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Sample records for long-term interest rates

  1. Long-Term Care Policy and Interest Group Struggles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Gil, Fernando; Pynoos, Jon

    1986-01-01

    Examined how interest group struggles affect the formulation and implementation of a statewide long-term care system by using California's experience to illustrate the competition that can develop between senior citizens and disabled groups. (Author)

  2. Long-term investing and your bond rating.

    PubMed

    Doody, Dennis

    2005-09-01

    Days cash on hand is an important measure of a healthcare organization's financial condition--but not the only one. A well-diversified investment portfolio managed against long-term objectives is equally important--and can be a significant asset in the eyes of bond rating agencies. PMID:16184969

  3. Interest in Long-Term Care among Health Services Administration Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, April; Thompson, Jon M.

    2011-01-01

    The aging of the population has created increased opportunities for health administrators in long-term care. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of 68 undergraduate health services administration students to explore factors related to interest in a career in long-term care administration. One third expressed interest working in the

  4. Interest in Long-Term Care among Health Services Administration Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, April; Thompson, Jon M.

    2011-01-01

    The aging of the population has created increased opportunities for health administrators in long-term care. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of 68 undergraduate health services administration students to explore factors related to interest in a career in long-term care administration. One third expressed interest working in the…

  5. Determining long-term regional erosion rates using impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, Stefan; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    More than 300,000 impact craters have been found on Mars, while the surface of Moon's highlands is even saturated with craters. In contrast, only 184 impact craters have been confirmed on Earth so far with only 125 of them exposed at the surface. The spatial distribution of these impact craters is highly inhomogeneous. Beside the large variation in the age of the crust, consumption of craters by erosion and burial by sediments are the main actors being responsible for the quite small and inhomogeneous crater record. In this study we present a novel approach to infer long-term average erosion rates at regional scales from the terrestrial crater inventory. The basic idea behind this approach is a dynamic equilibrium between the production of new craters and their consumption by erosion. It is assumed that each crater remains detectable until the total erosion after the impact exceeds a characteristic depth depending on the crater's diameter. Combining this model with the terrestrial crater production rate, i.e., the number of craters per unit area and time as a function of their diameter, allows for a prediction of the expected number of craters in a given region as a function of the erosion rate. Using the real crater inventory, this relationship can be inverted to determine the regional long-term erosion rate and its statistical uncertainty. A limitation by the finite age of the crust can also be taken into account. Applying the method to the Colorado Plateau and the Deccan Traps, both being regions with a distinct geological history, yields erosion rates in excellent agreement with those obtained by other, more laborious methods. However, these rates are formally exposed to large statistical uncertainties due to the small number of impact craters. As higher crater densities are related to lower erosion rates, smaller statistical errors can be expected when large regions in old parts of the crust are considered. Very low long-term erosion rates of less than 4 meters per million years are obtained for large parts of the Baltic Shield and the Canadian Shield. A rather coarse world-wide map of erosion rates can be created using Voronoi diagrams.

  6. Rates of Long-Term Cochlear Implant Use in Children

    PubMed Central

    Contrera, Kevin J.; Choi, Janet S.; Blake, Caitlin R.; Betz, Joshua F.; Niparko, John K.; Lin, Frank R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of long-term cochlear implant (CI) use in children Study Design: Consecutive case series Setting: Tertiary referral center Patients: 474 patients <18 years who received a first CI from 1999-2011 Interventions: Cochlear implantation Main Outcome Measure(s): Regular CI use, defined as using the CI for ≥ 8 hours per day Results: We successfully contacted and obtained follow-up data on 402 patients (85%) via email, telephone, and postal survey. The rate of regular CI use was 93.2% (95% CI, 90.0-95.4) at 5 years post-implantation and 87.7% (95% CI, 82.9-91.3) at 10 years post-implantation. The mean number of hours of use per day was 12.0 hours (SD, 4.1 hrs). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis demonstrated a linear association between the age at implantation and the risk of discontinuing regular CI use. Rates of CI discontinuation increased by 18.2% per year of age at implantation (95% CI, 7.2-30.4%). Reported reasons for CI use < 8 hours of per day include poor hearing benefit (53.2%), social pressure (21.3%), and recurrent displacement of the transmitter coil (17.0%). Conclusions: High rates of regular CI use are sustained after childhood implantation, and younger age at implantation is associated with a higher rate of continued device usage. PMID:24518403

  7. Long-Term Volumetric Eruption Rates and Magma Budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Scott M. White Dept. Geological Sciences University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208; Joy A. Crisp Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91109; Frank J. Spera Dept. Earth Science University of California, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA 93106

    2005-01-01

    A global compilation of 170 time-averaged volumetric volcanic output rates (Qe) is evaluated in terms of composition and petrotectonic setting to advance the understanding of long-term rates of magma generation and eruption on Earth. Repose periods between successive eruptions at a given site and intrusive:extrusive ratios were compiled for selected volcanic centers where long-term (>104 years) data were available. More silicic compositions, rhyolites and andesites, have a more limited range of eruption rates than basalts. Even when high Qe values contributed by flood basalts (9 ± 2 Å~ 10-1 km3/yr) are removed, there is a trend in decreasing average Qe with lava composition from basaltic eruptions (2.6 ± 1.0 Å~ 10-2 km3/yr) to andesites (2.3 ± 0.8 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr) and rhyolites (4.0 ± 1.4 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr). This trend is also seen in the difference between oceanic and continental settings, as eruptions on oceanic crust tend to be predominately basaltic. All of the volcanoes occurring in oceanic settings fail to have statistically different mean Qe and have an overall average of 2.8 ± 0.4 Å~ 10-2 km3/yr, excluding flood basalts. Likewise, all of the volcanoes on continental crust also fail to have statistically different mean Qe and have an overall average of 4.4 ± 0.8 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr. Flood basalts also form a distinctive class with an average Qe nearly two orders of magnitude higher than any other class. However, we have found no systematic evidence linking increased intrusive:extrusive ratios with lower volcanic rates. A simple heat balance analysis suggests that the preponderance of volcanic systems must be open magmatic systems with respect to heat and matter transport in order to maintain eruptible magma at shallow depth throughout the observed lifetime of the volcano. The empirical upper limit of Å`10-2 km3/yr for magma eruption rate in systems with relatively high intrusive:extrusive ratios may be a consequence of the fundamental parameters governing rates of melt generation (e.g., subsolidus isentropic decompression, hydration due to slab dehydration and heat transfer between underplated magma and the overlying crust) in the Earth

  8. Long-term alteration of basaltic glass: Mechanisms and rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parruzot, Benjamin; Jollivet, Patrick; Rébiscoul, Diane; Gin, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    The long-term behavior study of archaeological artifacts and natural minerals and glasses revealed discrepancies between laboratory and field data. For a better understanding of the cause of these discrepancies and to reinforce the use of basaltic glass as an analog for nuclear waste glasses, this study focuses on the determination of alteration rates and processes of synthetic basaltic glass in residual rate regime. Laboratory batch experiments were performed at high surface-to-volume ratios at 90 and 30 °C for more than 1000 days. In all the experiments, the residual rate regime was reached after about 6 months. The residual alteration rates at 30 and 90 °C were 4.0 ± 1.0 × 10-6 and 9.5 ± 3.2 × 10-6 g·m-2·d-1, respectively. At 90 °C, this residual alteration rate is five orders of magnitude lower than the forward alteration rate (0.8 g·m-2·d-1). Altered powders and monoliths were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. From glass core to solution, the altered materials are structured as follows: pristine glass, gel (corresponding to the palagonitic layer of natural glasses) and intergranular clays. To assess the passivating properties of this alteration film, we used solid characterization, an isotopically-tagged post-leaching experiment and the measurement of mobile species diffusion coefficients through the alteration film at different stages of reaction using various techniques (solution analysis and X-ray Reflectometry). These characterizations showed that the alteration film formed during residual rate alteration is passivating even without clogged porosity within the gel. Diffusion coefficients of water and alkali metals - respectively diffusing to and from the pristine glass - through the alteration film dropped from 10-20 to 10-19 m2·s-1 during the first alteration stages to 10-25 m2·s-1 in residual rate regime.

  9. Long term fault slip rates, distributed deformation rates and forecast of seismicity in the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaverdian, A.; Zafarani, H.; Rahimian, M.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the long-term crustal flow of the Iranian Plateau is computed using a kinematic finite-element model (NeoKinema software). Based on the iterated weighted least squares method, the models are fitted to the newest data set of Iran including updated fault traces, geologic fault offset rates, geodetic benchmark velocities, principal stress directions, and velocity boundary conditions. We are successful to find the best kinematic model, in which geological slip rates, geodetic velocities, and interpolated stress directions are fitted at levels of 0.35, 1.0, and 1.0 datum standard deviation, respectively. The best fitted model, for the first time, provides long-term fault slip rates, velocity, and anelastic strain rate field in the Iranian Plateau from all available kinematic data. In order to verify the model, the estimates of fault slip rates are compared to slip rates from merely analyzing geodetic benchmark velocities or paleoseismological studies or published geological rates which have not been used in the model. Our estimated rates are all in the range of geodetic rates and are even more consistent with geological rates than previous GPS-based estimates. Using the selected model, long-term average seismicity maps and long-term moment rates are produced on the basis of the SHIFT hypothesis and previous global calibrations. Our kinematic model also provides a new constraint on ratio of seismic deformation to total deformation for different seismic zones of Iran. The resulting slip rates and the proposed seismic fraction of deformation provide the necessary input data for future time-dependent hazard studies in Iran. Moreover, spatial distribution and total number of strong (M > 6) and major (M > 7) earthquakes, which dominate the seismic hazard, are all compatible with the regional seismic catalog.

  10. Covered interest parity arbitrage and temporal long-term dependence between the US dollar and the Yen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, Jonathan A.; Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2007-03-01

    Using a daily time series from 1983 to 2005 of currency prices in spot and forward USD/Yen markets and matching equivalent maturity short-term US and Japanese interest rates, we investigate the sensitivity of the difference between actual prices in forward markets to those calculated from differentials in short-term interest rates. According to a fundamental theorem in financial economics termed covered interest parity (CIP), the actual and estimated prices should be identical once transaction and other costs are accommodated. The paper presents three important findings: first, we find evidence of considerable variation in CIP deviations from equilibrium; second, these deviations have diminished significantly and by 2000 have been almost eliminated; third, an analysis of the CIP deviations using the local Hurst exponent finds episodes of time-varying dependence over the various sample periods, which appear to be linked to episodes of dollar decline/Yen appreciation, or vice versa. The finding of temporal long-term dependence in CIP deviations is consistent with recent evidence of temporal long-term dependence in the returns of currency, stock and commodity markets.

  11. Long-Term Data Reveal Rate and Risk Factors for Subsequent Surgeries Following Initial ACL Reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2013 (historical) Long-term Data Reveal Rate and Risk Factors for Subsequent Surgeries Following Initial ACL Reconstruction Nearly ... and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, also clarified key risk factors associated with the need for subsequent knee surgeries. ...

  12. Investigating possible gravity change rates expected from long-term deep crustal processes in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouyen, M.; Simoes, M.; Mouthereau, F.; Masson, F.; Hwang, C.; Cheng, C.-C.

    2014-07-01

    We propose to test if gravimetry can prove useful in discriminating different models of long-term deep crustal processes in the case of the Taiwan mountain belt. We discuss two existing tectonic models that differ in the deep processes proposed to sustain the long-term growth of the orogen. One model assumes underplating of the uppermost Eurasian crust with subduction of the deeper part of the crust into the mantle. The other one suggests the accretion of the whole Eurasian crust above crustal-scale ramps, the lower crust being accreted into the collisional orogen. We compute the temporal gravity changes caused only by long-term rock mass transfers at depth for each of them. We show that the underplating model implies a rate of gravity change of -6 × 10-2 μGal yr-1, a value that increases to 2 × 10-2 μGal yr-1 if crustal subduction is neglected. If the accretion of the whole Eurasian crust occurs, a rate of 7 × 10-2 μGal yr-1 is obtained. The two models tested differ both in signal amplitude and spatial distribution. The yearly gravity changes expected by long-term deep crustal mass processes in Taiwan are two orders of magnitude below the present-day uncertainty of land-based gravity measurements. Assuming that these annually averaged long-term gravity changes will linearly accumulate with ongoing mountain building, multidecadal time-series are needed to identify comparable rates of gravity change. However, as gravity is sensitive to any mass redistribution, effects of short-term processes such as seismicity and surface mass transfers (erosion, sedimentation, ground-water) may prevent from detecting any long-term deep signal. This study indicates that temporal gravity is not appropriate for deciphering the long-term deep crustal processes involved in the Taiwan mountain belt.

  13. Long-term shoreline retreat rates on Whidbey Island, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Heather E.; Swanson, Terry W.; Stone, John O.

    2012-09-01

    Long-term retreat rates of Puget Sound's unconsolidated sediment shorelines have been difficult to quantify, and little systematic research has been completed to constrain retreat in this area. We put forward a new application of cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating to assess long-term shoreline retreat on Whidbey Island, WA by dating lag boulders exposed on the shore platform as the shoreline erodes. Production of 10Be in shoreline boulders is modulated by both tidal submergence and topographic shielding from the retreating bluff. By modeling the combined effect of these variables on 10Be production, the timing of exposure can be determined and used to calculate long-term (103-104 yr) bluff retreat rates. In rare cases, retreat rates are underestimated due to inherited 10Be. Within the study area, average retreat rates ranged between 0 and 8 cm yr- 1. Our results demonstrate the utility of cosmogenic nuclides for determining long-term shoreline retreat rates in areas with thick sediment cover, where large numbers of samples can be collected, and where the pre-depositional history of the boulders is uncomplicated.

  14. Estimating the long-term phosphorus accretion rate in the Everglades: A Bayesian approach with risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Song S.; Richardson, Curtis J.

    Using wetlands as a sink of nutrients, phosphorus in particular, is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to conventional wastewater treatment technology. In this paper, we briefly review the mechanism of phosphorus retention in wetlands, as well as previous modeling efforts. A Bayesian method is then proposed for estimating the long-term phosphorus accretion rate in wetlands through a piecewise linear model of outflow phosphorus concentration and phosphorus mass loading rate. The Bayesian approach was used for its simplicity in computation and its ability to accurately represent uncertainty. Applied to an Everglades wetland, the Bayesian method not only produced the probability distribution of the long-term phosphorus accretion rate but also generated a relationship of acceptable level of ``risk'' and optimal phosphorus mass loading rate for the proposed constructed wetlands in south Florida. The latter is a useful representation of uncertainty which is of interest to decision makers.

