Science.gov

Sample records for long-term hospitalization experience

  1. In-hospital and long-term mortality in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a community hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Vriz, Olga; Brosolo, Gabriele; Martina, Stefano; Pertoldi, Franco; Citro, Rodolfo; Mos, Lucio; Ferrara, Francesco; Bossone, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by reversible left ventricular dysfunction, frequently precipitated by a stressful event. Despite the favorable course and good long-term prognosis, a variety of complications may occur in the acute phase of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in-hospital and long-term outcomes of a cohort of TTC patients. Methods Fifty-five patients (mean age 68.1±12 years) were prospectively followed for a mean of 69.6±32.2 months (64,635 days). In-hospital (death, heart failure, arrhythmias) and long-term events (death and recurrences) were recorded. Results Patients were predominantly women (87.3%) who experienced a recent stressful event (emotional or physical) and were admitted to hospital for chest pain. Eleven patients (20%) had a diagnosis of depressive disorder, and arterial hypertension was the most frequent cardiovascular risk factor. The ECG revealed ST-segment elevation in 43.6% of patients. At angiography, seven cases (12.7%) had at least one significant (≥50%) coronary artery stenosis and four patients (7.3%) had myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending artery. During hospitalization, three patients died (one from cardiac causes) and cardiovascular complications occurred in 12 patients. During follow-up, five patients died (none from cardiac causes), six patients had recurrences within the first year. Two patients had two recurrences: one after 114 days, triggered by an asthma attack as the first event, and the other after 1,850 days. Conclusions In TTC patients, in-hospital and long-term mortality is primarily due to non-cardiovascular causes. Recurrences are not infrequent and coronary artery disease is not an uncommon finding. PMID:27406446

  2. The long-term hospitalization experience following military service in the 1991 Gulf War among veterans remaining on active duty, 1994–2004

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Tomoko I; DeBakey, Samar F; Nagaraj, Barbara E; Bellis, Kimberly S; Smith, Besa; Smith, Tyler C; Gackstetter, Gary D

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite more than a decade of extensive, international efforts to characterize and understand the increased symptom and illness-reporting among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, concern over possible long-term health effects related to this deployment continue. The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term hospitalization experience of the subset of U.S. Gulf War veterans still on active duty between 1994 and 2004. Methods Gulf War veterans on active duty rosters as of October 1, 1994, were identified (n = 211 642) and compared with veterans who had separated from military service and then assessed for attrition at three-year intervals during a 10-year follow-up period, examining demographic and military service characteristics, Gulf War exposure variables, and hospitalization data. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to evaluate independent predictors of all-cause hospitalization among those still on active duty and to estimate cumulative probability of hospitalization, 1994–2004, by service branch. Results Members of our 1994 active duty cohort were more likely to be officers, somewhat older, and married compared with those who had separated from the military after serving in the 1991 Gulf War. Selected war-related exposures or experiences did not appear to influence separation with the exception of in-theater presence during the brief ground combat phase. Overall the top three diagnostic categories for hospitalizations were musculo-skeletal, injury and poisoning, and digestive disorders. Diseases of the circulatory system and symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions increased proportionately over time. In-theater hospitalization was the only significant independent predictor of long-term hospitalization risk among selected war-related exposures or experiences examined. The cumulative probability of hospitalization was highest for Army and lowest for Marines. Conclusion Our results were generally consistent with a previous

  3. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers. PMID:26808468

  4. Medical Foster Care: An Alternative to Long-Term Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Patricia H.; Whitworth, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a program model, Medical Foster Care, which uses registered nurses as foster parents who work closely with biological parents of abused and neglected children with acute health problems. The program reunites families, improves parenting skills, and saves money in long-term hospitalization. (Author/BB)

  5. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  6. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  7. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  8. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  9. Transitions of elders between long-term care and hospitals.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Mary D; Kurtzman, Ellen T; Pauly, Mark V

    2009-08-01

    Elderly long-term care recipients who require acute hospitalizations must navigate a fragmented system with poor "handoffs," often resulting in negative outcomes. This article makes the case that reducing preventable hospitalizations and improving transitions to and from hospitals will enhance health care quality and outcomes among these elders. Immediate action targeting diffusion of evidence-based care is recommended to decrease avoidable rehospitalizations and achieve cost savings. Policy changes are needed to address barriers to high-quality transitional care, including deficits in health professionals' and caregivers' knowledge and resources, regulatory obstacles, and inadequate financial incentives and clinical information systems. PMID:20026453

  10. Catheter-related Blood Stream Infection in Patients Receiving Long-term Home Parenteral Nutrition: Tertiary Care Hospital Experience in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tawil, Esraa S.; Almuhareb, Alanoud M.; Amin, Hamdy M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a lifesaving therapy for patients with many severe conditions, including intestinal failure. Some patients require long-term PN therapy, which makes home parenteral nutrition (HPN) an attractive option to improve the quality of life. Among the most common and serious complications observed in these patients are catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSIs). The aim of our study is to determine the frequency of CRBSI among patients receiving long-term HPN. Patients and Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients enrolled in the HPN program between 2006 and 2012. Data on the demographic characteristics, indications and duration of PN therapy, catheter type, number of admissions because of CRBSI, and blood culture results were recorded. Results: Eight pediatric patients were included (mean age of 3.5 years at the start of HPN). Microvillus inclusive disease was noted in 50% of these patients, and 75% of them received HPN under parents' care. CRBSI resulted in 60 admissions with a median of 182 days of hospital stay and 74 changes of central venous catheters. The rate of CRBSI was 2.9 per 1000 catheter days. Staphylococcus species were the most prevalent pathogens (32%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (5%). Conclusion: In this small group of HPN patients, the BSI rate was 2.9 infections per 1000 catheter days, and most common causative organisms were Staphylococcus species. We believe that a well-established training program for caregivers can reduce the rate of infectious complications associated with long-term PN support. PMID:27488325

  11. 42 CFR 412.534 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals. 412.534 Section 412.534 Public Health... Hospitals § 412.534 Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites... § 412.22(e)(2), or satellite facilities of long-term care hospitals that meet the criteria in §...

  12. 42 CFR 412.534 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals. 412.534 Section 412.534 Public Health... Hospitals § 412.534 Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites... § 412.22(e)(2), or satellite facilities of long-term care hospitals that meet the criteria in §...

  13. 42 CFR 412.534 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals. 412.534 Section 412.534 Public Health... Hospitals § 412.534 Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites... § 412.22(e)(2), or satellite facilities of long-term care hospitals that meet the criteria in §...

  14. 42 CFR 412.534 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals. 412.534 Section 412.534 Public Health... Hospitals § 412.534 Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites... § 412.22(e)(2), or satellite facilities of long-term care hospitals that meet the criteria in §...

  15. Visualization of hospital cleanliness in three Japanese hospitals with a tendency toward long-term care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospital cleanliness in hospitals with a tendency toward long-term care in Japan remains unevaluated. We therefore visualized hospital cleanliness in Japan over a 2-month period by two distinct popular methods: ATP bioluminescence (ATP method) and the standard stamp agar method (stamp method). Methods The surfaces of 752 sites within nurse and patient areas in three hospitals located in a central area of Sapporo, Japan were evaluated by the ATP and stamp methods, and each surface was sampled 8 times in 2 months. These areas were located in different ward units (Internal Medicine, Surgery, and Obstetrics and Gynecology). Detection limits for the ATP and stamp methods were determined by spike experiments with a diluted bacterial solution and a wipe test on student tables not in use during winter vacation, respectively. Values were expressed as the fold change over the detection limit, and a sample with a value higher than the detection limit by either method was defined as positive. Results The detection limits were determined to be 127 relative light units (RLU) per 100 cm2 for the ATP method and 5.3 colony-forming units (CFU) per 10 cm2 for the stamp method. The positive frequency of the ATP and stamp methods was 59.8% (450/752) and 47.7% (359/752), respectively, although no significant difference in the positive frequency among the hospitals was seen. Both methods revealed the presence of a wide range of organic contamination spread via hand touching, including microbial contamination, with a preponderance on the entrance floor and in patient rooms. Interestingly, the data of both methods indicated considerable variability regardless of daily visual assessment with usual wiping, and positive surfaces were irregularly seen. Nurse areas were relatively cleaner than patient areas. Finally, there was no significant correlation between the number of patients or medical personnel in the hospital and organic or microbiological contamination. Conclusions

  16. The Insider's Experience of Long-Term Peer Victimisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Graham J.; Carey, Timothy A.; Stevens, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools continues to be a problem despite the best efforts of educators, researchers, and clinicians. Of most concern for the present study is that some children experience long-term victimisation by their peers. To improve our understanding in this area, the phenomenology of being bullied over the course of the school year was…

  17. Space station experiment definition: Long term cryogenic fluid storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riemer, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary design of an experiment to demonstrate and evaluate long-term cryogenic fluid storage and transfer technologies has been performed. This Long-Term Cryogenic Fluid Storage (LTCFS) experiment is a Technology Development Mission (TDM) experiment proposed by the NASA Lewis Research Center to be deployed on the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) space station. Technologies required by future orbital cryogenic systems such as Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV's) were defined, and critical technologies requiring demonstration were chosen to be included in the experiment. A three-phase test program was defined to test the following types of technologies: (1) Passive Thermal Technologies; (2) Fluid Transfer Technologies; and (3) Active Refrigeration Technologies. The development status of advanced technologies required for the LTCFS experiment is summarized, including current, past and future programs.

  18. Geriatrics and the triple aim: defining preventable hospitalizations in the long-term care population.

    PubMed

    Ouslander, Joseph G; Maslow, Katie

    2012-12-01

    Reducing preventable hospitalizations is fundamental to the "triple aim" of improving care, improving health, and reducing costs. New federal government initiatives that create strong pressure to reduce such hospitalizations are being or will soon be implemented. These initiatives use quality measures to define which hospitalizations are preventable. Reducing hospitalizations could greatly benefit frail and chronically ill adults and older people who receive long-term care (LTC) because they often experience negative effects of hospitalization, including hospital-acquired conditions, morbidity, and loss of functional abilities. Conversely, reducing hospitalizations could mean that some people will not receive hospital care they need, especially if the selected measures do not adequately define hospitalizations that can be prevented without jeopardizing the person's health and safety. An extensive literature search identified 250 measures of preventable hospitalizations, but the measures have not been validated in the LTC population and generally do not account for comorbidity or the capacity of various LTC settings to provide the required care without hospitalization. Additional efforts are needed to develop measures that accurately differentiate preventable from necessary hospitalizations for the LTC population, are transparent and fair to providers, and minimize the potential for gaming and unintended consequences. As the new initiatives take effect, it is critical to monitor their effect and to develop and disseminate training and resources to support the many community- and institution-based healthcare professionals and emergency department staff involved in decisions about hospitalization for this population. PMID:23194066

  19. Experiences of the Long Term Stability at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, F. Q.

    2007-01-19

    The long term stability on the scale from days to a year, besides the short term stability, is one of key performance indicators of a light source. The Swiss Light Source (SLS) was installed and commissioned in 2000. It has successfully worked for more than 5 years without re-alignment of the machine. Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) and Horizontal Position System (HPS) have been added at supports of the storage ring (48 girders). They made evidence that the position of SLS Storage Ring (SR) is very stable on the time scale of a day, a week, a month and a year. The evidence for the long term stability is also provided by frequency of the RF cavity. The HLS is a powerful tool. The analysis of the HLS data shows that the vertical displacements, which are adjusted to correct average orbit deviations, of the SLS storage ring foundation and of the girder supports were in the range of 0.15 mm in 2003. The site, the building foundation, the mechanical supports and the temperature control are important pre-conditions to get the good long term stability. The experience gained with the long term stability at SLS is presented.

  20. Improving Service Quality in Long-term Care Hospitals: National Evaluation on Long-term Care Hospitals and Employees Perception of Quality Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinkyung; Han, Woosok

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate predictors for specific dimensions of service quality perceived by hospital employees in long-term care hospitals. Methods Data collected from a survey of 298 hospital employees in 18 long-term care hospitals were analysed. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression analysis with hospital fixed effects was used to determine the predictors of service quality using respondents’ and organizational characteristics. Results The most significant predictors of employee-perceived service quality were job satisfaction and degree of consent on national evaluation criteria. National evaluation results on long-term care hospitals and work environment also had positive effects on service quality. Conclusion The findings of the study show that organizational characteristics are significant determinants of service quality in long-term care hospitals. Assessment of the extent to which hospitals address factors related to employeeperceived quality of services could be the first step in quality improvement activities. Results have implications for efforts to improve service quality in longterm care hospitals and designing more comprehensive national evaluation criteria. PMID:24159497

  1. Music and Well-Being in Long-Term Hospitalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhi, Elena; Pickett, Nick

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of long-term hospitalized children when exposed to live music. Twenty-one paediatric patients at Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital, London, between 3 months and 14 years of age, took part in the study. They were all long-term patients with cardiac and/or respiratory…

  2. Long-term operating experience for the ATLAS superconducting resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.; Zinkann, G.

    1999-12-21

    Portions of the ATLAS accelerator have been operating now for over 21 years. The facility has accumulated several million resonator-hours of operation at this point and has demonstrated the long-term reliability of RF superconductivity. The overall operating performance of the ATLAS facility has established a level of beam quality, flexibility, and reliability not previously achieved with heavy-ion accelerator facilities. The actual operating experience and maintenance history of ATLAS are presented for ATLAS resonators and associated electronics systems. Solutions to problems that appeared in early operation as well as current problems needing further development are discussed.

  3. Fall-Related Hospitalization and Facility Costs among Residents of Institutions Providing Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Norman V.; Delafuente, Jeffrey C.; Cox, Fred M.; Narayanan, Siva

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate hospital and long-term-care costs resulting from falls in long-term-care facilities (LTCFs). Design and Methods: The study used a retrospective, pre/post with comparison group design. We used matching, based on propensity scores, to control for baseline differences between fallers and non-fallers.…

  4. Long-Term Care Insurance: Does Experience Matter?*

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Norma B.; Skira, Meghan M.; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold

    2015-01-01

    We examine whether long-term care (LTC) experience helps explain the low demand for long-term care insurance (LTCI). We test if expectations about future informal care receipt, expectations about inheritance receipt, and LTCI purchase decisions vary between individuals whose parents or in-laws have used LTC versus those who have not. We find parental use of a nursing home decreases expectations that one’s children will provide informal care, consistent with the demonstration effect. Nursing home use by in-laws does not have the same impact, suggesting that individuals are responding to information gained about their own aging trajectory. Nursing home use by either a parent or in-law increases LTCI purchase probability by 0.8 percentage points, with no significant difference in response between parents’ and in-laws’ use. The estimated increase in purchase probability from experience with LTC is about half the previously estimated increase from tax policy-induced price decreases. PMID:25647006

  5. Medicaid claims history of Florida long-term care facility residents hospitalized for pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Baker, J

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of admission, discharge, and readmission between hospital and long-term care facility among a group of Florida long-term care facility residents with pressure ulcers whose care was paid for by Medicaid. A patient-specific, longitudinal claims history database was constructed from data provided by the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. This database was used to determine and analyze hospital admissions for pressure ulcer care among Medicaid recipients cared for in a long-term care facility. Analysis of the data determined that more than half of the Medicaid-covered long-term care facility residents who formed the target study group (54.57%) had multiple hospital admissions associated with pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcer hospital admissions amounted to a program cost of $9.9 million. PMID:8704846

  6. 42 CFR 412.540 - Method of payment for preadmission services under the long-term care hospital prospective payment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the long-term care hospital prospective payment system. 412.540 Section 412.540 Public Health CENTERS... PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.540 Method of payment for preadmission services under the long-term care hospital...

  7. 42 CFR 412.540 - Method of payment for preadmission services under the long-term care hospital prospective payment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the long-term care hospital prospective payment system. 412.540 Section 412.540 Public Health CENTERS... PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.540 Method of payment for preadmission services under the long-term care hospital...

  8. Innovative use of tele-ICU in long-term acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mullen-Fortino, Margaret; Sites, Frank D; Soisson, Michael; Galen, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Tele-intensive care units (ICUs) typically provide remote monitoring for ICUs of acute care, short-stay hospitals. As part of a joint venture project to establish a long-term acute level of care, Good Shepherd Penn Partners became the first facility to use tele-ICU technology in a nontraditional setting. Long-term acute care hospitals care for patients with complex medical problems. We describe describes the benefits and challenges of integrating a tele-ICU program into a long-term acute care setting and the impact this model of care has on patient care outcomes. PMID:22828067

  9. 42 CFR 412.541 - Method of payment under the long-term care hospital prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Method of payment under the long-term care hospital... SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.541 Method of payment under the long-term care hospital prospective payment system. (a) General rule. Subject to the exceptions...

  10. Placement changes in long-term care: three years' experience.

    PubMed Central

    Stark, A J; Kliewer, E; Gutman, G M; McCashin, B

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the place and level of care of an urban and a semi-rural health unit for which 1,653 clients began their experience in British Columbia's Long-Term Care (LTC) program and where they were one and three years later. Three years after admission, 54 per cent of 759 clients initially admitted at home to the lowest level of care were still active clients: 25.8 per cent unchanged, 11.3 per cent at home but at a higher level of care, 16.9 per cent had moved to facilities, 25.4 per cent had died; the remainder of this group had been discharged from LTC. A similar proportion of the 184 clients admitted to the lowest level of care in facilities were still in the program at the end of three years. In contrast, 25 per cent of those admitted to the highest level of care at home (N = 60) and 14.1 per cent of those admitted to the highest level in facilities (N = 64) remained in the program after three years. The potential of the study data for planning purposes is suggested. PMID:6424483

  11. Readmission Rates and Long-Term Hospital Costs Among Survivors of In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul S.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Li, Yan; Hammill, Bradley G.; Spertus, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although in-hospital cardiac arrest is common, little is known about readmission patterns and inpatient resource use among survivors of in-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods and Results Within a large national registry, we examined long-term inpatient utilization among 6972 adults ≥65 years who survived an in-hospital cardiac arrest. We examined 30-day and 1-year readmission rates and inpatient costs, overall and by patient demographics, hospital disposition (discharge destination), and neurological status at discharge. The mean age was 75.8 ± 7.0 years, 56% were men, and 12% were black. There were a total of 2005 readmissions during the first 30 days (cumulative incidence rate: 35 readmissions/100 patients [95% CI: 33–37]) and 8751 readmissions at 1 year (cumulative incidence rate: 185 readmissions/100 patients [95% CI: 177–190]). Overall, mean inpatient costs were $7,741 ± $2323 at 30 days and $18,629 ± $9411 at 1 year. Thirty-day inpatient costs were higher in patients of younger age (≥85 years: $6052 [reference]; 75–84 years: $7444 [adjusted cost ratio, 1.23 [1.06–1.42]; 65–74 years: $8291 [adjusted cost ratio, 1.37 [1.19–1.59]; both P<0.001]) and black race (whites: $7413; blacks: $9044; adjusted cost ratio, 1.22 [1.05–1.42]; P<0.001), as well as those discharged with severe neurological disability or to skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities. These differences in resource use persisted at 1 year and were largely due to higher readmission rates. Conclusion Survivors of in-hospital cardiac arrest have frequent readmissions and high follow-up inpatient costs. Readmissions and inpatient costs were higher in certain subgroups, including patients of younger age and black race. PMID:25351479

  12. Reduced Right Ventricular Function Predicts Long-Term Cardiac Re-Hospitalization after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Yulia; Chan, Jacqueline; Iskandir, Marina; Gulkarov, Iosif; Tortolani, Anthony; Brener, Sorin J.; Sacchi, Terrence J.; Heitner, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The significance of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and valve procedures remains unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the significance of abnormal RVEF by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), independent of LVEF in predicting outcomes of patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve surgery. Methods From 2007 to 2009, 109 consecutive patients (mean age, 66 years; 38% female) were referred for pre-operative CMR. Abnormal RVEF and LVEF were considered <35% and <45%, respectively. Elective primary procedures include CABG (56%) and valve (44%). Thirty-day outcomes were perioperative complications, length of stay, cardiac re-hospitalizations and early mortaility; long-term (> 30 days) outcomes included, cardiac re-hospitalization, worsening congestive heart failure and mortality. Mean clinical follow up was 14 months. Findings Forty-eight patients had reduced RVEF (mean 25%) and 61 patients had normal RVEF (mean 50%) (p<0.001). Fifty-four patients had reduced LVEF (mean 30%) and 55 patients had normal LVEF (mean 59%) (p<0.001). Patients with reduced RVEF had a higher incidence of long-term cardiac re-hospitalization vs. patients with normal RVEF (31% vs.13%, p<0.05). Abnormal RVEF was a predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization (HR 3.01 [CI 1.5-7.9], p<0.03). Reduced LVEF did not influence long-term cardiac re-hospitalization. Conclusion Abnormal RVEF is a stronger predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization than abnormal LVEF in patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve procedures. PMID:26197273

  13. Antibiotic Misuse in Hospital, Outpatient, and Long-Term Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Salman; Cook, Paul P

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic misuse is common in the United States, but the causes of antibiotic misuse may differ from one health care setting to another. In this commentary, we describe the factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions in hospital, outpatient, and long-term care settings, along with specific measures that can help prevent antibiotic misuse. PMID:27621347

  14. CHILDHOOD RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS, HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS, AND LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on respiratory symptoms and respiratory hospitalization (for asthma, bronchitis or pneumonia) were assessed in a cross-sectional study of children (ages 7--11 years, N=667) living in a moderately industrialized city in Central Sl...

  15. The Regulatory Environment and Rural Hospital Long-Term Care Strategies from 1997 to 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Mary L.; Campbell, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Since the passage of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, rural hospitals have struggled with the need to strategically adapt to an abundance of changing reimbursement and regulatory programs, as well as to respond to the needs of an increasingly frail elder population in need of postacute and long-term care (LTC). Purpose: This article has 2…

  16. Photodocumentation of long-term lunar surface exposure experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.

    1974-01-01

    Preflight photographs of selected Apollo 17 equipment taken for use in determining the effects on various surfaces of long-term exposure to the lunar environment are presented. Photographs of the articles deployed on the lunar surface also are included. The photographic procedure and the coding system used for the photodocumentation are explained. Other documentation measures planned to obtain items for use as controls in projected analyses are discussed.

  17. Long-term hospitalizations for schizophrenia in the Czech Republic 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Petr; Mladá, Karolína; Krupchanka, Dzmitry; Agius, Mark; Ray, Manaan Kar; Höschl, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Deinstitutionalization has not been pursued in the post-communist Europe until recently. The population of psychiatric patients institutionalized in the regional mental hospitals is, however, largely understudied. The aim of this study is to assess discharges of long-term inpatients with schizophrenia from Czech psychiatric hospitals and to analyse re-hospitalizations within this group. The nationwide register of all-cause inpatient hospitalizations was merged with the nationwide register of all-cause deaths on an individual level basis. Descriptive statistics, survival analysis and logistic regression were performed. 3601 patients with schizophrenia previously hospitalized for more than a year were discharged from Czech mental hospitals between 1998 and 2012. This included 260 patients hospitalized for >20years. Nearly one fifth (n=707) of the long-term patients died during the hospitalization; and discharges of 19.36% (n=697) were only administrative in their nature. Out of 2197 truly discharged patients, 14.88% (n=327) were re-hospitalized within 2weeks after the discharge. The highest odds of rehospitalization were associated with being discharged against medical advice (OR 5.27, CI: 3.77-7.35, p<0.001). These data are important for the ongoing mental health care reforms in the Czech Republic and other countries in the Central and Eastern Europe. PMID:27094718

  18. 42 CFR 412.540 - Method of payment for preadmission services under the long-term care hospital prospective payment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the beneficiary's inpatient admission and the hospital does not attest that such service is... the long-term care hospital prospective payment system. 412.540 Section 412.540 Public Health CENTERS... PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care...

  19. A Comparison of Free-Standing versus Co-Located Long-Term Acute Care Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Jeremy M.; Barnato, Amber E.; Lave, Judith R.; Pike, Francis; Weissfeld, Lisa A.; Le, Tri Q.; Angus, Derek C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term acute care hospitals (LTACs) provide specialized treatment for patients with chronic critical illness. Increasingly LTACs are co-located within traditional short-stay hospitals rather than operated as free-standing facilities, which may affect LTAC utilization patterns and outcomes. Methods We compared free-standing and co-located LTACs using 2005 data from the United States Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. We used bivariate analyses to examine patient characteristics and timing of LTAC transfer, and used propensity matching and multivariable regression to examine mortality, readmissions, and costs after transfer. Results Of 379 LTACs in our sample, 192 (50.7%) were free-standing and 187 (49.3%) were co-located in a short-stay hospital. Co-located LTACs were smaller (median bed size: 34 vs. 66, p <0.001) and more likely to be for-profit (72.2% v. 68.8%, p = 0.001) than freestanding LTACs. Co-located LTACs admitted patients later in their hospital course (average time prior to transfer: 15.5 days vs. 14.0 days) and were more likely to admit patients for ventilator weaning (15.9% vs. 12.4%). In the multivariate propensity-matched analysis, patients in co-located LTACs experienced higher 180-day mortality (adjusted relative risk: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00–1.11, p = 0.04) but lower readmission rates (adjusted relative risk: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75–0.98, p = 0.02). Costs were similar between the two hospital types (mean difference in costs within 180 days of transfer: -$3,580, 95% CI: -$8,720 –$1,550, p = 0.17). Conclusions Compared to patients in free-standing LTACs, patients in co-located LTACs experience slightly higher mortality but lower readmission rates, with no change in overall resource use as measured by 180 day costs. PMID:26440102

  20. 42 CFR 412.541 - Method of payment under the long-term care hospital prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... long-term care hospital receiving payment under this subpart may receive periodic interim payments (PIP) for Part A services under the PIP method subject to the provisions of § 413.64(h) of this subchapter. (ii) To be approved for PIP, the long-term care hospital must meet the qualifying requirements...

  1. 42 CFR 412.541 - Method of payment under the long-term care hospital prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... long-term care hospital receiving payment under this subpart may receive periodic interim payments (PIP) for Part A services under the PIP method subject to the provisions of § 413.64(h) of this subchapter. (ii) To be approved for PIP, the long-term care hospital must meet the qualifying requirements...

  2. Long-term survival following in-hospital cardiac arrest: A matched cohort study☆

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, Paul; Mina, Michael J.; Burke, Rachel M.; Hashimoto, Barry; Gregg, Sara; Martin, Greg S.; Leeper, Kenneth; Buchman, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background Each year, 200,000 patients undergo an in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA), with approximately 15–20% surviving to discharge. Little is known, however, about the long-term prognosis of these patients after discharge. Previous efforts to describe out-of-hospital survival of IHCA patients have been limited by small sample sizes and narrow patient populations Methods A single institution matched cohort study was undertaken to describe mortality following IHCA. Patients surviving to discharge following an IHCA between 2008 and 2010 were matched on age, sex, race and hospital admission criteria with non-IHCA hospital controls and follow-up between 9 and 45 months. Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox PH models assessed differences in survival. Results Of the 1262 IHCAs, 20% survived to hospital discharge. Of those discharged, survival at 1 year post-discharge was 59% for IHCA patients and 82% for controls (p < 0.0001). Hazard ratios (IHCA vs. controls) for mortality were greatest within the 90 days following discharge (HR = 2.90, p < 0.0001) and decreased linearly thereafter, with those surviving to one year post-discharge having an HR for mortality below 1.0. Survival after discharge varied amongst IHCA survivors. When grouped by discharge destination, out of hospital survival varied; in fact, IHCA patients discharged home without services demonstrated no survival difference compared to their non-IHCA controls (HR 1.10, p = 0.72). IHCA patients discharged to long-term hospital care or hospice, however, had a significantly higher mortality compared to matched controls (HR 3.91 and 20.3, respectively; p < 0.0001). Conclusion Among IHCA patients who survive to hospital discharge, the highest risk of death is within the first 90 days after discharge. Additionally, IHCA survivors overall have increased long-term mortality vs. controls. Survival rates were varied widely with different discharge destinations, and those discharged to home, skilled nursing facilities or to

  3. 42 CFR 482.66 - Special requirements for hospital providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for hospital providers of long... PARTICIPATION FOR HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty Hospitals § 482.66 Special requirements for hospital providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”). A hospital that has a Medicare provider agreement...

  4. Long-Term English Language Learners' Perceptions of Their Language and Academic Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Won Gyoung; García, Shernaz B.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term, adolescent English language learners (ELLs) experience persistent academic underachievement in spite of several years of schooling; yet, the research on this topic is scant. To increase our understanding of these students' educational experiences, we explored perceptions of 13 long-term ELLs about their schooling in the context of…

  5. Couples' Long-Term Evaluations of Their Marriage Encounter Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Mary Ellen; Doherty, William J.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 189 couples to see how they felt about their Marriage Encounter experience four years later. Results indicated that about 80 percent of the couples reported a totally positive experience. The most frequently cited positive aspect was the "dialogue." A significant minority of couples experienced negative consequences. (Author/JAC)

  6. Long-Term Memory for a Single Infancy Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perris, Eve Emmanuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Children's memory of single infant experience was evaluated. At 6.5 months, infants participated in study of reaching in light and dark for sounding object. Children repeated dark procedure in laboratory when they were either one year or two years older. Older children with infant experience reached and grasped the sounding object significantly…

  7. Long-Term Effects of Labeling a Rape Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Darcy; White, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that approximately half of women who report an experience that meets the legal definition of rape do not label it rape. It has been assumed that labeling the experience as rape is necessary and beneficial for recovery; however, conflicting findings have been reported. In the present study, a longitudinal design was utilized to…

  8. Long-term Outcomes After In-Hospital CPR in Older Adults With Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Ehlenbach, William J.; Deyo, Richard A.; Curtis, J. Randall

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outcomes after in-hospital CPR in older adults with chronic illness are unclear. METHODS: We examined inpatient Medicare data from 1994 through 2005 to identify CPR recipients. We grouped beneficiaries aged ≥ 67 years by severity of six chronic diseases—COPD, congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), malignancy, diabetes, and cirrhosis—and investigated survival to discharge, discharge destination, rehospitalizations, and long-term survival. RESULTS: We identified 358,682 CPR recipients. Most patients with chronic disease were less likely to survive to discharge (eg, 14.8% in the advanced COPD group [P < .001] and 11.3% in the advanced malignancy group [P < .001]) than patients without chronic illness (17.3%). Among discharge survivors, the median long-term survival was shorter in patients with chronic illness (eg, 5.0, 3.5, and 2.8 months in the advanced COPD, malignancy, and cirrhosis groups, respectively; P < .001 for all) than without (26.7 months). Although 7.2% of CPR recipients without chronic disease were discharged home and survived at least 6 months without readmission, ≤ 2.0% of recipients with advanced COPD, CHF, malignancy, and cirrhosis (P < .001 for all) met these criteria. Adjusted analyses confirmed that most subgroups with chronic illness had lower hospital discharge survival, and among discharge survivors, most were discharged home less often, experienced more hospital readmissions, and had worse long-term survival. CONCLUSIONS: Older CPR recipients with any of the six underlying chronic diseases investigated generally have much worse outcomes than CPR recipients without chronic disease. These findings may substantially affect decisions about CPR in patients with chronic illness. PMID:25086252

  9. Long term alternative crop rotation experiment: USDA-ARS Akron, Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1990 a long term alternative crop rotation experiment was established at the USDA-ARS Central Great Plains Research Station at Akron Colorado. The goal of this long term effort was to ultimately identify crop rotations other than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) -fallow (WF) that are viable ro...

  10. Institutional and Home-Based Long-Term Care Alternatives: The 1965-85 Swedish Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Stig; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the Swedish experience in which the official old-age care policy has been to substitute home care for institutional care. Found some substitution of the two forms of long-term care which took place from 1965-75, but thereafter the use of long-term care institutions and home care remained stable or contracted. (Author/ABL)

  11. Space station experiment definition: Long-term cryogenic fluid storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jetley, R. L.; Scarlotti, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    The conceptual design of a space station Technology Development Mission (TDM) experiment to demonstrate and evaluate cryogenic fluid storage and transfer technologies is presented. The experiment will be deployed on the initial operational capability (IOC) space station for a four-year duration. It is modular in design, consisting of three phases to test the following technologies: passive thermal technologies (phase 1), fluid transfer (phase 2), and active refrigeration (phase 3). Use of existing hardware was a primary consideration throughout the design effort. A conceptual design of the experiment was completed, including configuration sketches, system schematics, equipment specifications, and space station resources and interface requirements. These requirements were entered into the NASA Space Station Mission Data Base. A program plan was developed defining a twelve-year development and flight plan. Program cost estimates are given.

  12. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  13. Predictors of Long-Term Mortality in Patients Hospitalized in an Intensive Cardiac Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Uscinska, Ewa; Sobkowicz, Bożena; Lisowska, Anna; Sawicki, Robert; Dabrowska, Milena; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Musial, Wlodzimierz J; Tycinska, Agnieszka M

    2016-01-01

    Patients admitted to an intensive cardiac care unit (ICCU) are a heterogeneous population with a high mortality rate. The aim of our study was to investigate which clinical, biochemical, and echocardiographic parameters routinely assessed may affect long-term mortality in a non-selected ICCU population.A total of 392 patients hospitalized between 2008-2011 (mean age, 70 ± 13.8 years, 43% women) were consecutively and prospectively assessed with the following admission diagnoses: 168 with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), 122 with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), and 102 with other acute cardiac disorders. Patients were treated according to the current European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines.During a mean 29.3 (± 18.9) months of observation, 152 (38.8%) patients died and 7.9% of the patients needed a red blood cell transfusion (RBC Tx). Patients who died were significantly older and had lower baseline levels of hemoglobin (Hb), serum iron concentration (SIC), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), cholesterol, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), as well as lower eGFR values, and higher white blood cell (WBC) counts and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P < 0.05). Predictors of death in multivariate regression analysis were age, Hb, LVEF, WBC, and CRP. The most powerful factor was hospitalization for non-ACS. The risk of long-term mortality increased with decreasing levels of Hb (P < 0.001), SIC (P = 0.001), TIBC (P = 0.009), and the need for RBC Tx (P < 0.001), as well as the diagnosis of ADHF (P < 0.001) and the absence of ACS (P = 0.007).In ICCU patients, age, Hb, parameters of iron status, and LVEF are strong predictors of long-term mortality. Among the ICCU population, patients with ACS diagnosis have better survival. PMID:26673443

  14. Long-term exposure to traffic pollution and hospital admissions in London.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Jaana I; Blangiardo, Marta; Toledano, Mireille B; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Anderson, H Ross; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Kelly, Frank J; Tonne, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the effects of long-term exposure to traffic pollution on health is inconsistent. In Greater London we examined associations between traffic pollution and emergency hospital admissions for cardio-respiratory diseases by applying linear and piecewise linear Poisson regression models in a small-area analysis. For both models the results for children and adults were close to unity. In the elderly, linear models found negative associations whereas piecewise models found non-linear associations characterized by positive risks in the lowest and negative risks in the highest exposure category. An increased risk was observed among those living in areas with the highest socioeconomic deprivation. Estimates were not affected by adjustment for traffic noise. The lack of convincing positive linear associations between primary traffic pollution and hospital admissions agrees with a number of other reports, but may reflect residual confounding. The relatively greater vulnerability of the most deprived populations has important implications for public health. PMID:26476693

  15. Long-term Psychological and Occupational Effects of Providing Hospital Healthcare during SARS Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Lancee, William J.; Balderson, Kenneth E.; Bennett, Jocelyn P.; Borgundvaag, Bjug; Evans, Susan; Fernandes, Christopher M.B.; Goldbloom, David S.; Gupta, Mona; Hunter, Jonathan J.; Hall, Linda McGillis; Nagle, Lynn M.; Pain, Clare; Peczeniuk, Sonia S.; Raymond, Glenna; Read, Nancy; Rourke, Sean B.; Steinberg, Rosalie J.; Stewart, Thomas E.; Coke, Susan VanDeVelde; Veldhorst, Georgina G.; Wasylenki, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) found the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) to be stressful, but the long-term impact is not known. From 13 to 26 months after the SARS outbreak, 769 HCWs at 9 Toronto hospitals that treated SARS patients and 4 Hamilton hospitals that did not treat SARS patients completed a survey of several adverse outcomes. Toronto HCWs reported significantly higher levels of burnout (p = 0.019), psychological distress (p<0.001), and posttraumatic stress (p<0.001). Toronto workers were more likely to have reduced patient contact and work hours and to report behavioral consequences of stress. Variance in adverse outcomes was explained by a protective effect of the perceived adequacy of training and support and by a provocative effect of maladaptive coping style and other individual factors. The results reinforce the value of effective staff support and training in preparation for future outbreaks. PMID:17326946

  16. Long term experience and performance of COMPASS RICH-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessarotto, F.; Abbon, P.; Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Dafni, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.; Delagnes, E.; Denisov, O.; Duic, V.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Gerassimov, S.; Gobbo, B.; Gregori, M.; Herrmann, F.; Ketzer, B.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Kunne, F.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Makke, N.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Neyret, D.; Novakova, K.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pereira, F. A.; Polak, J.; Rocco, E.; Santos, C. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schopferer, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Takekawa, S.

    2014-09-01

    COMPASS RICH-1 is a large size gaseous Imaging Cherenkov Detector providing hadron identification in the range from 3 to 55 GeV/c, in the wide acceptance spectrometer of the COMPASS Experiment at CERN SPS. It uses a 3 m long C4F10 radiator, a 21 m2 large VUV mirror surface and two kinds of photon detectors: MAPMTs and MWPCs with CsI photocathodes, covering a total of 5.5 m2. It is in operation since 2002 and its performance increased thanks to progressive optimization and to a major upgrade of its photon detection system, implemented in 2006; a new upgrade is foreseen for 2016, with the use of MPGD-based photon detectors. The main characteristics of COMPASS RICH-1 components are described and the most critical aspects related to the C4F10 radiator gas system, to the mirrors and their alignment, as well as the performance of the photon detectors are presented and discussed. The response of the MWPCs and the observed evolution of the effective quantum efficiency of the CsI photocathodes is analyzed. The properties and performance of the MAPMTs with individual fused lens telescopes are presented together with the readout characteristics. The PID performance of COMPASS RICH-1 is discussed and the future upgrade program is mentioned.

  17. Long-term care and hospital utilisation by older people: an analysis of substitution rates.

    PubMed

    Forder, Julien

    2009-11-01

    Older people are intensive users of hospital and long-term care services. This paper explores the extent to which these services are substitutes. A small area analysis was used with both care home and (tariff cost-weighted) hospital utilisation for older people aggregated to electoral wards in England.Health and social-care structural equations were specified using a theoretical model. The estimation accounted for the skewed and censored nature of the data. For health utilisation, both a fixed effects instrumental variables GMM model and a generalised estimating equations (GEE) model were fitted, the later on a log dependent variable with predicted values of social care utilisation used to account for endogeneity (bootstrapping was used to derive standard errors). In addition to a GMM model, the social-care estimation used both two-part and tobit models (also with predicted health utilisation and bootstrapping).The results indicate that for each additional pound1 spent on care homes, hospital expenditure falls by pound0.35. Also, pound1 additional hospital spend corresponds to just over pound0.35 reduction on care home spend. With these cost substitution effects offsetting, a transfer of resources to care homes is efficient if the resultant outcome gain is greater than the outcome loss from reduced hospital use. PMID:19206085

  18. A long-term frequency stabilized deep ultraviolet laser for Mg+ ions trapping experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Yuan, W. H.; Deng, K.; Deng, A.; Xu, Z. T.; Qin, C. B.; Lu, Z. H.; Luo, J.

    2013-12-01

    As many precision laser spectroscopy experiments require frequency stabilized lasers, development of long-term stabilized lasers is of great interest. In this work, we report long-term frequency stabilization of a 280 nm deep ultraviolet laser to a high precision wavemeter with digital servo control such that the long-term drift of the laser frequency was greatly reduced. Long-term laser frequency drift was measured with a fiber frequency comb system over 8 h. After locking, the maximum drift rate of the 280 nm laser was lowered from 576 MHz/h to 6.4 MHz/h. With proper environment control of the wavemeter, the maximum drift rate of the 280 nm laser was further lowered to less than 480 kHz/h. The locked laser system was successfully used in a Mg+ ions trapping experiment, which was also discussed in this work.

  19. Long-term mortality of hospitalized pneumonia in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Myint, P K; Hawkins, K R; Clark, A B; Luben, R N; Wareham, N J; Khaw, K-T; Wilson, A M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about cause-specific long-term mortality beyond 30 days in pneumonia. We aimed to compare the mortality of patients with hospitalized pneumonia compared to age- and sex-matched controls beyond 30 days. Participants were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk prospective population study. Hospitalized pneumonia cases were identified from record linkage (ICD-10: J12-J18). For this study we excluded people with hospitalized pneumonia who died within 30 days. Each case identified was matched to four controls and followed up until the end June 2012 (total 15 074 person-years, mean 6·1 years, range 0·08-15·2 years). Cox regression models were constructed to examine the all-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality using date of pneumonia onset as baseline with binary pneumonia status as exposure. A total of 2465 men and women (503 cases, 1962 controls) [mean age (s.d.) 64·5 (8·3) years] were included in the study. Between a 30-day to 1-year period, hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 7·3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5·4-9·9] and 5·9 (95% CI 3·5-9·7), respectively (with very few respiratory deaths within the same period) in cases compared to controls after adjusting for age, sex, asthma, smoking status, pack years, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, physical activity, waist-to-hip ratio, prevalent cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. All outcomes assessed also showed increased risk of death in cases compared to controls after 1 year; respiratory cause of death being the most significant during that period (HR 16·4, 95% CI 8·9-30·1). Hospitalized pneumonia was associated with increased all-cause and specific-cause mortality beyond 30 days. PMID:26300532

  20. Is Long-Term Structural Priming Affected by Patterns of Experience with Individual Verbs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these…

  1. The Association between Long-Term Care Setting and Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations among Older Dual Eligibles

    PubMed Central

    Wysocki, Andrea; Kane, Robert L; Golberstein, Ezra; Dowd, Bryan; Lum, Terry; Shippee, Tetyana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the probability of experiencing a potentially preventable hospitalization (PPH) between older dual eligible Medicaid home and community-based service (HCBS) users and nursing home residents. Data Sources Three years of Medicaid and Medicare claims data (2003–2005) from seven states, linked to area characteristics from the Area Resource File. Study Design A primary diagnosis of an ambulatory care sensitive condition on the inpatient hospital claim was used to identify PPHs. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting to mitigate the potential selection of HCBS versus nursing home use. Principal Findings The most frequent conditions accounting for PPHs were the same among the HCBS users and nursing home residents and included congestive heart failure, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, urinary tract infection, and dehydration. Compared to nursing home residents, elderly HCBS users had an increased probability of experiencing both a PPH and a non-PPH. Conclusions HCBS users’ increased probability for potentially and non-PPHs suggests a need for more proactive integration of medical and long-term care. PMID:24628471

  2. 42 CFR 482.58 - Special requirements for hospital providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-term care services (âswing-bedsâ). 482.58 Section 482.58 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... long-term care services (“swing-beds”). A hospital that has a Medicare provider agreement must meet the following requirements in order to be granted an approval from CMS to provide post-hospital extended...

  3. 42 CFR 412.505 - Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for long-term care hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions for payment under the prospective... & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.505 Conditions...

  4. 42 CFR 412.541 - Method of payment under the long-term care hospital prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Method of payment under the long-term care hospital prospective payment system. 412.541 Section 412.541 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective...

  5. Oral health status among long-term hospitalized adults: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yavnai, Nirit; Zini, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Many Long-Term Care (LTC) institutionalized patients are the most frail and functionally dependent among the geriatric population and have significant oral health disparities.They often suffer from dental neglect due to limited access to appropriate professional dental care. These patients have chronic health situations and are treated with medications, which increase their risk of oral diseases. Despite the growth in elderly population in Israel, there is insufficient data regarding their oral health status and treatment needs. Objective. To describe the oral health status of the LTC hospitalized adults in a geriatric and psychiatric hospital in Israel. Methods. Data was recorded from LTC hospitalized adults with a physical and/or mental disabilities in a cross-sectional research design, which included general health anamnesis and clinical oral examination. Variables included gender, medicines, oral hygiene (OH), using dentures, number of caries lesions and residual teeth. Univariate analyses included Pearson χ2 and t-test analyses. Multivariate analyses included logistic and linear regressions while the outcome variables were categorical OH index and number of carious cavitations, number of residual teeth and carious teeth percentage. Results. 153 participants were included in the study with a mean age of 65.03 ± 18.67 years. 31.3% of the patients were edentulous, and only 14% had partial or full dentures. Females had a significantly higher number of caries cavitation than males (P = 0.044). The number of caries cavitation was higher among patients with poor OH (P < 0.001) and when taking Clonazepam (P = 0.018). Number of residual teeth was higher in the fair OH group (P < 0.001). Carious teeth percentage was higher among the poor OH group (P < 0.001). PMID:24949240

  6. Management of Port-a-Cath devices in long-term acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bonczek, Rita; Nurse, Brenda A

    2012-01-01

    A reliable means of maintaining an intravascular access device (IVAD) is an important aspect of care for a patient in a long-term acute care (LTAC) setting. Overall, various authors have confirmed that complication rates are lower with use of an IVAD. The key to this success in low complication rates appears to be a team approach to catheter care and management. In our unique practice setting, LTAC, we have over 20 years of experience with IVAD care and management. In an extensive 15-year retrospective review of the IVAD care, we found very low rates of complications, including infections. This is directly related to a team approach to catheter care, protocol development, employee education, and postoperative management. PMID:23212956

  7. The prospects for prepaid long-term care: the Arizona Medicaid experiment.

    PubMed

    Williams, F G; Phoenix, D; Kirkman-Liff, B L

    1989-01-01

    Arizona is adding long-term care to its prepaid, capitated alternative to Medicaid. This article discusses the potential for this major cost-control experiment. Experience suggests that those able to quality for long-term care will fare better than the poor did in the previous system. However, limiting eligibility will be the primary means of controlling costs; significant price competition is not likely to develop. The bidding process will serve more to transfer risk to contract providers than to improve program efficiency. Potential cost savings will be more than offset by an increased identification of need. PMID:2507624

  8. Do managerial efficiency and social responsibility drive long-term financial performance of not-for-profit hospitals before acquisition?

    PubMed

    Phillips, J F

    1999-01-01

    Due to steep declines in charitable support and reduced demand for traditional hospital services, economic goals are increasingly important to not-for-profit hospitals. Effects of efficient management and effective pursuit of not-for-profit status (for example, levels of Medicare, indigent patients, and unprofitable services) on financial viability are explored. While previous research compared hospitals of different ownership status, not-for-profit hospital operations before acquisition by for-profit hospital chains are investigated--"neutral ground" relative to ownership. Results suggest minor links between efficiency and long-term profitability despite effectiveness in pursuit of non taxable status. PMID:10353091

  9. Space Life Sciences Research: The Importance of Long-Term Space Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This report focuses on the scientific importance of long-term space experiments for the advancement of biological science and the benefit of humankind. It includes a collection of papers that explore the scientific potential provided by the capability to manipulate organisms by removing a force that has been instrumental in the evolution and development of all organisms. Further, it provides the scientific justification for why the long-term space exposure that can be provided by a space station is essential to conduct significant research.

  10. Long Term Sequelae of Pediatric Craniopharyngioma – Literature Review and 20 Years of Experience

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michal; Guger, Sharon; Hamilton, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Craniopharyngioma are rare histologically benign brain tumors that develop in the pituitary–hypothalamic area. They may invade nearby anatomical structures causing significant rates of neurological, neurocognitive, and endocrinological complications including remarkable hypothalamic damage. Information regarding long term implications of the tumors and treatment in the pediatric population is accumulating, and treatment goals appear to be changing accordingly. In this review we aim to present data regarding long term complications of craniopharyngioma in children and adolescents and our experience from a large tertiary center. Hypothalamic dysfunction was noted to be the most significant complication, adversely affecting quality of life in survivors. Obesity, fatigue, and sleep disorders are the most notable manifestations of this dysfunction, and treatment is extremely difficult. Changes in management in recent years show a potential for improved long term outcomes; we found a trend toward less aggressive surgical management and increasing use of adjuvant treatment, accompanied by a decrease in complication rates. PMID:22645511

  11. PERFORMANCE OF ORGANIC GRAIN CROPPING SYSTEMS IN LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic farming and conventional no-tillage farming systems share many of the same benefits from protecting and improving soils. A review of recent results from long-term systems experiments in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S.A. demonstrates that organic cropping systems with organic amendments ...

  12. Engineering and agronomy aspects of a long-term precision agriculture field experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much research has been conducted on specific precision agriculture tools and implementation strategies, but little has been reported on long-term evaluation of integrated precision agriculture field experiments. In 2004 our research team developed and initiated a multi-faceted “precision agriculture...

  13. A Mathematician Learns the Basics of Writing Instruction: An Immersion Experience with Long-Term Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Lynne L.

    2012-01-01

    Initially designed to be an interdisciplinary experiment that would change attitudes about mathematics, the semester-long collaboration between a writing instructor and a mathematics instructor yielded unexpected long-term results. The collaboration served as an immersion in methods and techniques used by writing instructors. Description of…

  14. Long-Term Career Impact and Professional Applicability of the Study Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Research shows that study abroad experience affects professional qualifications. It is evident that employers value the skills and knowledge potentially gained from study abroad and that these competencies are transferable on the job. Nearly all known research lacks a longitudinal component. Of the few studies that focus on long-term outcomes,…

  15. Sustaining School Colleagues' Commitment to a Long-Term Professional Experience Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Judith

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study that investigated school participants' perceptions of the benefits, challenges and supportive factors related to their involvement in a long-term school/university professional experience partnership. Data were collected through interviews with coordinators and a written survey completed by…

  16. Trajectories, Long-Term Outcomes and Family Experiences of 76 Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamak, Brigitte; Bonniau, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to retrace the trajectories and long-term outcomes of individuals with autism in France, and to explore the family experiences. Data obtained from parents enables us to follow the trajectories of 76 adults. Two-thirds of adults with severe autism had a very poor outcome. Those with moderate autism had a…

  17. 42 CFR 482.66 - Special requirements for hospital providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-term care services (âswing-bedsâ). 482.66 Section 482.66 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”). A hospital that has a Medicare provider agreement must... extended care services, as specified in § 409.30 of this chapter, and be reimbursed as a swing-bed...

  18. 42 CFR 482.66 - Special requirements for hospital providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-term care services (âswing-bedsâ). 482.66 Section 482.66 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”). A hospital that has a Medicare provider agreement must... extended care services, as specified in § 409.30 of this chapter, and be reimbursed as a swing-bed...

  19. 42 CFR 482.66 - Special requirements for hospital providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-term care services (âswing-bedsâ). 482.66 Section 482.66 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”). A hospital that has a Medicare provider agreement must... extended care services, as specified in § 409.30 of this chapter, and be reimbursed as a swing-bed...

  20. Delivery of institutional long-term care under two social insurances: Lessons from the Korean experience.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hongsoo; Jung, Young-Il; Kwon, Soonman

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about health and social care provision for people with long-term care (LTC) needs under multiple insurances. The aim of this study is to compare the profile, case-mix, and service provision to older people at long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) covered by the national health insurance (NHI) with those of older people at long-term care facilities (LTCFs) covered by the public long-term care insurance (LTCI) in Korea. A national LTC survey using common functional measures and a case-mix classification system was conducted with a nationally representative sample of older people at LTCFs and LTCHs in 2013. The majority of older people in both settings were female and frail, with complex chronic diseases. About one fourth were a low-income population with Medical-Aid. The key functional status was similar between the two groups. As for case-mix, more than half of the LTCH population were categorized as having lower medical care needs, while more than one fourth of the LTCF residents had moderate or higher medical care needs. Those with high medical care needs at LTCFs were significantly more likely to be admitted to acute-care hospitals than their counterparts at LTCHs. The current delivery of institutional LTC under the two insurances in Korea is not coordinated well. It is necessary to redefine the roles of LTCHs and strengthen health care in LTCFs. A systems approach is critical to establish person-centered, integrated LTC delivery across different financial sources. PMID:26305121

  1. Contributions of the SSBUV Experiment to Long-Term Ozone Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Cebula, R. P.; Bories, M. C.; Cerullo, J. J.; DeCamp, P. W.; Huang, L.-K.; Hui, C. N.; Janz, S. J.; Kelly, T. J.; McCullough, K. R.; Mederios J. J.; Riley, J. T.; Rice, B. K.; Thorpe, C. D.

    1996-01-01

    The SSBUV experiment flew eight Space Shuttle missions from October 1989 to January 1996 in conducted eight missions between October 1989 and support of the US long-term ozone monitoring program. Contributions of the SSBUV experiment are reviewed in this paper. SSBUV data are being used to provide and validate the absolute and long-term calibrations of multiple satellite-based ozone monitoring instruments. SSBUV observed a significant decrease in Northern hemisphere total ozone from the winter of 1992 to the following winter, and SSBUV data were combined with Nimbus-7 data to assess long-term ozone changes during the 1980's. SSBUV solar irradiance measurements are being used to determine the absolute solar spectral irradiance in the middle UV, validate solar data from two UARS instruments, and independently measure long-term solar change at wavelengths important for ozone photochemistry. SSBUV data where also used to study the effects of surface reflectivity and rotational Raman scattering on the ozone retrievals, determine the NO column amount and its altitude distribution, measure the UV lunar albedo, and assist in the optimization of wavelengths for new instruments.

  2. Short- and Long-Term Outcomes of Student Field Research Experiences in Special Populations.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Amr S; Chamberlain, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    Global health education and training of biomedical students in international and minority health research is expending through U.S. academic institutions. This study addresses the short- and long-term outcomes of an NCI-funded R25 short-term summer field research training program. This program is designed for MPH and Ph.D. students in cancer epidemiology and related disciplines, in international and minority settings (special populations) in a recent 7-year period. Positive short-term outcome of 73 students was measured as publishing a manuscript from the field research data and having a job in special populations. Positive long-term outcome was measured as having a post-doc position, being in a doctoral program, and/or employment in special populations at least 3 years from finishing the program. Significant factors associated with both short- and long-term success included resourcefulness of the student and compatibility of personalities and interests between the student and the on-campus and off-campus mentors. Short-term-success of students who conducted international filed research was associated with visits of the on-campus mentor to the field site. Short-term success was also associated with extent of mentorship in the field site and with long-term success. Future studies should investigate how field research sites could enhance careers of students, appropriateness of the sites for specific training competencies, and how to maximize the learning experience of students in international and minority research sites. PMID:25773133

  3. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in the Rothamsted Long-term Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, A.; Poulton, P.

    2009-04-01

    Soil science research at Rothamsted dates from 1843 when John Bennet Lawes and Joseph Henry Gilbert started the first of a series of what became long-term field experiments. The main object of these experiments was to examine the effect of inorganic and organic fertilisers and manures on crop yield and soil fertility. These "Classical Field Experiments" included studies on winter wheat (Broadbalk 1843), spring barley (Hoos Barley 1852) and permanent grassland (Park Grass 1856). Additional experiments were established in the 20th century to examine the value of ley-arable cropping, including the Highfield and Fosters Ley-arable experiments (1948) and the Woburn Ley-arable experiment (1938). More recently, the effects of incorporating organic manures and cereal straw have been examined. Early results quickly showed the benefits of inorganic N and P fertilisers on crop production, but the effects of contrasting land uses and management practices on soil properties emerged more slowly. Measurements of soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soils taken at intervals from the long-term experiments indicate that the rate of soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation is controlled largely by the balance between the rate of organic matter inputs and its oxidation rate, and that these are strongly influenced by land use and management, soil texture (especially clay content) and climate. A recent examination of soil organic C data from two long-term grassland experiments in the UK (including Park Grass) indicates that any changes observed in soil organic C under long-term grasslands over the past 40 years are more likely to be due to changes in land use and management rather than climate change. Data from the Rothamsted Long-term experiments have been used to develop and test biogeochemical models of C and N dynamics. In particular, the Roth-C model has successfully simulated soil C dynamics in the long-term experiments at Rothamsted and elsewhere. This model uses several

  4. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like. PMID:25981511

  5. Adaptive Use of Information during Growth Can Explain Long-Term Effects of Early Life Experiences.

    PubMed

    English, Sinead; Fawcett, Tim W; Higginson, Andrew D; Trimmer, Pete C; Uller, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Development is a continuous process during which individuals gain information about their environment and adjust their phenotype accordingly. In many natural systems, individuals are particularly sensitive to early life experiences, even in the absence of later constraints on plasticity. Recent models have highlighted how the adaptive use of information can explain age-dependent plasticity. These models assume that information gain and phenotypic adjustments either cannot occur simultaneously or are completely independent. This assumption is not valid in the context of growth, where finding food results both in a size increase and learning about food availability. Here, we describe a simple model of growth to provide proof of principle that long-term effects of early life experiences can arise through the coupled dynamics of information acquisition and phenotypic change in the absence of direct constraints on plasticity. The increase in reproductive value from gaining information and sensitivity of behavior to experiences declines across development. Early life experiences have long-term impacts on age of maturity, yet-due to compensatory changes in behavior-our model predicts no substantial effects on reproductive success. We discuss how the evolution of sensitive windows can be explained by experiences having short-term effects on informational and phenotypic states, which generate long-term effects on life-history decisions. PMID:27104994

  6. The Impact of a Death Education Program for Nurses in a Long-Term Care Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Stephen; Brown, Isabel

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the impact of a death education program for nursing staff (N=130) of a long-term care institution. Analysis of nurses' chart entries (problem-oriented record format-POR) revealed a statistically significant increase from pre- to post-course in charting of patients' subjective state. (Author/JAC)

  7. A vision of long-term care. To care for tomorrow's elderly, hospitals must plan now, not react later.

    PubMed

    Kodner, D L

    1989-12-01

    In the next two decades, rapid, fundamental changes will take place in the way we finance, organize, and provide long-term care services. Because the elderly make up such a large portion of the patient population, America's hospitals should be concerned--and involved. There are six keys to the future of long-term care: a sharp increase in elderly population, a new generation of elderly, restrained government role, intergenerational strains, growing corporate concern, and the rise of "gerotechnology." These trends and countertrends will result in a new look in the long-term care landscape. By the year 2010, changes will include a true public-private financing system, provider reimbursement on the basis of capitation and prospective payment, coordinated access to services, dominant alternative delivery systems, a different breed of nursing homes, fewer staffing problems, patient-centered care, a new importance in housing, and an emphasis on prevention. For hospitals, this future vision of long-term care means that significant opportunities will open up to meet the needs of the elderly-at-risk and to achieve a competitive position in the burgeoning elderly care industry. PMID:10313396

  8. Long-Term Network Experiments and Interdisciplinary Campaigns Conducted by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Cosh, M. H.; Moran, S. M.; Marks, D. G.; Jackson, T. J.; Bosch, D. D.; Rango, A.; Seyfried, M. S.; Scott, R. L.; Prueger, J. H.; Starks, P. J.; Walbridge, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service has led, or been integrally involved in, a myriad of interdisciplinary field campaigns in a wide range of locations both nationally and internationally. Many of the shorter campaigns were anchored over the existing national network of ARS Experimental Watersheds and Rangelands. These long-term outdoor laboratories provided a critical knowledge base for designing the campaigns as well as historical data, hydrologic and meteorological infrastructure coupled with shop, laboratory, and visiting scientist facilities. This strong outdoor laboratory base enabled cost-efficient campaigns informed by historical context, local knowledge, and detailed existing watershed characterization. These long-term experimental facilities have also enabled much longer term lower intensity experiments, observing and building an understanding of both seasonal and inter-annual biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere interactions across a wide range of conditions. A sampling of these experiments include MONSOON'90, SGP97, SGP99, Washita'92, Washita'94, SMEX02-05 and JORNEX series of experiments, SALSA, CLASIC and longer-term efforts over the ARS Little Washita, Walnut Gulch, Little River, Reynolds Creek, and OPE3 Experimental Watersheds. This presentation will review some of the highlights and key findings of these campaigns and long-term efforts including the inclusion of many of the experimental watersheds and ranges in the Long-Term Agro-ecosystems Research (LTAR) network. The LTAR network also contains several locations that are also part of other observational networks including the CZO, LTER, and NEON networks. Lessons learned will also be provided for scientists initiating their participation in large-scale, multi-site interdisciplinary science.

  9. Long-Term Experience with Chinese Language Shapes the Fusiform Asymmetry of English Reading

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading. PMID:25598049

  10. Long-term morbidity and mortality after hospitalization with community-acquired pneumonia: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Jennie; Eurich, Dean T; Majumdar, Sumit R; Jin, Yan; Marrie, Thomas J

    2008-11-01

    Little is known about the long-term sequelae of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Therefore, we describe the long-term morbidity and mortality of patients after pneumonia requiring hospitalization. We specifically hypothesized that the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), designed to predict 30-day pneumonia-related mortality, would also be associated with longer-term all-cause mortality. Between 2000 and 2002, 3415 adults with CAP admitted to 6 hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, were prospectively enrolled in a population-based cohort. At the time of hospital admission, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected and the PSI was calculated for each patient. Postdischarge outcomes through to 2006 were ascertained using multiple linked administrative databases. Outcomes included all-cause mortality, hospital admissions, and re-hospitalization for pneumonia over a maximum of 5.4 years of follow-up. Follow-up data were available for 3284 (96%) patients; 66%were > or =65 years of age, 53% were male, and according to the PSI fully 63% were predicted to have greater than 18% 30-day pneumonia-related mortality (that is, PSI class IV-V). Median follow-up was 3.8 years. The 30-day, 1-year, and end of study mortality rates were 12%, 28%, and 53%, respectively. Overall, 82(19%) patients aged <45 years died compared with 1456 (67%) patients aged > or =65 years (hazard ratio [HR], 5.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.06-6.34). Male patients were more likely to die than female patients during follow-up (971 [56%] vs. 767 [49%], respectively; HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.13-1.37). Initial PSI classification predicted not only 30-day mortality, but also long-term postdischarge mortality, with 92 (15%) of PSI class I-II patients dying compared with 616 (82%) PSI class V patients (HR, 11.80; 95% CI, 4.70-14.70). Of 2950 patients who survived the initial CAP hospitalization, 72% were hospitalized again (median, 2 admissions over follow-up) and 16% were re-hospitalized with

  11. Cerebral performance category at hospital discharge predicts long-term survival of cardiac arrest survivors receiving targeted temperature management

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Cindy H.; Li, Jiaqi; Cinousis, Marisa J.; Sheak, Kelsey R.; Gaieski, David F.; Abella, Benjamin S.; Leary, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite recent advancements in post-cardiac arrest resuscitation, the optimal measurement of post-arrest outcome remains unclear. We hypothesized that cerebral performance category (CPC) score can predict the long-term outcome of post- arrest survivors who received targeted temperature management (TTM) during their post-arrest hospital care. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Two academic medical centers from May, 2005 to December, 2012. Patients The medical records of 2,417 out-of-hospital and in-hospital post-cardiac arrest patients were reviewed to identify 140 out of 582 survivors who received TTM. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results The CPC scores at hospital discharge were determined by three independent abstractors. The 1-month, 6-month, and 12-month survival of these patients were determined by reviewing hospital records, querying the Social Security Death Index, and follow-up telephone calls. The unadjusted long-term survival and adjusted survival association with CPC were calculated. Of the 2,417 identified cardiac arrest patients, 24.1% (582/2417) were successfully resuscitated, of whom 24.1% (140/582) received post-arrest TTM. Overall, 42.9% (60/140) were discharged with CPC 1, 27.1% (38/140) with CPC 2, 18.6% (26/140) with CPC 3, and 11.4% (16/140) with CPC 4. CPC 1 survivors had the highest long-term survival followed by CPC 2 and 3, with CPC 4 having the lowest long-term survival (p < 0.001, log-rank test). We found that CPC 3 (hazard ratio = 3.62, p < 0.05) and CPC 4 (hazard ratio = 12.73, p <0.001) remained associated with worse survival after adjusting for age, gender, race, shockable rhythm, time to TTM initiation, total duration of resuscitation, withdrawal of care, and location of arrest. Conclusion Patients with different CPC scores at discharge have significantly different survival trajectories. Favorable CPC at hospital discharge predicts better long-term outcomes of cardiac arrest survivors who received TTM

  12. Is long-term structural priming affected by patterns of experience with individual verbs?

    PubMed Central

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these long-term priming effects are modulated by the participants’ patterns of experience with particular verbs within the double object and prepositional object constructions. The results of three experiments show that patterns of experience with particular verbs using the double object or prepositional object constructions do not have much effect on the shape of the longterm structural priming effects reported elsewhere in the literature. These findings lend support to the claim that structural priming is the result of adaptations to the language production system that occur on an abstract, structural level of representation that is separate from representations regarding the behavior of particular lexical items in particular constructions [e.g., Chang, F., Dell, G. S., & Bock, K. (2006). Becoming syntactic. Psychological Review, 113, 234–272]. 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID:26500391

  13. The effect of hospital mergers on long-term sickness absence among hospital employees: a fixed effects multivariate regression analysis using panel data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospitals are merging to become more cost-effective. Mergers are often complex and difficult processes with variable outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of mergers on long-term sickness absence among hospital employees. Methods Long-term sickness absence was analyzed among hospital employees (N = 107 209) in 57 hospitals involved in 23 mergers in Norway between 2000 and 2009. Variation in long-term sickness absence was explained through a fixed effects multivariate regression analysis using panel data with years-since-merger as the independent variable. Results We found a significant but modest effect of mergers on long-term sickness absence in the year of the merger, and in years 2, 3 and 4; analyzed by gender there was a significant effect for women, also for these years, but only in year 4 for men. However, men are less represented among the hospital workforce; this could explain the lack of significance. Conclusions Mergers has a significant effect on employee health that should be taken into consideration when deciding to merge hospitals. This study illustrates the importance of analyzing the effects of mergers over several years and the need for more detailed analyses of merger processes and of the changes that may occur as a result of such mergers. PMID:24490750

  14. Latest development and status of long term experience in CFB-technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cleve, K.

