharmacologic agent to use when a patient requires sedation prior to an oral surgery procedure entails a number of factors, including past medical history, current medications and dose level, duration of administration, pharmacologic interactions, and the dental needs of the patient. The case described in this report illustrates the importance of consideration of these factors in a patient who required sedation prior to oral surgery while taking 800 mg chlorpromazine, 300 mg amantadine hydrochloride, and 900 mg of cimetidine daily. The possible pharmacologic interactions which could occur from concomitantly administering either diazepam or a narcotic in the presence of these agents are numerous and significant. The choice of sedative agent was further complicated by the fact that the patient was prescribed chlorpromazine and amantadine in doses which far exceeded the usual therapeutic levels and had been maintained for an extended period of time, over 8 months. Consequently, any adverse reactions that may have resulted when sedating a patient taking chlorapromazine and amantadine hydrochloride in lower doses for a shorter duration would be more likely to occur with greater speed and severity in a patient receiving such high-dose, long-term therapy. Also, unusual reactions which have not been reported with usual therapeutic dose levels might also occur since these high doses approach toxic levels for some patients. Additionally, a sedative agent had to be used which would not interfere with the antipsychotic effects of chlorpromazine since the patient's psychiatric condition required maintenance of these unusually high therapeutic levels. The following case report gives the rationale and outcome of utilizing nalbuphine for obtunding pain and producing sedation during an oral surgery procedure under such complex therapeutic conditions. PMID:3866505

  12. Nalbuphine sedation in a patient with long-term, high-dose chemotherapeutically controlled psychosis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M; Howell, R M

    1985-01-01

    Consideration of which pharmacologic agent to use when a patient requires sedation prior to an oral surgery procedure entails a number of factors, including past medical history, current medications and dose level, duration of administration, pharmacologic interactions, and the dental needs of the patient. The case described in this report illustrates the importance of consideration of these factors in a patient who required sedation prior to oral surgery while taking 800 mg chlorpromazine, 300 mg amantadine hydrochloride, and 900 mg of cimetidine daily. The possible pharmacologic interactions which could occur from concomitantly administering either diazepam or a narcotic in the presence of these agents are numerous and significant. The choice of sedative agent was further complicated by the fact that the patient was prescribed chlorpromazine and amantadine in doses which far exceeded the usual therapeutic levels and had been maintained for an extended period of time, over 8 months. Consequently, any adverse reactions that may have resulted when sedating a patient taking chlorapromazine and amantadine hydrochloride in lower doses for a shorter duration would be more likely to occur with greater speed and severity in a patient receiving such high-dose, long-term therapy. Also, unusual reactions which have not been reported with usual therapeutic dose levels might also occur since these high doses approach toxic levels for some patients. Additionally, a sedative agent had to be used which would not interfere with the antipsychotic effects of chlorpromazine since the patient's psychiatric condition required maintenance of these unusually high therapeutic levels. The following case report gives the rationale and outcome of utilizing nalbuphine for obtunding pain and producing sedation during an oral surgery procedure under such complex therapeutic conditions. PMID:3866505

  13. Evaluation of urinary bladder fibrogenesis in a mouse model of long-term ketamine injection

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cheng-Huang; Wang, Shou-Chieh; Wang, Shou-Tsung; Lin, Shu-Mei; Wu, Jiann-Der; Lin, Chang-Te; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Long-term ketamine abuse has been shown to affect the lower urinary tract and result in interstitial cystitis-like syndrome. However, the causative mechanism of ketamine-induced dysfunction remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the physiological, histological and molecular changes on ketamine-associated cystitis (KC) in a mouse model. Both male and female Balb/c mice were separately distributed into the control group (normal saline) and ketamine group, which received ketamine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg/day) daily by intraperitoneal injection for a total period of 20 weeks. In each group, the urine was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure the concentration of ketamine and its metabolites. Urinary frequency and urine volume were examined to investigate the urinary voiding functions. Mice bladders were excised for cDNA microarray and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The ketamine and metabolites were detected only in ketamine-treated mice urine. The voiding interval was reduced in the male mice group after 20 week ketamine administration. Additionally, the result of cDNA array analysis revealed a number of gene expression levels involved in chronic wound healing response and collagen accumulation, which were closely associated with fibrosis progression in the connective tissue. In HE staining of the bladder tissue, the ketamine-injected mice exhibited prominently denser blood vessel distribution in the submucosal layer. Based on the evidence in the present study, a mechanism that delineates fibrosis formation of urinary bladder induced by the pathogenesis of ketamine abuse can be constructed. PMID:27431428

  14. Long-term exposure to intranasal oxytocin in a mouse autism model.

    PubMed

    Bales, K L; Solomon, M; Jacob, S; Crawley, J N; Silverman, J L; Larke, R H; Sahagun, E; Puhger, K R; Pride, M C; Mendoza, S P