  15. Decoupling of long-term exhumation and short-term erosion rates in the Sikkim Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahami, Rachel; van der Beek, Peter; Huyghe, Pascale; Hardwick, Elisabeth; Carcaillet, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relative strengths of tectonic and climatic forcing on erosion at different spatial and temporal scales is important to understand the evolution of orogenic topography. To address this question, we quantified exhumation rates at geological timescales and erosion rates at millennial timescales in modern river sands from 10 sub-catchments of the Tista River drainage basin in the Sikkim Himalaya (northeast India) using detrital apatite fission-track thermochronology and cosmogenic 10Be analyses, respectively. We compare these rates to several potential geomorphic or climatic forcing parameters. Our results show that millennial erosion rates are generally higher and spatially more variable than long-term exhumation rates in Sikkim. They also show strongly contrasting spatial patterns, suggesting that the processes controlling these rates are decoupled. At geological timescales, exhumation rates decrease from south to north, with rates up to 1.2 ± 0.6 mm/yr recorded in southwest Sikkim and as low as 0.5 ± 0.2 mm/yr in the northernmost catchment. Long-term exhumation rates do not correlate with any geomorphic or climatic parameter. We suggest they are tectonically controlled: high rates in southwest Sikkim may be linked to the building of the Lesser Himalaya Rangit Duplex, whereas low rates in north Sikkim are consistent with cessation of extensional exhumation along the South Tibetan Detachment after 13 Ma. The highest apparent erosion rates recorded by cosmogenic nuclides (˜5 mm/yr) occur in catchments spanning the Main Central Thrust Zone, but these appear to be strongly influenced by recent landsliding. High millennial erosion rates (1-2 mm/yr) also occur in north Sikkim and may be climatically driven through strong glacial inheritance of the landscape, as attested by high channel-steepness values close to the maximum extent of glaciers during the Last Glacial Maximum. In contrast, variations in rainfall rate do not seem to strongly influence either millennial erosion or long-term exhumation rates in Sikkim.

  16. Glomerular Filtration Rate and Renal Plasma Flow in Long-term Juvenile Diabetics without Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Mogensen, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were examined in 16 young male non-proteinuric diabetics (mean age 28·4 years) with a duration of diabetes of over 15 years (mean duration 21·5 years.) In this selected group of long-term diabetics the glomerular filtration rate was clearly increased, the mean being 136 ml/min (±S.D. 11·8) (normal value 114 ml/min (±14·1), being comparable to that found earlier in short-term diabetics. There was no change in renal plasma flow. It is concluded that kidney function is generally well preserved in long-term diabetics who have not developed proteinuria. PMID:5083884

  17. Constraints on the affinity term for modeling long-term glass dissolution rates

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W.L.; Carroll, S.A.; Phillips, B.L.

    1993-11-01

    Predictions of long-term glass dissolution rates are highly dependent on the form of the affinity term in the rate expression. Analysis of the quantitative effect of saturation state on glass dissolution rate for CSG glass (a simple analog of SRL-165 glass), shows that a simple (1-Q/K) affinity term does not match experimental results. Our data at 100{degree}C show that the data is better fit by an affinity term having the form (1 {minus} (Q/K){sup 1}/{sigma}) where {sigma} = 10.

  18. Coupled spatial variations in precipitation and long-term erosion rates across the Washington Cascades.

    PubMed

    Reiners, Peter W; Ehlers, Todd A; Mitchell, Sara G; Montgomery, David R

    2003-12-11

    Past studies of tectonically active mountain ranges have suggested strong coupling and feedbacks between climate, tectonics and topography. For example, rock uplift generates topographic relief, thereby enhancing precipitation, which focuses erosion and in turn influences rates and spatial patterns of further rock uplift. Although theoretical links between climate, erosion and uplift have received much attention, few studies have shown convincing correlations between observable indices of these processes on mountain-range scales. Here we show that strongly varying long-term (>10(6)-10(7) yr) erosion rates inferred from apatite (U-Th)/He cooling ages across the Cascades mountains of Washington state closely track modern mean annual precipitation rates. Erosion and precipitation rates vary over an order of magnitude across the range with maxima of 0.33 mm yr(-1) and 3.5 m yr(-1), respectively, with both maxima located 50 km west (windward) of the topographic crest of the range. These data demonstrate a strong coupling between precipitation and long-term erosion rates on the mountain-range scale. If the range is currently in topographic steady state, rock uplift on the west flank is three to ten times faster than elsewhere in the range, possibly in response to climatically focused erosion. PMID:14668859

  19. Effects of long-term grazing on sediment deposition and salt-marsh accretion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elschot, Kelly; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Temmerman, Stijn; Bakker, Jan P.

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have attempted to predict whether coastal marshes will be able to keep up with future acceleration of sea-level rise by estimating marsh accretion rates. However, there are few studies focussing on the long-term effects of herbivores on vegetation structure and subsequent effects on marsh accretion. Deposition of fine-grained, mineral sediment during tidal inundations, together with organic matter accumulation from the local vegetation, positively affects accretion rates of marsh surfaces. Tall vegetation can enhance sediment deposition by reducing current flow and wave action. Herbivores shorten vegetation height and this could potentially reduce sediment deposition. This study estimated the effects of herbivores on 1) vegetation height, 2) sediment deposition and 3) resulting marsh accretion after long-term (at least 16 years) herbivore exclusion of both small (i.e. hare and goose) and large grazers (i.e. cattle) for marshes of different ages. Our results firstly showed that both small and large herbivores can have a major impact on vegetation height. Secondly, grazing processes did not affect sediment deposition. Finally, trampling by large grazers affected marsh accretion rates by compacting the soil. In many European marshes, grazing is used as a tool in nature management as well as for agricultural purposes. Thus, we propose that soil compaction by large grazers should be taken in account when estimating the ability of coastal systems to cope with an accelerating sea-level rise.

  20. Cold water corals - Converting short term scientific excitement into long term public interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestad, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Vesteraalen area off the Northern Norwegian coast is of ecological importance as a spawning ground for several fish stocks and as a corridor for migrating mature fish and drifting fish larvae for other stocks. The area is also of great interest to oil exploration companies for its hitherto untapped energy supplies. In the midst of it all, there are a number of cold-water coral reefs. Researchers at the Institute of Marine Research in Norway have constructed a sophisticated system for monitoring habitats around the cold-water corals and their environment over time. Two so-called landers will be placed next to coral reefs, will be equipped with echo sounders, camera, hydrophone, acoustic current profiler, CTD-sensor and sediment traps in March 09. This will provide high quality data regarding both physical conditions and biological activity. The sensors will make it possible to observe how different species interact with each other, with particular focus on the activity of fish and how they use the reef habitat. The system will have the capacity to transmit data live from the ocean floor. Creating attention in national media regarding such a ground-breaking project is not all that difficult. Already, the Norwegian national TV channel NRK has confirmed participation on the cruise that will deploy the landers. However, this project also presents communication challenges. One of which is to find a way of making echogram images of the reef understandable ("readable") to people not familiar with interpreting echo sounder signals. This will be especially important if it is decided to make the data from the coral reef available live on the internet. Furthermore, the aim will be to create interest amongst specific audiences in following the life in and around the coral reef over time.

  1. Physical Inactivity and Long-Term Rates of Community-Acquired Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Henry E.; Baddley, John; Griffin, Russell; Judd, Suzanne; Howard, George; Donnelly, John; Safford, Monika M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors sought to determine the association between physical inactivity (characterized by exercise and television watching levels) and long-term rates of community-acquired sepsis. METHODS Population-based cohort study of 30,183 adult (≥45 years) community-dwelling participants. Subjects reported weekly exercise (low=none, medium=1-3 times/week, high= ≥4 times/week) and daily television watching (low= <1 hour/day, medium= 1-3 hours/day, high= ≥4 hours/day) levels. The authors evaluated the association between exercise, television watching and rates of sepsis, defined as hospital treatment for a serious infection with ≥2 Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) criteria. RESULTS Among 30,183 participants, 1,500 experienced a sepsis event. Reported weekly exercise was: high 8,798 (29.2%), medium 10,695 (35.4%), and low 10,240 (33.9%). Where available, reported daily television watching was: low 4,615 (19.6%), medium 11,587 (49.3%) and high 7,317 (31.1%). Decreased weekly exercise was associated with increased adjusted sepsis rates (high – referent; medium HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.96-1.20; low 1.33, 1.13-1.56). Daily television watching was not associated with sepsis rates. Sepsis rates were highest among those with both low exercise and high television watching levels (HR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.10-2.01). CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity may be associated with increased long-term rates of community-acquired sepsis. PMID:24768917

  2. Preliminary investigations of Spirulina effect on cancer cells: interest for long-term manned space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baatout, S.; Bekaert, S.; Hendrickx, L.; Derradji, H.; Mergeay, M.

    Background In view of long haul space exploration missions the development of regenerative life support systems is of crucial importance to increase the crew autonomy and decrease the cost associated to the mass embarked Therefore in the late 80 s the European Space Agency initiated the MELiSSA project Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative MELiSSA has been conceived as a micro-organisms and higher plant process enabling high recycling efficiency The cyanobacteria Arthrospira sp is occupying one of the MELiSSA compartments Its genome is now being sequenced and this will help to better understand or improve its food value as well as to have a look at its putative toxic potential Aim In this study we were interested in studying the threshold of intrinsic cytotoxic effects of Spirulina dry extract from Sigma containing washed and lyophilized mixed Arthrospira strains on human cancer cells and its cell type dependency Method For that purpose we used flow cytometry to estimate cell death apoptosis and necrosis in three human leukaemic cell lines HELA cervix carcinoma IM-9 multiple myeloma K562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia Cells were cultured in the presence of an aqueous extract of Spirulina concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 mu g ml for 15 to 40 hours Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by annexin-V-PI staining cell size and granularity Early apoptosis was monitored by analysing the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential DioC 6 3 and the

  3. Metamemory ratings predict long-term changes in reactivated episodic memories.

    PubMed

    Yacoby, Amnon; Dudai, Yadin; Mendelsohn, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of long-term memory can render the memory item temporarily labile, offering an opportunity to modify it via behavioral or pharmacological intervention. Declarative memory reactivation is accompanied by a metamemory ability to subjectively assess the knowledge available concerning the target item (Feeling of knowing, FOK). We set out to examine whether FOK can predict the extent of change of long-term episodic memories by post-retrieval manipulations. To this end, participants watched a short movie and were immediately thereafter tested on their memory for it. A day later, they were reminded of that movie, and either immediately or 1 day later, were presented with a second movie. The reminder phase consisted of memory cues to which participants were asked to judge their FOK regarding the original movie. The memory performance of participants to whom new information was presented immediately after reactivating the original episode corresponded to the degree of FOK ratings upon reactivation such that the lower their FOK, the less their memory declined. In contrast, no relation was found between FOK and memory strength for those who learned new information 1 day after the reminder phase. Our findings suggest that the subjective accessibility of reactivated memories may determine the extent to which new information might modify those memories. PMID:25709571

  4. Do erosion rates control the long-term carbon isotope mass balance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields-Zhou, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term marine carbon isotope record responds to changes in the proportional burial rates of organic carbon relative to carbonate carbon on a global scale. For this reason, high δ13C values in marine carbonate rocks are normally interpreted to reflect faster rates of organic burial and increased atmospheric oxygenation. Geochemical redox tracers fail to support this paradigm for sustained deviations from the long-term δ13C mean, indicating perhaps that proportionally high organic burial may be associated with lower overall flux rates. Here I propose that ~107-108 year trends in average δ13C, as with seawater 87Sr/86Sr, are driven by changes in the balance between volcanism and denudation (~uplift). In other words, high proportional organic burial may be related to increases in the net CO2 flux (= organic carbon burial + Ca-Mg silicate weathering) relative to the carbonate weathering flux. According to this model, high baseline δ13C values will be associated with periods of heightened volcanic activity and/or diminished tectonic uplift. Conversely, lower baseline δ13C values can be related to times when the global carbon cycle was dominated by carbonate and oxidative weathering due to high rates of physical erosion. Shorter 105-106 year positive δ13C excursions have also been interpreted as the 'smoking gun' to extreme oxygenation events. However, large increases in organic burial are difficult to sustain under steady-state conditions without very high volcanic fluxes, indicating that some of these excursions might be better explained by transient changes to the isotopic composition of carbon sources and sinks.

  5. Revised long-term creep rates on the Hayward Fault, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, James J.; Galehouse, Jon S.

    1997-01-01

    Although the Hayward fault is a source of major earthquakes, it also creeps or slips aseismically, and has done so steadily for several decades (certainly since 1921 and probably since 1869). Most of the fault creeps between 3 and 6 mm/yr, except for a 4- to 6-km-long segment near its south end that creeps at about 9 mm/yr. We present results of our recent surveys to recover angles and deflection lines established across the fault in the 1960s and 1970s, but unmonitored since. We have added data from more offset cultural features to the long-term creep rate data set and made substantial improvements to the analytical method used to compute offsets. The revised creep rate values improve our knowledge of spatial and temporal variation along the fault. The more accurate revised data has reduced the estimate of the average creep rate along most of the fault from 5.1 mm/yr to 4.6 mm/yr. Creep rates in the 9 mm/yr section near the south end have remained the same.

  6. Long-term recurrence and complication rates after incisional hernia repair with the open onlay technique

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Klein, Mads; Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Background Incisional hernia after abdominal surgery is a well-known complication. Controversy still exists with respect to the choice of hernia repair technique. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term recurrence rate as well as surgical complications in a consecutive group of patients undergoing open repair using an onlay mesh technique. Methods Consecutive patients undergoing open incisional hernia repair with onlay-technique between 01/05/1995 and 01/09/2007 at a single institution were included in the study. For follow-up patients were contacted by telephone, and answered a questionnaire containing questions related to the primary operation, the hernia and general risk factors. Patients were examined by a consultant surgeon in the outpatient clinic or in the patient's home if there was suspicion of an incisional hernia recurrence. Results The study included 56 patients with 100% follow-up. The median follow-up was 35 months (range 4–151). Recurrent incisional hernia was found in 8 of 56 patients (15%, 95% CI: 6–24). The overall complication rate was 13% (95% CI, 4–22). All complications were minor and needed no hospital admission. Conclusion This study with a long follow-up showed low recurrence and complication rates in patients undergoing incisional hernia repair with the open onlay technique. PMID:19400934

  7. Readmission Rates and Long-Term Hospital Costs Among Survivors of In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul S.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Li, Yan; Hammill, Bradley G.; Spertus, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although in-hospital cardiac arrest is common, little is known about readmission patterns and inpatient resource use among survivors of in-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods and Results Within a large national registry, we examined long-term inpatient utilization among 6972 adults ≥65 years who survived an in-hospital cardiac arrest. We examined 30-day and 1-year readmission rates and inpatient costs, overall and by patient demographics, hospital disposition (discharge destination), and neurological status at discharge. The mean age was 75.8 ± 7.0 years, 56% were men, and 12% were black. There were a total of 2005 readmissions during the first 30 days (cumulative incidence rate: 35 readmissions/100 patients [95% CI: 33–37]) and 8751 readmissions at 1 year (cumulative incidence rate: 185 readmissions/100 patients [95% CI: 177–190]). Overall, mean inpatient costs were $7,741 ± $2323 at 30 days and $18,629 ± $9411 at 1 year. Thirty-day inpatient costs were higher in patients of younger age (≥85 years: $6052 [reference]; 75–84 years: $7444 [adjusted cost ratio, 1.23 [1.06–1.42]; 65–74 years: $8291 [adjusted cost ratio, 1.37 [1.19–1.59]; both P<0.001]) and black race (whites: $7413; blacks: $9044; adjusted cost ratio, 1.22 [1.05–1.42]; P<0.001), as well as those discharged with severe neurological disability or to skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities. These differences in resource use persisted at 1 year and were largely due to higher readmission rates. Conclusion Survivors of in-hospital cardiac arrest have frequent readmissions and high follow-up inpatient costs. Readmissions and inpatient costs were higher in certain subgroups, including patients of younger age and black race. PMID:25351479