    1999-07-01

    CFB-fired steam generators have successfully been in operation for over 15 years. After this period of time enough practical knowledge is available to report on the Long Term Experience of selected plants. The success of CFB-fired steam generators--because of their outstanding environmental performance as well as their fuel flexibility--has led world-wide to more and larger units. In addition to well-proven components, the CFB-process is continuously being improved and New Developments are incorporated.

  15. 42 CFR 412.531 - Special payment provisions when an interruption of a stay occurs in a long-term care hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... care hospital to an acute care hospital, IRF, SNF, or the patient's home and readmitted to the same... is discharged from the long-term care hospital to an acute care hospital, an IRF, or a SNF for a...-term care hospital and ends on the 27th day after discharge. (iii) For a discharge to a SNF,...

  16. 42 CFR 412.531 - Special payment provisions when an interruption of a stay occurs in a long-term care hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... care hospital to an acute care hospital, IRF, SNF, or the patient's home and readmitted to the same... is discharged from the long-term care hospital to an acute care hospital, an IRF, or a SNF for a...-term care hospital and ends on the 27th day after discharge. (iii) For a discharge to a SNF,...

  17. 42 CFR 412.531 - Special payment provisions when an interruption of a stay occurs in a long-term care hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... care hospital to an acute care hospital, IRF, SNF, or the patient's home and readmitted to the same... is discharged from the long-term care hospital to an acute care hospital, an IRF, or a SNF for a...-term care hospital and ends on the 27th day after discharge. (iii) For a discharge to a SNF,...

  18. 42 CFR 412.531 - Special payment provisions when an interruption of a stay occurs in a long-term care hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... care hospital to an acute care hospital, IRF, SNF, or the patient's home and readmitted to the same... is discharged from the long-term care hospital to an acute care hospital, an IRF, or a SNF for a...-term care hospital and ends on the 27th day after discharge. (iii) For a discharge to a SNF,...

  19. 42 CFR 412.531 - Special payment provisions when an interruption of a stay occurs in a long-term care hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... care hospital to an acute care hospital, IRF, SNF, or the patient's home and readmitted to the same... is discharged from the long-term care hospital to an acute care hospital, an IRF, or a SNF for a...-term care hospital and ends on the 27th day after discharge. (iii) For a discharge to a SNF,...

  20. Long-term PM2.5 Exposure and Neurological Hospital Admissions in the Northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Schwartz, Joel D.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Melly, Steven J.; Wang, Yun; Dominici, Francesca; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to fine particles (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) has been consistently linked to heart and lung disease. Recently, there has been increased interest in examining the effects of air pollution on the nervous system, with evidence showing potentially harmful effects on neurodegeneration. Objective Our objective was to assess the potential impact of long-term PM2.5 exposure on event time, defined as time to first admission for dementia, Alzheimer’s (AD), or Parkinson’s (PD) diseases in an elderly population across the northeastern United States. Methods We estimated the effects of PM2.5 on first hospital admission for dementia, AD, and PD among all Medicare enrollees ≥ 65 years in 50 northeastern U.S. cities (1999–2010). For each outcome, we first ran a Cox proportional hazards model for each city, adjusting for prior cardiopulmonary-related hospitalizations and year, and stratified by follow-up time, age, sex, and race. We then pooled the city-specific estimates by employing a random effects meta-regression. Results We followed approximately 9.8 million subjects and observed significant associations of long-term PM2.5 city-wide exposure with all three outcomes. Specifically, we estimated a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.08 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.11) for dementia, an HR of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.19) for AD, and an HR of 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.12) for PD admissions per 1-μg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5 concentrations. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationship between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and time to first hospitalization for common neurodegenerative diseases. We found strong evidence of association for all three outcomes. Our findings provide the basis for further studies, as the implications of such exposures could be crucial to public health. Citation Kioumourtzoglou MA, Schwartz JD, Weisskopf MG, Melly SJ, Wang Y, Dominici F, Zanobetti A. 2016. Long-term PM2.5 exposure and neurological

  1. Long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience among British adults: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Aldossary, Arwa; Harrison, Victoria E; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    There is inconclusive evidence on the value of regular dental attendance. This study explored the relationship between long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience. We used retrospective data from 3,235 adults, ≥ 16 yrs of age, who participated in the Adult Dental Health Survey in the UK. Participants were classified into four groups (always, current, former, and never regular-attenders) based on their responses to three questions on lifetime dental-attendance patterns. The association between dental-attendance patterns and caries experience, as measured using the decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index, was tested in negative binomial regression models, adjusting for demographic (sex, age, and country of residence) and socio-economic (educational attainment, household income, and social class) factors. A consistent pattern of association between long-term dental attendance and caries experience was found in adjusted models. Former and never regular-attenders had a significantly higher DMFT score and numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth, than always regular-attenders. No differences in DMFT or its components were found between current and always regular-attenders. The findings of this study show that adults with different lifetime trajectories of dental attendance had different dental statuses. PMID:25521216

  2. Long-term memory in experiments and numerical simulations of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mininni, P.; Dmitruk, P.; Odier, P.; Pinton, J.-F.; Plihon, N.; Verhille, G.; Volk, R.; Bourgoin, M.

    2014-05-01

    We analyze time series stemming from experiments and direct numerical simulations of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Simulations are done in periodic boxes, but with a volumetric forcing chosen to mimic the geometry of the flow in the experiments, the von Kármán swirling flow between two counterrotating impellers. Parameters in the simulations are chosen to (within computational limitations) allow comparisons between the experiments and the numerical results. Conducting fluids are considered in all cases. Two different configurations are considered: a case with a weak externally imposed magnetic field and a case with self-sustained magnetic fields. Evidence of long-term memory and 1/f noise is observed in experiments and simulations, in the case with weak magnetic field associated with the hydrodynamic behavior of the shear layer in the von Kármán flow, and in the dynamo case associated with slow magnetohydrodynamic behavior of the large-scale magnetic field.

  3. Molecular Correlates of Cortical Network Modulation by Long-Term Sensory Experience in the Adult Rat Barrel Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallès, Astrid; Granic, Ivica; De Weerd, Peter; Martens, Gerard J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of cortical network connectivity is crucial for an adaptive response to experience. In the rat barrel cortex, long-term sensory stimulation induces cortical network modifications and neuronal response changes of which the molecular basis is unknown. Here, we show that long-term somatosensory stimulation by enriched environment…

  4. Long-term effects of tolvaptan in patients requiring recurrent hospitalization for heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Hayato; Ajioka, Masayoshi; Ishii, Hideki; Okumura, Takahiro; Murase, Yosuke; Osanai, Hiroyuki; Nakasima, Yoshihito; Asano, Hiroshi; Sakai, Kazuyoshi; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although reports suggest that tolvaptan does not reduce survival or subsequent hospitalization rates in heart failure patients, its continuous use has shown good outcomes in some patients who cannot be effectively managed with high doses of loop diuretics. Therefore, we investigated the association of patient characteristics and continued tolvaptan use in heart failure patients with changes in the frequency and annual duration of patient hospitalization due to heart failure. We carefully reviewed the medical records of patients hospitalized due to heart failure who began tolvaptan therapy and continued with outpatient treatment between December 2010 and November 2013 (tolvaptan group); patients hospitalized for heart failure between May 2008 and March 2009 served as controls. We set the reference dates as the start of tolvaptan therapy (tolvaptan group) or as the date of admission (control group). The changes in hospitalization frequency and total hospitalization time due to heart failure, before and after the reference dates, were not significantly different between the tolvaptan and control groups. In the tolvaptan group, a high estimated glomerular filtration rate was a predictor of decreased hospitalization. Continuous tolvaptan use did not decrease hospitalization duration in all heart failure patients, but good renal function was predictive of a good response. PMID:26412881

  5. STROBE-Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospitalization Due to Peptic Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Tsang, Hilda; Lai, Hak-Kan; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Thomas, G. Neil; Chan, King-Pan; Lee, Siu-Yin; Ayres, Jon G.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Leung, Wai K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the effect of air pollution on the gastrointestinal (GI) system. We investigated the association between long-term exposures to outdoor fine particles (PM2.5) and hospitalization for peptic ulcer diseases (PUDs) in a large cohort of Hong Kong Chinese elderly. A total of 66,820 subjects aged ≥65 years who were enrolled in all 18 Government Elderly Health Service centers of Hong Kong participated in the study voluntarily between 1998 and 2001. They were prospectively followed up for more than 10 years. Annual mean exposures to PM2.5 at residence of individuals were estimated by satellite data through linkage with address details including floor level. All hospital admission records of the subjects up to December 31, 2010 were retrieved from the central database of Hospital Authority. We used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for PUD hospitalization associated with PM2.5 exposure after adjustment for individual and ecological covariates. A total of 60,273 subjects had completed baseline information including medical, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data at recruitment. During the follow-up period, 1991 (3.3%) subjects had been hospitalized for PUD. The adjusted HR for PUD hospitalization per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.02–1.36, P = 0.02). Further analysis showed that the associations with PM2.5 were significant for gastric ulcers (HR 1.29; 1.09–1.53, P = 0.003) but not for duodenal ulcers (HR 0.98; 0.78 to 1.22, P = 0.81). Long-term exposures to PM2.5 were associated with PUD hospitalization in elder population. The mechanism underlying the PM2.5 in the development of gastric ulcers warrants further research. PMID:27149464

  6. STROBE-Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospitalization Due to Peptic Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Tsang, Hilda; Lai, Hak-Kan; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Thomas, G Neil; Chan, King-Pan; Lee, Siu-Yin; Ayres, Jon G; Lam, Tai-Hing; Leung, Wai K

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of air pollution on the gastrointestinal (GI) system. We investigated the association between long-term exposures to outdoor fine particles (PM2.5) and hospitalization for peptic ulcer diseases (PUDs) in a large cohort of Hong Kong Chinese elderly.A total of 66,820 subjects aged ≥65 years who were enrolled in all 18 Government Elderly Health Service centers of Hong Kong participated in the study voluntarily between 1998 and 2001. They were prospectively followed up for more than 10 years. Annual mean exposures to PM2.5 at residence of individuals were estimated by satellite data through linkage with address details including floor level. All hospital admission records of the subjects up to December 31, 2010 were retrieved from the central database of Hospital Authority. We used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for PUD hospitalization associated with PM2.5 exposure after adjustment for individual and ecological covariates.A total of 60,273 subjects had completed baseline information including medical, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data at recruitment. During the follow-up period, 1991 (3.3%) subjects had been hospitalized for PUD. The adjusted HR for PUD hospitalization per 10 μg/m of PM2.5 was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.36, P = 0.02). Further analysis showed that the associations with PM2.5 were significant for gastric ulcers (HR 1.29; 1.09-1.53, P = 0.003) but not for duodenal ulcers (HR 0.98; 0.78 to 1.22, P = 0.81).Long-term exposures to PM2.5 were associated with PUD hospitalization in elder population. The mechanism underlying the PM2.5 in the development of gastric ulcers warrants further research. PMID:27149464

  7. Long-Term Soil Experiments: A Key to Managing Earth's Rapidly Changing Critical Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In a few decades, managers of Earth's Critical Zones (biota, humans, land, and water) will be challenged to double food and fiber production and diminish adverse effects of management on the wider environment. To meet these challenges, an array of scientific approaches is being used to increase understanding of Critical Zone functioning and evolution, and one amongst these approaches needs to be long-term soil field studies to move us beyond black boxing the belowground Critical Zone, i.e., to further understanding of processes driving changes in the soil environment. Long-term soil experiments (LTSEs) provide direct observations of soil change and functioning across time scales of decades, data critical for biological, biogeochemical, and environmental assessments of sustainability; for predictions of soil fertility, productivity, and soil-environment interactions; and for developing models at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Unfortunately, LTSEs globally are not in a good state, and they take years to mature, are vulnerable to loss, and even today remain to be fully inventoried. Of the 250 LTSEs in a web-based network, results demonstrate that soils and belowground Critical Zones are highly dynamic and responsive to human management. The objective of this study is to review the contemporary state of LTSEs and consider how they contribute to three open questions: (1) can soils sustain a doubling of food production in the coming decades without further impinging on the wider environment, (2) how do soils interact with the global C cycle, and (3) how can soil management establish greater control over nutrient cycling. While LTSEs produce significant data and perspectives for all three questions, there is on-going need and opportunity for reviews of the long-term soil-research base, for establishment of an efficiently run network of LTSEs aimed at sustainability and improving management control over C and nutrient cycling, and for research teams that

  8. Long-term Disability Associated With War-related Experience Among Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Robert; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent combat operations have involved large numbers of personnel. Long-term health effects of military deployment remain largely unknown. Objectives: To examine patterns and trends in long-term disability among combat veterans and to relate disability to aspects of wartime experience. Participants: A total of 60,228 Australian military personnel deployed between 1962 and 1975 during the Vietnam War, and 82,877 military personnel who were not deployed overseas. Outcome Measures: Accepted physician-assessed disability claims were evaluated over follow-up periods up to 50 years after deployment, and compared with age-matched controls. Multivariable analysis was used to examine differences by service branch, rank, age, and deployment duration. Results: The steepest rise in disability incidence was observed among Vietnam veterans starting in the 1990s, around 20–30 years after deployment for most veterans. After 1994, when Statements of Principles were introduced to guide evaluation of disability claims, the hazard ratio for disability incidence was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.32–1.77) compared with the prior period. By January 2011, after an average follow-up of 42.5 years, 69.7% (95% confidence interval, 69.4%–70.1%) of veterans had at least 1 war-related disability. Many veterans had multiple disabilities, with leading causes being eye and ear disorders (48.0%), mental health conditions (47.9%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.4%). For specific categories of disability, relative risks for accepted claims among veterans compared with controls were highest for mental health disorders, at 22.9 (21.9–24.0) and lowest for injuries, at 1.5 (1.4–1.6) with a relative risk for any disability of 3.7 (3.7–3.8). Veterans with service of >1 year were 2.5 (2.2–2.7) times more likely to have a mental health disability than those who served <100 days, and 2.3 (2.1–2.5) times more likely to have other disabilities. Conclusions: Long-term effects of

  9. Long-term outcomes in haemophilic synovitis after radiosynovectomy using rhenium-186: a single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Zulfikar, B; Turkmen, C; Kilicoglu, O; Dikici, F; Bezgal, F; Gorgun, O; Taser, O

    2013-03-01

    Radiosynovectomy has been performed successfully for more than 10 years in our hospital. This study investigated the long-term outcome in the context of time to progression (TTP) analysis and the factors influencing TTP following radiosynovectomy with Re-186 in patients with haemophilic synovitis. Radiosynovectomy performed in 165 joints (81 elbows, 74 ankles, 8 shoulder and 2 hip joints) of 106 patients (median age was 18.0 ± 7.5 years; 91 haemophilia A, 13 haemophilia B and 2 von Willebrand's disease between June 2001 and July 2011. The mean follow-up was 48 months (range: 9-120 months). This study revealed that patients' mean TTP after primary radiosynovectomy was satisfactory for both the ankle and elbow joints. There was no TTP differences between the ankle and elbow joint groups (67 vs. 72 months respectively; P = 0.22). We did not find a relationship between the TTP and the following variables: age, type and severity of haemophilia, the presence or absence of inhibitor, the radiological score, range of motion (ROM) status of joints and the pretreatment bleeding frequency. In this study, 18-20% of the treated joints had improved ROM and 82-79% of the treated joints had unchanged ROM after treatment both the ankle and elbow joints respectively. In this report including TTP analysis in the largest series with long-term follow-up, we demonstrated long-term effectiveness of Re-186 radiosynovectomy in haemophilic synovitis. In our experience, the main predictor of outcome following radiosynovectomy is the number of joint bleeding within 6 months after therapy. PMID:23171307

  10. Long-term reactive transport modelling of Berea and chalk core flood experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, A. V.; Godoy, J.; Tonietto, G.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon sequestration in geological structures establishes a long-term chemical system between the dissolved gas, fluids and rocks from the injection site. Thus, the time scale used to assess the progress of chemical reactions is normally between tens and hundreds of years. Geochemical modeling is used in a variety of fields, including environmental protection and remediation, the petroleum industry, and economic geology and it is one of the best alternatives to evaluate the reactions with geochemical data possible injection sites. In this work we used data presented in a recent article (SPE165500) in different scenarios injection with three scales 50, 100, 250 and 1000 years. The experimental data used were from core flood experiment Berea and chalk in a condition similar to those found in the reservoirs of the North Sea. (340 bar and 130 C). The approach used to the lack of appropriate kinetic parameter in reservoir conditions, was the use of experimental data collected in two different conditions (340 bar and 130 C) and (2 Bar at room temperature) after the rocky core. The numerical simulations carried out using the same conditions with two different geochemical softwares PHREEQC and TOUGHREACTS. The results provide a detailed understanding of the system resulting rock-fluid-CO2 in the medium and long term. However, the accuracy of the models is strongly dependent on the mineral primary and secondary cores found in rocks.

  11. Factors Differentiating Hospital Transfers from Long-term Care Facilities with High and Low Transfer Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined differences among nursing homes in rates at which they transfer patients to hospitals. Data from nursing staff and charts on 286 most recent transfers from 10 nursing homes revealed that, from relatively equivalent patient populations, high-rate facilities transferred more chronically ill, physically frail patients and patients with…

  12. Numerical experiments on the long-term morphodynamics of the Colorado River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaño, Yovani; Carbajal, Noel

    2008-03-01

    The interaction among tidal currents, sediment transport, and long-term changes of the sea bottom in the Colorado River Delta have been investigated applying a two dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamic-numerical finite differences model. The system was forced by the dominant M 2 tidal component at the open boundary. We carried out calculations to study the morphodynamics of the actual bathymetry caused by the bedload sediment transport. To investigate the origin of actual morphological features, we performed experiments using a smoothed bathymetry, in which the islands Montague, Gore, and Pelícano were eliminated. Under the imposed tidal hydrodynamics, the results indicate that the bedload transport contributes significantly in the genesis of sandbanks and in the formation and maintaining of the Montague and Gore Islands.

  13. Fathers' everyday experiences of having an adult child who suffers from long-term mental illness.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anita; Anderzen-Carlsson, Agneta; Ahlin, Arne; Andershed, Birgitta

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the everyday life experiences of fathers of adult children who have various forms of long-term mental illness. Ten fathers were interviewed. Content analysis revealed one main theme: Maintaining a strong façade while balancing on a thin line, and two sub-themes: (1) A constant struggle and (2) A feeling of powerlessness. The fathers demonstrated great engagement and good will to participate in their child's life. A sense of powerlessness and frustration at not having or being allowed freedom of action emerged. Cooperation between children, parents, the care service providers, and the authorities could increase the parents' abilities to provide adequate support to the child as well as helping them to understand and make the incomprehensible manageable. PMID:22273345

  14. Trajectories, Long-Term Outcomes and Family Experiences of 76 Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Chamak, Brigitte; Bonniau, Béatrice

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to retrace the trajectories and long-term outcomes of individuals with autism in France, and to explore the family experiences. Data obtained from parents enables us to follow the trajectories of 76 adults. Two-thirds of adults with severe autism had a very poor outcome. Those with moderate autism had a better outcome. In adulthood, the majority were in residential accommodation. None were living independently. The trajectories of people with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism were more positive since all of them attended school for a long time and some went to university. All of them had a good outcome but they remained dependent on aging parents who had few available supports. PMID:26572660

  15. Prior contest experience exerts a long-term influence on subsequent winner and loser effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Animals are capable of using information from recent experiences to modify subsequent behavioral responses. Animals' ability or propensity to modify their behavior in the light of new information has repeatedly been shown to correlate with, or be influenced by, either their intrinsic competitive ability or their dominance experience - an influence which can be long-lasting. Using a mangrove killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, as the study organism, we investigated whether and if so how the effect of a winning or a losing experience one day prior to a dyadic contest was modulated by both competitive ability measured two months previously and a winning or losing experience forced on the contestants one month previously. Results Winning/losing experience forced on the fish one month previously affected how they utilized information from their winning/losing experience one day before Test Day: Individuals that were randomly assigned a losing experience one month previously were more susceptible to the influence of their 1-day winning/losing experience than those assigned a winning experience. Competitive ability measured two months previously, winning/losing experience from one month previously and the winning/losing experience received one day previously all significantly influenced the fish's contest behaviors on Test Day, although only 2-month competitive ability significantly influenced escalation duration, indicating that it was still a good index for the fish's competitive ability two months later. Conclusions These results suggest that the value to the fish of information from a recent win or loss depends on the outcome of their past contests and show that contest experience has a long-term effect on contest behavior. PMID:22051441

  16. Long-term experiments to better understand soil-human interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, B. T.; Homann, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions between soils and people may be transforming global conditions, but the interactions are poorly understood. Changes in soils have proven difficult to quantify, especially in complex ecosystems manifesting large spatiotemporal variability. Long-term ecosystem experiments that evaluate soil change and demonstrate alternative choices are important to understanding changes, discovering new controls and drivers, and influencing decisions. Inspired by agriculture studies, like Rothamsted, the US Forest Service established in 1990 a network of operational-scale experiments across the Pacific Northwest to evaluate long-term effects of different forest management and disturbance regimes. With a strong experimental design, these experiments are now helping to better understand the long-term effects of managing tree harvesting (clearcutting and thinning), woody debris, and tree and understory species composition, and-serendipitously-the effects of fire. Initial results from the Southern Oregon experimental site indicate surprisingly rapid soil changes in some regimes but not others. We've also learned that rapid change presents challenges to repeat sampling. We present our sample-archive and comparable-layer approaches that seek to accommodate changes in surface elevation, aggregation and disaggregation, and mineral-soil exports. Thinning mature forest stands (80-100 yrs old) did not significantly change soil C in 11-yrs. A small upper-layer C increase was observed after thinning, but it was similar to the control. Significant increases in upper-layer soil N were observed with most treatments, but all increases were similar to the control. Leaving woody debris had little effect. The most remarkable change occurred when mature stands were clearcut and Douglas-firs were planted and tended. Associated with rapid growth of Douglas-fir, an average of 8 Mg C ha-1 was lost from weathered soil 4-18 cm deep. This contrasts with clearcuts where early-seral hardwoods and

  17. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable hospital inpatient prospective payment system cost of living adjustment factors; (iii) Includes, where applicable, adjustments for indirect medical education costs and for the costs of serving a... applicable, capital inpatient prospective payment system adjustments for indirect medical education costs...

  18. [Medium- and long-term use of central venous catheters in pediatrics. Personal experience].

    PubMed

    Orfei, P; Pinto, G; Properzi, E; Piccardo, A; Cerroni, A; Prosperi, M; Cozzi, F

    1996-04-01

    From January 1992 to October 1994, 74 central venous catheters were inserted, in the University Hospital of Rome: Polyclinic Umberto I - "La Sapienza", in 62 paediatric patients (15.17 +/- 1.64 years old), admitted to the paediatric surgery division. The authors used a large amount of CVC: totally implanted devices (34 Groshong, 7 Broviac, 2 Hickman, 3 Port) and percutaneous catheters (28 Arrow). The choice of the infusional devices has been influenced by the length of the treatment, the primitive disease, the age and the size of the patient. The authors used totally implanted devices in paediatric patients undergoing chemotherapeutic and nutritional therapies. External central venous access devices were used in patients undergoing central catheterization lasting less than two months. The subclavian vein has been used as venous access in patients weighing > 5 kg, the internal jugular vein in < 5, kg patients. This work reports the early (PNX, hematomas, arterial access) and the long term complications (infections, accidental unthreading, occlusions and dislocations). We can say that the medium and long last term CVC is well tolerated and accepted in paediatric patients too, for antineoplastic, nutritional and infusion therapies. PMID:8984428

  19. Detailed description of a long-term low-level waste degradation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Caron, F.; Torok, J.; Haas, M.K.; Manni, G.

    1997-12-31

    This work gives a detailed description of the important aspects of a long-term Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) degradation experiment, performed at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). This experiment utilized actual LLRW. The wastes consist of unconditioned compacted refuse (paper, mop heads, paper towels, used clothing, etc.), which represents the bulk of the waste volume intended for near-surface disposal at CRL. Waste material was collected and compacted to make a total of 11 bales for this experiment. Each bale was then placed and sealed in separate steel containers which were connected to sampling lines. After a dry monitoring period, water was added to promote leaching and decomposition of the wastes. The leachate sampled had a composition similar to landfill leachates. Some applications of this experiment, used to support the safety case of near-surface disposal, are briefly discussed in this paper, e.g., the production of colloidal material, the nature and role of dissolved organics of microbial origin, etc.

  20. Neuroplasticity beyond Sounds: Neural Adaptations Following Long-Term Musical Aesthetic Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active “agent” coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural adaptations in musicians, following long-term exposure to music, are then reviewed by keeping in mind the distinct subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience. We conclude that these neural adaptations can be conceived of as the immediate and lifelong interactions with multisensorial stimuli (having a predominant auditory component), which result in lasting changes of the internal state of the “agent”. In a continuous loop, these changes affect, in turn, the subprocesses involved in a musical aesthetic experience, towards the final goal of achieving better perceptual, motor and proprioceptive responses to the immediate demands of the sounding environment. The resulting neural adaptations in musicians closely depend on the duration of the interactions, the starting age, the involvement of attention, the amount of motor practice and the musical genre played. PMID:25807006

  1. Neuroplasticity beyond Sounds: Neural Adaptations Following Long-Term Musical Aesthetic Experiences.

    PubMed

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural adaptations in musicians, following long-term exposure to music, are then reviewed by keeping in mind the distinct subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience. We conclude that these neural adaptations can be conceived of as the immediate and lifelong interactions with multisensorial stimuli (having a predominant auditory component), which result in lasting changes of the internal state of the "agent". In a continuous loop, these changes affect, in turn, the subprocesses involved in a musical aesthetic experience, towards the final goal of achieving better perceptual, motor and proprioceptive responses to the immediate demands of the sounding environment. The resulting neural adaptations in musicians closely depend on the duration of the interactions, the starting age, the involvement of attention, the amount of motor practice and the musical genre played. PMID:25807006

  2. Short- and Long-Term Prognostic Implications of Jugular Venous Distension in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Chernomordik, Fernando; Berkovitch, Anat; Schwammenthal, Ehud; Goldenberg, Ilan; Rott, David; Arbel, Yaron; Elis, Avishai; Klempfner, Robert

    2016-07-15

    The present study was designed to assess the role of jugular venous distension (JVD) as a predictor of short- and long-term mortality in a "real-life" setting. The independent association between the presence of admission JVD and the 30-day, 1- and 10-year mortality was assessed among 2,212 patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (HF) who were enrolled in the Heart Failure Survey in Israel (2003). Independent predictors of JVD finding in study patients included: the presence of significant hyponatremia (odds ratio [OR] 1.48; p = 0.03), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction ([LVEF] OR 1.24; p = 0.03), anemia (OR 1.3; p = 0.01), New York Heart Association III to IV (OR 1.34; p <0.01) and age >75 years (OR 1.32; p = 0.01). The presence of JVD versus its absence at the time of HF hospitalization was associated with increased 30-day mortality (7.2% vs 4.9%, respectively; p = 0.02), 1-year (33% vs 28%, respectively; p <0.001), and greater 10-year mortality (91.8% vs 87.2%, respectively; p <0.001). Consistently, interaction term analysis demonstrated that the presence of JVD at the time of the index HF hospitalization was independently associated with a significant increased risk for 10-year mortality, with a more pronounced effect among younger patients, patients with reduced LVEF, preserved renal function, and chronic HF. In conclusion, in patients admitted with HF, JVD is associated with specific risk factors and is independently associated with increased risk of both short- and long-term mortality. These findings can be used for improved risk assessment and management of this high-risk population. PMID:27287063

  3. [A case of anorexia nervosa with severe physical complications resulting in long-term hospitalization].

    PubMed

    Saito, Shinnosuke; Sato, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a woman in her late twenties with anorexia nervosa who was difficult to treat both psychologically and physically because she resisted being treated despite presenting with various and severe physical complications, such as a refractory tracheoesophageal fistula. On admission, she weighed 24.8 kg and her body mass index was 9.6 kg/m2. Treatment on a medical ward was not possible due to her resistance to being fed and repeated secretive and deviant behaviors. Therefore, she was treated mainly on a psychiatric ward, with a psychiatrist as the attending doctor. After hospitalization for more than 3 years, she had sufficiently recovered to leave the hospital. She was discharged weighing 37.7 kg and her body mass index was 14.5 kg/m2. As physical complications, the patient manifested with a tracheoesophageal fistula, duodenal bulb perforation, and tension pneumothorax, which were considered to reflect the vulnerability of the intrapleural and intraperitoneal soft tissue. She also manifested with lower limb edema, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, overreaction to a diuretic, dehydration, and hypernatremia, which were considered to reflect the disturbances of water balance. As seen in this case, a patient with anorexia nervosa who resists being fed, even though treatment of the physical complications requires an improved nutritional status above all, may require treatment on a psychiatric ward even at the risk of providing less than ideal care for the physical complications. We discuss "medical psychiatry" as a model for treating anorexia nervosa patients with severe physical complications. In this concept of "medical psychiatry", it is the most important that staff on the psychiatric ward take an interest in and have concerns about the patient's physical complications. If the psychiatrist as the attending doctor actively and continuously participates in the treatment of physical complications, it should be possible to create a treatment plan that

  4. A smart homecage system with 3D tracking for long-term behavioral experiments.

    PubMed

    Byunghun Lee; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    A wirelessly-powered homecage system, called the EnerCage-HC, that is equipped with multi-coil wireless power transfer, closed-loop power control, optical behavioral tracking, and a graphic user interface (GUI) is presented for long-term electrophysiology experiments. The EnerCage-HC system can wirelessly power a mobile unit attached to a small animal subject and also track its behavior in real-time as it is housed inside a standard homecage. The EnerCage-HC system is equipped with one central and four overlapping slanted wire-wound coils (WWCs) with optimal geometries to form 3-and 4-coil power transmission links while operating at 13.56 MHz. Utilizing multi-coil links increases the power transfer efficiency (PTE) compared to conventional 2-coil links and also reduces the number of power amplifiers (PAs) to only one, which significantly reduces the system complexity, cost, and dissipated heat. A Microsoft Kinect installed 90 cm above the homecage localizes the animal position and orientation with 1.6 cm accuracy. An in vivo experiment was conducted on a freely behaving rat by continuously delivering 24 mW to the mobile unit for > 7 hours inside a standard homecage. PMID:25570379

  5. A facility for long-term Mars simulation experiments: the Mars Environmental Simulation Chamber (MESCH).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lars Liengaard; Merrison, Jonathan; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Mikkelsen, Karina Aarup; Kristoffersen, Tommy; Nørnberg, Per; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Finster, Kai

    2008-06-01

    We describe the design, construction, and pilot operation of a Mars simulation facility comprised of a cryogenic environmental chamber, an atmospheric gas analyzer, and a xenon/mercury discharge source for UV generation. The Mars Environmental Simulation Chamber (MESCH) consists of a double-walled cylindrical chamber. The double wall provides a cooling mantle through which liquid N(2) can be circulated. A load-lock system that consists of a small pressure-exchange chamber, which can be evacuated, allows for the exchange of samples without changing the chamber environment. Fitted within the MESCH is a carousel, which holds up to 10 steel sample tubes. Rotation of the carousel is controlled by an external motor. Each sample in the carousel can be placed at any desired position. Environmental data, such as temperature, pressure, and UV exposure time, are computer logged and used in automated feedback mechanisms, enabling a wide variety of experiments that include time series. Tests of the simulation facility have successfully demonstrated its ability to produce temperature cycles and maintain low temperature (down to -140 degrees C), low atmospheric pressure (5-10 mbar), and a gas composition like that of Mars during long-term experiments. PMID:18593229

  6. A Smart Homecage System with 3D Tracking for Long-Term Behavioral Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byunghun; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    A wirelessly-powered homecage system, called the EnerCage-HC, that is equipped with multi-coil wireless power transfer, closed-loop power control, optical behavioral tracking, and a graphic user interface (GUI) is presented for long-term electrophysiology experiments. The EnerCage-HC system can wirelessly power a mobile unit attached to a small animal subject and also track its behavior in real-time as it is housed inside a standard homecage. The EnerCage-HC system is equipped with one central and four overlapping slanted wire-wound coils (WWCs) with optimal geometries to form 3- and 4-coil power transmission links while operating at 13.56 MHz. Utilizing multi-coil links increases the power transfer efficiency (PTE) compared to conventional 2-coil links and also reduces the number of power amplifiers (PAs) to only one, which significantly reduces the system complexity, cost, and dissipated heat. A Microsoft Kinect installed 90 cm above the homecage localizes the animal position and orientation with 1.6 cm accuracy. An in vivo experiment was conducted on a freely behaving rat by continuously delivering 24 mW to the mobile unit for > 7 hours inside a standard homecage. PMID:25570379

  7. Long term pH-static experiments in combination with computer modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Baeverman, C.; Neretnieks, I.

    1996-12-31

    Large quantities of MSWI bottom ash are produced in the world today, and has to be taken care of. According to the physical properties of the ash it can be used, instead of gravel, as filling material in, for example, road construction. For environmental reasons this is acceptable only if the leaching from the construction does not affect the surroundings. In Sweden the bottom ash has so far been placed in landfills and even there the environmental impact has to be minimized. Long term pH-static experiments have been performed on municipal solid waste (MSWI) bottom ash between pH 6 and 9.25. Most of the reactions take place within the first 50 days of the experiment. The experiments resulted in a pH titration curve that can be used for determining the pH buffering capacity at different pH levels. The curve is used to assess the different pK{sub a}-values of the ash. These can be used to identify the main pH buffering minerals in the ash as the pK{sub a}-values are mineral specific. The buffering capacity at the different pK{sub a}-values gives the amount of the mineral present in the ash. The information obtained by the pH-static experiments can be used for long time computer simulations with geochemical transport programs. Both laboratory experiments and computer simulations have shown that the pH buffering capacity is the key variable that controls the leaching of many metals e.g. copper. Simulations have shown that the copper in a pile of ash can be accumulated at a pH front, where the pH changes rapidly because the buffering capacity is depleted, and later leached all at the same time with very high concentration.

  8. Long-Term Outcomes of Vestibular Schwannomas Treated With Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy: An Institutional Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, Sumit; Batra, Sachin; Carson, Kathryn; Shuck, John; Kharkar, Siddharth; Gandhi, Rahul; Jackson, Juan; Wemmer, Jan; Terezakis, Stephanie; Shokek, Ori; Kleinberg, Lawrence; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: We assessed clinical outcome and long-term tumor control after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for unilateral schwannoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1995 and 2007, 496 patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy at Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, MD); 385 patients had radiologic follow-up that met the inclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was treatment failure. Secondary endpoints were radiologic progression and clinical outcome. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association of age, race, tumor side, sex, and pretreatment symptoms. Results: In 11 patients (3%) treatment failed, and they required salvage (microsurgical) treatment. Radiologic progression was observed in 116 patients (30.0%), including 35 patients (9%) in whom the treatment volume more than doubled during the follow-up period, although none required surgical resection. Tumors with baseline volumes of less than 1 cm{sup 3} were 18.02 times more likely to progress than those with tumor volumes of 1 cm{sup 3} or greater (odds ratio, 18.02; 95% confidence interval, 4.25-76.32). Treatment-induced neurologic morbidity included 8 patients (1.6%) with new facial weakness, 12 patients (2.8%) with new trigeminal paresthesias, 4 patients (0.9%) with hydrocephalus (1 communicating and 3 obstructive), and 2 patients (0.5%) with possibly radiation-induced neoplasia. Conclusions: Although the rate of treatment failure is low (3%), careful follow-up shows that radiologic progression occurs frequently. When reporting outcome, the 'no salvage surgery needed' and 'no additional treatment needed' criteria for treatment success need to be complemented by the radiologic data.

  9. A Performance Analysis of Long-term Acute-Care Hospitals Owned by Large, Multistate Investor-Owned Companies.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Preethy; Liu, Xinliang; McCue, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a descriptive assessment of the operating performance of for-profit long-term acute-care hospitals owned by multistate, investor-owned companies (large FP LTCHs) compared with FP LTCHs owned by smaller FP companies (small FP LTCHs) and nonprofit LTCHs (NP LTCHs). The study used the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services cost report data for 290 LTCHs from 2010 through 2012 to compare the financial performance of large and small FP LTCHs and NP LTCHs. The study found that the median operating profit margin for large FP LTCHs was 8.06%, which was twice as high as that of the small FP LTCHs and NP LTCHs (4.78% and 2.80%, respectively). Larger size, serving a greater proportion of private pay and more complex patients and incurring lower operating expenses, including salary expenses, may account for the higher operating margin of the large FP LTCHs. PMID:27111686

  10. A 35-year Perspective (1975-2009) into the Long-term Prognosis and Hospital Management of Patients Discharged from the Hospital after a First Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Han-Yang; Gore, Joel M.; Lapane, Kate L.; Yarzebski, Jorge; Person, Sharina D.; Gurwitz, Jerry H.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Goldberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    There are limited population-based data available describing trends in the long-term prognosis of patients discharged from the hospital after an initial acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our objectives were to describe multi-decade trends in post-discharge mortality, and their association with hospital management practices, among patients discharged from all central Massachusetts (MA) medical centers after a first AMI. Residents of the Worcester, MA, metropolitan area discharged from all central MA hospitals after a first AMI between 1975 and 2009 comprised the study population (n=8,728). Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between year of hospitalization and 1-year post-discharge mortality. The average age of this population was 66 years and 40% were women. Patients hospitalized in 1999-2009, as compared with those discharged in 1975-1984, were older, more likely to be women, and have multiple previously-diagnosed comorbidities. Hospital use of invasive cardiac interventions and medications increased markedly over time. Unadjusted 1-year mortality rates were 12.9%, 12.5%, and 15.8% for patients discharged during 1975-1984, 1986-1997, and 1999-2009, respectively. After adjusting for several demographic characteristics, clinical factors, and in-hospital complications, there were no significant differences in the odds of dying at 1 year post-discharge during the years under study. After further adjustment for hospital treatment practices, the odds of dying at 1 year post-discharge was 2.43 (95% confidence intervals=1.83-3.23) times higher in patients hospitalized in1999-2009 than in 1975-1984. In conclusion, the increased use of invasive cardiac interventions and pharmacotherapies was associated with enhanced long-term survival among patients hospitalized for a first AMI. PMID:25933734

  11. CQESTR Simulation of Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in Long-term Agricultural Experiments across USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollany, H.; Liang, Y.; Albrecht, S.; Rickman, R.; Follett, R.; Wilhelm, W.; Novak, J.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) has important chemical (supplies nutrients, buffers and adsorbs harmful chemical compounds), biological (supports the growth of microorganisms and micro fauna), and physical (improves soil structure and soil tilth, stores water, and reduces surface crusting, water runoff) functions. The loss of 20 to 50% of soil organic carbon (SOC) from USA soils after converting native prairie or forest to production agriculture is well documented. Sustainable management practices for SOC is critical for maintaining soil productivity and responsible utilization of crop residues. As crop residues are targeted for additional uses (e.g., cellulosic ethanol feedstock) developing C models that predict change in SOM over time with change in management becomes increasingly important. CQESTR, pronounced "sequester," is a process-based C balance model that relates organic residue additions, crop management and soil tillage to SOM accretion or loss. The model works on daily time-steps and can perform long-term (100-year) simulations. Soil organic matter change is computed by maintaining a soil C budget for additions, such as crop residue or added amendments like manure, and organic C losses through microbial decomposition. Our objective was to simulate SOM changes in agricultural soils under a range of soil parent materials, climate and management systems using the CQESTR model. Long-term experiments (e.g. Champaign, IL, >100 yrs; Columbia, MO, >100 yrs; Lincoln, NE, 20 yrs) under various tillage practices, organic amendments, crop rotations, and crop residue removal treatments were selected for their documented history of the long-term effects of management practice on SOM dynamics. Simulated and observed values from the sites were significantly related (r2 = 94%, P < 0.001) with slope not significantly different from 1. Recent interest in crop residue removal for biofuel feedstock prompted us to address that as a management issue. CQESTR successfully simulated a

  12. Towards A Smart Experimental Arena for Long-Term Electrophysiology Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Jow, Uei-Ming; Kiani, Mehdi; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in wireless power and data transmission have raised the prospects of using a variety of low power microelectronic devices such as biosensors, stimulators, and actuators in long-term uninterrupted electrophysiology experiments on small freely behaving animal subjects in large experimental arenas. This paper presents our progress towards developing such a system, called the EnerCage. This system includes a stationary unit for inductive power transmission through a scalable array of overlapping hexagonal coils, which are optimized using an accurate inductive link model and an iterative optimization process. Furthermore, the EnerCage system is equipped with an array of 3-D magnetic sensors and a smart tracking algorithm for non-line-of-sight positioning of the animal subject. EnerCage also has a small mobile unit, which is either attached to or implanted in the subject’s body. This unit includes a magnetic tracer and an efficient power management block, which is capable of closed-loop regulated inductive power delivery to the experimental device(s) of interest. An early prototype of the EnerCage system with six coils has been presented here. The coil array achieves a power efficiency of 17.8% at the worst-case horizontal misalignment of 42 mm (half of the coil radius) at a coupling distance of 70 mm with the mobile unit coil of 20 mm in radius. PMID:23853228

  13. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance at Rocky Flats: Early Experiences and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Surovchak, S.; Kaiser, L.; DiSalvo, R.; Boylan, J.; Squibb, G.; Nelson, J.; Darr, B.; Hanson, M.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Rocky Flats Site was established in 1951 as part of the United States' nationwide nuclear weapons complex to manufacture nuclear weapons components. In 1992 weapons production halted, and the Rocky Flats mission changed to include environmental investigations, cleanup, and site closure. In October 2005, DOE and its contractor completed an accelerated 10-year, $7 billion cleanup of chemical and radiological contamination left from nearly 50 years of production. The cleanup required the decommissioning, decontamination, demolition, and removal of more than 800 structures; removal of more than 500,000 cubic meters of low-level radioactive waste; and remediation of more than 360 potentially contaminated environmental sites. The final remedy for the site was selected in September 2006 and included institutional controls, physical controls, and continued monitoring for the former industrial portion of the site. The remainder of the site, which served as a buffer zone surrounding the former industrial area, was transferred to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in July 2007 for a national wildlife refuge. DOE's Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long-term surveillance and maintenance of Rocky Flats, which includes remedy implementation activities and general site maintenance. Several factors have complicated the transition from closure to post-closure at Rocky Flats. The early experiences associated with the two years since the physical cleanup and closure work were completed have led to several valuable lessons learned. (authors)

  14. Long-term selection experiment produces breakdown of horizontal transmissibility in parasite with mixed transmission mode.

    PubMed

    Dusi, Eike; Gougat-Barbera, Claire; Berendonk, Thomas U; Kaltz, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    Evolutionary transitions from parasitism toward beneficial or mutualistic associations may encompass a change from horizontal transmission to (strict) vertical transmission. Parasites with both vertical and horizontal transmission are amendable to study factors driving such transitions. In a long-term experiment, microcosm populations of the protozoan Paramecium caudatum and its bacterial parasite Holospora undulata were exposed to three growth treatments, manipulating vertical transmission opportunities over ca. 800 host generations. In inoculation tests, horizontal transmission propagules produced by parasites from a "high-growth" treatment, with elevated host division rates increasing levels of parasite vertical transmission, showed a near-complete loss of infectivity. A similar reduction was observed for parasites from a treatment alternating between high growth and low growth (i.e., low levels of population turn-over). Parasites from a low-growth treatment had the highest infectivity on all host genotypes tested. Our results complement previous findings of reduced investment in horizontal transmission and increased vertical transmissibility of high-growth parasites. We explain the loss of horizontal transmissibility by epidemiological feedbacks and resistance evolution, reducing the frequency of susceptible hosts in the population and thereby decreasing the selective advantage of horizontal transmission. This illustrates how environmental conditions may push parasites with a mixed transmission mode toward becoming vertically transmitted nonvirulent symbionts. PMID:25756600

  15. Video tracking algorithm of long-term experiment using stand-alone recording system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Li, Yan-Chay; Huang, Ke-Nung; Jen, Sun-Lon; Young, Ming-Shing

    2008-08-01

    Many medical and behavioral applications require the ability to monitor and quantify the behavior of small animals. In general these animals are confined in small cages. Often these situations involve very large numbers of cages. Modern research facilities commonly monitor simultaneously thousands of animals over long periods of time. However, conventional systems require one personal computer per monitoring platform, which is too complex, expensive, and increases power consumption for large laboratory applications. This paper presents a simplified video tracking algorithm for long-term recording using a stand-alone system. The feature of the presented tracking algorithm revealed that computation speed is very fast data storage requirements are small, and hardware requirements are minimal. The stand-alone system automatically performs tracking and saving acquired data to a secure digital card. The proposed system is designed for video collected at a 640×480 pixel with 16 bit color resolution. The tracking result is updated every 30 frames/s. Only the locomotive data are stored. Therefore, the data storage requirements could be minimized. In addition, detection via the designed algorithm uses the Cb and Cr values of a colored marker affixed to the target to define the tracked position and allows multiobject tracking against complex backgrounds. Preliminary experiment showed that such tracking information stored by the portable and stand-alone system could provide comprehensive information on the animal's activity.

  16. A Natural Electromagnetic Fields Effect on Healthy Volunteers During Long-Term Experiment with Isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yury I.; Mikhailov, Valery M.; Ushakov, Boris B.

    2008-06-01

    There were investigated four healthy volunteers at the age of 37, 40, 41 and 48 during the baseline 240-d isolation period starting from July 3, 1999 in the frame of SFINCSS-99 - "SIMULATION OF FLIGHT OF INTERNATIONAL CREW ON SPACE STATION". Before a starting of experiment with long-term isolation were carried out measurements of magnetic properties of module and sleeping places. With the regularity of 3 times a week each subject made records of no less then 3 video episodes with the total length of one minute minimum at the same time between 1 and 2 p.m. Applying vital non-invasive computer capillaroscopy of nailbed has allowed quantitatively estimating a capillary blood velocity (CBV). The microcirculation parameters obtained during experiment were compared to local indexes of geomagnetic activity. About 1500 episodes were recorded on laser disks and analyzed. Parameters of microcirculation were compared with other physiological parameters monitored in the experiment. CBV investigation during the most intensive magnetic storm for the period of isolation (A-index- 44) show, that CBV at all volunteers was considerably slowed down. The greatest delay of blood flow velocity revealed at the subject which the factor of shielding of a constant magnetic field at the level of the sleeping berth has made 2,0. CBV at the subject has made 498 ± 46 μm/s with (- 65,8 % from base line). Least delay of a CBV is revealed at the subject which the factor of shielding of a constant magnetic field at the level of the sleeping berth has made 3, 15 (-12 % from base line).

  17. [Oxidation Stress Markers Dynamics in the Experiment of Long-Term Antiorthostatic Hypokinesia (Retrospective Study)].

    PubMed

    Zhuravlyova, O A; Markin, A A; Kuzichkin, D S; Loginov, V I; Zabolotskaya, I V; Vostrikova, L V

    2016-01-01

    In blood serum of 9 volunteers aged 27 to 42, participated in the experiment with 370-day antiorthostatic hypokinesia (-5 degrees), the lipid peroxidation derivates concentration--diene conjugates (DC), malonic dialdehyde (MDA), Schiff bases (SB) as well as antioxidant defense system indices--tocopherol (TP) concentration and total antioxidative activity level (AOA) were measured. The volunteers were divided into two groups subjected to physical training regimes and used prophylactic measures. In both groups the lipoperoxidation processes initial stages depression (by 54-73%) was observed starting from 50th day, thus the lipid peroxidation final product--SB level was decreased (by 50-61%) only to the 230 day and remains approximately at the same level till the end of the experiment. The restorative period was characterized by decreasing (in 1.6-2.3 times) of MDA and SB concentrations. The decrease in lotal AOA during the aftereffect period was detected in all volunteers, and its level was significantly lower physiological norm range. Probably, long-term adaptation to the simulated weightlessness conditions is accompanied by expressed decrease in biological oxidation processes intensity and significant stress effect, as indicates by essential depression of lipid free radical oxidation in the course of the experiment. At the same time the restorative period after 370-day antiorthostatic hypokinesia was characterized by significantly expressed and prolonged readaptation stress progress. It is evidenced by practically twofold decrease in lipoperoxidation processes intensity against significant increase in TP concentration and water-soluble antioxidants functional reserves exhaustion. Lipid peroxidation activation absence in all terms of examination reflects appropriate compensation of studying impact by volunteers. PMID:27188151

  18. Large Chromosomal Rearrangements during a Long-Term Evolution Experiment with Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Raeside, Colin; Gaffé, Joël; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Tenaillon, Olivier; Briska, Adam M.; Ptashkin, Ryan N.; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Médigue, Claudine; Lenski, Richard E.; Barrick, Jeffrey E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Large-scale rearrangements may be important in evolution because they can alter chromosome organization and gene expression in ways not possible through point mutations. In a long-term evolution experiment, twelve Escherichia coli populations have been propagated in a glucose-limited environment for over 25 years. We used whole-genome mapping (optical mapping) combined with genome sequencing and PCR analysis to identify the large-scale chromosomal rearrangements in clones from each population after 40,000 generations. A total of 110 rearrangement events were detected, including 82 deletions, 19 inversions, and 9 duplications, with lineages having between 5 and 20 events. In three populations, successive rearrangements impacted particular regions. In five populations, rearrangements affected over a third of the chromosome. Most rearrangements involved recombination between insertion sequence (IS) elements, illustrating their importance in mediating genome plasticity. Two lines of evidence suggest that at least some of these rearrangements conferred higher fitness. First, parallel changes were observed across the independent populations, with ~65% of the rearrangements affecting the same loci in at least two populations. For example, the ribose-utilization operon and the manB-cpsG region were deleted in 12 and 10 populations, respectively, suggesting positive selection, and this inference was previously confirmed for the former case. Second, optical maps from clones sampled over time from one population showed that most rearrangements occurred early in the experiment, when fitness was increasing most rapidly. However, some rearrangements likely occur at high frequency and may have simply hitchhiked to fixation. In any case, large-scale rearrangements clearly influenced genomic evolution in these populations. PMID:25205090

  19. Long-term lysimeter experiment to analyze the influence of the climate change on matter fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pütz, Thomas; Groh, Jannis; Wollschläger, Ute; Gerke, Horst; Priesack, Eckart; Kiese, Ralf; Borg, Erik; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Based on the TERENO SoilCan infrastructure, a long-term large-scale experiment was designed to study the effects of climate change on terrestrial systems. The water and matter fluxes in soil are the main focuses of SoilCan. In the frame of SoilCan, fully automated lysimeter systems were installed on several highly equipped experimental field sites of the TERENO-observatories and the relevant status variables of each ecosystem were monitored (e.g. climate, hydrology, biosphere-atmosphere exchange, biodiversity, etc.). In total, 90 lysimeters (1.5 m depth, 1m2 surface) were filled with soil monoliths at the four TERENO-observatories and were instrumented with TDRs, tensiometers, temperature sensors, soil heat flux plates, and CO2 sensors. For the controlling of the lower boundary condition, suction candle rakes were installed into the lysimeter bottoms. In combination with bi-directional pumps and tanks, the water content of the lysimeters was adjusted to the surrounded original field sites. To simulate the expected climate change, 48 lysimeters were transferred along temperature and rainfall gradients within the respective observatories and between the observatories, based on the principle 'Space for Time'. In case of the "Rur" observatory, three intensively instrumented field sites ("Wüstebach", "Rollesbroich" und "Selhausen") were equipped with lysimeter stations. These three field sites include different land uses, "Wüstebach" as a forest site, "Rollesbroich" as a grassland and "Selhausen" as an arable site. In order to standardize the agronomic management, the crop rotation at the arable lysimeters comprised winter wheat - winter rye - winter barley - oats. For investigation of the matter flux, soil solutions and leachates were regularly sampled. The water balances and the dynamics of the carbon and nitrogen fluxes in the first two years of the experiment will be presented.

  20. 42 CFR 412.534 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital inpatient prospective payment system cost of living adjustment factors; (iii) Includes, where applicable, adjustments for indirect medical education costs and the costs of serving a disproportionate... inpatient prospective payment system adjustments for indirect medical education costs and the costs...

  1. Long-term care: dignity, autonomy, family integrity, and social sustainability: the Hong Kong experience.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ho Mun; Pang, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This article reveals the outcome of a study on the perceptions of elders, family members, and healthcare professionals and administration providing care in a range of different long-term care facilities in Hong Kong with primary focus on the concepts of autonomy and dignity of elders, quality and location of care, decision making, and financing of long term care. It was found that aging in place and family care were considered the best approaches to long term care insofar as procuring and balancing the values of dignity, autonomy, family integrity and social sustainability were concerned. An elder having the final say was generally accepted. The results also initiated the importance of sharing of financial responsibility among elders, children and government albeit the emphasis was placed on individuals. Furthermore, dignity of elders was not considered purely a synonym of autonomy, but it had also to do with respect, family and social connections. PMID:17924269

  2. How Schools Can Help Students Recover from Traumatic Experiences: A Tool Kit for Supporting Long-Term Recovery. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaycox, Lisa H.; Morse, Lindsey K.; Tanielian, Terri; Stein, Bradley D.

    2006-01-01

    This tool kit is designed for schools that want to help students recover from traumatic experiences such as natural disasters, exposure to violence, abuse or assault, terrorist incidents, and war and refugee experiences. It focuses on long-term recovery, as opposed to immediate disaster response. To help schools choose an approach that suits their…

  3. Phylogenetic Distribution of Virulence Genes Among ESBL-producing Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Long-term Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ruike; Shi, Jinfang; Shen, Yimin; Li, Yanmeng; Han, Qingzhen; Zhang, Xianfeng; Gu, Guohao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study was aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance, virulence potential and phylogenetic grouping of ESBL-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli (EP-UPEC) isolated from long-term hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods EP-UPEC isolates from September 2013 to June 2014 at a tertiary care hospital of China were screened for ESBL-production by the double disk diffusion test. Isolates with ESBL-phenotype were further characterized by antibiotic resistance testing, PCR of different ESBL and virulence genes, and phylogenetic grouping. Results One hundred and twenty EP-UPEC were isolated from long-term hospitalized patients. All EP-UPEC isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, Cefazolin, Cefuroxime, Cefotaxime, Cefoperazone and Ceftriaxone, and the majority of EP-UPEC isolates were resistant to Piperacillin (82.5%), Ciprofloxacin (81.2%), Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (72.5%). The isolates showed the highest sensitivity against Imipenem (98.4%), Piperacillin/tazobactam (96.7%), Cefoperazone/sulbactam (91.7%), Amikacin (90.8%) and Cefepime (75.8%). Nine different ESBL genotype patterns were observed and CTX-M type was the most prevalent ESBL genotype (42.5%, 51/120). Majority of EP-UPEC isolates possess more than one ESBL genes. EP-UPEC isolates belonged mainly to phylogenetic group B2(36.7%) and D(35.0%). The prevalence of traT, ompT, iss, PAI, afa, fimH and papC were 75.8%, 63.3%, 63.3%, 60.8%, 40.8%, 19.2% and 6.7%, respectively. The number of virulence genes (VGs) detected was significantly higher in group B2 than in group A (ANOVA, p<0.001), group B1(ANOVA, p= 0.012) and D (ANOVA, p<0.001). Conclusions EP-UPEC strains showed multidrug resistance and co-resistance to other non β-lactam antibiotics. CTX-M was the most prevalent ESBL genotype and majority of EP-UPEC strains more than one ESBL genes. EP-UPEC strains belonged mainly to phylogenetic group B2 and D, and most of the virulence genes were more prevalent in group B2. PMID

  4. Long-Term CO2 Exposure Experiments - Geochemical Effects on Brine-Saturated Reservoir Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel; Wandrey, Maren

    2010-05-01

    The injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is the most promising strategy for the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere via long-term geological storage. The study is part of the CO2SINK project conducted at Ketzin, situated 40 km west of Berlin. There, food grade CO2 has been pumped into the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation since June 2008. The main objective of the experimental program is to investigate the effects of long-term CO2 exposure on the physico-chemical properties of the reservoir rock. To achieve this goal, core samples from observation well Ktzi 202 have been saturated with synthetic brine and exposed to CO2 in high quality steel autoclaves at simulated reservoir P-T-conditions of 5.5 MPa and 40 ° C. The synthetic brine had a composition representative of the formation fluid (Förster et al., 2006) of 172.8 g/l NaCl, 8.0 g/l MgCl2×2H2O, 4.8 g/l CaCl2×2H2O and 0.6 g/l KCl. After 15 months, the first set of CO2-exposed samples was removed from the pressure vessels. Thin sections, XRD, SEM as well as EMP data were used to determine the mineralogical features of the reservoir rocks before and after the experiments. Additionally, NMR relaxation and MP was performed to measure poroperm and pore size distribution values of the twin samples. The analyzed samples are fine- to medium grained, moderately well- to well sorted and weakly consolidated sandstones. Quartz and plagioclase are the major components, while K-feldspar, hematite, white & dark mica, chlorite and illite are present in minor and varying amounts. Cements are composed of analcime, dolomite and anhydrite. Some samples show mm- to cm-scale cross-beddings. The laminae comprise lighter, quartz- and feldspar-dominated layers and dark-brownish layers with notably less quartz and feldspars. The results are consistent with those of Blaschke et al. (2008). The plagioclase composition indicates preferred dissolution of the Ca-component and a trend toward albite-rich phases or even pure

  5. Fertilization effects on soil organic matter turnover in a long term experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioacchini, Paola; Giordani, Gianni; Montecchio, Daniela; Nastri, Anna; Triberti, Loretta; Baldoni, Guido; Ciavatta, Claudio

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural management practices such as residues application, level and kind of fertilization and amendment, tillage intensity can affect the capacity of soil to sequester and incorporate carbon (C). These practices also influence both above-ground and below-ground plant production and, as a consequence, the amount of C that enters the soil. However, studing the dyamics of C inputs in soils and the effects of the agricultural management practices on C incorporation in soil organic matter (SOM) requires long-term field experiments. The long-term field experiment in Cadriano, at the University of Bologna, Italy, started in 1966 and still in progress, compares two continuous rotations of corn and wheat, interacting with two cattle manure supplies (M0: no manure - M1: 20 t ha-1 year-1 of fresh material) and two mineral NP rates (N0P0: no NP fertilizers - N1P1: 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 plus 200 and 300 kg N ha-1 for wheat and maize, respectively). The experimental design is a split-plot replicated twice, with fertilizer sub-plots of 56 m2 of area each. The field is annually ploughed to 40 cm depth. Crop residues are always removed, with the exception of roots and stubbles. By using the delta 13C technique we measured the amount of corn-derived C retained over a 36-years period in total soil organic C (SOC) and in the humic fraction that is referred as the most stable pool of SOC. These amounts were compared with the total inputs of belowground C (roots and rhizodepositions) in order to highlight if the capacity of soil to stabilize the new C inputs can be affected by the different fertilization practices. The results showed that the amount of corn-derived C in SOC increased in the following order: control (20.5%), Mineral (25%) Manure (29.4%), the same trend was observed for the humic fraction. On the contrary the cumulative C input over the same period followed a different order, the highest was obtained for the mineral treatment, than for the manure and the control

  6. Hidden caring, hidden carers? Exploring the experience of carers for people with long-term conditions.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Sarah; Combs, Ryan; Kirk, Sue; Griffiths, May; Patel, Neesha; Sanders, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Informal carers make a significant contribution to illness management in communities, but many struggle to access support and remain 'hidden carers'. We aimed to explore how carers of people with common long-term conditions (LTCs, such as coronary heart disease or kidney disease) conceptualised their caring, and whether they struggled to identify themselves with the term 'carer' or access for support. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 informal carers of people with LTCs recruited from local support groups. Topic guides were designed to encourage participants to provide their retrospective accounts of identifying as a carer or struggling to do so. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. The study was designed collaboratively with a patient and public involvement (PPI) partner, and we consulted with a PPI steering group of people with lived experience of caring during the study. Results showed how participants drew on comparisons with those caring for more dependent relatives in explaining their reluctance to define themselves as a carer, and resisted adopting the label due to concerns that it would threaten the identity of the cared-for person. The data were interpreted in terms of types of 'work' undertaken to manage LTCs, and revealed that carers of patients with LTCs appear to primarily engage in biographical and emotional support, which may be more difficult to conceptualise as legitimate caring 'work'. Participants indicated that health professionals may be in a unique position to validate their role as carers and encourage support seeking. The study suggests how the greater focus on self-management of LTCs in the community must be complemented by recognition of this group as potentially 'hidden carers', who support the patient to minimise the impact the illness has on their lives and consequently may minimise their own caring role, with negative implications for support seeking. PMID:25706665

  7. A multi-slice recording system for stable late phase hippocampal long-term potentiation experiments.

    PubMed

    Kroker, Katja Sabine; Rosenbrock, Holger; Rast, Georg

    2011-01-15

    A major challenge in neuroscience is identifying the cellular and molecular processes underlying learning and memory formation. In the past decades, significant progress has been made in understanding cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying hippocampal learning and memory using long-term potentiation (LTP) experiments in brain slices as a model system. To expedite LTP measurements it is helpful to further optimize such recording systems. Here, we describe a modification of a multi-slice recording system (SliceMaster, Scientifica Limited, East Sussex, UK) that allows absolutely stable measurements of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) for up to 8 h in up to eight slices simultaneously. The software Notocord(®) was used for on-line data acquisition and to control the digital pattern generator which can generate different patterns for slice stimulation, inducing different types of LTP. Moreover, in contrast to common gravity-driven perfusion systems, a Pumped Perfusion System was employed to recycle drug solutions applied to the hippocampal slice. In addition, slices were positioned on two stacked grids for optimal recording of fEPSPs. These two stacked grids were placed in the measuring chambers allowing recordings for several hours without any perturbances. In summary, this modified slice-recording system improves throughput and allows for better statistical design, increases number of used slices per animal and enables very robust LTP measurements for up to 7 h. Hence, this system is suitable not only to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying the late phase of LTP, but also to screen candidate compounds in the context of drug discovery. PMID:21087635

  8. Towards a smart experimental arena for long-term electrophysiology experiments.

    PubMed

    Jow, Uei-Ming; Kiani, Mehdi; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-10-01

    Wireless power and data transmission have created promising prospects in biomedical research by enabling perpetual data acquisition and stimulation systems. We present a work in progress towards such a system, called the EnerCage, equipped with scalable arrays of overlapping planar spiral coils (PSC) and 3-axis magnetic sensors for focused wireless power transmission to randomly moving targets, such as small freely behaving animal subjects. The EnerCage system includes a stationary unit for 3D non-line-of-sight localization and inductive power transmission through a geometrically optimized PSC array. The localization algorithm compares the magnetic sensor outputs with a threshold to activate a PSC. All PSCs are optimized based on the worst-case misalignment, considering parasitics from the overlapping and adjacent PSCs. EnerCage also has a mobile unit attached to or implanted in the subject's body, which includes a permanent magnetic tracer for localization and back telemetry circuit for efficient closed-loop inductive power regulation. The EnerCage system is designed to enable long-term electrophysiology experiments on freely behaving small animal subjects in large experimental arenas without requiring them to carry bulky batteries. A prototype of the EnerCage system with five PSCs and five magnetic sensors achieved power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 19.6% at the worst-case horizontal misalignment of 49.1 mm (√1/3 of the PSC radius) and coupling distance of 78 mm with a mobile unit coil, 20 mm in radius. The closed-loop power management mechanism maintains the mobile unit received power at 20 mW despite misalignments, tilting, and distance variations up to a maximum operating height of 120 mm (PTE = 5%). PMID:23853228

  9. Long-term health effects of Vietnam-era military service: A quasi-experiment using Australian conscription lotteries.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David W; Shields, Michael A; Siminski, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates the long-term health effects of Vietnam-era military service using Australia's National conscription lotteries for identification. Our primary contribution is the quality and breadth of our health outcomes. We use several administrative sources, containing a near-universe of records on mortality (1994-2011), cancer diagnoses (1982-2008), and emergency hospital presentations (2005-2010). We also analyse a range of self-reported morbidity indicators (2006-2009). We find no significant long-term effects on mortality, cancer or emergency hospital visits. In contrast, we find significant detrimental effects on a number of morbidity measures. Hearing and mental health appear to be particularly affected. PMID:26705967

  10. An investigation of ESSA 7 radiation data for use in long-term earth energy experiments, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of an investigation of ESSA 7 satellite radiation data for use in long-term earth energy experiments. Satellite systems for performing long-term earth radiation balance measurements over geographical areas, hemispheres, and the entire earth for periods of 10 to 30 years are examined. The ESSA 7 satellite employed plate and cone radiometers to measure earth albedo and emitted radiation. Each instrument had a black and white radiometer which discriminated the components of albedo and emitted radiation. Earth measurements were made continuously from ESSA 7 for ten months. The ESSA 7 raw data is processed to a point where it can be further analyzed for: (1) development of long-term earth energy experiments; and (2) document climate trends.

  11. Japanese Experience with Long-term Recovery from the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, H.

    2015-12-01

    On March 11, 2011, a huge tsunami disaster hit Pacific coast of Tohoku region due to a magnitude of 9.0 earthquake, and killed almost 20,000 people. It was also the beginning of long-term recovery to prepare for next tsunami attack in the future. In this presentation, I would like to review the recovery process from the following five elements: quantification of tsunami hazards, public education, evacuation model, land-use planning, and real-time tsunami warning. It should be noted that there are lessons from the 2011 event at two different levels: national level and prefecture levels. In relation to the quantification of tsunami hazard and real-time tsunami warning, it followed a big change in tsunami policy at national level such as setting up two levels of tsunami scenarios for tsunami preparedness and mitigation: Level 1 tsunami (L1) and Level 2 tsunami (L2). L1 is the tsunami risk with 50 year return period, and L2 is the one with 1,000 year return period. As for public education, evacuation model, and land-use planning, There existed a big difference for what happened in the northern half of the coast and the southern half. Northern half of the coast belongs to Iwate Prefecture whose geography is rias coast. People in the Rias coast of Iwate Prefecture has been hit many times by tsunami on the average of about 50 years. With these many experiences, they succeeded in reducing the number of mortality down to 4,000 in comparison with 20,000 at the 1886 tsunami disaster. Most of the Southern half belongs to Miyagi Prefecture whose geography is coastal plain. People in the coastal plain in Miyagi Prefecture has little experience with tsunami disaster and end up with 14,000 deaths due to tsunami attack. The differences in the past tsunami experiences in these two prefectures resulted in big differences in public education, evacuation model, and land-use planning.