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide involved in mammalian social behavior. It is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies in healthy rodents (prairie voles and C57BL/6J mice) have shown that there may be detrimental effects of long-term intranasal administration, raising the questions about safety and efficacy. To investigate the effects of OT on the aspects of ASD phenotype, we conducted the first study of chronic intranasal OT in a well-validated mouse model of autism, the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J inbred strain (BTBR), which displays low sociability and high repetitive behaviors. BTBR and C57BL/6J (B6) mice (N=94) were administered 0.8  IU/kg of OT intranasally, daily for 30 days, starting on day 21. We ran a well-characterized set of behavioral tasks relevant to diagnostic and associated symptoms of autism, including juvenile reciprocal social interactions, three-chambered social approach, open-field exploratory activity, repetitive self-grooming and fear-conditioned learning and memory, some during and some post treatment. Intranasal OT did not improve autism-relevant behaviors in BTBR, except for female sniffing in the three-chambered social interaction test. Male saline-treated BTBR mice showed increased interest in a novel mouse, both in chamber time and sniffing time, whereas OT-treated male BTBR mice showed a preference for the novel mouse in sniffing time only. No deleterious effects of OT were detected in either B6 or BTBR mice, except possibly for the lack of a preference for the novel mouse's chamber in OT-treated male BTBR mice. These results highlight the complexity inherent in understanding the effects of OT on behavior. Future investigations of chronic intranasal OT should include a wider dose range and early developmental time points in both healthy rodents and ASD models to affirm the efficacy and safety of OT. PMID:25386957

  15. Long-term trends in extreme temperatures in Hong Kong and southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. C.; Chan, H. S.; Ginn, E. W. L.; Wong, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    The observed long-term trends in extreme temperatures in Hong Kong were studied based on the meteorological data recorded at the Hong Kong Observatory Headquarters from 1885-2008. Results show that, over the past 124 years, the extreme daily minimum and maximum temperatures, as well as the length of the warm spell in Hong Kong, exhibit statistically significant long-term rising trends, while the length of the cold spell shows a statistically significant decreasing trend. The time-dependent return period analysis also indicated that the return period for daily minimum temperature at 4°C or lower lengthened considerably from 6 years in 1900 to over 150 years in 2000, while the return periods for daily maximum temperature reaching 35°C or above shortened drastically from 32 years in 1900 to 4.5 years in 2000. Past trends in extreme temperatures from selected weather stations in southern China from 1951-2004 were also assessed. Over 70% of the stations studied yielded a statistically significant rising trend in extreme daily minimum temperature, while the trend for extreme maximum temperatures was found to vary, with no significant trend established for the majority of stations.

  16. Long-term efficacy and safety of thalamic stimulation for drug-resistant partial epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Thomas; Worth, Robert; Henry, Thomas R.; Gross, Robert E.; Nazzaro, Jules M.; Labar, Douglas; Sperling, Michael R.; Sharan, Ashwini; Sandok, Evan; Handforth, Adrian; Stern, John M.; Chung, Steve; Henderson, Jaimie M.; French, Jacqueline; Baltuch, Gordon; Rosenfeld, William E.; Garcia, Paul; Barbaro, Nicholas M.; Fountain, Nathan B.; Elias, W. Jeffrey; Goodman, Robert R.; Pollard, John R.; Tröster, Alexander I.; Irwin, Christopher P.; Lambrecht, Kristin; Graves, Nina; Fisher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report long-term efficacy and safety results of the SANTE trial investigating deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) for treatment of localization-related epilepsy. Methods: This long-term follow-up is a continuation of a previously reported trial of 5- vs 0-V ANT stimulation. Long-term follow-up began 13 months after device implantation with stimulation parameters adjusted at the investigators' discretion. Seizure frequency was determined using daily seizure diaries. Results: The median percent seizure reduction from baseline at 1 year was 41%, and 69% at 5 years. The responder rate (≥50% reduction in seizure frequency) at 1 year was 43%, and 68% at 5 years. In the 5 years of follow-up, 16% of subjects were seizure-free for at least 6 months. There were no reported unanticipated adverse device effects or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages. The Liverpool Seizure Severity Scale and 31-item Quality of Life in Epilepsy measure showed statistically significant improvement over baseline by 1 year and at 5 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Long-term follow-up of ANT deep brain stimulation showed sustained efficacy and safety in a treatment-resistant population. Classification of evidence: This long-term follow-up provides Class IV evidence that for patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy, anterior thalamic stimulation is associated with a 69% reduction in seizure frequency and a 34% serious device-related adverse event rate at 5 years. PMID:25663221

  17. Drawing on Accounts of Long-Term Urinary Catheter Use: Design for the "Seemingly Mundane".

    PubMed

    Chapple, Alison; Prinjha, Suman; Feneley, Roger; Ziebland, Sue

    2016-01-01

    The design of the Foley catheter has not changed since 1937. Scientists interested in medical technology tend to focus on state-of-the-art designs for newsworthy specialties rather than the more mundane technologies of daily life. We interviewed 36 people living with a long-term urinary catheter in the United Kingdom, who described limitations of the current catheter design, including infections and complications and consequences for social life and relationships, and their perceptions of whose responsibility it was to improve the design. All took steps to hide the urine bag, but the need to use a catheter and urine bag had, for some, a very detrimental effect on social life and relationships. People living with long-term catheters are relatively isolated at home and dealing with many different underlying health problems, undermining opportunities to speak with a collective patient voice. Qualitative health researchers could act as a conduit to help stimulate new designs. PMID:25646001