  8. Observer-rated depression in long-term care: frequency and risk factors.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Vu, Minh; Dyachenko, Alina; Belzile, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the prevalence and 6-month incidence of observer-rated depression in residents age 65 and over of long-term care (LTC) facilities; (2) to describe risk factors for depression, at baseline and over time. A multisite, prospective observational study was conducted in residents aged 65 and over of 7 LTC facilities. The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) was completed by nurses monthly for 6 months. We measured demographic, medical, and functional factors at baseline and monthly intervals, using data from research assessments, nurse interviews, and chart reviews. 274 residents were recruited and completed baseline depression assessments. The prevalence of depression (CSDD score of 6+) was 19.0%. The incidence of depression among those without prevalent depression was 73.3 per 100 person-years. A delirium diagnosis, pain, and diabetes were independently associated with prevalent depression. CSDD score at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were independent risk factors for incident depression. A diagnosis of delirium and uncorrected visual impairment at follow-up occurred concurrently with incident depression. The results of this study have implications for the detection and prevention of depression in LTC. Delirium diagnosis, pain and diabetes at baseline were associated with prevalent depression; depression symptoms at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were risk factors for incident depression. PMID:24345307

  9. Coupling of realistic rate estimates with genomic for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Phone

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

    2003-06-01

    Dissolved dense nonaqueous-phase liquid plumes are persistent, widespread problems in the DOE complex. While perceived as being difficult to degrade, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) is disappearing from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) by natural attenuation, a finding that saves significant site restoration costs. Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation as a preferred treatment technology requires direct proof of the process and rate of the degradation. Our proposal aims to provide that proof for one such site by testing two hypotheses. First, we believe that realistic values for in situ rates of TCE cometabolism can be obtained by sustaining the putative microorganisms at the low catabolic activities consistent with aquifer conditions. Second, the patterns of functional gene expression evident in these communities under starvation conditions while carrying out TCE cometabolism can be used to diagnose the cometabolic activity in the aquifer itself. Using the cometabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained at this location and validate the long term stewardship of this plume. Realistic terms for cometabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE's ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics at other sites, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. Finally, this project will derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

  10. Long-term dynamics of death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and improving air quality

    PubMed Central

    Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Abernethy, Amy P; Holman, Sheila; Ross, William G; Lyerly, H Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background The respiratory tract is a major target of exposure to air pollutants, and respiratory diseases are associated with both short- and long-term exposures. We hypothesized that improved air quality in North Carolina was associated with reduced rates of death from respiratory diseases in local populations. Materials and methods We analyzed the trends of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia mortality and changes of the levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using monthly data measurements from air-monitoring stations in North Carolina in 1993–2010. The log-linear model was used to evaluate associations between air-pollutant levels and age-adjusted death rates (per 100,000 of population) calculated for 5-year age-groups and for standard 2000 North Carolina population. The studied associations were adjusted by age group-specific smoking prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of disease-specific respiratory deaths. Results Decline in emphysema deaths was associated with decreasing levels of SO2 and CO in the air, decline in asthma deaths–with lower SO2, CO, and PM10 levels, and decline in pneumonia deaths–with lower levels of SO2. Sensitivity analyses were performed to study potential effects of the change from International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 to ICD-10 codes, the effects of air pollutants on mortality during summer and winter, the impact of approach when only the underlying causes of deaths were used, and when mortality and air-quality data were analyzed on the county level. In each case, the results of sensitivity analyses demonstrated stability. The importance of analysis of pneumonia as an underlying cause of death was also highlighted. Conclusion Significant associations were observed between decreasing death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and decreases in levels of ambient air pollutants in North Carolina. PMID:25018627

  11. Jensen's Inequality and the Impact of Short-Term Environmental Variability on Long-Term Population Growth Rates.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Evan J; Thomson, David L; Li, Teng A; Xing, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    It is well established in theory that short-term environmental fluctuations could affect the long-term growth rates of wildlife populations, but this theory has rarely been tested and there remains little empirical evidence that the effect is actually important in practice. Here we develop models to quantify the effects of daily, seasonal, and yearly temperature fluctuations on the average population growth rates, and we apply them to long-term data on the endangered Black-faced Spoonbill (Platalea minor); an endothermic species whose population growth rates follow a concave relationship with temperature. We demonstrate for the first time that the current levels of temperature variability, particularly seasonal variability, are already large enough to substantially reduce long-term population growth rates. As the climate changes, our results highlight the importance of considering the ecological effects of climate variability and not just average conditions. PMID:26352857

  12. Jensen’s Inequality and the Impact of Short-Term Environmental Variability on Long-Term Population Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Evan J.; Thomson, David L.; Li, Teng A.; Xing, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    It is well established in theory that short-term environmental fluctuations could affect the long-term growth rates of wildlife populations, but this theory has rarely been tested and there remains little empirical evidence that the effect is actually important in practice. Here we develop models to quantify the effects of daily, seasonal, and yearly temperature fluctuations on the average population growth rates, and we apply them to long-term data on the endangered Black-faced Spoonbill (Platalea minor); an endothermic species whose population growth rates follow a concave relationship with temperature. We demonstrate for the first time that the current levels of temperature variability, particularly seasonal variability, are already large enough to substantially reduce long-term population growth rates. As the climate changes, our results highlight the importance of considering the ecological effects of climate variability and not just average conditions. PMID:26352857

  13. Timing and rates of long-term landscape evolution in Southern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollenz, S.; Glasmacher, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. North of the Sierras Septentrionales the Salado basin is located. The Sierras Septentrionales and the Sierras Australes are also divided by a smaller intracratonic basin. Further in the South the Colorado basin is located. The Sierras Australes is a variscian fold belt originated by strong phases of metamorphosis, but till now it is unclear by how many tectonic phases the area was influenced (Tomezzoli & Vilas, 1999). It consists of Proterozoic to Paleozoic rocks. The Sierras Septentrionales consists mainly of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The Precambrian sequences are overlain by younger Sediments (Cingolani, 2010). The aim is to understand the long-term landscape evolution of the area by quantifiying erosion- and exhumation-rates and by dating ancient rock-uplift-events. Another goal is to find out how the opening of the south atlantic took effect on this region. To fulfill this goal, thermochronological techniques, such as fission-track dating and (U-Th-Sm)/He dating has been applied to samples from the region. Because there was no low- temperature thermochronology done in this area, both techniques were applied on apatites and zircons. Furthermore, numerical modeling of the cooling history has provided the data base for the quantification of the exhumation rates. The data-set shows clusters of different ages which can be linked to tectonic activities during late Paleozoic times. Also the thermokinematic modeling is leading to new insights of the evolution of both mountain ranges and shows patterns of ongoing tectonic processes in this region. Caltculated exhumation rates show also varying cooling historys and the influence of tectonics throughout the research area. References: Renata Nela Tomezzoli and Juan Francisco Vilas (1999): Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of deformation of the Sierras Australes thrust and fold belt, Argentina. Geophys. J. Int. (1999) 138, 857-870 Carlos A. Cingolani (2010): The Tandilia System of Argentina as a southern extension of the Rio de la Plata craton: an overview, Int. J. Earth. Sci. (Geol. Rundsch.) (2011) 100, 221-242

  14. Timing and rates of long-term landscape evolution in Southern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollenz, Sebastian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Rossello, Eduardo A.; Stoeckli, Danny F.

    2014-05-01

    The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. North of the Sierras Septentrionales the Salado basin is located. The Sierras Septentrionales and the Sierras Australes are also divided by a smaller intracratonic basin. Further in the South the Colorado basin is located. The Sierras Australes is a variscian fold belt originated by strong phases of metamorphosis, but till now it is unclear by how many tectonic phases the area was influenced (Tomezzoli & Vilas, 1999). It consists of Proterozoic to Paleozoic rocks. The Sierras Septentrionales consists mainly of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The Precambrian sequences are overlain by younger Sediments (Cingolani, 2010). The aim is to understand the long-term landscape evolution of the area by quantifiying erosion- and exhumation-rates and by dating ancient rock-uplift-events. Another goal is to find out how the opening of the south atlantic took effect on this region. To fulfill this goal, thermochronological techniques, such as fission-track dating and (U-Th-Sm)/He dating has been applied to samples from the region. Because there was no low- temperature thermochronology done in this area, both techniques were applied on apatites and zircons. Furthermore, numerical modeling of the cooling history has provided the data base for the quantification of the exhumation rates. The data-set show clusters of different ages which can be linked to tectonic activities during late Paleozoic times. Also the thermokinematic modeling is leading to new insights of the evolution of both mountain ranges and shows patterns of ongoing tectonic processes in this region. Calculated exhumation rates show also varying cooling histories and the influence of tectonics throughout the research area. References: Tomezzoli, R. N. and Vilas, J. F. (1999): Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of deformation of the Sierras Australes thrust and fold belt, Argentina. Geophys. J. Int. (1999) 138, 857-870. Cingolani, C. A. (2010): The Tandilia System of Argentina as a southern extension of the Rio de la Plata craton: an overview, Int. J. Earth. Sci. (Geol. Rundsch.) (2011) 100, 221-242

  15. Electronic Medical Record and Quality Ratings of Long Term Care Facilities Long-Term Care Facility Characteristics and Reasons and Barriers for Adoption of Electronic Medical Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Cheryl Andrea

    2013-01-01

    With the growing elderly population, compounded by the retirement of the babyboomers, the need for long-term care (LTC) facilities is expected to grow. An area of great concern for those that are seeking a home for their family member is the quality of care provided by the nursing home to the residents. Electronic medical records (EMR) are often

  16. Electronic Medical Record and Quality Ratings of Long Term Care Facilities Long-Term Care Facility Characteristics and Reasons and Barriers for Adoption of Electronic Medical Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Cheryl Andrea

    2013-01-01

    With the growing elderly population, compounded by the retirement of the babyboomers, the need for long-term care (LTC) facilities is expected to grow. An area of great concern for those that are seeking a home for their family member is the quality of care provided by the nursing home to the residents. Electronic medical records (EMR) are often…

  17. Long-term analysis of survival, fertility, and population growth rate of black bears in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brongo, L.L.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated survival, fertility, and realized and asymptotic population growth rates from 1981 to 2002 for a protected population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We used Akaike's information criterion to assess the time interval for averaging observations that was best for estimating vital rates for our study, given our yearly sample sizes. The temporal symmetry approach allowed us to directly assess population growth and to address all losses and gains to the population by using only capture data, offering an alternative to the logistically intensive collection of reproductive data. Models that averaged survival and fertility across 5- and 7-year time intervals were best supported by our data. Studies of black bear populations with annual sample sizes similar to ours should be of at least 5 years in duration to estimate vital rates reliably, and at least 10 years in duration to evaluate changes in population growth rate (??). We also hypothesized that survival would not track changes in ?? because ?? is influenced by both survival and fertility. The 5-year model supported our hypothesis, but the 7-year model did not. Where long-term dynamics of large, relatively stable bear populations are of interest, monitoring survival is likely to be sufficient for evaluating trends in ??. For rapidly changing, small populations, however, failure to incorporate fertility into assessments of ?? could be misleading. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  18. Simulating long-term effects of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on corn yield and nitrogen dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thoroughly tested agricultural systems models can be used to quantify the long-term effects of crop management practices under conditions where measurements are lacking. In a field near Story City, Iowa, ten years (1996-2005) of measured data were collected from plots receiving low, medium, and high...

  19. 41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? 301-11.14 Section 301-11.14 Public Contracts... computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? When you obtain lodging on a long-term basis (e.g., weekly or monthly) your daily lodging rate is computed by dividing the total lodging cost by the...

  20. 41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? 301-11.14 Section 301-11.14 Public Contracts... computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? When you obtain lodging on a long-term basis (e.g., weekly or monthly) your daily lodging rate is computed by dividing the total lodging cost by the...

  1. Short-term vs. long-term heart rate variability in ischemic cardiomyopathy risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Schulz, Steffen; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Vázquez, Rafael; Bayés de Luna, Antoni; Caminal, Pere

    2013-01-01

    In industrialized countries with aging populations, heart failure affects 0.3–2% of the general population. The investigation of 24 h-ECG recordings revealed the potential of nonlinear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) for enhanced risk stratification in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF). However, long-term analyses are time-consuming, expensive, and delay the initial diagnosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether 30 min short-term HRV analysis is sufficient for comparable risk stratification in IHF in comparison to 24 h-HRV analysis. From 256 IHF patients [221 at low risk (IHFLR) and 35 at high risk (IHFHR)] (a) 24 h beat-to-beat time series (b) the first 30 min segment (c) the 30 min most stationary day segment and (d) the 30 min most stationary night segment were investigated. We calculated linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear HRV analysis indices. Optimal parameter sets for risk stratification in IHF were determined for 24 h and for each 30 min segment by applying discriminant analysis on significant clinical and non-clinical indices. Long- and short-term HRV indices from frequency domain and particularly from nonlinear dynamics revealed high univariate significances (p < 0.01) discriminating between IHFLR and IHFHR. For multivariate risk stratification, optimal mixed parameter sets consisting of 5 indices (clinical and nonlinear) achieved 80.4% AUC (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics) from 24 h HRV analysis, 84.3% AUC from first 30 min, 82.2 % AUC from daytime 30 min and 81.7% AUC from nighttime 30 min. The optimal parameter set obtained from the first 30 min showed nearly the same classification power when compared to the optimal 24 h-parameter set. As results from stationary daytime and nighttime, 30 min segments indicate that short-term analyses of 30 min may provide at least a comparable risk stratification power in IHF in comparison to a 24 h analysis period. PMID:24379785

  2. THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF BIPOLAR DISORDER: WHAT DRIVES THE HIGH RATE OF MEDICAL BURDEN AND DETERMINES LONG-TERM PROGNOSIS?

    PubMed Central

    Soreca, Isabella; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has been classically described as one of episodic mood disturbances. New evidence suggests that a chronic course and multisystem involvement is the rule, rather than the exception, and that together with disturbances of circadian rhythms, mood instability, cognitive impairment, a high rate of medical burden is often observed. The current diagnostic approach for BD neither describes the multisystem involvement that the recent literature has highlighted nor points toward potential predictors of long- term outcome. In light of the new evidence that the long-term course of BD is associated with a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and an increased mortality from medical disease, we propose a multidimensional approach that includes several symptom domains, namely affective instability, circadian rhythm dysregulation, and cognitive and executive dysfunction, presenting in various combinations that give shape to each individual presentation, and offers potential indicators of overall long-term prognosis. PMID:18828143

  3. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LAND APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER, ROSWELL, NEW MEXICO, SLOW RATE IRRIGATION SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the findings of a study on the long-term effects of applying treated domestic wastewater to farmland at Roswell, New Mexico. On the test site, a slow rate irrigation method was used for 33 years. Water, soil, and crop samples from this test site were compared...

  4. CHANGES IN LONG-TERM NO-TILL CORN GROWTH AND YIELD UNDER DIFFERENT RATES OF STOVER MULCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. This study assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-...