  12. Teacher Experience, Learning, and Change: An Investigation of the Effects of Long-Term Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffino, Kara Lee

    2012-01-01

    As US public schools become increasingly diverse and teachers are expected to teach across cultural differences, teacher educators must consider how different professional development models shape teacher learning and practice. This study explores how a cohort of 55 P-12 teachers experienced and perceived long-term professional development focused…

  13. Study Abroad for Global Engagement: The Long-Term Impact of Mobility Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, R. Michael; Fry, Gerald W.; Stallman, Elizabeth M.; Josic, Jasmina; Jon, Jae-Eun

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the preliminary results of a research project "'Beyond immediate impact: Study abroad for global engagement' (SAGE)" which examines the long-term impact of study abroad on various forms of global engagement. The study employs a retrospective tracer study and mixed methods research design. Survey results from 6391 study-abroad…

  14. Long-Term Impacts of Faculty Development Programs: The Experience of Teli and Piedmont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlett, Peggy F.; Rappaport, Ann

    2009-01-01

    A long-term study of two faculty development programs on sustainability and the environment reveals enduring changes in teaching, research, interdisciplinary collaboration, and engaged action. Participants in cohorts of Tufts University's Environmental Literacy Institute (12-16 years ago) and Emory University's Piedmont Project (1-5 years ago)…

  15. Long-term geoelectrical monitoring of laboratory freeze-thaw experiments on bedrock samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuras, Oliver; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Murton, Julian; Krautblatter, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Much attention has recently focussed on the continuous and near-real-time geophysical monitoring of permafrost-affected bedrock with permanently installed sensor arrays. It is hoped that such efforts will enhance process understanding in such environments (permafrost degradation, weathering mechanisms) and augment our capability to predict future instabilities of rock walls and slopes. With regard to electrical methods for example, recent work has demonstrated that temperature-calibrated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is capable of imaging recession and re-advance of rock permafrost in response to the ambient temperature regime. However, field experience also shows that several fundamental improvements to ERT methodology are still required to achieve the desired sensitivity, spatial-temporal resolution and long-term robustness that must underpin continuous geophysical measurements. We have applied 4D geoelectrical tomography to monitoring laboratory experiments simulating permafrost growth, persistence and thaw in bedrock over a period of 26 months. Six water-saturated samples of limestone and chalk of varying porosity represented lithologies commonly affected by permafrost-related instability. Time-lapse imaging of the samples was undertaken during multiple successive freeze-thaw cycles, emulating annual seasonal change over several decades. Further experimental control was provided by simultaneous measurements of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture content within the bedrock samples. These experiments have helped develop an alternative methodology for the volumetric imaging of permafrost bedrock and tracking active layer dynamics. Capacitive resistivity imaging (CRI), a technique based upon low-frequency, capacitively-coupled measurements emulates ERT methodology, but without the need for galvanic contact on frozen rock. The latter is perceived as a key potential weakness, which could lead to significant limitations as a result of the variable

  16. Early experiences of the use of remote patient monitoring for the long term management of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Malcolm; Fursse, Joanna; Jones, Russell W

    2008-01-01

    We describe our experiences of using remote patient monitoring to support the long term management and clinical intervention in patients with chronic disease. Within the project we developed new algorithms to determine from vital signs collected on a daily basis, those patients requiring clinical investigation for their condition. Our aim was for patients to achieve and sustain clinically recommended values for parameters. In our study, the telemonitoring prompted clinical intervention in 37% of patients. Our approach proved particularly effective for the newly diagnosed, and for those with long term issues of management. PMID:19164051

  17. The long-term agroecological research (LTAR) experiment supports organic yields, soil quality, and economic performance in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) experiment, at the Iowa State University Neely-Kinyon Farm in Greenfield, Iowa, was established in 1998 to compare the agronomic, ecological and economic performance of conventional and organic cropping systems. The main goals of the project are to evalua...

  18. Subplots facilitate assessment of corn yield losses from weed competition in a long-term systems experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds can potentially limit crop yield, particularly in organic systems where herbicide technologies are unavailable. Weedy and weed-free subplots were established within full plots of a long-term cropping systems experiment, the Farming Systems Project, at Beltsville, Maryland, USA, to determine t...

  19. The Long-Term Effects of College Diversity Experiences: Well-Being and Social Concerns 13 Years after Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Brandenberger, Jay W.; Hill, Patrick L.; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    2011-01-01

    Many college administrators and researchers assert that diversity interactions are critical for preparing young adults for a diverse society, but very little research has examined the long-term impact of these experiences. This study examines a longitudinal sample of college students (n = 416) who were followed into their mid-30s. Structural…

  20. The long-term agroecological research (LTAR) experiment in Iowa: Organic resilience in soil quality and profitability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) experiment, at the Iowa State University Neely-Kinyon Farm in Greenfield, Iowa, was established in 1998 to compare the agronomic, ecological, and economic performance of conventional and organic cropping systems. The certified organic systems are designed...

  1. Spotlight on "Long-Term English Language Learners": Characteristics and Prior Schooling Experiences of an Invisible Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menken, Kate; Kleyn, Tatyana; Chae, Nabin

    2012-01-01

    This article presents qualitative research findings about the characteristics and prior schooling experiences of "long-term English language learners" (LTELLs), who have attended U.S. schools for 7 years or more, and about whom there is little empirical research, despite their significant numbers. Findings indicate that these students are orally…

  2. "It Is Just Habitual": An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Experience of Long-Term Recovery from Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinebourne, Pnina; Smith, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores experiences and understandings of people who have engaged with the process of recovery from alcohol or drug problems over a long period of time. Although there is a large body of research studies on recovery, few have examined long-term recovery from a qualitative perspective. The participants in this study were women who have…

  3. Predicting Short-term Mortality and Long-term Survival of Hospitalized U.S. Patients with Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Jennifer A.; Arslanlar, Sami; Yepuri, Jay; Montrose, Marc; Ahn, Chul W.; Shah, Jessica P.

    2014-01-01

    Background No study has evaluated current scoring systems for their accuracy in predicting short- and long-term outcome of alcoholic hepatitis in a U.S. population. Methods We reviewed electronic records for patients with ALD admitted to Parkland Memorial Hospital between January 2002 and August 2005. Data and outcomes for 148 of 1761 admissions meeting pre-defined criteria were collected. The discriminant function (DF) was revised (INRdf) to account for changes in prothrombin time reagents that could potentially affect identification of risk using the prior DF threshold of > 32. Admission and theoretical peak scores using the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) were calculated. Analysis models compared 5 different scoring systems. Results INRdf was closely correlated with the old DF (r2 = 0.95). Multivariate analysis of data showed that survival at 28 days was significantly associated with admission values for white blood cell count (p = 0.006), a scoring system using a combination of age, bilirubin, coagulation status and creatinine (p < 0.001) as well as an elevated ammonia result within 2 days of admission (p = 0.006). When peak values for MELD were included, they were the most significant predictor of short-term mortality (p < 0.001) followed by INRdf (p = 0.006 Conclusion On admission, 2 scoring systems that identify a subset of patients with severe alcoholic liver disease are able to predict > 50% mortality at 4 weeks as well as > 80% mortality at 6 months without specific treatment. PMID:24445730

  4. Adult Supratentorial Low-Grade Glioma: Long-Term Experience at a Single Institution

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, Glenn; Fisher, Barbara; Watling, Christopher; Cairncross, J. Gregory; Macdonald, David

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term follow-up of a cohort of adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma treated at a single institution. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 145 adult patients treated at the London Regional Cancer Program between 1979 and 1995 was reviewed. Results: With a median follow-up of 105 months, the median progression-free survival was 61 months (95% confidence interval, 53-77), and the median overall survival was 118 months (95% confidence interval, 93-129). The 10- and 20-year progression-free and overall survival rate was 18% and 0% and 48% and 22%, respectively. Cox regression analysis confirmed the importance of age, histologic type, presence of seizures, Karnofsky performance status, and initial extent of surgery as prognostic variables for overall and cause-specific survival. Function among long-term survivors without tumor progression was good to excellent for most patients. Conclusion: Low-grade glioma is a chronic disease, with most patients dying of their disease. However, long-term survival with good function is possible. Survival is determined primarily by the disease factors with selection and timing of adjuvant treatments having less influence on outcome.

  5. Twenty-Year Experience of Heart Transplantation: Early and Long-Term Results

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Yeom, Sang Yoon; Hwang, Ho Young; Choi, Jae-Woong; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Lee, Hae-Young; Huh, Jae-Hak; Kim, Ki-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated early and long-term results after heart transplantation (HTPL). Methods One hundred five consecutive patients (male:female=80:25) who underwent HTPL between 1994 and 2013 were enrolled. Based on the changes in immunosuppressive regimen, the study patients were divided into two groups. Early and long-term clinical outcomes were evaluated and compared between the patients who underwent HTPL before (group E, n=41) and after July 2009 (group L, n=64). The group L patients were older (p<0.001), had higher incidence of hypertension (p=0.001) and chronic kidney disease (p<0.001), and more frequently needed preoperative mechanical ventilation (p=0.027) and mechanical circulatory support (p=0.014) than the group E patients. Results Overall operative mortality was 3.8%, and postoperative morbidities included acute kidney injury (n=31), respiratory complications (n=16), reoperation for bleeding (n=15) and wound complications (n=10). There were no significant differences in early results except acute kidney injury between group E and group L patients. Overall survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years were 83.8%, 67.7%, and 54.9%, respectively, with no significant difference between the two patient groups. Rejection-free rates at 1 and 5 years were 63.0% and 59.7%, respectively; rates were significantly higher in group L than in group E (p<0.001). Conclusion Despite increased preoperative comorbidities, group L patients showed similar early and long-term outcomes and significantly higher rejection-free rates when compared with group E patients. PMID:27525232

  6. Desoximetasone--a new topical corticosteroid: short- and long-term experiences.

    PubMed

    Savin, R C

    1978-03-01

    A new potent topical corticosteroid, desoximetasone, was clinically evaluated in several hundred patients with steroid-responsive dermatoses. Both short-term and long-term comparative studies showed desoximetasone emollient cream (0.25 percent) to be highly effective. Studies comparing betamethasone valerate cream C0. p1 percent) with desoximetasone emollient cream (0.25 percent) showed the new topical steroid to be clinically superior in the relief of moderate and severe inflammatory manifestations of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. In addition, desoximetasone was found to be safe, well tolerated, and accepted by the patients. PMID:344003

  7. Just another day in a woman's life? Women's long-term perceptions of their first birth experience. Part I.

    PubMed

    Simkin, P

    1991-12-01

    This study explored and analyzed the long-term impact of the birth experience on a group of 20 women from the natural childbirth culture of the late 1960s and early 1970s. The data consisted of 1) a structured labor and birth questionnaire and an unstructured account of their experiences written shortly after their babies were born; 2) a similar questionnaire and account written 15 to 20 years later; and 3) a transcribed one- to one-and-a-half-hour interview during which each woman's memories and perceptions were discussed. Women reported that their memories were vivid and deeply felt. Those with highest long-term satisfaction ratings thought that they accomplished something important, that they were in control, and that the birth experience contributed to their self-confidence and self-esteem. They had positive memories of their doctors' and nurses' words and actions. These positive associations were not reported among women with lower satisfaction ratings. PMID:1764149

  8. Long-term outcome of patients with POEMS syndrome: An update of the Mayo Clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Kourelis, Taxiarchis V; Buadi, Francis K; Kumar, Shaji K; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Dingli, David; Go, Ronald S; Kapoor, Prashant; Lust, John A; Hayman, Suzanne R; Hwa, Yi; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Russell, Stephen J; Lin, Yi; Leung, Nelson; Kyle, Robert A; Gonsalves, Wilson I; Dispenzieri, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, a number of changes have occurred in the diagnostic evaluation, management, and long-term follow-up of patients with POEMS syndrome at our institution. This study included 291 patients with POEMS syndrome diagnosed at the Mayo Clinic between 1974 and 2014. Patients diagnosed after 2003 had more features of the syndrome identified at diagnosis and were more likely to receive an autologous transplant (49% versus 8%, P < 0.0001) and to have achieved a hematologic complete response (CR) to treatment (41% vs 25%, P < 0.0001). With 2273 person-years of follow-up, 10-year overall survival (OS) was 62% (95% C.I., 56%, 67%). On multivariate analysis, the three factors associated with superior OS were younger age (RR 0.98 [0.96-1.00]), albumin greater-than 3.2 g/dL (RR 0.5 [0.32-0.89]) and attainment of complete hematologic response (RR 0.4 [0.2, 0.9]). This study confirms the very good long-term outcomes of patients with POEMS syndrome and identifies two new prognostic risk factors: albumin at diagnosis and attainment of complete hematologic response. Am. J. Hematol. 91:585-589, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26972803

  9. Parental experiences before and long-term after their children's hemispherotomy - A population-based qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ozanne, Anneli; Verdinelli, Cecilia; Olsson, Ingrid; H Graneheim, Ulla; Malmgren, Kristina

    2016-07-01

    Severe childhood epilepsy has an impact on the whole family. For selected children, hemispherotomy is the treatment of choice. The aim of this study was to explore parents' experiences before and after hemispherotomy as reported at a long-term follow-up and their view on received information and support. This was a population-based qualitative descriptive study, using qualitative content analysis of interviews. Seven to eighteen years after hemispherotomy, parents of twenty-one operated children were interviewed about the family life situation, expectations before surgery, and support and information before and after surgery. Before surgery, the theme 'Living in a chaotic bubble' illuminates how parents felt: the family lived in isolation, they felt both dissatisfaction and satisfaction about support and information, and they experienced that surgery was a question about life or death. After surgery, the theme 'Hovering between success and disaster' illuminates how parents hovered between happiness if the surgery was successful and sadness about e.g., complications and behavior problems. They experienced both excellent and poor support, in hospital and at rehabilitation. Regardless of all concerns, parents were satisfied that the child had received an operation. The hemispherotomies were successful and generated a better life situation. However, in order to cope, families need support and information throughout the whole process, from the onset of epilepsy and for a long time after surgery. If the child has behavior problems, an assessment should be made before surgery in order for the families to get adequate support. The specialist team needs to be involved as early as possible and follow the families for several years after surgery. Focus should be on the whole family, if needed including grandparents; family-centered care might be relevant for this patient group. PMID:27176878

  10. Contrasting effects of insect and molluscan herbivores on plant diversity in a long-term field experiment.

    PubMed

    Allan, Eric; Crawley, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    The importance of invertebrate herbivores in regulating plant communities remains unclear, due to the absence of long-term exclusion experiments. An experiment in an English grassland involving long-term exclusions of insect and mollusc herbivores, along with rabbit fencing, showed strong, but opposing, effects of the invertebrate herbivores. Plant species richness declined and biomass increased following insect exclusion, due to increased dominance by a grass species, whereas mollusc exclusion led to increased herbs abundance. The two herbivores had a compensatory interaction: molluscs had no effects in the absence of insects and large insect effects depended on the absence of molluscs. The effects of invertebrate exclusion became apparent only after 8 years, and would have been seriously underestimated in shorter studies. Our results suggest that theorists and conservation managers need to shift from their historic focus on vertebrate herbivory, to a recognition that invertebrates can be equally important drivers of plant community structure. PMID:22017580

  11. Construction and performance of a long-term earthen liner experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, Keros; Krapac, Ivan G.

    1990-01-01

    In land burial schemes, compacted soil barriers with low hydraulic conductivity are commonly used in cover and liner systems to control the movement of liquids and prevent groundwater contamination. An experimental liner measuring 8 x 15 x 0.9 m was constructed with design criteria and equipment to simulate construction of soil liners built at waste disposal facilities. The surface of the liner was flooded with a 29.5 cm deep pond on April 12, 1988. Infiltration of water into the liner has been monitored for two years using 4 large-ring (1.5 m OD) and 32 small-ring (0.28 m OD) infiltrometers, and a water-balance that accounts for total infiltration and evaporation. Average long-term infiltration fluxes based on two years of monitoring are 5.8 x 10-9 cm/s, 6.0 x 10-8 cm/s and 5.6 x 10-8 for the large-ring, small-ring, and water-balance data, respectively. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the liner based on small-ring data, estimated using Darcy's Law and the Green-Ampt Approximation, is 3 x 10-8 and 4 x 10-8 cm/s, respectively. All sets of data indicate that the liner's performance exceed that which is required by the U.S. EPA.

  12. Long-term outcome of pediatric kidney transplantation: A single-center experience from Greece.

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Fotios; Stabouli, Stella; Printza, Nikoleta; Mitsioni, Andromachi; Stefanidis, Constantinos; Miserlis, Grigorios; Dotis, John; Kapogiannis, Anastasios; Georgaki-Angelaki, Helen; Gkogka, Chrysa; Kollios, Konstantinos; Papanikolaou, Vasilios

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric kidney Tx has critically altered the outcome in ESRD pediatric patients. The aims of this study were to determine long-term graft and patient survival in a homogeneous ethnic population. We reviewed the medical charts of pediatric kidney Tx performed between 1990 and 2012 in Greece. Seventy-five kidney Txs were performed from LRD and 62 from DD. The 10- and 20-yr graft survival was higher in LRD Tx compared with DD Tx. Both patient and graft survival at 10 and 20 yr after Tx were similar in LRD Tx from grandparents compared with parents (92.9% vs. 93.4% 20-yr patient survival, 71.4% vs. 78.7% and 57.1% vs. 72.1%, 10- and 20-yr graft survival, respectively). However, there was a decreasing tendency in LRD Tx rates in period 2001-2012 compared with period 1990-2000 (47.1% vs. 62.7%). Risk factors for poor five-yr graft survival were DD Tx, and induction treatment with ALG compared with basiliximab, but their effect attenuated at 10 yr after Tx. In conclusion, Tx from LRD may offer efficient survival outcomes irrespective of donor age, suggesting that even older LRD could be an excellent option for the 1st kidney Tx in children and adolescents. PMID:27029484

  13. Long-term stability of time domain reflectometry measurements in a multi-year field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schofield, T. G.

    2001-01-01

    Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurements from a field demonstration of landfill covers at Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA were analyzed in an attempt to determine the long-term stability of the TDR system. The demonstration was comprised of four landfill cover designs: Conventional, EPA, Loam Capillary Barrier and Clay Loam Capillary Barrier with each design replicated at slopes of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 25% for a total of 16 plots. A total of 212 locations in the plots were instrumented with 2 rod TDR pairs and each location was interrogated at 7 hour intervals for seven years using an automated and multiplexed measurement system. The TDRs were located in a variety of soil types and at differing depths from the soil surface. Measurements from differing soil types were considered separately and seasonal changes in soil water content due to precipitation were minimized by annual averaging. Statistical and graphical analyses were performed to assess the stability of the measurements over the life of the demonstration.

  14. Dual institution experience of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma reveals excellent long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Starr, Adam G; Caimi, Paolo F; Fu, PingFu; Massoud, Mira R; Meyerson, Howard; Hsi, Eric D; Mansur, David B; Cherian, Sheen; Singh, Arun D; Cooper, Brenda W; De Lima, Marcos J G; Lazarus, Hillard M; Gerson, Stanton L; Jagadeesh, Deepa; Smith, Mitchell R; Dean, Robert M; Pohlman, Brad L; Hill, Brian T; William, Basem M

    2016-05-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) is a B-cell lymphoma arising from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). The disease characteristics, clinical course and treatment vary considerably based on site of involvement. Because long-term outcome data for EMZL are limited, we sought to describe the clinical details of a large number of patients with EMZL evaluated at the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center over a 12-year period to identify prognostic markers including the impact of site of involvement. We identified 211 cases of EMZL involving the stomach (30%), ocular adnexa (19%), lungs (16%) and intestines (9%). Initial treatment included antibiotics (18%), radiation (21%), rituximab (20%), chemotherapy (3%), rituximab + chemotherapy (7%), surgery (17%) or observation (8%). After a median follow-up of 44·3 months (range 2·2-214·9), median progression-free survival (PFS) was 68·2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 54·5-111·3) and median overall survival (OS) has not been reached. Age >60 years, elevated lactate dehydrogenase level (LDH), ≥4 lymph node groups involvement, and high follicular lymphoma international prognostic index (FLIPI) were associated with inferior PFS/OS. In summary, patients with EMZL have excellent prognosis with median OS in excess of 10 years. Age, elevated LDH, advanced disease, and high FLIPI score are associated with worse outcomes. PMID:26953041

  15. Climate Effects and Feedback Structure Determining Weed Population Dynamics in a Long-Term Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Mauricio; Navarrete, Luis; González-Andujar, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Pest control is one of the areas in which population dynamic theory has been successfully applied to solve practical problems. However, the links between population dynamic theory and model construction have been less emphasized in the management and control of weed populations. Most management models of weed population dynamics have emphasized the role of the endogenous process, but the role of exogenous variables such as climate have been ignored in the study of weed populations and their management. Here, we use long-term data (22 years) on two annual weed species from a locality in Central Spain to determine the importance of endogenous and exogenous processes (local and large-scale climate factors). Our modeling study determined two different feedback structures and climate effects in the two weed species analyzed. While Descurainia sophia exhibited a second-order feedback and low climate influence, Veronica hederifolia was characterized by a first-order feedback structure and important effects from temperature and rainfall. Our results strongly suggest the importance of theoretical population dynamics in understanding plant population systems. Moreover, the use of this approach, discerning between the effect of exogenous and endogenous factors, can be fundamental to applying weed management practices in agricultural systems and to controlling invasive weedy species. This is a radical change from most approaches currently used to guide weed and invasive weedy species managements. PMID:22272362

  16. Long-Term Outcomes and Complications in Patients With Craniopharyngioma: The British Columbia Cancer Agency Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Andrea C.; Howard, A. Fuchsia; Nichol, Alan; Sidhu, Keerat; Abdulsatar, Farah; Hasan, Haroon; Goddard, Karen

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: We report long-term outcomes and complications of craniopharyngioma patients referred to our institution. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 2010, 123 consecutive patients received primary treatment for craniopharyngioma in British Columbia and were referred to our institution. The median age was 30 years (range, 2-80 years). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated primarily with subtotal resection (STR) and radiation therapy (RT), 28% with STR alone, 15% with gross total resection, 11% with cyst drainage (CD) alone, 5% with CD+RT, and 2% with RT alone. Eight percent of patients received intracystic bleomycin (ICB) therapy. Results: Median follow-up was 8.9 years, and study endpoints were reported at 10 years. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier progression-free survival (PFS) was 46%. Patients treated with STR+RT or CD+RT had the highest PFS (82% and 83%, respectively). There were no significant differences between PFS after adjuvant versus salvage RT (84% vs 74%, respectively; P=.6). Disease-specific survival (DSS) was 88%, and overall survival (OS) was 80%. Primary treatment modality did not affect DSS or OS, while older age was a negative prognostic factor for OS but not DSS. Kaplan-Meier rates for visual deterioration, anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, seizure disorder, and cerebrovascular events (CVE) due to treatment, not tumor progression, were 27%, 76%, 45%, 16%, and 11%, respectively. The CVE rate was 29% in patients who received ICB compared to 10% in those who did not (P=.07). Conclusions: We report favorable PFS in patients with craniopharyngioma, especially in those who received RT after surgery. DSS and OS rates were excellent regardless of primary treatment modality. We observed a high incidence of hypopituitarism, visual deterioration, and seizure disorder. Eleven percent of patients experienced CVEs after treatment. There was a suggestion of increased CVE risk in patients treated with ICB.

  17. Long Term Prospective Assessment of Living Kidney Donors: Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Nagib, Ayman Maher; Refaie, Ayman Fathi; Hendy, Yasser Abdelmoniem; Elfawal, Magdy Abass Mohmed; Shokeir, Ahmed Abdelrahman; Bakr, Mohamed Adel; Neamattala, Ahmed Hassan; Hamdy, Ahmed Farouk; Mahmoud, Khaled Mohamed; Ismail, Amani Mostafa; Ghoneim, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Virtually, all studies reporting the outcomes of living kidney donation beyond the first year from donation were retrospective. In this prospective study, the outcome of 81 consecutive living kidney donors was thoroughly evaluated. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological assessments were carried out at predonation (basal), 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after donation. The mean age at time of donation was 37.8 ± 9.8 years and the majority was females (75.3%). The mean BMI increased significantly after donation (P < 0.04). The mean serum creatinine levels (mg/dl) were 0.75 ± 0.14, 1.01 ± 0.22, 0.99 ± 0.21, 0.98 ± 0.20, and 0.94 ± 0.20 (P < 0.0001). Likewise, the mean levels of measured creatinine clearance (mL/min) were 148.8 ± 35.7, 94.7 ± 26.6, 95.5 ± 24.6, 96.7 ± 20.2, and 101.6 ± 26.2 (P < 0.0001). The mean 24 hours urinary protein excretion (gm/dL) were 0.09 ± 0.03, 0.19 ± 0.18, 0.16 ± 0.09, 0.18 ± 0.25, and 0.17 ± 0.12 (P < 0.0001). There were significant increases in the means of the longitudinal and transverse diameters of the remaining kidney over time (P < 0.001). Out of 42 female donors, eleven female donors have got successful postdonation pregnancies. There were no reported surgical complications, either intra- or postoperative. Long-term follow-up is necessary for all living kidney donors through local institutional and world registries. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00813579. PMID:24967244

  18. The reality of returning to work and training: experiences from a long-term unemployment project.

    PubMed

    Juvonen-Posti, Pirjo; Piirainen, Keijo; Kallanranta, Tapani; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka

    2004-09-01

    A project called Pathway-to-Work was carried out in northern Finland between 1995 and 1998. In the course of this project, tailored return-to-work paths were planned for 140 long-term unemployed people with disabilities. The present study, based on that project, had three research objectives: (i) to describe how the participants experienced and defined their opportunities of employment and training at the beginning of the project and how the opportunities were eventually realized; (ii) to form a model of the issues that influenced the participants' decision making on the basis of their descriptions of their life situation; and (iii) to look for elements in the progression of the project that could explain the outcome in terms of the participants' situation in the labour market. The research design was composed of three parts: eight in-depth interviews, a register follow-up, and comparison with a matched control group. Comparative content analysis was used to process the in-depth interviews. The outcome was evaluated according to the following variables: (i) the changes in the participants' labour market situation during the 2-year follow-up; (ii) the changes in the participants' distress level, perceived competence, and sense of coherence during the intervention. We found that the participants had not decided whether to return to work but had left this decision to the professional working on the project. The way participants described their life situations and opportunities made it clear that they placed high expectations on the project. However, although they could realistically estimate their own potential, the labour-market situation was beyond their predictive vision. We conclude that, when targeting services to groups such as described here, more attention should be paid to understanding the clients' behaviour and the social circumstances in which they live. PMID:15319692

  19. Uptake of ferrocyanide in willow and poplar trees in a long term greenhouse experiment.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas; Freese, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Phytoremediation of sites contaminated with iron cyanides can be performed using poplar and willow trees. Poplar and willow trees were grown in potting substrate spiked with ferrocyanide concentrations of up to 2,000 mg kg(-1) for 4 and 8 weeks respectively. Soil solution and leaf tissue of different age were sampled for total cyanide analysis every week. Chlorophyll content in the leaves was determined to quantify cyanide toxicity. Results showed that cyanide in the soil solution of spiked soils differed between treatments and on weekly basis and ranged from 0.5 to 1,200 mg l(-1). The maximum cyanide content in willow and poplar leaves was 518 mg kg(-1) fresh weight (FW) and 148 mg kg(-1) FW respectively. Cyanide accumulated in the leaves increased linearly with increasing cyanide concentration in the soil solution. On the long term, significantly more cyanide was accumulated in old leaf tissue than in young tissue. Chlorophyll content in poplar decreased linearly with increasing cyanide in the soil solution and in leaf tissue, and over time. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for poplars after 4 weeks of exposure was 173 mg l(-1) and for willow after 8 weeks of exposure-768 mg l(-1). Results show that willows tolerate much more cyanide and over a longer period than poplars, making them very appropriate for remediating sites highly contaminated with iron cyanides. PMID:25477029

  20. Long-term cyclic intravenous iloprost in systemic sclerosis: clinical experience from a single center.

    PubMed

    Casigliani Rabl, S; Della Rossa, A; Pepe, P; D'Ascanio, A; Mosca, M; Di Vita, A; Bombardieri, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate response to therapy in 73 patients affected by systemic sclerosis (SSc) who underwent long-term cyclic treatment with intravenous iloprost for peripheral vascular involvement (average duration of treatment 54.12±41.04 months). Seventy-three SSc patients were enrolled. Data were collected by reviewing clinical records and by phone or direct interview. Patients underwent a thorough physical examination at the end of follow up. The incidence of severe vascular manifestations was also assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by Wilcoxon's signed rank test and descriptive statistics using Statview software. In this study cohort, 55 of 73 (75.2%) patients had a history of ischemic digital ulcers (DUs); 28 patients (38.4%) had active DUs at the beginning of treatment. Skin ulcers healed completely in 25 of 28 patients (89.3%) at the end of the first treatment. However, 40 of 55 patients (72.6%) relapsed after an average of 24 months. There was a significant correlation between relapse rate and/or number of ulcers and clinical factors (diffuse subset, changes in results of Allen's test, NT-pro BNP levels). The annual incidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was 2.34 (95%CI: 0.94-4.83) per 100 person years, the rate of gangrene was 2.7%, and no cases of scleroderma renal crisis were recorded. The incidence of PAH and of digital gangrene was higher than that observed in unselected SSc case series. These data suggest that our patients treated with iloprost have a higher vascular involvement than large case series of unselected SSc patients. A number of clinical factors are correlated to the severity of vascular involvement and could have an impact on the response to therapy. The clinical significance of these findings requires clarification and further investigation is needed. PMID:22842299

  1. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children Suffering From Epilepsy with and without Administration of Long Term Liquid Oral Medication

    PubMed Central

    Bhadravathi, Manjunath Chaluvaiah; Kumar, Adarsh; Narang, Ridhi; Gupta, Ambika; Singh, Harneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sucrose is added as sweetening agent in liquid oral medication (LOM) to mask the acrid taste of medicines which may be potentially cariogenic. Many children under long term LOM therapy for treatment of epilepsy may be susceptible to dental caries. Aim To assess and compare dental caries experience in children under long term liquid oral medication with those not under such medication among 2-12 years old children suffering from epilepsy. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a total of 84 children aged 2–12 years, who were suffering from epilepsy receiving liquid oral medication for more than 3 months were selected (study group) and for comparison 106 children of similar age group and disease but on other forms of medication were included as control group. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT/DMFS (Decayed, Missing, Fillled Teeth / Surfaces), dmft/dft and dmfs/dfs indices. One-way ANOVA and t-test were used with p-value fixed at 0.05. Univariate logistic regression was applied. Results Children on LOM were at increased risk of dental caries than those with other forms of medications (OR: 2.55, 95% CI (2.37-4.15) p=0.000, HS). Caries prevalence was high in the study group (76.1%) when compared to control group (55.6%). Conclusion Long term use of liquid medicines containing sucrose is a risk factor for dental caries among children with epilepsy. PMID:27504416

  2. Long term outcomes of cardiac transplant for immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis: The Mayo Clinic experience

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Martha; Gertz, Morie; McCurdy, Arleigh; Roeker, Lindsey; Kyle, Robert; Kushwaha, Sudhir; Daly, Richard; Dearani, Joseph; Rodeheffer, Richard; Frantz, Robert; Lacy, Martha; Hayman, Suzanne; McGregor, Christopher; Edwards, Brooks; Dispenzieri, Angela

    2016-01-01

    rejection at a median of 1.8 mo post OHT (range 0.4 to 4.9 mo); only one patient died of rejection. Median survival of seven patients who achieved a complete hematologic response to either chemotherapy or autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was 10.8 years. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that long term survival after heart transplant is feasible in AL patients with limited extra-cardiac involvement who achieve complete hematologic response. PMID:27358783

  3. Predicting long-term denitrification capacity of sandy aquifers from incubation experiments and sediment properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschenbach, W.; Well, R.

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge about the spatial variability of denitrification rates and the lifetime of denitrification in nitrate-contaminated aquifers is crucial to predict the development of groundwater quality. Therefore, regression models were derived to estimate the measured denitrification capacity of incubated aquifer sediments from initial denitrification rates and several sediment parameters, namely total sulphur, total organic carbon, extractable sulfate, extractable dissolved organic carbon, hot water soluble organic carbon and potassium permanganate labile organic carbon. For this purpose, we incubated aquifer material from two sandy Pleistocene aquifers in Northern Germany under anaerobic conditions in the laboratory using the 15N tracer technique. The measured long-term denitrification capacities ranged from 0.18 to 56.2 mg N kg-1 yr-1. The laboratory incubations exhibited high differences between non-sulphidic and sulphidic aquifer material in both aquifers with respect to all investigated sediment parameters. Denitrification rates and the estimated lifetime of denitrification were higher in the sulphidic samples. Denitrification capacity measured during one year of incubation (Dcap) was predictable from sediment variables within a range of uncertainty of 0.5 to 2 (calculated Dcap/measured Dcap) for aquifer material with a Dcap > 20 mg N kg-1 yr-1. Predictions were poor for samples with lower Dcap like samples from the NO3--bearing groundwater zone, which includes the non-sulphidic samples, from the upper part of both aquifers where Dcap is not sufficient to protect groundwater from anthropogenic NO3- input. Calculation of Dcap from initial denitrification rates was only successful for samples from the NO3--bearing zone, whereas a lag-phase of denitrification in samples from deeper zones of NO3- free groundwater caused imprecise predictions. Our results thus show that Dcap of sandy Pleistocene aquifers can be predicted using a combination of short-term incubation and

  4. Using 31P-NMR to investigate dynamics of soil phosphorus compounds in the Rothamsted Long Term Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Martin; Turner, Ben; Granger, Steve; Hooper, Tony; Darch, Tegan; Hawkins, Jane; Yuan, Huimin; McGrath, Steve

    2015-04-01

    The technique of 31P-NMR spectroscopy has done more to advance the knowledge of phosphorus forms (especially organic phosphorus) in environmental samples than any other method. The technique has advanced such that specific compounds can be identified where previously only broad categories such as orthophosphate monoesters and diesters were distinguishable. The Soil Archive and Long Term Experiments at Rothamsted Research, UK, potentially provides an unequalled opportunity to use this technique to observe changes in soil phosphorus compounds with time and under different treatments, thereby enhancing our understanding of phosphorus cycling and use by plants. Some of the earliest work using this technique on soils was carried out by Hawkes et al. in 1984 and this used soils from two of the oldest Rothamsted Long Term Experiments, namely Highfield and Park Grass. Here we revisit the samples studied in this early work and reanalyse them using current methodology to demonstrate how the 31P-NMR technique has advanced. We also present results from a study on the phosphorus chemistry in soils along the Hoosfield acid strip (Rothamsted, UK), where a pH gradient from 3.7 to 7.8 occurs in a single soil with little variation in total phosphorus (mean ± standard deviation 399 ± 27 mg P kg-1). Soil pH was found to be an important factor in determining the proportion of phosphomonoesters and phosphodiesters in the soil organic phosphorus, although total organic phosphorus concentrations were a relatively consistent proportion of the total soil phosphorus (36 ± 2%) irrespective of soil pH. Key words. 31P-NMR, soil organic phosphorus, long term experiments, Hoosfield acid strip

  5. Ethics consultation in pediatrics: long-term experience from a pediatric oncology center.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Liza-Marie; Church, Christopher L; Metzger, Monika; Baker, Justin N

    2015-01-01

    There is little information about the content of ethics consultations (EC) in pediatrics. We sought to describe the reasons for consultation and ethical principles addressed during EC in pediatrics through retrospective review and directed content analysis of EC records (2000-2011) at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. Patient-based EC were highly complex and often involved evaluation of parental decision making, particularly consideration of the risks and benefits of a proposed medical intervention, and the physician's fiduciary responsibility to the patient. Nonpatient consultations provided guidance in the development of institutional policies that would broadly affect patients and families. This is one of the few existing reviews of the content of pediatric EC and indicates that the distribution of ethical issues and reasons for moral distress are different than with adults. Pediatric EC often facilitates complex decision making among multiple stakeholders, and further prospective research is needed on the role of ethics consultation in pediatrics. PMID:25970382

  6. Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Measurements of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Chemistry and Long-Term Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Bernath, Peter; Boone, Chris; Nassar, Ray

    2007-01-01

    We highlight chemistry and trend measurement results from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) which is providing precise middle troposphere to the lower thermosphere measurements with a 0.02/cm resolution Fourier transform spectrometer covering 750-4400/cm

  7. Chernozem aggregate waterstability loss investigation in a long-term bare fallow experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyeva, N. A.; Milanovskiy, E. Y.

    2009-04-01

    POM (0.5%). In analytical aspect of the research possibility to describe soil components as a whole through parameters of soil particles and SOM characteristics can be realized: a) profile distribution of the average Corg content over soil layer mass is closely fitted by the sum (exp1+exp2+C), indicating particular OM pools; b) Corg content (~2%) of stable to long-term degradation sorbed SOM is set in the power parameter of experimental curve SSA (Corg) for chernozem under grassland. c) fractal dimension discontinuities correspond to classification boundaries of colloidal, clay, silt and sand particles (0.5; 2; 20 mkm); d) qualitative change of hydrophobic properties is described by one parameter presumably related to structure of high molecular HS.

  8. Space station experiment definition: Long-term cryogenic fluid storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jetley, R.L.; Scarlotti, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    The conceptual design of a space station Technology Development Mission (TDM) experiment to demonstrate and evaluate cryogenic fluid storage and transfer technologies is presented. The experiment will be deployed on the initial operational capability (IOC) space station for a four-year duration. It is modular in design, consisting of three phases to test the following technologies: passive thermal technologies (phase 1), fluid transfer (phase 2), and active refrigeration (phase 3). Use of existing hardware was a primary consideration throughout the design effort. A conceptual design of the experiment was completed, including configuration sketches, system schematics, equipment specifications, and space station resources and interface requirements. These requirements were entered into the NASA Space Station Mission Data Base. A program plan was developed defining a twelve-year development and flight plan. Program cost estimates are given.

  9. Ethics Consultation in Pediatrics: Long-Term Experience from a Pediatric Oncology Center

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Liza-Marie; Church, Christopher L.; Metzger, Monika; Baker, Justin N.

    2015-01-01

    There is little information about the content of ethics consultations (EC) in pediatrics. We sought to describe the reasons for consultation and ethical principles addressed during EC in pediatrics through retrospective review and directed content analysis of EC records (2000–2011) at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. Patient-based EC were highly complex and often involved evaluation of parental decision making, particularly consideration of the risks and benefits of a proposed medical intervention, and the physician’s fiduciary responsibility to the patient. Non-patient consultations provided guidance in the development of institutional policies that would broadly affect patients and families. This is one of the few existing reviews of the content of pediatric EC and indicates the distribution of ethical issues and reasons for moral distress are different than with adults. Pediatric EC often facilitates complex decision-making among multiple stakeholders and further prospective research is needed on the role of ethics consultation in pediatrics. PMID:25970382

  10. Long term experience with semi-conductive glaze high voltage post insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.C.; Maney, J.W.; Szilagyi, Z. )

    1990-01-01

    Insulators using semi-conductive glaze have long been known for their superior contamination performance. Early glazes for this type however were not stable and successful use of semi-conductive glazed porcelain insulators was delayed many years until tin-antimony oxide glazes were developed. Service experience of eighteen years is now available for line and station post insulators with this type of glaze. Based on this experience, the aging characteristics of tin-antimony oxide semi-conductive glazes are described and quantified. Several different applications of these insulators are also described.

  11. The Black Professor Abroad: Long-Term Teaching Experiences in Foreign Lands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The experiences of African American professors reach back nearly 150 years beginning with their pioneering efforts to educate Africans in Liberia. With the gradual racial integration of the American professoriate in the post-World War II era and the redoubled effort of the federal government and private agencies, along with the support of colleges…

  12. Rapid quantification of soilborne pathogen communities in wheat-based long-term field experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional isolation and quantification of inoculum density is difficult for most soilborne pathogens. Quantitative PCR methods have been developed to rapidly identify and quantify many of these pathogens using a single DNA extract from soil. Rainfed experiments operated continuously for up to 84 y...

  13. Early Experiences Can Alter Gene Expression and Affect Long-Term Development. Working Paper #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010

    2010-01-01

    New scientific research shows that environmental influences can actually affect whether and how genes are expressed. Thus, the old ideas that genes are "set in stone" or that they alone determine development have been disproven. In fact, scientists have discovered that early experiences can determine how genes are turned on and off and even…

  14. Adult-Age Inflammatory Pain Experience Enhances Long-Term Pain Vigilance in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Guang; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous animal studies have illustrated a modulatory effect of neonatal pain experience on subsequent pain-related behaviors. However, the relationship between chronic pain status in adulthood and future pain perception remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, we investigated the effects of inflammatory pain experience on subsequent formalin-evoked pain behaviors and fear conditioning induced by noxious stimulation in adult rats. Our results demonstrated an increase of the second but not the first phase of formalin-induced pain behaviors in animals with a history of inflammatory pain that have recovered. Similarly, rats with persistent pain experience displayed facilitated acquisition and prolonged retention of pain-related conditioning. These effects of prior pain experience on subsequent behavior were prevented by repeated morphine administration at an early stage of inflammatory pain. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that chronic pain diseases, if not properly and promptly treated, may have a long-lasting impact on processing and perception of environmental threats. This may increase the susceptibility of patients to subsequent pain-related disorders, even when chronic pain develops in adulthood. These data highlight the importance of treatment of chronic pain at an early stage. PMID:22574223

  15. The Long-Term Effects of War Experiences on Children's Depression in the Republic of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brajsa-Zganec, A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The aim of the study was to investigate whether different levels of depressive symptoms in early adolescent boys and girls could be predicted on the basis of war experiences, perceived available social support (instrumental support, support to self-esteem, belonging and acceptance) and extraversion. Methods:: The sample consisted of…

  16. Mixtures of Uncaria and Tabebuia extracts are potentially chemopreventive in CBA/Ca mice: a long-term experiment.

    PubMed

    Budán, Ferenc; Szabó, István; Varjas, Tímea; Nowrasteh, Ghodratollah; Dávid, Tamás; Gergely, Péter; Varga, Zsuzsa; Molnár, Kornélia; Kádár, Balázs; Orsós, Zsuzsa; Kiss, István; Ember, István

    2011-04-01

    A long-term experimental animal model was developed by our research group for the evaluation of potential chemopreventive effects. The inhibitory effects of agents on carcinogen (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced molecular epidemiological biomarkers, in this case the expression of key onco/suppressor genes were investigated. The expression pattern of c-myc, Ha-ras, Bcl-2, K-ras protooncogene and p53 tumour suppressor gene were studied to elucidate early carcinogenic and potential chemopreventive effects. The consumption of so-called Claw of Dragon tea (CoD™ tea) containing the bark of Uncaria guianensis, Cat's Claw (Uncaria sp. U. tomentosa) and Palmer trumpet-tree (Tabebuia sp. T. avellanedae) was able to decrease the DMBA-induced onco/suppressor gene overexpression in a short-term animal experiment. In a following study CBA/Ca mice were treated with 20 mg/kg bw DMBA intraperitoneally (i.p.) and the expression patterns of onco/suppressor genes were examined at several time intervals. According to the examined gene expression patterns in this long-term experiment the chemopreventive effect of CoD™ tea consumption could be confirmed. PMID:20799345

  17. Analyzing fertilizer-induced dynamics of soluble organic matter composition in soils from long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbrock, Ruth; Gerke, Horst, H.

    2016-04-01

    Fertilization and soil management can affect soil organic matter. However, it is unclear how amount and composition of SOM will be changed by mineral and organic fertilization. The objective of this study was to test the applicability of infrared spectroscopy for analyzing management-induced impacts on OM composition. Ap horizon samples were collected from the long term-field experiments at Bad Lauchstädt (loam), Groß Kreutz and Müncheberg (loamy sand) of plots fertilized with farmyard manure (FYM), farmyard manure plus mineral nitrogen (FYM+N), and mineral nitrogen only (N), and an unfertilized Control plot. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to analyze SOM, hot water soluble (OM-HW) and sodium pyrophosphate soluble (OM-PY) organic matter fractions. The OM composition was evaluated in terms of the ratio between absorption band intensities in FTIR. The soluble OM fractions of FYM had larger C=O/C-O-C ratios as compared to N and Control. While the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of OM-PY from FYM plots was larger, it was smaller for the N plots as compared to that of the Control at all sites. The results allowed identifying fertilization-induced long-term dynamics in (i) the OM composition and (ii) the CEC and the potential wettability of SOM and OM fractions. The OM-PY fraction could be used to identify and characterize the long-term changes in organic matter composition. For a more quantitative analysis, however, more replicate samples and a seasonal differentiation would be required to separate between shorter- and longer-term changes.

  18. Long term temperature sensitivity of soil carbon pools in a prairie warming experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Brennan, A. L.; Pendall, E.

    2012-12-01

    The temperature sensitivity of microbial respiration fluxes of CO2 from soil is a critical determinant of soil carbon stocks in a warming climate. While short-term effects of temperature on soil microbial metabolism are well known, the effects of warming on longer-lived soil carbon pools and under the altered substrate conditions that result from warming are less well understood, and critical to predicting future soil carbon stocks. We used a combination of carbon isotopes and experimental treatments to examine the temperature sensitivity of soil C pools of different ages. We sampled soils from the Wyoming Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment, where addition of a carbon isotope tracer in elevated CO2 plots allowed us to separate the effect of temperature on respiration of C fixed prior to the experiment (> 5 years old) from carbon fixed more recently. We incubated soils at three temperatures in the laboratory to compare the temperature sensitivity of soil carbon pools from a combination of field treatments; vegetated vs. non-vegetated, and field warmed vs. ambient temperature. For the vegetated treatment, C residing in soil for at least 5 years (fixed prior to the experiment) contributed less than 10% of the total CO2 flux, with the majority of CO2 coming from soil C deposited more recently. However, pre-experiment C was about twice as temperature sensitive as newer C. In contrast, there was no difference in the temperature sensitivity of pre-experiment and younger C from the non-vegetated plots, where application of herbicide prevented new plant inputs for 4 growing seasons previous. A field warming treatment allowed us to investigate the effect of labile C depletion on temperature sensitivity. Specifically, field warmed soils were more substrate-depleted, with lower CO2 fluxes, and ~2/3 of respiration coming from pre-experiment C, compared to ~1/4 from the ambient temperature control. Despite the relative depletion of labile substrate

  19. Long-term experiments to investigate irreversibility in sorption of pesticides to soil.

    PubMed

    Suddaby, L A; Beulke, S; van Beinum, W; Oliver, R G; Kuet, S; Brown, C D

    2016-11-01

    Experiments investigated irreversibility in pesticide sorption to soil. Sorption behaviour under abiotic conditions was quantified for chlorotoluron, prometryn and hexaconazole in three soils over periods of up to 274 days. An isotope-exchange procedure was used whereby sorption of (12)C- and (14)C-pesticide isotopes in shaken suspensions of three soils (56-168 days shaking) was followed by substitution of the isotopes in the liquid phase and a 14-day exchange phase. This was followed by forced isotope exchange where the sorbed (14)C material was exchanged by adding an excess of non-radiolabelled compound. Experiments were concluded with solvent extraction and soil combustion to determine remaining radioactivity. Under conditions of continuous shaking, the pesticide-soil systems took around four months to approach sorption equilibrium, resulting in strong asymmetry between the profiles of exchange for isotopes of all three compounds. Physically entrapped residues were released back into solution under the steep concentration gradient of forced isotope exchange and small amounts of radioactivity were still being released at the termination of the experiment. The profiles of exchange did not deviate markedly from ideal behaviour based on the assumption that sorption is fully reversible. Whilst the timescales for release of sorbed residues back into solution were very long, soil combustion at study termination only yielded <1-2% of applied radioactivity; this confirms that sorption processes under abiotic soil conditions were overwhelmingly reversible for this set of compounds and soils. PMID:27479454

  20. Long-term effects of the Moving to Opportunity residential mobility experiment on crime and delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Sciandra, Matthew; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Duncan, Greg J.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Katz, Lawrence F.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Kling, Jeffrey R.; Ludwig, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Using data from a randomized experiment, to examine whether moving youth out of areas of concentrated poverty, where a disproportionate amount of crime occurs, prevents involvement in crime. Methods We draw on new administrative data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Moving to Opportunity (MTO) experiment. MTO families were randomized into an experimental group offered a housing voucher that could only be used to move to a low-poverty neighborhood, a Section 8 housing group offered a standard housing voucher, and a control group. This paper focuses on MTO youth ages 15–25 in 2001 (n = 4,643) and analyzes intention to treat effects on neighborhood characteristics and criminal behavior (number of violent- and property-crime arrests) through 10 years after randomization. Results We find the offer of a housing voucher generates large improvements in neighborhood conditions that attenuate over time and initially generates substantial reductions in violent-crime arrests and sizable increases in property-crime arrests for experimental group males. The crime effects attenuate over time along with differences in neighborhood conditions. Conclusions Our findings suggest that criminal behavior is more strongly related to current neighborhood conditions (situational neighborhood effects) than to past neighborhood conditions (developmental neighborhood effects). The MTO design makes it difficult to determine which specific neighborhood characteristics are most important for criminal behavior. Our administrative data analyses could be affected by differences across areas in the likelihood that a crime results in an arrest. PMID:24348277

  1. The Messenger Matters: Teacher Research Experiences and Effective, Long-term Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, K.; Warburton, J.; Larson, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, an NSF-Funded program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the US, matches K-12 teachers with researchers for 2-6 week hands on research experiences in the polar regions. During their teacher research experience, teachers and researchers in the field communicate widely with students and members of the public online through teacher journals, photo galleries, interactive discussion forums, multimedia resources, and real-time live events that connect the science of the Arctic or Antarctic to students and the public around the world. Due to the exciting nature of field-based polar science and the novelty of teacher participation, PolarTREC creates a natural pathway for information—from scientists to students and the general public. Initial data from the PolarTREC evaluation indicates that researchers viewed the dissemination activities of PolarTREC as an essential outreach activity allowing them to meet broader impact objectives of their project. Many researchers noted that conducting outreach through PolarTREC was “easy,” and that it “really increased our public image and bridged the separation between science and the public at large.” Although the immediate outreach activities related to the field experience are valuable, the lasting impacts of PolarTREC are related to the professional development received by the teachers through their participation. Many K-12 teachers, in both undergraduate and graduate education, have little opportunity to actually conduct inquiry-based science. The curriculum at this level consists of primarily memorizing facts and conducting contrived experiments (Michaels et al, 2008). After being embedded in an actual research project with professional scientists, participating teachers reported significant increases in their knowledge of the polar regions and improvements in their ability to teach pertinent science concepts. In particular, teachers had a better

  2. A Smart Wirelessly Powered Homecage for Long-Term High-Throughput Behavioral Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byunghun; Kiani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    A wirelessly powered homecage system, called the EnerCage-HC, that is equipped with multicoil wireless power transfer, closed-loop power control, optical behavioral tracking, and a graphic user interface is presented for longitudinal electrophysiology and behavioral neuroscience experiments. The EnerCage-HC system can wirelessly power a mobile unit attached to a small animal subject and also track its behavior in real-time as it is housed inside a standard homecage. The EnerCage-HC system is equipped with one central and four overlapping slanted wire-wound coils with optimal geometries to form three- and four-coil power transmission links while operating at 13.56 MHz. Utilizing multicoil links increases the power transfer efficiency (PTE) compared with conventional two-coil links and also reduces the number of power amplifiers to only one, which significantly reduces the system complexity, cost, and heat dissipation. A Microsoft Kinect installed 90 cm above the homecage localizes the animal position and orientation with 1.6-cm accuracy. Moreover, a power management ASIC, including a high efficiency active rectifier and automatic coil resonance tuning, was fabricated in a 0.35-μm 4M2P standard CMOS process for the mobile unit. The EnerCage-HC achieves a max/min PTE of 36.3%/16.1% at the nominal height of 7 cm. In vivo experiments were conducted on freely behaving rats by continuously delivering 24 mW to the mobile unit for >7 h inside a standard homecage. PMID:26257586

  3. Long-term functional outcomes after bladder exstrophy repair: A single, low-volume centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Alsowayan, Ossamah; Capolicchio, John Paul; Jednak, Roman; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we present our experience managing bladder exstrophy (BE) in a low-volume centre over 24 years. Methods: Charts of patients with BE between 1990 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with BE closure and ≥5 years followup were included. BE closure was carried out in the first two days of life using either complete primary repair (CPRE) or modern-staged repair (MSRE). Daytime urinary continence (UC) was evaluated by the age of five years. Patients were considered continent if completely dry for ≥3 hours using no or one pad/day. Incontinent patients with bladder capacity (BC) ≥100 ml underwent bladder neck reconstruction (BNR) and bilateral ureteric reimplantation (BUR), while patients with BC <100ml underwent simultaneous augmentation cystoplasty (ACP). Results: Sixteen (16) patients met our inclusion criteria with a mean followup time of 18±5 years. Ten (10) underwent CPRE, while six underwent MSRE. Four surgeons were involved in patients’ management. Two surgeons had previous experience in BE surgery while working in other institutions. Complications included dehiscence in five patients, vesicocutanous fistula in three and breakthrough UTI in eight. Continence was achieved in 15/16 patients: two after BE closure only, seven with BNR, and six who required ACP and BNR. Conclusions: Despite the small number of patients and the reterospective nature of the study, some observations are noteworthy. Although continence rate post-primary BE closure was initially low, it rose to 93.8% after auxiliary continence procedures. This might be at the cost of urethral voiding, which was achieved in 60% of patients. Our small cohort did not show clear advantage of CPRE vs. MSRE. Our outcomes may not be different from high-volume centres due to the fact that two exstrophy-experienced surgeons performed most primary or subsequent surgeries. For this reason, we recommend assigning designated centres for BE repair for both new and repeat

  4. Long-Term (4 mo) Oxygen Isotope Exchange Experiment between Zircon and Hydrothermal Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Schmitt, A. K.; Lundstrom, C.; Golledge, S.

    2013-12-01

    Knowing oxygen diffusivity in zircon has several critical applications: 1) establishing zircon stability and solubility in hot silica-saturated hydrothermal solutions; 2) deriving metamorphic and magmatic heating timescales from intra-crystal oxygen isotopic gradients; 3) assessing the survivability of oxygen isotopic signatures in Hadean zircons. We report results of a microanalytical investigation of an isotope exchange experiment using a cold-seal pressure apparatus at 850°C and 500 MPa over 4 months duration. Natural zircon, quartz and rutile were sealed with a silica-rich solution doped with 18-O, D, 7-Li and 10-B in a gold capsule. The diffusion length-scales were examined by depth profiling using time-of-flight (TOF) and high-sensitivity dynamic secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Starting materials had distinct and homogeneous δ18O: zircon from Mesa Falls tuff of Yellowstone (+3.6‰), rutile from Karelia (-29‰), Bishop Tuff Quartz (+8.4‰), and δ18O doped water (+400‰). Starting material zircon showed invariant 18O/16O during depth profiling. After the 4 month experiment, rutile crystal surfaces displayed etching (100's of nm), while zircon exteriors lacked visible change. Quartz was completely dissolved and reprecipitated in a minor residue. Rutile developed ~2 μm long Fickian diffusion profiles largely consistent with the wet diffusion coefficients for rutile previously reported [1]. Surface U-Pb dating of zircon detected no significant Pb loss from the outermost ~300 nm of the crystal face and returned identical core-face ages. We performed δ18O depth profiling of zircon in two directions. First, forward profiles (crystal rim inwards) by dynamic SIMS (no surface treatment besides Au-coating; Cs+ beam of 20 kV impact energy) showed initially high and decreasing 18O/16O over ~130 nm; TOF-SIMS forward profiles using a 2 kV Cs+ sputter beam and 25 kV Bi3+ primary ions on uncoated zircon surfaces (cleaned for 2 min with HF) yielded

  5. Pulseless electrical activity and successful out-of-hospital resuscitation – long-term survival and quality of life: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of patients successfully resuscitated from pre-hospital cardiac arrest with initial pulseless electrical activity (PEA), because the long-term outcome of these patients is unknown. Survival, neurological status one year after cardiac arrest and self-perceived quality of life after five years were assessed. Methods This retrospective study included adult patients resuscitated from PEA between August 2001 and March 2003 in three urban areas in southern Finland. A validated questionnaire was sent to patients while neurological status according to the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) -classification was assessed based on medical database notes recorded during follow-up evaluations. Results Out of 99 included patients in whom resuscitation was attempted, 41 (41%) were successfully resuscitated and admitted to hospital. Ten (10%) patients were discharged from hospital. Seven were alive after one year and six after five years following cardiac arrest. Five of the seven patients alive one year after resuscitation presented with the same functional level as prior to cardiac arrest. Conclusions Patients with initial PEA have been considered to have poor prognosis, but in our material, half of those who survived to hospital discharge were still alive after 5 years. Their self-assessed quality of life seems to be good with only mild to moderate impairments in activities of daily life. PMID:23110711

  6. Short-term versus long-term responses to drought stress: coupling manipulation experiments with gradient studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicolas; Misson, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Water availability is the main factor shaping plants form and function in Mediterranean ecosystems. Understanding the mechanisms that drive plants productivity in drought conditions is crucial in a climate change context. So far, functional relationships between drought stress and leaf physiology has mostly been studied in short term experiments unable to address the potential acclimation in leaf function and the link between short term responses and long term acclimation. Here we hypothesize that the functional relationships between drought and leaf physiology can change under the temporal scale at witch drought is applied. Hence, we measured leaf physiological parameters (gs, gm, Amax, Vcmax Jmax) implicated in the limitation of carbon assimilation on Holm Oak leaves using a design combining 2 contrasting field experiments: (1) a rainfall exclusion experiment simulating a spring extreme drought in order to study short term processes, (2) a natural rainfall gradient (650 mm to 1150 mm) made of 3 plots in order to study long term acclimation. For each experiment we related leaf physiological parameters and their respective limitation to carbon assimilation with predawn leaf water potential as a surrogate of drought stress. Results showed that functional relationships relating gs, Vcmax and Jmax to leaf water potential changed in the total rainfall exclusion, probably because of a strong effect of spring drought on phenology. In addition, trees in the wet plot of the rainfall gradient showed a stronger stomatal conductance decline relative to leaf water potential than trees in the dry plot. We interpret these changes as a result of structural modification at canopy level in the rainfall gradient related to changes in leaf area index (LAI), hydraulic adjustment or fine root/LAI ratio. As a consequence, stomatal limitation of carbon assimilation was stronger in the wet plot than in the dry plot, while total limitation was lower in the dry plot. Water conservation in

  7. Visual experience induces long-term potentiation (LTP) in the primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Sam F.; Bear, Mark F.

    2010-01-01

    Stimulus-specific response potentiation (SRP) is a robust form of experience-dependent plasticity that occurs in primary visual cortex. In awake mice, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) recorded in layer 4 of binocular visual cortex undergo increases in amplitude with repeated presentation of a sinusoidal grating stimulus over days. This effect is highly specific to the experienced stimulus. Here, we test whether the mechanisms of thalamocortical LTP, induced with a theta-burst electrical stimulation (TBS) of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), are sufficient to account for SRP. First, we demonstrate that LTP similarly enhances the amplitude of VEPs, but in a way that generalizes across multiple stimuli, spatial frequencies, and contrasts. Second, we show that LTP occludes the subsequent expression of SRP. Third, we reveal that prior SRP occludes TBS-induced LTP of the VEP evoked by the experienced stimulus, but not by unfamiliar stimuli. Finally, we show that SRP is rapidly and selectively reversed by local cortical infusion of a peptide that inhibits PKMζ, a constitutively active kinase known to maintain NMDA receptor-dependent LTP and memory. Thus, SRP is expressed by the same core mechanisms as LTP. SRP therefore provides a simple assay to assess the integrity of LTP in the intact nervous system. Moreover, the results suggest that LTP of visual cortex, like SRP, can potentially be exploited to improve vision. PMID:21123576

  8. Experiences in long-term evaluation of mercury emission monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chin-Min Cheng; Hung-Ta Lin; Qiang Wang; Chien-Wei Chen; Chia-Wei Wang; Ming-Chung Liu; Chi-Kuan Chen; Wei-Ping Pan

    2008-09-15

    Six mercury continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems provided by two leading mercury (Hg) CEM system manufacturers were tested at five coal combustion utilities. The linearity, response time, day-to-day stability, efficiency of the Hg speciation modules, and ease of use were evaluated by following procedures specified in the Code of Federal Regulation Title 40 Part 75 (40 CFR Part 75). Mercury monitoring results from Hg CEM systems were compared to an EPA-recognized reference method. A sorbent trap sampling system was also evaluated in this study to compare the relative accuracy to the reference method as well as to Hg CEM systems. A conceptual protocol proposed by U.S. EPA (Method 30A) for using an Hg CEM system as the reference method for the Hg relative accuracy (RA) test was also followed to evaluate the workability of the protocol. This paper discusses the operational experience obtained from these field studies and the remaining challenges to overcome while using Hg CEM systems and the sorbent trap method for continuous Hg emission monitoring. 3 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. GAS-GENERATION EXPERIMENTS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE OF TRU WASTES AT WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Felicione, F.S.; Carney, K.P.; Dwight, C.C.; Cummings, D.G.; Foulkrod, L.E.

    2003-02-27

    An experimental investigation was conducted for gas generation in contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes subjected for several years to conditions similar to those expected to occur at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) should the repository eventually become inundated with brine. Various types of actual CH-TRU wastes were placed into 12 corrosion-resistant vessels. The vessels were loosely filled with the wastes, which were submerged in synthetic brine having the same chemical composition as that in the WIPP vicinity. The vessels were also inoculated with microbes found in the Salado Formation at WIPP. The vessels were sealed, purged, and the approximately 750-ml headspace was pressurized with nitrogen gas to approximately 146 atmospheres to create anoxic conditions at the lithostatic pressure expected in the repository were it inundated. The temperature was maintained at the expected 30 C. The test program objective was to measure the quantities and species of gases generate d by metal corrosion, radiolysis, and microbial activity. These data will assist in the specification of the rates at which gases are produced under inundated repository conditions for use in the WIPP Performance Assessment computer models. These experiments were very carefully designed, constructed, instrumented, and performed. Approximately 6-1/2 years of continuous, undisturbed testing were accumulated. Several of the vessels showed significantly elevated levels of generated gases, virtually all of which was hydrogen. One vessel measured over 4.2% hydrogen, by volume. Two other vessels generated well over 1% hydrogen, and another was at nearly 1%. Only small quantities of other gases, principally carbon dioxide, were detected. Gas generation was found to depend strongly on the waste composition. The maximum hydrogen generation occurred in tests containing carbon steel. Average corrosion penetration rates in carbon-steel of up to 2.3 microns per year were deduced. Conversion of

  10. Soil fertility increases with plant species diversity in a long-term biodiversity experiment.

    PubMed

    Dybzinski, Ray; Fargione, Joseph E; Zak, Donald R; Fornara, Dario; Tilman, David

    2008-11-01

    Most explanations for the positive effect of plant species diversity on productivity have focused on the efficiency of resource use, implicitly assuming that resource supply is constant. To test this assumption, we grew seedlings of Echinacea purpurea in soil collected beneath 10-year-old, experimental plant communities containing one, two, four, eight, or 16 native grassland species. The results of this greenhouse bioassay challenge the assumption of constant resource supply; we found that bioassay seedlings grown in soil collected from experimental communities containing 16 plant species produced 70% more biomass than seedlings grown in soil collected beneath monocultures. This increase was likely attributable to greater soil N availability, which had increased in higher diversity communities over the 10-year-duration of the experiment. In a distinction akin to the selection/complementarity partition commonly made in studies of diversity and productivity, we further determined whether the additive effects of functional groups or the interactive effects of functional groups explained the increase in fertility with diversity. The increase in bioassay seedling biomass with diversity was largely explained by a concomitant increase in N-fixer, C4 grass, forb, and C3 grass biomass with diversity, suggesting that the additive effects of these four functional groups at higher diversity contributed to enhance N availability and retention. Nevertheless, diversity still explained a significant amount of the residual variation in bioassay seedling biomass after functional group biomass was included in a multiple regression, suggesting that interactions also increased fertility in diverse communities. Our results suggest a mechanism, the fertility effect, by which increased plant species diversity may increase community productivity over time by increasing the supply of nutrients via both greater inputs and greater retention. PMID:18690478

  11. Recycling vs. stabilisation of soil sugars - a long-term laboratory incubation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basler, A.; Dippold, M.; Helfrich, M.; Dyckmans, J.

    2015-06-01

    Independent of its chemical structure carbon (C) persists in soil for several decades, controlled by stabilisation and recycling. To disentangle the importance of the two factors on the turnover dynamics of soil sugars, an important compound of soil organic matter (SOM), a three year incubation experiment was conducted on a silty loam soil under different types of land use (arable land, grassland and forest) by adding 13C-labeled glucose. The compound specific isotope analysis of soil sugars was used to examine the dynamics of different sugars during incubation. Sugar dynamics were dominated by a pool of high mean residence times (MRT) indicating that recycling plays an important role for sugars. However, this was not substantially affected by soil C content. Six months after label addition the contribution of the label was much higher for microbial biomass than for CO2 production for all examined soils, corroborating that substrate recycling was very effective within the microbial biomass. Two different patterns of tracer dynamics could be identified for different sugars: while fucose (fuc) and mannose (man) showed highest label contribution at the beginning of the incubation with a subsequent slow decline, galactose (gal) and rhamnose (rha) were characterised by slow label incorporation with subsequently constant levels, which indicates that recycling is dominating the dynamics of these sugars. This may correspond to (a) different microbial growing strategies (r and K-strategist) or (b) location within or outside the cell membrane (lipopolysaccharides vs. exopolysaccharides) and thus be subject of different re-use within the microbial food web. Our results show how the microbial community recycles substrate very effectively and that high losses of substrate only occur during initial stages after substrate addition.