  18. Long-Term Macroevaluation of Environmental Enrichment in Three Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) at Barcelona Zoo.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Ana I; Vinyoles, Dolors; Maté, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of enrichment programs is important to determine their effect on nonhuman animal welfare. The daily activity pattern and use of space of 3 brown bears (Ursus arctos) were used for long-term macroevaluation of enrichment to compare the baseline and enrichment phases. Focal sampling methods were used for data collection, and instantaneous scans were made at 2-min intervals during 15 sessions of 1 hr for each animal during the 2 study periods. The enrichment devices were categorized as feeding, occupational, and sensorial. The long-term macroevaluation in 3 bears showed statistically significant differences in some types of activity but not in others. There were also statistically significant differences for the use of space in 4 of the 8 zones in which the enclosures were divided. A more homogenous pattern in the use of space was only observed during the enrichment phase in the old female. The 3 brown bears followed different patterns concerning the enrichment program. PMID:26709627

  19. Accountability in the City of Toronto's 10 long-term care homes.

    PubMed

    Wyers, Lindsay; Gamble, Brenda; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    Long-term care (LTC) residential homes provide a supportive environment for residents requiring nursing care and assistance with daily living activities. The LTC sector is highly regulated. We examine the approaches taken to ensure the delivery of quality and safe care in 10 LTC homes owned and operated by the City of Toronto, Ontario, focusing on mandatory accountability agreements with the Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs). Results are based on document review and seven interviews with LTC managers responsible for the management and operation of the 10 LTC homes. One issue identified was the challenges associated with implementing new legislative and regulatory requirements to multiple bodies with differing requirements, particularly when boundaries do not coincide (e.g., the City of Toronto's Long-Term Care Homes and Services Division must establish 10 different accountability agreements with the five LHINs that span into the City of Toronto's geographic area). PMID:25305393

  20. Winery wastewater treatment by a combined process: long term aerated storage and Fenton's reagent.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Marco S; Mouta, Maria; Pirra, António; Peres, José A

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of the organic pollutants present in winery wastewater was carried out by the combination of two successive steps: an aerobic biological process followed by a chemical oxidation process using Fenton's reagent. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the temporal characteristics of solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) present in winery wastewater in a long term aerated storage bioreactor. The performance of different air dosage daily supplied to the biologic reactor, in laboratory and pilot scale, were examined. The long term hydraulic retention time, 11 weeks, contributed remarkably to the reduction of COD (about 90%) and the combination with the Fenton's reagent led to a high overall COD reduction that reached 99.5% when the mass ratio (R = H(2)O(2)/COD) used was equal to 2.5, maintaining constant the molar ratio H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+)=15. PMID:19700849

  1. Accountability in the City of Toronto's 10 Long-Term Care Homes

    PubMed Central

    Wyers, Lindsay; Gamble, Brenda; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term care (LTC) residential homes provide a supportive environment for residents requiring nursing care and assistance with daily living activities. The LTC sector is highly regulated. We examine the approaches taken to ensure the delivery of quality and safe care in 10 LTC homes owned and operated by the City of Toronto, Ontario, focusing on mandatory accountability agreements with the Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs). Results are based on document review and seven interviews with LTC managers responsible for the management and operation of the 10 LTC homes. One issue identified was the challenges associated with implementing new legislative and regulatory requirements to multiple bodies with differing requirements, particularly when boundaries do not coincide (e.g., the City of Toronto's Long-Term Care Homes and Services Division must establish 10 different accountability agreements with the five LHINs that span into the City of Toronto's geographic area). PMID:25305393

  2. Nitric oxide-dependent long-term depression but not endocannabinoid-mediated long-term potentiation is crucial for visual recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Tamagnini, Francesco; Barker, Gareth; Warburton, E Clea; Burattini, Costanza; Aicardi, Giorgio; Bashir, Zafar I

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in perirhinal cortex is essential for recognition memory. Nitric oxide and endocannabinoids (eCBs), which are produced in the postsynaptic cell and act on the presynaptic terminal, are implicated in mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in other brain regions. In this study, we examine these two retrograde signalling cascades in perirhinal cortex synaptic plasticity and in visual recognition memory in the rat. We show that inhibition of NO-dependent signalling prevented both carbachol- and activity (5 Hz)-dependent LTD but not activity (100 Hz theta burst)-dependent LTP in the rat perirhinal cortex in vitro. In contrast, inhibition of the eCB-dependent signalling prevented LTP but not the two forms of LTD in vitro. Local administration into perirhinal cortex of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NPA (2 μm) disrupted acquisition of long-term visual recognition memory. In contrast, AM251 (10 μm), a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, did not impair visual recognition memory. The results of this study demonstrate dissociation between putative retrograde signalling mechanisms in LTD and LTP in perirhinal cortex. Thus, LTP relies on cannabinoid but not NO signalling, whilst LTD relies on NO- but not eCB-dependent signalling. Critically, these results also establish, for the first time, that NO- but not eCB-dependent signalling is important in perirhinal cortex-dependent visual recognition memory. PMID:23671159