  5. Points of Interest: What Determines Interest Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Tim

    Interest rates can significantly influence people's behavior. When rates decline, homeowners rush to buy new homes and refinance old mortgages; automobile buyers scramble to buy new cars; the stock market soars, and people tend to feel more optimistic about the future. But even though individuals respond to changes in rates, they may not fully…

  6. Long-term low latitude cosmogenic 3He production rate determined from a 126 ka basalt from Fogo, Cape Verdes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foeken, Jurgen P. T.; Stuart, Finlay M.; Mark, Darren F.

    2012-12-01

    An ankaramite lava from Fogo, Cape Verdes, has been used to determine the long-term cosmogenic 3He (3Hecos) production rate at low latitude (14.9°N). 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating yield an eruption age of 125.8±7 ka. Cosmogenic 3He abundances yield local production rates of 75.6±7.0 atoms/g/year in olivine (1σ, n=10) and 70.1±2.9 atoms/g/yr in pyroxene (1σ, n=11). The lower 3Hecos production rate in pyroxene is consistent with compositional control on production. When scaled to sea level high latitude using available algorithms, the olivine 3Hecos production rate ranges from 86-109 atoms/g/yr. These values overlap the long-term production rate determined at the Canary Islands (99 atoms/g/yr). They are, however, lower than previously reported long-term production rates from Hawaii and southern South America (129-152 atoms/g/yr), and the range of <20 ka calibration sites (110-130 atoms/g/yr). Erosion-burial and high atmospheric pressure appear to be of negligible importance. The likeliest explanation is that the geomagnetic field strength was higher in the past. The agreement between the Fogo geomagnetic field strength-corrected production rate scaled using various published scaling algorithms suggests that differences in incorporation of the non-dipole component of the Earth magnetic field in the scaling algorithms are negligible for long-term production rate determinations at low elevation and low latitude. Longitudinal variation in long-term cosmogenic nuclide production rates between the central Atlantic Ocean and the Americas (Hawaii and Patagonia) may exist. This has implications for exposure dating of old surfaces. It will require that locally determined production rates should be used where available, and that scaling schemes incorporating longitudinal variations should be used if nearby calibration sites are not available. Furthermore, if long-term longitudinal production rate variations exist, it implies that variation in the geomagnetic field may not average out after around 20 ka, but may require significantly longer periods (up to 100 ka).

  7. Incorporating elastic and plastic work rates into energy balance for long-term tectonic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, M. S.; Choi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation-related energy budget is usually considered in the simplest form or even completely omitted from the energy balance equation. We derive an energy balance equation that accounts not only for heat energy but also for elastic and plastic work. Such a general description of the energy balance principle will be useful for modeling complicated interactions between geodynamic processes such as thermoelastisity, thermoplasticity and mechanical consequences of metamorphism. Following the theory of large deformation plasticity, we start from the assumption that Gibbs free energy (g) is a function of temperature (T), the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress (S), density (ρ) and internal variables (qj, j=1…n). In this formulation, new terms are derived, which are related to the energy dissipated through plastic work and the elastically stored energy that are not seen in the usual form of the energy balance equation used in geodynamics. We then simplify the generic equation to one involving more familiar quantities such as Cauchy stress and material density assuming that the small deformation formulation holds for our applications. The simplified evolution equation for temperature is implemented in DyanEarthSol3D, an unstructured finite element solver for long-term tectonic deformation. We calculate each of the newly derived terms separately in simple settings and compare the numerical results with a corresponding analytic solution. We also present the effects of the new energy balance on the evolution of a large offset normal fault.

  8. Long-term care and hospital utilisation by older people: an analysis of substitution rates.

    PubMed

    Forder, Julien

    2009-11-01

    Older people are intensive users of hospital and long-term care services. This paper explores the extent to which these services are substitutes. A small area analysis was used with both care home and (tariff cost-weighted) hospital utilisation for older people aggregated to electoral wards in England.Health and social-care structural equations were specified using a theoretical model. The estimation accounted for the skewed and censored nature of the data. For health utilisation, both a fixed effects instrumental variables GMM model and a generalised estimating equations (GEE) model were fitted, the later on a log dependent variable with predicted values of social care utilisation used to account for endogeneity (bootstrapping was used to derive standard errors). In addition to a GMM model, the social-care estimation used both two-part and tobit models (also with predicted health utilisation and bootstrapping).The results indicate that for each additional pound1 spent on care homes, hospital expenditure falls by pound0.35. Also, pound1 additional hospital spend corresponds to just over pound0.35 reduction on care home spend. With these cost substitution effects offsetting, a transfer of resources to care homes is efficient if the resultant outcome gain is greater than the outcome loss from reduced hospital use. PMID:19206085

  9. Accelerated forgetting? An evaluation on the use of long-term forgetting rates in patients with memory problems

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Sofie; van der Werf, Sieberen P.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of this review was to evaluate whether long-term forgetting rates (delayed tests, days, to weeks, after initial learning) are more sensitive measures than standard delayed recall measures to detect memory problems in various patient groups. It has been suggested that accelerated forgetting might be characteristic for epilepsy patients, but little research has been performed in other populations. Here, we identified eleven studies in a wide range of brain injured patient groups, whose long-term forgetting patterns were compared to those of healthy controls. Signs of accelerated forgetting were found in three studies. The results of eight studies showed normal forgetting over time for the patient groups. However, most of the studies used only a recognition procedure, after optimizing initial learning. Based on these results, we recommend the use of a combined recall and recognition procedure to examine accelerated forgetting and we discuss the relevance of standard and optimized learning procedures in clinical practice. PMID:26106343

  10. 76 FR 18821 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  11. 75 FR 60152 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  12. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  13. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  14. 75 FR 37872 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  15. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  16. 77 FR 76586 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  17. 76 FR 38717 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  18. 78 FR 39434 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  19. 77 FR 59447 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  20. 77 FR 39560 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  1. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  2. 75 FR 17453 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  3. 76 FR 77581 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  4. Long-Term Stability of Teacher Certification Test Objective Job Analysis Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvestro, John R.; And Others

    Public school ratings of the importance of subject-matter test objectives associated with teacher certification tests were examined by means of a job-analysis survey conducted in 1986 and a similar survey conducted in 1993. It was predicted that there would be a high degree of change in the importance ratings assigned to these test objectives…

  5. The long-term corrosion behavior of titanate ceramics for Pu disposition : rate-controlling processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Bakel, A. J.; Mertz, C. J.; Hash, M. C.; Chamberlain, D. C.

    1999-12-02

    The corrosion behavior of a titanate ceramic was investigated with the aim of describing the rate-controlling process or processes. These titanate ceramics are similar to SYNROC and are proposed as immobilization materials for surplus Pu. The corrosion behavior was described with results from MCC-I and PCT-B static dissolution tests. Three important observations were made: (a) Ca is released at a constant rate [6x10{sup -5}g/(m{sup 2} day)] in PCT-B tests for up to two years, (b) all of the test leachates are oversaturated with respect to rutile and anatase, and (c) the release rates for Pu and Gd increase with time (up to two years) in PCT-B tests. The first observation suggests that the ceramics continue to corrode at a low rate for at least 2 years in PCT-B tests. The second observation shows that the rate of the corrosion reaction is not affected by the concentration of Ti in solution, suggesting that the approach to saturation with respect to either rutile or anatase is not a rate-limiting process. The third observation shows that the rate of Pu and Gd release increases with time in these tests. While this observation cannot be fully explained at this point, two possible explanations, alteration phase formation and grain boundary corrosion, are forwarded.

  6. The Effect of Dose Rate on Composite Durability When Exposed to a Simulated Long-Term Lunar Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; O'Rourke, Mary Jane; Hill, Charles; Nutt, Steven; Atwell, William

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) requires a safe living and working environment for crew. Composite materials are one type of material being investigated by NASA as a multi-functional structural approach to habitats for long-term use in space or on planetary surfaces with limited magnetic fields and atmosphere. These materials provide high strength with the potential for decreased weight and increased radiation protection of crew and electronics when compared with conventional aluminum structures. However, these materials have not been evaluated in a harsh radiation environment, as would be experienced outside of LEO or on a planetary surface. Thus, NASA has been investigating the durability of select composite materials in a long-term radiation environment. Previously, NASA exposed composite samples to a simulated, accelerated 30-year radiation treatment and tensile stresses similar to those of a habitat pressure vessel. The results showed evidence of potential surface oxidation and enhanced cross-linking of the matrix. As a follow-on study, we performed the same accelerated exposure alongside an exposure with a decreased dose rate. The slower dose ]rate is comparable to a realistic scenario, although still accelerated. Strain measurements were collected during exposure and showed that with a fastdose rate, the strain decreased with time, but with a slow ]dose rate, the strain increased with time. After the radiation exposures, samples were characterized via tensile tests, flexure tests, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results of these tests will be discussed.

  7. Depth-mediated reversal of the effects of climate change on long-term growth rates of exploited marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Thresher, Ronald E.; Koslow, J. A.; Morison, A. K.; Smith, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    The oceanographic consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, but the biological impacts of this change on marine species much less so, in large part because of few long-term data sets. Using otolith analysis, we reconstructed historical changes in annual growth rates for the juveniles of eight long-lived fish species in the southwest Pacific, from as early as 1861. Six of the eight species show significant changes in growth rates during the last century, with the pattern differing systematically with depth. Increasing temperatures near the ocean surface correlate with increasing growth rates by species found in depths <250 m, whereas growth rates of deep-water (>1,000 m) species have declined substantially during the last century, which correlates with evidence of long-term cooling at these depths. The observations suggest that global climate change has enhanced some elements of productivity of the shallow-water stocks but also has reduced the productivity, and possibly the resilience, of the already slow-growing deep-water species. PMID:17460046

  8. Long-term temporal tracking of speech rate affects spoken-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M; Heffner, Christopher C; Dilley, Laura C; Pitt, Mark A; Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin

    2014-08-01

    Humans unconsciously track a wide array of distributional characteristics in their sensory environment. Recent research in spoken-language processing has demonstrated that the speech rate surrounding a target region within an utterance influences which words, and how many words, listeners hear later in that utterance. On the basis of hypotheses that listeners track timing information in speech over long timescales, we investigated the possibility that the perception of words is sensitive to speech rate over such a timescale (e.g., an extended conversation). Results demonstrated that listeners tracked variation in the overall pace of speech over an extended duration (analogous to that of a conversation that listeners might have outside the lab) and that this global speech rate influenced which words listeners reported hearing. The effects of speech rate became stronger over time. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neural entrainment by speech occurs on multiple timescales, some lasting more than an hour. PMID:24907119

  9. Bluff evolution and long-term recession rates, southwestern Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovey, C. W.; Borucki, M. K.

    1994-06-01

    Where eroding cohesive sediments are present, Lake Michigan bluffs range up to 40 m in height, exposing multiple glacial stratigraphic units. Following the model presented here, bluffs form as a wave-cut terrace erodes inland from a point near the original shoreline. The erosion plane is nearly horizontal, in contrast with the eastward dip of the glacial units inherited from underlying bedrock. Therefore, terraces eroding inland produce progressively higher bluffs and expose successively older units at the toe and beneath the lake. This process was repeated several times as lake levels sequentially dropped to their modern stage. The initial modern shoreline, and hence the width of the wave-cut terrace, was determined from four offshore seismic and bottom-sampling profiles. It was picked as an inflection point in the lake bed, occurring offshore of dipping reflectors intersecting the lake bottom. The calculated average recession rate over a 2500-year duration of the modern stage is 1.5 m/yr in contrast to average rates of approximately 0.6 m/yr measured over the last century. Thus rates decrease through time as the terrace widens and wave energy is dampened. By correlating bluff height to recession distance, a third rate of approximately 2.7 m/yr for the first 940 years of recession is calculated from relict Nipissing bluffs. The three rates define a steeply decaying exponential curve in early stages of bluff retreat, flattening into a nearly linear function after 1000 years.

  10. Instrument for precision long-term β-decay rate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, M. J.; Bergeson, S. D.; Ellsworth, J. E.; Groesbeck, M.; Hansen, J. E.; Pace, D.; Peatross, J.

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative β-decay rates of 22Na, 36Cl, 54Mn, 60Co, 90Sr, 133Ba, 137Cs, 152Eu, and 154Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate.

  11. Analysis of long term heart rate variability: methods, 1/f scaling and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saul, J. P.; Albrecht, P.; Berger, R. D.; Cohen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of spectral techniques to quantify short term heart rate fluctuations on the order of seconds to minutes has helped define the autonomic contributions to beat-to-beat control of heart rate. We used similar techniques to quantify the entire spectrum (0.00003-1.0 Hz) of heart rate variability during 24 hour ambulatory ECG monitoring. The ECG from standard Holter monitor recordings from normal subjects was sampled with the use of a phase locked loop, and a heart rate time series was constructed at 3 Hz. Frequency analysis of the heart rate signal was performed after a nonlinear filtering algorithm was used to eliminate artifacts. A power spectrum of the entire 24 hour record revealed power that was inversely proportional to frequency, 1/f, over 4 decades from 0.00003 to 0.1 Hz (period approximately 10 hours to 10 seconds). Displaying consecutive spectra calculated at 5 minute intervals revealed marked variability in the peaks at all frequencies throughout the 24 hours, probably accounting for the lack of distinct peaks in the spectra of the entire records.

  12. Instrument for precision long-term β-decay rate measurements.

    PubMed

    Ware, M J; Bergeson, S D; Ellsworth, J E; Groesbeck, M; Hansen, J E; Pace, D; Peatross, J

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative β-decay rates of (22)Na, (36)Cl, (54)Mn, (60)Co, (90)Sr, (133)Ba, (137)Cs, (152)Eu, and (154)Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate. PMID:26233381

  13. Bluff formation and long-term recession rates, southwestern Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Rovey, C.W. II )

    1992-01-01

    Where eroding cohesive sediments are present, Lake Michigan bluffs range up to 140 ft. in height and expose multiple stratigraphic units. According to the model presented here, bluffs form as a wave cut terrace erodes inland from a point near the original shoreline. The erosion plane is nearly horizontal, in contrast with the eastward dip of the glacial units inherited from underlying bedrock. Therefore, terraces eroding inland (west) produce progressively higher bluffs and expose successively older units at the toe and beneath the lake. This process repeated several times as lake levels sequentially dropped to their modern stage. The initial modern shoreline, and hence the width of the wave cut terrace, was determined from 4 offshore seismic profiles. It is picked as an inflection point in the slope of the lake bed, occurring offshore of dipping reflectors intersecting the lake bottom. The calculated average recession rate over the 2,500 year duration of the modern stage is 5 ft/yr in contrast to average rates of 2 ft/yr measured over the last century. Thus rates decrease through time as the terrace widens and wave energy is damped. By correlating bluff height to amount of recession of modern bluffs, a third rate of 12 ft/yr of the first 800 years of a recession is calculated for relict bluffs formed at the Nipissing II level. The 3 rates define a steeply decaying exponential curve in early stages of bluff retreat, flattening into a nearly linear function after 1,000 years.

  14. Instrument for precision long-term β-decay rate measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, M. J. Bergeson, S. D.; Ellsworth, J. E.; Groesbeck, M.; Hansen, J. E.; Pace, D.; Peatross, J.

    2015-07-15

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative β-decay rates of {sup 22}Na, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 154}Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate.

  15. Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, J.; Kozak, K.

    2014-02-15

    A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4–6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions.

  16. Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil.