  12. Integration of Long term experiments on terrestrial ecosystem in AnaEE-France Research Infrastructure : concept and adding value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanzy, André; Chabbi, Abad; Houot, Sabine; Lafolie, François; Pichot, Christian; Raynal, Hélène; Saint-André, Laurent; Clobert, Jean; Greiveldinger, Lucile

    2015-04-01

    Continental ecosystems represent a critical zone that provide key ecological services to human populations like biomass production, that participate to the regulation of the global biogeochemical cycles and contribute and contribute to the maintenance of air and water quality. Global changes effects on continental ecosystems are likely to impact the fate of humanity, which is thus facing numerous challenges, such as an increasing demand for food and energy, competition for land and water use, or rapid climate warming. Hence, scientific progress in our understanding of the continental critical zone will come from studies that address how biotic and abiotic processes react to global changes. Long term experiments are required to take into account ecosystem inertia and feedback loops and to characterize trends and threshold in ecosystem dynamics. In France, 20 long-term experiments on terrestrial ecosystems are gathered within a single Research Infrastructure: ANAEE-France (http://www.anaee-s.fr), which is a part of AnaEE-Europe (http://www.anaee.com/). Each experiment consist in applying differentiated pressures on different plot over a long period (>20 years) representative of a range of management options. The originality of such infrastructure is a combination of experimental set up and long-term monitoring of simultaneous measurements of key ecosystem variables and parameters through a multi-disciplinary approach and replications of each treatment that improve the statistical strength of the results. The sites encompass gradients of climate conditions, ecosystem complexity and/or management, and can be used for calibration/validation of ecosystem functioning models as well as for the design of ecosystem management strategies. Gathering those experiments in a single research infrastructure is an important issue to enhance their visibility and increase the number of hosting scientific team by offering a range of services. These are: • Access to the ongoing long

  13. A preliminary experiment for the long-term regional reanalysis over Japan assimilating conventional observations with NHM-LETKF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Shin; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Saito, Kazuo; Seko, Hiromu; Kunii, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    Several long-term global reanalyses have been produced by major operational centres and have contributed to the advance of weather and climate researches considerably. Although the horizontal resolutions of these global reanalyses are getting higher partly due to the development of computing technology, they are still too coarse to reproduce local circulations and precipitation realistically. To solve this problem, dynamical downscaling is often employed. However, the forcing from lateral boundaries only cannot necessarily control the inner fields especially in long-term dynamical downscaling. Regional reanalysis is expected to overcome the difficulty. To maintain the long-term consistency of the analysis quality, it is better to assimilate only the conventional observations that are available in long period. To confirm the effectiveness of the regional reanalysis, some assimilation experiments are performed. In the experiments, only conventional observations (SYNOP, SHIP, BUOY, TEMP, PILOT, TC-Bogus) are assimilated with the NHM-LETKF system, which consists of the nonhydrostatic model (NHM) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF). The horizontal resolution is 25 km and the domain covers Japan and its surroundings. Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA-55) is adopted as the initial and lateral boundary conditions for the NHM-LETKF forecast-analysis cycles. The ensemble size is 10. The experimental period is August 2014 as a representative of warm season for the region. The results are verified against the JMA's operational Meso-scale Analysis, which is produced with assimilating observation data including various remote sensing observations using a 4D-Var scheme, and compared with those of the simple dynamical downscaling experiment without data assimilation. Effects of implementation of lateral boundary perturbations derived from an EOF analysis of JRA-55 over the targeted domain are also examined. The comparison

  14. Effect of coronary artery revascularization on in-hospital outcomes and long-term prognoses in acute myocardial infarction patients with prior ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Zhan-Yun; Li, Jing; Hua, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether coronary artery revascularization therapies (CART), including percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), can improve the in-hospital and long-term outcomes for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with prior ischemic stroke (IS). Methods A total of 387 AMI patients with prior IS were enrolled consecutively from January 15, 2005 to December 24, 2011 in this cohort study. All patients were categorized into the CART group (n = 204) or the conservative medications (CM) group (n = 183). In-hospital cardiocerebral events and long-term mortality of the two groups after an average follow-up of 36 months were recorded by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and compared by Logistic regression and the Cox regression model. Results The CART patients were younger (66.5 ± 9.7 years vs. 71.7 ± 9.7 years, P < 0.01), had less non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (11.8% vs. 20.8%, P = 0.016) and more multiple-vascular coronary lesions (50% vs. 69.4%, P = 0.031). The hospitalization incidence of cardiocerebral events in the CART group was 9.3% while 26.2% in the CM group (P < 0.01). CART significantly reduced the risk of in-hospital cardiocerebral events by 65% [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.13–0.92]. By the end of follow-up, 57 cases (41.6%) died in CM group (n = 137) and 24 cases (12.2%) died in CART group (n = 197). Cox regression indicated that CART decreased the long-term mortality by 72% [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.06–0.46], while categorical analysis indicated no significant difference between PCI and CABG. Conclusions CART has a significant effect on improving the in-hospital and long-term prognoses for AMI patients with prior IS. PMID:27168740

  15. The Effects of Stroke Type, Locus, and Extent on Long-Term Outcome of Gait Rehabilitation: The LEAPS Experience.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Stephen E; Dobkin, Bruce; Wu, Samuel S; Pei, Qinglin; Duncan, Pamela W

    2016-08-01

    Background Paresis in stroke is largely a result of damage to descending corticospinal and corticobulbar pathways. Recovery of paresis predominantly reflects the impact on the neural consequences of this white matter lesion by reactive neuroplasticity (mechanisms involved in spontaneous recovery) and experience-dependent neuroplasticity, driven by therapy and daily experience. However, both theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that type of stroke (large vessel distribution/lacunar infarction, hemorrhage), locus and extent of infarction (basal ganglia, right-hemisphere cerebral cortex), and the presence of leukoaraiosis or prior stroke might influence long-term recovery of walking ability. In this secondary analysis based on the 408 participants in the Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke (LEAPS) study database, we seek to address these possibilities. Methods Lesion type, locus, and extent were characterized by the 2 neurologists in the LEAPS trial on the basis of clinical computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. A series of regression models was used to test our hypotheses regarding the effects of lesion type, locus, extent, and laterality on 2- to 12-month change in gait speed, controlling for baseline gait speed, age, and Berg Balance Scale score. Results Gait speed change at 1 year was significantly reduced in participants with basal ganglia involvement and prior stroke. There was a trend toward reduction of gait speed change in participants with lacunar infarctions. The presence of right-hemisphere cortical involvement had no significant impact on outcome. Conclusions Type, locus, and extent of lesion, and the loss of substrate for neuroplastic effect as a result of prior stroke may affect long-term outcome of rehabilitation of hemiparetic gait. PMID:26498434

  16. 42 CFR 412.541 - Method of payment under the long-term care hospital prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... anesthetists or obtained under arrangement, and photocopying and mailing medical records to a QIO, which are... delay in the hospital's preparation and submittal of bills to the intermediary beyond its normal...

  17. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  18. Long-term regional shifts in plant community composition are largely explained by local deer impact experiments.

    PubMed

    Frerker, Katie; Sabo, Autumn; Waller, Donald

    2014-01-01

    The fact that herbivores and predators exert top-down effects to alter community composition and dynamics at lower trophic levels is no longer controversial, yet we still lack evidence of the full nature, extent, and longer-term effects of these impacts. Here, we use results from a set of replicated experiments on the local impacts of white-tailed deer to evaluate the extent to which such impacts could account for half-century shifts in forest plant communities across the upper Midwest, USA. We measured species' responses to deer at four sites using 10-20 year-old deer exclosures. Among common species, eight were more abundant outside the exclosures, seven were commoner inside, and 16 had similar abundances in- and outside. Deer herbivory greatly increased the abundance of ferns and graminoids and doubled the abundance of exotic plants. In contrast, deer greatly reduced tree regeneration, shrub cover (100-200 fold in two species), plant height, plant reproduction, and the abundance of forbs. None of 36 focal species increased in reproduction or grew taller in the presence of deer, contrary to expectations. We compared these results to data on 50-year regional shifts in species abundances across 62 sites. The effects of herbivory by white-tailed deer accurately account for many of the long-term regional shifts observed in species' abundances (R2 = 0.41). These results support the conjecture that deer impacts have driven many of the regional shifts in forest understory cover and composition observed in recent decades. Our ability to link results from shorter-term, local experiments to regional long-term studies of ecological change strengthens the inferences we can draw from both approaches. PMID:25551827

  19. The Stealthy Superbug: the Role of Asymptomatic Enteric Carriage in Maintaining a Long-Term Hospital Outbreak of ST228 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Laurence; Clerc, Olivier; Zanetti, Giorgio; Basset, Patrick; Prod’hom, Guy; Gordon, Nicola C.; Sheppard, Anna E.; Crook, Derrick W.; James, Richard; Thorpe, Harry A.; Feil, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 228 isolates was used to elucidate the origin and dynamics of a long-term outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type 228 (ST228) SCCmec I that involved 1,600 patients in a tertiary care hospital between 2008 and 2012. Combining of the sequence data with detailed metadata on patient admission and movement confirmed that the outbreak was due to the transmission of a single clonal variant of ST228, rather than repeated introductions of this clone into the hospital. We note that this clone is significantly more frequently recovered from groin and rectal swabs than other clones (P < 0.0001) and is also significantly more transmissible between roommates (P < 0.01). Unrecognized MRSA carriers, together with movements of patients within the hospital, also seem to have played a major role. These atypical colonization and transmission dynamics can help explain how the outbreak was maintained over the long term. This “stealthy” asymptomatic colonization of the gut, combined with heightened transmissibility (potentially reflecting a role for environmental reservoirs), means the dynamics of this outbreak share some properties with enteric pathogens such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci or Clostridium difficile. PMID:26787833

  20. Risk Factors for Long-Term Mortality after Hospitalization for Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A 5-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Holter, Jan C.; Ueland, Thor; Jenum, Pål A.; Müller, Fredrik; Brunborg, Cathrine; Frøland, Stig S.; Aukrust, Pål; Husebye, Einar; Heggelund, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background Contributors to long-term mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remain unclear, with little attention paid to pneumonia etiology. We examined long-term survival, causes of death, and risk factors for long-term mortality in adult patients who had been hospitalized for CAP, with emphasis on demographic, clinical, laboratory, and microbiological characteristics. Methods Two hundred and sixty-seven consecutive patients admitted in 2008–2011 to a general hospital with CAP were prospectively recruited and followed up. Patients who died during hospital stay were excluded. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected within 48 hours of admission. Extensive microbiological work-up was performed to establish the etiology of CAP in 63% of patients. Mortality data were obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Cox regression models were used to identify independent risk factors for all-cause mortality. Results Of 259 hospital survivors of CAP (median age 66 years), 79 (30.5%) died over a median of 1,804 days (range 1–2,520 days). Cumulative 5-year survival rate was 72.9% (95% CI 67.4–78.4%). Standardized mortality ratio was 2.90 for men and 2.05 for women. The main causes of death were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), vascular diseases, and malignancy. Independent risk factors for death were the following (hazard ratio, 95% CI): age (1.83 per decade, 1.47–2.28), cardiovascular disease (2.63, 1.61–4.32), COPD (2.09, 1.27–3.45), immunocompromization (1.98, 1.17–3.37), and low serum albumin level at admission (0.75 per 5g/L higher, 0.58–0.96), whereas active smoking was protective (0.32, 0.14–0.74); active smokers were younger than non-smokers (P < 0.001). Microbial etiology did not predict mortality. Conclusions Results largely confirm substantial comorbidity-related 5-year mortality after hospitalization for CAP and the impact of several well-known risk factors for death, and extend

  1. Carbon sequestration strategies for crop- and grasslands evaluated in long-term field experiments in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kätterer, Thomas; Bolinder, Martin; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kirchmann, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Improved management of grass- and croplands is a win-win strategy resulting in both increased soil fertility and carbon sequestration. We quantified the effect of N fertilization, organic amendments and ley-arable rotations versus continuous annual cropping systems on soil carbon stocks by analyzing data from long-term field experiments in Nordic countries. Increasing net primary production was found to be the main driver for higher soil carbon storage. Mineral N fertilization increased soil carbon stocks by about 1-2 kg C ha-1 for each kg of N applied to cropland. Ley-arable rotations, being a combination of annual and perennial crops, are expected to have C stocks intermediate between continuous grass- and croplands. A summary of data from 15 long-term sites showed that on average 0.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.3 to 1.1; median 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1) more carbon was retained in soils in ley-arable compared to exclusively annual systems, depending on species composition, management, soil depth and the duration of the studies. We also quantified the effect of organic amendments on soil carbon stocks. Retention factors calculated for straw, manure, sawdust, peat, sewage sludge and composted household waste varied widely from about 15% for above-ground crop residues to about 90% for composted household waste. We also emphasize that increased soil carbon stocks not always lead to carbon sequestration of atmospheric CO2 and discuss misunderstandings related to mitigation options earlier proposed for carbon sequestration such as organic farming, manure application, residue handling or application of biochar. Finally, the consequences of different land use and management are discussed, taking into account two critical boundaries - the limited area of agricultural land on Earth and requirements to produce sufficient food, fibres and energy for a growing population.

  2. Results of the "Komplast" experiment on the long-term exposure of materials specimens on the ISS surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumov, Andrey; Novikov, Lev

    The "Komplast" materials experiment was designed by the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center together with Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University and other Russian scientific institutes, and has been carried out since 1998. The aim of the experiment is to study the complex effects of space factors on specimens of various materials. Eight “Komplast” panels fitted with material specimens equipped UV-sensors and temperature sensors were located on the International Space Station (ISS) Functional Cargo Block (FGB) module exterior surface. The panels were sent into orbit with the FGB when it launched on November 20, 1998. Two of these panels were subsequently returned to Earth by Space Shuttle Discovery after 12 years of LEO exposure. The uniqueness of the "Komplast" experiment determined by long duration of open space exposure, which is much longer than in other similar experiments. For example LDEF: 1984-1990, МЕЕР (Space Station «Mir»): 1996-1997, MISSE-1, -2 (ISS): 1,5-2 years. In this work reveals laboratory research results of some materials specimens, which had been exposed on “Komplast” panels. A distinctive feature of this research was additional irradiation of specimens by atomic oxygen and electrons with energies of ~ 1-8 MeV in laboratory. In the interpretation of the experiment results was taken into account the specimens exposure temperature conditions on the ISS exterior surface and the conditions of their sunlit, defined by the above-mentioned sensors readings. Lot of attention was paid to the investigation of rubber materials specimens. The deformation, mechanical and relaxation characteristics were defined for the specimens. Also were investigations the seals-ability of model rubber seals after the long-term outer exposure. It was determined conservation volumetric deformation and relaxation characteristics of the exposed specimens and the localization of structural changes in the thin

  3. Long-Term Burden and Respiratory Effects of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalization in Preterm Infants—The SPRING Study

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier; Pérez-Yarza, Eduardo G.; García, Laura Sanchez; Guzmán Cabañas, Juana M.; Bòria, Elena Villarrubia; Atienza, Belén Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The health status of premature infants born 321-350 weeks’ gestational age (wGA) hospitalized for RSV infection in the first year of life (cases; n = 125) was compared to that of premature infants not hospitalized for RSV (controls; n = 362) through 6 years. The primary endpoints were the percentage of children with wheezing between 2-6 years and lung function at 6 years of age. Secondary endpoints included quality of life, healthcare resource use, and allergic sensitization. A significantly higher proportion of cases than controls experienced recurrent wheezing through 6 years of age (46.7% vs. 27.4%; p = 0.001). The vast majority of lung function tests appeared normal at 6 years of age in both cohorts. In children with pulmonary function in the lower limit of normality (FEV1 Z-score [-2; -1]), wheezing was increased, particularly for cases vs. controls (72.7% vs. 18.9%, p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis revealed the most important factor for wheezing was RSV hospitalization. Quality of life on the respiratory subscale of the TAPQOL was significantly lower (p = 0.001) and healthcare resource utilization was significantly higher (p<0.001) in cases than controls. This study confirms RSV disease is associated with wheezing in 32-35 wGA infants through 6 years of age. PMID:25955487

  4. Long-Term Burden and Respiratory Effects of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalization in Preterm Infants-The SPRING Study.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier; Pérez-Yarza, Eduardo G; García, Laura Sanchez; Guzmán Cabañas, Juana M; Bòria, Elena Villarrubia; Atienza, Belén Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The health status of premature infants born 321-350 weeks' gestational age (wGA) hospitalized for RSV infection in the first year of life (cases; n = 125) was compared to that of premature infants not hospitalized for RSV (controls; n = 362) through 6 years. The primary endpoints were the percentage of children with wheezing between 2-6 years and lung function at 6 years of age. Secondary endpoints included quality of life, healthcare resource use, and allergic sensitization. A significantly higher proportion of cases than controls experienced recurrent wheezing through 6 years of age (46.7% vs. 27.4%; p = 0.001). The vast majority of lung function tests appeared normal at 6 years of age in both cohorts. In children with pulmonary function in the lower limit of normality (FEV1 Z-score [-2; -1]), wheezing was increased, particularly for cases vs. controls (72.7% vs. 18.9%, p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis revealed the most important factor for wheezing was RSV hospitalization. Quality of life on the respiratory subscale of the TAPQOL was significantly lower (p = 0.001) and healthcare resource utilization was significantly higher (p<0.001) in cases than controls. This study confirms RSV disease is associated with wheezing in 32-35 wGA infants through 6 years of age. PMID:25955487

  5. Using historical woodland creation to construct a long-term, large-scale natural experiment: the WrEN project.

    PubMed

    Watts, Kevin; Fuentes-Montemayor, Elisa; Macgregor, Nicholas A; Peredo-Alvarez, Victor; Ferryman, Mark; Bellamy, Chloe; Brown, Nigel; Park, Kirsty J

    2016-05-01

    Natural experiments have been proposed as a way of complementing manipulative experiments to improve ecological understanding and guide management. There is a pressing need for evidence from such studies to inform a shift to landscape-scale conservation, including the design of ecological networks. Although this shift has been widely embraced by conservation communities worldwide, the empirical evidence is limited and equivocal, and may be limiting effective conservation. We present principles for well-designed natural experiments to inform landscape-scale conservation and outline how they are being applied in the WrEN project, which is studying the effects of 160 years of woodland creation on biodiversity in UK landscapes. We describe the study areas and outline the systematic process used to select suitable historical woodland creation sites based on key site- and landscape-scale variables - including size, age, and proximity to other woodland. We present the results of an analysis to explore variation in these variables across sites to test their suitability as a basis for a natural experiment. Our results confirm that this landscape satisfies the principles we have identified and provides an ideal study system for a long-term, large-scale natural experiment to explore how woodland biodiversity is affected by different site and landscape attributes. The WrEN sites are now being surveyed for a wide selection of species that are likely to respond differently to site- and landscape-scale attributes and at different spatial and temporal scales. The results from WrEN will help develop detailed recommendations to guide landscape-scale conservation, including the design of ecological networks. We also believe that the approach presented demonstrates the wider utility of well-designed natural experiments to improve our understanding of ecological systems and inform policy and practice. PMID:27217949

  6. Is natural experiment a cure? Re-examining the long-term health effects of China's 1959-1961 famine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongwei; Li, Lydia; Zhang, Zhenmei; Liu, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    The fetal origins hypothesis posits that adverse prenatal exposures, particularly malnutrition, increase the risk of poor adult health. Studies using famine as a natural experiment to test the fetal origins hypothesis present conflicting findings, partly because of data limitations and modeling flaws. Capitalizing on the biomarker data and prefecture-level geographic information from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, this study estimates the effects of prenatal exposure to China's 1959-61 famine on later-life risks of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Our analysis addresses the problems of measurement error and intrinsic cohort differences that challenge prior studies. We use provincial and prefecture-level geographic variations in famine severity, a proxy for prenatal malnutrition, for model identification. We construct instrumental variables from geocoded newspaper archive data to adjust for measurement error in famine exposure. We find that estimates of the famine effects are highly sensitive to the choices of health indicators, measures of famine severity, and regression model specifications. Overall, we find little evidence supporting the fetal origins hypothesis. In fact, it appears that prenatal exposure to famine reduces later-life disease risks in certain cases. We interpret this finding as evidence of mortality selection among the famine survivors at work. We conclude that using famine as a natural experiment in itself does not guarantee correct statistical inference about the long-term health impacts of prenatal malnutrition when other analytical challenges remain unresolved. PMID:26692092

  7. Long-term carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in patients discharged from hospitals: a 12-year retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Karki, Surendra; Land, Gillian; Aitchison, Stacey; Kennon, Jacqueline; Johnson, Paul D R; Ballard, Susan A; Leder, Karin; Cheng, Allen C

    2013-10-01

    Contact precautions are recommended in hospitals to prevent the transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE); however, there is no clear policy for how long patients should be under contact precautions due to a lack of information on the duration of carriage of these organisms. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to understand the duration of carriage of VRE (by screening of a single stool culture) and associated factors among patients who had been identified with VRE infection and/or colonization since the year 2000 at our health facilities. Of the 345 eligible participants, 136 did not respond, 90 declined to participate, and 16 did not send in the required specimens. Of the 103 remaining participants, 13 were found to have current VRE fecal carriage. The proportion of colonized patients fell from 40% (2/5) in the first year to 23.3% (7/30) in year 4. None of the 40 patients who had VRE detected >4 years prior were found to be colonized at the time of the study. The longest duration of detected VRE positivity was 46.5 months. Univariate analysis revealed that recent exposure to any antibiotics (P = 0.016), multiple antibiotics (P = 0.001), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (P = 0.021), piperacillin-tazobactam (P = 0.007), glycopeptides (P < 0.001), meropenem (P = 0.007), aminoglycosides (P = 0.021), or fluoroquinolones (P = 0.021), being the index case in a clinical specimen (P = 0.016), and recent hospitalization (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with continued carriage on follow-up. In the surviving outpatients, a significant proportion appeared to clear VRE carriage. Our results suggest that in the absence of recent risk factors, such as hospitalization or antibiotic use, patients with a remote history of colonization (>4 years) may no longer require contact isolation precautions. PMID:23926167

  8. Combining long term field experiments and nanoscale analysis to enhance process understanding of root litter stabilization by mineral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabbi, Abad; Baumann, Karen; Remusat, Laurent; Barre, Pierre; Dignac, Marie-France; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2015-04-01

    Mineral interaction may affect the stabilisation of root litter directly or indirectly after microbial decomposition and transformation. The importance of both processes may vary within the soil profile. In this study we studied C stabilisation of isotopically labelled root litter (13C and 15N), which was incubated during 3 year in the field at different soil depth. Samples from this field experiment were recovered and subjected to nanoscale analyses in order to elucidate mineral interactions occurring in different parts of the soil profile. Our results showed enrichment of mineral associated organic matter in subsoil horizons. However, material derived from new plant litter may be stabilised at similar rates in top- and subsoil horizons. N-containing compounds are enriched in the mineral associated fraction of subsoil horizons, indicating enrichment of microbial derived material with depth. Nano scale analyses showed that indeed plant-derived material may be associated with metal oxides in topsoil horizons, whereas the mineral associated organic matter in subsoil horizons may consist of microbial cells. Interestingly, in contrast to short term laboratory analysis, decoupling of C and N through stabilisation with soil minerals was observed during this long term field experiment. Our results indicate that the nature of OM stabilised by mineral interactions is depth specific. Therefore, we suggest, that plant derived lignocellulosic material may be preserved by mineral interactions in topsoil given its incomplete degradation, thereby leading to the formation of functional groups and favouring adsorption to soil minerals. This is consistent with the higher state of lignin-degradation observed in topsoil horizons as compared to subsoil. At depth, where microorganisms are most likely energy limited, degradation of fresh plant litter may be complete, thereby diminishing the formation of lignocellulosic compounds capable of sorption onto metal oxides. As a result

  9. Long term microparticle impact fluxes on LDEF determined from optical survey of Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, C. G.; Oliver, J. P.; Cooke, W. J.; Downey, K. I.; Kassel, P. C.

    1995-01-01

    leading side during LDEF's first year in orbit.) The overall east/west ratio was 44, but during LDEF's first year in orbit the ratio was 8.5, and during years 2-6 the ratio was 114. Long term microparticle impact fluxes on the space end decreased from 1.12 to 0.55 x 10(exp -4) m(exp -2)/s from the first year in orbit compared to years 2-6. The earth end showed the opposite trend with an increase from 0.16 to 0.38 x 10(exp -4) m(exp -2)/s. Fluxes on rows 6 and 12 decreased from 6.1 to 3.4 and 6.7 to 3.7 x 10(exp -4) m(exp -2)/s, respectively, over the same time periods. This resulted in space/earth microparticle impact flux ratios of 7.1 during the first year and 1.5 during years 2-6, while the south/north, space/north and space/south ratios remained constant at 1.1, 0.16 and 0.17, respectively, during the entire mission. This information indicates the possible identification of long term changes in discrete microparticle orbital debris component contributions to the total impact flux experienced by LDEF. A dramatic decrease in the debris population capable of striking the trailing side was detected that could possibly be attributed to the hiatus of western launch activity experienced from 1986-1989. A significant increase in the debris population that preferentially struck the leading side was also observed and could possibly be attributed to a single breakup event that occurred in September of 1986. A substantial increase in the microparticle debris population that struck the earth end of LDEF, but not the space end, was also detected and could possibly be the result of a single breakup event at low altitude. These results point to the importance of including discrete orbital debris component contribution changes in flux models in order to achieve accurate predictions of the microparticle environment that a particular spacecraft will experience in earth orbit. The only reliable, verified empirical measurements of these changes are reported in this paper. Further time

  10. Stabilization of lignin in soils - lessons from compound specific 13C analysis in long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A.; Heim, A.; Christensen, B. T.; Miltner, A.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2009-04-01

    A frequently cited assumption is that lignin in soils should be relatively stable due to its recalcitrant chemical structure. In recent years, this view has been challenged by new analytical techniques that use both lignin-specific biomarker molecules and compound specific isotope analysis. Applying these techniques to long-term field experiments with natural carbon isotopic labelling (C3-C4 vegetation change), it could be shown that the dynamics of lignin in soils are more complex and cannot be explained by its recalcitrant structure alone. In particular, there seem to be both a stable and a labile lignin pool in soils. As for soil organic carbon in general, interactions with the mineral phase have been suggested to be involved in the stabilization of lignin in soils. The present study focuses on the stable pool and tries to answer the following questions: (I) Which soil fractions contain most lignin? (II) Is the stable pool related to a particular soil fraction? (III) Can differences in lignin content between soil fractions be explained by properties of the mineral phase (surface area, type of minerals)? We used a combined density and aggregate size fractionation of an agricultural soil before and after it had been naturally 13C-labelled by 18 years of maize cropping. We identified old lignin deriving from the time before maize cropping by compound-specific isotope analysis of lignin-derived phenolic biomarkers. In the studied soil, we found a large proportion of lignin in coarse heavy fraction, suggesting inclusion in macroaggregates. However, isotope data indicated that lignin in this fraction was less stable in the long-term than lignin in light fractions. A potential explanation might be that some lignin-containing cell structures (e.g. thick cell walls) are recalcitrant enough to persist for decades even under intensive cropping. Due to intensive cropping before the isotopic labelling started, the light fractions would already be enriched in these structures

  11. Soil wettability, moisture status and CO2 flux in a long term drought and warming simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Bösken, Janina; Titema, Albert; Nunez Pastrana, David; Emmett, Bridget

    2014-05-01

    Current climatic predictions include altered rainfall patterns and increased temperatures which in consequence can enhance the development of soil water repellency (SWR; i.e. hydrophobicity). Soils may become more severely water-repellent or SWR may spread into the environments where it has not been observed before. As the soil moisture dynamics, including restricted infiltration and uneven distribution of water is severely altered in water-repellent soils, so might be the decomposition of organic matter and overall exchange of gases like CO2 between the soil and the atmosphere. Long-term climatic simulation study has been conducted for over a decade at upland heathland sites in Oldebroek (Netherlands) and in Clocaenog (UK) [1]. At each site nine 20 m2-large plots were selected and each three were subjected to: a drought effect created by a rainfall exclusion using an automatic self retracting waterproof curtains; a warming effect using a self retracting curtains reflecting infrared radiation overnight, and control plots. The soil at the sites was a peaty podzol and sandy podzol both highly prone to soil water repellency development. The sites were constantly monitored since the start of the experiment and the range of meteorological and environmental measurements included for example: soil moisture, temperature, vegetation and root zone changes, soil CO2 flux. The observations of soil moisture content have shown that the soil moisture did not recover to the original values in the drought system even after the rainfall exclusion has been stopped for winter time, suggesting the development of soil water repellency [2]. The severe changes in moisture dynamics have also significantly affected the soil CO2 flux. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the long-term drought and warming treatments have any effect on the severity and persistence of SWR and how far the moisture changes and the SWR altered the CO2 flux from these soils. The measurements of the SWR

  12. Soil ionomic and enzymatic responses and correlations to fertilizations amended with and without organic fertilizer in long-term experiments

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xumeng; Ling, Ning; Chen, Huan; Zhu, Chen; Duan, Yinghua; Peng, Chang; Yu, Guanghui; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate potential interactions between the soil ionome and enzyme activities affected by fertilization with or without organic fertilizer, soil samples were collected from four long-term experiments over China. Irrespective of variable interactions, fertilization type was the major factor impacting soil ionomic behavior and accounted for 15.14% of the overall impact. Sampling site was the major factor affecting soil enzymatic profile and accounted for 34.25% of the overall impact. The availabilities of Pb, La, Ni, Co, Fe and Al were significantly higher in soil with only chemical fertilizer than the soil with organic amendment. Most of the soil enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase activity, were significantly activated by organic amendment. Network analysis between the soil ionome and the soil enzyme activities was more complex in the organic-amended soils than in the chemical fertilized soils, whereas the network analysis among the soil ions was less complex with organic amendment. Moreover, α-glucosidase was revealed to generally harbor more corrections with the soil ionic availabilities in network. We concluded that some of the soil enzymes activated by organic input can make the soil more vigorous and stable and that the α-glucosidase revealed by this analysis might help stabilize the soil ion availability. PMID:27079657

  13. Long-term Monitoring of the TeV Emission from Mrk 421 with the ARGO-YBJ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Bleve, C.; Bolognino, I.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Calabrese Melcarne, A. K.; Camarri, P.; Cao, Z.; Cappa, A.; Cardarelli, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Cattaneo, C.; Celio, P.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, Y.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Alí Staiti, G.; Danzengluobu; Dattoli, M.; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Ding, X. H.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Galeazzi, F.; Galeotti, P.; Giroletti, E.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Huang, Q.; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; James, I.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Li, J. Y.; Li, X. X.; Liguori, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, C. Q.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Pagliaro, A.; Panareo, M.; Panico, B.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Qu, X. B.; Rossi, E.; Ruggieri, F.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Stanescu, C.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xu, B.; Xue, L.; Yan, Y. X.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, L.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zizzi, G.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    ARGO-YBJ is an air shower detector array with a fully covered layer of resistive plate chambers. It is operated with a high duty cycle and a large field of view. It continuously monitors the northern sky at energies above 0.3 TeV. In this paper, we report a long-term monitoring of Mrk 421 over the period from 2007 November to 2010 February. This source was observed by the satellite-borne experiments Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and Swift in the X-ray band. Mrk 421 was especially active in the first half of 2008. Many flares are observed in both X-ray and γ-ray bands simultaneously. The γ-ray flux observed by ARGO-YBJ has a clear correlation with the X-ray flux. No lag between the X-ray and γ-ray photons longer than 1 day is found. The evolution of the spectral energy distribution is investigated by measuring spectral indices at four different flux levels. Hardening of the spectra is observed in both X-ray and γ-ray bands. The γ-ray flux increases quadratically with the simultaneously measured X-ray flux. All these observational results strongly favor the synchrotron self-Compton process as the underlying radiative mechanism.

  14. Determination of longevities, chamber building rates and growth functions for Operculina complanata from long term cultivation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woeger, Julia; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Wolfgang, Eder; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Operculina complanata was collected in 20 and 50 m depth around the Island of Sesoko belonging to Japans southernmost prefecture Okinawa in a series of monthly sampling over a period of 16 months (Apr.2014-July2015). A minimum of 8 specimens (4 among the smallest and 4 among the largest) per sampling were cultured in a long term experiment that was set up to approximate conditions in the field as closely as possible. A set up allowing recognition of individual specimens enabled consistent documentation of chamber formation, which in combination with μ-CT-scanning after the investigation period permitted the assignment of growth steps to specific time periods. These data were used to fit various mathematical models to describe growth (exponential-, logistic-, generalized logistic-, Gompertz-function) and chamber building rate (Michaelis-Menten-, Bertalanffy- function) of Operculina complanata. The mathematically retrieved maximum lifespan and mean chamber building rate found in cultured Operculina complanata were further compared to first results obtained by the simultaneously conducted "natural laboratory approach". Even though these comparisons hint at a somewhat stunted growth and truncated life spans of Operculina complanata in culture, they represent a possibility to assess and improve the quality of further cultivation set ups, opening new prospects to a better understanding of the their theoretical niches.

  15. Soil ionomic and enzymatic responses and correlations to fertilizations amended with and without organic fertilizer in long-term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xumeng; Ling, Ning; Chen, Huan; Zhu, Chen; Duan, Yinghua; Peng, Chang; Yu, Guanghui; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-04-01

    To investigate potential interactions between the soil ionome and enzyme activities affected by fertilization with or without organic fertilizer, soil samples were collected from four long-term experiments over China. Irrespective of variable interactions, fertilization type was the major factor impacting soil ionomic behavior and accounted for 15.14% of the overall impact. Sampling site was the major factor affecting soil enzymatic profile and accounted for 34.25% of the overall impact. The availabilities of Pb, La, Ni, Co, Fe and Al were significantly higher in soil with only chemical fertilizer than the soil with organic amendment. Most of the soil enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase activity, were significantly activated by organic amendment. Network analysis between the soil ionome and the soil enzyme activities was more complex in the organic-amended soils than in the chemical fertilized soils, whereas the network analysis among the soil ions was less complex with organic amendment. Moreover, α-glucosidase was revealed to generally harbor more corrections with the soil ionic availabilities in network. We concluded that some of the soil enzymes activated by organic input can make the soil more vigorous and stable and that the α-glucosidase revealed by this analysis might help stabilize the soil ion availability.

  16. Exploring long-term cancer survivors' experiences in the career and financial domains: Interviews with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Stepanikova, Irena; Powroznik, Karen; Cook, Karen S; Tierney, D Kathryn; Laport, Ginna G

    2016-01-01

    Using semi-structured interviews with 50 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients who were 2 to 22 years post-transplant, this study investigates cancer survivors' interpretations of their economic and work-related experiences during and after treatment. Survivors described a variety of challenges in these areas, including job insecurity, discrimination, career derailment, the lack of career direction, delayed goals, financial losses, insurance difficulties, constraints on job mobility, and physical/mental limitations. Survivors described the ways these challenges were offset by external factors that helped them to navigate these difficulties and buffered the negative financial and career-related impacts. Good health insurance, favorable job characteristics, job accommodations, and financial buffers were prominent offsetting factors. Most survivors, however, were also forced to rely on individual behavioral and interpretative strategies to cope with challenges. Behavioral strategies included purposeful job moves, retraining, striving harder, and retiring. Some strategies were potentially problematic, such as acquiring large debt. Interpretive strategies included reprioritizing and value shifts, downplaying the magnitude of cancer impact on one's life, denying the causal role of cancer in negative events, making favorable social comparisons, and benefit finding. Post-treatment counseling and support services may assist survivors in identifying available resources and useful strategies to improve long-term adaptation in the career and financial realms. PMID:26492184

  17. Evaluating the long-term performance of low-cost adsorbents using small-scale adsorption column experiments.

    PubMed

    Callery, O; Healy, M G; Rognard, F; Barthelemy, L; Brennan, R B

    2016-09-15

    This study investigated a novel method of predicting the long-term phosphorus removal performance of large-scale adsorption filters, using data derived from short-term, small-scale column experiments. The filter media investigated were low-cost adsorbents such as aluminum sulfate drinking water treatment residual, ferric sulfate drinking water treatment residual, and fine and coarse crushed concretes. Small-bore adsorption columns were loaded with synthetic wastewater, and treated column effluent volume was plotted against the mass of phosphorus adsorbed per unit mass of filter media. It was observed that the curve described by the data strongly resembled that of a standard adsorption isotherm created from batch adsorption data. Consequently, it was hypothesized that an equation following the form of the Freundlich isotherm would describe the relationship between filter loading and media saturation. Moreover, the relationship between filter loading and effluent concentration could also be derived from this equation. The proposed model was demonstrated to accurately predict the performance of large-scale adsorption filters over a period of up to three months with a very high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, the coefficients necessary to produce said model could be determined from just 24 h of small-scale experimental data. PMID:27295617

  18. Soil ionomic and enzymatic responses and correlations to fertilizations amended with and without organic fertilizer in long-term experiments.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xumeng; Ling, Ning; Chen, Huan; Zhu, Chen; Duan, Yinghua; Peng, Chang; Yu, Guanghui; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate potential interactions between the soil ionome and enzyme activities affected by fertilization with or without organic fertilizer, soil samples were collected from four long-term experiments over China. Irrespective of variable interactions, fertilization type was the major factor impacting soil ionomic behavior and accounted for 15.14% of the overall impact. Sampling site was the major factor affecting soil enzymatic profile and accounted for 34.25% of the overall impact. The availabilities of Pb, La, Ni, Co, Fe and Al were significantly higher in soil with only chemical fertilizer than the soil with organic amendment. Most of the soil enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase activity, were significantly activated by organic amendment. Network analysis between the soil ionome and the soil enzyme activities was more complex in the organic-amended soils than in the chemical fertilized soils, whereas the network analysis among the soil ions was less complex with organic amendment. Moreover, α-glucosidase was revealed to generally harbor more corrections with the soil ionic availabilities in network. We concluded that some of the soil enzymes activated by organic input can make the soil more vigorous and stable and that the α-glucosidase revealed by this analysis might help stabilize the soil ion availability. PMID:27079657

  19. Studies of HT and HTO Behavior in the Vicinity of Long-Term Emission Source: Model - Experiment Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A. V.; Aleinikov, A. Y.; Golubeva, V. N.; Khabibulin, M. M.; Glagolev, M. V.; Misatyuk, S. E.; Mavrin, S. V.; Belot, Y. A.; Raskob, W.; Tate, P. J.

    2003-02-24

    There are presented in the research results of HT and HTO deposition and the model of HT (HTO) atmosphere concentration in the vicinity of a long-term HT and HTO emission source. Scavenging of HTO by precipitations was studied in 6 field experiments. The site of the scavenging experiments was around a 30 m emission source. The sampling arcs were chosen at 150-300 m from the base of the source to minimize dry deposition on the precipitation collectors. Data of the scavenging experiments are presented. Kinetics of HT deposition to soil through its oxidation has been studied in laboratory conditions. The activity of HTO converted in the soil sample during a certain period of time was used to determine the oxidation rate. This rate varies, depending on the catalytic and/or biological activity of the soil material. Theoretical considerations have shown that the deposition rate can be expressed by the effective rate of oxidation, which formally corresponds to the first-order HT oxidation. HT deposition rates are reported. The model, used for assessments, takes into account atmospheric dispersion, deposition and reemission. The model of HTO wet deposition is taken into account kinetics of HTO exchange between vapor and liquid phase with parameters such as rain drop spectra, rain intensity, condensation-evaporation on drop's interface. Gauss type formulae for continuous emission source is used to calculate HTO atmospheric concentration. Meteorological data are used as input parameters for modeling. The data presented on HT deposition to soil and HTO washout by precipitation is required for assessment of consequences of HT (HTO) release into the atmosphere.

  20. Long-term Engagement in Authentic Research with NASA (LEARN): Lessons Learned from an Innovative Model for Teacher Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippin, M. R.; Kollmeyer, R.; Joseph, J.; Yang, M. M.; Omar, A. H.; Harte, T.; Taylor, J.; Lewis, P. M.; Weisman, A.; Hyater-Adams, S.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA LEARN Project is an innovative program that provides long-term immersion in the practice of atmospheric science for middle and high school in-service teachers. Working alongside NASA scientists and using authentic NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Research and Analysis (R&A) related and mission-based research data, teachers develop individual research topics of interest during two weeks in the summer while on-site at NASA Langley. With continued, intensive mentoring and guidance of NASA scientists, the teachers further develop their research throughout the academic year through virtual group meetings and data team meetings mirroring scientific collaborations. At the end of the first year, the LEARN teachers present scientific posters. During summer 2013, Cohort 1 (7 teachers) presented posters at an open session and discussed their research topics with Cohort 2 (6 teachers) and science and educator personnel at Langley. The LEARN experience has had such an impact that 6 teachers from Cohort 1 have elected to continue a second year of research working alongside Cohort 2 and LEARN scientists. In addition, Cohort 1 teachers have brought their LEARN experiences back to their classrooms in a variety of ways. The LEARN project evaluation has provided insights into the outcomes of this research experience for teachers and particularly effective program elements. In particular, the LEARN evaluation has focused on how an extended research experience for teachers spanning a full year influences teacher views of science and classroom integration of scientific principles. Early findings indicate that teachers' perceptions of the scientific enterprise have changed, and that LEARN provided substantial resources to help them take real-world research to their students. Teachers also valued the teamwork and cohort approach. In addition, the LEARN evaluation focuses on the experiences of scientists involved in the LEARN program and how their experiences working with

  1. Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium are inversely correlated and related to agricultural practices in long-term field experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Quadros, Patricia D; Gano, Kelsey A; Davis-Richardson, Austin; Fagen, Jennie R; Brown, Christopher T; Giongo, Adriana; Drew, Jennifer C; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A; Arp, Dan J; Camargo, Flavio A O; Daroub, Samira H; Clark, Ian M; McGrath, Steve P; Hirsch, Penny R; Triplett, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural land management, such as fertilization, liming, and tillage affects soil properties, including pH, organic matter content, nitrification rates, and the microbial community. Three different study sites were used to identify microorganisms that correlate with agricultural land use and to determine which factors regulate the relative abundance of the microbial signatures of the agricultural land-use. The three sites included in this study are the Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida, USA, and the Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan, USA. The effects of agricultural management on the abundance and diversity of bacteria and archaea were determined using high throughput, barcoded 16S rRNA sequencing. In addition, the relative abundance of these organisms was correlated with soil features. Two groups of microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle were highly correlated with land use at all three sites. The ammonia oxidizing-archaea, dominated by Ca. Nitrososphaera, were positively correlated with agriculture while a ubiquitous group of soil bacteria closely related to the diazotrophic symbiont, Bradyrhizobium, was negatively correlated with agricultural management. Analysis of successional plots showed that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing-archaea declined and the abundance of bradyrhizobia increased with time away from agriculture. This observation suggests that the effect of agriculture on the relative abundance of these genera is reversible. Soil pH and NH3 concentrations were positively correlated with archaeal abundance but negatively correlated with the abundance of Bradyrhizobium. The high correlations of Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium abundances with agricultural management at three long-term experiments with different edaphoclimatic conditions allowed us to suggest these two genera as signature microorganisms for agricultural land use. PMID:23641242

  2. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III - International Space Station: Extending Long-Term Ozone and Aerosol Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckman, R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Cisewski, M.; Gasbarre, J.; Flittner, D. E.; Hill, C.; Roell, M.; Moore, J. R.; Hernandez, G.; McCormick, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III - International Space Station (SAGE III on ISS) will extend the global measurements of vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gases begun with SAGE I in 1979, enabling the detection of long-term trends. SAGE III on ISS is the fourth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring these constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm, using the heritage occultation technique, utilizing both the sun and the moon. Launch to ISS is planned for early 2015 aboard a Falcon 9 spacecraft. SAGE III will investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the measured species in order to determine their role in climatological processes, biogeochemical cycles, the hydrologic cycle, and atmospheric chemistry. It will characterize tropospheric, as well as stratospheric aerosols and upper tropospheric and stratospheric clouds, and investigate their effects on the Earth's environment including radiative, microphysical, and chemical interactions. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Amongst its key objectives will be to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to reestablish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The ISS is ideal for Earth observing experiments; its mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. In this presentation, we describe the SAGE III on ISS mission, its implementation, current status, and concentrate on its key science objectives.

  3. Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium are inversely correlated and related to agricultural practices in long-term field experiments

    PubMed Central

    Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Quadros, Patricia D.; Gano, Kelsey A.; Davis-Richardson, Austin; Fagen, Jennie R.; Brown, Christopher T.; Giongo, Adriana; Drew, Jennifer C.; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A.; Arp, Dan J.; Camargo, Flavio A. O.; Daroub, Samira H.; Clark, Ian M.; McGrath, Steve P.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Triplett, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural land management, such as fertilization, liming, and tillage affects soil properties, including pH, organic matter content, nitrification rates, and the microbial community. Three different study sites were used to identify microorganisms that correlate with agricultural land use and to determine which factors regulate the relative abundance of the microbial signatures of the agricultural land-use. The three sites included in this study are the Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida, USA, and the Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan, USA. The effects of agricultural management on the abundance and diversity of bacteria and archaea were determined using high throughput, barcoded 16S rRNA sequencing. In addition, the relative abundance of these organisms was correlated with soil features. Two groups of microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle were highly correlated with land use at all three sites. The ammonia oxidizing-archaea, dominated by Ca. Nitrososphaera, were positively correlated with agriculture while a ubiquitous group of soil bacteria closely related to the diazotrophic symbiont, Bradyrhizobium, was negatively correlated with agricultural management. Analysis of successional plots showed that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing-archaea declined and the abundance of bradyrhizobia increased with time away from agriculture. This observation suggests that the effect of agriculture on the relative abundance of these genera is reversible. Soil pH and NH3 concentrations were positively correlated with archaeal abundance but negatively correlated with the abundance of Bradyrhizobium. The high correlations of Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium abundances with agricultural management at three long-term experiments with different edaphoclimatic conditions allowed us to suggest these two genera as signature microorganisms for agricultural land use. PMID:23641242

  4. Effects of landscape transformation on bird colonization and extinction patterns in a large-scale, long-term natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Mortelliti, Alessio; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-10-01

    Conversion of agricultural land to forest plantations is a major driver of global change. Studies on the impact of forest plantations on biodiversity in plantations and in the surrounding native vegetation have been inconclusive. Consequently, it is not known how to best manage the extensive areas of the planet currently covered by plantations. We used a novel, long-term (16 years) and large-scale (30,000 ha) landscape transformation natural experiment (the Nanangroe experiment, Australia) to test the effects of land conversion on population dynamics of 64 bird species associated with woodland and forest. A unique aspect of our study is that we focused on the effects of plantations on birds in habitat patches within plantations. Our study design included 56 treatment sites (Eucalyptus patches where the surrounding matrix was converted from grazed land to pine plantations), 55 control sites (Eucalyptus patches surrounded by grazed land), and 20 matrix sites (sites within the pine plantations and grazed land). Bird populations were studied through point counts, and colonization and extinction patterns were inferred through multiple season occupancy models. Large-scale pine plantation establishment affected the colonization or extinction patterns of 89% of studied species and thus led to a comprehensive turnover in bird communities inhabiting Eucalyptus patches embedded within the maturing plantations. Smaller bodied species appeared to respond positively to plantations (i.e., colonization increased and extirpation of these species decreased in patches surrounded by plantations) because they were able to use the newly created surrounding matrix. We found that the effects of forest plantations affected the majority of the bird community, and we believe these effects could lead to the artificial selection of one group of species at the expense of another. PMID:25926353

  5. Chemicals associated with site-specific neoplasia in 1394 long-term carcinogenesis experiments in laboratory rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J; Cirvello, J; Haseman, J; Bucher, J

    1991-01-01

    The carcinogenicity data base used for this paper originated in the late 1960s by the National Cancer Institute and since 1978 has been continued and made more comprehensive by the National Toxicology Program. The extensive files contain among other sets of information detailed pathology data on more than 400 long-term (most often 24 month) chemical carcinogenesis studies, comprised of nearly 1600 individual experiments having at least 10 million tissue sections that have been evaluated for toxicity and carcinogenicity. Using the current data set of 379 studies made up of 1394 experiments, we have compiled listings of chemicals having like carcinogenic target sites for each of the 34 organs or systems for which histopathology diagnoses have been recorded routinely. The most common tumor site is the liver (15% of all experiments), followed in rank order by: lung, hematopoietic system and kidneys, mammary glands, forestomach, thyroid glands, Zymbal glands, urinary bladder, skin and uterus/cervix, and circulatory system and adrenal glands. These compilations are most useful for maintaining a historic perspective when evaluating the carcinogenicity of contemporary experiments. Equally important, the chemical-tumor-organ connection permits an evaluation of how well chemically induced cancers in a particular organ in one sex or species will predict or correlate with the other sex or species. Using liver cancers as an example, the overall interspecies concordance is 80%. Likewise target site predictions can be made for chemicals selected for study that may be similar to those already evaluated; thereby experimental protocols could be adjusted to allow, for example, more extensive pathology on preselected target organs (i.e., serial sections of the kidney). Further from these observations, one could decide to use two strains of mice to evaluate a short-chain chlorinated aliphatic compound or to study a human carcinogen in a sex-species known to develop chemically induced

  6. Effects of agricultural tillage practise on green house gas balance of an arable soil in a long term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munch, Jean Charles; Schilling, Rolf; Ruth, Bernhard; Fuss, Roland

    2010-05-01

    Soils are an important part of the global carbon cycle. A large proportion of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is released from soils, though carbon sequestration occurs. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of soils are also believed to contribute significantly to the green house effect as well as the stratospheric ozone depletion. An important source of N2O emissions is denitrification of nitrate from nitrogen fertilized soils. Although it is desirable to minimize these emissions while maintaining high crop yields it is still poorly understood how green house gas emissions may be steered by agricultural management practise, i.e. tillage and fertilization systems . In an ongoing long term field experiment at the research farm Scheyern, Bavaria, a arable field with one homogenous soil formation was transformed into plots in a randomized design 14 years ago. Since then, they are managed using conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) as well as low and high fertilization. A conventional crop rotation is maintained on the field. Starting 2007, CO2 and N2O emissions were monitored continuously for 2.5 years. Furthermore water content, temperature and redox potential were measured in-situ as they are major factors on microbial activity and denitrification. Soil was sampled from the Ap horizons of the plots about twice a month and extracts from these soil samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium, nitrate/nitrite, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). According to the results soil density and hydrology are clearly affected by tillage practise. DOC is more affected by tillage while concentration of nitrogen species is controlled mainly by fertilization. There are distinct differences in redox potential between CT and NT plots with CT plots having more anaerobic periods. CO2 and N2O emissions exhibit a clear seasonal pattern and are affected by both tillage system and fertilization

  7. Early intervention with probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei F19 has no long-term effect on caries experience.

    PubMed

    Hasslöf, P; West, C E; Videhult, F Karlsson; Brandelius, C; Stecksén-Blicks, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate possible long-term effects of a cereal diet supplemented with Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LF19) during weaning on caries experience, mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LBC) in a group of 9-year-old children. A secondary aim was to evaluate if the intervention resulted in the permanent integration of LF19 as part of the oral microbiota. The study followed up on a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. Among 179 infants that were randomised to a daily diet that included cereals with or without LF19 from 4 to 13 months of age, 56 from the probiotic group and 62 from the placebo group participated in the follow-up at 9 years. Data were collected by oral clinical examination and questionnaires. MS and LBC levels were assessed with conventional cultivation; LF19 was detected by using randomly amplified polymerase chain reactions (RAPD-PCR). At the follow-up, neither decayed, missing and filled surfaces for primary teeth (dmfs) nor decayed, missing and filled surfaces for permanent teeth (DMFS) differed significantly between the probiotic and placebo groups (p > 0.05). MS and LBC levels were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). RAPD-PCR showed no evidence of oral colonisation with LF19 in the study group. It is concluded that an early intervention with LF19 did not affect the frequency of dental caries, MS or LBC. LF19 did not establish itself as a permanent facet of the oral microbiota in any of the subjects included in this study. PMID:23838478

  8. Long-term experience with implanted intrathecal drug administration systems for failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, JH; Southall, JL; Gnanadurai, TV; Treharne, GJ; Kitas, GD

    2002-01-01

    Background Continuous intrathecal drug delivery has been shown in open studies to improve pain and quality of life in those with intractable back pain who have had spinal surgery. There is limited data on long term effects and and even less for patients with mechanical back pain without prior spinal surgery. Methods We have investigated spinal drug administration systems for patients with failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain by patient questionnaire study of the efficacy of this therapy and a case notes review. Results 36 patients (97% of 37 approached) completed questionnaires, 24 with failed back syndrome and 12 with chronic mechanical low back pain. Recalled pre-treatment levels with current post-treatment levels of pain and a range of quality of life measures (recorded on 11-point numerical rating scales) were compared. Pain improved significantly in both groups (Wilcoxan signed ranks test, p < 0.005). The majority of quality of life measures improved significantly in the failed back syndrome group (Wilcoxan signed ranks test, p < 0.005) although work interruption and the effect of pain on sex life did not change. There was a trend towards improvement in the majority of quality of life measures in the mechanical back pain group but this did not reach statistical significance due to the smaller numbers in this cohort (p > 0.005, Wilcoxan signed ranks test with Bonferroni correction). Diamorphine was used in all 37 patients, bupivacaine in 32, clonidine in 27 and baclofen in 3. The mean dose of diamorphine increased for the first 2 years but did not change 2–6 years post implant, averaging 4.5 mg/day. Revision surgery was required in 24% of cases, but reduced to 12% in the later years of our experience. Conclusions We conclude that spinal drug administration systems appear to be of benefit in alleviating pain in the failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain but need to be examined prospectively. PMID:12076357

  9. The impact of interventional nephrologists on the growth of a peritoneal dialysis program: Long-term, single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Ros-Ruiz, Silvia; Alonso-Esteve, Ángela; Gutiérrez-Vílchez, Elena; Rudas-Bermúdez, Edisson; Hernández, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an underutilized form of renal replacement therapy. Although a variety of factors have been deemed responsible, timely insertion of a PD catheter may also be a contributory factor. Furthermore, a good catheter implantation technique is important to allow for effective peritoneal access function and long-term technique survival. Studies regarding results obtained by nephrologists in comparison with surgeons have been limited to small single-center experiences. Thus, the objective of this study was to explore the impact of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion by nephrologists compared to surgeons on early catheter complications and on technique survival. We also examine whether PD catheter insertion by nephrologists has a positive impact on the growth in the number of patients using PD. We performed 313 consecutive procedures: 192 catheter insertions and 121 catheter removal from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2013. The main reasons for catheter removal were: renal transplantation, 52 (43%) follow of transfer to HD, 48 (40%) and catheter malfunction, 16 (13%). The patients were mostly male (63.4%) with the mean age of 50.8±15.1 years and 23.8 were diabetics. We only observed seven (2.5%) early complications (<4 weeks) associated to peritoneal catheter surgery (3 peritonitis episodes, 2 hemoperitoneum episodes, one complicated hernia and one omental entrapment). There were not significant differences in surgery-related complications in both periods. The penetration ratio of PD after 2006 was 117% higher compared with procedures performing before this date. In conclusions, we have demonstrated a positive impact on the growth of the PD population when catheter insertion is performed by nephrologists with a minimal incidence of complications associated. PMID:26520209

  10. Depth distribution of glyphosate and AMPA under diferent tillage system and soils in long-term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis; De Geronimo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl glycine) is a post-emergence, non-selective, foliar herbicide. Around 200 million liters of this herbicide are applied every year in Argentina, where the main agricultural practice is no-till (NT), accounting for 78 % of the cultivated land. In this work, we studied the depth distribution of glyphosate in long-term experiments (more than 15 years) at different locations under NT and conventional tillage (CT). Samples from 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm depth with four replication and two treatments NT CT at three locations: Balcarce (BA) a loam soil, Bordenave (BO) a sandy loam soil y Marcos Juarez a silty loam soil (MJ). The glyphosate concentration in the first 2 cm of soil was, on the average, 70% greater than in the next 2-5 cm. The mass of glyphosate in CT was higher at 2 to 10 cm depth. The depth concentration of AMPA follows the same trend than glyphosate, although its average concentration at 0-2 cm depth is 28 times higher than the glyphosate concentration at 2-5 cm (glyphosate = 147 ppb and AMPA = 4100 ppb). Beside the AMPA concentration at 0-2 cm depth is greater in NT than in CT, the mass of AMPA is higher in CT only for the Balcarce location. To our knowledge, this study is the first dealing with the depth distribution of glyphosate concentration in soils under different soil managements. In the present study, it was demonstrated that glyphosate and AMPA are present in soils under agricultural activity with maximum concentration in the first two cm of soil and the AMPA concentration at this depth is greater in NT than in CT.

  11. Mean platelet volume to platelet count ratio predicts in-hospital complications and long-term mortality in type A acute aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Ze; Chen, Qing-Jie; Sun, Hui-Ping; Zeng, Rui; Zeng, Zhi; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2016-09-01

    Type A acute aortic dissection is a life-threatening vascular emergency because of its high morbidity and mortality. Platelet is a pivotal ingredient involved in the development of acute aortic dissection. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether mean platelet volume (MPV)/platelet count ratio predicts in-hospital complications and long-term mortality in type A acute aortic dissection. In this single-center and prospective cohort study, 106 consecutive patients with Stanford type A acute aortic dissection admitted to the hospital within 12 h after onset were recruited. The best cut-off value of MPV/platelet count ratio predicting all-cause mortality was determined by the receiver operator characteristic analysis. Patients were divided into high (H-MPV/platelet count) and low (L-MPV/platelet count) groups based on the cut-off value of 7.49 (10 fl/10/l). Patients were followed up for 3.5 years. Of the 106 acute aortic dissection patients, 71 (67.0%) died during the study period, with a median follow-up duration of 570 days. Compared to the L-MPV/platelet count group, patients with H-MPV/platelet count had a higher risk of in-hospital complications including hypotension, hypoxemia, myocardial ischemia/infarction, conscious disturbance, pericardial tamponade, paraplegia, and poor survival (all P < 0.05). In multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders, MPV/platelet count ratio was positively associated with the hazard of all-cause mortality, irrespective of interventions either with medication only or urgent surgery, and the hazard ratios were 2.81 (95% confidence interval 1.28-4.48) for the H-MPV/platelet count group when taking L-MPV/platelet count group as the reference (P = 0.005). The MPV/platelet count ratio was a strong independent predictor for in-hospital complications and long-term mortality in patients with type A acute aortic dissection. PMID:26575495

  12. Plant diversity induces a shift of DOC concentration over time - results from long term and large scale experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Markus; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Plant diversity has been demonstrated as a crucial factor for soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. The horizontal SOC formation in turn is strongly impacted by the relative small but consistent flow of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soils. In this process, pore water leaches plant material and already stored SOC while simultaneously these leachates are transported downwards. However, there is a big uncertainty about the drivers of DOC flux; in particular about the importance of biological processes. We investigated the impact of plant diversity and other biotic drivers on DOC concentrations and total DOC fluxes (concentration × sampled water amount). In addition, we considered abiotic factors such as weather and soil conditions to assess the relative importance of biotic and abiotic drivers and how their importance changes over time. We used a comprehensive data set, gathered in the frame of the long-term biodiversity experiment "The Jena Experiment". Permanent monitoring started directly after establishment of the field site in 2002 and is still running. This enabled us to trace the impact of plant communities with their increasing establishment over the time on DOC concentration. We found the amount of sampled pore water best explained by rainfall, while it was not related to plant associated variables. Directly after establishing the experimental site, DOC concentrations were highest and then decreasing with time. In the first period of the experiment plant diversity had no or even a slightly negative impact on DOC concentrations. The direction of the plant diversity effect on DOC concentrations changed over time; namely in later phases we observed highest DOC concentrations on plots with high plant diversity. Moreover, DOC concentrations were negatively affected by increased amounts of sampled pore water indicating a dilution effect. Even though this impact was highly significant; its effect size was even less pronounced at later time points. In summary

  13. The Long-Term Impact of Subtractive Schooling in the Educational Experiences of Secondary English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menken, Kate; Kleyn, Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    This study examines a lesser-known population of students, called "long-term English language learners" (LTELLs) in the USA, who now comprise one-third of all English language learners in New York City secondary schools. A major finding from our research, which explores the characteristics and educational needs of this student population, is that…

  14. Do gerontology nurse specialists make a difference in hospitalization of long-term care residents? Results of a randomized comparison trial.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Michal; Armstrong, Delwyn; Parker, Janet; Pilcher, Carole; Zhou, Lifeng; McKenzie-Green, Barbara; Connolly, Martin J

    2014-10-01

    Residents of long-term care facilities have highly complex care needs and quality of care is of international concern. Maintaining resident wellness through proactive assessment and early intervention is key to decreasing the need for acute hospitalization. The Residential Aged Care Integration Program (RACIP) is a quality improvement intervention to support residential aged care staff and includes on-site support, education, clinical coaching, and care coordination provided by gerontology nurse specialists (GNSs) employed by a large district health board. The effect of the outreach program was evaluated through a randomized comparison of hospitalization 1 year before and after program implementation. The sample included 29 intervention facilities (1,425 residents) and 25 comparison facilities (1,128 residents) receiving usual care. Acute hospitalization rate unexpectedly increased for both groups after program implementation, although the rate of increase was significantly less for the intervention facilities. The hospitalization rate after the intervention increased 59% for the comparison group and 16% for the intervention group (rate ratio (RR) = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.61-0.86, P < .001). Subgroup analysis showed a significantly lower rate change for those admitted for medical reasons for the intervention group (13% increase) than the comparison group (69% increase) (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.56-0.82, P < .001). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the RR for surgical admissions between the intervention and comparison groups (RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.68-1.46, P = .99). The integration of GNS expertise through the RACIP intervention may be one approach to support staff to provide optimal care and potentially improve resident health. PMID:25283552

  15. A Long-Term Low-Frequency Hospital Outbreak of KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Involving Intergenus Plasmid Diffusion and a Persisting Environmental Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Tofteland, Ståle; Naseer, Umaer; Lislevand, Jan Helge; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Samuelsen, Ørjan

    2013-01-01

    Background To study the molecular characteristics of a long-term, low frequency outbreak of blaKPC-2 in a low prevalence setting involving the hospital environment. Methodology/Principal Findings KPC-producing bacteria were screened by selective chromogenic agar and Real-Time PCR. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes was ascribed by PCRs and subsequent sequencing, and the KPC-producing isolates were phylogenetically typed using PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing. BlaKPC-2-plasmids were identified and analysed by S1-nuclease-PFGE hybridization and PCR based replicon typing. A ∼97 kb IncFII plasmid was seen to carry blaKPC-2 in all of the clinical isolates, in one of the isolates recovered from screened patients (1/136), and in the Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter asburiae isolates recovered from the environment (sinks) in one intensive care unit. The K. pneumoniae strain ST258 was identified in 6 out of 7 patients. An intergenus spread to E. asburiae and an interspecies spread to two different K. pneumoniae clones (ST27 and ST461) of the blaKPC-2 plasmid was discovered. K. pneumoniae ST258 and genetically related E. asburiae strains were found in isolates of both human and environmental origins. Conclusions/Significance We document a clonal transmission of the K. pneumoniae ST258 strain, and an intergenus plasmid diffusion of the IncFII plasmid carrying blaKPC-2 in this outbreak. A major reservoir in the patient population could not be unveiled. However, the identification of a persisting environmental reservoir of strains with molecular determinants linked to human isolates, suggests a possible role of the environment in the maintenance of this long-term outbreak. PMID:23536849

  16. Effects of biotic and abiotic indices on long term soil moisture data in a grassland biodiversity experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Christine; Hohenbrink, Tobias; Leimer, Sophia; Roscher, Christiane; Ravenek, Janneke; de Kroon, Hans; Kreutziger, Yvonne; Wirth, Christian; Eisenhauer, Nico; Gleixner, Gerd; Weigelt, Alexandra; Mommer, Liesje; Beßler, Holger; Schröder, Boris; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture is the dynamic link between climate, soil and vegetation and the dynamics and variation are affected by several often interrelated factors such as soil texture, soil structural parameters (soil organic carbon) and vegetation parameters (belowground- and aboveground biomass). For the characterization and estimation of soil moisture and its variability and the resulting water fluxes and solute transports, the knowledge of the relative importance of these factors is of major challenge for hydrology and bioclimatology. Because of the heterogeneity of these factors, soil moisture varies strongly over time and space. Our objective was to assess the spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture and factors which could explain that variability, like soil properties and vegetation cover, in in a long term biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). The Jena Experiment consist 86 plots on which plant species richness (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 60) and functional groups (legumes, grasses, tall herbs, and small herbs) were manipulated in a factorial design Soil moisture measurements were performed weekly April to September 2003-2005 and 2008-2013 using Delta T theta probe. Measurements were integrated to three depth intervals: 0.0 - 0.20, 0.20 - 0.40 and 0.40 - 0.70 m. We analyze the spatio-temporal patterns of soil water content on (i) the normalized time series and (ii) the first components obtained from a principal component analysis (PCA). Both were correlated with the design variables of the Jena Experiment (plant species richness and plant functional groups) and other influencing factors such as soil texture, soil structural variables and vegetation parameters. For the time stability of soil water content, the analysis showed that plots containing grasses was consistently drier than average at the soil surface in all observed years while plots containing legumes comparatively moister, but only up to the year 2008. In 0.40 - 0.70 m soil deep plots presence of

  17. The End-of-Life Experience in Long-Term Care: Five Themes Identified from Focus Groups with Residents, Family Members, and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Jean C.; Dobbs, Debra; Meier, Andrea; Williams, Christianna S.; Biola, Holly; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We designed this study to examine the end-of-life (EOL) experience in long-term care (LTC) based on input from key stakeholders. Design and Methods: The study consisted of 10 homogeneous focus groups drawn from a purposive sample of LTC residents (2 groups; total n = 11), family caregivers (2 groups; total n = 19), paraprofessional staff…

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Intervention in Long-Term Aphasia Post-Stroke: The Experience from CHANT (Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumby, Katharyn; Whitworth, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite recognition of the need for increased long-term support for people with aphasia following stroke, there remains limited evidence for effective service-level interventions. Aims: To evaluate the outcomes and experiences of people participating in the Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside (CHANT), a 2-year partnership…

  19. Experiences of Followers in the Development of the Leader-Follower Relationship in Long-Term Health Care: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucia, David

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive phenomenological study explored the perceptions and experiences of followers in the development of the leader-follower relationship, within a long-term health care environment. This study is also framed within the disciplinary context of human resource development (HRD). This study addressed the research question, "During your…

  20. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with benign or atypical intracranial meningioma: Long-term experience and prognostic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Milker-Zabel, Stefanie . E-mail: stefanie_milker-zabel@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Zabel, Angelika; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Wannenmacher, Michael; Debus, Juergen

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: To analyze our long-term experience and prognostic factors after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with benign or atypical intracranial meningioma. Methods and materials: Between January 1985 and December 2001, 317 patients with a median age of 55.7 years were treated with FSRT for intracranial meningioma. The tumor distribution was World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 1 in 48.3%, WHO Grade 2 in 8.2%, and unknown in 43.5%. Of the 317 patients, 97 underwent RT as their primary treatment, 79 underwent postoperative RT (subtotal resection in 38 and biopsy only in 41), and 141 were treated for recurrent disease. The median target volume was 33.6 cm{sup 3} (range, 1.0-412.6 cm{sup 3}). The median total dose was 57.6 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction five times weekly. Results: The median follow-up was 5.7 years (range, 1.2-14.3 years). The overall local tumor control rate was 93.1% (295 of 317). Of the 317 patients, 72 had a partial response on CT/MRI and 223 (70.4%) remained stable. At a median of 4.5 years after FSRT, 22 patients (6.9%) had local tumor progression on MRI. Local tumor failure was significantly greater in patients with WHO Grade 2 meningioma (p < 0.002) than in patients with WHO Grade 1 or unknown histologic features. Patients treated for recurrent meningioma showed a trend toward decreased progression-free survival compared with patients treated with primary therapy, after biopsy, or after subtotal resection (p < 0.06). Patients with a tumor volume >60 cm{sup 3} had a recurrence rate of 15.5% vs. 4.3% for those with a tumor volume of {<=}60 cm{sup 3} (p < 0.001). In 42.9% of the patients, preexisting neurologic deficits improved. Worsening of preexisting neurologic symptoms occurred in 8.2%. Eight patients developed new clinical symptoms, such as reduced vision, trigeminal neuralgia, and intermittent tinnitus located at the side of the irradiated meningioma after FSRT. Conclusion: These data have demonstrated that FSRT is an

  1. Immigrants' mortality patterns in the short- and long-term point toward origin-related diversities: the Israeli experience.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, Uri; Leshukovits, Yuri; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2014-02-01

    Immigrant mortality studies reveal conflicting results that were attributed to diversity in immigrant definition, different classifications, and lack of appropriate comparisons. This work studied mortality patterns of the immigrations absorbed in Israel. Short-term mortality was evaluated by comparing the Standardized Mortality Rate (SMR) of the first year after immigration to the SMR of the second to fifth years. Long-term mortality was evaluated by comparing recent immigrant cohorts to cohorts of immigrants who have been residents 5 and 10 years. Stratification was made by source country classification and gender. Data were derived from the Israel National Population Registry and were analyzed anonymously. Immigrants from developed and developing countries had the highest SMR in the first year, which considerably decreased in both short and long term. Immigrants from mid-developed countries had stable SMR in the short term followed by only a modest decrease in the long term. Ethiopian immigrants exhibited exceptionally low SMR in the first year, following which it increased but remained relatively low. Mortality patterns of different immigrant groups differ even under similar definitions, conditions, and period. Only immigrants of developed and developing countries presented the expected pattern of excessive short-term mortality, which consistently decreased with time. Unique mortality patterns were discovered among two groups: Immigrants from mid-developed countries presented stable mortality attributable to isolation and delayed adaptation, and Ethiopian low mortality attributable to pre-migration natural selection. PMID:23765036

  2. Carbohydrate-antigen-125 levels predict hospital stay duration and adverse events at long-term follow-up in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Francesco; Ferraretti, Armando; Musaico, Francesco; Di Martino, Luigi; Tarantino, Nicola; Ieva, Riccardo; Di Biase, Matteo; Brunetti, Natale Daniele

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible role of carbohydrate-antigen(CA)-125 as prognostic marker at short- and long-term follow-up, in subjects with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). Sixty-three consecutive subjects with TTC were enrolled in the study and followed for a median 139 days. Circulating levels of CA-125, NT-proBNP, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated at admission. Duration of hospital stay, incidence of death, re-hospitalization and recurrence of TTC during follow-up were recorded. The mean hospital stay was 8.3 days, adverse events occurred during follow up in 17 % of cases. CA-125 levels at admission are inversely related to LVEF (r -0.30, p < 0.05) and directly related to hospital stay (r 0.29, p < 0.05). CA-125 levels at admission are higher in subjects with adverse events at follow-up (88.9 ± 200.0 vs 20.9 ± 30.0 U/mL, p < 0.05). Rates of incidence of adverse events are proportionally increased with CA-125 tertiles (0, 6, 11 % respectively, p for trend <0.01), at survival analysis (Log Rank p < 0.05) and after correction for age, gender, LVEF and NT-proBNP levels in multivariable Cox analysis (p < 0.05). CA-125 levels <10 U/ml are predictors of adverse events at follow up with 91 % sensitivity, 52 % specificity, 29 % positive predictive power, and 96 % negative predictive power. Increased CA-125 admission levels are associated with a longer hospital stay, a lower LVEF, and a higher risk of adverse events during follow up. CA-125 might be useful for early risk stratification of subjects with TTC. PMID:26832351

  3. Response of soil carbon dioxide efflux to fire disturbance in a long-term grassland global change experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, A. L.; Chiariello, N.; Tobeck, T.; Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    How terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange responds to global change is an important component to understanding global feedbacks of the carbon cycle. Soils represent a global store of organic carbon on the order of 3000 Pg C. Increased carbon dioxide release from increased respiration of soil C in response to climate warming and other direct and indirect anthropogenic factors could create a positive carbon cycle feedback to climate change. Numerous studies have demonstrated that soil respiration increases under experimental warming and elevated CO2, although the long-term, multi-year dynamics of this feedback remain poorly constrained. Punctuated disturbances, such as fire, are also likely to affect soil C responses, and understanding how fire and other global change factors interact in their influence on soil respiration is important in order to fully characterize climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. Previous studies have found that fire disturbance in semi-arid grasslands reduces soil CO2. The Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment is a thirteen-year continuous full-factorial global change manipulation (elevated carbon dioxide, temperature, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition) located in a clay-loam soil grassland in central coastal California. In summer 2011, an additional treatment condition -- a controlled burn -- was applied to half the experimental plots to provide a fire treatment, and in the following growing season, soil carbon dioxide effluxes were measured at peak aboveground plant biomass (April 2012) and after summer senescence (June 2012) using a LiCOR-6400 soil respiration chamber and infrared gas analyzer. Across all plots and other treatments, CO2 fluxes were greater in burned grassland soils than in non-burned grassland soils (p < 0.01). CO2 fluxes were also greater in grassland plots with N addition than in grassland plots without additional nutrients (p < 0.01). These two effects appear to be additive, as CO2 fluxes were greater

  4. Late effects in long-term survivors of ALL in childhood: experiences from the SPOG late effects study.

    PubMed

    von der Weid, N

    2001-04-01

    With the use of more intensive regimens including prophylactic CNS treatment, the prognosis of children with ALL has dramatically improved over the last three decades. The aim of this cross-sectional, nationwide study was to comprehensively assess long-term toxicity in ALL survivors, with special attention given to neuropsychological morbidity, and to look for possible differences in cognitive outcome between children having received prophylactic cranial irradiation and those not having received it. Between 1994 and 1996, long-term survivors of ALL were assessed in a multi-center setting according to a standardized protocol which included, besides usual clinical and laboratory investigations, a comprehensive endocrine work-up. Additionally, children having received anthracyclines were checked for possible late cardio-toxicity with echocardiography and ECG. Intellectual performance was evaluated with standardized neuropsychological tests (age-adapted versions of the Wechsler test). One-hundred and fifty patients were eligible for the study. The median age at diagnosis was 5 years and at evaluation 16 years, for a median follow-up of 10 years. Thirty-five patients had cranial irradiation as part of the prophylactic CNS treatment. One-hundred and forty (93%) of the 150 eligible patients were completely evaluated in terms of global long-term toxicity: 117 (83%) long-term survivors had no (n = 61) or only minimal (n = 56) late toxicity; 19 (14%) suffered from moderate impairments; 4 (3%) showed severe somatic or neuropsychological sequelae. Intellectual performance could be assessed in 147 (98%) of the 150 eligible patients. The mean global, verbal and non-verbal IQs (103, 105 and 101 respectively) of the ALL survivors as a group were comparable with those found in the general population. The results of the comparison between children having and those not having received prophylactic cranial irradiation showed: 1) significantly higher scores in chemotherapy-only treated

  5. Large-sized Fetal Striatal Grafts in Huntington's Disease Do Stop Growing: Long-term Monitoring in the Florence Experience.