  3. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO(4) precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P. PMID:22982614

  4. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual andmore » long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.« less

  5. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  6. Method for Water Management Considering Long-term Probabilistic Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Kang, J.; Suh, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    This research is aimed at predicting the monthly inflow of the Andong-dam basin in South Korea using long-term probabilistic forecasts to apply long-term forecasts to water management. Forecasted Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of monthly precipitation are plotted by combining the range of monthly precipitation based on proper Probability Density Function (PDF) in past data with probabilistic forecasts in each category. Ensembles of inflow are estimated by entering generated ensembles of precipitation based on the CDFs into the 'abcd' water budget model. The bias and RMSE between averages in past data and observed inflow are compared to them in forecasted ensembles. In our results, the bias and RMSE of average precipitation in the forecasted ensemble are bigger than in past data, whereas the average inflow in the forecasted ensemble is smaller than in past data. This result could be used for reference data to apply long-term forecasts to water management, because of the limit in the number of forecasted data for verification and differences between the Andong-dam basin and the forecasted regions. This research has significance by suggesting a method of applying probabilistic information in climate variables from long-term forecasts to water management in Korea. Original data of a climate model, which produces long-term probabilistic forecasts should be verified directly as input data of a water budget model in the future, so that a more scientific response in water management against uncertainty of climate change could be reached.

  7. Characteristics of Long-Term Survivors of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Rosemary D.; Chen, Yingjia S.; Morris, Cyllene R.; Petersen, Megan; Leiserowitz, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with long-term survival forepithelial ovarian cancer patients using the California Cancer Registry. Methods A descriptive analysis of survival of all California residents diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 1994 and 2001 was conducted using patients identified through the cancer registry with follow up through 2011. Characteristics of the patients who survived more than 10 years (long-term survivors) were compared to three other cohorts: patients who survived less than 2 years, those who survived at least 2 but no more than 5 years, and those who survived at least 5 but no more than 10 years. Results A total of 3,582 out of 11,541 (31% CI=30.2%, 31.8%) of the patients survived more than 10 years. Younger age, early stage, low-grade, and non-serous histology were significant predictors of long-term survival, but long-term survivors also included women with high-risk cancer. Conclusion Long-term survival is not unusual in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, even in those with high-risk disease. Many of the prognostic factors are well known, but it remains to be determined why some patients with advanced stage high-grade cancers survive longer than others with the same histology. These findings are important for patient counseling. PMID:26244529

  8. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22 years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO4 precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P.

  9. Short- and long-term (trophic) purinergic signalling.

    PubMed

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2016-08-01

    There is long-term (trophic) purinergic signalling involving cell proliferation, differentiation, motility and death in the development and regeneration of most systems of the body, in addition to fast purinergic signalling in neurotransmission, neuromodulation and secretion. It is not always easy to distinguish between short- and long-term signalling. For example, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can sometimes act as a short-term trigger for long-term trophic events that become evident days or even weeks after the original challenge. Examples of short-term purinergic signalling during sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric neuromuscular transmission and in synaptic transmission in ganglia and in the central nervous system are described, as well as in neuromodulation and secretion. Long-term trophic signalling is described in the immune/defence system, stratified epithelia in visceral organs and skin, embryological development, bone formation and resorption and in cancer. It is likely that the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) in response to both P2X and P2Y purinoceptor activation participates in many short- and long-term physiological effects.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377731

  10. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  11. Modelling long-term landscape evolution by subglacial quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vej Ugelvig, Sofie; Lundbek Egholm, David; Iverson, Neal R.

    2016-04-01

    Glacial landscape-evolution models are useful tools when studying the mechanisms and long-term effects of glacial erosion. However, the difficulty of implementing the small-scale physics of abrasion and quarrying in large-scale landscape models has necessitated use of semi-empirical erosion laws, where sliding speed or total ice flux are the main parameters scaling the rate of erosion. Factors such as bed slope, effective pressure, and pre-existing fracture-density are known to also be of importance, however, especially for the mechanics of quarrying (Iverson, 2012). The objective of our study was to improve links between large-scale landscape models and the physics of subglacial quarrying. We used the quarrying model presented by Iverson (2012) to calculate the average efficiency of quarrying across many topographic steps. The computations were repeated for one million combinations of bed slope, effective pressure, and basal sliding speed. We then performed a power-law fit to the many resulting erosion rates in order to quantify the overall influence of the regional parameters (effective pressure, bed slope, and sliding rate). Based on these results we suggest a quarrying rule where, in addition to the strong influence of bedrock fracture-density, erosion rate scales with sliding speed to a power of 1, with bed slope to a power of 2, and with effective pressure to a power of 3. The high sensitivity to effective pressure implies a strong influence of meltwater hydrology on subglacial landscape evolution. To study this influence we implemented the new quarrying rule in a higher-order ice-sheet model coupled to a cavity-channel model for glacial hydrology. Computational experiments using steady-state hydrology predict that a well-drained glacier focuses quarrying in the upper parts of the glaciated catchment where water flux is small and slopes are steep, and in areas where ice is thick and the effective pressure high. Decreasing the hydraulic conductivity of