    PubMed

    Mazur, J; Kozak, K

    2014-02-01

    A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4-6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions. PMID:24593340

  17. Long-term evolution of biodegradation and volatilization rates in a crude oil-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, B.P.; Delin, G.N.; Baker, R.J.; Lahvis, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Volatilization and subsequent biodegradation near the water Table make up a coupled natural attenuation pathway that results in significant mass loss of hydrocarbons. Rates of biodegradation and volatilization were documented twice 12 years apart at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Biodegradation rates were determined by calibrating a gas transport model to O2, CO2, and CH4 gas-concentration data in the unsaturated zone. Reaction stoichiometry was assumed in converting O2 and CO2 gas-flux estimates to rates of aerobic biodegradation and CH4 gas-flux estimates to rates of methanogenesis. Model results indicate that the coupled pathway has resulted in significant hydrocarbon mass loss at the site, and it was estimated that approximately 10.52 kg/day were lost in 1985 and 1.99 kg/day in 1997. In 1985 3% of total volatile hydrocarbons diffusing from the floating oil were biodegraded in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone and increased to 52% by 1997. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation above the center of the floating oil were relatively stable from 1985 to 1997, as the primary metabolic pathway shifted from aerobic to methanogenic biodegradation. Model results indicate that in 1997 biodegradation under methanogenenic conditions represented approximately one-half of total hydrocarbon biodegradation in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone. Further downgradient, where substrate concentrations have greatly increased, total biodegradation rates increased by greater than an order of magnitude from 0.04 to 0.43 g/m2-day. It appears that volatilization is the primary mechanism for attenuation in early stages of plume evolution, while biodegradation dominates in later stages.

  18. Long-Term evolution of the erosion rates during Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantin-Nataf, C.; Craddock, R. A.; Dubuffet, F.; Lozac'h, L.; Martinot, M.

    2015-10-01

    Many Geologic features attest to the fact that liquid water was once stable on the Martian surface. The erosional processes necessary to create these features must have been supported by a climate that is much different than today. However, the evolution of these primitives conditions toward the current dry and cold Martian climate where the erosion processes are 2-3 orders in magnitude lower represents a major gap in our understanding of the evolution of Mars history. Here we document the time-dependence of the erosion rates on Mars during early Mars, period during which the erosion rates have decreased of at least one order in magnitude.

  19. Design of long-term sludge-loading rates for forests under uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Crohn, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    A simple time series describing nitrate-nitrogen concentrations percolating form a sludge-amended forest is presented for the case where applications are made at several-year intervals. The time series converges to a quasi-steady-state solution that can be solved for an application rate limited by percolating nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. Excess nitrogen is commonly converted to nitrate, a form that leaches readily to pollute ground water. A chance constraint incorporates uncertainty associated with precipitation and evapotranspiration, the most important factors in determining the excess of water available for leaching. Design loading rates for eight New York state forest regions are discussed. If applications occur at 3-year intervals, rates range form 0.2 to 5.3 Mg/ha dry weight depending on the design confidence level, local excess water patterns, forest nitrogen uptake, sludge type, and atmospheric nitrogen deposition rates. Results are compared to predictions made with FORSENTO, a comprehensive model for simulating sludge applications to northern hardwood forests. FORSENTO simulations suggest that mature hardwoods need only 12 kg/ha to support annually perennial material growth and that atmospheric nitrogen deposition may eventually meet or exceed needs of trees so that landspreading may not be sustainable indefinitely in some areas.

  20. Recurrence rate of seizure following discontinuation of anti-epileptic drugs in patients with normal long term electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Gafoor, V. Abdul; Saifudheen, Kondanath; Jose, James

    2014-01-01

    Background: The usefulness of electroencephalography (EEG) in predicting seizure recurrence after antiepileptic drugs (AED) tapering is a controversial subject. There have been no studies which tested the additional yield of long-term over routine EEG recordings in predicting seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal. Objective: The primary objective of our study is to determine the recurrence rate of seizure following AED withdrawal in patients with focal epilepsy, unknown cause who had normal long-term electroencephalography (LTEEG) and secondary objective is to analyze the variables that would predict seizure recurrence. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study. A total of 91 patients were included. 62 patients who had normal routine and LTEEG entered the final phase of the study were followed-up regularly for 1 year or until seizure recurrence whichever was earlier. Results: A total number of 91 patients were enrolled for the first phase of the study. Of these, 13 (14.29%) patients had an abnormal routine EEG. Of the remaining patients, another 16 (17.58%) had abnormal LTEEG. The remaining 62 patients with normal routine and long-term EEG entered the final phase of the study. Of these, 17 patients (27.41%) had seizure recurrence during the follow-up while 45 (72.58%) remained seizure free until the end of the 1 year follow-up. The significant variables associated with a higher risk of seizure relapse were a positive past history of seizure recurrence on prior drug withdrawal (relative risk: 2.19, confidence interval: 1.01-4.74, P < 0.05) and the duration of epilepsy until seizure control was achieved (P < 0.009). Conclusions: The recurrence rate of seizure in patients with a normal LTEEG is 27.41%. A positive past history of seizure recurrence and a longer time to achieve seizure freedom with AED increased the risk of seizure recurrence. PMID:25221395

  1. The Greenville Fault: preliminary estimates of its long-term creep rate and seismic potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, James J.; Barry, Robert G.; Smith, Forrest E.; Mello, Joseph D.; McFarland, Forrest S.

    2013-01-01

    Once assumed locked, we show that the northern third of the Greenville fault (GF) creeps at 2 mm/yr, based on 47 yr of trilateration net data. This northern GF creep rate equals its 11-ka slip rate, suggesting a low strain accumulation rate. In 1980, the GF, easternmost strand of the San Andreas fault system east of San Francisco Bay, produced a Mw5.8 earthquake with a 6-km surface rupture and dextral slip growing to ≥2 cm on cracks over a few weeks. Trilateration shows a 10-cm post-1980 transient slip ending in 1984. Analysis of 2000-2012 crustal velocities on continuous global positioning system stations, allows creep rates of ~2 mm/yr on the northern GF, 0-1 mm/yr on the central GF, and ~0 mm/yr on its southern third. Modeled depth ranges of creep along the GF allow 5-25% aseismic release. Greater locking in the southern two thirds of the GF is consistent with paleoseismic evidence there for large late Holocene ruptures. Because the GF lacks large (>1 km) discontinuities likely to arrest higher (~1 m) slip ruptures, we expect full-length (54-km) ruptures to occur that include the northern creeping zone. We estimate sufficient strain accumulation on the entire GF to produce Mw6.9 earthquakes with a mean recurrence of ~575 yr. While the creeping 16-km northern part has the potential to produce a Mw6.2 event in 240 yr, it may rupture in both moderate (1980) and large events. These two-dimensional-model estimates of creep rate along the southern GF need verification with small aperture surveys.

  2. A long-term perspective on deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Gomez, M. D.; Beuchle, R.; Shimabukuro, Y.; Grecchi, R.; Simonetti, D.; Eva, H. D.; Achard, F.

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring tropical forest cover is central to biodiversity preservation, terrestrial carbon stocks, essential ecosystem and climate functions, and ultimately, sustainable economic development. The Amazon forest is the Earth's largest rainforest, and despite intensive studies on current deforestation rates, relatively little is known as to how these compare to historic (pre 1985) deforestation rates. We quantified land cover change between 1975 and 2014 in the so-called Arc of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon, covering the southern stretch of the Amazon forest and part of the Cerrado biome. We applied a consistent method that made use of data from Landsat sensors: Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Operational Land Imager (OLI). We acquired suitable images from the US Geological Survey (USGS) for five epochs: 1975, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2014. We then performed land cover analysis for each epoch using a systematic sample of 156 sites, each one covering 10 km x 10 km, located at the confluence point of integer degree latitudes and longitudes. An object-based classification of the images was performed with five land cover classes: tree cover, tree cover mosaic, other wooded land, other land cover, and water. The automatic classification results were corrected by visual interpretation, and, when available, by comparison with higher resolution imagery. Our results show a decrease of forest cover of 24.2% in the last 40 years in the Brazilian Arc of Deforestation, with an average yearly net forest cover change rate of -0.71% for the 39 years considered.

  3. Resting Heart Rate in First Year Survivors of Myocardial Infarction and Long Term Mortality: A Community Study

    PubMed Central

    Jabre, Patricia; Roger, Véronique L.; Weston, Susan A.; Adnet, Frédéric; Jiang, Ruoxiang; Vivien, Benoit; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Jouven, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the long-term prognostic impact of resting heart rate (HR) at index myocardial infarction (MI) and during the first year post MI among one-year survivors. Patients and Methods The community-based cohort consisted of 1571 patients hospitalized with an incident MI from January 1, 1983 through December 31, 2007 in Olmsted County, Minnesota, who were in sinus rhythm at index MI and had HR measurements on an ECG at index and during the first year after MI. Outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. Results During a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 627 deaths and 311 cardiovascular deaths occurred. Using patients with HR ≤ 60 beats/minute (bpm) as the referent, long-term all-cause mortality risk increased progressively with increasing HR at index (hazard ratio 1.62; 95% CI 1.25–2.09) and even more with HR during the first year after MI (hazard ratio 2.16; 95% CI 1.64–2.84) for patients with HR > 90 bpm, adjusting for clinical characteristics and beta blocker use. Similar results were observed for cardiovascular mortality [adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) 1.66 (1.14–2.42) and 1.93 (1.27–2.94) for HR at index and within one year after MI, respectively]. Conclusion These data from a large MI community cohort indicate that HR is a strong predictor of long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, not only at initial presentation of MI but also during the first year of follow-up. PMID:25440890

  4. Long Term Corrosion Potential and Corrosion Rate of Creviced Alloy 22 in Chloride Plus Nitrate Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K J; Stuart, M L; Etien, R A; Hust, G A; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2005-11-05

    Alloy 22 is a nickel base alloy highly resistant to all forms of corrosion. In conditions where tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions and at anodic potentials, Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion, a form of localized attack. The occurrence (or not) of crevice corrosion in a given environment (e.g. salt concentration and temperature), is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) that the alloy may establish in the studied environment. If E{sub corr} is equal or higher than E{sub crit}, crevice corrosion may be expected. In addition, it is generally accepted that as Alloy 22 becomes passive in a certain environment, its E{sub corr} increases and its corrosion rate (CR) decreases. This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} and corrosion rate (CR) of creviced Alloy 22 specimens in six different mixtures of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium nitrate (KNO{sub 3}) at 100 C. The effect of immersion time on the value of E{sub crit} was also determined. Two types of specimens were used, polished as-welded (ASW) and as-welded plus solution heat-treated (ASW+SHT). The latter contained the black annealing oxide film on the surface. Results show that, as the immersion time increases, E{sub corr} increased and the CR decreased. Even for highly concentrated brine solutions at 100 C the CR was < 30 nm/year after more than 250 days immersion. Some of the exposed specimens (mainly the SHT specimens) suffered crevice corrosion at the open circuit potential in the naturally aerated brines. Immersion times of over 250 days did not reduce the resistance of Alloy 22 to localized corrosion.

  5. High failure rate in spinal ependymomas with long-term follow-up1

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Missett, Brian T.; Wara, William M.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Prados, Michael D.; Chang, Susan; Berger, Mitchel S.; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.

    2005-01-01

    Data on spinal ependymomas are sparse, and prognostic factors remain controversial. The primary aim of this study is to review a historical cohort, with large patient numbers and long follow-up, and provide estimates of time to progression (TTP) and survival after progression. As a secondary aim, we assess the effects of potential prognostic variables. Thirty-seven patients with spinal cord ependymomas received postoperative radiation therapy from 1955 to 2001. The influences of radiation dose, extent of resection, Karnofsky performance score, tumor location, and multifocality were assessed in univariate analyses by using the Cox proportional hazards model. The median follow-up for patients who did not fail was 121 months (range, 8–312 months). Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-, 10-, and 15-year percentage progression free are 75% ± 7.4%, 50% ± 9.1%, and 46% ± 9.3%, respectively. Median TTP, for those who recurred, is 68 months (range, 2–324 months), with 12 of 21 failures occurring after five years. Of the prognostic factors examined, only greater extent of resection significantly correlated with longer TTP (P = 0.02). Local relapse rates for spinal ependymomas are higher than previously cited, with a large proportion of failures occurring more than five years after diagnosis. Extensive surgical resection correlates with longer time to recurrence, and we thus recommend maximal excision while avoiding surgical morbidity. The overall high rate of recurrence leads us to recommend radiation to doses of 45 to 54 Gy for all patients who do not have gross total resections, and long, close follow-up. PMID:16053700

  6. Long-term variation of OH peak emission altitude and volume emission rate over Indian low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakandan, M.; Ramkumar, T. K.; Taori, A.; Rao, Venkateshwara; Niranjan, K.

    2016-02-01

    Using 13 (April 2002-December 2014) years of Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER/TIMED) 1.6 μm OH airglow emission data, we have studied the long-term variation of OH peak emission altitude and volume emission rate (VER) for 0-10°N latitude and 70-90°E longitude grid. We have noted that, during day time the OH peak emission altitude is varying from 80 to 87 km with mean value of 83.5 km and from 82 to 88 km with mean value of 85 km during night time. The signature of semi-annual oscillation (SAO), annual oscillation (AO) and quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the OH peak emission altitude as well as the VER is evident. Our analysis reveals that the SAO and QBO signatures but not the AO signature are very strong in the equatorial region during night time. Apart from the SAO, AO and QBO signatures, the presence of oscillation related to the El Niño oscillation (ENSO) is also noted. After the removal of these oscillations, we find the evidence of the influence of solar activity and a long term trend in the OH emission layer. It is also found good correlation between the mesospheric and stratospheric variations (ECMWF data).