    PubMed

    Mascalchi, Mario; Diciotti, Stefano; Paganini, Marco; Bianchi, Andrea; Ginestroni, Andrea; Lombardini, Letizia; Porfirio, Berardino; Conti, Renato; Di Lorenzo, Nicola; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Gallina, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Development of six large nodules of solid tissue after bilateral human fetal striatal transplantation in four Huntington's disease patients has raised concern about the safety of this experimental therapy in our setting. We investigated by serial MRI-based volumetric analysis the growth behaviour of such grafts. After 33-73 months from transplantation the size of five grafts was stable and one graft showed a mild decrease in size. Signs neither of intracranial hypertension nor of adjuctive focal neurological deficit have ever been observed. This supports long-term safety of the grafting procedure at our Institution. PMID:25642368

  6. Seasonal dynamics of the microbiome of chernozems of the long-term agrochemical experiment in Kamennaya Steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, T. I.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Ivanova, E. A.; Kutovaya, O. V.; Turusov, V. I.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal variability (spring-summer-autumn) of the taxonomic structure of prokaryotic microbiomes in chernozems of Kamennaya Steppe was studied using sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The samples were collected from the topsoil (0-20 cm) horizons of a long-term fallow and croplands differing in the rates of application of mineral fertilizers (NPK). The seasonal dynamics of the prokaryotic community in the soils of the fallow and croplands were similar: the summer samples significantly differed from the spring ones; in autumn, the microbiome structure approached that in spring; these changes were probably related to corresponding changes in the temperature and moisture conditions of the growing season. For all the plots, significant seasonal changes in the proportions of Thaumarchaeota (Cranarchaeota), Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and V errucomicrobia phylogenetic groups were observed. The significant changes in the structure of the microbiomes (especially in the number of representatives of the Firmicutes, Cemmatiomonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia phyla) were revealed in the arable and fallow soils irrespectively of the season. The phylogenetic diversity estimated by the Shannon index, the number of the operating taxonomic units found, and the Chao1 index differed little in the soils of the studies plots. The long-term application of mineral fertilizers at different rates had little effect on the taxonomic structure and diversity of prokaryotic communities in the agrochernozems.

  7. Medicare program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system and Fiscal Year 2014 rates; quality reporting requirements for specific providers; hospital conditions of participation; payment policies related to patient status. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2013-08-19

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. Some of the changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act) and other legislation. These changes will be applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2013, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. We also are updating the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. The updated rate-of-increase limits will be effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2013. We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and implementing certain statutory changes that were applied to the LTCH PPS by the Affordable Care Act. Generally, these updates and statutory changes will be applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2013, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. In addition, we are making a number of changes relating to direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education (IME) payments. We are establishing new requirements or have revised requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, LTCHs, and inpatient psychiatric facilities (IPFs)) that are participating in Medicare. We are updating policies relating to the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program and the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program. In addition, we are revising the conditions of participation (CoPs) for hospitals relating to the

  8. Experiences of a long-term randomized controlled prevention trial in a maiden environment: Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, Sirpa-Liisa; Veerus, Piret; Rahu, Mati; Hemminki, Elina

    2008-01-01

    Background Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in a long-term randomized controlled trial and discuss the impact and consequences of changes in the research environment. Methods The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial (EPHT), originally planned to continue for five years, was planned in co-operation with the Women's International Study of Long-Duration Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM) in the UK. In addition to health outcomes, EPHT was specifically designed to study the impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on health services utilization. Results After EPHT recruited in 1999–2001 the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in the USA decided to stop the estrogen-progestin trial after a mean of 5.2 years in July 2002 because of increased risk of breast cancer and later in 2004 the estrogen-only trial because HT increased the risk of stroke, decreased the risk of hip fracture, and did not affect coronary heart disease incidence. WISDOM was halted in autumn 2002. These decisions had a major influence on EPHT. Conclusion Changes in Estonian society challenged EPHT to find a balance between the needs of achieving responses to the trial aims with a limited budget and simultaneously maintaining the safety of trial participants. Flexibility was the main key for success. Rapid changes are not limited only to transiting societies but are true also in developed countries and the risk must be included in planning all long-term trials. The role of ethical and data monitoring committees in situations with emerging new data from other studies needs specification. Longer funding for preventive trials and more flexibility in budgeting are mandatory. Who should prove the effectiveness of an (old) drug for a new preventive indication? In preventive drug trials companies may donate drugs but they take a

  9. [Immediate implant loading using DenTi implants--our long-term experience. Part 2: Experience with DenTi implants as reflected in the literature].

    PubMed

    István, Vajdovich; Mihály, Bandula; Péter, Bóka; Zsuzsanna, Tóth

    2006-12-01

    Immediate loading of dental implants have been widely used to retain and support cross-arch partial dentures. 3-6 months after implantation the osseointegration is established. This period may be shortened with immediate loading of implants. The purpose of this study was to compare the long term experience of immediate loading of DenTi implants and the results reported in available literature. The most relevant articles were selected from current available literature. The influencing factors of success of immediate loading (surgery,- host,- implant and occlusion-related factors) were investigated and discussed in this article. The result of the evaluation showed that the success rate of the immediate loaded DenTi implants with large grit sandblasted treatment and acid etched surface was higher than 95 %. The success rate of the immediate loaded DenTi implants is similar to the ones reported in the available literature. PMID:17444128

  10. Autonomy, Choice, Patient-Centered Care, and Hip Protectors: The Experience of Residents and Staff in Long-Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Sims-Gould, Joanie; McKay, Heather A.; Feldman, Fabio; Scott, Victoria; Robinovitch, Stephen N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine long-term care (LTC) resident and staff perceptions on the decision to use hip protectors and identify the factors that influence attitudes toward hip protector use. Staff (N = 39) and residents (N = 27) at two residential care facilities in British Columbia, Canada were invited to participate in focus groups on fall prevention and hip protector use. A total of 11 focus groups were conducted. Using framework analysis results show that residents and staff shared concerns on aesthetic and comfort issues with hip protectors. Residents also generally felt they did not need, or want to use, hip protectors. However, they also had desire to be cooperative within the LTC environment. Staff underscored their role in advocating for hip protector use and their desire to protect residents from harm. Practice considerations for facilities wishing to promote hip protectors within a patient centered framework are highlighted. PMID:24652886

  11. Perceptions of long-term care, autonomy, and dignity, by residents, family and care-givers: the Houston experience.

    PubMed

    Boisaubin, Eugene V; Chu, Adeline; Catalano, Janine M

    2007-01-01

    Houston, Texas, is a major U.S. city with, like many, a growing aging population. The purpose of this study and ultimate book chapter is to explore the views and perceptions of long-term care (LTC) residents, family members and health care providers. Individuals primarily in independent living and group residential settings were interviewed and studied. Questions emphasized the concepts of personal autonomy, dignity, quality and location of care and decision making. Although a small sample of participants were involved, consistency was noted. Keeping the elderly in caring and loving home situations (theirs or family) was most preferred. Personal choice and independence were emphasized by residents, but family members needed to act as advocates. We also noted that the legal system emphasizes family control over individual decision making as competency declines with aging. Optimal personal decision making in the residents' best interest also became more difficult with loss of individual mental capacity. PMID:17924271

  12. Long-term clinical outcomes of focal impulse and rotor modulation for treatment of atrial fibrillation: A multicenter experience

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Eric; Share, Michael; Tung, Roderick; Benharash, Peyman; Sharma, Parikshit; Koneru, Jayanthi; Mandapati, Ravi; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND New approaches to ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) include focal impulse and rotor modulation (FIRM). Studies of this technology with short-term follow-up have shown favorable outcomes. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to characterize the long-term results of FIRM ablation in a cohort of patients treated at 2 academic medical centers. METHODS All FIRM-guided ablation procedures (n = 43) at UCLA Medical Center and Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center performed between January 2012 and October 2013 were included for analysis. During AF, FIRM software constructed phase maps from unipolar atrial electrograms to identify putative AF sources. These sites were targeted for ablation, along with pulmonary vein isolation in 77% of patients. RESULTS AF was paroxysmal in 56%, and 67% had prior AF ablation. All patients had rotors identified (mean 2.6 ± 1.2 per patient, 77% in LA). Prespecified acute procedural end-point was achieved in 47% of patients (n = 20): AF termination in 4, organization in 7, >10% slowing of AF cycle length in 9. Acute complications occurred in 4 patients (9.3%). At 18 ± 7 months of follow-up, 37% were free from documented recurrent AF after a 3-month blanking period; 21% were free from documented atrial tachyarrhythmias and off antiarrhythmic drugs. Multivariate analysis did not reveal any significant predictors of AF recurrence, including pattern of AF, acute procedural success, or prior failed ablation. CONCLUSION Long-term clinical results after FIRM ablation in this cohort of patients showed poor efficacy, different from previously published studies. Randomized studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and clinical utility of this ablation approach for treating AF. PMID:26498260

  13. Short and long-term safety of lenograstim administration in healthy peripheral haematopoietic progenitor cell donors: a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Martino, M; Console, G; Dattola, A; Callea, I; Messina, G; Moscato, T; Massara, E; Irrera, G; Fedele, R; Gervasi, A; Bresolin, G; Iacopino, P

    2009-08-01

    Healthy donors (HDs) who were mobilized using lenograstim (LENO) and who were undergoing peripheral haematopoietic progenitor cell collection with apheresis (HPC-A) were enrolled in a surveillance protocol. In all, 184 HDs have been assessed with a median follow-up of 62 months (range 2-155). HDs received LENO at a median dose of 10 microg/kg (range 5-15). Bone pain was reported as the most frequent short-term adverse event (71.2%). Other commonly observed short-term symptoms included fatigue (19.0%), fever (5.4%), headache (27.7%), nausea (12.0%) and insomnia (22.3%). Spleen size increased in 4.3% of the donors. No vascular disorders or cardiac disease occurred. Long-term follow-up included monitoring of adverse events, neoplastic disease or other pathologies. Transit ischaemic attack occurred in one donor (39 months post-donation). One autoimmune event was reported at 28 months post-recombinant human granulocyte (rhG)-CSF (ankylosing spondylitis); one donor with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed secondary polyglobulia (50 months post-rhG-CSF). One donor was diagnosed with lung cancer at 19 months post-donation. No haematological disease was observed. In conclusion, the short-term safety appears to be verified, whereas, although the study identified no increased risks of malignancy among HDs who received rhG-CSF, long-term safety requires more complete data sets, especially a longer follow-up and a larger number of HDs. PMID:19182833

  14. Long-Term Outcomes After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation from a Single High-Volume Center (The Milan Experience).

    PubMed

    Ruparelia, Neil; Latib, Azeem; Buzzatti, Nicola; Giannini, Francesco; Figini, Filippo; Mangieri, Antonio; Regazzoli, Damiano; Stella, Stefano; Sticchi, Alessandro; Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Akihito; Agricola, Eustachio; Monaco, Fabrizio; Castiglioni, Alessandro; Ancona, Marco; Cioni, Micaela; Spagnolo, Pietro; Chieffo, Alaide; Montorfano, Matteo; Alfieri, Ottavio; Colombo, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is now the treatment of choice for patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis who are inoperable or with high surgical risk. Data with regards to contemporary clinical practice and long-term outcomes are sparse. To evaluate temporal changes in TAVI practice and explore procedural and long-term clinical outcomes of patients in a contemporary "real-world" population, outcomes of 829 patients treated from November 2007 to May 2015, at the San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy, were retrospectively analyzed. Median follow-up was 568 days, with the longest follow-up of 2,677 days. Overall inhospital mortality was 3.5%. During the study period, there was a trend toward treating younger, lower risk patients. Overall mortality rates were 3.5% (30 days), 14% (1 year), 22% (2 years), 29% (3 years), 37% (4 years), 47% (5 years), 53% (6 years), and 72% (7 years). The survival probability at 5 years was significantly higher in patients treated through the transfemoral (TF) route compared to other vascular access sites (log rank p <0.001). Non-TF vascular access and residual paravalvular leak ≥2 (after TAVI) were identified as independent predictors for both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. No patient required further aortic valve intervention for TAVI prosthesis degeneration. In conclusion, there is a trend toward treating younger, lower-risk patients. Non-TF vascular access approach and ≥2 PVL after TAVI were identified as independent predictors for both overall and cardiovascular mortality with no cases of prosthesis degeneration suggesting acceptable durability. PMID:26742477

  15. A demonstration study comparing “role-emergent” versus “role-established” pharmacy clinical placement experiences in long-term care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing challenges to recruit hospital sites with full-time on-site pharmacy preceptors for institutional-based Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPE) has made it necessary to consider alternate experiential models. Sites with on-site discipline specific preceptors to supervise students have typically been referred to in the literature as “role-established” sites. In British Columbia, long-term care (LTC) facilities offered a unique opportunity to address placement capacity issues. However, since the majority of these facilities are serviced by off-site community pharmacists, this study was undertaken to explore the viability of supervising pharmacy students remotely – a model referred to in the literature as “role-emergent” placements. This paper’s objectives are to discuss pharmacy preceptors’ and LTC non-pharmacist staff experiences with this model. Methods The study consisted of three phases: (1) the development phase which included delivery of a training program to create a pool of potential LTC preceptors, (2) an evaluation phase to test the viability of the LTC role-emergent model with seven pharmacists (two role-established and five role-emergent) together with their LTC staff, and (3) expansion of LTC role-emergent sites to build capacity. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to obtain feedback from pharmacists and staff and t-tests and Mann–Whitney U tests were used to examine equivalency of survey outcomes from staff representing both models. Results The 76 pharmacists who completed the training program survey rated the modules as “largely” meeting their learning needs. All five role-emergent pharmacists and 29 LTC participating staff reported positive experiences with the pharmacy preceptor-student-staff collaboration. Preceptors reported that having students work side-by-side with facility staff promoted inter-professional collaboration. The staff viewed students’ presence as a mutually

  16. Excellent long term patient and renal allograft survival after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation: Experience of one center

    PubMed Central

    Melexopoulou, Christina; Marinaki, Smaragdi; Liapis, George; Skalioti, Chrysanthi; Gavalaki, Maria; Zavos, George; Boletis, John N

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the long-term results of ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation in a single center in Greece. METHODS: Thirty consecutive ABOi kidney transplantations were performed from June 2005 to December 2013. All patients received rituximab one month prior to transplantation. Immunoadsorption therapy was performed for the removal of anti-A/B IgG antibodies until the titer was ≤ 1:16. Additional apheresis sessions were performed post-operatively. Intravenous immunoglobulin and oral immunosuppression consisting of tacrolimus (TAC) in combination with either everolimus or mycophenolate acid was administered. We compared the long term results of our ABOi group to those of a matched group of 30 ABO compatible (ABOc) living kidney recipients with similar baseline characteristics. The ABOc recipients received an immunosuppressive regimen consisting of TAC and mycophenolate acid. All patients in both groups received induction therapy with Basiliximab or Daclizumab, whereas corticosteroids were instituted on the day of surgery. During the follow-up period, indication biopsies were performed and interpreted by an experienced nephropathologist. The parameters we analyzed included the following: Donor/recipient age, gender, blood type, human leukocyte antigen mismatches, panel reactive antibodies, primary cause of renal failure, mean time on dialysis, immunosuppressive regimen, patient survival, graft outcome, incidence of rejections, surgical and infectious complications. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 6 years (range 1 to 9 years). A mean of 5.0 ± 3.0 (range 0-14) pre-transplant immunoadsorptions were required in order to reach the target titer. Patient survival in ABOi group in comparison to ABOc group at 1, 3, 5 and 8 years did not differ significantly (100% vs 100%, 96% vs 100%, 92% vs 100% and 92% vs 100%, P = ns). Additionally, graft survival was similar in the two groups at the same time points (100% vs 100%, 96% vs 96%, 92% vs 96% and 81

  17. A job description for the effective self-management of a long-term condition: experiences of living with difficult asthma.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Maureen; Rickards, Emma

    2013-04-01

    This paper concerns a study exploring the salience of a 'job description' for the effective self-management of a long-term condition to the experiences of a group of women living with difficult asthma. This is a life-threatening disease. It has been claimed that sufferers are a marginalised, misunderstood, mistreated and vulnerable group. The method involved secondary analysis of focus group data. The job description has been developed as a tool to enable nurses to facilitate and support effective self-management. This study was designed to examine the application of this tool to a particular case. Long-term conditions are a growing feature of the developed world and are strongly implicated in health inequalities. They are more prevalent in socially and economically disadvantaged populations and therefore add further burden to already vulnerable people. Effective self-management is critical to adapting and adjusting to the experience of a long-term condition and nurses have a responsibility to promote this process. PMID:23721390

  18. Long-Term Outcomes of Homografts in the Aortic Valve and Root Position: A 20-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The advantages of using a homograft in valve replacement surgery are the excellent hemodynamic profile, low risk of thromboembolism, and low risk of prosthetic valve infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of homograft implantation in the aortic valve position. Methods This is a retrospective study of 33 patients (>20 years old) who underwent aortic valve replacement or root replacement with homografts between April 1995 and May 2015. Valves were collected within 24 hours from explanted hearts of heart transplant recipients (<60 years) and organ donors who were not suitable for heart transplantation. The median follow-up duration was 35.6 months (range, 0 to 168 months). Results Aortic homografts were used in all patients. The 30-day mortality rate was 9.1%. The 1- and 5-year survival rates were 80.0%±7.3% and 60.8%±10.1%, respectively. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year freedom from reoperation rates were 92.3%±5.2%, 68.9%±10.2%, and 50.3%±13.6%, respectively. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year freedom from significant aortic dysfunction rates were 91.7%±8.0%, 41.7%±14.2%, and 25.0%±12.5%, respectively. Conclusion Homografts had the advantages of a good hemodynamic profile and low risk of thromboembolic events, and with good outcomes in cases of aortitis. PMID:27525234

  19. Long-Term Results of Vena Cava Filters: Experiences with the LGM and the Titanium Greenfield Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, Guenther; Kueppers, Vera; Tschammler, Alexander; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Kenn, Werner; Hahn, Dietbert

    1998-05-15

    Purpose: Vena cava filter (VCF) application is the method of choice to prevent recurrent pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis. Because of the reported complications after VCF placement we summarize our long-term follow-up results with the LGM and Titanium Greenfield (TG) devices. Methods: Eighty-seven LGM VCF and 17 TG VCF were placed in 104 patients (average age 64 years). The follow-up examinations were performed by color-coded duplex sonography, plain radiographs, cavography, and computed tomo-graphy (CT). The maximum observation time was 81 months. Results: Filter migration occurred in 11% (8/76) of the LGM VCF and 15% (2/13) of the TG VCF. Vena cava thrombosis was seen in 17% (13/76) of the patients with an LGM VCF and in 31% (4/13) of those with a TG VCF. The patency rate was 95% (72/76) for the LGM VCF and 92% (12/13) for the TG VCF. Pulmonary embolism was noted in 3 patients after LGM VCF insertion and in no patient after TG VCF insertion. Conclusion: A VCF should only be inserted in a patient after pulmonary embolism and when there is strict proof of the indication.

  20. Preliminary Data: An Adapted Hospital Elder Life Program to Prevent Delirium and Reduce Complications of Acute Illness in Long-Term Care Delivered by Certified Nursing Assistants.

    PubMed

    Boockvar, Kenneth S; Teresi, Jeanne A; Inouye, Sharon K

    2016-05-01

    Nursing home (NH) residents have a high prevalence of delirium risk factors, experience two to four acute medical conditions (e.g., infections) each year, and have an incidence of delirium during these conditions similar to that of hospitalized older adults. Many NH residents with delirium do not return to their prior level of cognitive function. They are more likely to die, be hospitalized, and less likely to be discharged home than those without delirium. Research on the prevention or treatment of delirium in NHs is limited. This article describes the development and pilot testing of a multicomponent delirium prevention intervention in the NH setting adapted from the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP-LTC). Activities to reduce the risk of delirium that were appropriate for functionally impaired NH residents were developed and delivered during treatment for and recovery from acute illness, a novel resident-targeting approach. Expertly trained certified nursing assistants (CNAs - a total of 1.4 full-time equivalent (FTE) positions-) visited residents throughout the facility and delivered the activities. The current study reports on incident delirium, delirium remission, cognitive and physical function change, hospitalization, and death associated with acute medical conditions as ascertained by a program coordinator. The integration and acceptance of the CNAs' activities by residents and staff are also reported on. Hospitalization and death were ascertained in a nonintervention comparison group. Findings support a test of the intervention in a controlled trial. The potential effect is great; there are approximately 1.4 million NH residents in the United States and an estimated 1 million with dementia or cognitive impairment, an important delirium risk factor. An intervention would be broadly adoptable if a reduction in healthcare costs through prevention of hospitalization offset the cost of the program's CNAs. PMID:27160212

  1. Hodgkin's lymphoma--long-term outcome: an experience from a tertiary care cancer center in North India.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Prasanth; Kumar, Lalit; Raina, Vinod; Sharma, Atul; Bakhshi, Sameer; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Vijayaraghavan, Malini; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2011-10-01

    Limited information is available from developing countries on long-term outcome of patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Between January 1998 and December 2005, 262 patients (age ≥15 years) underwent treatment. Patients' median age was 30 years, ranging from 15 to 72 years. Male to female ratio was 2.8:1. B symptoms were present in 64% of patients. Seventy percent of patients had stage III and IV disease. Mixed cellularity (52.3%) was the most common histology followed by nodular sclerosis (38%). ABVD chemotherapy was used in 85% of the patients, and 50% received radiotherapy as consolidation. Following treatment 92% of patients achieved complete response. Five-year freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) and overall survival rate are 78.3% and 86.6% ± 0.02% (95% CI 80.0-93.2%), respectively. Stage at presentation, number of lymph node regions involved (≥3 vs ≤2), presence of B symptoms, and serum albumin (≥40 vs <40 g/L) were important determinants of FFTF. In a subset analysis of stage I and II HL patients, presence of bulky disease and pure infradiaphragmatic disease was associated with inferior outcome. On multivariate analysis involvement of three or more number of lymph node regions was a significant predictor of inferior freedom from treatment failure survival (hazard ratio 2.2, p < 0.01). Our analysis confirms excellent outcome for patients of Hodgkin's lymphoma with results comparable to developed countries. PMID:21625999

  2. Numerical simulation experiments on the long-term evolution of a CO2 plume under a sloping caprock

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2009-08-15

    We have used the TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N code to perform numerical simulation studies of the long-term behavior of CO{sub 2} stored in an aquifer with a sloping caprock. This problem is of great practical interest, and is very challenging due to the importance of multi-scale processes. We find that the mechanism of plume advance is different from what is seen in a forced immiscible displacement, such as gas injection into a water-saturated medium. Instead of pushing the water forward, the plume advances because the vertical pressure gradients within the plume are smaller than hydrostatic, causing the water column to collapse at the plume tip. Gas saturations and updip CO{sub 2} fluxes are nearly constant, independent of time and position, in the upper, mobile portions of the plume. The CO{sub 2} plume becomes thinner as it advances, yet the speed of advancement remains constant over the entire simulation period of up to 400 years, with migration distances of more than 80 km. Our simulation includes dissolution of CO{sub 2} into the aqueous phase and associated density increase, and molecular diffusion. However, no convection develops in the aqueous phase because it is suppressed by the relatively coarse (sub-)horizontal gridding required in a regional-scale model. A first crude sub-grid-scale model was implemented to represent convective enhancement of CO{sub 2} dissolution. This process is found to greatly reduce the thickness of the CO{sub 2} plume, but does not affect the speed of plume advancement.

  3. Long-term patterns of solar irradiance forcing in model experiments and proxy based surface temperature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waple, A. M.; Mann, M. E.; Bradley, R. S.

    2002-02-01

    Comparisons are made of long-term empirical and model-estimated patterns of solar irradiance forcing during a 200-year period (1650-1850), which precedes any apparent anthropogenic influence on climate. This interval encompasses a considerable range (approximately 4 W/m2) of estimated variation in solar output, including the "Maunder" and "Dalton" Minima of solar irradiance, and an intervening interval of relatively high values of irradiance, but does not encroach into the industrial era wherein it is difficult to separate solar and anthropogenic influences. Particular emphasis is placed on comparing empirical and modeled patterns of forced surface temperature variation. The empirical patterns bear a greater similarity to the pattern of forced response of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (AOGCM) than with an independent model simulation result using an ocean with specified heat transport, both in terms of the spatial pattern of response and implied global mean sensitivity to forcing. Heightened sensitivity in the western Pacific warm pool apparent in the empirical response pattern, is not observed in the forced response of the coupled model. It is possible that this pattern is the result of feedback processes not currently reproduced in course-resolution coupled models. The greatest empirical response is found at the multidecadal-to-century (> 40 year period) time scale, for which the forcing is dominated by the roughly 90-year Gleissberg Cycle of irradiance. This indicates a global-mean sensitivity (approximately 0.3 K/W/m2), which is close to the coupled model result (approximately 0.4 K/W/m2). At decadal time scales (8-25 year period), for which the forcing is dominated by the 11-year and 22-year period solar cycles), the temperature sensitivity is moderately reduced, and its spatial pattern of response is dominated by an apparent resonance with known decadal modes of climate variability.

  4. Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippanera, D.; Ruch, J.; Acocella, V.; Rivalta, E.

    2015-10-01

    The shallow transport of magma occurs through dikes causing surface deformation. Our understanding of the effects of diking at the surface is limited, especially on the long term, for repeated intrusive episodes. We use analogue models to study the upper crustal deformation induced by dikes. We insert metal plates within cohesive sand with three setups: in setup A, the intrusion rises upward with constant thickness and in setups B and C, the intrusion thickens at a fixed depth, with final rectangular (setup B) or triangular (setup C) shape in section. Setup A creates a doming delimited by reverse faults, with secondary apical graben, without close correspondence in nature. In setups B and C, a depression flanked by two uplifted areas is bordered by inward dipping normal faults propagating downward and, for deeper intrusions in setup B, also by inner faults, reverse at the surface; this deformation is similar to what is observed in nature, suggesting a consistent physical behavior. Dikes in nature initially propagate developing a mode I fracture at the tip, subsequently thickened by magma intrusion, without any host rock translation in the propagation direction (as in setup A). The deformation pattern in setups B and C depends on the intrusion depth and thickness, consistently to what is observed along divergent plate boundaries. The early deformation in setups B and C is similar to that from a single rifting episode (i.e., Lakagigar, Iceland, and Dabbahu, Afar), whereas the late stages resemble the structure of mature rifts (i.e., Krafla, Iceland), confirming diking as a major process in shaping divergent plate boundaries.

  5. Long-term effects of cocaine experience on neuroplasticity in the nucleus accumbens core of addiction-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Waselus, M; Flagel, S B; Jedynak, J P; Akil, H; Robinson, T E; Watson, S J

    2013-09-17

    Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse is associated with structural plasticity in brain reward pathways. Rats selectively bred for locomotor response to novelty differ on a number of neurobehavioral dimensions relevant to addiction. This unique genetic animal model was used here to examine both pre-existing differences and long-term consequences of repeated cocaine treatment on structural plasticity. Selectively bred high-responder (bHR) and low-responder (bLR) rats received repeated saline or cocaine injections for 9 consecutive days. Escalating doses of cocaine (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg) were administered on the first (day 1) and last (day 9) days of treatment and a single injection of the intermediate dose (15 mg/kg) was given on days 2-8. Motor activity in response to escalating doses of cocaine was compared on the first and last days of treatment to assess the acute and sensitized response to the drug. Following prolonged cocaine abstinence (28 days), spine density was examined on terminal dendrites of medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens core. Relative to bLRs, bHRs exhibited increased psychomotor activation in response to both the acute and repeated effects of cocaine. There were no differences in spine density between bHR and bLR rats under basal conditions or following repeated saline treatment. However, spine density differed markedly between these two lines following prolonged cocaine abstinence. All spine types were decreased in cocaine-treated bHRs, while only mushroom spines were decreased in bLRs that received cocaine. Changes in spine density occurred specifically near the branch point of terminal dendrites. These findings indicate that structural plasticity associated with prolonged cocaine abstinence varies markedly in two selected strains of rats that vary on numerous traits relevant to addiction. Thus, genetic factors that contribute to individual variation in the behavioral response to cocaine also influence cocaine-induced structural

  6. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF COCAINE EXPERIENCE ON NEUROPLASTICITY IN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS CORE OF ADDICTION-PRONE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Waselus, Maria; Flagel, Shelly B.; Jedynak, Jakub P.; Akil, Huda; Robinson, Terry E.; Watson, Stanley J.

    2013-01-01

    Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse is associated with structural plasticity in brain reward pathways. Rats selectively bred for locomotor response to novelty differ on a number of neurobehavioral dimensions relevant to addiction. This unique genetic animal model was used here to examine both pre-existing differences and long-term consequences of repeated cocaine treatment on structural plasticity. Selectively bred high-responder (bHR) and low-responder (bLR) rats received repeated saline or cocaine injections for 9 consecutive days. Escalating doses of cocaine (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg) were administered on the first (day 1) and last (day 9) days of treatment and a single injection of the intermediate dose (15 mg/kg) was given on days 2-8. Motor activity in response to escalating doses of cocaine was compared on the first and last days of treatment to assess the acute and sensitized response to the drug. Following prolonged cocaine abstinence (28 days), spine density was examined on terminal dendrites of medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens core. Relative to bLRs, bHRs exhibited increased psychomotor activation in response to both the acute and repeated effects of cocaine. There were no differences in spine density between bHR and bLR rats under basal conditions or following repeated saline treatment. However, spine density differed markedly between these two lines following prolonged cocaine abstinence. All spine types were decreased in cocaine-treated bHRs, while only mushroom spines were decreased in bLRs that received cocaine. Changes in spine density occurred specifically near the branch point of terminal dendrites. These findings indicate that structural plasticity associated with prolonged cocaine abstinence varies markedly in two selected strains of rats that vary on numerous traits relevant to addiction. Thus, genetic factors that contribute to individual variation in the behavioral response to cocaine also influence cocaine-induced structural

  7. [Gender influence on the formation of alcohol preference and combination of alcohol with caffein in the condition of the long-term experiment].

    PubMed

    Kucher, E O; Egorov, A Iu; Filatova, E V; Kulagina, K O; Chernikova, N A

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was the investigation of ethanol and caffeine influence on the alcohol preference formation and behavior in male and female rats under the conditions of long-term experiment. For both sexes, the long consumption of caffeine, ethanol and their combination leads to the increase of alcohol consumption compared to the controls. The maximum ethanol consumption has been observed in the group with ethanol + caffeine intake. In these experiments, the behavioral activity has increased compared to the rats who received only alcohol and controls. The significant elevation of anxiety levels was noted in female, but not in male, rats in all experimental groups compared to the controls. PMID:23235416

  8. Fingolimod in the treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: long-term experience and an update on the clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Bhupendra O.

    2016-01-01

    Since the approval in 2010 of fingolimod 0.5 mg (Gilenya; Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland) in the USA as an oral therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, long-term clinical experience with this therapy has been increasing. This review provides a summary of the cumulative dataset from clinical trials and their extensions, plus postmarketing studies that contribute to characterizing the efficacy and safety profile of fingolimod in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Data from the controlled, phase III, pivotal studies [FREEDOMS (FTY720 Research Evaluating Effects of Daily Oral therapy in Multiple Sclerosis), FREEDOMS II and TRANSFORMS (Trial Assessing Injectable Interferon versus FTY720 Oral in Relapsing–Remitting Multiple Sclerosis)] in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis have shown that fingolimod has a robust effect on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes. The respective study extensions show that effects on annualized relapse rates are sustained with continued fingolimod treatment. Consistent, significant reductions in magnetic resonance imaging lesion counts and brain volume loss have also been sustained with long-term treatment. The safety profile of fingolimod is also examined, particularly in light of its long-term use. A summary of the adverse events of interest that are associated with fingolimod treatment and associated label guidelines are also considered, which include cardiac effects following first-dose administration, infections, lymphopenia, macular edema and pregnancy. Historic hurdles to the prescription of fingolimod and how these challenges are being met are also discussed. PMID:27006700

  9. CUMAS: a seafloor multi-sensor module for volcanic hazard monitoring - First long-term experiment and performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Guardato, S.; Vassallo, M.; Stabile, T. A.; Elia, L.; Beranzoli, L.

    2009-12-01

    providing continuous geophysical data to the Monitoring Center of the Campi Flegrei volcanic areas, managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The long-term operational performance of CUMAS is presented here, together with the first results from the analysis of the geophysical long time-series acquired. Examples of the acquired signals, especially geophysical data, will be presented to point out the high quality in term of signal-to-noise ratio. In particular, earthquake recordings obtained from the hydrophone resulted of comparable quality to the seismic data acquired on land by the permanent network, thus demonstrating the suitability of hydrophones to monitor the seismic activity of the caldera.

  10. Prognostic factors and long-term outcomes of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: A single-institution experience in China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hai-Jie; Mao, Hui; Shrestha, Anuj; Tan, Yong-Qiong; Ma, Wen-Jie; Yang, Qin; Wang, Jun-Ke; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Li, Fu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic factors of hilar cholangiocarcinoma in a large series of patients in a single institution. METHODS: Eight hundred and fourteen patients with a diagnosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma that were evaluated and treated between 1990 and 2014, of which 381 patients underwent curative surgery, were included in this study. Potential factors associated with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Curative surgery provided the best long-term survival with a median OS of 26.3 mo. The median DFS was 18.1 mo. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with tumor size > 3 cm [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.482, 95%CI: 1.127-1.949; P = 0.005], positive nodal disease (HR = 1.701, 95%CI: 1.346-2.149; P < 0.001), poor differentiation (HR = 2.535, 95%CI: 1.839-3.493; P < 0.001), vascular invasion (HR = 1.542, 95%CI: 1.082-2.197; P = 0.017), and positive margins (HR = 1.798, 95%CI: 1.314-2.461; P < 0.001) had poor OS outcome. The independent factors for DFS were positive nodal disease (HR = 3.383, 95%CI: 2.633-4.348; P < 0.001), poor differentiation (HR = 2.774, 95%CI: 2.012-3.823; P < 0.001), vascular invasion (HR = 2.136, 95%CI: 1.658-3.236; P < 0.001), and positive margins (HR = 1.835, 95%CI: 1.256-2.679; P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that caudate lobectomy [odds ratio (OR) = 9.771, 95%CI: 4.672-20.433; P < 0.001], tumor diameter (OR = 3.772, 95%CI: 1.914-7.434; P < 0.001), surgical procedures (OR = 10.236, 95%CI: 4.738-22.116; P < 0.001), American Joint Committee On Cancer T stage (OR = 2.010, 95%CI: 1.043-3.870; P = 0.037), and vascular invasion (OR = 2.278, 95%CI: 0.997-5.207; P = 0.051) were independently associated with tumor-free margin, and surgical procedures could indirectly affect survival outcome by influencing the tumor resection margin. CONCLUSION: Tumor margin, tumor differentiation, vascular invasion, and lymph node status were independent

  11. Incidence and long-term outcome of postradiotherapy moyamoya syndrome in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors: a single institute experience in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Hung; Chang, Feng-Chi; Liang, Muh-Lii; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Wong, Tai-Tong; Yen, Sang-Hue; Chen, Yi-Wei

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the incidence and long-term outcome of moyamoya syndrome in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors after receiving cranial radiotherapy (RT) in a single institute in Taiwan. The complete medical records, medical images, and RT notes of 391 pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with cranial RT between January 1975 and December 2005 in Taipei Veterans General Hospital (TVGH), Taiwan, were entered into an electronic registry and reviewed. Eight (2%) cases of post-RT moyamoya syndrome were identified in the sample of 391 patients. The median latency was 3 years post-RT. Among the eight patients, three had craniopharyngioma, two had optic glioma, two had medulloblastoma, and one had a suprasellar astrocytoma. The prescribed physical doses of RT were in the range of 40-54 Gy. The incidence was highest in those with optic glioma (0.039/person-year), followed by craniopharyngioma (0.013/person-year), astrocytoma (0.003/person-year), and medulloblastoma (0.002/person-year). No patients died of vasculopathy. No difference in crude incidence was found between our results and those of other series. The incidence of moyamoya syndrome was diagnosis dependent, with the highest incidence among patients with optic glioma. No regional difference in incidence was found. Long-term, stable neurological function may be achieved following timely surgical intervention. PMID:27265024

  12. Long-Term Student Experiences in a Hybrid, Open-Ended and Problem Based Adventure Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Doering, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the experiences of elementary school children over a two-year period during which they engaged with a hybrid Adventure Learning program. In addition to delineating Adventure Learning experiences, we report on educational technology implementations in ecologically valid and complex environments, while drawing inferences…

  13. Long-Term Effects of Individual Development Accounts on Postsecondary Education: Follow-Up Evidence from a Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Sherraden, Michael; Gale, William G.; Rohe, William M.; Schreiner, Mark; Key, Clinton

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from a randomized field experiment testing the impact of a 3-year matched savings program on educational outcomes 10 years after the start of the experiment. We examine the effect of an Individual Development Account (IDA) program on (1) educational enrollment, (2) degree completion, and (3) increased education level.…

  14. Results of the Komplast experiment on the long-term exposure of materials specimens on the ISS surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumov, A. E.; Novikov, L. S.; Shaevich, S. K.; Aleksandrov, N. G.; Smirnova, T. N.; Nikishin, E. F.; Chernik, V. N.; Petukhov, V. P.; Voronina, E. N.; Sedov, V. V.; Salnikova, I. A.; Babaevskiy, P. G.; Kozlov, N. A.; Deev, I. S.; Startsev, O. V.; Shindo, D. J.; Golden, J. L.; Kravchenko, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Komplast materials experiment was designed by Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center together with Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University and other Russian scientific institutes, and has been carried out by Mission Control Moscow since 1998. The purpose of this experiment is to study the complex effect of the low Earth orbit environment on samples of various spacecraft materials. On November 20, 1998 the Komplast experiment began with the launch of the first International Space Station module Zarya, or Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Eight Komplast panels with samples of materials and sensors were installed on the outer surface of FGB module. Two of eight experiment panels were retrieved during Russian extravehicular activity in February 2011 after 12 years of space exposure and were subsequently returned to Earth by Space Shuttle "Discovery" on the STS-133/ULF-5 mission in March 2011. The article presents the results obtained from this unique long-duration experiment on board of the International Space Station.

  15. "It was an education in portion size". Experience of eating a healthy diet and barriers to long term dietary change.

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, J I; Loe, J; Kyle, J; McNeill, G

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the expectations and experience of actually eating a healthy diet and using this experience to identify barriers to healthy eating and sustainable dietary change. Fifty participants (19-63 yrs) were provided with a healthy diet (i.e. complied with dietary recommendations) for three consecutive days. Afterwards a semi-structured interview was carried out to explore expectations, experience and barriers to healthy eating. Using a thematic analysis approach eight dominant themes emerged from the interviews. Four related to expectations and experience of healthy eating; realisation of what are appropriate portion sizes, an expectation to feel hungry, surprise that healthy diets comprised normal food, the desire for sweet snacks (e.g. chocolate). This demonstrated there are some misconception about healthy eating and distorted views of portion size. Four more themes emerged relating to barriers to healthy eating; competing priorities, social, peer and time pressure, importance of value for money, a lack of desire to cook. Poor knowledge of healthy eating or a lack of cooking skills were the least common barrier, suggesting that future interventions and policy to improve dietary intakes need to focus on social, cultural and economic issues rather than on lack of knowledge or skills. PMID:24076020

  16. The Short- and Long-Term Effects of a Short Study Abroad Experience: The Case of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llanes, Angels

    2012-01-01

    This study examines to what extent L2 gains obtained during a study abroad (SA) experience are durable. Participants were 16 Catalan/Spanish bilingual children, learning English as an L2, who were distributed into two groups depending on their learning context (SA vs. at home [AH]). Participants completed a pre-test before the SA participants'…

  17. Natural Suppression of Rhizoctonia Bare Patch in a Long-Term No-Till Cropping Systems Experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soil-borne fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 is a major concern for farmers who practice no-till in the inland Pacific Northwest, USA. Bare patches caused by Rhizoctonia first appeared in 1999 during year 3 of a 15-year no-till cropping systems experiment near Ritzville, WA (269 mm annual precipit...

  18. Design of Quantum Dot-Conjugated Lipids for Long-Term, High-Speed Tracking Experiments on Cell Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Murcia, Michael J.; Minner, Daniel. E.; Mustata, Gina-Mirela; Ritchie, Kenneth; Naumann, Christoph A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study reports the facile design of quantum dot (QD)-conjugated lipids and their application to high-speed tracking experiments on cell surfaces. CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs with two types of hydrophilic coatings, 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol (AEE-coating) and a 60:40 molar mixture of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethyleneglycol-2000] (LIPO-coating), are conjugated to sulfhydryl lipids via maleimide reactive groups on the QD surface. Prior to lipid conjugation, the colloidal stability of both types of coated QDs in aqueous solution is confirmed using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. A sensitive assay based on single lipid tracking experiments on a planar solid-supported phospholipid bilayer is presented that establishes conditions of monovalent conjugation of QDs to lipids. The QD lipids are then employed as single molecule tracking probes in plasma membranes of several cell types. Initial tracking experiments at a frame rate of 30 fps corroborate that QD-lipids diffuse like dye-labeled lipids in the plasma membrane of COS-7, HEK-293, 3T3, and NRK cells, thus confirming monovalent labeling. Finally, QD-lipids are applied for the first time to high-speed single molecule imaging by tracking their lateral mobility in the plasma membrane of NRK fibroblasts with up to 1000 fps. Our high-speed tracking data, which are in excellent agreement to previous tracking experiments with larger 40nm Au labels, not only push the time resolution in long-time, continuous fluorescence-based single molecule tracking, but also show that highly photostable, photoluminescent nanoprobes of 10nm size can be employed (AEE-coated QDs). These probes are also attractive because, unlike Au nanoparticles, they facilitate complex multicolor experiments. PMID:18937457

  19. Modeling long term Enhanced in situ Biodenitrification and induced heterogeneity in column experiments under different feeding strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Escales, Paula; Folch, Albert; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Vidal-Gavilan, Georgina; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced In situ Biodenitrification (EIB) is a capable technology for nitrate removal in subsurface water resources. Optimizing the performance of EIB implies devising an appropriate feeding strategy involving two design parameters: carbon injection frequency and C:N ratio of the organic substrate nitrate mixture. Here we model data on the spatial and temporal evolution of nitrate (up to 1.2 mM), organic carbon (ethanol), and biomass measured during a 342 day-long laboratory column experiment (published in Vidal-Gavilan et al., 2014). Effective porosity was 3% lower and dispersivity had a sevenfold increase at the end of the experiment as compared to those at the beginning. These changes in transport parameters were attributed to the development of a biofilm. A reactive transport model explored the EIB performance in response to daily and weekly feeding strategies. The latter resulted in significant temporal variation in nitrate and ethanol concentrations at the outlet of the column. On the contrary, a daily feeding strategy resulted in quite stable and low concentrations at the outlet and complete denitrification. At intermediate times (six months of experiment), it was possible to reduce the carbon load and consequently the C:N ratio (from 2.5 to 1), partly because biomass decay acted as endogenous carbon to respiration, keeping the denitrification rates, and partly due to the induced dispersivity caused by the well-developed biofilm, resulting in enhancement of mixing between the ethanol and nitrate and the corresponding improvement of denitrification rates. The inclusion of a dual-domain model improved the fit at the last days of the experiment as well as in the tracer test performed at day 342, demonstrating a potential transition to anomalous transport that may be caused by the development of biofilm. This modeling work is a step forward to devising optimal injection conditions and substrate rates to enhance EIB performance by minimizing the overall supply of

  20. A serendipitous, long-term infiltration experiment: water and tritium circulation beneath the CAMBRIC trench at the Nevada Test Site.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed M; Tompson, Andrew F B; Kollet, Stefan

    2009-08-11

    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used subsequently to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. In 1965, a unique, 16-year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in the saturated zone beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, USA, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport in a heterogeneous subsurface, tailored specifically for large-scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate tritium travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the trench and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the trench, the water table, and monitoring and pumping wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing more accurate interpretations of contaminant migration processes. PMID:19501933

  1. A serendipitous, long-term infiltration experiment: Water and tritium circulation beneath the CAMBRIC trench at the Nevada Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Reed M.; Tompson, Andrew F. B.; Kollet, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used subsequently to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. In 1965, a unique, 16-year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in the saturated zone beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, USA, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport in a heterogeneous subsurface, tailored specifically for large-scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate tritium travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the trench and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the trench, the water table, and monitoring and pumping wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing more accurate interpretations of contaminant migration processes.

  2. A Serendipitous, Long-Term Infiltration Experiment: Water and Tritium Circulation Beneath the CAMBRIC Ditch at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R M; Tompson, A B; Kollet, S J

    2008-11-20

    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. A sixteen year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in groundwater beneath Frenchman Flat in 1965, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport, tailored specifically for large scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate radionuclide travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the ditch and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the ditch, the water table, and monitoring wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing accurate interpretations and forecasts of contaminant migration processes.

  3. NanoRocks: A Long-Term Microgravity Experiment to Stydy Planet Formation and Planetary Ring Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisset, J.; Colwell, J. E.; Dove, A.; Maukonen, D.; Brown, N.; Lai, K.; Hoover, B.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the results of the NanoRocks experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), which simulates collisions that occur in protoplanetary disks and planetary ring systems. A critical stage of the process of early planet formation is the growth of solid bodies from mm-sized chondrules and aggregates to km-sized planetesimals. To characterize the collision behavior of dust in protoplanetary conditions, experimental data is required, working hand in hand with models and numerical simulations. In addition, the collisional evolution of planetary rings takes place in the same collisional regime. The objective of the NanoRocks experiment is to study low-energy collisions of mm-sized particles of different shapes and materials. An aluminum tray (~8x8x2cm) divided into eight sample cells holding different types of particles gets shaken every 60 s providing particles with initial velocities of a few cm/s. In September 2014, NanoRocks reached ISS and 220 video files, each covering one shaking cycle, have already been downloaded from Station. The data analysis is focused on the dynamical evolution of the multi-particle systems and on the formation of cluster. We track the particles down to mean relative velocities less than 1 mm/s where we observe cluster formation. The mean velocity evolution after each shaking event allows for a determination of the mean coefficient of restitution for each particle set. These values can be used as input into protoplanetary disk and planetary rings simulations. In addition, the cluster analysis allows for a determination of the mean final cluster size and the average particle velocity of clustering onset. The size and shape of these particle clumps is crucial to understand the first stages of planet formation inside protoplanetary disks as well as many a feature of Saturn's rings. We report on the results from the ensemble of these collision experiments and discuss applications to planetesimal formation and planetary ring

  4. Trauma Nurses' Experience of Workplace Violence and Threats: Short- and Long-Term Consequences in a Swedish Setting.

    PubMed

    Avander, Karin; Heikki, Anna; Bjerså, Kristofer; Engström, My

    2016-01-01

    Violence in health care is increasing globally and Sweden is no exception. Still, this topic is sparsely studied in the Swedish trauma care setting. This focus group study examined nurses' experience of violence and threats, and their consequences. The content analysis revealed two main categories, threatening situations and consequences, which led to a change in priorities in nursing care in order to avoid a potential violent situation. Furthermore, negative stress among the staff and greater vigilance and unwillingness to be near the patient resulted in altered communication and, in the end, a decreased quality of nursing care. PMID:26953531

  5. The long-term experiences of surrogates: relationships and contact with surrogacy families in genetic and gestational surrogacy arrangements.

    PubMed

    Imrie, Susan; Jadva, Vasanti

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the contact arrangements and relationships between surrogates and surrogacy families and whether these outcomes differed according to the type of surrogacy undertaken. Surrogates' motivations for carrying out multiple surrogacy arrangements were also examined, and surrogates' psychological health was assessed. Semi-structured interviews were administered to 34 women who had given birth to a child conceived through surrogacy approximately 7 years prior to interview. Some surrogates had carried out multiple surrogacy arrangements, and data were collected on the frequency, type of contact, and surrogate's feelings about the level of contact in each surrogacy arrangement, the surrogate's relationship with each child and parent, and her experience of, and motivation for, each surrogacy. Questionnaire measures of psychological health were administered. Surrogates had completed a total of 102 surrogacy arrangements and remained in contact with the majority of families, and reported positive relationships in most cases. Surrogates were happy with their level of contact in the majority of arrangements and most were viewed as positive experiences. Few differences were found according to surrogacy type. The primary motivation given for multiple surrogacy arrangements was to help couples have a sibling for an existing child. Most surrogates showed no psychological health problems at the time of data collection. PMID:25131555

  6. Do Ground-Dwelling Vertebrates Promote Diversity in a Neotropical Forest? Results from a Long-Term Exclosure Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Kurten, Erin L.; Carson, Walter P.

    2015-01-01

    Using a decade-long exclosure experiment in Panama, we tested the hypothesis that ground-dwelling vertebrate herbivores and seed predators are crucial determinants of tropical tree diversity and abundance within the understory. Our exclosure experiment is a community-level test of the Janzen–Connell hypothesis. Therefore, we predicted that vertebrate exclusion would (a) increase plant densities and (b) lower richness, diversity, and evenness. Excluding vertebrates caused a 38%–46% increase in plant densities, which, in contrast to our predictions, caused species richness to increase by 12%–15%. Because vertebrate exclusion causes plant species richness to increase, not decrease, vertebrates are unlikely to be causal agents of Janzen–Connell effects. We synthesized this and previous studies to explore why plant richness responds differently to defaunation and exclosures in tropical forests worldwide. Likely because of their contrasting effects on mesoconsumers, defaunation and exclosures cause decreases and increases in plant density respectively, which in turn cause corresponding changes in richness. PMID:26955084

  7. Microstructure and Property Evolution in Advanced Cladding and Duct Materials Under Long-Term Irradiation at Elevated Temperature: Critical Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Was, Gary; Jiao, Zhijie; Allen, Todd; Yang, Yong

    2013-12-20

    The in-service degradation of reactor core materials is related to underlying changes in the irradiated microstructure. During reactor operation, structural components and cladding experience displacement of atoms by collisions with neutrons at temperatures at which the radiation-induced defects are mobile, leading to microstructure evolution under irradiation that can degrade material properties. At the doses and temperatures relevant to fast reactor operation, the microstructure evolves by microchemistry changes due to radiation-induced segregation, dislocation loop formation and growth, radiation induced precipitation, destabilization of the existing precipitate structure, as well as the possibility for void formation and growth. These processes do not occur independently; rather, their evolution is highly interlinked. Radiation-induced segregation of Cr and existing chromium carbide coverage in irradiated alloy T91 track each other closely. The radiation-induced precipitation of Ni-Si precipitates and RIS of Ni and Si in alloys T91 and HCM12A are likely related. Neither the evolution of these processes nor their coupling is understood under the conditions required for materials performance in fast reactors (temperature range 300-600°C and doses to 200 dpa and beyond). Further, predictive modeling is not yet possible, as models for microstructure evolution must be developed along with experiments to characterize these key processes and provide tools for extrapolation. To extend the range of operation of nuclear fuel cladding and structural materials in advanced nuclear energy and transmutation systems to that required for the fast reactor, the irradiation-induced evolution of the microstructure, microchemistry, and the associated mechanical properties at relevant temperatures and doses must be understood. This project builds upon joint work at the proposing institutions, under a NERI-C program that is scheduled to end in September, to understand the effects of

  8. Long-Term Effects of a Watershed Liming Experiment on Soils and Surface Waters at Woods Lake, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    In October 1989, approximately 1000 Mg of pelletized limestone was applied to two subcatchments of the Woods Lake Watershed located in the western Adirondacks of New York State. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of calcite addition to watershed soils as a strategy to mitigate the effects of surface water acidification from acidic deposition. Woods Lake is 23 ha in size and lies within a 207 ha thin-till dominated watershed. In 1979 the lake was highly acidic (pH 4.8, ANC -8 μeq/L). The watershed treatment followed two earlier lake liming experiments. These experiments successfully raised the pH and ANC of the lake but only for a short time as the residence time of water in the lake is only 174 days. Because calcite applied to the soil would be continuously exposed to precipitation falling on the land surface, it was hypothesized that watershed liming would have a much longer impact. The limed subcatchments (102 ha) were treated with limestone that had been crushed to the consistency of fine sand and pelletized with a lignosulfonate binder to form pellets 1.41 to 4.00 mm in diameter. The chemical composition of the pellets was approximately 82% CaCO3, 8% MgCO3, 4% organic binder, and 6% inorganic salts and insoluble silicate minerals. Application rates were targeted at 10 Mg CaCO3/ha but limefall collectors measured lower rates with a mean of 7.85 Mg/ha falling in subcatchment II and 3.42 Mg/ha in subcatchment IV. During the first two years after watershed liming lake pH averaged 6.62, ANC 138 μeq/L and Ca2+ 119 μeq/L. Samples collected during the summer of 2005 show that, even after 16 years, the lake has maintained its positive ANC (37.7 μeq/L) and still has high concentrations of Ca2+ (151.7 μeq/L). A viable fish population has also survived in this previously fishless lake. Even more surprising, soil samples collected in 2005 still have significant quantities of undissolved CaCO3. In the time since treatment, the CaCO3 has been

  9. Porosity and permeability development in compacting chalks during flooding of nonequilibrium brines: Insights from long-term experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nermoen, Anders; Korsnes, Reidar I.; Hiorth, Aksel; Madland, Merete V.

    2015-05-01

    We report the complete chemical alteration of a Liège outcrop chalk core resulting from a 1072 flow-through experiment performed during mechanical compaction at 130°C. Chemical rock-fluid interactions alter the volumetric strain, porosity, and permeability in a nontrivial way. The porosity reduced only from 41.32% to 40.14%, even though the plug compacted more than 25%. We present a novel analysis of the experimental data, which demonstrates that the geochemical alteration does not conserve the volume of the solids, and therefore, the strain is partitioned additively into a pore volume and solid volume component. At stresses beyond yield, the observed deformation can be explained by grain reorganization reducing the pore space between grains and solid volume changes from the rock-fluid interactions. The mechanical and chemical effects are discussed in relation to the observed permeability development.

  10. Numerical modeling of a long-term in situ chemical osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garavito, A.M.; Kooi, H.; Neuzil, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    We have numerically modeled evolving fluid pressures and concentrations from a nine-year in situ osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota. These data were obtained and recently interpreted by one of us (C.E.N.) as indicating a potentially significant role for chemical osmosis in media like the Pierre Shale. That analysis considered only the final pressure differentials among boreholes that were assumed to represent osmotic equilibrium. For this study, the system evolution was modeled using a recently developed transient model for membrane transport. The model simulates hydraulically and chemically driven fluid and solute transport. The results yield an estimate of the thickness of the water film between the clay platelets b of 40 A??, which corresponds to an osmotic efficiency ?? of 0.21 for the ambient pore water salinity of 3.5 g/l TDS. These values largely confirm the results of the earlier equilibrium analysis. However, the new model analysis provides additional constraints suggesting that intrinsic permeability k = 1.4 ?? 10-19 m2, specific storage Ss = 1.7 ?? 10-5 m-1, and diffusion coefficient D* = 6 ?? 10-11 m2/s. The k value is larger than certain independent estimates which range from 10-21 to 10-20; it may indicate opening of microcracks during the experiments. The fact that the complex transient pressure and concentration behavior for the individual wells could be reproduced quite accurately, and the inferred parameter values appear to be realistic for the Pierre Shale, suggests that the new model is a useful tool for modeling transient coupled flows in groundwater systems. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term experiment on physiological responses to synergetic effects of ocean acidification and photoperiod in the Antarctic sea ice algae Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Yitao; Fan, Xiao; Wang, Dongsheng; Ye, Naihao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Mou, Shanli; Guan, Zheng; Zhuang, Zhimeng

    2014-07-15

    Studies on ocean acidification have mostly been based on short-term experiments of low latitude with few investigations of the long-term influence on sea ice communities. Here, the combined effects of ocean acidification and photoperiod on the physiological response of the Antarctic sea ice microalgae Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L were examined. There was a general increase in growth, PSII photosynthetic parameters, and N and P uptake in continuous light, compared to those exposed to regular dark and light cycles. Elevated pCO2 showed no consistent effect on growth rate (p=0.8) and N uptake (p=0.38) during exponential phrase, depending on the photoperiod but had a positive effect on PSII photosynthetic capacity and P uptake. Continuous dark reduced growth, photosynthesis, and nutrient uptake. Moreover, intracellular lipid, mainly in the form of PUFA, was consumed at 80% and 63% in low and high pCO2 in darkness. However, long-term culture under high pCO2 gave a more significant inhibition of growth and Fv/Fm to high light stress. In summary, ocean acidification may have significant effects on Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L survival in polar winter. The current study contributes to an understanding of how a sea ice algae-based community may respond to global climate change at high latitudes. PMID:24922067

  12. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2015-08-17

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  13. Biochar amendment reduces rice Cd uptake in polluted and unpolluted paddy soils: a long term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, R.; Cui, L.; Pan, G.; Li, L.