  12. Mammary gland neoplasia in long-term rodent studies.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, I H; Russo, J

    1996-01-01

    Breast cancer, the most frequent spontaneous malignancy diagnosed in women in the western world, is continuously increasing in incidence in industrialized nations. Although breast cancer develops in women as the result of a combination of external and endogenous factors such as exposure to ionizing radiation, diet, socioeconomic status, and endocrinologic, familial, or genetic factors, no specific etiologic agent(s) or the mechanisms responsible of the disease has been identified as yet. Thus, experimental models that exhibit the same complex interactions are needed for testing various mechanisms and for assessing the carcinogenic potential of given chemicals. Rodent mammary carcinomas represent such a model to a great extent because, in these species, mammary cancer is a multistep complex process that can be induced by either chemicals, radiation, viruses, or genetic factors. Long-term studies in rodent models have been particularly useful for dissecting the initiation, promotion, and progression steps of carcinogenesis. The susceptibility of the rodent mammary gland to develop neoplasms has made this organ a unique target for testing the carcinogenic potential of specific genotoxic chemicals and environmental agents. Mammary tumors induced by indirect- or direct-acting carcinogens such as 7, 12-dimethlbenz(a)anthracene or N-methyl-N-nitrosourea are, in general, hormone dependent adenocarcinomas whose incidence, number of tumors per animal, tumor latency, and tumor type are influenced by the age, reproductive history, and endocarinologic milieu of the host at the time of carcinogen exposure. Rodent models are informative in the absence of human data. They have provided valuable information on the dose and route of administration to be used and optimal host conditions for eliciting maximal tumorigenic response. Studies of the influence of normal gland development on the pathogenesis of chemically induced mammary carcinomas have clarified the role of differentiation

  13. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Children: Comparing Long-Term Effects of a Free Distribution and a Multicomponent Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinaerts, E.; Crutzen, R.; Candel, M.; De Vries, N. K.; De Nooijer, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two primary school-based interventions on children's fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption on the long term (2 years after the start of the interventions). Six primary schools were recruited and randomly assigned to (i) a daily free distribution program for the whole school or…

  14. Marketing and social work--synergy in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Loomis, L M; Bufano, J T

    1985-08-01

    The concept of marketing is new to the long-term care industry. Limited financial resources dictate that administrators investigate ways to supplement marketing staff. St. John's Home in Rochester, New York, has focused attention on the way in which social work can enhance the effectiveness of the marketing program. Presented here is the role of social work in the marketing mix: product, place, price, promotion, and public relations. PMID:10311234

  15. Towards community-based integrated care: trends and issues in Japan's long-term care policy

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Mie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In 2000, Japan implemented a mandatory long-term care insurance system. With the rapid growth of the system, problems became apparent. Several critical alterations were made to long-term care insurance system, particularly with respect to integrated care. Methods This paper elucidates the policy trends that led to the reforms of the long-term care insurance system, which included new concepts of ‘integrated care’ and ‘community-based care’, an agenda of cost containment and service streamlining, and coordination with medical care. Results Community-based integrated care, as envisaged in the long-term care policy, includes not only the integration of medical care into service provision but also the inclusion of the informal mutual aid, oversight of for-profit providers by an administration that ensures users are not exploited and coordination between systems that cover different geographical areas. Conclusions Japan's experience in community-based care integration suggests that this project requires multi-faceted care integration in local communities. In the future, it will be necessary to conduct empirical assessments of the effectiveness of these measures. PMID:24605073

  16. Histidine provides long-term neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia through promoting astrocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ru-jia; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Rong-rong; Zhao, Hua-wei; Chen, Ying; Li, Ya; Wang, Lu; Jie, Li-Yong; Zhou, Yu-dong; Zhang, Xiang-nan; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei-wei

    2015-01-01

    The formation of glial scar impedes the neurogenesis and neural functional recovery following cerebral ischemia. Histamine showed neuroprotection at early stage after cerebral ischemia, however, its long-term effect, especially on glial scar formation, hasn't been characterized. With various administration regimens constructed for histidine, a precursor of histamine, we found that histidine treatment at a high dose at early stage and a low dose at late stage demonstrated the most remarkable long-term neuroprotection with decreased infarct volume and improved neurological function. Notably, this treatment regimen also robustly reduced the glial scar area and facilitated the astrocyte migration towards the infarct core. In wound-healing assay and transwell test, histamine significantly promoted astrocyte migration. H2 receptor antagonists reversed the promotion of astrocyte migration and the neuroprotection provided by histidine. Moreover, histamine upregulated the GTP-bound small GTPase Rac1, while a Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, abrogated the neuroprotection of histidine and its promotion of astrocyte migration. Our data indicated that a dose/stage-dependent histidine treatment, mediated by H2 receptor, promoted astrocyte migration towards the infarct core, which benefited long-term post-cerebral ischemia neurological recovery. Therefore, targeting histaminergic system may be an effective therapeutic strategy for long-term cerebral ischemia injury through its actions on astrocytes. PMID:26481857