  7. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy for patients with transurethral resection before implantation in prostate cancer. Long-term results

    PubMed Central

    Prada, Pedro J.; Anchuelo, Javier; Blanco, Ana García; Payá, Gema; Cardenal, Juan; Acuña, Enrique; Ferri, María; Vázquez, Andrés; Pacheco, Maite; Sanchez, Jesica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives We analyzed the long-term oncologic outcome for patients with prostate cancer and transurethral resection who were treated using low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials From January 2001 to December 2005, 57 consecutive patients were treated with clinically localized prostate cancer. No patients received external beam radiation. All of them underwent LDR prostate brachytherapy. Biochemical failure was defined according to the “Phoenix consensus”. Patients were stratified as low and intermediate risk based on The Memorial Sloan Kettering group definition. Results The median follow-up time for these 57 patients was 104 months. The overall survival according to Kaplan-Meier estimates was 88% (±6%) at 5 years and 77% (±6%) at 12 years. The 5 and 10 years for failure in tumour-free survival (TFS) was 96% and respectively (±2%), whereas for biochemical control was 94% and respectively (±3%) at 5 and 10 years, 98% (±1%) of patients being free of local recurrence. A patient reported incontinence after treatment (1.7%). The chronic genitourinary complains grade I were 7% and grade II, 10%. At six months 94% of patients reported no change in bowel function. Conclusions The excellent long-term results and low morbidity presented, as well as the many advantages of prostate brachytherapy over other treatments, demonstrates that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with transurethral resection and clinical organ-confined prostate cancer. PMID:27136466

  8. Prevalence rate, predictors and long-term course of probable posttraumatic stress disorder after major trauma: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Among trauma patients relatively high prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found. To identify opportunities for prevention and early treatment, predictors and course of PTSD need to be investigated. Long-term follow-up studies of injury patients may help gain more insight into the course of PTSD and subgroups at risk for PTSD. The aim of our long-term prospective cohort study was to assess the prevalence rate and predictors, including pre-hospital trauma care (assistance of physician staffed Emergency Medical Services (EMS) at the scene of the accident), of probable PTSD in a sample of major trauma patients at one and two years after injury. The second aim was to assess the long-term course of probable PTSD following injury. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted of 332 major trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 16 or higher. We used data from the hospital trauma registry and self-assessment surveys that included the Impact of Event Scale (IES) to measure probable PTSD symptoms. An IES-score of 35 or higher was used as indication for the presence of probable PTSD. Results One year after injury measurements of 226 major trauma patients were obtained (response rate 68%). Of these patients 23% had an IES-score of 35 or higher, indicating probable PTSD. At two years after trauma the prevalence rate of probable PTSD was 20%. Female gender and co-morbid disease were strong predictors of probable PTSD one year following injury, whereas minor to moderate head injury and injury of the extremities (AIS less than 3) were strong predictors of this disorder at two year follow-up. Of the patients with probable PTSD at one year follow-up 79% had persistent PTSD symptoms a year later. Conclusions Up to two years after injury probable PTSD is highly prevalent in a population of patients with major trauma. The majority of patients suffered from prolonged effects of PTSD, underlining the importance of prevention, early detection, and treatment of injury-related PTSD. PMID:23270522

  9. Dampening effects of long-term experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of a Holm oak forest.

    PubMed

    Barbeta, Adrià; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-10-01

    Forests respond to increasing intensities and frequencies of drought by reducing growth and with higher tree mortality rates. Little is known, however, about the long-term consequences of generally drier conditions and more frequent extreme droughts. A Holm oak forest was exposed to experimental rainfall manipulation for 13 years to study the effect of increasing drought on growth and mortality of the dominant species Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo. The drought treatment reduced stem growth of A. unedo (-66.5%) and Q. ilex (-17.5%), whereas P. latifolia remained unaffected. Higher stem mortality rates were noticeable in Q. ilex (+42.3%), but not in the other two species. Stem growth was a function of the drought index of early spring in the three species. Stem mortality rates depended on the drought index of winter and spring for Q. ilex and in spring and summer for P. latifolia, but showed no relation to climate in A. unedo. Following a long and intense drought (2005-2006), stem growth of Q. ilex and P. latifolia increased, whereas it decreased in A. unedo. Q. ilex also enhanced its survival after this period. Furthermore, the effect of drought treatment on stem growth in Q. ilex and A. unedo was attenuated as the study progressed. These results highlight the different vulnerabilities of Mediterranean species to more frequent and intense droughts, which may lead to partial species substitution and changes in forest structure and thus in carbon uptake. The response to drought, however, changed over time. Decreased intra- and interspecific competition after extreme events with high mortality, together with probable morphological and physiological acclimation to drought during the study period, may, at least in the short term, buffer forests against drier conditions. The long-term effects of drought consequently deserve more attention, because the ecosystemic responses are unlikely to be stable over time.Nontechnical summaryIn this study, we evaluate the effect of long-term (13 years) experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of three forest Mediterranean species, and their response to the different intensities and durations of natural drought. We provide evidence for species-specific responses to drought, what may eventually lead to a partial community shift favoring the more drought-resistant species. However, we also report a dampening of the treatment effect on the two drought-sensitive species, which may indicate a potential adaptation to drier conditions at the ecosystem or population level. These results are thus relevant to account for the stabilizing processes that would alter the initial response of ecosystem to drought through changes in plant physiology, morphology, and demography compensation. PMID:23712619

  10. Recurrence rates in bipolar disorder: Systematic comparison of long-term prospective, naturalistic studies versus randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Gustavo H; Holtzman, Jessica N; Lolich, María; Ketter, Terence A; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2015-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a recurrent, lifelong illness with high risks of disability and excess mortality. Despite many treatment options with demonstrated short-term efficacy, evidence concerning long-term treatment effectiveness in BD remains limited and the relative value of naturalistic studies versus randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) in its assessment, uncertain. Systematic computer-searching yielded 10 naturalistic studies and 15 RCTs suitable for analysis of recurrence rates and their association with treatments and selected clinical factors. In naturalistic studies (3904 BD subjects, 53.3% women, 85.8% BD-I, mean onset age 29.1, followed up to 2.1 years), the pooled recurrence rate was 55.2% (26.3%/year). In RCTs (4828 subjects, 50.9% women, 96.0% BD-I, mean onset age 23.1, followed up to 1.9 years), the pooled recurrence rate was 39.3% (21.9%/year) with mood-stabilizing drug-treatment versus 60.6% (31.3%/year) with placebo; drug-versus-placebo outcomes favored antipsychotics over lithium, and disfavor an approved anticonvulsant. Depressive episode-polarity increased from 27.7% at intake to 52.0% at first-recurrence (p<0.0001). Recurrence rate (%/year) did not differ by study-type, was greater with younger onset and rapid-cycling, and paradoxically declined with longer observation. In short, recurrences of major affective episodes up to two years during putative mood-stabilizing treatment of BD patients in prospective, naturalistic studies and RCTs were substantial and similar (26.3 vs. 21.9%/year). Episode-polarity shifted strongly toward depressive first-recurrences. These findings support the value of naturalistic studies to complement long-term RCTs, and add to indications that control of depression in BD remains particularly unsatisfactory. PMID:26238969

  11. Styles and rates of long-term denudation in carbonate terrains under a Mediterranean to hyper-arid climatic gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryb, U.; Matmon, A.; Erel, Y.; Haviv, I.; Benedetti, L.; Hidy, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    Carbonate minerals, unlike silicates, have the potential to dissolve almost completely and with high efficiency. Thus, in carbonate terrains denudation rate and style (the governing process of denudation, mechanical or chemical) should be more sensitive to climatic forcing. Using 36Cl measurements in 39 carbonate bedrock and sediment samples, we calculate long-term denudation rates across a sharp climatic gradient from Mediterranean to hyper-arid conditions. Our samples were collected along the Arugot watershed, which drains the eastern flank of the Judea Range (central Israel) to the Dead Sea and is characterized by a pronounced rain shadow. Denudation rates of flat-lying bedrock outcrops sampled along interfluves differ by an order of magnitude from ∼20 mm ka-1 in the Mediterranean zone to 1-3 mm ka-1 in the hyper-arid zone. These rates are strongly correlated with precipitation, and thus reflect the importance of carbonate mineral dissolution in the overall denudation process. In contrast, denudation rates of steep bedrock surfaces depend on the hillslope gradient, but only in the hyper-arid climate zone, indicating that mechanical processes dominate the overall hillslope denudation within this zone. The dominance of slope-dependent mechanical erosion in the hyper-arid zone is also reflected by an increase in spatially-average denudation rates from 17-19 mm ka-1 in the Mediterranean-semi-arid zones to 21-25 mm ka-1 in the hyper-arid zone. These higher rates are attributed to clast contribution from steep slopes under arid climate. This suggests an increased importance of mechanical processes to the overall denudation in the hyper-arid zone. We demonstrate that the transition between chemically-dominated denudation to mechanically-dominated denudation occurs between 100 and 200 mm of mean annual precipitation. Long-term denudation rates across the Judea Range indicate that between Mediterranean and hyper-arid climates, chemical weathering rates are limited by precipitation. Nevertheless, in more humid climates, chemical weathering rates are apparently limited by the rates of carbonate mineral dissolution. This study demonstrates that carbonate terrains have the capacity to shift between mechanically and chemically dominated denudation in response to changes in precipitation. Similar transitions in response to changes in temperature or the level of tectonic activity have been previously reported. We suggest that the abrupt nature of such transitions can be primarily attributed to the efficiency of carbonate dissolution processes and the competition between surface and subsurface drainage systems in carbonate terrains.

  12. Drivers and annual estimates of marine wildlife entanglement rates: A long-term case study with Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Rebecca R; Kirkwood, Roger; Sutherland, Duncan R; Dann, Peter

    2015-12-30

    Methods of calculating wildlife entanglement rates are not standardised between studies and often ignore the influence of observer effort, confounding comparisons. From 1997-2013 we identified 359 entangled Australian fur seals at Seal Rocks, south-eastern Australia. Most entanglement materials originated from commercial fisheries; most frequently entangling pups and juveniles. Using Generalized Additive Mixed Models, which incorporated observer effort and survey frequency, we identified that entanglements were observed more frequently amongst pups from July to October as they approached weaning. Neither the decline in regional fishing intensity nor changing seal population size influenced the incidence of entanglements. Using the models, we estimated that 302 (95% CI=182-510) entangled seals were at Seal Rocks each year, equivalent to 1.0% (CI=0.6-1.7%) of the site population. This study highlights the influence of observer effort and the value of long-term datasets for determining the drivers of marine debris entanglements. PMID:26475026

  13. Long-term influence of tillage and fertilization on net carbon dioxide exchange rate on two soils with different textures.

    PubMed

    Feiziene, Dalia; Feiza, Virginijus; Slepetiene, Alvyra; Liaudanskiene, Inga; Kadziene, Grazina; Deveikyte, Irena; Vaideliene, Asta

    2011-01-01

    The importance of agricultural practices to greenhouse gas mitigation is examined worldwide. However, there is no consensus on soil organic carbon (SOC) content and CO emissions as affected by soil management practices and their relationships with soil texture. No-till (NT) agriculture often results in soil C gain, though, not always. Soil net CO exchange rate (NCER) and environmental factors (SOC, soil temperature [T], and water content [W]), as affected by soil type (loam and sandy loam), tillage (conventional, reduced, and NT), and fertilization, were quantified in long-term field experiments in Lithuania. Soil tillage and fertilization affected total CO flux (heterotrophic and autotrophic) through effect on soil SOC sequestration, water, and temperature regime. After 11 yr of different tillage and fertilization management, SOC content was 23% more in loam than in sandy loam. Long-term NT contributed to 7 to 27% more SOC sequestration on loam and to 29 to 33% more on sandy loam compared with reduced tillage (RT) or conventional tillage (CT). Soil water content in loam was 7% more than in sandy loam. Soil gravimetric water content, averaged across measurement dates and fertilization treatments, was significantly less in NT than CT and RT in both soils. Soil organic carbon content and water storage capacity of the loam and sandy loam soils exerted different influences on NCER. The NCER from the sandy loam soil was 13% greater than that from the loam. In addition, NCER was 4 to 9% less with NT than with CT and RT systems on both loam and sandy loam soils. Application of mineral NPK fertilizers promoted significantly greater NCER from loam but suppressed NCER by 15% from sandy loam. PMID:22031561

  14. Observations of historical sea cliff retreat rates exceed long-term estimates derived from cosmogenic 10Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Martin D.; Rood, Dylan H.; Ellis, Michael A.; Anderson, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Historical observation of coastal retreat are limited to relatively short timescales (< 150 years), during which time humans may have modified the coastal environment. There is growing concern that rates of coastal change may be accelerated in the face of anticipated stormier climates and rising sea level, yet there is little knowledge of rates of coastal change prior to the relatively brief historical records. In order to make predictions about potential future coastal change it is important to establish baseline conditions averaged over longer time periods. Here we present analysis of sea cliff retreat throughout the Holocene averaged for chalk cliffs in south-east England using cosmogenic isotopes. We determine long-term rates of sea cliff erosion from 10Be measured from in-situ flint samples collected from three transects across coastal platforms in East Sussex. A numerical model of 10Be accumulation on an evolving coastal profile allows estimation of cliff retreat rate during the Holocene. The model accounts for variation in 10Be accumulation with tides and sea-level rise, and takes into account platform downwear and topographic shielding by adjacent cliffs. We find that cliff retreat rates during the Holocene were significantly slower (2-6 cm yr-1) than those derived from recent historical observations (15-25 cm yr-1). Modelled accumulation of 10Be requires retreat rates that increase rapidly in recent times, potentially reflecting human modification of the coastal sediment budget through construction of sea defences, flood defenses and aggregate extraction. Therefore knowledge of past human activity at the coastline may be important in anticipating future rates of coastal retreat.

  15. Forced migration and mortality in the very long term: did perestroika affect death rates also in Finland?

    PubMed

    Saarela, Jan; Finnäs, Fjalar

    2009-08-01

    In this article, we analyze mortality rates of Finns born in areas that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II and from which the entire population was evacuated. These internally displaced persons are observed during the period 1971-2004 and compared with people born in the same region but on the adjacent side of the new border. We find that in the 1970s and 1980s, the forced migrants had mortality rates that were on par with those of people in the comparison group. In the late 1980s, the mortality risk of internally displaced men increased by 20% in relation to the expected time trend. This deviation, which manifests particularly in cardiovascular mortality, coincides with perestroika and the demise of the Soviet Union, which were events that resulted in an intense debate in civil society about restitution of the ceded areas. Because state actors were reluctant to engage, the debate declined after some few years, and after the mid-1990s, the death risk again approached the long-term trend. Our findings indicate that when internally displaced persons must adjust to situations for which appropriate coping behaviors are unknown, psychosocial stress might arise several decades after their evacuation. PMID:19771945

  16. Forced Migration and Mortality in the Very Long Term: Did Perestroika Affect Death Rates Also in Finland?

    PubMed Central

    SAARELA, JAN; FINNÄS, FJALAR

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we analyze mortality rates of Finns born in areas that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II and from which the entire population was evacuated. These internally displaced persons are observed during the period 1971–2004 and compared with people born in the same region but on the adjacent side of the new border. We find that in the 1970s and 1980s, the forced migrants had mortality rates that were on par with those of people in the comparison group. In the late 1980s, the mortality risk of internally displaced men increased by 20% in relation to the expected time trend. This deviation, which manifests particularly in cardiovascular mortality, coincides with perestroika and the demise of the Soviet Union, which were events that resulted in an intense debate in civil society about restitution of the ceded areas. Because state actors were reluctant to engage, the debate declined after some few years, and after the mid-1990s, the death risk again approached the long-term trend. Our findings indicate that when internally displaced persons must adjust to situations for which appropriate coping behaviors are unknown, psychosocial stress might arise several decades after their evacuation. PMID:19771945

  17. Classification tree for risk assessment in patients suffering from congestive heart failure via long-term heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Melillo, Paolo; De Luca, Nicola; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to develop an automatic classifier for risk assessment in patients suffering from congestive heart failure (CHF). The proposed classifier separates lower risk patients from higher risk ones, using standard long-term heart rate variability (HRV) measures. Patients are labeled as lower or higher risk according to the New York Heart Association classification (NYHA). A retrospective analysis on two public Holter databases was performed, analyzing the data of 12 patients suffering from mild CHF (NYHA I and II), labeled as lower risk, and 32 suffering from severe CHF (NYHA III and IV), labeled as higher risk. Only patients with a fraction of total heartbeats intervals (RR) classified as normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (NN/RR) higher than 80% were selected as eligible in order to have a satisfactory signal quality. Classification and regression tree (CART) was employed to develop the classifiers. A total of 30 higher risk and 11 lower risk patients were included in the analysis. The proposed classification trees achieved a sensitivity and a specificity rate of 93.3% and 63.6%, respectively, in identifying higher risk patients. Finally, the rules obtained by CART are comprehensible and consistent with the consensus showed by previous studies that depressed HRV is a useful tool for risk assessment in patients suffering from CHF. PMID:24592473

  18. Regression Method for Estimating Long-Term Mean Annual Ground-Water Recharge Rates from Base Flow in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.; Thompson, Ronald E.; Stuckey, Marla H.