    2012-04-01

    The bioavailability of Cd in agricultural soils has been a great health concern due to the potential risk through exposure of agro-food produced in Cd-contaminated fields. Yet, rice subject to Cd contamination appears to have expanded at the last decade due to irrigation with waste water and chemical fertilization in south china. This is supposed to raise the Cd accumulation of rice grain. Therefore, techniques to reduce Cd mobility and plant uptake have been a urgent demand for food safety in China.A field experiment was performed in a high-polluted (HP), mid-pollute (MP) and unpolluted (UP) paddy soil with biochar(BC) amendment in 2011. BC was applied in HP, MP and UP in 2008, 2009, 2009 with the rates of 0, 10, 20, 40t ha-1 in HP, MP and 0, 40t ha-1 in UP. The experiment was monitored in 2011. It was observed that BC amendment did not affect rice grain yield but significantly increased soil pH by 0.58-0.77, 1.30 units in MP, UP and there was no difference in HP. The Cacl2 extracted Cd in soil was decreased by 18.1%-28.9% in HP, 49.3%-67.5% in MP and 83.1% in UP, respectively. Meanwhile, H2O extractable Cd in soil was decreased by 20.0%-31.7% in HP, 32.7%-44.2% in MP and 25.0% in UP, respectively. With the BC treatment, rice grain Cd concentration was decreased 4.7%-17.6% in HP, 35.9%-53.4% in MP. Especially in UP field, the rice grain Cd concentration was decreased from 0.22mg kg-1 to 0.07mg kg-1 which was below National standard (0.20mg kg-1) in China. The straw and root Cd contents were also significantly decreased with BC application. Therefore, BC amendment in polluted and unpolluted fields can sustainably reduce rice Cd uptake and it may offer a basic option to reduce Cd levels in rice. Keywords: Biochar, Cd, bioavailability, paddy soil, food safety

  14. Long-term monitoring of growth in the Eastern Elliptio, Elliptio complanata (Bivalvia: Unionidae), in Rhode Island: A transplant experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kesler, D.H.; Newton, T.J.; Green, L.

    2007-01-01

    The lengths of marked specimens of the freshwater mussel, Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata [Lightfoot 1786]), were monitored annually in 3 lakes in Rhode Island, USA, from 1991 to 2005. Mussels growing in Worden Pond showed a change in mean shell length of only 4.3 mm over 14 y, whereas mussel growth in 2 nearby lakes was 3 to 8x greater than growth in Worden Pond over the same time period. L???, the length at which shell growth stops, was significantly different (p < 0.001) among lakes and ranged from 60.5 to 87.4 mm. Transplant experiments revealed that mussels moved to Worden Pond stopped growing, whereas mussels moved from Worden Pond to the 2 other lakes grew at rates similar to the rates observed for resident mussels in the 2 lakes. Standard water-quality measures did not explain the observed growth cessation and lower condition indices of mussels in Worden Pond. Our growth data are consistent with food limitation. The consistent slow growth of E. complanata in Worden Pond, without high mortality, and its ability to increase growth when placed in environments more favorable than Worden Pond, suggests both growth plasticity and longevity in these animals. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

  15. A long-term static immersion experiment on the leaching behavior of heavy metals from waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-Hua; Luo, Xing-Zhang; Chen, Gui; Zhao, Yong-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the main components of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). Waste PCBs contain several kinds of heavy metals, including Cu, Pb and Zn. We characterize the leaching of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni) from waste PCBs in a pH range of 3.0 to 5.6 using a novel approach based on batch pH-static leaching experiments in this work. The results indicate that the leaching behavior of Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni is strongly dependent on pH. Leaching behavior also varies with different pH values and leaching times. The maximum concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni in leachate from waste PCBs were 335.00, 17.57, 2.40 and 2.33 mg L(-1), respectively. The highest Pb, Ni, and Cu concentrations leached significantly exceeded the European Union waste-acceptance limit values with respect to inert waste landfills. The leaching of metals follows the shrinking core model with surface reaction control. PMID:24934650

  16. Leaching behavior of heavy metals and PAHs from MSWI bottom ash in a long-term static immersing experiment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangsheng; Li, Yaqiong; Li, Xiaodong; Jiang, Yuping

    2008-01-01

    Bottom ash is the main solid residue (in weight) which is produced by municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) facilities. This material is composed of a mineral matrix and may be used as secondary raw material for construction purpose. However, for this specific application the leaching behavior of the environmentally relevant elements under field conditions is different from the predicted behavior based on results obtained from the standardized leaching test. Therefore, a 70-day simulative experiment has been carried out in this study to investigate the release of major heavy metals (Cu and Pb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from several particle fractions of bottom ash under a static leaching condition, where bottom ash was immersed in water at different initial pH values. Results showed that: (1) the leaching behavior of Cu and Pb was much similar with that depicted by the standardized leaching tests, and fit well with the solubility-controlling mechanism; (2) the sorption mechanism on the neoformed phases may control the solubility of Pb, whereas the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may play an important role in the solubility of Cu; and (3) the leached PAHs were degraded during the later period of leaching process. PMID:17658250

  17. Pre-learning stress differentially affects long-term memory for emotional words, depending on temporal proximity to the learning experience.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Clark, Brianne; Warnecke, Ashlee; Smith, Lindsay; Tabar, Jennifer; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2011-07-01

    Stress exerts a profound, yet complex, influence on learning and memory and can enhance, impair or have no effect on these processes. Here, we have examined how the administration of stress at different times before learning affects long-term (24-hr) memory for neutral and emotional information. Participants submerged their dominant hand into a bath of ice cold water (Stress) or into a bath of warm water (No stress) for 3 min. Either immediately (Exp. 1) or 30 min (Exp. 2) after the water bath manipulation, participants were presented with a list of 30 words varying in emotional valence. The next day, participants' memory for the word list was assessed via free recall and recognition tests. In both experiments, stressed participants exhibited greater blood pressure, salivary cortisol levels, and subjective pain and stress ratings than non-stressed participants in response to the water bath manipulation. Stress applied immediately prior to learning (Exp. 1) enhanced the recognition of positive words, while stress applied 30 min prior to learning (Exp. 2) impaired free recall of negative words. Participants' recognition of positive words in Experiment 1 was positively associated with their heart rate responses to the water bath manipulation, while participants' free recall of negative words in Experiment 2 was negatively associated with their blood pressure and cortisol responses to the water bath manipulation. These findings indicate that the differential effects of pre-learning stress on long-term memory may depend on the temporal proximity of the stressor to the learning experience and the emotional nature of the to-be-learned information. PMID:21262248

  18. Nitrogen regulation of the climate-carbon feedback: evidence from a long-term global change experiment.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shuli; Sherry, Rebecca A; Zhou, Xuhui; Wan, Shiqiang; Luo, Yiqi

    2010-11-01

    Modeling studies have shown that nitrogen (N) strongly regulates ecosystem responses and feedback to climate warming. However, it remains unclear what mechanisms underlie N regulation of ecosystem-climate interactions. To examine N regulation of ecosystem feedback to climate change, we have conducted a warming and clipping experiment since November 1999 in a tallgrass prairie of the Great Plains, USA. Infrared heaters were used to elevate soil temperature by an average of 1.96 degrees C at a depth of 2.5 cm from 2000 to 2008. Yearly biomass clipping mimicked hay or biofuel feedstock harvest. We measured carbon (C) and N concentrations, estimated their content and C:N ratio in plant, root, litter, and soil pools. Warming significantly stimulated C storage in aboveground plant, root, and litter pools by 17%, 38%, and 29%, respectively, averaged over the nine years (all P < 0.05) but did not change soil C content or N content in any pool. Plant C:N ratio and nitrogen use efficiency increased in the warmed plots compared to the control plots, resulting primarily from increased dominance of C4 plants in the community. Clipping significantly decreased C and N storage in plant and litter pools (all P < 0.05) but did not have interactive effects with warming on either C or N pools over the nine years. Our results suggest that increased ecosystem nitrogen use efficiency via a shift in species composition toward C4 dominance rather than plant N uptake is a key mechanism underlying warming stimulation of plant biomass growth. PMID:21141187

  19. Microbial carbon recycling - an underestimated process controlling soil carbon dynamics - Part 1: A long-term laboratory incubation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basler, A.; Dippold, M.; Helfrich, M.; Dyckmans, J.

    2015-10-01

    Independent of its chemical structure carbon (C) persists in soil for several decades, controlled by stabilization and recycling. To disentangle the importance of the two factors on the turnover dynamics of soil sugars, an important compound of soil organic matter (SOM), a 3-year incubation experiment was conducted on a silty loam soil under different types of land use (arable land, grassland and forest) by adding 13C-labelled glucose. The compound-specific isotope analysis of soil sugars was used to examine the dynamics of different sugars during incubation. Sugar dynamics were dominated by a pool of high mean residence times (MRT) indicating that recycling plays an important role for sugars. However, this was not substantially affected by soil C content. Six months after label addition the contribution of the label was much higher for microbial biomass than for CO2 production for all examined land use types, corroborating that substrate recycling was very effective within the microbial biomass. Two different patterns of tracer dynamics could be identified for different sugars: while fucose and mannose showed highest label contribution at the beginning of the incubation with a subsequent slow decline, galactose and rhamnose were characterized by slow label incorporation with subsequently constant levels, which indicates that recycling is dominating the dynamics of these sugars. This may correspond to (a) different microbial growing strategies (r and K-strategist) or (b) location within or outside the cell membrane (lipopolysaccharides vs. exopolysaccharides) and thus be subject of different re-use within the microbial food web. Our results show how the microbial community recycles substrate very effectively and that high losses of substrate only occur during initial stages after substrate addition. This study indicates that recycling is one of the major processes explaining the high MRT observed for many SOM fractions and thus is crucial for understanding the

  20. Reactivation of a cryptobiotic stream ecosystem in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: A long-term geomorphological experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D. M.; Tate, C. M.; Andrews, E. D.; Niyogi, D. K.; Cozzetto, K.; Welch, K.; Lyons, W. B.; Capone, D. G.

    2007-09-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica contain many glacial meltwater streams that flow for 6 to 12 weeks during the austral summer and link the glaciers to the lakes on the valley floors. Dry valley streams gain solutes longitudinally through weathering reactions and microbial processes occurring in the hyporheic zone. Some streams have thriving cyanobacterial mats. In streams with regular summer flow, the mats are freeze-dried through the winter and begin photosynthesizing with the onset of flow. To evaluate the longer term persistence of cyanobacterial mats, we diverted flow to an abandoned channel, which had not received substantial flow for approximately two decades. Monitoring of specific conductance showed that for the first 3 years after the diversion, the solute concentrations were greater in the reactivated channel than in most other dry valley streams. We observed that cyanobacterial mats became abundant in the reactivated channel within a week, indicating that the mats had been preserved in a cryptobiotic state in the channel. Over the next several years, these mats had high rates of productivity and nitrogen fixation compared to mats from other streams. Experiments in which mats from the reactivated channel and another stream were incubated in water from both of the streams indicated that the greater solute concentrations in the reactivated channel stimulated net primary productivity of mats from both streams. These stream-scale experimental results indicate that the cryptobiotic preservation of cyanobacterial mats in abandoned channels in the dry valleys allows for rapid response of these stream ecosystems to climatic and geomorphological change, similar to other arid zone stream ecosystems.

  1. Functional Sensory-Motor Performance Following Long Term Space Flight: The First Results of "Field Test" Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kofman, I. S.; Kitov, V. V.; Grishin, A. P.; Yu, N.; Lysova.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Reschke, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    quantifying the coordination and timing of relatively simple basic movements - transition from seated and prone positions to standing, walking, stepping over obstacles, tandem walking, muscle compliance, as well as characteristics of postural sway and orthostatic tolerance. Testing for changes in these parameters have been initiated in the medical tent at the landing site. The first set of experiments showed that during the first hour after landing, cosmonauts and astronauts were able to execute (although slower and with more effort than preflight) simple movements such as egress from a seated or prone position and also to remain standing for 3.5 minutes without exhibiting pronounced cardiovascular changes. More challenging tests, however, demonstrated a prominent reduction in coordination - the obstacle task, for example, was performed at much slower speed and with a marked overestimation of the obstacle height and tandem walking was greatly degraded suggesting significant changes in proprioception, brainstem and vestibular function. There is some speculation that the neural changes, either from the bottom-up or top down may be long lasting; requiring compensatory responses that will modify or mask the adverse responses we have observed. Furthermore, these compensatory responses may actually be beneficial, helping achieve a more rapid adaptation to both weightlessness and a return to earth.

  2. The Sabah Biodiversity Experiment: a long-term test of the role of tree diversity in restoring tropical forest structure and functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hector, Andy; Philipson, Christopher; Saner, Philippe; Chamagne, Juliette; Dzulkifli, Dzaeman; O'Brien, Michael; Snaddon, Jake L.; Ulok, Philip; Weilenmann, Maja; Reynolds, Glen; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Relatively, little is known about the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in forests, especially in the tropics. We describe the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment: a large-scale, long-term field study on the island of Borneo. The project aims at understanding the relationship between tree species diversity and the functioning of lowland dipterocarp rainforest during restoration following selective logging. The experiment is planned to run for several decades (from seed to adult tree), so here we focus on introducing the project and its experimental design and on assessing initial conditions and the potential for restoration of the structure and functioning of the study system, the Malua Forest Reserve. We estimate residual impacts 22 years after selective logging by comparison with an appropriate neighbouring area of primary forest in Danum Valley of similar conditions. There was no difference in the alpha or beta species diversity of transect plots in the two forest types, probably owing to the selective nature of the logging and potential effects of competitive release. However, despite equal total stem density, forest structure differed as expected with a deficit of large trees and a surfeit of saplings in selectively logged areas. These impacts on structure have the potential to influence ecosystem functioning. In particular, above-ground biomass and carbon pools in selectively logged areas were only 60 per cent of those in the primary forest even after 22 years of recovery. Our results establish the initial conditions for the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment and confirm the potential to accelerate restoration by using enrichment planting of dipterocarps to overcome recruitment limitation. What role dipterocarp diversity plays in restoration only will become clear with long-term results. PMID:22006970

  3. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  4. Long-term quality of life after endoscopic removal of sinonasal inverted papillomas: a 6-year cohort analysis in a tertiary academic hospital.

    PubMed

    van Samkar, Anusha; Georgalas, Christos

    2016-06-01

    Inverted papillomas may affect the (para)nasal cavity. While some of these papillomas can undergo malignant transformation, others grow slowly and cause few if any symptoms. An endoscopic approach is seen as providing a balance between the greatest removal possible and avoiding unnecessary morbidity. However, the actual long-term quality of life of patients having undergone surgery for inverted papillomas has never been studied. Our primary aim is to assess the long-term sequelae and the quality of life of patients after endoscopic surgery of sinonasal inverted papillomas. The secondary aim is to establish which nasal symptoms, if any, are the most prevalent before and after surgery. We used the SNOT-22 questionnaire to assess the quality of life of patients who had undergone endoscopic surgery for sinonasal inverted papillomas between 2000 and 2011. Twenty-seven out of 34 patients returned the questionnaire (79 % response rate). Median follow-up was 6 years (range 1-10). Mean age was 58.9 years (range 40-85). Median SNOT-22 score was 12, while the most frequent postoperative symptom was the need to blow the nose (18 patients) and the most frequent preoperative symptom was nasal obstruction. Patients after endoscopic removal of sinonasal inverted papillomas return to an almost normal quality of life, as measured by the disease-specific questionnaire SNOT-22. The most frequent symptom was the need to blow the nose. PMID:26282901

  5. Long-Term cosmic ray experiment in the atmosphere: Energetic electron precipitation events during the 20-23 solar activity cycles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhmutov, V. S.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Krainev, M. B.; Storini, M.

    2001-08-01

    More than 400 energetic electron precipitation events (EPEs) were observed in the Earth's Northern polar atmosphere (Murmansk region, 68°57'N, 33°03'E) during a long-term cosmic ray balloon experiment (from 1957 up to now). It is shown that the significant X-ray fluxes, caused by precipitating electrons at the top of the atmosphere, sometimes penetrated down to the atmospheric depth of ~60 g· cm-2 (about 20 km). It means that primary energy of precipitating electrons was more than ~ 6 10 MeV. Here we summarize only the characteristics of the energetic electron precipitation events recorded during solar activity cycles 20 to 23. We dis cuss results from the analyses of the interplanetary and geomagnetic conditions related to these events in the atmosphere.

  6. Evaluating litter decomposition in earth system models with long-term litterbag experiments: an example using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4).

    PubMed

    Bonan, Gordon B; Hartman, Melannie D; Parton, William J; Wieder, William R

    2013-03-01

    Decomposition is a large term in the global carbon budget, but models of the earth system that simulate carbon cycle-climate feedbacks are largely untested with respect to litter decomposition. We tested the litter decomposition parameterization of the community land model version 4 (CLM4), the terrestrial component of the community earth system model, with data from the long-term intersite decomposition experiment team (LIDET). The LIDET dataset is a 10-year study of litter decomposition at multiple sites across North America and Central America. We performed 10-year litter decomposition simulations comparable with LIDET for 9 litter types and 20 sites in tundra, grassland, and boreal, conifer, deciduous, and tropical forest biomes using the LIDET-provided climatic decomposition index to constrain temperature and moisture effects on decomposition. We performed additional simulations with DAYCENT, a version of the CENTURY model, to ask how well an established ecosystem model matches the observations. The results show large discrepancy between the laboratory microcosm studies used to parameterize the CLM4 litter decomposition and the LIDET field study. Simulated carbon loss is more rapid than the observations across all sites, and nitrogen immobilization is biased high. Closer agreement with the observations requires much lower decomposition rates, obtained with the assumption that soil mineral nitrogen severely limits decomposition. DAYCENT better replicates the observations, for both carbon mass remaining and nitrogen, independent of nitrogen limitation. CLM4 has low soil carbon in global earth system simulations. These results suggest that this bias arises, in part, from too rapid litter decomposition. More broadly, the terrestrial biogeochemistry of earth system models must be critically tested with observations, and the consequences of particular model choices must be documented. Long-term litter decomposition experiments such as LIDET provide a real

  7. Long-term testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  8. Long-term testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000--10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  9. Impact of hospitalizations for bronchiolitis in preterm infants on long-term health care costs in Italy: a retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Roggeri, Daniela Paola; Roggeri, Alessandro; Rossi, Elisa; Cataudella, Salvatore; Martini, Nello

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory injury of the bronchioles, and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections in preterm infants. This was a retrospective, observational, case-control study conducted in Italy, based on administrative database analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in health care costs of preterm infants with and without early hospitalization for bronchiolitis. Patients and methods Preterm infants born in the period between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 and hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life were selected from the ARNO Observatory database and observed for the first 4 years of life. These preterm infants were compared (paired 1–3) with preterm infants who were not hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life and with similar characteristics. Only direct health care costs reimbursed by the Italian National Health Service were considered for this study (drugs, hospitalizations, and diagnostic/therapeutic procedures). Results Of 40,823 newborns in the accrual period, 863 were preterm with no evidence of prophylaxis, and 22 preterm infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis (cases) and paired with 62 controls. Overall, cases had 74% higher average cost per infant in the first 4 years of life than controls (18,624€ versus 10,189€, respectively). The major cost drivers were hospitalizations, accounting for >90% in both the populations. The increase in total yearly health care cost between cases and controls remained substantial even in the fourth year of life for all cost items. A relevant increase in hospitalizations and drug consumption linked to respiratory tract diseases was noted in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis during the entire follow-up period. Conclusion Preterm infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life were associated with increased resource consumption and costs throughout the entire period

  10. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Complex-Shaped Meningioma of the Skull Base: Long-Term Experience of a Single Institution

    SciTech Connect

    Milker-Zabel, Stefanie . E-mail: Stefanie_Milker-Zabel@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Zabel-du Bois, Angelika; Huber, Peter; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Debus, Juergen

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: We analyzed our long-term experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with complex-shaped meningioma of the skull base. Patients and Methods: Between January 1998 and December 2004, 94 patients with complex-shaped meningioma were treated using IMRT at our institution. Tumor distribution was: World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 1 in 54.3%, WHO Grade 2 in 9.6%, and WHO Grade 3 in 4.2%. In 31.9% of patients, the clinical and radiologic characteristics of the tumor were consistent with the diagnosis of meningioma. Twenty-six patients received radiotherapy as primary treatment and 14 patients postoperative for residual disease. Fifty-four patients were treated after local recurrence. Median target volume was 81.4 mL, median total dose was 57.6 Gy given in 32 fractions. Results: Median follow-up was 4.4 years. Overall local control was 93.6%. Sixty-nine patients had stable disease based on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whereas 19 had a tumor volume reduction after IMRT. Six patients showed local tumor progression on MRI 22.3 months' median after IMRT. Three patients died from non-treatment-related conditions after IMRT. In 39.8% of the patients, preexisting neurologic deficits improved. Worsening of preexisting neurologic symptoms was seen in 4 patients and 2 patients developed new clinical symptoms from local tumor progression. Transient side effects such as headache were seen in 7 patients. Treatment-induced loss of vision was seen in 1 of 53 reirradiated patients with a Grade 3 meningioma 9 months after retreatment with IMRT. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that IMRT is an effective and safe treatment modality for long-term local control of complex-shaped and otherwise difficult to treat meningioma.

  11. Declining body, institutional life, and making home-are they at odds? The lived experiences of moving through staged care in long-term care settings.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-hye

    2015-06-01

    This study examines elderly residential life in long-term care settings, focusing on the ways residents interact with their physical and social environments. It further proposes that the residential environment is an important player for everyday ethics in long-term care settings, and is also an important factor in enhancing the quality of life for residents. By employing the theories of place identity and environmental meanings and listening to the voices of the elderly collected through an ethnographic field study in elderly homes of life care, the study reveals the residents' experiences of going through declining health and moving through the stages of care. Two major themes were identified. The first theme of liminal life portrays the elders' fears as they move through the stages of care. This theme includes four sub-themes: (1) the loss of home and the loss of autonomy; (2) impending loss and its constant reminders; (3) the social classification of "us" and "them"; (4) the irreversibility of moving. The second theme of relational life describes the keys to successful transitions as experienced and told by the residents. The second theme includes three sub-themes: (1) shifting identity and the acceptance of old age; (2) human interdependence and building trust; (3) an accompanied death. Study implications are further discussed, including specific suggestions for social programs and revisions to the physical environments. A more fundamental question about place-based staged care is also raised so as to serve as a point of departure for reflections and discussions amongst health professionals, planners and designers, and other decision-makers. PMID:25724938

  12. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Bullying Experiences on Female Adults as It Relates to Their Perception of Themselves and Their Relationships with Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcalow, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood bullying is a phenomenon that affects many individuals well beyond their childhood. This study looked specifically at female adults, and how the bullying they experienced in their childhood continues to have long-term effects on them in their adult lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the long-term effects that bullying has on…

  13. Influence of cover crops and crop residue treatment on soil organic carbon stocks evaluated in Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kätterer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in agricultural soils are strongly controlled by management. In this study we quantified the effect of cover crops and crop residue management on SOC stocks in Swedish long-term experiments. Eight pairs of cover crop (undersown ryegrass) vs. no cover crop were investigated in Swedish long-term field experiments (16 to 24 years). Yields of the main crop were not affected by the cover crop. Cover crops significantly increased SOC stocks, with a mean carbon sequestration rate in all experiments (excluding one) of 0.32±0.29 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Interestingly, this sequestration is similar to that estimated for a U.S.experiment, where ryegrass growth is much less temperature- and light-limited than under Swedish conditions. This sequestration rate is also the same as that recently reported for many other cover crops in a global meta-analysis but less than SOC changes in ley-dominated rotations which under Nordic conditions were shown to accumulate in average 0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 more carbon compared to exclusively annual cropping systems. Thus, originally introduced in agricultural rotations to reduce nitrate leaching, cover crops are also an effective practice to increase SOC stocks, even at relatively high latitudes. The effect of crop residue treatment was studied in 16 pairs of straw incorporated (SI) vs. straw removed (SR) treatments in six Swedish long-term field experiments. Data series on SOC with 5-28 sampling dates during 27-53 years were analysed using ICBM, a dynamic SOC model. At five out of six sites, the humification coefficient for straw (hlitter; the fraction of straw C that is entering the slow C pool) was much smaller (0-0.09) than the ICBM default h-value for plant material estimated in previous studies (0.125). The derived hlitter-values and thus the stabilization of straw-derived carbon increased significantly with clay content. For an Italian site (with five pairs of SI vs. SR) that was used for model validation we found

  14. Hydrothermal interaction of solid wafers of Topopah Spring Tuff with J-13 water at 90 and 150{degree}C using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves: Long-term experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Knauss, K.G.; Beiriger, W.J.; Peifer, D.W.

    1987-05-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project conducted long-term experiments to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results of these experiments complement those obtained previously in short-term experiments at similar and higher temperatures. These long-term experiments also help in assessing the effects of kinetic inhibition in the precipitation of secondary minerals at the lower temperatures and allow a more complete determination of the approach of the fluid toward a steady-state composition. Considered collectively, the results of both short- and long-term experiments provide information useful in defining the near-field repository environment during and shortly after the thermal period caused by the emplacement of nuclear waste. These long-term experiments were conducted using solid wafers cut from drillcore samples of Topopah Spring tuff. A natural ground water was used as the reacting fluid. Analytical techniques for determining the composition of fluids and solids were similar to those used in previous short-term experiments. All experiments were run in Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled under in situ conditions. Two long-term (304-day) experiments were run at temperatures of 90 and 150{degree}C and 50-bar pressure. 21 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Medicare program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system and fiscal year 2015 rates; quality reporting requirements for specific providers; reasonable compensation equivalents for physician services in excluded hospitals and certain teaching hospitals; provider administrative appeals and judicial review; enforcement provisions for organ transplant centers; and electronic health record (EHR) incentive program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-08-22

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, and other legislation. These changes are applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2014, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. We also are updating the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. The updated rate-of-increase limits are effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2014. We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014. In addition, we discuss our proposals on the interruption of stay policy for LTCHs and on retiring the "5 percent" payment adjustment for collocated LTCHs. While many of the statutory mandates of the Pathway for SGR Reform Act apply to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2014, others will not begin to apply until 2016 and beyond. In addition, we are making a number of changes relating to direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education (IME) payments. We are establishing new requirements or revising requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that

  16. Long-Term Engagement in Authentic Research with NASA (LEARN): Innovative Practices Suggested By a New Model for Teacher Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippin, M. R.; Joseph, J. D.; Yang, M. M.; Omar, A. H.; Crecelius, S.; Harte, T.; Lewis, P. M., Jr.; Taylor, J.; Bujosa, R.; Moulton, C.; Haggard, C. S.; Hyater-Adams, S.; Kollmeyer, R.; Weisman, A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's LEARN Project is an innovative program that provides long-term immersion in the practice of atmospheric science for middle and high school in-service teachers. Working alongside NASA scientists and using authentic NASA Science Mission Directorate research data, teachers develop individual research topics of interest during two weeks in the summer while on-site at NASA Langley. With continued, intensive mentoring by NASA scientists, the teachers further develop their research throughout the academic year through virtual group meetings and data team meetings mirroring scientific collaborations. At the end of the first year, LEARN teachers present scientific posters. The LEARN experience has had such an impact that multiple teachers from the first two cohorts have elected to continue their research. The LEARN project evaluation has provided insights into particularly effective elements of this new approach. Findings indicate that teachers' perceptions of the scientific enterprise have changed, and that LEARN provided substantial resources to help them take real-world research to their students. This presentation will focus on key factors from LEARN's implementation that inform best practices for the incorporation of authentic scientific research into teacher professional development experiences. We suggest that these factors should be considered in the development of other such experiences, including: (1) The involvement of a single scientist as both the project leader/manager and the project scientist, to ensure that the project can meet teachers' needs. (2) An emphasis on framing and approaching scientific research questions, so that teachers can learn to evaluate the feasibility of studies based on scope, scale, and availability of data. (3) Long term, ongoing relationships where teachers and scientists work as collaborators, beyond the workshop "mold." (4) A focus on meeting the needs of individual teachers, whether their needs relate to elements of

  17. Long-term cement corrosion in chloride-rich solutions relevant to radioactive waste disposal in rock salt - Leaching experiments and thermodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bube, C.; Metz, V.; Bohnert, E.; Garbev, K.; Schild, D.; Kienzler, B.

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are frequently solidified in a cement matrix. In a potential repository for nuclear wastes, the cementitious matrix is altered upon contact with solution and the resulting secondary phases may provide for significant retention of the radionuclides incorporated in the wastes. In order to assess the secondary phases formed upon corrosion in chloride-rich solutions, which are relevant for nuclear waste disposal in rock salt, leaching experiments were performed. Conventional laboratory batch experiments using powdered hardened cement paste in MgCl2-rich solutions were left to equilibrate for up to three years and full-scale cemented waste products were exposed to NaCl-rich and MgCl2-rich solutions for more than twenty years, respectively. Solid phase analyses revealed that corrosion of hardened cement in MgCl2-rich solutions advanced faster than in NaCl-rich solutions due to the extensive exchange of Mg from solution against Ca from the cementitious solid. Thermodynamic equilibrium simulations compared well to results at the final stages of the respective experiments indicating that close to equilibrium conditions were reached. At high cement product to brine ratios (>0.65 g mL-1), the solution composition in the laboratory-scale experiments was close to that of the full-scale experiments (cement to brine ratio of 2.5 g mL-1) in the MgCl2 systems. The present study demonstrates the applicability of thermodynamic methods used in this approach to adequately describe full-scale long-term experiments with cemented waste simulates.

  18. Long-Term Outcomes after Stroke in Elderly Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: A Hospital-Based Follow-Up Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuguang; Zou, Chunying; Wang, Cui; Zhang, Yongbo; Wang, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) significantly increases the risk of stroke and disease burden; it is an established predictor of poor outcomes after stroke. However, reported differences in outcomes after stroke among elderly patients between AF and non-AF group are conflicting. We aimed to compare differences in outcomes at 1 year and 3 years after stroke among elderly patients (aged ≥ 75 years old) between AF group and non-AF group. Methods: We recruited 1070 consecutive elderly patients who experienced acute ischemic stroke between January 2008 and December 2013 in Jiamusi University First Hospital, China in this study. Information regarding stroke subtype, severity, risk factors, and outcome (mortality, dependency, and recurrence) at 3 and 12 months after stroke were recorded and assessed between AF group and non-AF group. Results: The prevalence of AF was 16.1% overall, with a similar trend in the prevalence of AF between men and women. The AF group were more likely to experience severe stroke compared to the non-AF group (32.0 vs. 11.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). There were no obvious differences between groups regarding the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, current smoking, and alcohol drinking but there was a higher prevalence of diabetes in the non-AF group (20.3 vs. 30.1%, P = 0.010). Mortality and dependency rates were significantly higher in the AF group than in the non-AF group at 1 year after stroke (29.6 vs. 17.8%, P = 0.001 for mortality; and 59.5 vs. 36.1%, P = 0.010 for dependency) and 3 years after stroke (46.1 vs. 33.2%, P = 0.032 for mortality; and 70.7 vs. 49.2%, P = 0.010 for dependency); however, there was no significant between-groups differences in rates of recurrence across the follow-up periods. The results for dependency remained stable after adjustment for sex, stroke severity, and stroke risk factors at 3 years after stroke (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.06–4.81; P = 0.034); however, the relationship between AF and

  19. Studies on nutrient uptake of rice and characteristics of soil microorganisms in a long-term fertilization experiments for irrigated rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-chun; Wang, Guang-huo

    2005-02-01

    The ecosystem characteristics of soil microorganism and the nutrient uptake of irrigated rice were investigated in a split-block experiment with different fertilization treatments, including control (no fertilizer application), PK, NK, NP, NPK fertilization, in the main block, and conventional rice and hybrid rice comparison, in the sub block. Average data of five treatments in five years indicated that the indigenous N supply (INS) capacity ranged from 32.72 to 93.21 kg/ha; that indigenous P supply (IPS) capacity ranged from 7.42 to 32.25 kg/ha; and that indigenous K supply (IKS) capacity ranged from 16.24 to 140.51 kg/ha, which showed that soil available nutrient pool depletion might occur very fast and that P, K deficiency has become a constraint to increasing yields of consecutive crops grown without fertilizer application. It was found that soil nutrient deficiency and unbalanced fertilization to rice crop had negative effect on the diversity of the microbial community and total microbial biomass in the soil. The long-term fertilizer experiment (LTFE) also showed that balanced application of N, P and K promoted microbial biomass growth and improvement of community composition. Unbalanced fertilization reduced microbial N and increased C/N ratio of the microbial biomass. Compared with inbred rice, hybrid rice behavior is characterized by physiological advantage in nutrient uptake and lower internal K use efficiency. PMID:15633252

  20. Adjuvant Hypofractionated Versus Conventional Whole Breast Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Long-Term Hospital-Related Morbidity From Cardiac Causes

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Elisa K.; Woods, Ryan; McBride, Mary L.; Virani, Sean; Nichol, Alan; Speers, Caroline; Wai, Elaine S.; Tyldesley, Scott

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The risk of cardiac injury with hypofractionated whole-breast/chest wall radiation therapy (HF-WBI) compared with conventional whole-breast/chest wall radiation therapy (CF-WBI) in women with left-sided breast cancer remains a concern. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an increase in hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes with HF-WBI relative to CF-WBI. Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 1998, 5334 women ≤80 years of age with early-stage breast cancer were treated with postoperative radiation therapy to the breast or chest wall alone. A population-based database recorded baseline patient, tumor, and treatment factors. Hospital administrative records identified baseline cardiac risk factors and other comorbidities. Factors between radiation therapy groups were balanced using a propensity-score model. The first event of a hospital admission for cardiac causes after radiation therapy was determined from hospitalization records. Ten- and 15-year cumulative hospital-related cardiac morbidity after radiation therapy was estimated for left- and right-sided cases using a competing risk approach. Results: The median follow-up was 13.2 years. For left-sided cases, 485 women were treated with CF-WBI, and 2221 women were treated with HF-WBI. Mastectomy was more common in the HF-WBI group, whereas boost was more common in the CF-WBI group. The CF-WBI group had a higher prevalence of diabetes. The 15-year cumulative hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes (95% confidence interval) was not different between the 2 radiation therapy regimens after propensity-score adjustment: 21% (19-22) with HF-WBI and 21% (17-25) with CF-WBI (P=.93). For right-sided cases, the 15-year cumulative hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes was also similar between the radiation therapy groups (P=.76). Conclusions: There is no difference in morbidity leading to hospitalization from cardiac causes among women with left-sided early-stage breast

  1. A novel influenza A (H1N1) outbreak experience among residents of a long term-care facility in Saudi Arabia during 2010 seasonal flu circulation

    PubMed Central

    Affifi, Raouf M.; Omar, Sherif R.; El Raggal, Ahmad A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to describe and analyze an outbreak of novel 2009 influenza A (H1N1) among residents of a long-term care facility (LTCF) in Prince Mansour Military Hospital (PMMH), Taif, Saudi Arabia. These patients had been admitted to the LTCF months or years before the outbreak for several reasons, e.g. cerebral palsy, neurological deficits due to road traffic accidents with resultant handicap, chronic diseases associated with old age. An observational study was carried out to demonstrate and analyze the epidemiological characteristics (demographic factors, risk factors, and outcomes) associated with the outbreak in order to clarify which prevention and control measures had been taken and which recommendations were followed. During the period October 28 to November 11 2010, 21 LTCF residents were suspected to be clinically involved: fever ≥38°C with influenza-like illness (ILI). Age ranged from 9-91 years (mean 46±24.13); 62% were males. Among them, 12 (57%) were influenza A (H1N1) positive by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Mortality involved 2 (17%) of the A (H1N1) laboratory confirmed individuals. Implementation of the recommended infection control measures mitigated the transmission of infection to new individuals. The fulfillment of strict infection control measures could limit H1N1 infection among LTCF-PMMH patients. Routine influenza, including specific H1N1 immunization of all LTCF residents together with their healthcare staff, should be mandatory in those settings serving immunocompromised patients. PMID:24470930

  2. A novel influenza A (H1N1) outbreak experience among residents of a long term-care facility in Saudi Arabia during 2010 seasonal flu circulation.

    PubMed

    Affifi, Raouf M; Omar, Sherif R; El Raggal, Ahmad A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to describe and analyze an outbreak of novel 2009 influenza A (H1N1) among residents of a long-term care facility (LTCF) in Prince Mansour Military Hospital (PMMH), Taif, Saudi Arabia. These patients had been admitted to the LTCF months or years before the outbreak for several reasons, e.g. cerebral palsy, neurological deficits due to road traffic accidents with resultant handicap, chronic diseases associated with old age. An observational study was carried out to demonstrate and analyze the epidemiological characteristics (demographic factors, risk factors, and outcomes) associated with the outbreak in order to clarify which prevention and control measures had been taken and which recommendations were followed. During the period October 28 to November 11 2010, 21 LTCF residents were suspected to be clinically involved: fever ≥38°C with influenza-like illness (ILI). Age ranged from 9-91 years (mean 46±24.13); 62% were males. Among them, 12 (57%) were influenza A (H1N1) positive by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Mortality involved 2 (17%) of the A (H1N1) laboratory confirmed individuals. Implementation of the recommended infection control measures mitigated the transmission of infection to new individuals. The fulfillment of strict infection control measures could limit H1N1 infection among LTCF-PMMH patients. Routine influenza, including specific H1N1 immunization of all LTCF residents together with their healthcare staff, should be mandatory in those settings serving immunocompromised patients. PMID:24470930

  3. Long-term association between self-reported signs and symptoms and heart failure hospitalizations: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Christy L.; Mills, Katherine T.; Chambless, Lloyd E.; Chang, Patricia P.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Ni, Hanyu; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Wagenknecht, Lynne; Wood, Joy; Heiss, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    Aims Although studies of the accuracy of heart failure (HF) classification scoring systems are available, few have examined their performance when restricted to self-reported items. Methods and results We evaluated the association between a simplified version of the Gothenburg score, a validated HF score comprised of cardiac and pulmonary signs and symptoms and medication use, and incident HF hospitalizations in 15 430 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study participants. Gothenburg scores (range: 0–3) were constructed using self-reported items obtained at study baseline (1987–89). Incident HF hospitalization over 14.7 years of follow-up was defined as the first identified hospitalization with an ICD-9 discharge code of 428 (n = 1668). Self-reported Gothenburg scores demonstrated very high agreement with the original metric comprised of self-reported and clinical measures and were directly associated with incident HF hospitalizations: [score = 1: hazard rate ratio (HRR) = 1.23 (1.07–1.42); score = 2: HRR = 2.17 (1.92–2.43); score = 3: HRR = 3.98 (3.37–4.70)]. Conclusion In a population-based cohort, self-reported Gothenburg criteria items were associated with hospitalized HF over a prolonged follow-up time. The association was also consistent across groups defined by sex and race, suggesting that this simple score deserves further study as a screening tool for the identification of individuals at high risk of HF in resource-limited settings. PMID:20097681

  4. Carbon sequestration in croplands is mainly driven by management leading to increased net primary production - evidence from long-term field experiments in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kätterer, Thomas; Bolinder, Martin Anders; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kirchmann, Holger; Poeplau, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable intensification of agriculture in regions with high production potential is a prerequisite for providing services for an increasing human population, not only food, animal feed, fiber and biofuel but also to promote biodiversity and the beauty of landscapes. We investigated the effect of different management practices on soil fertility and carbon sequestration in long-term experiments, mainly from Northern Europe. In addition, a meta-analysis on the effect of catch crops was conducted. Improved management of croplands was found to be a win-win strategy resulting in both increased soil fertility and carbon sequestration. We quantified the effect of different management practices such as N fertilization, organic amendments, catch crops and ley-arable rotations versus continuous annual cropping systems on soil carbon stocks. Increasing net primary productivity (NPP) was found to be the main driver for higher soil carbon storage. Mineral N fertilization increased soil carbon stocks by 1-2 kg C ha-1 for each kg of N applied to cropland. Ley-arable rotations, being a combination of annual and perennial crops, are expected to have C stocks intermediate between those of continuous grass- and croplands. A summary of data from 15 long-term sites showed that on average 0.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.3 to 1.1; median 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1) more carbon was retained in soils in ley-arable compared to exclusively annual systems, depending on species composition, management, soil depth and the duration of the studies. The annual C accumulation rate for catch crops determined in the meta-analysis was well within that range (0.32±0.08 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). Retention factors calculated for straw, manure, sawdust, peat, sewage sludge and composted household waste varied widely in a decadal time scale. Retention of root and rhizodeposit carbon was higher than for above-ground crop residues. We conclude that NPP is the major driver for C sequestration and emphasize that increased soil

  5. Long-Term Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Public or private, K-12, college or university, no one knows their facilities better than school maintenance and operations staff--from the front-line custodians to facility managers. When it comes to planning restrooms for new construction and renovation, operational experience is especially critical. Applying best practices in advance can save…

  6. Living on the edge: adaptive and plastic responses of the tree Nothofagus pumilio to a long-term transplant experiment predict rear-edge upward expansion.

    PubMed

    Mathiasen, Paula; Premoli, Andrea C

    2016-06-01

    Current climate change affects the competitive ability and reproductive success of many species, leading to local extinctions, adjustment to novel local conditions by phenotypic plasticity or rapid adaptation, or tracking their optima through range shifts. However, many species have limited ability to expand to suitable areas. Altitudinal gradients, with abrupt changes in abiotic conditions over short distances, represent "natural experiments" for the evaluation of ecological and evolutionary responses under scenarios of climate change. Nothofagus pumilio is the tree species which dominates as pure stands the montane forests of Patagonia. We evaluated the adaptive value of variation in quantitative traits of N. pumilio under contrasting conditions of the altitudinal gradient with a long-term reciprocal transplant experimental design. While high-elevation plants show little response in plant, leaf, and phenological traits to the experimental trials, low-elevation ones show greater plasticity in their responses to changing environments, particularly at high elevation. Our results suggest a relatively reduced potential for evolutionary adaptation of high-elevation genotypes, and a greater evolutionary potential of low-elevation ones. Under global warming scenarios of forest upslope migration, high-elevation variants may be outperformed by low-elevation ones during this process, leading to the local extinction and/or replacement of these genotypes. These results challenge previous models and predictions expected under global warming for altitudinal gradients, on which the leading edge is considered to be the upper treeline forests. PMID:26868524

  7. Soil Parameter Mapping and Ad Hoc Power Analysis to Increase Blocking Efficiency Prior to Establishing a Long-Term Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Collins, Doug; Benedict, Chris; Bary, Andy; Cogger, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of soil and weed populations poses a challenge to researchers. Unlike aboveground variability, below-ground variability is more difficult to discern without a strategic soil sampling pattern. While blocking is commonly used to control environmental variation, this strategy is rarely informed by data about current soil conditions. Fifty georeferenced sites were located in a 0.65 ha area prior to establishing a long-term field experiment. Soil organic matter (OM) and weed seed bank populations were analyzed at each site and the spatial structure was modeled with semivariograms and interpolated with kriging to map the surface. These maps were used to formulate three strategic blocking patterns and the efficiency of each pattern was compared to a completely randomized design and a west to east model not informed by soil variability. Compared to OM, weeds were more variable across the landscape and had a shorter range of autocorrelation, and models to increase blocking efficiency resulted in less increase in power. Weeds and OM were not correlated, so no model examined improved power equally for both parameters. Compared to the west to east blocking pattern, the final blocking pattern chosen resulted in a 7-fold increase in power for OM and a 36% increase in power for weeds. PMID:26247056

  8. Correction of the equilibrium temperature caused by slight evaporation of water in protein crystal growth cells during long-term space experiments at International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takahisa; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Yoshizaki, Izumi; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Murayama, Kenta; Fukuyama, Seijiro; Hosokawa, Kouhei; Oshi, Kentaro; Ito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Tachibana, Masaru; Miura, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    The normal growth rates of the {110} faces of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals, R, were measured as a function of the supersaturation σ parameter using a reflection type interferometer under μG at the International Space Station (NanoStep Project). Since water slightly evaporated from in situ observation cells during a long-term space station experiment for several months, equilibrium temperature T(e) changed, and the actual σ, however, significantly increased mainly due to the increase in salt concentration C(s). To correct σ, the actual C(s) and protein concentration C(p), which correctly represent the measured T(e) value in space, were first calculated. Second, a new solubility curve with the corrected C(s) was plotted. Finally, the revised σ was obtained from the new solubility curve. This correction method successfully revealed that the 2.8% water was evaporated from the solution, leading to 2.8% increase in the C(s) and C(p) of the solution. PMID:26329200

  9. Effect of phosphorus availability on the selection of species with different ploidy levels and genome sizes in a long-term grassland fertilization experiment.

    PubMed

    Šmarda, Petr; Hejcman, Michal; Březinová, Alexandra; Horová, Lucie; Steigerová, Helena; Zedek, František; Bureš, Petr; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Schellberg, Jürgen

    2013-11-01

    Polyploidy and increased genome size are hypothesized to increase organismal nutrient demands, namely of phosphorus (P), which is an essential and abundant component of nucleic acids. Therefore, polyploids and plants with larger genomes are expected to be selectively disadvantaged in P-limited environments. However, this hypothesis has yet to be experimentally tested. We measured the somatic DNA content and ploidy level in 74 vascular plant species in a long-term fertilization experiment. The differences between the fertilizer treatments regarding the DNA content and ploidy level of the established species were tested using phylogeny-based statistics. The percentage and biomass of polyploid species clearly increased with soil P in particular fertilizer treatments, and a similar but weaker trend was observed for the DNA content. These increases were associated with the dominance of competitive life strategy (particularly advantageous in the P-treated plots) in polyploids and the enhanced competitive ability of dominant polyploid grasses at high soil P concentrations, indicating their increased P limitation. Our results verify the hypothesized effect of P availability on the selection of polyploids and plants with increased genome sizes, although the relative contribution of increased P demands vs increased competitiveness as causes of the observed pattern requires further evaluation. PMID:23819630

  10. Soil Parameter Mapping and Ad Hoc Power Analysis to Increase Blocking Efficiency Prior to Establishing a Long-Term Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Doug; Benedict, Chris; Bary, Andy; Cogger, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of soil and weed populations poses a challenge to researchers. Unlike aboveground variability, below-ground variability is more difficult to discern without a strategic soil sampling pattern. While blocking is commonly used to control environmental variation, this strategy is rarely informed by data about current soil conditions. Fifty georeferenced sites were located in a 0.65 ha area prior to establishing a long-term field experiment. Soil organic matter (OM) and weed seed bank populations were analyzed at each site and the spatial structure was modeled with semivariograms and interpolated with kriging to map the surface. These maps were used to formulate three strategic blocking patterns and the efficiency of each pattern was compared to a completely randomized design and a west to east model not informed by soil variability. Compared to OM, weeds were more variable across the landscape and had a shorter range of autocorrelation, and models to increase blocking efficiency resulted in less increase in power. Weeds and OM were not correlated, so no model examined improved power equally for both parameters. Compared to the west to east blocking pattern, the final blocking pattern chosen resulted in a 7-fold increase in power for OM and a 36% increase in power for weeds. PMID:26247056

  11. A Smart Cage With Uniform Wireless Power Distribution in 3D for Enabling Long-Term Experiments With Freely Moving Animals.

    PubMed

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Bahrami, Hadi; Sawan, Mohamad; Gosselin, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel experimental chamber with uniform wireless power distribution in 3D for enabling long-term biomedical experiments with small freely moving animal subjects. The implemented power transmission chamber prototype is based on arrays of parallel resonators and multicoil inductive links, to form a novel and highly efficient wireless power transmission system. The power transmitter unit includes several identical resonators enclosed in a scalable array of overlapping square coils which are connected in parallel to provide uniform power distribution along x and y. Moreover, the proposed chamber uses two arrays of primary resonators, facing each other, and connected in parallel to achieve uniform power distribution along the z axis. Each surface includes 9 overlapped coils connected in parallel and implemented into two layers of FR4 printed circuit board. The chamber features a natural power localization mechanism, which simplifies its implementation and ease its operation by avoiding the need for active detection and control mechanisms. A single power surface based on the proposed approach can provide a power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 69% and a power delivered to the load (PDL) of 120 mW, for a separation distance of 4 cm, whereas the complete chamber prototype provides a uniform PTE of 59% and a PDL of 100 mW in 3D, everywhere inside the chamber with a size of 27×27×16 cm(3). PMID:26011866

  12. Long-term Outcomes after Severe Shock

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Cristina M.; Hirshberg, Eliotte L.; Jones, Jason P.; Kuttler, Kathryn G.; Lanspa, Michael J.; Wilson, Emily L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Brown, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Methods Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 mcg/kg/min of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured three-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. Results The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years: 82% (62/76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of five years after hospital admission. The patients’ Physical Functioning scores were below US population norms (p<0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full time. Conclusions Early survivors of severe shock had a high three-year survival rate. Patients’ long term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill ICU survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term

  13. Long-term effects of early-life caregiving experiences on brain-derived neurotrophic factor histone acetylation in the adult rat mPFC

    PubMed Central

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, Arun; Roth, Tania L.

    2016-01-01

    Infant-caregiver experiences are major contributing factors to neural and behavioral development. Research continues to indicate that epigenetic mechanisms provide a way in which infant-caregiver experiences affect gene activity and other downstream processes in the brain that influence behavioral development. Our laboratory previously demonstrated in a rodent model that exposure to maltreatment alters methylation of DNA associated with the brain derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) and reelin genes as well as mRNA of key epigenetic regulatory genes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the current study we characterized patterns of histone acetylation at bdnf and reelin gene loci after our caregiver manipulations. Using a within-litter design (n=8–10/group from 8 litters), pups were exposed to adverse (maltreatment condition: exposure to a stressed caregiver) or nurturing (cross-foster condition: exposure to a nurturing caregiver) caregiving environments outside the home cage for 30 minutes each day during the first postnatal week. Remaining pups in a litter were left with the biological mother during each session (providing normal care controls). We then used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and quantitative RT-PCR to measure histone 3 lysine 9/14 acetylation at bdnf exons I and IV and the reelin promoter in the adult mPFC. Maltreated females had decreased acetylation at bdnf IV, while neither males nor females exhibited histone acetylation alterations at bdnf I or the reelin promoter. These data demonstrate the ability of maltreatment to have long-term consequences on histone acetylation in the mPFC, and provide further evidence of the epigenetic susceptibility of bdnf IV to the quality of infant-caregiver experiences. PMID:26305287

  14. Long-Term Clinical Outcome of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: The MD Anderson Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Zhiqin; Yang Kunyu; Komaki, Ritsuko; Wei Xiong; Tucker, Susan L.; Zhuang Yan; Martel, Mary K.; Vedam, Sastray; Balter, Peter; Zhu Guangying; Gomez, Daniel; Lu, Charles; Mohan, Radhe; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: In 2007, we published our initial experience in treating inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The current report is an update of that experience with long-term follow-up. Methods and Materials: Patients in this retrospective review were 165 patients who began definitive radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, for newly diagnosed, pathologically confirmed NSCLC to a dose of {>=}60 Gy from 2005 to 2006. Early and late toxicities assessed included treatment-related pneumonitis (TRP), pulmonary fibrosis, esophagitis, and esophageal stricture, scored mainly according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Other variables monitored were radiation-associated dermatitis and changes in body weight and Karnofsky performance status. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compute survival and freedom from radiation-related acute and late toxicities as a function of time. Results: Most patients (89%) had Stage III to IV disease. The median radiation dose was 66 Gy given in 33 fractions (range, 60-76 Gy, 1.8-2.3 Gy per fraction). Median overall survival time was 1.8 years; the 2-year and 3-year overall survival rates were 46% and 30%. Rates of Grade {>=}3 maximum TRP (TRP{sub max}) were 11% at 6 months and 14% at 12 months. At 18 months, 86% of patients had developed Grade {>=}1 maximum pulmonary fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis{sub max}) and 7% Grade {>=}2 pulmonary fibrosis{sub max}. The median times to maximum esophagitis (esophagitis{sub max}) were 3 weeks (range, 1-13 weeks) for Grade 2 and 6 weeks (range, 3-13 weeks) for Grade 3. A higher percentage of patients who experienced Grade 3 esophagitis{sub max} later developed Grade 2 to 3 esophageal stricture. Conclusions: In our experience, using IMRT to treat NSCLC leads to low rates of pulmonary and esophageal toxicity, and favorable clinical outcomes in terms of survival.

  15. Geochemical changes and microbial activities during CO2 storage - Long-term experiments under in situ conditions within the frame of CO2SINK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandrey, Maren; Scherf, Ann-Kathrin; Vieth, Andrea; Zettlitzer, Michael; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the frame of the CO2SINK project, CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer of the Stuttgart formation (Triassic, Middle Keuper) at a depth of about 640 m below surface near Ketzin (Northeast German Basin, about 40 km west of Berlin) (Schilling et al., 2009). The injection of CO2 may induce a variety of geochemical changes in the reservoir system. Inorganic components may be dissolved from mineral phases (Wigand et al., 2008) and mineral precipitation from fluid components (Ketzer et al., 2009) may occur. In addition, organic molecules may be relocated, since supercritical CO2 is an excellent solvent for organic components. These geochemical shifts probably affect the microbial community composition and activity. The dissolution and precipitation of minerals, as well as corresponding microbial processes (Bennet et al., 2001) can affect reservoir permeability. In order to detect and quantify changes in geochemical characteristics and microbial processes during CO2storage and to estimate their impact on storage efficiency long-term experiments under in situ P-T conditions are performed. Freshly drilled sandstone sections from the target reservoir at Ketzin from a depth of about 630 m were incubated together with synthetic brine (20 % lower total dissolved solids than the Ketzin reservoir fluid) in high pressure vessels at 5.5 MPa and 40 ° C since September 2007. Since outer core sections were contaminated with drilling mud, as shown with fluorescein tracer detection (Wandrey et al., 2010), only clean inner core sections were used for long-term experiments to avoid contamination with microorganisms, as well as organic and inorganic mud components. After 15, 21 and 24 month fluid and rock samples were taken for chemical, microbial, mineralogical and petrophysical analyses. In fluid samples the concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ were found to exceed those of the Ketzin reservoir fluid. Assuming chemical equilibrium between mineral and formation brine, observed

  16. Geochemical changes and microbial activities during CO2 storage - Long-term experiments under in situ conditions within the frame of CO2SINK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandrey, Maren; Scherf, Ann-Kathrin; Vieth, Andrea; Zettlitzer, Michael; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the frame of the CO2SINK project, CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer of the Stuttgart formation (Triassic, Middle Keuper) at a depth of about 640 m below surface near Ketzin (Northeast German Basin, about 40 km west of Berlin) (Schilling et al., 2009). The injection of CO2 may induce a variety of geochemical changes in the reservoir system. Inorganic components may be dissolved from mineral phases (Wigand et al., 2008) and mineral precipitation from fluid components (Ketzer et al., 2009) may occur. In addition, organic molecules may be relocated, since supercritical CO2 is an excellent solvent for organic components. These geochemical shifts probably affect the microbial community composition and activity. The dissolution and precipitation of minerals, as well as corresponding microbial processes (Bennet et al., 2001) can affect reservoir permeability. In order to detect and quantify changes in geochemical characteristics and microbial processes during CO2storage and to estimate their impact on storage efficiency long-term experiments under in situ P-T conditions are performed. Freshly drilled sandstone sections from the target reservoir at Ketzin from a depth of about 630 m were incubated together with synthetic brine (20 % lower total dissolved solids than the Ketzin reservoir fluid) in high pressure vessels at 5.5 MPa and 40 ° C since September 2007. Since outer core sections were contaminated with drilling mud, as shown with fluorescein tracer detection (Wandrey et al., 2010), only clean inner core sections were used for long-term experiments to avoid contamination with microorganisms, as well as organic and inorganic mud components. After 15, 21 and 24 month fluid and rock samples were taken for chemical, microbial, mineralogical and petrophysical analyses. In fluid samples the concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ were found to exceed those of the Ketzin reservoir fluid. Assuming chemical equilibrium between mineral and formation brine, observed

  17. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  18. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  19. Soil microbial biomass and community structure affected by repeated additions of sewage sludge in four Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, G.; Kätterer, T.; Kirchmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic matter is a key attribute of soil fertility. The pool of soil organic C can be increased, either by mineral fertilisers or by adding organic amendments such as sewage sludge. Sewage sludge has positive effects on agricultural soils through the supply of organic matter and essential plant nutrients, but sludge may also contain unwanted heavy metals, xenobiotic substances and pathogens. One obvious effect of long-term sewage sludge addition is a decrease in soil pH, caused by N mineralisation followed by nitrification, sulphate formation and presence of organic acids with the organic matter added. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sewage sludge on the microbial biomass and community structure. Materials and methods We analysed soil samples from four sites where sewage sludge has been repeatedly applied in long-term field experiments situated in different parts of Sweden; Ultuna (59°49'N, 17°39'E, started 1956), Lanna (58°21'N, 13°06'E, started 1997-98), Petersborg (55°32'N, 13°00'E, started 1981) and Igelösa (55°45'N, 13°18'E, started 1981). In these four experiments, at least one sewage sludge treatment is included in the experimental design. In the Ultuna experiment, all organic fertilisers, including sewage sludge, are applied every second year, corresponding to 4 ton C ha-1. The Lanna experiment has a similar design, with 8 ton dry matter ha-1 applied every second year. Lanna also has an additional treatment in which metal salts (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) are added together with sewage sludge. At Petersborg and Igelösa, two levels of sewage sludge (4 or 12 ton dry matter ha-1 every 4th year) are compared with three levels of NPK fertiliser (0 N, ½ normal N and normal N). Topsoil samples (0-20 cm depth) from the four sites were analysed for total C, total N, pH and PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids). In addition, crop yields were recorded. Results At all four sites, sewage sludge has had a positive effect on crop yields

  20. Two-Stage System Based on a Software-Defined Radio for Stabilizing of Optical Frequency Combs in Long-Term Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Čížek, Martin; Hucl, Václav; Hrabina, Jan; Šmíd, Radek; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    A passive optical resonator is a special sensor used for measurement of lengths on the nanometer and sub-nanometer scale. Astabilized optical frequency comb can provide an ultimate reference for measuring the wavelength of a tunable laser locked to the optical resonator. If we lock the repetition and offset frequencies of the comb to a high-grade radiofrequency (RF) oscillator its relative frequency stability is transferred from the RF to the optical frequency domain. Experiments in the field of precise length metrology of low-expansion materials are usually of long-term nature so it is required that the optical frequency comb stay in operation for an extended period of time. The optoelectronic closed-loop systems used for stabilization of combs are usually based on traditional analog electronic circuits processing signals from photodetectors. From an experimental point of view, these setups are very complicated and sensitive to ambient conditions, especially in the optical part, therefore maintaining long-time operation is not easy. The research presented in this paper deals with a novel approach based on digital signal processing and a software-defined radio. We describe digital signal processing algorithms intended for keeping the femtosecond optical comb in a long-time stable operation. This need arose during specialized experiments involving measurements of optical frequencies of tunable continuous-wave lasers. The resulting system is capable of keeping the comb in lock for an extensive period of time (8 days or more) with the relative stability better than 1.6 × 10−11. PMID:24448169

  1. Impact of different tillage practices on molecular characteristics of humic acids in a long-term field experiment - an application of three different spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Tatzber, Michael; Stemmer, Michael; Spiegel, Heide; Katzlberger, Christian; Haberhauer, Georg; Gerzabek, Martin H

    2008-11-15

    The present paper describes changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) and extractable humic acids (HAs) in a long-term field experiment with different tillage treatments (minimum tillage (MT), reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT)). This field experiment is located in the east of Vienna in a Pannonian climate and it was started in 1988. The methodological approach included elemental analyses, FT-IR, 13C NMR and fluorimetric measurements. Both MT and RT revealed significant depth gradients of yields of extractable HAs. In CT no depth gradient was observable, neither for HA yields nor for observed molecular characteristics. This indicated a destruction of the gradient by mixing of the soil in CT. Especially MT showed an increase of aromatic moieties with depth, suggesting an increased humification of HAs in the lower soil layers. Gradients with similar trends were indicated for the carbonylic, the amidic and probably the hydroxylic groups in HAs extracted from MT and RT samples. The data revealed with FT-IR and solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy were convincing, plausible and meaningful, the highly sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy was limited because of strong quenching by inner filter effects, compromising data reliability. However, the fluorescence results based on a defined HAs concentration (and comparing soils from the same site) were in line with results from the other methods (13C NMR and FT-IR). As a consequence, the influence of tillage treatments can be followed by absence or presence of depth gradients of the according molecular characteristics in extracted HAs. PMID:18789814

  2. (14)C-labeled organic amendments: Characterization in different particle size fractions and humic acids in a long-term field experiment.

    PubMed

    Tatzber, Michael; Stemmer, Michael; Spiegel, Heide; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Haberhauer, Georg; Gerzabek, Martin H

    2012-05-01

    Knowledge about the stabilization of organic matter input to soil is essential for understanding the influence of different agricultural practices on turnover characteristics in agricultural soil systems. In this study, soil samples from a long-term field experiment were separated into silt- and clay-sized particles. In 1967, (14)C labeled farmyard manure was applied to three different cropping systems: crop rotation, monoculture and permanent bare fallow. Humic acids (HAs) were extracted from silt- and clay-sized fractions and characterized using photometry, mid-infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Remaining (14)C was determined in size fractions as well as in their extracted HAs. Yields of carbon and remaining (14)C in HAs from silt-sized particles and Corg in clay-sized particles decreased significantly in the order: crop rotation > monoculture ≫ bare fallow. Thus, crop rotation not only had the largest overall C-pool in the experiment, but it also best stabilized the added manure. Mid-infrared spectroscopy could distinguish between HAs from different particle size soil fractions. With spectroscopic methods significant differences between the cropping systems were detectable in fewer cases compared to quantitative results of HAs (yields, (14)C, Corg and Nt). The trends, however, pointed towards increased humification of HAs from bare fallow systems compared to crop rotation and monoculture as well as of HAs from clay-sized particles compared to silt-sized particles. Our study clearly shows that the largest differences were observed between bare fallow on one hand and monoculture and crop rotation on the other. PMID:23482702

  3. The Clinical Research Center for Depression Study: Baseline Characteristics of a Korean Long-Term Hospital-Based Observational Collaborative Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Suk; Jeong, Seung Hee; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study is a 9-year observational collaborative prospective cohort study for the clinical outcomes in participants with depressive disorders in Korea. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of the depressive participants as the hospital-based cohort. Methods Participants were assessed using various instruments including the Clinical Global Impression scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Scale for Suicide Ideation, and World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instruments-abbreviated version. Also, personal histories of medical and psychiatric illnesses and the range of socio-epidemiologic and clinical data were collected from each participant. Results One thousand one hundred eighty three participants were recruited from 18 hospitals. The mean age of the participants was 47.9±15.9 year-old, 74.4% were female, 82.9% had been diagnosed of major depressive disorder, 40.9% were experiencing their first depressive episode, and 21.4% had a past history of suicide attempts. The majority (85.3%) of the participants were moderately to severely ill. The average HDRS-17 was 19.8±6.1. Significant gender differences at baseline were shown in age, education, marriage, employment, religion, and first depressive episode. Conclusion The baseline findings in the CRESCEND study showed some different characteristics of depression in Korea, suggesting a possibility of ethnic and cultural factors in depression. PMID:21519530

  4. GES-11-producing Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates from Tunisian hospitals: Long-term dissemination of GES-type carbapenemases in North Africa.

    PubMed

    Chihi, H; Bonnin, R A; Bourouis, A; Mahrouki, S; Besbes, S; Moussa, M Ben; Belhadj, O; Naas, T

    2016-06-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging threat in healthcare facilities owing to its ability to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) and to be involved in outbreaks. GES-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been increasingly identified in A. baumannii. In this study, clinical A. baumannii isolates were characterised using standard biochemical methods and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Antibiotic resistance genes were sought by PCR and sequencing. Genetic support was characterised using S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) mapping, conjugation and electroporation assays. The genetic environment was investigated by PCR, and genetic relatedness was investigated by PFGE. Two MDR A. baumannii clinical isolates susceptible only to colistin and rifampicin were isolated from a tracheal aspirate of a 49-year-old woman hospitalised in 2006 at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia, and from a tracheal aspirate of a 53-year-old man hospitalised in 2010 at the Institut Orthopédique Mohamed El Kassab of Tunis, Tunisia. PCR revealed that the two isolates harboured the acquired carbapenemase blaOXA-23 and ESBL blaGES-11 genes along with chromosomally-encoded blaOXA-51 and blaADC-like genes. PFGE revealed that these A. baumannii isolates were unrelated; nevertheless, plasmid analysis revealed a similar sized plasmid following electrophoresis of the isolates. In addition, A. baumannii CIP70.10 transformants displayed similar resistance patterns. blaGES-11 was integron-borne and the ISAbaI element was identified upstream of blaOXA-23 and blaADC-like. Here we described two unrelated clinical A. baumannii isolates producing GES-11 ESBL and OXA-23 carbapenemase from two Tunisian hospitals. This work further illustrates the emergence of GES-type β-lactamases in A. baumannii in North Africa as early as 2006. PMID:27436466

  5. [Taiwan long-term care insurance and the evolution of long-term care in Japan].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Wen; Liu, Shu-Hui; Pai, Yu-Chu

    2010-08-01

    The proportion of elderly (65 years of age and older) in Taiwan has exceeded 10% since 2008. With more elderly, the number of patients suffering from dementia and disabilities has also been rapidly increasing. Japan also has been facing increasing demand for long-term care due to an aging society. Prior to 2000, social welfare programs in Japan, working to cope with changing needs, typically provided insufficient services, and geriatric patients were hospitalized unnecessarily, wasting medical resources and causing undue patient hardship. In response, Japan launched its long-term care insurance program in April 2000. Under the program, city, town and village-based organizations should take responsibility for providing care to the elderly in their place of residence. The program significantly improved previous financial shortfalls and long-term care supply and demand has been met by existing social welfare organization resources. In Taiwan, the provision of long-term care by county / city authorities has proven inconsistent, with performance deemed poor after its first decade of long-term care operations. Service was found to be affected by differences in available resources and insufficient long-term care administration. The cultures of Taiwan and Japan are similar. The authors visited the Japan Long-Term Care Insurance Institute in August 2009. Main issues involved in the implementation and evolution of the Japan long-term Care Insurance are reported on in this paper. We hope such may be useful information to those working to develop long-term care programs in Taiwan. PMID:20661859

  6. Out of sight - Profiling soil characteristics, nutrients and microbial communities affected by organic amendments down to one meter in a long-term maize cultivation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo; Baumgarten, Andreas; Spiegel, Heide

    2016-04-01

    Soil characteristics, nutrients and microbial activity in the deeper soil layers are topics not of-ten covered in agricultural studies since the main interest lies within the most active topsoils and deep soils are more time-consuming to sample. Studies have shown that deep soil does matter, although biogeochemical cycles are not fully understood yet. The main aim of this study is to investigate the soil organic matter dynamics, nutrients and microbial community composition in the first meter of the soil profiles in the long-term maize cropping system ex-periment Tetto Frati, in the vicinity of the Po River in Northern Italy. The trial site lies on a deep, calcareous, free-draining soil with a loamy texture. The following treatments have been applied since 1992: 1) maize for silage with 250 kg mineral N ha-1 (crop residue removal, CRR), 2) maize for grain with 250 kg mineral N ha-1 (crop residue incorporation, CRI), 3) maize for silage with 250 kg bovine slurry N ha-1 (SLU), 4) maize for silage with 250 kg farm yard manure N ha-1 (FYM). Soil characteristics (pH, carbonate content, soil organic carbon (SOC), aggregate stability (WSA)), and nutrients (total nitrogen (Nt), CAL-extractable phos-phorous (P) and potassium (K), potential N mineralisation) were investigated. Bacteri-al community composition was investigated with Ion PGM high-throughput sequencing at the depth of 8000 sequences per sample. Soil pH was moderately alkaline in all soil samples, in-creasing with increasing soil depth, as the carbonate content increased. SOC was significantly higher in the treatments with organic amendments (CRI, SLU and FYM) compared to CRR in 0-25 cm (11.1, 11.6, 14.7 vs. 9.8 g kg-1, respectively), but not in the deeper soil. At 50-75 cm soil depth FYM treatment revealed higher WSA compared to CRR, as well as higher CAL-extractable K (25 and 15 mg kg-1, respectively) and potential N mineralisation (11.30 and 8.78 mg N kg-1 7d-1, respectively). At 75-100 cm soil depth, SLU and

  7. Long-term, High Frequency, High Precision pH Measurements on the MBARI deep-water FOCE Experiment at the MARS Cabled Observatory in Monterey Bay, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Maughan, T.; Barry, J. P.; Brewer, P. G.; Headley, K. L.; Herlien, R.; Kirkwood, W. J.; Matsumoto, G. I.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Salamy, K. A.; Scholfield, J.; Shane, F. F.; Walz, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    -situ calibration techniques used to compensate for long term sensor drift associated with the reference electrode.