  17. Chronic Intranasal Oxytocin Causes Long-term Impairments in Partner Preference Formation in Male Prairie Voles

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Karen L.; Perkeybile, Allison M.; Conley, Olivia G.; Lee, Meredith H.; Guoynes, Caleigh D.; Downing, Griffin M.; Yun, Catherine R.; Solomon, Marjorie; Jacob, Suma; Mendoza, Sally P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OT) is a hormone shown to be involved in social bonding in animal models. Intranasal OT is currently in clinical trials for use in disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. We examined long-term effects of intranasal OT given developmentally in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), a socially monogamous rodent, often used as an animal model to screen drugs that have therapeutic potential for social disorders. Methods We treated voles with one of three dosages of intranasal OT, or saline, from day 21 (weaning) through day 42 (sexual maturity). We examined both social behavior immediately following administration, as well as long-term changes in social and anxiety behavior after treatment ceased. Group sizes varied from 8 to 15 voles (n = 89 voles total). Results Treatment with OT resulted in acute increases in social behavior in males with familiar partners, as seen in humans. However, long-term developmental treatment with low doses of intranasal OT resulted in a deficit in partner preference behavior (a reduction of contact with a familiar opposite-sex partner, used to index pair-bond formation) by males. Conclusions Long-term developmental treatment with OT may show results different to those predicted by short-term studies, as well as significant sex differences and dosage effects. Further animal study is crucial to determining safe and effective strategies for use of chronic intranasal OT, especially during development. PMID:23079235

  18. Histidine provides long-term neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia through promoting astrocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ru-jia; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Rong-rong; Zhao, Hua-wei; Chen, Ying; Li, Ya; Wang, Lu; Jie, Li-Yong; Zhou, Yu-dong; Zhang, Xiang-nan; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei-wei

    2015-01-01

    The formation of glial scar impedes the neurogenesis and neural functional recovery following cerebral ischemia. Histamine showed neuroprotection at early stage after cerebral ischemia, however, its long-term effect, especially on glial scar formation, hasn’t been characterized. With various administration regimens constructed for histidine, a precursor of histamine, we found that histidine treatment at a high dose at early stage and a low dose at late stage demonstrated the most remarkable long-term neuroprotection with decreased infarct volume and improved neurological function. Notably, this treatment regimen also robustly reduced the glial scar area and facilitated the astrocyte migration towards the infarct core. In wound-healing assay and transwell test, histamine significantly promoted astrocyte migration. H2 receptor antagonists reversed the promotion of astrocyte migration and the neuroprotection provided by histidine. Moreover, histamine upregulated the GTP-bound small GTPase Rac1, while a Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, abrogated the neuroprotection of histidine and its promotion of astrocyte migration. Our data indicated that a dose/stage-dependent histidine treatment, mediated by H2 receptor, promoted astrocyte migration towards the infarct core, which benefited long-term post-cerebral ischemia neurological recovery. Therefore, targeting histaminergic system may be an effective therapeutic strategy for long-term cerebral ischemia injury through its actions on astrocytes. PMID:26481857

  19. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long term care and presents two case examples. A semi-structured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing needs for protection with needs for autonomy. PMID:24354331

  20. Long-term urological outcomes in cloacal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Brian T; Wilcox, Duncan T

    2016-04-01

    Cloacal anomalies are the most complex and severe form of congenital anorectal malformations (ARM) and urogenital malformations, and it has been well documented that increased severity of ARM leads to worse outcomes. While short-term data on persistent cloaca are available, a paucity of data on long-term outcomes exists, largely because of a lack of uniform terminology, inclusion with other ARM and evolution of the operative technique. On comprehensive review of the published literature on long-term urological outcomes in patients with cloacal anomalies, we found a significant risk of chronic kidney disease and incontinence, however, with improvements in surgical technique, outcomes have improved. Continence often requires intermittent catheterization and in some cases, bladder augmentation. The complexity of cloacal malformations and associated anomalies make long-term multidisciplinary follow-up imperative. PMID:26969235

  1. Data Analysis in the LOFAR Long Term Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holties, H. A.; van Diepen, G.; van Dok, D.; Dijkstra, F.; Loose, M.; Renting, G. A.; Schrijvers, C.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2012-09-01

    The LOFAR Long Term Archive (LTA) is a distributed information system that provides integrated services for data analysis as well as long term preservation of astronomical datasets and their provenance. The data analysis capabilities are provided by a federated system that integrates a central catalog and client user interfaces provided by Astro-Wise with processing pipelines running on Grid based and University HPC clusters. The framework used for data analysis ensures that proper authorization and access rules are applied and that generated data products are ingested into the storage part of the Long Term Archive. The ingest process includes information about data provenance. This paper presents the architecture of the processing framework of the LTA.