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for making estimates of long-term, mean annual ground-water recharge from streamflow data at 80 streamflow-gaging stations in Pennsylvania. The method relates mean annual base-flow yield derived from the streamflow data (as a proxy for recharge) to the climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and physiographic characteristics of the basins (basin characteristics) by use of a regression equation. Base-flow yield is the base flow of a stream divided by the drainage area of the basin, expressed in inches of water basinwide. Mean annual base-flow yield was computed for the period of available streamflow record at continuous streamflow-gaging stations by use of the computer program PART, which separates base flow from direct runoff on the streamflow hydrograph. Base flow provides a reasonable estimate of recharge for basins where streamflow is mostly unaffected by upstream regulation, diversion, or mining. Twenty-eight basin characteristics were included in the exploratory regression analysis as possible predictors of base-flow yield. Basin characteristics found to be statistically significant predictors of mean annual base-flow yield during 1971-2000 at the 95-percent confidence level were (1) mean annual precipitation, (2) average maximum daily temperature, (3) percentage of sand in the soil, (4) percentage of carbonate bedrock in the basin, and (5) stream channel slope. The equation for predicting recharge was developed using ordinary least-squares regression. The standard error of prediction for the equation on log-transformed data was 9.7 percent, and the coefficient of determination was 0.80. The equation can be used to predict long-term, mean annual recharge rates for ungaged basins, providing that the explanatory basin characteristics can be determined and that the underlying assumption is accepted that base-flow yield derived from PART is a reasonable estimate of ground-water recharge rates. For example, application of the equation for 370 hydrologic units in Pennsylvania predicted a range of ground-water recharge from about 6.0 to 22 inches per year. A map of the predicted recharge illustrates the general magnitude and variability of recharge throughout Pennsylvania.

  19. Accelerated Rates of Nitrogen Cycling and N2O Production in Salt Marsh Sediments due to Long-Term Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, X.; Ji, Q.; Angell, J.; Kearns, P.; Bowen, J. L.; Ward, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Intensified sedimentary production of nitrous oxide (N2O), one of the most potent greenhouse gases, is one of the many possible environmental consequences of elevated nitrogen (N) loading into estuarine ecosystems. This study investigates the response to over 40 years of fertilization of nitrogen removal processes in the sediments of the Great Sippewissett Marsh in Falmouth, MA. Sediment slurries were incubated (1.5 hr) with trace amounts (< 10% of ambient concentration) of 15NH4+ + 14NO3- or 15NO3- + 14NH4+. An additional parallel incubation with 15NH4+ + 14NO3- and 1 mM of allylthiourea (ATU) was included to measure rates of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Well-homogenized slurries filled about 10% of the volume in the gas-tight incubation vials, and the rest of the volume was replaced with an O2/He (20%/80%) mixture. The production of 29N2, 44N2O and 45N2O were determined using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The rate of total N2O production in fertilized sediments (0.89 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight) was 30-fold higher than in unfertilized sediments. The ratio of N2O to N2 production was also significantly higher in fertilized sediments (2.9%) than in unfertilized sediments (1.2%). This highlights the disproportionally large effect of long-term fertilization on N2O production in salt marsh sediments. The reduced oxygen level and higher ammonium concentrations in situ probably contributed to the significant rise in N2O production as a result of long-term fertilization. When detected, anammox and coupled nitrification-denitrification accounted for 10% and 14% of the total N2 production in fertilized sediments (30.5 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight), respectively, whereas neither was detected in unfertilized sediments. Thus these experiments indicate that N loading has important effects on multiple N cycle processes that result in N loss and N2O production.

  20. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, F.S.; Crawford, R.L.; Sorenson, K.

    2005-09-01

    Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers.

  1. Generalized discriminant analysis for congestive heart failure risk assessment based on long-term heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Asl, Babak Mohammadzadeh

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study are summarized in the following items: first, to investigate the class discrimination power of long-term heart rate variability (HRV) features for risk assessment in patients suffering from congestive heart failure (CHF); second, to introduce the most discriminative features of HRV to discriminate low risk patients (LRPs) and high risk patients (HRPs), and third, to examine the influence of feature dimension reduction in order to achieve desired accuracy of the classification. We analyzed two public Holter databases: 12 data of patients suffering from mild CHF (NYHA class I and II), labeled as LRPs and 32 data of patients suffering from severe CHF (NYHA class III and IV), labeled as HRPs. A K-nearest neighbor classifier was used to evaluate the performance of feature set in the classification. Moreover, to reduce the number of features as well as the overlap of the samples of two classes in feature space, we used generalized discriminant analysis (GDA) as a feature extraction method. By applying GDA to the discriminative nonlinear features, we achieved sensitivity and specificity of 100% having the least number of features. Finally, the results were compared with other similar conducted studies regarding the performance of feature selection procedure and classifier besides the number of features used in training. PMID:26344584

  2. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

    2005-06-01

    Dissolved dense nonaqueous-phase liquid plumes are persistent, widespread problems in the DOE complex. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) is disappearing from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) by natural attenuation, a finding that saves significant site restoration costs. Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation as a preferred treatment technology requires direct evidence of the processes and rates of the degradation. Our proposal aims to provide that evidence for one such site by testing two hypotheses. First, we believe that realistic values for in situ rates of TCE cometabolism can be obtained by sustaining the putative microorganisms at the low catabolic activities consistent with aquifer conditions. Second, the patterns of functional gene expression evident in these communities under starvation conditions while carrying out TCE cometabolism can be used to diagnose the cometabolic activity in the aquifer itself. Using the cometabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained at this location and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Realistic terms for cometabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE's ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics at other sites, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. Finally, this project aims to derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

  3. Evaluation of Neural Response Telemetry (NRT™) with focus on long-term rate adaptation over a wide range of stimulation rates.

    PubMed

    Huarte, Alicia; Ramos, Angel; Morera, Constantino; Garcia-Ibáñez, Luis; Battmer, Rolf; Dillier, Norbert; Wesarg, Thomas; Müller-Deile, Joachim; Hey, Mattias; Offeciers, Erwin; von Wallenberg, Ernst; Coudert, Chrystelle; Killian, Matthijs

    2014-05-01

    Custom Sound EP™ (CSEP) is an advanced flexible software tool dedicated to recording of electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) in Nucleus® recipients using Neural Response Telemetry™ (NRT™). European multi-centre studies of the Freedom™ cochlear implant system confirmed that CSEP offers tools to effectively record ECAP thresholds, amplitude growth functions, recovery functions, spread of excitation functions, and rate adaptation functions and an automated algorithm (AutoNRT™) to measure threshold profiles. This paper reports on rate adaptation measurements. Rate adaptation of ECAP amplitudes can successfully be measured up to rates of 495 pulses per second (pps) by repeating conventional ECAP measurements and over a wide range of rates up to 8000 pps using the masked response extraction technique. Rate adaptation did not show a predictable relationship with speech perception and coding strategy channel rate preference. The masked response extraction method offers opportunities to study long-term rate adaptation with well-defined and controlled stimulation paradigms. PMID:24559068

  4. Determining the long-term slip rate of the Pernicana Fault System, Mt. Etna, to improve earthquake forecast modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amato, Davide; Pace, Bruno; Di Nicola, Luigia; Stuart, Finlay M.; Barfod, Dan; Branca, Stefano; Azzaro, Raffaele; Visini, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    The Pernicana fault system (PFS) is a complex active tectonic systems located in the NE sector of Mt. Etna. It represents the northern boundary of the sliding side of the volcano and plays an important role in the dynamics of the eastern flank. Several historic and recent earthquakes have occurred close to this structure with coseismic surface faulting and damage (e.g. 02/04/2010 earthquake, Mw = 4.2). The PFS is transtensive, characterised by complex of en echelon segments with a N 110° overall direction. The dip-slip component decreases to the East accompanied with a decreasing of seismic activity. The eastern-most segment is characterised by left aseismic creeping strike-slip motion. The aim of this work is to constrain to constrain the long-term history of the PFS using 40Ar/39Ar and cosmogenic 3He ages of lava flows that are cut by the PFS in order to better understand the fault behaviour and improve the prediction of earthquake occurrence. We will present the first 3D shape of the PFS based on a network of detailed topographic profiles, to better constrain the variability of the fault scarp along strike and so the kinematics of the structure. In situ cosmogenic 3He exposure ages of two faulted lava flows from the central sector of PFS are used to determine the slip rate. Flow ages (1157 ± 230 yr and 1088 ± 96 yr) are combined with fault scarp heights to calculate an average vertical slip rate of about 11 mm/year over the last 1,000 years for the central section of the PFS. This rate is close to the rate determined from historical and geodetic data (displacement of antropic manufact and geodetic levelling), covering the last 20 years. It suggests that the slip-rates have not changed significantly in the last 1,000 years. The new fault geometry and slip rate data have been used to realise a kinematic and strain model of the PFS, in order to distinguish the vertical and the horizontal slip rate components and to model the tectonic and volcanic strain fields. The calculated tectonic component of the strain can be used to improve earthquake occurrence forecast modelling of this sector of the volcano.

  5. Sensitivity of Decomposition Rates and Long-term Carbon Sequestration to Modeled Disturbance Scenarios: Implications for National Monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, K. P.; Harden, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    Soil systems are central to carbon, water, and nutrient cycles and play a key role in regulating CO{2} exchange in terrestrial systems. While recent advances have been made for measuring plant production, the mechanisms that control the loss of carbon from land are masked by difficulties in detecting and scaling belowground processes. National and international reporting requirements have placed increased emphasis on the development of spatially explicit soil carbon inventories based on monitoring changes in major soil reservoirs. Although this inventory approach provides critical baseline information, the ecological significance of this soil carbon ultimately depends upon the level of chemical and physical protection, the response of the soil system to disturbance, and the temporal and spatial scales of interest. In this paper, we model the sensitivity of carbon storage estimates to differing assumptions of decomposition and disturbance response using data from the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program. The FIA soil indicator program represents the only nationally consistent source of forest soil monitoring data in the United States and forms the basis for national reporting on the Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Management. A mass-balance model of long term soil carbon dynamics is used to address the following questions: (1) how sensitive are soil carbon inventories to current assumptions of inputs, turnover, and disturbance response; (2) which soil processes have the greatest influence on C storage over the time scales relevant to land use policies and how can we best monitor these processes; (3) what are the critical data gaps limiting the use of inventory data in regional and global carbon models.

  6. Future rates of sea-level rise from long-term coupled climate-ice sheet projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelzer, Heiko; Huybrechts, Philippe; Loutre, Marie-France; Fichefet, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Global mean sea level rose at an average rate of ~3.1 mm yr-1 since the early 1990s and is projected to rise between 0.28 and 0.98 m until year 2100, strongly depending on the assumed anthropogenic forcing scenario (IPCC AR5). This global rise in sea level is a combination of contributions from ocean thermal expansion, glaciers and small ice caps, from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and changes in land water storage. Except for the latter, all components are expected to contribute to further sea-level rise well beyond the end of this century due to the long residence time of CO2 in the atmosphere. In the present study we present results from long-term future sea-level change experiments over 1000 years with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM version 1.3 forced by four extended RCP scenarios. The model includes fully coupled three-dimensional thermomechanical models of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, a global glacier melt algorithm to account for the response of mountain glaciers and small ice caps, and a diagnostic for oceanic thermal expansion. A range of the model's sensitivity to greenhouse warming was sampled by systematic parameter variations leading to an ensemble of model versions that simulate the present-day climate consistent with observations, while producing contrasted results for the future period. We analyse sea-level rates of change for all components over the course of the third millennium for the entire ensemble of model versions and forcing scenarios.

  7. The Incidence Rate, High-Risk Factors, and Short- and Long-Term Adverse Outcomes of Fetal Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the incidence and high-risk factors of fetal growth restriction (FGR) in Mainland China and determine the adverse effects of this condition on fetal-neonatal health. This study was a retrospective chart review. We investigated the incidence rate of FGR using a retrospective analysis of clinical data obtained from mothers and newborns from 7 hospitals in Mainland China from January 1 to December 31, 2011. The short-term outcomes of FGR were analyzed based on data obtained from the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) of Bayi Children's Hospital. The long-term outcomes of FGR were determined after a follow-up study of 125 cases of FGR in children at 18 months. The physical development index, mental development index (MDI), and psychomotor development index (PDI) were compared between FGR patients and controls. The incidence of FGR was 8.77%. The incidence of FGR was significantly higher in females than in males (9.80% vs 7.84%, P < 0.05). The incidence of FGR in preterm infants was higher than that in full-term infants (16.43% vs 7.87%, P < 0.01). Chronic hypertension, abnormal amniotic fluid, and umbilical cord abnormalities were independent factors of FGR. A significantly higher incidence of complications, including hypoglycemia, asphyxia, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, gastrointestinal bleeding, congenital malformations, polycythemia, lung hemorrhage, apnea, congenital heart disease, and disseminated intravascular coagulation, was observed in FGR patients than in controls. The FGR prolonged the duration of the hospital stay and markedly increased hospitalization expenses (P < 0.05). Children with FGR showed catch-up growth, which reached the level of the control group after 1.5 years, but these individuals still had lower MDI and PDI scores. The incidence rate of FGR in Mainland China was 8.77%. It has a significantly adverse effect on fetal-neonatal health and cognitive development. PMID:25501078

  8. Long-Term Effect of Population Screening for Diabetes on Cardiovascular Morbidity, Self-Rated Health, and Health Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Prevost, A. Toby; Williams, Kate M.; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Griffin, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE There is limited trial evidence concerning the long-term effects of screening for type 2 diabetes on population morbidity. We examined the effect of a population-based diabetes screening program on cardiovascular morbidity, self-rated health, and health-related behaviors. METHODS We conducted a pragmatic, parallel-group, cluster-randomized controlled trial of diabetes screening (the ADDITION-Cambridge study) including 18,875 individuals aged 40 to 69 years at high risk of diabetes in 32 general practices in eastern England (27 practices randomly allocated to screening, 5 to no-screening for control). Of those eligible for screening, 466 (2.9%) were diagnosed with diabetes. Seven years after randomization, a random sample of patients was sent a postal questionnaire: 15% from the screening group (including diabetes screening visit attenders and non-attenders) and 40% from the no-screening control group. Self-reported cardiovascular morbidity, self-rated health (using the SF-8 Health Survey and EQ-5D instrument), and health behaviors were compared between trial groups using an intention-to-screen analysis. RESULTS Of the 3,286 questionnaires mailed out, 1,995 (61%) were returned, with 1,945 included in the analysis (screening: 1,373; control: 572). At 7 years, there were no significant differences between the screening and control groups in the proportion of participants reporting heart attack or stroke (OR = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.71–1.15); SF-8 physical health summary score as an indicator of self-rated health status (β −0.33, 95% CI, −1.80 to 1.14); EQ-5D visual analogue score (β: 0.80, 95% CI, −1.28 to 2.87); total physical activity (β 0.50, 95% CI, −4.08 to 5.07); current smoking (OR 0.97, 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.32); and alcohol consumption (β 0.14, 95% CI, −1.07 to 1.35). CONCLUSIONS Invitation to screening for type 2 diabetes appears to have limited impact on population levels of cardiovascular morbidity, self-rated health status, and health behavior after 7 years. PMID:25755036