  8. Human factor observations of the Biosphere 2, 1991-1993, closed life support human experiment and its application to a long-term manned mission to Mars.

    PubMed

    Alling, Abigail; Nelson, Mark; Silverstone, Sally; Van Thillo, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Human factors are a key component to the success of long-term space missions such as those necessitated by the human exploration of Mars and the development of bioregenerative and eventually self-sufficient life support systems for permanent space outposts. Observations by participants living inside the 1991-1993 Biosphere 2 closed system experiment provide the following insights. (1) Crew members should be involved in the design and construction of their life support systems to gain maximum knowledge about the systems. (2) Individuals living in closed life support systems should expect a process of physiological and psychological adaptation to their new environment. (3) Far from simply being a workplace, the participants in such extended missions will discover the importance of creating a cohesive and satisfying life style. (4) The crew will be dependent on the use of varied crops to create satisfying cuisine, a social life with sufficient outlets of expression such as art and music, and to have down-time from purely task-driven work. (5) The success of the Biosphere 2 first 2-year mission suggests that crews with high cultural diversity, high commitment to task, and work democracy principles for individual responsibility may increase the probability of both mission success and personal satisfaction. (6) Remaining challenges are many, including the need for far more comprehensive real-time modeling and information systems (a "cybersphere") operating to provide real-time data necessary for decision-making in a complex life support system. (7) And, the aim will be to create a noosphere, or sphere of intelligence, where the people and their living systems are in sustainable balance. PMID:11987306

  9. Effects of plant diversity, N fertilization, and elevated carbon dioxide on grassland soil N cycling in a long-term experiment.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kevin E; Hobbie, Sarah E; Tilman, David; Reich, Peter B

    2013-04-01

    The effects of global environmental changes on soil nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes have consequences for ecosystem functions such as plant productivity and N retention. In a 13-year grassland experiment, we evaluated how elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), N fertilization, and plant species richness alter soil N cycling. We focused on soil inorganic N pools, including ammonium and nitrate, and two N fluxes, net N mineralization and net nitrification. In contrast with existing hypotheses, such as progressive N limitation, and with observations from other, often shorter, studies, elevated CO2 had relatively static and small, or insignificant, effects on soil inorganic N pools and fluxes. Nitrogen fertilization had inconsistent effects on soil N transformations, but increased soil nitrate and ammonium concentrations. Plant species richness had increasingly positive effects on soil N transformations over time, likely because in diverse subplots the concentrations of N in roots increased over time. Species richness also had increasingly positive effects on concentrations of ammonium in soil, perhaps because more carbon accumulated in soils of diverse subplots, providing exchange sites for ammonium. By contrast, subplots planted with 16 species had lower soil nitrate concentrations than less diverse subplots, especially when fertilized, probably due to greater N uptake capacity of subplots with 16 species. Monocultures of different plant functional types had distinct effects on N transformations and nitrate concentrations, such that not all monocultures differed from diverse subplots in the same manner. The first few years of data would not have adequately forecast the effects of N fertilization and diversity on soil N cycling in later years; therefore, the dearth of long-term manipulations of plant species richness and N inputs is a hindrance to forecasting the state of the soil N cycle and ecosystem functions in extant plant communities. PMID:23504900

  10. Belowground carbon sources and fine root turnover times using 13C tracer at the conclusion of a long-term FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. J.; Matamala, R.; Norby, R.; Iversen, C.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of carbon budgets require accurate approximations of fine root production and turnover. Current published estimates of root carbon turnover vary more than five-fold, with large differences between isotope-derived estimates, minirhizotron studies or other approaches. Variations in residence times between root structural and reserve C, root orders and new photosynthate to support root function have been shown independently, but have not been yet reconciled in a single study. Taking advantage of the conclusion of the long-term FACE experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, we track the whole ecosystem isotope relaxation in fine root pools (<2mm). Carbon assimilated in 2010 and beyond is isotopically unique from carbon incorporated during fumigation (1998-2009). Our objectives were to quantify carbon turnover time in fine roots of Liquidambar styraciflua, and to identify carbon sources for new root growth and for energy metabolism. We sampled intact and in-growth root cores at regular (minimum time was monthly) intervals in 2010 and at several intervals in 2011. Additionally, fine roots and soils were incubated from three sampling periods each from 2010 and 2011 for measurement of the isotopic signature of respired CO2. Our results show a residence time of carbon in fine roots consistent with previous stable isotope reports for this species, with about 20% of structural C replaced after one full growing season. In contrast, all new root growth (evidenced from in-growth cores) was supported by new photosynthate, except for some storage carbon used very early in the growing season. Carbon used for energy metabolism in roots exclusively originated from new photosynthate during all measurement periods. Our results confirm heterogeneity of C pools in existing and new roots and the relatively long residence time of structural C in existing fine roots.

  11. Biodegradation of natural organic matter in long-term, continuous-flow experiments simulating artificial ground water recharge for drinking water production.

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, Reija E; Kortelainen, Nina M; Langwaldt, Jörg H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2009-01-01

    The role of biodegradation in the attenuation of natural organic matter (NOM) was investigated in long-term experiments that simulate artificial ground water recharge (AGR) for drinking water production. Lake water containing 5.8 mg L(-1) total organic carbon (TOC) was continuously fed into an 18.5-m-long sand column. During the 941 d of operation, on average 76 and 81% of TOC was removed within the first 0.6 m and the entire column length, respectively. Large molecular size fractions (approximately 1800-2200 Da) of NOM were removed more efficiently than smaller ones (approximately 250-1400 Da). The biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within the first 0.6 m, measured by the stable inorganic carbon isotope (delta13C) method, depended on temperature and hydraulic load: The extent of mineralization was 32% at 6 degrees C (Day 442) and 38% at 23 degrees C (Day 708) with a 0.3 m3 (m2d)(-1) hydraulic load and 52% at 5.5 degrees C (Day 883) with a 3.1 m3 (m2d) (-1) hydraulic load. The rest of the DOC removal was likely due to entrapment or sorption onto the sand particles. Decreases in DOC and the total cell counts in the water along the column were positively correlated (r = 0.99; P = 0.001). The accumulation of biomass was minor, with the highest concentration amounting to 7.2 mg g(-1) dw of sand. In summary, this study demonstrated that biodegradation has a key role in NOM removal in AGR and is dependent on temperature. PMID:19141794

  12. A long-term field experiment of soil transplantation demonstrating the role of contemporary geographic separation in shaping soil microbial community structure

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Yuji; Li, Yun; Dong, Zhixin; Li, Zhongpei; Zhang, Xue-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The spatial patterns of microbial communities are largely determined by the combined effects of historical contingencies and contemporary environmental disturbances, but their relative importance remains poorly understood. Empirical biogeographic data currently available are mostly based on the traditional method of observational survey, which typically involves comparing indigenous microbial communities across spatial scales. Here, we report a long-term soil transplantation experiment, whereby the same two soils (red Acrisol and purple Cambisol from Yingtan) were placed into two geographic locations of ∼1000 km apart (i.e., Yingtan in the mid-subtropical region and Fengqiu in warm-temperate region; both located in China). Twenty years after the transplantation, the resulting soil microbial communities were subject to high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Additionally, bacteria and archaea involved in nitrogen cycling were estimated using clone library analysis of four genes: archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA,nirK, and nifH. Data of subsequent phylogenetic analysis show that bacteria, fungi, and other microbial eukaryotes, as well as the nitrogen cycling genes, are grouped primarily by the factor of geographic location rather than soil type. Moreover, a shift of microbial communities toward those in local soil (i.e., Chao soil in Fengqiu) has been observed. The results thus suggest that the historical effects persistent in the soil microbial communities can be largely erased by contemporary disturbance within a short period of 20 years, implicating weak effects of historical contingencies on the structure and composition of microbial communities in the soil. PMID:24772284

  13. Impact of Local Management on Long-Term Outcomes in Ewing Tumors of the Pelvis and Sacral Bones: University of Florida Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, Daniel J. Keole, Sameer R.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: This retrospective analysis describes our 35-year experience with respect to disease control and functional status. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients with localized Ewing tumors of the pelvis and sacral bones were treated from 1970 to 2005. Twenty-six patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT), and 9 patients were treated with combined local therapy in the form of surgery + RT. The median RT dose was 55.2 Gy. The patients who received RT alone were more likely to be older men with larger tumors exhibiting soft-tissue extension. Patients in the definitive RT group were more likely to receive etoposide and ifosfamide or undergo bone marrow transplant. Median potential follow-up was 19.4 years. Results: The 15-year actuarial cause-specific survival, freedom from relapse rate, and local control rates were 26% vs. 76% (p = 0.016), 28% vs. 78% (p = 0.015), and 64% vs. 100% (p = 0.087), respectively, for patients treated with definitive RT and combined therapy. Overall, tumors <8 cm had significantly better cause-specific survival, but this was unrelated to local control. The median Toronto Extremity Salvage Score for the definitive RT and combined therapy groups were 99 and 94, respectively (p = 0.19). Seven definitive RT patients (27%) had serious complications. Conclusion: Combined modality local therapy should be considered if pelvic Ewing tumors are resectable. However, because of the extent of local disease, most patients have unresectable or partially resectable tumors and therefore require RT in some capacity. For this reason, innovative RT strategies are needed to improve long-term disease outcomes and minimize side effects while maintaining an acceptable functional result.

  14. Long-Term Financial Burden of Breast Cancer: Experiences of a Diverse Cohort of Survivors Identified Through Population-Based Registries

    PubMed Central

    Jagsi, Reshma; Pottow, John A.E.; Griffith, Kent A.; Bradley, Cathy; Hamilton, Ann S.; Graff, John; Katz, Steven J.; Hawley, Sarah T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the financial experiences of a racially and ethnically diverse cohort of long-term breast cancer survivors (17% African American, 40% Latina) identified through population-based registries. Methods Longitudinal study of women diagnosed with nonmetastatic breast cancer in 2005 to 2007 and reported to the SEER registries of metropolitan Los Angeles and Detroit. We surveyed 3,133 women approximately 9 months after diagnosis and 4 years later. Multivariable models evaluated correlates of self-reported decline in financial status attributed to breast cancer and of experiencing at least one type of privation (economically motivated treatment nonadherence and broader hardships related to medical expenses). Results Among 1,502 patients responding to both surveys, median out-of-pocket expenses were ≤ $2,000; 17% of respondents reported spending > $5,000; 12% reported having medical debt 4 years postdiagnosis. Debt varied significantly by race: 9% of whites, 15% of blacks, 17% of English-speaking Latinas, and 10% of Spanish-speaking Latinas reported debt (P = .03). Overall, 25% of women experienced financial decline at least partly attributed to breast cancer; Spanish-speaking Latinas had significantly increased odds of this decline relative to whites (odds ratio [OR], 2.76; P = .006). At least one privation was experienced by 18% of the sample; blacks (OR, 2.6; P < .001) and English-speaking Latinas (OR, 2.2; P = .02) were significantly more likely to have experienced privation than whites. Conclusion Racial and ethnic minority patients appear most vulnerable to privations and financial decline attributable to breast cancer, even after adjustment for income, education, and employment. These findings should motivate efforts to control costs and ensure communication between patients and providers regarding financial distress, particularly for vulnerable subgroups. PMID:24663041

  15. Scenarios for long-term analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis of High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments data is described and summarized in this talk. The summary covers information presented at the First Workshop on Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis. Experiments representing e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions (LEP, B Factories and CLEO), ep collisions (H1 and ZEUS), p{bar p} collisions (CDF and D0) and others presented interesting information related to utilizing the large datasets collected over many years at these HEP facilities. Many questions and issues remain to be explored.

  16. Could the long term cover change of three Mediterranean shrubs be explained by their photosynthetic responses to drought in a rainfall exclusion experiment ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberati, Dario; De Dato, Giovanbattista; Guidolotti, Gabriele; De Angelis, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    In the Mediterranean climates water stress is considered to be the main environmental factor limiting plant growth. In front of water limitations plants have developed a wide diversity of adaptation mechanism, and co-occurring species often display different physiological, functional, and life history strategies. In the contest of a rainfall exclusion experiment (project INCREASE), the present work is aimed to assess if the seasonal response of photosynthesis to the water stress (based on gas exchange data collected during 2010) can explain the long term change in the cover degree (assessed by seven pin point survey carried out from 2001 to 2012) of the three main species present in the Italian experimental site, Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae), Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop. (Fabaceae) and Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum (Willd.) Nyman (Asteraceae) From 2001 to 2012, in the untreated plots, the cover degree increased in C. monspeliensis (+ 0.34% per year), did not show any significant trend in D. pentaphyllum and decreased in H. italicum (- 1.54% per year). In the same period the rainfall exclusion system has worked during Spring and Autumn, mainly reducing the soil water content of the drought plots in Autumn: this treatment did not affect the cover trend of D. pentaphyllum and H. italicum, whereas C. monspeliensis displayed in the drought plots an opposite dynamic (- 1.23% per year) compared to the natural conditions. During 2010 all monitored species reached the maximum photosynthesis rates in spring, with a depression during summer drought and a recovery after the first Autumn rainfalls. The recovery of the spring rates was almost complete in C. monspeliensis and D. pentaphyllum, while in H. italicum did not exceed the 30% of the spring value. The rainfall exclusion reduced the photosynthesis rates in C. monspeliensis and H. italicum in Autumn. In the control plots the opposite cover trend observed in C. monspeliensis and H.italicum could be

  17. Excellent long-term survival of 170 patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia treated in private oncology practices and a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Hensel, M; Brust, J; Plöger, C; Schuster, D; Memmer, M L; Franz-Werner, J; Feustel, H-P; Karcher, A; Fuxius, S; Mosthaf, F A; Rieger, M; Ho, A D; Witzens-Harig, M

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare treatment and outcome of patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) in four private oncology practices (PP) and a university hospital (UH) in southwest Germany. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients with WM of the last two decades of four PP in Mannheim, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, and Speyer and the Department of Hematology of the University of Heidelberg. One hundred seventy patients could be identified, 74 from PP, 96 from the UH. Median age was 63.3 years. Patients from PP were older (median 65.3 vs. 62.5 years, p = 0.01). Only 54 % of patients from PP have received treatment during the observation time, as compared to 78.1 % of the UH (p < 0.001). In PP, 35 % of treated patients have received rituximab, as compared to 62.6 % of the patients of the UH (p < 0.001). Sixty percent of treated patients of PP have received bendamustine, as compared to only 8 % of the patients of the UH (p < 0.001). Time to first treatment was significantly shorter in patients from the UH compared to PP (median 13.7 vs. 52.9 months, p = 0.05). A trend towards a better overall survival was observed for patients treated with a rituximab-containing first-line regimen. The International Prognostic Scoring System for WM had significant prognostic value. Median overall survival was 25.0 years and did not differ between PP and UH. Despite different treatment strategies between PP and UH today overall survival of patients with WM is excellent, and better than previously reported. PMID:22895554

  18. Long-Term Effects of Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment Experiences on PTSD and Behavior Problems: A National Survey of Taiwanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the joint long-term impact of witnessing interparental violence and experiencing child physical maltreatment on young adults' trauma symptoms and behavior problems. It also explored Chinese traditional beliefs as a possible contributor to young adults' trauma and behavior. Methods: This study used self-reporting…

  19. Long term complications of diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long term complications of diabetes To use the sharing ... sores and infections. If it goes on too long, your toes, foot, or leg may need to ...

  20. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  1. Eurotransplant donor-risk-index and recipient factors: influence on long-term outcome after liver transplantation - A large single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Schoening, Wenzel; Helbig, Michael; Buescher, Niklas; Andreou, Andreas; Schmitz, Volker; Bahra, Marcus; Puhl, Gero; Pascher, Andreas; Pratschke, Johann; Seehofer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The organ shortage has led to increased use of marginal organs. The Eurotransplant Donor-Risk-Index (ET-DRI) was established to estimate outcome after Liver Transplantation (LT). Currently, data on impact of ET-DRI on long-term outcome for different indications and recipient conditions are missing. Retrospective, single-center analysis of long-term graft survival (GS) of 1767 adult primary LTs according to indication, labMELDcategory (1: ≤18; 2: >18-25; 3: >25-35; 4: >35), and ET-DRI. Mean ET-DRI in our cohort was 1.63 (±0.43). One-, 10, and 15-yr GS was 83.5%, 63.3%, and 54.8%. Long-term GS was significantly influenced by ET-DRI. Accordingly, four ET-DRI categories were defined and analyzed with respect to underlying disease. Significant impact of these categories was observed for: Alcohol, cholestatic/autoimmune diseases (CD/AIH), and HCV, but not for HCC, HBV, cryptogenic cirrhosis, and acute liver failure. labMELD categories showed no significant influence on graft, but on patient survival. Matching ET-DRI categories with labMELD revealed significant differences in long-term GS for labMELDcategories 1, 2, and 3, but not 4. In multivariate analysis, HCV combined with ET-DRI > 2 and labMELDcategory 3 combined with ET-DRI > 2 emerged as negative predictors. To achieve excellent long-term graft survival, higher risk organs (ET-DRI > 1.4) should be used restrictively for patients with CD/AIH or HCV. Organs with ET-DRI > 2 should be avoided in patients with a labMELD of >25-35. PMID:26854873

  2. Impact of tillage intensity on carbon and nitrogen pools in surface and subsurface soils of three long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Michael; Piegholdt, Christiane; Andruschkewitsch, Rouven; Linsler, Deborah; Koch, Heinz-Josef; Ludwig, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Management options such as the intensity of tillage are known to influence amount and turnover of soil organic matter. However, less information is available about the influence of the tillage intensity on individual soil organic matter pools of different turnover dynamics analyzed for surface and subsurface soils. We took surface (0-5 cm) and subsurface (5-25 cm) soil samples from no tillage (NT), reduced tillage (RT), and conventional tillage (CT) systems of three long-term field experiments in Germany. The labile, intermediate and stable C and N pool sizes were determined based on the combined application of a decomposition experiment and a physical-chemical separation procedure. For the surface soils, we found higher stocks of the labile C and N pool under NT and RT compared to CT. In case of a change from conventional to no-tillage systems, our results indicate an increase of labile C and N pools for the analyzed agricultural surface soils from 8 to 18% of the organic C and from 10% to 21% of the total N after 19 to 21 years. This timespan should be taken into consideration within the evaluation of potential benefits from an increase in labile OM for nutrient supply and productivity especially within the development of more sustainably managed agro-ecosystems. The reverse effect was observed for the labile C pool in subsurface soils where an increase from 6 to 10% of the organic C with increasing tillage intensity was observed. Such increase might contribute to an improved nutrient supply in subsurface soils under intensive tillage systems. The intermediate C and N pools in the surface and the subsurface soils are with 76 to 84% of the organic C and with 75 to 83% of the total N quantitatively much more important for the OM dynamics than the stable or labile pools. However, only for the surface soils were the stocks of the intermediate N and C pools distinctly larger for NT than for CT. The stocks of the stable C and N pools were not affected by the tillage

  3. Phosphorus fertilisation under nitrogen limitation can deplete soil carbon stocks - evidence from Swedish meta-replicated long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, C.; Bolinder, M. A.; Kirchmann, H.; Kätterer, T.

    2015-10-01

    Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils can mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentration and also contribute to increase soil fertility and ecosystem resilience. The role of major nutrients on SOC dynamics is complex, due to simultaneous effects on net primary productivity (NPP) that influence crop residue carbon inputs and on the rate of heterotrophic respiration (carbon outputs). This study investigated the effect on SOC stocks of three different levels of phosphorus and potassium (PK) fertilisation rates in the absence of nitrogen fertilisation and of three different levels of nitrogen in the absence of PK. This was done by analysing data from 10 meta-replicated Swedish long-term field experiments (> 45 years). With N fertilisation, SOC stocks followed yield increases. However, for all PK levels, we found average SOC losses ranging from -0.04 ± 0.09 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (ns) for the lowest to -0.09 ± 0.07 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (p = 0.008) for the highest application rate, while crop yields as a proxy for carbon input increased significantly with PK fertilization by 1, 10 and 15 %. We conclude that SOC dynamics are mainly output-driven in the PK fertilised regime but mostly input-driven in the N fertilised regime, due to the much more pronounced response of NPP to N than to PK fertilisation. It has been established that P rather than K is the element affecting ecosystem carbon fluxes, where P fertilisation has been shown to: (i) stimulate heterotrophic respiration, (ii) reduce the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and (iii) decrease crop root : shoot ratio, leading to lower root-derived carbon input. The higher export of N in the PK fertilised plots in this study could (iv) have led to increased N mining and thus mineralisation of organic matter. More integrated experiments are needed to gain a better understanding of the relative importance of each of the above-mentioned mechanisms leading to SOC losses after P addition.

  4. Phosphorus fertilisation under nitrogen limitation can deplete soil carbon stocks: evidence from Swedish meta-replicated long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Kirchmann, Holger; Kätterer, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils can mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentration and also contribute to increased soil fertility and ecosystem resilience. The role of major nutrients in SOC dynamics is complex, due to simultaneous effects on net primary productivity (NPP) that influence crop residue carbon inputs and in the rate of heterotrophic respiration (carbon outputs). This study investigated the effect on SOC stocks of three different levels of phosphorus and potassium (PK) fertilisation rates in the absence of nitrogen fertilisation and of three different levels of nitrogen fertiliser in the absence of PK fertiliser. This was done by analysing data from 10 meta-replicated Swedish long-term field experiments (> 45 years). With N fertilisation, SOC stocks followed yield increases. However, for all PK levels, we found average SOC losses ranging from -0.04 ± 0.09 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (ns) for the lowest to -0.09 ± 0.07 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (p = 0.008) for the highest application rate, while crop yields as a proxy for carbon input increased significantly with PK fertilisation by 1, 10 and 15 %. We conclude that SOC dynamics are mainly output-driven in the PK-fertilised regime but mostly input-driven in the N-fertilised regime, due to the much more pronounced response of NPP to N than to PK fertilisation. It has been established that P rather than K is the element affecting ecosystem carbon fluxes, where P fertilisation has been shown to (i) stimulate heterotrophic respiration, (ii) reduce the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and (iii) decrease the crop root : shoot ratio, leading to higher root-derived carbon input. The higher export of N in the PK-fertilised plots in this study could (iv) have led to increased N mining and thus mineralisation of organic matter. More integrated experiments are needed to gain a better understanding of the relative importance of each of the above-mentioned mechanisms leading to SOC losses after P addition.

  5. Results from a Long-term Litter Decomposition Experiment in Canadian Forests and Their Use in Soil Carbon Model Verification and Development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Smyth, C.; Moore, T.; Prescott, C.; Titus, B.; Siltanen, M.; Visser, S.; Preston, C.; Nault, J.; Camire', C.; Fyles, J.; Kozak, L.; Kranabetter, M.; Kutny, L.; Morrison, I.; Smith, S.; Wein, R.; White, D.

    2007-12-01

    Climate and substrate quality have been shown to be key determinants of rates of litter decomposition, though other site factors can be important under certain conditions. The Canadian Intersite Decomposition Experiment (CIDET) was established in 1992 with the objective of providing data on the long-term rates of litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization for a range of forested ecoclimatic regions in Canada. Such data were needed to help verify the Carbon Budget Model - Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS) used for national C accounting, as well as aid in the development of other soil C models. CIDET examined the annual decay, over a 12-year period from 1993 to 2004, of 10 standard foliar litters and 2 wood substrates at 18 forested upland and 3 wetland sites ranging from the cool temperate to subarctic regions. On a subset of sites and litter types, changes in litter C chemistry over time were also determined. Over the first 6 years, C/N ratio and iron increased, NMR showed an overall decline in O-alkyl C (carbohydrates) and increase in alkyl, aromatic, phenolic, and carboxyl C. Proximate analysis showed the acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) increases, but true lignin does not accumulate, in contrast to the conceptual ligno-cellulose model of decomposition. Overall litter decay during first phase of decomposition was related to initial litter quality (AUR and water soluble extract), winter precipitation, but not temperature. Decay rate "k" during second phase was related to temperature, initial litter quality (AUR and AUR/N), summer precipitation, but not soil N. In most cases decay had approached an asymptote before end of experiment, although decay rates during this semistable phase were low and difficult to quantify. However, the asymptotes were related to temperature suggesting decay in this phase is temperature dependant. Asymptotes were also related to summer precipitation and forest floor pH and C/N ratio. Comparisons of CIDET 12 year C mass remaining

  6. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  7. Climate Change and Potassium Effects Under Different N-Fertilization Input on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in a Long Term Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change of Hungary was initiated about of 1850. Nowadays among the natural catastrophes, drought and flooding caused by over-abundant rainfall cause the greatest problems in field crop production. The droughts and the floods were experienced in the early eighties as well as today have drawn renewed attention to the analysis of this problem. The potato is demanding indicator crop of climate factors (temperature, rainfall) and soil nutrient status. Has a particularly high requirement for quantity of precipitation and for supply of soil potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium. This paper reports the results achieved in the period from 1962 to 2001 of a long term small- plot fertilization experiment set up on acidic sandy brown forest soil at Nyírlugos in the Nyírség region in North- Eastern Hungary. Characteristics of the experiment soil were a pH (KCl) 4.5, humus 0.5%, CEC 5-10 mgeq 100g-1 in the ploughed layer. The topsoil was poor in all four macronutrient N, P, K and Mg. The mineral fertilization experiment involved 2 (genotype: Gülbaba and Aranyalma) x 2 (ploughed depth: 20 and 40 cm) x 16 (fertilizations: N, P, K, Mg) = 64 treatments in 8 replications, giving a total of 512 plots. The gross and net plot sizes were 10x5=50 m2 and 35.5 m2. The experimental designe was split-split-plot. The N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg ha-1 year-1 and the P, K, Mg levels were 48, 150, 30 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5, K2O, MgO in the form of 25% calcium ammonium nitrate, 18% superphosphate, 40% potassium chloride, and technological powdered magnesium sulphate. The forecrop every second year was rye. The groundwater level was at a depth of 2-3 m. From the 64 treatments, eight replications, altogether 512- experimental plots with 7 treatments and their 16 combinations are summarised of experiment period from 1962 to 1979. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. The experiment years (1962-1963, 1964-1965, 1966-1967, 1968-1969, 1970-1971, 1972-1973, 1974-1975, 1976

  8. Estimation of internal and external nitrogen for corals with a long-term 15N-labelling experiment and subsequent model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yasuaki; Grottoli, Andréa; Matsui, Yohei; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    Coral reef ecosystems maintain high primary productivity though the seawater is extremely oligotrophic. One of the hypotheses to explain this paradox is the recycling of nutrients in animal-algal symbiotic organisms such as corals. It is relatively easy to measure nutrient uptake rates by corals from seawater, but the proportion of internally circulating nutrients between the coral host and the endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) is more challenging. Here, we performed a long-term and continuous 15N-labelling experiment to quantify the proportionate contribution of seawater (external N source) and the animal host (internal N source) to the total N influx in the endosymbiotic algae. Branches from the scleractinian corals Porites cylindrica and Montipora digitata from Okinawa, Japan, were cultured for 2 months in indoor, flow-through, filtered seawater tanks with the continuous supply of 15N-labelled nitrate. At the initial and after 2, 4, and 9 weeks of the study, coral branches were collected and the algal and animal fractions were separated for isotopic analyses. In both corals, the N isotope ratio of symbiotic algae exponentially increased and the values were much higher than those of the host tissue, suggesting that the algae had a faster turnover N time than the animal host. Algal and host N biomass normalized to the coral surface area slowly decreased in both coral species over the study period. To calculate the contribution of internal and external N, a simple mixing model of algal N metabolism was designed. Using differential equations of 15N balance and N biomass balance, F1 and F2 (external and internal N fluxes to symbiotic algae, respectively) were expressed as the functions of time. The model calculations showed that F2 was much higher than F1 in P. cylindrica and the percentage of internal N to the total influx N (PIN) was >70%. On the other hand, the contribution of F1 and F2 was comparable in M. digitata and the PIN was 40-70%. These results

  9. Uncertainty functions of modelled soil organic carbon changes in response to crop management derived from a French long term experiments dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimassi, Bassem; Guenet, Bertrand; Mary, Bruno; Trochard, Robert; Bouthier, Alain; Duparque, Annie; Sagot, Stéphanie; Houot, Sabine; Morel, Christian; Martin, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities and crop management (CM) in Europe could be an important carbon sink through soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. Recently, the (EU decision 529/2013) requires European Union's member states to assess modalities to include greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals resulting from activities relating to LULUCF and CM into the Union's (GHG) emissions reduction commitment and their national inventories reports (NIR). Tier 1, the commonly used method to estimate emissions for NIR, provides a framework for measuring SOC stocks changes. However, estimations have high uncertainty, especially in response to crop management at regional and specific national contexts. Understanding and quantifying this uncertainty with accurate confidence interval is crucial for reliably reporting and support decision-making and policies that aims to mitigate greenhouse gases through soil C storage. Here, we used the Tier 3 method, consisting of process-based modelling, to address the issue of uncertainty quantification at national scale in France. Specifically, we used 20 Long-term croplands experiments (LTE) in France with more than 100 treatments taking into account different agricultural practices such as tillage, organic amendment, inorganic fertilization, cover crops, etc. These LTE were carefully selected because they are well characterized with periodic SOC stocks monitoring overtime and covered a wide range of pedo-climatic conditions. We applied linear mixed effect model to statistically model, as a function of soil, climate and cropping system characteristics, the uncertainty resulting from applying this Tier 3 approach. The model was fitted on the dataset yielded by comparing the simulated (with the Century model V 4.5) to the observed SOC changes on the LTE at hand. This mixed effect model will then be used to derive uncertainty related to the simulation of SOC stocks changes of the French Soil Monitoring

  10. Soil-atmosphere fluxes of the greenhouse gases N2O, CO2 and CH4 from a long term compost experiment in Austria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, Caroline; Spiegel, Heide; Kitzler, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    The application of composts as fertilizers is becoming increasingly important to achieve a closed-loop economy. However, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially N2O, from agricultural fields may increase as well. In this study different compost types and N amounts were investigated, especially in terms of their GHG fluxes. We used the closed chamber method to estimate GHG flux rates over one vegetation period from an agricultural soil fertilized with different compost types. The study was conducted on a long term compost experiment site near Linz (Austria) with a crop rotation. The soil is a loamy silt and in 2015 maize was planted. Six different compost treatments were investigated. Organic waste compost (OWC) and farmyard manure compost (FMC) was applied with nitrogen concentrations of 175 (OWC1, FYC1) and 525 kg N ha-1 (OWC3, FYC3). Two compost treatments were fertilized additionally with 80 kg N ha.1 mineral fertilizer (OWC2, FYC2). One treatment (TN) was fertilized only with mineral fertilizer (120 kg N ha-1) and one treatment was not fertilized at all (C). Additionally to the GHG flux rates, ammonium and nitrate content, microbial biomass C and N and different enzyme activities were analysed in the top soil. Nitrous oxide (N2O) was emitted over the entire vegetation period with highest fluxes from April until June, until the plants have been established sufficiently. Overall, at the FMC treatments (FYC2, FYC3) highest fluxes were measured. Compared to FMC, lower N2O emissions were measured from the OWC treatments. The combination of compost and mineral N fertilization resulted in the highest N2O emissions, especially after precipitation events. The treatments OWC1 and FYC1 were not different from the control. Methane (CH4) was mainly taken up at all treatments, but uptake rates were lower at the high N input sites (OWC3, FYC3) with no differences between the compost types. No significant differences were found in the soil respiration rates.

  11. Long-term follow-up after ileocaecal continent cutaneous urinary diversion (Mainz I pouch): A retrospective study of a monocentric experience

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Fahd; Fellahi, Saad; Ouslim, Hicham; Mhanna, Tarik; El Houmaidi, Amine; Aynaou, Mohammed; Boteng, Paapa Dua; Barki, Ali; Nouini, Yassine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the long-term follow-up after ileocaecal continent cutaneous reservoir (ICCR) and to review the late complications. Patients and methods In all, 756 patients underwent an ICCR in our department, with long-term follow-up data available in 50 patients. The inclusion criterion was ICCR regardless of the indication and the exclusion criteria were orthotopic neobladder or other continent urinary diversions not performed with the ileocaecum. Patients were followed to record primary outcomes and late complications. Complications were stratified according to the Clavien–Dindo classification. Results The mean patient age was 44 years and pelvic malignancies were the first indication for urinary diversion. The mean (range) follow-up was 19 (9–36) years. A stoma stenosis was the most frequent outlet-related complication requiring re-intervention, followed by ischaemic outlet degeneration, and stoma incontinence. Six renal units (RUs) developed obstruction at the anastomotic site and were managed by open surgery. Three RUs had to be removed due to deterioration. A dederivation was necessary in three patients (6%). Conclusion The ICCR is a safe and established technique when an orthotopic pouch is impossible. The long-term follow-up shows acceptable complication rates and satisfactory continence conditions. However, large population studies are necessary to confirm this observation. PMID:26609442

  12. Effects of harvesting forest biomass on water and climate regulation services: A synthesis of long-term ecosystem experiments in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caputo, Jesse; Beier, Colin D; Groffman, Peter M; Burns, Douglas A.; Beall, Frederick D; Hazlett, Paul W.; Yorks, Thad E

    2016-01-01

    Demand for woody biomass fuels is increasing amidst concerns about global energy security and climate change, but there may be negative implications of increased harvesting for forest ecosystem functions and their benefits to society (ecosystem services). Using new methods for assessing ecosystem services based on long-term experimental research, post-harvest changes in ten potential benefits were assessed for ten first-order northern hardwood forest watersheds at three long-term experimental research sites in northeastern North America. As expected, we observed near-term tradeoffs between biomass provision and greenhouse gas regulation, as well as tradeoffs between intensive harvest and the capacity of the forest to remediate nutrient pollution. In both cases, service provision began to recover along with the regeneration of forest vegetation; in the case of pollution remediation, the service recovered to pre-harvest levels within 10 years. By contrast to these two services, biomass harvesting had relatively nominal and transient impacts on other ecosystem services. Our results are sensitive to empirical definitions of societal demand, including methods for scaling societal demand to ecosystem units, which are often poorly resolved. Reducing uncertainty around these parameters can improve confidence in our results and increase their relevance for decision-making. Our synthesis of long-term experimental studies provides insights on the social-ecological resilience of managed forest ecosystems to multiple drivers of change.

  13. Incidence, management, and outcome of high-grade transformation of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: long-term outcomes from a 30-year experience.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Toby A; Gatter, Kevin; Collins, Graham P; Hall, Georgina W; Watson, Caroline; Hatton, Chris S R

    2015-06-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare form of Hodgkin lymphoma that typically presents as early stage, indolent disease in young adult males. The relationship between NLPHL and DLBCL is incompletely understood, and there remains a paucity of data with regard the incidence and management of high-grade transformation. We report the largest study to date describing the incidence, management and long-term outcome of 26 cases of high-grade transformation of NLPHL over a 30-year period. We report a transformation incidence of 17.0%. Bone marrow, splenic, and liver infiltration with DLBCL was frequent. Patients with an aa-IPI 2-3 have poorer OS and PFS (P = 0.034 and P = 0.009, respectively). Although the approach to treatment was somewhat variable, typically young, otherwise fit patients received anthracycline-based induction, platinum-based consolidation with stem cell harvesting, followed by autologous SCT with BEAM conditioning. Long-term (5 year) PFS was over 60% with this approach, and comparable to our de novo DLBCL historical age and time period-matched cohort largely treated with CHOP-like chemotherapy alone. The transformation rate of 17.0% highlights the importance of accurate initial diagnosis, long-term follow-up, and re-biopsy at relapse. PMID:25715900

  14. Petrophysical characterization of first ever drilled core samples from an active CO2 storage site, the German Ketzin Pilot Site - Comparison with long term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. These parameters may change during and/or after the CO2 injection due to geochemical reactions in the reservoir system that are triggered by the injected CO2. Here we present petrophysical data of first ever drilled cores from a newly drilled well at the active CO2 storage site - the Ketzin pilot site in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. By comparison with pre-injection baseline data from core samples recovered prior to injection, the new samples provide the unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of CO2 on pore size related properties of reservoir and cap rocks at a real injection site under in-situ reservoir conditions. After injection of 61 000 tons CO2, an additional well was drilled and new rock cores were recovered. In total 100 core samples from the reservoir and the overlaying caprock were investigated by NMR relaxation. Permeability of 20 core samples was estimated by nitrogen and porosity by helium pycnometry. The determined data are comparable between pre-injection and post-injection core samples. The lower part of the reservoir sandstone is unaffected by the injected CO2. The upper part of the reservoir sandstone shows consistently slightly lower NMR porosity and permeability values in the post-injection samples when compared to the pre-injection data. This upper sandstone part is above the fluid level and CO2 present as a free gas phase and a possible residual gas saturation of the cores distorted the NMR results. The potash-containing drilling fluid can also influence these results: NMR investigation of twin samples from inner and outer parts of the cores show a reduced fraction of larger pores for the outer core samples together with lower porosities and T2 times. The drill mud penetration depth can be controlled by the added fluorescent tracer. Due to the heterogeneous character of the

  15. Long-term prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction due to unprotected left main coronary artery disease: a single-centre experience over 14 years

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Sun, Hao; Wang, Le-Feng; Yang, Xin-Chun; Li, Kui-Bao; Zhang, Da-Peng; Wang, Hong-Shi; Li, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease is clinically catastrophic although it has a low incidence. Studies on the long-term prognosis of these patients are rare. METHODS From January 1999 to September 2013, 55 patients whose infarct-related artery was the ULMCA were enrolled. Clinical, angiographic and interventional data was collected. Short-term and long-term clinical follow-up results as well as prognostic determinants during hospitalisation and follow-up were analysed. RESULTS Cardiogenic shock (CS) occurred in 30 (54.5%) patients. During hospitalisation, 22 (40.0%) patients died. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CS (odds ratio [OR] 5.86; p = 0.03), collateral circulation of Grade 2 or 3 (OR 0.14; p = 0.02) and final flow of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) Grade 3 (OR 0.05; p = 0.03) correlated with death during hospitalisation. 33 patients survived to discharge; another seven patients died during the follow-up period of 44.6 ± 31.3 (median 60, range 0.67–117.00) months. The overall mortality rate was 52.7% (n = 29). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the total cumulative survival rate was 30.7%. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that CS during hospitalisation was the only predictor of overall mortality (hazard ratio 4.07, 95% confidence interval 1.40–11.83; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION AMI caused by ULMCA lesions is complicated by high incidence of CS and mortality. CS, poor collateral blood flow and failure to restore final flow of TIMI Grade 3 correlated with death during hospitalisation. CS is the only predictor of long-term overall mortality. PMID:27439434

  16. Large-sized Fetal Striatal Grafts in Huntington’s Disease Do Stop Growing: Long-term Monitoring in the Florence Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mascalchi, Mario; Diciotti, Stefano; Paganini, Marco; Bianchi, Andrea; Ginestroni, Andrea; Lombardini, Letizia; Porfirio, Berardino; Conti, Renato; Di Lorenzo, Nicola; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Gallina, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Development of six large nodules of solid tissue after bilateral human fetal striatal transplantation in four Huntington’s disease patients has raised concern about the safety of this experimental therapy in our setting. We investigated by serial MRI-based volumetric analysis the growth behaviour of such grafts. After 33-73 months from transplantation the size of five grafts was stable and one graft showed a mild decrease in size. Signs neither of intracranial hypertension nor of adjuctive focal neurological deficit have ever been observed. This supports long-term safety of the grafting procedure at our Institution. PMID:25642368

  17. Long Term Illness and Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

  18. Telemetry and Telestimulation via Implanted Devices Necessary in Long-Term Experiments Using Conscious Untethered Animals for the Development of New Medical Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Kawada, Toru; Uemura, Kazunori

    Effective countermeasures against explosive increase in healthcare expenditures are urgently needed. A paradigm shift in healthcare is called for, and academics and governments worldwide are working hard on the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) as a feasible and effective measure for reducing medical cost. The more prevalent the disease and the easier disease outcome can be improved, the more efficient is medical ICT in reducing healthcare cost. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are such examples. Chronic heart failure is another disease in which patients may benefit from ICT-based medical practice. It is conceivable that daily monitoring of hemodynamics together with appropriate treatments may obviate the expensive hospitalization. ICT potentially permit continuous monitoring with wearable or implantable medical devices. ICT may also help accelerate the development of new therapeutic devices. Traditionally effectiveness of treatments is sequentially examined by sacrificing a number of animals at a given time point. These inefficient and inaccurate methods can be replaced by applying ICT to the devices used in chronic animal experiments. These devices allow researchers to obtain biosignals and images from live animals without killing them. They include implantable telemetric devices, implantable telestimulation devices, and imaging devices. Implanted rather than wired monitoring and stimulation devices permit experiments to be conducted under even more physiological conditions, i.e., untethered, free-moving states. Wireless communication and ICT are indispensible technologies for the development of such telemetric and telestimulation devices.

  19. Climate Change and Potassium Effects Under Different N-Fertilization Input on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in a Long Term Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change of Hungary was initiated about of 1850. Nowadays among the natural catastrophes, drought and flooding caused by over-abundant rainfall cause the greatest problems in field crop production. The droughts and the floods were experienced in the early eighties as well as today have drawn renewed attention to the analysis of this problem. The potato is demanding indicator crop of climate factors (temperature, rainfall) and soil nutrient status. Has a particularly high requirement for quantity of precipitation and for supply of soil potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium. This paper reports the results achieved in the period from 1962 to 2001 of a long term small- plot fertilization experiment set up on acidic sandy brown forest soil at Nyírlugos in the Nyírség region in North- Eastern Hungary. Characteristics of the experiment soil were a pH (KCl) 4.5, humus 0.5%, CEC 5-10 mgeq 100g-1 in the ploughed layer. The topsoil was poor in all four macronutrient N, P, K and Mg. The mineral fertilization experiment involved 2 (genotype: Gülbaba and Aranyalma) x 2 (ploughed depth: 20 and 40 cm) x 16 (fertilizations: N, P, K, Mg) = 64 treatments in 8 replications, giving a total of 512 plots. The gross and net plot sizes were 10x5=50 m2 and 35.5 m2. The experimental designe was split-split-plot. The N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg ha-1 year-1 and the P, K, Mg levels were 48, 150, 30 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5, K2O, MgO in the form of 25% calcium ammonium nitrate, 18% superphosphate, 40% potassium chloride, and technological powdered magnesium sulphate. The forecrop every second year was rye. The groundwater level was at a depth of 2-3 m. From the 64 treatments, eight replications, altogether 512- experimental plots with 7 treatments and their 16 combinations are summarised of experiment period from 1962 to 1979. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. The experiment years (1962-1963, 1964-1965, 1966-1967, 1968-1969, 1970-1971, 1972-1973, 1974-1975, 1976

  20. Identifying qualitative effects of different grazing types on below-ground communities and function in a long-term field experiment.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Catriona A; Crawley, Michael J; Wright, Denis J; Kuczynski, Justin; Robinson, Lucinda; Knight, Rob; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Sørensen, Søren J; Deng, Ye; Zhou, Jizhong; Singh, Brajesh K

    2015-03-01

    Herbivory is an important modulator of plant biodiversity and productivity in grasslands, but our understanding of herbivore-induced changes on below-ground processes and communities is limited. Using a long-term (17 years) experimental site, we evaluated impacts of rabbit and invertebrate grazers on some soil functions involved in carbon cycling, microbial diversity, structure and functional composition. Both rabbit and invertebrate grazing impacted soil functions and microbial community structure. All functional community measures (functions, biogeochemical cycling genes, network association between different taxa) were more strongly affected by invertebrate grazers than rabbits. Furthermore, our results suggest that exclusion of invertebrate grazers decreases both microbial biomass and abundance of genes associated with key biogeochemical cycles, and could thus have long-term consequences for ecosystem functions. The mechanism behind these impacts are likely to be driven by both direct effects of grazing altering the pattern of nutrient inputs and by indirect effects through changes in plant species composition. However, we could not entirely discount that the pesticide used to exclude invertebrates may have affected some microbial community measures. Nevertheless, our work illustrates that human activity that affects grazing intensity may affect ecosystem functioning and sustainability, as regulated by multi-trophic interactions between above- and below-ground communities. PMID:24935069

  1. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2017 Rates; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers; Graduate Medical Education; Hospital Notification Procedures Applicable to Beneficiaries Receiving Observation Services; Technical Changes Relating to Costs to Organizations and Medicare Cost Reports; Finalization of Interim Final Rules With Comment Period on LTCH PPS Payments for Severe Wounds, Modifications of Limitations on Redesignation by the Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board, and Extensions of Payments to MDHs and Low-Volume Hospitals. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-08-22

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2017. Some of these changes will implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform Act of 2013, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Notice of Observation Treatment and Implications for Care Eligibility Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are providing the estimated market basket update to apply to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2017. We are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2017. In addition, we are making changes relating to direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education payments; establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific Medicare providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, LTCHs, and inpatient psychiatric facilities), including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) participating in the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; updating policies relating to the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program; implementing statutory provisions that require hospitals and CAHs to furnish notification to Medicare beneficiaries, including Medicare Advantage enrollees, when the beneficiaries receive outpatient observation services for more than 24 hours; announcing the implementation of the Frontier Community Health Integration Project Demonstration; and

  2. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  3. Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Heavy Metal Upptake as a Possibility of Food Chain Pollution in a Long-Term Field Experiment in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Some trace elements are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in food chain. Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of a chemical in a biological organism over time, compared to the chemical's concentration in they environment. Compounds accumulate in living things any time they are taken up and stored faster han they are broken down (metabolize) or extreted. Triticale is the stabilized man-made hybrid of wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Wheat-rye hybrids date back to 1875, it was only in 1953 that the first North American triticale breeding programme was initiated at the University Manitoba. Globally, triticale is used primary for livestock feed today. NPKCaMg fertilization effects were estimated on trace element bioavailability by Triticale in a long-term field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol (acidic sandy brown forest soil) at Nyírlugos in East-Hungary in 1998. Soil geochemical parameters were as follow: humus 0.6%, pH (H2O) 5.8, pH (KCl) 4.6, total N 32.8 mg . kg-1, AL (ammonium lactate soluble)- P2O5 43 mg . kg-1, AL-K2O 52 mg . kg-1. The experiments involved 32 NPKCaMg treatments and their combinations in 4 replications giving a total of 128 plots from 1980. N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, P2O5 and K2O 0, 60, 120, 180 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, CaCO3 0, 250, 500, 1000 kg . ha-1 . yr-1 and MgCO3 doses were 0, 140, 280 kg . ha-1 . yr-1. Plot brutto size was 50 m2. The main results were as follows. Main soil chemical parameters depend on NPKCaMg treatments. Soil pH (H2O) and pH (KCl) values ranged from 4.6 to 6.3 and from 3.5 to 5.8 indicating wide range from extremely acidic to slightly acidic. Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Al element concentrations shown a large variability too in interaction with fertilization doses and pH values (Ca 36-594 mg . kg-1, Fe 61-90 mg . kg-1, Mg 5-42 mg . kg-1, Mn 16-36 mg . kg-1, Al 79-118 mg . kg-1). The better soil pH (H2O), pH (KCl) and Ca parameters resulted by NPKCaMg combinations

  4. Early and Long-Term Results of Stent Implantation for Aortic Coarctation in Pediatric Patients Compared to Adolescents: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bondanza, Sara; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Marasini, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Stents have become the treatment of choice for native aortic coarctation in adults and adolescents, but in pediatric patients insufficient data are currently available to identify the best therapeutic option. Methods. To compare the outcomes of pediatric and adolescent patients, we retrospectively evaluated early and long-term results of stenting for aortic coarctation in 34 patients divided into 2 groups (A and B) composed, respectively, of 17 children (mean age 8.2 ± 2.3, weight ≤30 kg) and 17 adolescents (mean age 14.3 ± 1.7, weight >30 kg). Results. No significant differences in outcome were found between groups immediately after the procedure. In all of our patients, peak systolic gradient pressure significantly decreased after stenting from 43.7 ± 12 to 1.7 ± 3.1 mmHg in group A and from 39.4 ± 16.8 to 1.6 ± 3 in group B (p < 0.0001). We observed early and late adverse events in both groups: early femoral vessel injury or thrombosis was more frequent in younger patients, as well as restenosis due to vessel growth requiring stent redilatations, often complicated by stent fractures. Data from long-term follow-up showed that, in younger patients, stress-related hypertension was more frequent. Conclusions. The procedure was immediately safe and effective in both groups. Pediatric patients must be accurately selected before stenting because they could probably need reinterventions and stents could impact on their future therapeutic perspectives. PMID:26925287

  5. Early and Long-Term Results of Stent Implantation for Aortic Coarctation in Pediatric Patients Compared to Adolescents: A Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Bondanza, Sara; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Marasini, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Stents have become the treatment of choice for native aortic coarctation in adults and adolescents, but in pediatric patients insufficient data are currently available to identify the best therapeutic option. Methods. To compare the outcomes of pediatric and adolescent patients, we retrospectively evaluated early and long-term results of stenting for aortic coarctation in 34 patients divided into 2 groups (A and B) composed, respectively, of 17 children (mean age 8.2 ± 2.3, weight ≤30 kg) and 17 adolescents (mean age 14.3 ± 1.7, weight >30 kg). Results. No significant differences in outcome were found between groups immediately after the procedure. In all of our patients, peak systolic gradient pressure significantly decreased after stenting from 43.7 ± 12 to 1.7 ± 3.1 mmHg in group A and from 39.4 ± 16.8 to 1.6 ± 3 in group B (p < 0.0001). We observed early and late adverse events in both groups: early femoral vessel injury or thrombosis was more frequent in younger patients, as well as restenosis due to vessel growth requiring stent redilatations, often complicated by stent fractures. Data from long-term follow-up showed that, in younger patients, stress-related hypertension was more frequent. Conclusions. The procedure was immediately safe and effective in both groups. Pediatric patients must be accurately selected before stenting because they could probably need reinterventions and stents could impact on their future therapeutic perspectives. PMID:26925287

  6. Results of a Seven-Year, Single-Centre Experience of the Long-Term Outcomes of Bovine Ureter Grafts Used as Novel Conduits for Haemodialysis Fistulas

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Neelan Bratby, Mark J.; Shrivastava, Vivek; Cornall, Alison J.; Darby, Christopher R.; Boardman, Philip; Anthony, Susan; Uberoi, Raman

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To report the long-term outcomes of bovine ureter grafts as novel conduits for haemodialysis fistulas. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients underwent placement of a total of 40 SynerGraft 100 (SG100; CryoLife Europa{sup Registered-Sign}, Guildford, UK) bovine ureter grafts between April 2002 and February 2009. Prospective data were collected on all patients, including active surveillance with blood flow studies and 6-monthly duplex ultrasound studies. Main outcome measures were primary and secondary patency rates. Results: Mean follow-up time was 97 weeks (range 4-270). Thirteen patients died from unrelated causes during the study period; 12 of these patients had a functioning graft at the time of death. Five patients underwent transplantation, and all had a functioning graft at transplantation. Twelve patients had a functioning graft at the end of the study period. One hundred and ten stenoses were detected, and 97 venoplasty procedures were performed. Of the stenoses, 41.8% were located at the venous anastomosis, 12.7% within the graft, 17.3% in the outflow veins, and 28.1% in central veins. No arterial stenoses were detected. Primary patency rates were 53% at 6 months and 14% at 1 year. Secondary patency rates were 81% at 6 months, 75% at 1 year, and 56% at 2 years. Conclusions: Active surveillance and intervention was able to achieve satisfactory long-term secondary patency for these novel conduits compared with those made of PTFE seen in other studies.

  7. Californium versus cobalt brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy for IIB stage cervical cancer: long-term experience of a single institute

    PubMed Central

    Janulionis, Ernestas; Valuckas, Konstantinas Povilas; Samerdokiene, Vitalija; Atkocius, Vydmantas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper was to observe and compare long-term curative effects and complications of FIGO stage IIB cervical cancer patients (n = 232) treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) californium (252Cf) neutron or cobalt (60Co) photon intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Material and methods The EBRT dose to the small pelvis was 50 Gy in both groups. The brachytherapy component of 252Cf or 60Co was added in the 3rd week of EBRT, 5 fractions were performed once per week resulting in a total ICBT dose of 40 Gy/Gyeq (point A). Results Overall survival (OS) at 5, 10 and 15 years was 63.6%, 50.4% and 38.8% in the 252Cf group and 62.2%, 50.5%, 39.9%, in the 60Co group, respectively (p = 0.74). The percentage of tumour recurrence was statistically significantly lower in the 252Cf group with 7.4% versus 17.1% in the 60Co group (p = 0.02). Second primary cancers have developed similarly 9.1% and 8.1% cases for 252Cf and 60Co groups, respectively. Conclusions Our long-term retrospective study comparing 252Cf and 60Co isotopes with brachytherapy in combined treatment of FIGO IIB stage cervix carcinoma patients shows, that overall survival in the both groups are similar. However, the recurrence of tumour was significantly lower in the 252Cf group. The incidence of second primary cancers was similar in both groups. PMID:26622239

  8. Long-term home hemodialysis in children

    PubMed Central

    Borra, Sonia; Kaye, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Experience with chronic hemodialysis as a definitive form of therapy is described for six children aged 11 to 15 years at the onset. Duration on dialysis in the home has been between one and 4½ years. All patients are alive and rehabilitated without serious complications. It is concluded that although transplantation is the most desirable form of treatment for children, long-term hemodialysis is an alternative acceptable second choice. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:5150193

  9. Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Heavy Metal Upptake as a Possibility of Food Chain Pollution in a Long-Term Field Experiment in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Some trace elements are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in food chain. Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of a chemical in a biological organism over time, compared to the chemical's concentration in they environment. Compounds accumulate in living things any time they are taken up and stored faster han they are broken down (metabolize) or extreted. Triticale is the stabilized man-made hybrid of wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Wheat-rye hybrids date back to 1875, it was only in 1953 that the first North American triticale breeding programme was initiated at the University Manitoba. Globally, triticale is used primary for livestock feed today. NPKCaMg fertilization effects were estimated on trace element bioavailability by Triticale in a long-term field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol (acidic sandy brown forest soil) at Nyírlugos in East-Hungary in 1998. Soil geochemical parameters were as follow: humus 0.6%, pH (H2O) 5.8, pH (KCl) 4.6, total N 32.8 mg . kg-1, AL (ammonium lactate soluble)- P2O5 43 mg . kg-1, AL-K2O 52 mg . kg-1. The experiments involved 32 NPKCaMg treatments and their combinations in 4 replications giving a total of 128 plots from 1980. N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, P2O5 and K2O 0, 60, 120, 180 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, CaCO3 0, 250, 500, 1000 kg . ha-1 . yr-1 and MgCO3 doses were 0, 140, 280 kg . ha-1 . yr-1. Plot brutto size was 50 m2. The main results were as follows. Main soil chemical parameters depend on NPKCaMg treatments. Soil pH (H2O) and pH (KCl) values ranged from 4.6 to 6.3 and from 3.5 to 5.8 indicating wide range from extremely acidic to slightly acidic. Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Al element concentrations shown a large variability too in interaction with fertilization doses and pH values (Ca 36-594 mg . kg-1, Fe 61-90 mg . kg-1, Mg 5-42 mg . kg-1, Mn 16-36 mg . kg-1, Al 79-118 mg . kg-1). The better soil pH (H2O), pH (KCl) and Ca parameters resulted by NPKCaMg combinations

  10. Predictors of Pegylated Interferon Alpha and Ribavirin Efficacy and Long-Term Assessment of Relapse in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C: A One-Center Experience From China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qin; Zhan, Feng Yu; Chen, En Qiang; Wang, Cong; Li, Zhen Zhen; Lei, Xue Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sustained virological response (SVR) and virological relapse maintain pivotal roles in the management of chronic hepatitis C (CHC); however, there is little data regarding the long-term outcomes of patients with CHC in China. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the predictive factors of therapeutic effect and viral relapse in patients who achieved end-of-treatment response (ETR). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical, biochemical and virological data of 169 adult patients with CHC from China who were not treated with pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG IFN-α) and ribavirin, of which 142 achieved ETR and with a follow-up period ranging from six months to six years. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 20.0. Results: Of the 169 patients, 124 (73.4%) achieved SVR and 23 (16.2%) experienced relapses post-therapy in cases of ETR patients. We considered sex, age, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, baseline hepatitis C virus RNA level, HCV genotypes, IL28B rs12979860 genotype, rapid virological response (RVR), and early virological response (EVR). For antiviral effect in patients with CHC, HCV genotypes (2, 3) (χ2 = 11.285, P = 0.001), IL28B genotype (rs12979860 CC) (χ2 = 16.552, P < 0.001), RVR (χ2 = 37.339, P < 0.001), and EVR (χ2 = 70.265, P < 0.001) were significantly correlated with achieving SVR. For ETR patients with long-term follow-up, the relapse rate within six months was significantly higher than within other periods during six-year follow-up (χ2 = 7.792, P = 0.005). Relapse was virtually not observed after therapy ceased for 48 weeks. The IL28B genotype (rs12979860 CT/TT) (OR = 0.102; 95% CI, 0.031-0.339; P < 0.001), lower RVR (OR = 0.239; 95% CI, 0.078-0.738; P = 0.013), and EVR (OR = 0.102; 95% CI, 0.016-0.661; P = 0.017) were independent risk factors for relapse. Conclusions: Our study comprehensively explored the predictive factors of therapeutic effect of administered drugs and analyzed viral

  11. AB011. Long-term outcomes of a novel therapeutic procedure for persistent or recurrent hemospermia by transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy: a single-institution experience

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Heng-Jun; Yan, Wei-Xin; Chen, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Jun; Gao, Xin; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the long-term follow-up outcomes of a novel diagnostic and therapeutic procedure for persistent or recurrent hemospermia by transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy. Methods A total of 269 patients with persistent or recurrent hemospermia in our single clinic were successfully performed by transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy through ejaculatory ducts with a slender ureteroscope from September 2008 to December 2015. In our 269 patients, the mean age was 31 years (range, 16–69 years). The course of persistent or recurrent hemospermia was 6 months to 19 years (mean 27 months). All the patients with persistent or recurrent hemospermia were not cured by medical treatment or any other physical therapy. The definite urogenital malignancy of persistent hemospermia were excluded by physical examination including digital rectal examination, blood PSA and clotting time, and further imaging investigation such as TRUS, CT or MRI. The ejaculatory duct and seminal vesicle were conducted to observe under direct vision through the distal seminal tracts using a 4.5/6.5F rigid ureteroscope. Results All the patients with persistent or recurrent hemospermia were confirmed by transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy (162 chronic seminal vesiculitis and 108 seminal calculi secondary to them, 42 Mullerian duct cysts, 16 cysts of seminal vesicle and 3 cysts of ejaculatory duct, 12 benign prostatic hyperplasia). The mean operative time was 21 min (range, 5–90 min). There were no complications including injury of urethra and seminal vesicle and postoperative discomforts in the perineal region. In those 269 cases, 11 patients were out of follow-up. The mean follow-up period was 24 months (range, 3–72 months). Hematospermia in 235 cases disappeared and 23 patients respectively recurred in 5 to 60 months after receiving transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy. Of those 23 cases with postoperatively recurrent hemospermia, 12 cases were cured by re-transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy

  12. Trends in clinical features, postoperative outcomes, and long-term survival for gastric cancer: a Western experience with 1,278 patients over 30 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify temporal trends in long-term survival and postoperative outcomes and to analyze prognostic factors influencing the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer (GC) treated in a 30-year interval in a tertiary referral Western institution. Methods Between January 1980 and December 2010, 1,278 patients who were diagnosed with GC at the Digestive Surgery Department, Catholic University of Rome, Italy, were identified. Among them, 936 patients underwent surgical resection and were included in the analysis. Results Over time there was a significant improvement in postoperative outcomes. Morbidity and mortality rates decreased to 19.4% and 1.6%, respectively, in the last decade. By contrast, the multivisceral resection rate steadily increased from 12.7% to 29.6%. The overall five-year survival rate steadily increased over time, reaching 51% in the last decade, and 64.5% for R0 resections. Multivariate analysis showed a higher probability of overall survival for early stages (I and II), extended lymphadenectomy, and R0 resections. Conclusions Over three decades there was a significant improvement in perioperative and postoperative care and a steady increase in overall survival. PMID:25030691

  13. Long-term follow-up after percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale with Amplatzer PFO Occluder: a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Grygier, Marek; Iwańczyk, Sylwia; Trojnarska, Olga; Lesiak, Maciej; Grajek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is associated with the occurrence of cryptogenic strokes, transient neurological ischemic attacks (TIA) and migraine. Therefore despite the recent ambiguous results of prospective controlled trials, percutaneous closure of PFO is still performed in many centers. Aim To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous PFO closure in the prevention of recurrence of neurologic events and migraine symptoms in long-term observation. Material and methods In 70 patients (31 male, age: 38 ±18 years) percutaneous PFO closure was successfully performed with the Amplatzer PFO Occluder. An interview in conjunction with neurological follow-up was performed in all patients to reveal recurrence of embolism such as TIA or stroke and the presence of migraine symptoms before and after the procedure. Results The mean follow-up period was 857 ±363 days (median: 571 days). No serious complications of the procedure and no death were observed. Neurological events recurred in 5 (7.1%) patients – stroke in 1 patient, TIA in 3 patients, ocular embolism in 1 patient. All of these patients were over 40 years old or had other cardiovascular risk factors. Migraine was observed in 21 (30%) patients before the procedure and in 11 (15.7%) after the procedure (p = 0.04). Conclusions The complication rate and recurrence of neurological events in young patients after PFO closure are low. However, careful qualification and postprocedural monitoring of the patients are necessary. Patent foramen ovale closure seems to result in attenuation of migraine symptoms. PMID:26966449

  14. Seasonal and annual variations in physiological and biochemical responses from transplanted marine bioindicator species Mytilus spp. during a long term field exposure experiment.

    PubMed

    Helmholz, Heike; Ruhnau, Christiane; Pröfrock, Daniel; Erbslöh, Hans-Burkhard; Prange, Andreas

    2016-09-15

    In a pilot field study the long term response of transplanted bioindicator organisms Mytilus spp. was analyzed on the basis of physiological indices and biochemical measurements related to the energy budget. Three different time series with deployment times of eight to twelve months were compared according to seasonality and repeatability of the responses. Test organisms were incubated at a coastal station in the anthropogenically impacted estuary of the river Elbe and at a North Sea station located in vicinity to the Island of Helgoland in the German Bight. The stations differ in their hydrological as well as chemical characteristics. They can be discriminated by statistical factor analysis based on the measured biochemical parameter. Levels of all energy budget biomarker varied between seasons; however, the degree of variation of the specific response was differently expressed. The mussels deployed at Helgoland showed a reproducible high Condition Index in each sampling series and an oscillating Gonadosomatic Index representing the reproduction cycle. The lowest available energy was recorded in mussels at the estuarine sampling station compared to the off-shore station. This may be caused by the energetically costly maintenance of osmotic balance and consequently result in a lower amount of energy available for defense again chemical stress, growth and reproduction. PMID:27203523

  15. Long-term in vivo experience of an electrochemical sensor using the potential step technique for measurement of mixed venous oxygen pressure.