  2. Long-term survival following emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Milner, Q J; Burchett, K R

    2000-05-01

    Survival following emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm remains poor and is in stark contrast to that for elective repair. We have carried out a 5-year retrospective observational study to determine the long-term (5-year) survival of patients following emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm at a district general hospital in East Anglia. A total of 99 patients presented to the operating theatre for emergency repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in this 5-year study period. In-hospital mortality was 70% and was unchanged over the 5 years. Overall long-term survival in those patients discharged from hospital was good. The ICU cost per long-term survivor was calculated to be pound sterling 36750. PMID:10792133

  3. Forecasting demand for long-term care services.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, D; Uyeno, D; Stark, A; Kliewer, E; Gutman, G

    1985-01-01

    This article analyzes three methods used to forecast the transition of long-term care clients through a variety of possible home and facility placements and levels of care. The test population (N = 1,653) is derived from the larger population of clients admitted in 1978 to British Columbia's newly established Long-Term Care program. The investigators have accumulated 5 years of service-generated data on moves, discharges, and deaths of these clients. Results show that the first-order Markov chain with stationary transition probabilities yields a superior forecast to state-by-state moving average growth and state-by-state regression analyses. The results of these analyses indicate that the Markov method should receive serious consideration as a tool for resource planning and allocation in long-term care. PMID:3932260

  4. [Long-term evolution and complications of eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Isabelle

    2008-01-31

    Eating disorders long-term evolution is good in 50% of cases, middle in 25% (recovery from eating disorders, but still psychological suffering) and bad in 25% of cases, with chronic eating disorders, anxious or depressive comorbid disorder, and bad consequences in social patients' life. Anorexia nervosa has a considerably worse long-term outcome than bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorders. Never the less, purging bulimia nervosa is often associated with other impulsive symptoms, such as addictions and suicide attempts. Chronic undernutrition leads to main long-term medical complications of eating disorders: linear growth in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, infertility, and osteoporosis. These complications need a specific medical follow up, at least once a year, added to the psychiatric and psychotherapist follow-up. PMID:18361276

  5. Long-term Internship through Cooperative Education with Regional Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Hase, Hiroyuki

    The long term internship is one of special educational programs for graduate students of Graduate School of Engineering in University of Fukui. This is a collaborative program between university and industries where selected post-graduate students are dispatched to companies for a long term and educated in real business environments. It is the final goal of the program to develop sophisticated specialists who would be able to catch the business strategy in industries and solve any problems by themselves. The program is managed in a semester (6 months) and contains 1.5 month prior education of preliminary special knowledge, ethics and secrecy, about 3 month dispatch with long-term internship, and 1.5 month post-education for complementary education and presentation. This paper presents the effect of this program which has been evolving since 2005.

  6. Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J.

    2007-08-15

    A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield.

  7. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  8. Long-term Use of Opioids for Complex Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Von Korff, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased opioid prescribing for back pain and other chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions has been accompanied by dramatic increases in prescription opioid addiction and fatal overdose. Opioid-related risks appear to increase with dose. While short-term randomized trials of opioids for chronic pain have found modest analgesic benefits (a one-third reduction in pain intensity on average), the long-term safety and effectiveness of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain is unknown. Given the lack of large, long-term randomized trials, recent epidemiologic data suggests the need for caution when considering long-term use of opioids to manage chronic musculoskeletal pain, particularly at higher dosage levels. Principles for achieving more selective and cautious use of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain are proposed. PMID:24315147

  9. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application. PMID:10179063

  10. The long-term alteration of borosilicate waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Brown, N.R.

    1993-06-01

    Prediction of the long-term durability of glass waste forms under potential disposal conditions is based on a mechanistic model of glass corrosion which has been derived from short-term laboratory tests. The model of glass reaction that has evolved identifies the hydrolysis of an Si-0 bond to release silicic acid as the step which controls the long-term glass reactivity. This reaction step is initially fast under dilute solution conditions, but slows as the silicic acid concentration in solution increases. An increase in the solution concentrations of glass components will occur with progressive glass corrosion, and so the solutions which contact waste glasses over long reaction times will have high concentrations of glass components. Therefore, the glass reactivity is usually expected to decrease with the reaction progress as the contacting solution becomes more concentrated. The corrosion behavior of glasses contacted by highly concentrated solutions must be characterized to assess the long-term glass stability.

  11. Fast and long term lipid droplet tracking with CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jüngst, Christian; Winterhalder, Martin J; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Photobleaching of organic fluorophores commonly used in fluorescence microscopy puts a limit to the number of images which can be acquired. Label-free imaging techniques therefore offer advantages both for rapid image acquisition and for long-term observations. CARS microscopy is a label-free imaging technique offering molecule specific contrast. Here we demonstrate that CARS microscopy allows video-rate tracking of intracellular transport of lipid droplets, but also continuous long-term observation of cells over several hours. PMID:21445955

  12. [Long-term effects of uterine cesarean section scar].

    PubMed

    Tihtonen, Kati; Nyberg, Reita

    2014-01-01

    During the last few decades the cesarean delivery rate has been around 15% in Finland. It has remained moderate compared with USA where 30% of women deliver by cesarean section. Compared with vaginal delivery, cesarean section is associated with a three- to sixfold risk of severe complications. Furthermore, it increases also long term gynecological morbidity, including intermenstrual bleeding, chronic pelvic pain and risk of secondary infertility. Scar pregnancy, uterine rupture, placenta previa and accrete are known risks after cesarean section. Because cesarean delivery is associated with increased long-term morbidity, the decision of performing cesarean section should always be carefully considered. PMID:24730196

  13. Leadership: the Winnipeg Community and Long-Term Care Authority.

    PubMed

    Suski, M; Hack, T; Heaman, M

    1999-01-01

    The Winnipeg Community and Long Term Care Authority (WCA) was established in 1998 under the Regional Health Authorities Act of the Province of Manitoba. The WCA's role is to provide for the successful integration of Winnipeg's community-based healthcare delivery services through its three main portfolios: Community Care and Public Health, Home Care and Mental Health, and Long Term Care and Specialized Services. The WCA is dedicated to building a quality health future for Winnipeg. Various initiatives undertaken in the pursuit of quality are described. PMID:10538544

  14. [Drug-eluting stents: long-term safety].