    PubMed

    Holmström, N; Nilsson, P; Carlsten, J; Bowald, S

    1998-12-01

    An implantable amperometric blood oxygen sensor was developed to improve rate adaptation of heart pacemakers. Two different working electrode materials in direct contact with the blood were tested, smooth glassy carbon and gold. Reference electrodes of Ag/AgCl and porous pyrolytic carbon were evaluated. A counter electrode being the titanium housing of the pulse generator was partly coated with carbon. An implantable pacemaker system with chronocoulometric oxygen detection was developed. Heart synchronous potential steps were periodically applied to the 7.5 mm2 working electrode in the atrium. Both single and double potential step techniques were evaluated. The oxygen diffusion limited current was used to calculate the stimulation rate. Bench tests and studies on 31 animals were performed to evaluate long-term stability and biocompatibility. In five dogs, the AV node was destroyed by RF ablation to create a realistic animal model of a pacemaker patient. Sensor stability and response to exercise was followed up to a maximum implantation time of 4 years. Post-mortem examinations of the electrode surfaces and tissue response were performed. The results show that a gold electrode is more stable than glassy carbon. The Ag/AgCl reference was found not to be biocompatible, but activated carbon was stable enough for use as reference for the potentiostat. Double potential steps stabilize the sensor response in comparison to single steps. Blood protein adsorption on the gold surface decreased the oxygen transport but not the reaction efficacy. No adverse tissue reactions were observed. PMID:9883563

  16. Diagnosis, Clinical Course, and 1-Year Outcome in Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction (from the Polish Cohort of the European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Long-Term Registry).

    PubMed

    Kapłon-Cieślicka, Agnieszka; Tymińska, Agata; Peller, Michał; Balsam, Paweł; Ozierański, Krzysztof; Galas, Michalina; Marchel, Michał; Crespo-Leiro, Maria G; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro; Drożdż, Jarosław; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2016-08-15

    Compared with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), the diagnosis of HF with preserved EF (HF-PEF) is more challenging. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of HF-PEF among patients hospitalized for HF, to evaluate the pertinence of HF-PEF diagnosis and to compare HF-PEF and HF-REF patients with respect to outcomes. The analysis included 661 Polish patients hospitalized for HF, selected from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)-HF Long-Term Registry. Patients with an EF of ≥50% were included in the HF-PEF group and patients with an EF of <50% - in the HF-REF group. The primary end point was all-cause death at 1 year. The secondary end point was a composite of all-cause death and rehospitalization for HF at 1 year. HF-PEF was present in 187 patients (28%). Of those 187 patients, mitral inflow pattern was echocardiographically assessed in 116 patients (62%) and classified as restrictive/pseudonormal in 37 patients (20%). Compared with HF-REF subjects, patients with HF-PEF were older, more often female, and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, atrial fibrillation and sleep apnea. Despite lower B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations and lower prevalence of moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation in patients with HF-PEF, congestive symptoms at admission were as severe as in patients with HF-REF. There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality between the HF groups. One-year mortality was high in both groups (17% in HF-PEF vs 21% in HF-REF, p = 0.22). There was a trend toward a lower frequency of the secondary end point in the HF-PEF group (32% vs 40%, p = 0.07). In conclusion, in clinical practice, even easily obtainable echocardiographic indexes of diastolic dysfunction are relatively rarely acquired. One-year survival rate of patients with HF-PEF is not significantly better than that of patients with HF-REF. PMID:27374606

  17. Long-term ELBARA-II Assistance to SMOS Land Product and Algorithm Validation at the Valencia Anchor Station (MELBEX Experiment 2010-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Schwank, Mike; Miernecki, Maciej; Kerr, Yann; Casal, Tania; Delwart, Steven; Fernandez-Moran, Roberto; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Coll Pajaron, M. Amparo; Salgado Hernanz, Paula

    The main activity of the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) is currently now to support the validation of SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Level 2 and 3 land products (soil moisture, SM, and vegetation optical depth, TAU). With this aim, the European Space Agency (ESA) has provided the Climatology from Satellites Group of the University of Valencia with an ELBARA-II microwave radiometer under a loan agreement since September 2009. During this time, brightness temperatures (TB) have continuously been acquired, except during normal maintenance or minor repair interruptions. ELBARA-II is an L-band dual-polarization radiometer with two channels (1400-1418 MHz, 1409-1427 MHz). It is continuously measuring over a vineyard field (El Renegado, Caudete de las Fuentes, Valencia) from a 15 m platform with a constant protocol for calibration and angular scanning measurements with the aim to assisting the validation of SMOS land products and the calibration of the L-MEB (L-Band Emission of the Biosphere) -basis for the SMOS Level 2 Land Processor- over the VAS validation site. One of the advantages of using the VAS site is the possibility of studying two different environmental conditions along the year. While the vine cycle extends mainly between April and October, during the rest of the year the area remains under bare soil conditions, adequate for the calibration of the soil model. The measurement protocol currently running has shown to be robust during the whole operation time and will be extended in time as much as possible to continue providing a long-term data set of ELBARA-II TB measurements and retrieved SM and TAU. This data set is also showing to be useful in support of SMOS scientific activities: the VAS area and, specifically the ELBARA-II site, offer good conditions to control the long-term evolution of SMOS Level 2 and Level 3 land products and interpret eventual anomalies that may obscure sensor hidden biases. In addition, SM and TAU that are currently

  18. Primary Infrarenal Aortic Stenting With or Without Iliac Stenting for Isolated and Aortoiliac Stenoses: Single-Centre Experience With Long-Term Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Tapping, C. R.; Ahmed, M.; Scott, P. M.; Lakshminarayan, R.; Robinson, G. J.; Ettles, D. F.; Shrivastava, V.

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical success, complications, long-term clinical outcome, and patency after primary infrarenal aortic stenting for aortic and aortoiliac stenosis. Between January 1999 and January 2006, 22 consecutive patients underwent endovascular treatment because of infrarenal aortic stenosis with and without common iliac stenosis (10 men; mean age 64 {+-} 14 years). Eleven (11 of 22) patients had an isolated aortic stenosis, whereas 11 of 22 had aortic stenosis that extended into the common iliac arteries (CIAs). Thirteen patients were Rutherford classification type 3, and 9 patients were type 4. Statistical analysis included paired Student t test and Kaplan-Meier life table analysis; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Technical and initial clinical success was achieved in all patients. There were three (14 %) procedure-related complications, which included two access-point pseudoaneurysms and one non-flow-limiting left external iliac dissection. Patients were followed-up for a mean period of 88 months (range 60-132). Mean preprocedure ankle brachial pressure indexes (ABPI) were 0.60 {+-} -0.15 (right) and 0.61 {+-} -0.16 (left). After the procedure they were 0.86 {+-} -0.07 (right) and 0.90 {+-} -0.09 (left). The increase in ABPI was significant (p < 0.05), and this continued throughout follow-up. Four (18 %) patients had recurrence of symptoms during follow-up. These occurred at 36, 48, 48, and 50 months after the original procedure. All four patients were successfully treated with repeat angioplasty procedures. There was a significant difference in primary patency between isolated aortic stenosis (100 %) and aortoiliac stenosis (60 %) (p = 0.031). Cumulative follow-up was 1920 months yielding a reintervention rate of 0.025/events/year. Primary stenting of infrarenal stenosis is safe and successful with a low reintervention rate. It should be considered as first-line treatment for patients with infrarenal aortic stenotic

  19. Stress induced hippocampal mineralocorticoid and estrogen receptor β gene expression and long-term potentiation in male adult rats is sensitive to early-life stress experience.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Meyer, Katrin; Korz, Volker

    2013-02-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones and their receptors have been identified to be involved in emotional and cognitive disorders in early stressed subjects during adulthood. However, the impact of other steroid hormones and receptors has been considered less. Especially, functional roles of estrogen and estrogen receptors in male subjects are largely unknown. Therefore, we measured hippocampal concentrations of 17β-estradiol, corticosterone and testosterone, as well as the gene expression of estrogen receptor α and β (ERα, β), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors after stress in adulthood in maternally separated (MS+; at postnatal days 14-16 for 6h each day) and control (MS-) male rats. In vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) serves as a cellular model of learning and memory formation. Population spike- (PSA) and the fEPSP-LTP within the dentate gyrus (DG) were reinforced by elevated-platform-stress (EP-stress) in MS- but not in MS+ rats. MR- and ERβ-mRNA were upregulated 1h after EP-stress in MS- but not in MS+ rats as compared to non-stressed littermates. Infusion of an MR antagonist before LTP induction blocked early- and late-PSA- and -fEPSP-LTP, whereas blockade of ERβ impaired only the late PSA-LTP. Application of a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor partly restored the LTP-reinforcement in MS+ rats, accompanied by a retrieval of ERβ- but not MR-mRNA upregulation. Basal ERβ gene promoter methylation was similar between groups, whereas MS+ and MS- rats showed different methylation patterns across CpG sites after EP-stress. These findings indicate a key role of ERβ in early-stress mediated emotionality and emotion-induced late-LTP in adult male rats via DNA methylation mechanisms. PMID:22776422

  20. Deferasirox for iron chelation in multitransfused children with sickle cell disease; long-term experience in the East London clinical haemoglobinopathy network.

    PubMed

    Tsouana, Eva; Kaya, Banu; Gadong, Nimze; Hemmaway, Claire; Newell, Heather; Simmons, Andrea; Whitmarsh, Simon; Telfer, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Deferasirox (DFX) has been licensed for iron chelation in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), but there is limited data on its long-term efficacy and safety in children. This retrospective study included 62 regularly transfused children managed in the East London and Essex Clinical Haemoglobinopathy Network (mean age 9.2 ± 3.2 yr). Efficacy measurements consisted of monthly serum ferritin (SF) and annual R2 MRI-estimated liver iron concentration (LIC), and safety markers included serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The mean duration of DFX treatment was 2.5 ± 1.4 yr, and mean dose at 36 months was 25 mg/kg/d. Mean SF at initiation of treatment was 2542 ± 952 ng/mL and increased to 4691 ± 2255 ng/mL at 36 months (P = 0.05). Mean LIC on first scan was 10.3 mg/g dry weight and did not decrease significantly on follow-up scans. There was a significant correlation between relative change in LIC and in SF (R(2) = 0.66, P < 0.001). Reversible transaminitis episodes, probably due to drug-induced hepatitis, were noted in 53% of patients. Responses to an adherence and acceptability questionnaire indicated that more than 50% of children had difficulties in taking DFX, commonly because of unpleasant taste. Our results show that more than 50% of children with SCD have inadequate control of iron overload with DFX. It is not clear whether this is because of frequent dose interruptions, poor tolerability and adherence, or poor efficacy of the drug. We recommend further studies to confirm these findings and to optimise iron chelation in this population. PMID:25138173

  1. Soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in rice paddies under long-term agro-ecosystem experiments in southern China - VI. Changes in microbial community structure and respiratory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Li, L.; Pan, G.; Crowley, D.; Tippkötter, R.

    2011-02-01

    Biological stabilization within accumulated soil organic carbon (SOC) has not been well understood, while its role in physical and chemical protection as well as of chemical recalcitrance had been addressed in Chinese rice paddies. In this study, topsoil samples were collected and respiratory activity measured in situ following rice harvest under different fertilization treatments of three long-term experimental sites across southern China in 2009. The SOC contents, microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and nitrogen (SMBN) were analysed using chemical digestion and microbial community structure assessment via clony dilute plate counting methods. While SOC contents were consistently higher under compound chemical fertilization (Comp-Fert) or combined organic and inorganic fertilization (Comb-Fert) compared to N fertilization only (N-Fert), there was significantly higher fungal-bacterial ratio under Comb-Fert than under N-Fert and Comp-Fert. When subtracting the background effect under no fertilization treatment (Non-Fert), the increase both in SMBC and SMBN under fertilization treatment was found very significantly correlated to the increase in SOC over controls across the sites. Also, the ratio of culturable fungal to bacterial population numbers (F/B ratio) was well correlated with soil organic carbon contents in all samples across the sites studied. SOC accumulation favoured a build-up the microbial community with increasing fungal dominance in the rice paddies under fertilization treatments. While soil respiration rates were high under Comb-Fert as a result of enhanced microbial community build-up, the specific soil respiratory activity based on microbial biomass carbon was found in a significantly negatively correlation with the SOC contents for overall samples. Thus, a fungal-dominated microbial community seemed to slow SOC turnover, thereby favouring SOC accumulation under Comp-Fert or under Comb-Fert in the rice paddies. Therefore, the biological stabilization

  2. Carbon cycling in a rapidly changing High Arctic: Results from long-term climate experiments and observations of interannual variability in NW Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, C. I.; Lupascu, M.; Csank, A. Z.; Seibt, U. H.; Maseyk, K. S.; Xu, X.; Welker, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The High Arctic, a region dominated by polar semi-deserts underlain with continuous permafrost, is experiencing dramatic changes in climate associated with the loss of sea ice, including warming and shifts in precipitation regimes (i.e. wetting and changing snow cover). Here, we present findings from a set of studies that are addressing the sign and strength of the High Arctic's summertime carbon (C) cycle feedback. We explored magnitudes, patterns and sources of C losses through CO2 and CH4 fluxes and via leaching as dissolved organic C (DOC) and particulate organic C (POC) along with measurements of net ecosystem exchange and plant C uptake. From studying long-term summertime experimental warming and/or watering and interannual weather patterns we find that in polar semi-deserts: a) Summer precipitation regime is the key driver of current summertime C budgets. Warming plus wetting results in increased ecosystem C sequestration and reduced losses of older C as CO2, while warming alone decreases C uptake and increases losses of older soil C as CO2. The system is a sink for CH4, but the sink strength will decline with increasing soil moisture. Thus, the High Arctic has the potential to remain a strong summertime C sink even as the rest of the permafrost region transitions to a net C source to the atmosphere as climate continues to warm. b) Old C is diffusing out of the High Arctic landscape into the atmosphere. This C loss is especially evident in the spring before vegetation pumps fresh C into the soil system. Further, loss of older C from the deeper active layer is highly episodic and dominates C emissions during small precipitation events. c) Precipitation regime is also the key driver of that ancient C export from the land surface as DOC, higher precipitation in the later part of the growing season (July-August), when the active layer is deeper, results in a greater fraction of old C transported to the nearshore Arctic Ocean. Collectively these findings

  3. Long-term survival following emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Milner, Q J; Burchett, K R

    2000-05-01

    Survival following emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm remains poor and is in stark contrast to that for elective repair. We have carried out a 5-year retrospective observational study to determine the long-term (5-year) survival of patients following emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm at a district general hospital in East Anglia. A total of 99 patients presented to the operating theatre for emergency repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in this 5-year study period. In-hospital mortality was 70% and was unchanged over the 5 years. Overall long-term survival in those patients discharged from hospital was good. The ICU cost per long-term survivor was calculated to be pound sterling 36750. PMID:10792133

  4. Long-Term Outcomes of Young Adults Exposed to Maltreatment: The Role of Educational Experiences in Promoting Resilience to Crime and Violence in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn A.; Park, Aely; Ireland, Timothy O.; Elwyn, Laura; Thornberry, Terence P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether positive educational experiences in midadolescence mitigate the impact of exposure to substantiated maltreatment and reduces young adult antisocial behavior. While there is theoretical and empirical support for the mediating or moderating role of educational experiences on maltreatment and antisocial outcomes, few…

  5. Long-term Impact of Environmental Public Health Disaster on Health System Performance: Experiences from the Graniteville, South Carolina Chlorine Spill

    PubMed Central

    Runkle, Jennifer R; Zhang, Hongmei; Karmaus, Wilfried; Brock-Martin, Amy; Svendsen, Erik R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the aftermath of an Environmental Public Health Disaster (EPHD) a healthcare system may be the least equipped to respond. Preventable visits for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) may be used as a population-based indicator to monitor health system access post-disaster. The objective of this study was to examine whether ACSCs rates among vulnerable sub-populations are sensitive to the impact of a disaster. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis using Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations to calculate change in monthly ACSC visits at the disaster site in the post-disaster period compared to the pre-disaster period after adjusting for parallel changes in two control groups. Results The adjusted rate of an ACSC hospital visit pre-disaster for the direct group was 1.68 times the rate for the primary control group (95% CI: 1.47, 1.93), while the adjusted ACSC hospital rate post-disaster for the direct group was 3.10 times the rate for the primary control group (95% CI: 1.97, 5.18). For emergency department ACSC visits, the adjusted rate among those directly affected pre-disaster were 1.82 times the rate for the primary control group (95% CI: 1.61, 2.08), while the adjusted ACSC rate post-disaster was 2.81 times the rate for the primary control group (95% CI: 1.92, 5.17). Conclusions Results revealed increased demand on the health system altered health services delivery for vulnerable populations directly impacted by the disaster. Preventable visits for ACSCs may advance meaningful use practice and public health surveillance by identifying and characterizing healthcare disparities during disaster recovery. PMID:23263318

  6. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  7. The Child and Family Hospital Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Deron; Fryda, Sarah; Rubin, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Patient and family experiences are important indicators of quality of care and little is known about how family accommodation affects hospital experience. We added questions about accommodation to standardized inpatient pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit family experience surveys at 10 U.S. hospitals to determine the accommodation types used by families, compare characteristics across accommodation types and explore accommodation-type influences on overall hospital experience outcomes. Parents of inpatient children (n = 5,105; 93.4%) most often stayed in the child’s room (76.8%). Parents of neonatal intensive care unit infants (n = 362; 6.6%) most often stayed overnight in their own home or with relatives/friends (47.2%). Accommodation varied based on hospital, parent, and child factors. Accommodation type was a significant predictor for most hospital experience outcomes, with families who stayed at a Ronald McDonald House reporting more positive overall hospital experiences (odds ratios: ranging from 1.83 to 4.86 for contrasted accommodation types and three experience outcomes). PMID:25854957

  8. Stapedectomy - long-term report.

    PubMed

    Shea, J J

    1982-01-01

    The long-term results with large fenestra stapedectomy with vein graft and Teflon piston are compared with results with the small fenestra stapedectomy with teflon piston directly into the vestibule. There were 1,943 operations in the former group and 2,155 in the latter when compared in 1970. One hundred consecutive patients from the beginning of each group with follow-up to present were compared. Results were generally the same with no great change in 15 and 20 years as compared to those at 5 years. The complication of perilymph fistula was caused by creating an opening in the footplate much larger than the prosthesis and was eliminated by interposing a living oval window seal if the opening was much larger than the prosthesis and a flap of lining membrane from the promontory when it was not. Other factors that influence a good result are discussed, including the type and the diameter of the piston used, the type of living oval window seal and the method of attachment to the incus. The small fenestra operation was found to be superior to the large, not only for the hearing gain achieved, but the case of performance and the freedom from complications due to migration of the prosthesis and/or the oval window seal. At present we have done about all that can be done for the conductive components. What remains is the sensorineural component which our studies indicate may be due to an autoimmune response. PMID:6897157

  9. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  10. Experience of Adults and Children in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami; Parvini, Maneli

    2011-01-01

    This review article examines the experience, in general but especially, of hospitalised children. The technical, environmental and social aspects of a hospital are described. Being hospitalised, especially for a child, could be a terrifying and painful experience. This experience has been described and closely examined with the aim of helping…

  11. Metagenomic Analysis of the Dynamic Changes in the Gut Microbiome of the Participants of the MARS-500 Experiment, Simulating Long Term Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Mardanov, A V; Babykin, M M; Beletsky, A V; Grigoriev, A I; Zinchenko, V V; Kadnikov, V V; Kirpichnikov, M P; Mazur, A M; Nedoluzhko, A V; Novikova, N D; Prokhortchouk, E B; Ravin, N V; Skryabin, K G; Shestakov, S V

    2013-07-01

    A metagenomic analysis of the dynamic changes of the composition of the intestinal microbiome of five participants of the MARS-500 experiment was performed. DNA samples were isolated from the feces of the participants taken just before the experiment, upon 14, 30, 210, 363 and 510 days of isolation in the experimental module, and two weeks upon completion of the experiment. The taxonomic composition of the microbiome was analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Both the taxonomic and functional gene content of the microbiome of one participant were analyzed by whole metagenome sequencing using the SOLiD technique. Each participant had a specific microbiome that could be assigned to one of three recognized enterotypes. Two participants had enterotype I microbiomes characterized by the prevalence of Bacteroides, while the microbiomes of two others, assigned to type II, were dominated by Prevotella. One participant had a microbiome of mixed type. It was found that (1) changes in the taxonimic composition of the microbiomes occurred in the course of the experiment, but the enterotypes remained the same; (2) significant changes in the compositions of the microbiomes occurred just 14-30 days after the beginning of the experiment, presumably indicating the influence of stress factors in the first stage of the experiment; (3) a tendency toward a reversion of the microbiomes to their initial composition was observed two weeks after the end of the experiment, but complete recovery was not achieved. The metagenomic analysis of the microbiome of one of the participants showed that in spite of variations in the taxonomic compositions of microbiomes, the "functional" genetic composition was much more stable for most of the functional gene categories. Probably in the course of the experiment the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiome was adaptively changed to reflect the individual response to the experimental conditions. A new, balanced taxonomic composition

  12. Metagenomic Analysis of the Dynamic Changes in the Gut Microbiome of the Participants of the MARS-500 Experiment, Simulating Long Term Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Mardanov, A.V.; Babykin, M.M.; Beletsky, A.V.; Grigoriev, A.I.; Zinchenko, V.V.; Kadnikov, V.V.; Kirpichnikov, M.P.; Mazur, A.M.; Nedoluzhko, A.V.; Novikova, N.D.; Prokhortchouk, E.B.; Ravin, N.V.; Skryabin, K.G.; Shestakov, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    A metagenomic analysis of the dynamic changes of the composition of the intestinal microbiome of five participants of the MARS-500 experiment was performed. DNA samples were isolated from the feces of the participants taken just before the experiment, upon 14, 30, 210, 363 and 510 days of isolation in the experimental module, and two weeks upon completion of the experiment. The taxonomic composition of the microbiome was analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Both the taxonomic and functional gene content of the microbiome of one participant were analyzed by whole metagenome sequencing using the SOLiD technique. Each participant had a specific microbiome that could be assigned to one of three recognized enterotypes. Two participants had enterotype I microbiomes characterized by the prevalence of Bacteroides, while the microbiomes of two others, assigned to type II, were dominated by Prevotella. One participant had a microbiome of mixed type. It was found that (1) changes in the taxonimic composition of the microbiomes occurred in the course of the experiment, but the enterotypes remained the same; (2) significant changes in the compositions of the microbiomes occurred just 14-30 days after the beginning of the experiment, presumably indicating the influence of stress factors in the first stage of the experiment; (3) a tendency toward a reversion of the microbiomes to their initial composition was observed two weeks after the end of the experiment, but complete recovery was not achieved. The metagenomic analysis of the microbiome of one of the participants showed that in spite of variations in the taxonomic compositions of microbiomes, the “functional” genetic composition was much more stable for most of the functional gene categories. Probably in the course of the experiment the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiome was adaptively changed to reflect the individual response to the experimental conditions. A new, balanced taxonomic

  13. "Understanding Difficult Behavior": A Selection of Learning Experiences Designed for Staff in Long Term Facilities. A Training Manual. Geriatric Education and Resource Outreach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigam, Linda; And Others

    This manual, which is intended for use in conducting individualized inservice training sessions for certified nurse aides employed in nursing homes and boarding homes throughout Maine, contains three sections of learning experiences designed to help health care workers better understand and deal with "difficult" behavior on the part of residents…

  14. Effect of a Long-Term In-Service Training Program on Teachers' Beliefs about the Role of Experiments in Physics Education. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavonen, Jari; Jauhiainen, Johanna; Koponen, Ismo; Kurki-Suonio, Kaarle

    2004-01-01

    The basis of this paper concerns a one-and-a-half year in-service training program ("In-service Training for Physics Teachers"; 40 ECTS credits) for physics teachers (Grades 7-12, n = 98) designed to enhance both their subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. The role of laboratory experiments in physics education in particular was…

  15. The reaction of glass during gamma irradiation in a saturated tuff environment: Part 3, long-term experiments at 1 x 10{sup 4}rad/hour

    SciTech Connect

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Ebert, W.L.

    1988-02-01

    Savannah River Laboratory 165 type glass was leached with equilibrated J-13 groundwater at 90{degree}C for times up to 182 days. These experiments were performed as part of an effort by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project to assess the importance of radiation effects on repository performance and waste glass corrosion. The gamma radiation field used in this work was 1. 0 +- 0.2 x 10{sup 4} rad/h. Glass dissolution is notably incongruent throughout the entire experimental periods and normalized releases follow the sequence Li {ge} Na {ge} B {approx_equal} U {ge} Si. The normalized leach rates of these elements, as well as the measured growth rates of the reaction layers, decreased with time. The only significant variation observed in the abundance of anions is the systematic decrease in NO{sub 3}/sup {minus}//NO{sub 2}/sup {minus}/ ratio from the starting EJ-13 groundwater to the EJ-13 blank experiments to the tuff- and glass-containing experiments. A leaching model that is consistent with the observed solution data and depth profiles is presented. The applicability and limitation of the present results in predicting the actual interactions that may occur in the NNWSI repository are discussed. 35 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories. PMID:27247964

  17. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories. PMID:27247964

  18. The long-term results of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia at two centers from Turkey: 15 years of experience with the ALL-BFM 95 protocol.

    PubMed

    Güneş, Adalet Meral; Oren, Hale; Baytan, Birol; Bengoa, Sebnem Yılmaz; Evim, Melike Sezgin; Gözmen, Salih; Tüfekçi, Ozlem; Karapınar, Tuba Hilkay; Irken, Gülersu

    2014-10-01

    Dramatic progress in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been achieved during the last two decades in Western countries, where the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rate has risen from 30 to 85 %. However, similarly high cure rates have not always been achieved in all centers in developing countries due to limited sources. We evaluated the treatment results of the ALL-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) 95 protocol as used between 1995 and 2009 in the pediatric hematology departments of two university hospitals. A retrospective analysis of 343 children newly diagnosed with ALL (M/F 200/143, median age 6.8 years) was performed. The overall survival (OS) and EFS according to age, initial leukocyte count, immunophenotype, chemotherapy responses (on days 8, 15, and 33), and risk groups were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Median follow-up time was 6.4 years. Complete remission was achieved in 97 % of children. Five-year EFS and OS were found to be 78.4 and 79.9 %, respectively. Children younger than 6 years old had significantly better EFS and OS (83.7 and 85.2 %) than children aged ≥6 years (71.4 and 72.8 %). Adolescents achieved 63 % EFS and 65 % OS. Patients who had initial leukocyte counts of <20 × 10(9)/L had better EFS and OS (82.2 and 84.6 %) than children with higher initial leukocyte counts (72.6 and 72.6 %). EFS for B-cell precursor and T-cell ALL was 81.5 and 66.7 %, respectively. Children with a good response to prednisolone on day 8 (87 %) achieved significantly better EFS and OS (81.2 and 81.9 % vs. 55.3 and 60.5 %). Children whose bone marrow on day 15 was in complete remission had higher EFS and OS (83.7 and 86.6.1 % vs. 56.4 and 61.5 %). Children in the standard-risk and medium-risk groups obtained statistically significantly higher EFS (95.5 and 82.7 %) and OS (97.7 and 82.3 %) compared to the high-risk group (EFS 56.3 %, OS 63.4 %). The relapse rate was 14.8 %. The median relapse time from diagnosis was 23

  19. Predictors of Home Based Long-Term Care Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppens, Jean; And Others

    An attempt was made to determine predictors of service need, use, and outcome among chronically impaired adults and aged who were living in the community and using the home-based, long term care services of the Chronic Illness Center (CIC) of the Cuyahoga County Hospitals (Ohio). Randomly selected consumer service records (N=200) were coded for…

  20. Long-term intracranial pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    de Jong, D A; Maas, A I; den Ouden, A H; de Lange, S A

    Continuous or intermittent measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is important in patients at risk for raised ICP. Indications exist for short- and long-term measurements. The various methods used for short-term monitoring are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages. For long-term measurements of ICP use of a completely implantable telemetric epidural pressure transducer is indicated. No such device is commercially available. We have developed an inexpensive passive telemetric transducer for this purpose. Results obtained up till now have demonstrated its reliability for measurements of two to three months duration. The life span of the device is limited by degrading of the epoxy utilized for sealing of the titanium pressure sensing part to the radiolucent ceramic cap of the transducer, causing leakage of water into the transducer and false low measurements. Because of these problems new hermetic sealing techniques were tested. Both active metal brazing and glass bonding yielded good results and hermetic sealing could be obtained. The metal to ceramic bonding presented is generally applicable within the design of implants. Besides the technical progress reported, the experience with clinical use in 12 patients is presented. PMID:6674738

  1. Reservoir rock integrity of the Ketzin pilot storage site (Germany) during long-term CO2-exposure experiments - Mineralogical, petrophysical and geochemical modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, S.; Liebscher, A.; Zemke, K.; De Lucia, M.; Ketzin Team

    2012-04-01

    In order to investigate CO2-brine-rock interactions occurring at the Ketzin pilot storage site, core samples of the siliciclastic reservoir rock were exposed to pure CO2 and synthetic reservoir brine at simulated in-situ P-T conditions of 5 MPa and 40 °C. Autoclaves were opened and rock and fluid samples taken after 15, 21, 24 and 40 months, respectively. The samples were analysed for mineralogical and chemical composition and compared to baseline data of untreated samples. XRD data with Rietveld refinement show decreasing weight percentages for analcime, chlorite, hematite and illite. While plagioclase as well as K-feldspar both do not reveal a coherent trend over time, quartz exhibits increasing weight percentages in the same interval. On freshly broken rock fragments corrosion textures were found on plagioclase, K-feldspar and anhydrite surfaces of CO2-treated samples. BSE images of the respective samples indicate (intensified) alterations of feldspar minerals. EMPA data display a change in plagioclase composition from intermediate to sodium-rich and albite endmember compositions during CO2 exposure. Compared to the synthetic brine used for the experiments, sodium, magnesium and chloride concentrations increased slightly, while potassium, calcium and sulfate concentrations significantly increased. Potassium and calcium even exceed reservoir brine concentration levels. Experimental observations were reproduced using the reactive geochemical modeling code Phreeqc-2. The mineralogical and geochemical measurements imply preferred dissolution of calcium out of plagioclase next to dissolution of K-feldspar and anhydrite. Petrophysical data show tendentially increasing porosities and permeabilities that also suggest mineral dissolution during the experiments. Due to the heterogeneous character of the Stuttgart Formation it is often difficult to distinguish between natural, lithostratigraphic variability and CO2-related changes. Assuming thermodynamic equilibrium

  2. Precision intrauterine contraception may significantly increase continuation of use: a review of long-term clinical experience with frameless copper-releasing intrauterine contraception devices

    PubMed Central

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Pett, Ansgar; Jandi, Sohela; Hasskamp, Thomas; Rowe, Patrick; Vrijens, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to review the experience with the frameless, anchored, GyneFix copper-releasing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs/IUDs) (Contrel Europe, Belgium), and to demonstrate their high acceptability and low rate of discontinuation of use, which could contribute to current efforts that aim to reduce radically the high number of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions, particularly in young women. Materials and methods This paper is based on studies that examined the differences in uterine volume and cavity size, related to age and parity, and on original clinical research data and practical experience with frameless copper IUDs, as well as on literature data on the IUD–endometrial cavity relationship of conventional IUDs, with special reference to side effects and user discontinuation. Results The mean transverse diameter in nulliparous and parous women is significantly less than the length of the transverse arm of the TCu380A IUD (ParaGard, Duramed, NY, USA) or the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena, Bayer, Germany). Small, frameless, flexible, and unidimensional copper IUDs appear to be well tolerated, with less impact on menstrual bleeding, resulting in low discontinuation rates when compared with standard-size conventional IUDs, which often result in increased expulsion rates, complaints of pain and erratic or increased menstrual bleeding, and subsequent high rates of discontinuation, particularly in young women. Conclusion The unidimensional GyneFix IUDs fit the majority of uterine cavities. An IUD that fits is likely to result in increased tolerance and continued use of the method. As this would appeal to women, the logical result should be greater use of the method and fewer unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. Recommending the standard TCu380A (ParaGard) IUD or the Mirena levonorgestrel intrauterine system, primarily developed for use in parous women, for general use in nulliparous and adolescent

  3. CLINICAL EXPERIENCE OF LONG-TERM TREATMENT WITH ARIPIPRAZOLE (ABILIFY) IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AT THE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC CLINIC 1 IN ROSKILDE, DENMARK.

    PubMed

    Diomšina, Beata; Rasmussen, Pernille Darling; Danilevičiütė, Vita

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to share the clinical experience of the treatment of aripiprazole (Abilify) in children and adolescents. The authors have done a cross-sectional study about Abilify's treatment in children and adolescents with severe conduct problems (high impulsivity, aggression, outward reaction, physical cross-border behavior), high restlessness with ADHD, psychotic and psychosis-like symptoms with autistic disorders, psychosis, and intensive tics with Tourette's syndrome. The authors studied and described patients at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic 1 in Roskilde, Denmark, who were treated with Abilify and were patients of the clinic in June 2013. The target group consisted of 33 patients, aged 9-18 years, which were in Abilify treatment during this time. Indications for the treatment and effectiveness of Abilify, Abilify's common doses used in children and adolescents, and the most common adverse effects of Abilify are presented. Abilify was found to be effective, well tolerated and safe for children and adolescents. The dose depends on the complexity of diagnosis (higher doses used in cases of complex diagnosis), on the age (higher doses used in older children, but only in the case of noncomplex diagnoses). Statistical analysis shows that in cases of complex diagnoses, dosage does not depend on age but depends on other factors. It also shows that the effect of treatment is better for those who did not gain weight. PMID:26642668

  4. Long-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Field experiments.

    PubMed

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Denton, John; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    An increased number of police enquiries involving human remains buried with lime have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. This study follows previous studies by the authors who have investigated the effects of lime on the decay of human remains in laboratory conditions and 6 months of field experiments. Six pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were buried without lime with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy-loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 17 and 42 months of burial. Analysis of the soil, lime and carcasses included entomology, pH, moisture content, microbial activity, histology and lime carbonation. The results of this study demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, the extent of decomposition is slowed down by burial with both hydrated lime and quicklime. The more advanced the decay process, the more similar the degree of liquefaction between the limed and unlimed remains. The end result for each mode of burial will ultimately result in skeletonisation. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials, for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials and potentially for the interpretation of mass graves and management of mass disasters by humanitarian organisation and DVI teams. PMID:24513400

  5. The Contribution of the Long-term Carbon Pool to Nighttime Foliage Respiration as Revealed by a Year-long C-13 Labeling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Mortazavi, B.; Chanton, J.

    2005-12-01

    Slash pine (Pinus elliottii) saplings were placed in a CO2 enrichment (~500 ppm above ambient) facility for an entire year, starting in June of 2004. The CO2 used for the enrichment, with an isotopic signature of -48‰, allowed us to track the fate of the labeled photosynthate during nighttime respiration experiments once the saplings were removed from the enrichment facility. A set of saplings subject to similar environmental conditions, but not subject to CO2 enrichment, served as controls. Nighttime respiration experiments for the labeled saplings were measured by two methods. The first procedure consisted in determining the isotopic signature of nighttime integrated (sunset to sunrise) foliage respired CO2, while the second procedure consisted in determining the pre-dawn signal. The nighttime integrated signal was determined by enclosing the entire foliage of four labeled saplings in a non-destructive manner in a 300-liter airtight chamber. Initial and final samples were collected at sunset and sunrise for CO2 concentration and 13C determination and a mass balance equation was used to determine the 13C of respired CO2. In the second procedure foliage from four labeled saplings were collected just prior to dawn and placed in a leaf-chamber. Sequential CO2 samples evolved in darkness over a 15 min period were collected for CO2 concentration and 13C determination from which a Keeling plot was constructed to determine the isotopic signature of foliage respired CO2. The isotopic signature of pre-dawn foliage respired CO2 for the control plants was also determined with an identical leaf-chamber system. Immediately after removal from the enrichment facility, the 13C of foliage respired CO2 had a pre-dawn signature of -40.2‰ and a nighttime integrated signal of -44.1‰, while the control plants had a dCf value of -25.8‰ signature. Monitoring of dCf during a 35-day period revealed a non-linear approach in dCf of the labeled plants towards the control dCf values

  6. Phenotypic response of plants to simulated climate change in a long-term rain-manipulation experiment: a multi-species study.

    PubMed

    Hänel, Sabine; Tielbörger, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Many species will need to adapt to the observed climate change in order to persist. However, research about adaptation or phenotypic plasticity in response to climate change is rare. In particular, field studies are lacking that impose artificial selection for a sufficiently long time to elicit changes in phenotypic and genotypic structure of populations. Here, we present findings for an 8-year field experiment with 16 annual plant species that tested potentially adaptive phenotypic responses to precipitation change. In both a Mediterranean and a semi-arid site, annual precipitation was manipulated (±30%) and phenotypic response was recorded. We measured flowering time as a key trait related to climatic conditions and biomass and survival as fitness correlates. Differences in traits among treatments were compared to trait shifts between sites, according to space-for-time approaches. In the drier site, phenology was accelerated, but within that site, experimental drought delayed phenology, probably as a plastic response to delayed ontogenetic development. Biomass was smaller in the dry treatments of that site, but it was also reduced in irrigated plots in both sites, indicating more intense competition. The shifts from limitation by drought to limitation by competition corresponded to patterns along the gradient. This also implies a larger negative impact of climate change in the drier site. Our results suggest that experimental selection in the field caused directional responses in most species, but these were not necessarily adaptive. Furthermore, competitive release imposed by climate change may revert direct negative effects of rainfall change in determining plant performance. PMID:25707776

  7. [Discussion on the calculation method of nitrogen use efficiency (NIUE) in long-term field experiments under wheat and maize rotation systems].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian-long; Lu, Yong-li; Li, Ru; Tong, Yan-an

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, some scholars from China have deeply discussed about the concept, connotation and calculating method of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and have raised questions and also put forward some improved methods for NUE calculation in cultivated lands. In this paper, we compared advantages and disadvantages of these improved NUE calculation methods by using the data from a 5-year positioning field experiment under a wheat-maize rotation system. The results indicated that it made mistakes when the traditional subtraction method was used to calculate NUE for wheat season and maize season separately, since the soil fertility level of experimental plots had differed significantly from each other after several seasons or years of different fertilization managements. Additionally, the calculated NUE increased markedly with the cropping season going, thus making it difficult to mirror the actual situation of N utilization in cultivated lands. For the wheat-maize rotation system, the cumulative NUE calculation method considered wheat season and maize season as a whole part, and skillfully avoided mistakes which could be caused by inhomogeneity of soil fertility levels between experimental plots. Moreover, the calculated NUE were comparably smaller, with smaller coefficient variations (CVs), in contrast with the traditional subtraction method. The NUE calculated by using the ratio method were bigger, with the smallest CVs, than that computed by using the cumulative calculation method. The soil N balance method took a thoughtful consideration about the budgets and losses of soil nutrients before and after crop growth, but obtained the largest values of NUE and CVs within these methods. PMID:25876402

  8. The effect of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion long-term therapy on motor complications in advanced Parkinson's disease: a multicenter Romanian experience.

    PubMed

    Băjenaru, O; Ene, A; Popescu, B O; Szász, J A; Sabău, M; Mureşan, D F; Perju-Dumbrava, L; Popescu, C D; Constantinescu, A; Buraga, I; Simu, M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic treatment with oral levodopa is associated with an increased frequency of motor complications in the late stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Continuous administration of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG-Duodopa(®), Abbott Laboratories), which has been available in Romania since 2009, represents an option for treating patients with advanced PD. Our primary objective was to report changes in motor complications after initiation of LCIG therapy. The secondary objectives were as follows: to determine the impact of LCIG therapy on the daily levodopa dose variation before/and after LCIG, to collect patient self-assessments of quality of life (QoL), and to study the overall tolerability and safety of LCIG administration. A retrospective analysis (2009-2013) of LCIG therapy and the experience in nine neurology centers in Romania was performed. The impact of LCIG therapy was evaluated by analyzing changes in motor fluctuations, dyskinesia and the patients' QoL after initiating therapy. The safety of LCIG therapy was estimated by noting agent-related adverse events (AEs) and medical device-related AEs. In the 113 patients included, we observed a significant improvement in PD symptoms after initiation of LCIG therapy. The "on" period increased, with a mean value of 6.14 h, and the dyskinesia period was reduced, with a mean value of 29.4 %. The quantified non-motor symptoms subsided. The patients exhibited significant improvements in QoL scores. There were few AEs and few cases of LCIG therapy discontinuation. LCIG is an important and available therapeutic option for managing patients with advanced PD. PMID:26699635

  9. Near real-time water vapor tomography using ground-based GPS and meteorological data: long-term experiment in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, P.; Ye, S. R.; Liu, Y. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Xia, P. F.

    2014-08-01

    Water vapor tomography is a promising technique for reconstructing the 4-D moisture field, which is important to the weather forecasting and nowcasting as well as to the numerical weather prediction. A near real-time 4-D water vapor tomographic system is developed in this study. GPS slant water vapor (SWV) observations are derived by a sliding time window strategy using double-difference model and predicted orbits. Besides GPS SWV, surface water vapor measurements are also assimilated as real time observations into the tomographic system in order to improve the distribution of observations in the lowest layers of tomographic grid. A 1-year term experiment in Hong Kong was carried out. The feasibility of the GPS data processing strategy is demonstrated by the good agreement between the time series of GPS-derived Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and radio-sounding-derived PWV with a bias of 0.04 mm and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.75 mm. Using surface humidity observations in the tomographic system, the bias and RMSE between tomography and radiosonde data are decreased by half in the ground level, but such improved effects weaken gradually with the rise of altitude until becoming adverse above 4000 m. The overall bias is decreased from 0.17 to 0.13 g m-3 and RMSE is reduced from 1.43 to 1.28 g m-3. By taking the correlation coefficient and RMSE between tomography and radiosonde individual profile as the statistical measures, quality of individual profile is also improved as the success rate of tomographic solution is increased from 44.44 to 63.82% while the failure rate is reduced from 55.56 to 36.18%.

  10. Ice sheet sensitivity experiments as part of an assessment of long-term safety for a planned repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wekerle, Claudia; Colleoni, Florence; Masina, Simona; Näslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny

    2014-05-01

    An application to build a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in south-central Sweden is currently under consideration by Swedish authorities. As part of the safety assessment, the response of the repository to an extensive glaciation over time scales of several hundred thousand years, in terms of ice thickness, bedrock depression and hydrostatic pressure, has to be evaluated. The most extensive glaciation over Eurasia recorded in geological proxies occurred during the MIS 6, at around 140 kyrs BP (Late Saalian glaciation). At this time, the few existing numerical ice-sheet reconstructions suggest that the Eurasian ice volume reached more than 70 m SLE, which is at least three times larger than during the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kyrs BP). The reconstruction of this ice sheet is complicated by the fact that the timing of the maximum ice volume may not have been coeval with the maximum eastern and southern extent of the Saalian ice sheet. In the present study, the maximum geographical extension of the Late Saalian glaciation serves as an extreme test case to assess the impact of ice thickness over the Forsmark repository site. We use the 3D-thermodynamical ice sheet-ice shelves and ice stream model GRISLI (Ritz et al. 2001) to simulate the Northern Hemisphere ice sheet topography of the Late Saalian glaciation. The model is forced by steady-state climatic fields (surface air temperature and precipitation) computed using the coupled atmosphere-ocean Community Earth System Model (CESM, NCAR) at ~1°x1° resolution, with boundary and forcing conditions representative for the MIS6 glacial maximum. Ice sheet simulations are run on a 20 km regular rectangular grid over the northern high latitudes and allow for floating ice. First, as part of the model validation, we show a numerical reconstruction of the MIS 6 Eurasian ice sheet using standard parameters for lapse rate, PDD coefficients and basal hydrology. Second, sensitivity experiments are

  11. Endoscopic Management of Attic Cholesteatoma: Long-Term Results.

    PubMed

    Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Marchioni, Daniele; Kakehata, Seiji; Presutti, Livio; Villari, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The main application of endoscopic surgery relies on the middle ear cholesteatoma surgical treatment, although for a definitive validation and acceptance by scientific community, long-term results are needed about recurrent and residual rates of the pathology. The aim of the present paper was to analyze the single institution experience with the long-term results of surgical treatment of attic cholesteatoma. PMID:27565391

  12. Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

  13. Understanding the Long-Term Spectral Variability of Cygnus X-1 with Burst and Transient Source Experiment and All-Sky Monitor Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Poutanen, Juri; Paciesas, William S.; Wen, Lin-Qing

    2002-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of all observations of Cyg X-1 by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE; 20-300 keV) and by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer all-sky monitor (ASM; 1.5-12 keV) until 2002 June, including approximately 1200 days of simultaneous data. We find a number of correlations between fluxes and hardnesses in different energy bands. In the hard (low) spectral state, there is a negative correlation between the ASM 1.5-12 keV flux and the hardness at any energy. In the soft (high) spectral state, the ASM flux is positively correlated with the ASM hardness but uncorrelated with the BATSE hardness. In both spectral states, the BATSE hardness correlates with the flux above 100 keV, while it shows no correlation with the 20-100 keV flux. At the same time, there is clear correlation between the BATSE fluxes below and above 100 keV. In the hard state, most of the variability can be explained by softening the overall spectrum with a pivot at approximately 50 keV. There is also another, independent variability pattern of lower amplitude where the spectral shape does not change when the luminosity changes. In the soft state, the variability is mostly caused by a variable hard (Comptonized) spectral component of a constant shape superposed on a constant soft blackbody component. These variability patterns are in agreement with the dependencies of the rms variability on the photon energy in the two states. We also study in detail recent soft states from late 2000 until 2002. The last of them has lasted thus far for more than 200 days. Their spectra are generally harder in the 1.5-5 keV band and similar or softer in the 3-12 keV band than the spectra of the 1996 soft state, whereas the rms variability is stronger in all the ASM bands. On the other hand, the 1994 soft state transition observed by BATSE appears very similar to the 1996 one. We interpret the variability patterns in terms of theoretical Comptonization

  14. The new Mediterranean background monitoring station of Ersa, Cape Corsica: A long term Observatory component of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulac, Francois

    2013-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) is a French initiative supported by the MISTRALS program (Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales, http://www.mistrals-home.org). It aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The major stake is an understanding of the future of the Mediterranean region in a context of strong regional anthropogenic and climatic pressures. The target of ChArMEx is short-lived particulate and gaseous tropospheric trace species which are the cause of poor air quality events, have two-way interactions with climate, or impact the marine biogeochemistry. In order to fulfill these objectives, important efforts have been put in 2012 in order to implement the infrastructure and instrumentation for a fully equipped background monitoring station at Ersa, Cape Corsica, a key location at the crossroads of dusty southerly air masses and polluted outflows from the European continent. The observations at this station began in June 2012 (in the context of the EMEP / ACTRIS / PEGASOS / ChArMEx campaigns). A broad spectrum of aerosol properties is also measured at the station, from the chemical composition (off-line daily filter sampling in PM2.5/PM10, on-line Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor), ground optical properties (extinction/absorption/light scattering coeff. with 1-? CAPS PMex monitor, 7-? Aethalometer, 3-? Nephelometer), integrated and vertically resolved optical properties (4-? Cimel sunphotometer and LIDAR, respective), size distribution properties (N-AIS, SMPS, APS, and OPS instruments), mass (PM1/PM10 by TEOM/TEOM-FDMS), hygroscopicity (CCN), as well as total insoluble deposition. So far, real-time measurement of reactive gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2), and off-line VOC measurements (cylinders, cartridges) are also

  15. Utilisation of young and old soil carbon sources by microbial groups differ during the growing season and between experimental treatments in a long-term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, Gunnar; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Thornton, Barry; Campbell, Colin; Kätterer, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM)is the largest active carbon pool in the terrestrial environment. SOM is a key factor for soil fertility, but is also important for the sequestration of atmospheric CO2. In agricultural soils, management of plant residues and the use of organic fertilisers play important roles for maintaining SOM. Switching from C3 plants to C4 plants such as maize, enables a natural labelling in situ; when coupled with compound specific 13C isotope analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) it allows the proportion of new C (fixed after the switch added to soil from above- and belowground litter and root exudates) and the proportion of old C (fixed prior to the switch derived from turnover of organic matter) utilised by the soil microbial community to be determined. (new paragraph) A field experiment in Sweden, amended with different mineral and organic fertilisers since 1956, was grown with C3 plants, mainly cereals until 1999. From the year 2000 silage maize was grown every year. In 2012, soil from four replicate plots of five experimental treatments, N fertilised, N fertilised amended with straw and sewage sludge, and two controls (bare fallow and cropped unfertilised) were sampled three times, at the start, middle and end of the growing season. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were extracted from all soil samples and analysed for concentrations and 13C content. (new paragraph) Total PLFA concentrations and also the PLFA/SOM ratios increased with SOM in the different treatments. Seasonal variation in total PLFA was small except for the most SOM-rich treatment (sewage sludge) where concentrations significantly decreased during the growing season indicating the depletion of a labile SOM pool. Weighted mean values of δ13C in PLFAs show that the plots fertilised with only calcium nitrate had the highest δ13C-values in PLFAs before (-20.24 o) and after the vegetation period (-20.37 o), due to a large input of 13C-enriched plant material. However, during

  16. Long-term microparticle flux variability indicated by comparison of Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) timed impacts for LDEF's first year in orbit with impact data for the entire 5.77-year orbital lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Charles G.; Mulholland, J. Derral; Oliver, John P.; Cooke, William J.; Kassel, Philip C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic sensors of the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) recorded precise impact times and approximate directions for submicron to approximately 100 micron size particles on all six primary sides of the spacecraft for the first 346 days of the LDEF orbital mission. Previously-reported analyses of the timed impact data have established their spatio-temporal features, including the demonstration that a preponderance of the particles in this regime are orbital debris and that a large fraction of the debris particles are encountered in megameter-size clouds. Short-term fluxes within such clouds can rise several orders of magnitude above the long-term average. These unexpectedly large short-term variations in debris flux raise the question of how representative an indication of the multi-year average flux is given by the nearly one year of timed data. One of the goals of the IDE was to conduct an optical survey of impact sites on detectors that remained active during the entire LDEF mission, to obtain full-mission fluxes. We present here the comparisons and contrasts among the new IDE optical survey impact data, the IDE first-year timed impact data, and impact data from other LDEF micrometeoroid and debris experiments. The following observations are reported: (1) the 5.77 year long-term integrated microparticle impact fluxes recorded by IDE detectors matched the integrated impact fluxes measured by other LDEF investigators for the same period; (2) IDE integrated microparticle impact fluxes varied by factors from 0.5 to 8.3 for LDEF days 1-346, 347-2106 and 1-2106 (5.77 years) on rows 3 (trailing edge, or West), 6 (South side), 12 (North side), and the Earth and Space ends; and (3) IDE integrated microparticle impact fluxes varied less than 3 percent for LDEF days 1-346, 347-2106 and 1-2106 (5.77 years) on row 9 (leading edge, or East). These results give further evidence of the accuracy and internal consistency of the recorded IDE impact data. This leads to

  17. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  18. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    estuaries below by removing all incoming freshwater. At Toolik Lake, long-term experiments of removing top predators from the good web of lakes showed dramatic alterations of lake populations of small fish and zooplankton. In New Mexico, LTER research on small mammal populations is successfully predicting rodent increases and the potential for increased zoonotic diseases such as Hantavirus and bubonic plague. This ability to forecast based on El Nino prediction is being used to increase scientific awareness and public health awareness through media based communication with the public. In Oregon, the Andrews Forest LTER program has had long, strong links with natural resource policy and management. Basic understanding of forest-stream interactions, characteristics of old-growth forests, roles of woody debris in temperate forest ecosystems, invertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function have been incorporated in management guidelines, plans and regulations for public and private lands throughout the Pacific Northwest. Other examples of the values of long-term research and monitoring will be presented.

  19. Medicare Program; Temporary Exception for Certain Severe Wound Discharges From Certain Long-Term Care Hospitals Required by the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016; Modification of Limitations on Redesignation by the Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2016-04-21

    This interim final rule with comment period (IFC) implements section 231 of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2016 (CAA), which provides for a temporary exception for certain wound care discharges from the application of the site neutral payment rate under the Long-Term Care Hospital (LTCH) Prospective Payment System (PPS) for certain long-term care hospitals. This IFC also amends our current regulations to allow hospitals nationwide to reclassify based on their acquired rural status, effective with reclassifications beginning with fiscal year (FY) 2018. Hospitals with an existing Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board (MGCRB) reclassification would also have the opportunity to seek rural reclassification for IPPS payment and other purposes and keep their existing MGCRB reclassification. We would also apply the policy in this IFC when deciding timely appeals before the Administrator under our regulations for FY 2017 that were denied by the MGCRB due to existing regulations, which do not permit simultaneous rural reclassification for IPPS payment and other purposes and MGCRB reclassification. These regulatory changes implement the decisions in Geisinger Community Medical Center v. Secretary, United States Department of Health and Human Services, 794 F.3d 383 (3d Cir. 2015) and Lawrence + Memorial Hospital v. Burwell, No. 15-164, 2016 WL 423702 (2d Cir. Feb. 4, 2015) in a nationally consistent manner. PMID:27101642

  20. Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

  1. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  2. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  3. Private Financing Options for Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Barbara L.; Simon, Harold J.; Smallwood, Dennis E.

    1987-01-01

    Private financing for long-term care now comes almost exclusively from out-of-pocket payments. Long-term-care costs quickly impoverish most elderly, resulting in Medicaid dependency. The consequences are profound for the western Sun Belt with its rapidly growing elderly population. Key private financing options are long-term-care individual retirement accounts (LTC/IRAs), home equity conversion, social-health maintenance organizations and long-term-care insurance. Study of data from the past half century suggests that the LTC/IRA approach would prove unsatisfactory for the purpose despite the intuitive appeal of this mechanism. Experience with home equity conversions is still very limited, and unresolved questions limit this approach to the role of a reserve option for now. While promising, social-health maintenance organizations are still in the experimental stages and not yet commercially available. Long-term-care insurance is currently sold on a thin market and emphasizes nursing home coverage. New approaches to private financing through long-term-care insurance seem to offer the best approach for immediate implementation. PMID:3118576

  4. Commentary: The Broader Context of Long-Term Care Ethics.

    PubMed

    Lesandrini, Jason; O'Connell, Carol

    2016-07-01

    Ethical issues in long-term care settings, although having received attention in the literature, have not in our opinion received the appropriate level they require. Thus, we applaud the Cambridge Quarterly for publishing this case. We can attest to the significance of ethical issues arising in long-term care facilities, as Mr. Hope's case is all too familiar to those practicing in these settings. What is unique about this case is that an actual ethics consult was made in a long-term care setting. We have seen very little in the published literature on the use of ethics structures in long-term care populations. Our experience is that these healthcare settings are ripe for ethical concerns and that providers, patients, families, and staff need/desire ethics resources to actively and preventively address ethical concerns. The popular press has begun to recognize the ethical issues involved in long-term care settings and the need for ethics structures. Recently, in California a nurse refused to initiate CPR for an elderly patient in a senior residence. In that case, the nurse was quoted as saying that the facility had a policy that nurses were not to start CPR for elderly patients. 1 Although this case is not exactly the same as that of Mr. Hope, it highlights the need for developing robust ethics program infrastructures in long-term care settings that work toward addressing ethical issues through policy, education, and active consultation. PMID:27348841

  5. Long-term Experimental Networks for Stream Ecosystem Studies: the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiment (LINX) and the Stream Experimental and Observatory Network (STREON) Component of the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, P. J.; Dodds, W. K.; Palmer, M. A.; Cardinale, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    LINX and STREON represent large experimental networks to understand the dynamics of stream ecosystems. These inter-site coordinated experiments represent a shift towards research whose goal is to understand how the drivers of ecosystem structure and function change across major continental-scale environmental gradients. LINX consisted of two consecutive, inter-site studies involving 15N-tracer additions to streams to determine rates and mechanisms of nitrogen cycling at the scale of entire stream reaches. The LINX studies, which lasted for a decade, were the first to use the 15N addition approach to determine gross rates of ammonium and nitrate uptake, nitrification, and denitrification under ambient conditions in stream ecosystems across several biomes and many types of land use. The LINX studies documented the important roles of stream hydrology (flow and transient storage zones), chemistry (N concentrations), and biology (in- stream gross primary production and respiration rates) in controlling N uptake and retention. Stream network models based on field results showed that streams are important sites for N retention in the landscape. Although LINX demonstrated the importance of experiments conducted across stream networks, these studies were limited in duration and could not address questions dealing with long-term impacts. STREON, the stream component of the planned National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), is intended to use long-term observations and experimental nutrient and consumer organism manipulations to understand controls and forecast changes in stream ecosystems. The observations, to be conducted in a network of more than 20 streams across the U.S. and Puerto Rico over 30 years, will involving state-of-the- art in situ sensors and data communication devices as well as periodic sampling and analyses to determine hydrologic, geomorphologic, biogeochemical, and biological properties and processes. The experiments, to be conducted at about 10

  6. Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Leirisalo-Repo, M; Helenius, P; Hannu, T; Lehtinen, A; Kreula, J; Taavitsainen, M; Koskimies, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Reactive joint complications triggered by salmonella gastroenteritis are increasingly reported, but the outcome and long term prognosis of the patients is incompletely known. This study looked at the prognosis of salmonella arthritis in patients hospitalised in 1970-1986.
METHODS—Hospital records from two hospitals in southern Finland were screened for patients with the discharge diagnosis of salmonellosis or reactive, postinfectious arthritis or Reiter's disease. For the patients with confirmed diagnosis of reactive salmonella arthritis, data about the acute disease were collected from the hospital records. A follow up study was performed.
RESULTS—There were 63 patients (28 women, 35 men, mean age 36.5 years) with salmonella arthritis. Urethritis occurred in 27%, eye inflammation in 13%, and low back pain in 44% of the patients. HLA-B27 was present in 88%. More men than women were HLA-B27 positive. HLA-B27 positive patients had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mean 80.9 v 46.5 mm 1st h, p = 0.0180). Also, extra-articular features and radiological sacroiliitis were seen only in HLA-B27 positive patients. A follow up study was performed on 50 patients mean 11.0 (range 5-22 years) later. Twenty patients had recovered completely. Ten patients had mild joint symptoms, 11 patients had had a new acute transient arthritis, and five acute iritis. Eight patients had developed chronic spondyloarthropathy. Radiological sacroiliitis was seen in six of 44 patients, more frequently in male than in female patients (32% v 0%; p = 0.0289). Recurrent or chronic arthritis, iritis or radiological sacroiliitis developed only in HLA-B27 positive patients.
CONCLUSION—Joint symptoms are common after reactive salmonella arthritis. HLA-B27 contributes to the severity of acute disease and to the late prognosis.

 PMID:9370874

  7. Children's Long-Term Memory for Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole; Parsons, Tina

    This study investigated children's memory of stressful, personally meaningful events--in this case, injury experiences. Children (2 to 13 years old) who were brought to the emergency room of a hospital were recruited as subjects if they had sustained trauma injuries such as broken bones or lacerations requiring suturing. A total of 42 were…

  8. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  9. A new long-term care manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for. PMID:26035606

  10. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  11. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic ... and sprinkle forms are available for young children. Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists Medications in the beta 2 - ...

  12. Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

  13. Effect of a fixed combination of nimodipine and betahistine versus betahistine as monotherapy in the long-term treatment of Ménière's disease: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Monzani, D; Barillari, M R; Alicandri Ciufelli, M; Aggazzotti Cavazza, E; Neri, V; Presutti, L; Genovese, E

    2012-12-01

    Despite an abundance of long-term pharmacological treatments for recurrent vertigo attacks due to Ménière's disease, there is no general agreement on the their efficacy. We present the results of a retrospective study based on a 10-year experience with two long-term medical protocols prescribed to patients affected by Ménière's disease (diagnosed according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium guidelines) who completed treatments in the period 1999-2009. A total of 113 medical records were analysed; 53 patients received betahistine-dihydrochloride at on-label dosage (32 mg die) for six months, and 60 patients were treated with the same regimen and nimodipine (40 mg die) as an add-therapy during the same period. Nimodipine, a 1,4-dihydropyridine that selectively blocks L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, has previously been tested as a monotherapy for recurrent vertigo of labyrinthine origin in a multinational, double-blind study with positive results. A moderate reduction of the impact of vertigo on quality of life (as assessed by the Dizziness Handicap Inventory) was obtained in patients after therapy with betahistine (p < 0.05), but a more significant effect was achieved in patients treated by combined therapy (p < 0.005). In the latter group, better control of vertigo was seen with a greater reduction of frequency of attacks (p < 0.005). Both protocols resulted in a significant improvement of static postural control, although a larger effect on body sway area in all tests was obtained by the fixed combination of drugs. In contrast, no beneficial effect on either tinnitus annoyance (as assessed by the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) and hearing loss (pure-tone average at 0.5, 1, 2, 3 kHz frequencies of the affected ear) was recorded in patients treated with betahistine as monotherapy (p > 0.05), whereas the fixed combination of betahistine and nimodipine was associated with a significant

  14. Long-term particle flux variability indicated by comparison of Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) timed impacts for LDEF's first year in orbit with impact data for the entire 5.75-year orbital lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, J. Derral; Simon, Charles G.; Cooke, William J.; Oliver, John P.; Misra, V.

    1992-01-01

    The electronic sensors of the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) recorded precise impact times and approximate directions for submicron to approximately 100-micron size particles on all six primary sides of the spacecraft for the first 346 days of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) orbital mission. Previously-reported analyses of the timed impact data have established their spatio-temporal features, including the demonstration that a preponderance of the particles in this regime are orbital debris and that a large fraction of the debris particles are encountered as megameter-size clouds, some of which persist for long times. Short-term fluxes within such clouds can rise several orders of magnitude above the long-term average. These finding are consistent with the results of the first catastrophic hypervelocity laboratory impacts on a real satellite, recently reported in the press. Analysis continues on the geometric and evolutionary characteristics of these clouds, as well as on the isolation and characterization of the natural micrometeoroid component in the IDE data, but the unexpectedly large short-term variations in debris flux raises the question of how representative an indication of the multi-year average flux is given by the nearly one year of timed data. It has, therefore, always been one of the goals of IDE to conduct an optical survey of the craters on the IDE detectors, to obtain full-mission fluxes for comparisons with the timed data. This work is underway, and the results presently in hand are significant. Optical scanning of the ram and wake (East and West) panels is complete, and it is clear that the first year was in some respects not representative of the subsequent years. The 5.75-year average flux on East panel was 90 percent of the value predicted by the average flux recorded during the first year, while it was only 34 percent on West panel. This suggests that western hemisphere spacecraft launches are a major contributor to the long-term

  15. Thermographic inspection of wind turbine rotor blade segment utilizing natural conditions as excitation source, Part II: The effect of climatic conditions on thermographic inspections - A long term outdoor experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worzewski, Tamara; Krankenhagen, Rainer; Doroshtnasir, Manoucher

    2016-05-01

    The present study continues the work described in part I of this paper in evaluating a long-term-experiment, where a rotor blade segment of a wind turbine is exposed to the elements and thereby monitored with passive thermography. First, it is investigated whether subsurface features in rotor blades - mainly made of GFRP - can generally be detected with thermography from greater distances under favorable conditions. The suitability of the sun for acting as a heat source in applying active thermography has been tested in the previous study. In this study, the climatic influence on thermographic measurement is evaluated. It is demonstrated that there are favorable and unfavorable circumstances for imaging thermal contrasts which reflect inner structures and other subsurface features like potential defects. It turns out that solar radiation serves as a very effective heat source, but not at all times of day. Other environmental influences such as diurnal temperature variations also create temperature contrasts that permit conclusions on subsurface features. Particular scenarios are reconstructed with FEM-simulations in order to gain deeper insight into the driving mechanisms that produce the observed thermal contrasts. These investigations may help planning useful outdoor operations for inspecting rotor blades with thermography.

  16. Thermophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste for bio-hythane production: effect of recirculation sludge on process stability and microbiology over a long-term pilot-scale experience.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, A; Zanetti, L; Micolucci, F; Cavinato, C

    2014-01-01

    A two-stage thermophilic anaerobic digestion process for the concurrent production of hydrogen and methane through the treatment of the source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste was carried out over a long-term pilot scale experience. Two continuously stirred tank reactors were operated for about 1 year. The results showed that stable production of bio-hythane without inoculum treatment could be obtained. The pH of the dark fermentation reactor was maintained in the optimal range for hydrogen-producing bacteria activity through sludge recirculation from a methanogenic reactor. An average specific bio-hythane production of 0.65 m(3) per kg of volatile solids fed was achieved when the recirculation flow was controlled through an evaporation unit in order to avoid inhibition problems for both microbial communities. Microbial analysis indicated that dominant bacterial species in the dark fermentation reactor are related to the Lactobacillus family, while the population of the methanogenic reactor was mainly composed of Defluviitoga tunisiensis. The archaeal community of the methanogenic reactor shifted, moving from Methanothermobacter-like to Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales, the latter found also in the dark fermentation reactor when a considerable methane production was detected. PMID:24901613

  17. Culturing Fundamentals Used To Design And Execute A Long-Term Multi-stressor Experiment To Assess Impact Of Deoxygenation, Ocean Acidification, And Warming On Benthic Foraminiferal Community Composition, Growth, And Carbonate Yield: Design And Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, J. M.; Wit, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The geochemistry recorded in carbonate foraminiferal tests (shells) is often used as proxy for past oceanographic events and environments. By understanding past oceanic and climatic conditions, we can better predict future climate scenarios, a relevant ability in these times of global change. The fact that foraminifera are biological entities can be pivotal for understanding their geochemical records. Thus, growing foraminifera under known physicochemical conditions and analyzing the geochemistry of their cultured carbonate can yield insightful perspectives for proxy refinement and development. Because parameters often co-vary in nature, proper proxy calibration can only be done with materials grown in strictly controlled and known environments. This presentation will review the various crucial aspects of foraminiferal maintenance and culturing, especially from the perspective of proxy development. These fundamentals were used to design a long-term multi-stressor experiment with oxygen, pCO2 (pH), and temperature as variables to test the single, double or triple threats of deoxygenation, ocean acidification, and oceanic warming. Results on assemblage composition, survivorship and growth of a continental shelf benthic foraminiferal community will be presented. Although one agglutinated morphospecies grew in each of the five treatments, growth of individual calcareous species was more restricted. Initial results indicate that pCO2 was not the factor that impacted communities most. Supported in part by NSF OCE-1219948.

  18. Long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery.

    PubMed Central<