    PubMed

    Karpov, Iu A; Samko, A N; Buza, V V

    2009-01-01

    The review concerns the problem of late thromboses of drug-eluting stents and their influence on late prognosis of the patients; presents long-term results of the trial of sirolimus-eluting stents implanted to patients with coronary heart disease; analyses mechanisms of development of late stent thrombosis, data from different meta-analyses and registers comparing long-term outcomes in patients with implanted sirolimus-eluting stents and metallic stents; suggests risk factors of late thromboses of drug-eluting stents; presents original evidence on 3.5-year follow-up of patients with implanted sirolimus-eluting stents and metallic stents. PMID:19537584

  15. Early sound deprivation and long-term hearing.

    PubMed

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1996-11-01

    The long-term effects of hearing loss in early life were analyzed by tests of central auditory function. A majority of individuals failed the Compressed Speech identification with statistically significant results. There was an impact on a minority of individuals evaluated by Dichotic Sentences; little impairment was noted through Speech Reception in Noise. Delayed maturation of the central auditory complex may improve these findings, although during the period of investigation a negative impact was measured. Other issues of diagnosis, remediation, and the consequences of short- and long-term deafness are discussed. PMID:8916863

  16. Long-term preservation of native arteriovenous dialysis fistulas.

    PubMed

    Mallios, Alexandros; Costanzo, Alessandro; Boura, Benoit; Combes, Myriam; Alomran, Faris; de Blic, Romain; Jennings, William C

    2014-04-01

    Preservation of native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in the long term can be technically challenging. Various anatomic or functional problems can occur and multiple open and/or endovascular interventions may be required for extended preservation of native accesses. In this report, we review vascular access maintenance in a 72-year-old woman during a 5-year period. Multiple complications of her native radiocephalic AVF included recurrent occlusions, a central venous stent fracture and symptomatic venous outflow stenosis. We present this case to illustrate the various techniques and combination of approaches used in the long-term preservation of a native AVF. PMID:24360937

  17. Instrumentation of bridges for long-term performance monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Maria Q.; Kim, Doo-Kie; Sheng, Li-Hong; Fiji, Leonard M.; Kim, Yoo J.

    2001-08-01

    As the state of the art in bridge design is advancing toward the performance-based design, it becomes increasingly important to monitor and evaluate the long-term structural performance of bridges, including strains in critical structural members, soil pressures on the abutment back walls and footings, accelerations on the decks and bents, etc. Such information is essential in developing new performance criteria for design. In this research, sensor systems for long-term structural performance monitoring have been installed on two new highway bridges on Orange County, California: the Jamboree Road Overcrossing and the West Street On-Ramp.

  18. Long-term noise statistics from the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, Anthony I.; Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.; Larue, James P.

    2003-04-01

    Long-term, omnidirectional acoustic noise measurements were conducted in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico during the summer of 2001. These efforts were a part of the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center project, Phase I. Initial looks at the noise time series, processed in standard one-third-octave bands from 10 to 5000 Hz, show noise levels that differ substantially from customary deep-water noise spectra. Contributing factors to this highly dynamic noise environment are an abundance of marine mammal emissions and various industrial noises. Results presented here address long-term temporal variability, temporal coherence times, the fluctuation spectrum, and coherence of fluctuations across the frequency spectrum. [Research supported by ONR.

  19. Long-term plasma exchange in pediatric CIDP.

    PubMed

    Lucchetta, Marta; Vidal, Enrico; Sartori, Stefano; Campagnolo, Marta; Torre, Chiara Dalla; Marson, Piero; Manara, Renzo; Briani, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is not frequently used in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) because it usually gives only a short-term benefit. We report on a 16-year-old boy with renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis who developed CIDP and underwent TPE with dramatic long-term response to therapy. Nerve ultrasound and MRI findings are also reported. In our patient TPE was chosen because he was already undergoing hemodialysis. Though it is not considered a first-line therapy in pediatric CIDP, TPE may be a good therapeutic choice also in long-term period. PMID:25663075

  20. The assessment of long-term orbital debris models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonas, F. M.; Yates, K. W.

    1992-01-01

    Existing long-term orbital debris models are assessed as a first step in the Air Force's effort to develop an Air Force long-term orbital debris model which can perform the following functions: (1) operate with the necessary accuracy at the relevant altitudes and orbital parameters; (2) benefit from new Air Force and non-Air Force debris measurements; and (3) accommodate current and future Air Force space scenarios. Model assessment results are shown for the NASA engineering model. The status of the NASA EVOLVE model assessment is discussed.