  9. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

    2005-09-01

    Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers. Third, we have systematically considered the aquifer contaminants at different locations in plumes at other DOE sites in order to determine whether MNA is a broadly applicable remediation strategy for chlorinated hydrocarbons (North Wind Inc.). Realistic terms for co-metabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE’s ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. This project also aims to derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

  10. The impairment of true glomerular filtration rate in long-term cyclosporine-treated pediatric allograft recipients

    SciTech Connect

    McDiarmid, S.V.; Ettenger, R.B.; Hawkins, R.A.; Senguttvan, P.; Busuttil, R.W.; Vargas, J.; Berquist, W.E.; Ament, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    We performed indium-111-DTPA plasma clearance studies in 61 pediatric kidney and liver recipients treated with cyclosporine to compare true glomerular filtration rate with calculated GFR (cGFR). The mean true GFR of 61.9 +/- 36.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 indicated renal impairment. The mean cGFR of 85.2 +/- 22.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 was significantly higher (P less than 0.001), and overestimated GFR by 38%. cGFR alone did not accurately reflect the degree of renal dysfunction. A group of 48 pediatric orthotopic liver transplant recipients was studied in more detail: 73% of these patients had a true GFR less than 70 ml/min/1.73 m2, while 85% had a true GFR below 90 ml/min/1.73 m2, the lower limit for normal GFR in children. The mean true GFR for patients treated more than 24 months with CsA was lower (P = 0.02) than patients treated with CsA for 12 to 24 months. OLT patients with normal true GFR (greater than 90 ml/min/1.73 m2) had significantly lower plasma CsA levels, and 50% of patients with a true GFR less than or equal to 50 ml/min/1.73 m2 had hypertension. There was no effect on true GFR of age, liver function, azathioprine use, or peritransplant treatment with other nephrotoxic drugs. We conclude that true GFR is significantly impaired in long-term CsA-treated allograft pediatric recipients. Calculations of GFR underestimate the degree of renal dysfunction. As patients treated greater than 24 months had the lowest true GFRs, the fall in GFR may be progressive.

  11. Are Changes in the Mean or Variability of Climate Signals More Important for Long-Term Stochastic Growth Rate?

    PubMed Central

    García-Carreras, Bernardo; Reuman, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Population dynamics are affected by changes in both the mean and standard deviation of climate, e.g., changes in average temperature are likely to affect populations, but so are changes in the strength of year-to-year temperature variability. The impacts of increases in average temperature are extensively researched, while the impacts of changes in climate variability are less studied. Is the greater attention given to changes in mean environment justified? To help answer this question we developed a simple population model, explicitly linked to an environmental process. We used the model to compare the sensitivities of a population's long-term stochastic growth rate, a measure of fitness, to changes in the mean and standard deviation of the environment. Results are interpreted in light of a comparative analysis of the relative magnitudes of change in means and standard deviations of biologically relevant climate variables in the United States. Results show that changes in the variability of the environment can be more important for many populations. Changes in mean conditions are likely to have a greater impact than changes in variability on populations far from their ideal environment, for example, populations near species range boundaries and potentially of conservation concern. Populations near range centres and close to their ideal environment are more likely to be affected by changes in variability. Among pest and insect disease vectors, as well as species of commercial value, populations likely to be of greatest economic and public health significance are those near species range centers, living in a near-ideal environment for the species. Observed changes in the variability of climate variables may benefit these populations. PMID:23691131

  12. Breast Cancer Liver Metastases: US-guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation—Intermediate and Long-term Survival Rates

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Maria Franca; Andreano, Anita; Laeseke, Paul F.; Livraghi, Tito; Sironi, Sandro; Lee, Fred T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively assess the local control and intermediate- and long-term survival of patients with liver metastases from breast cancer who have undergone percutaneous ultrasonography (US)-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the hospital ethics committee, and all patients provided written informed consent. RF ablation was used to treat 87 breast cancer liver metastases (mean diameter, 2.5 cm) in 52 female patients (median age, 55 years). Inclusion criteria were as follows: fewer than five tumors, maximum tumor diameter of 5 cm or smaller, and disease either confined to the liver or stable with medical therapy. Forty-five (90%) of 50 patients had previously undergone chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or both, and had no response or an incomplete response to the treatment. Contrast material–enhanced computed tomography and US were performed to evaluate complications and technical success and to assess for local tumor progression during follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess survival, and results were compared between groups with a log-rank test. Cox regression analysis was used to assess independent prognostic factors that affected survival. Results Complete tumor necrosis was achieved in 97% of tumors. Two (4%) minor complications occurred. Median time to follow-up from diagnosis of liver metastasis and from RF ablation was 37.2 and 19.1 months, respectively. Local tumor progression occurred in 25% of patients. New intrahepatic metastases developed in 53% of patients. From the time of first RF ablation, overall median survival time and 5-year survival rate were 29.9 months and 27%, respectively. From the time the first liver metastasis was diagnosed, overall median survival time was 42 months, and the 5-year survival rate was 32%. Patients with tumors 2.5 cm in diameter or larger had a worse prognosis (hazard ratio, 2.1) than did patients with tumors smaller than 2.5 cm in diameter. Conclusion Survival rates in selected patients with breast cancer liver metastases treated with RF ablation are comparable to those reported in the literature that were achieved with surgery or laser ablation. PMID:19709994

  13. The dual effect of Mg on the long-term alteration rate of AVM nuclear waste glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thien, Bruno M. J.; Godon, Nicole; Ballestero, Anthony; Gin, Stéphane; Ayral, André

    2012-08-01

    Inactive Mg-containing nuclear waste glasses simulating actual HLW glasses produced at the AVM facility since 1995 (Marcoule, France), were leached in aqueous solution in order to assess their long term behaviour. The focus was on the effect of Mg. Our findings show that the distribution of Mg between the gel and the secondary crystalline phases strongly influences the glass dissolution rate. The glasses were leached in initially pure water (T = 50 °C, surface/volume ratio (S/V) = 55 cm-1) with and without addition of Mg2+ in the solution. "Mg-free" AVM glasses were also leached in initially pure water (50 °C, 200 cm-1) with and without addition of Mg2+ in the solution. Accurate identification of Mg-smectite secondary phases and gel composition calculations enable us to explain the different observed behaviours. Glass AVM 10 was the less altered glass in pure water. Its gel is more protective than the other probably because it is mainly balanced by Mg2+. The addition of Mg2+ in the solution triggers the precipitation of smectite (not observed in pure water experiments), which consumes silicon from the gel, leading finally to a significant increase of the glass alteration. We also focused on the AVM 6 glass which was the most altered glass in pure water of available AVM glasses. Contrary to AVM 10, the gel of AVM 6 is mainly balanced by Na+. The addition of Mg2+ in the solution allows the replacement of Na by Mg within the gel. This reaction clearly improves the gel properties and allows the rate to decrease more rapidly, in spite of the precipitation of smectite (also observed in pure water experiments). Finally, the two glasses were altered in synthetic groundwater (SGW) with a high Mg-Ca content. As expected from the previous observations, AVM 10 was insensitive to the presence of alkaline earths in the leaching solution whereas AVM 6 glass exhibited a lower rate than in pure water thanks to the incorporation of Mg and Ca within the gel.

  14. Long-term erosion rate measurements in gypsum caves of Sorbas (SE Spain) by the Micro-Erosion Meter method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Laura; De Waele, Jo; Calaforra, José Maria; Forti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the results of long-term micro-erosion measurements in the most important gypsum cave of Spain, the Cueva del Agua (Sorbas, Almeria, SE Spain). Nineteen MEM stations were positioned in 1992 in a wide range of morphological and environmental settings (gypsum floors and walls, carbonate speleothems, dry conduits and vadose passages) inside and outside the cave, on gypsum and carbonate bedrocks and exposed to variable degree of humidity, different air flow and hydrodynamic conditions. Four different sets of stations have been investigated: (1) the main cave entrance (Las Viñicas spring); (2) the main river passage; (3) the abandoned Laboratory tunnel; and (4) the external gypsum surface. Data over a period of about 18 years are available. The average lowering rates vary from 0.014 to 0.016 mm yr- 1 near the main entrance and in the Laboratory tunnel, to 0.022 mm - 1 on gypsum floors and 0.028 mm yr- 1 on carbonate flowstones. The denudation data from the external gypsum stations are quite regular with a rate of 0.170 mm yr- 1. The observations allowed the collecting of important information concerning the feeding of the karst aquifer not only by infiltrating rainwater, but under present climate conditions also by water condensation of moist air flow. This contribution to the overall karst processes in the Cueva del Agua basin represents over 20% of the total chemical dissolution of the karst area and more than 50% of the speleogenetically removed gypsum in the cave system, thus representing all but a secondary role in speleogenesis. Condensation-corrosion is most active along the medium walls, being slower at the roof and almost absent close to the floor. This creates typical corrosion morphologies such as cupola, while gypsum flowers develop where evaporation dominates. This approach also shows quantitatively the morphological implications of condensation-corrosion processes in gypsum karst systems in arid zones, responsible for an average surface lowering of 0.047 mm yr- 1, while mechanical erosion produces a lowering of 0.123 mm yr- 1.

  15. Changes in long-term no-till corn growth and yield under different rates of stover mulch

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, Dr. Humberto; Lal, Dr. Rattan; Post, Wilfred M; Owens, Lloyd

    2006-09-01

    Received for publication January 4, 2006. Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. We assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam (fine loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston in Ohio, and predicted corn yield from soil properties using principal component analysis (PCA). The study was conducted in 2005 on the ongoing experiments started in May 2004 under 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200)% of stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal promoted early emergence and rapid seedling growth (P < 0.01). Early-emerging plants grew taller than late-emerging plants up to about 50 d, and then the heights reversed at Coshocton and were comparable at other two sites. Stover management affected corn yield only at the Coshocton site where average grain and stover yields in the T200, T100, T75, and T50 (10.8 and 10.3 Mg ha-1) were higher than those in the T0 and T25 treatments (8.5 and 6.5 Mg ha-1) (P < 0.01), showing that stover removal at rates as low as 50% (2.5 Mg ha-1) decreased crop yields. Soil properties explained 71% of the variability in grain yield and 33% of the variability in stover yield for the Coshocton site. Seventeen months after the start of the experiment, effects of stover management on corn yield and soil properties were site-specific.

  16. Signature of long-term class evolution in GRS 1915+105 at a high accretion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahari, Mayukh; Pal, Sabyasachi

    2010-12-01

    We find long-term evolution of the ω class from the study of X-ray timing and spectral analysis of the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 during two outburst activities, observed by the proportional counter array (PCA) and the High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment on-board Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. The class is characterized by unusual periodic-like variation in intensity. With the passage of time, the variability gradually disappears and the class stabilizes at higher intensity. Low-frequency (0.1-10 Hz) power density spectral evolution and energy spectral evolution show that the class initially occurs as an unstable and oscillatory stage between the high-soft state and the low-soft/hard-intermediate state and finally settles in the high-soft state. This modulation process gives a clear signature of the adjustment of the accretion disc during an increasing accretion rate. Spectral analysis of this class at different stages shows a distinct feature of a single thermal Comptonization component along with a strong hard X-ray tail. We try to fit different observational characteristics found during the timing and spectral evolution with different disc accretion models and we find that the presence of an extended, optically thin corona coupled with an accretion disc can explain our results adequately. The thermal electron cloud covers a large fraction of the inner disc region, and it is powered by the accretion energy of the accretion disc. The change in the coronal temperature and optical depth between dip and non-dip regions of the light curve shows the change in the underneath disc emissivity at nearly constant disc temperature. When a high state is achieved, the corona becomes cool and optically thick and emission is dominated by a disc blackbody component. The strong support for the presence of an accretion-powered Comptonizing medium is the detection of delay in arriving time between soft and hard photons during this class. Both All-Sky Monitor and PCA flaring intensity and the nature of evolution are found to be the same for both X-ray outbursts at different time. This indicates that this process has fundamental contribution to the overall disc accretion mechanism during the outburst and is hence important in understanding the possible ways for utilizing the total accretion energy budget.

  17. Height of faceted spurs, a proxy for determining long-term throw rates on normal faults: Evidence from the North Baikal Rift System, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Carole; Meyer, Bertrand; Gunnell, Yanni; Jolivet, Marc; San'kov, Vladimir; Strak, Vincent; Gonga-Saholiariliva, Nahossio

    2009-12-01

    We present new results on the long-term throw rates of active normal faults in the North Baikal Rift (NBR), eastern Siberia, based on a statistical analysis of triangular faceted scarps. Fault-bounded ridges in the NBR display typical morphologies with several contiguous facets separated by fault-perpendicular catchments. Over a range of 20 fault segments analyzed, triangular facet heights vary from ˜200 to >900 m. As fault scarps have been developing under similar long-term climatic conditions, we infer that the scatter in mean facet height arises from long-term differences in fault throw rate. We compare the morphology of NBR facets with results obtained in a previously published numerical model of facet growth. Using facet height as an input, model results provide estimates of the long-term fault throw rate. NBR throw rates vary between 0.2 and 1.2 mm yr-1. The throw rates are then compared with the cumulated throw, which has been constrained by geophysical and stratigraphic data in the basins. This provides an estimate of the age of fault and basin initiation. We show that the modern stage of basin development started circa 3 Myr ago, except for the North Baikal basin (˜8 Ma). Our results also suggest that a proportion of the observed throw is inherited from an earlier tectonic stage.

  18. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... 8 sec Click to watch this video Most Care Provided at Home Click for more information Long- ...

  19. The octopus vertical lobe modulates short-term learning rate and uses LTP to acquire long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Shomrat, Tal; Zarrella, Ilaria; Fiorito, Graziano; Hochner, Binyamin

    2008-03-11

    Analyzing the processes and neuronal circuitry involved in complex behaviors in phylogenetically remote species can help us understand the evolution and function of these systems. Cephalopods, with their vertebrate-like behaviors but much simpler brains, are ideal for such an analysis. The vertical lobe (VL) of Octopus vulgaris is a pivotal brain station in its learning and memory system. To examine the organization of the learning and memory circuitry and to test whether the LTP that we discovered in the VL is involved in behavioral learning, we tetanized the VL to induce a global synaptic enhancement of the VL pathway. The effects of tetanization on learning and memory of a passive avoidance task were compared to those of transecting the same pathway. Tetanization accelerated and transection slowed short-term learning to avoid attacking a negatively reinforced object. However, both treatments impaired long-term recall the next day. Our results suggest that the learning and memory system in the octopus, as in mammals [9], is separated into short- and long-term memory sites. In the octopus, the two memory sites are not independent; the VL, which mediates long-term memory acquisition through LTP, also modulates the circuitry controlling behavior and short-term learning. PMID:18328706

  20. 31 CFR 351.12 - What do I need to know about the long-term savings bond rate, to understand redemption value...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do I need to know about the long-term savings bond rate, to understand redemption value calculations in this subpart? 351.12 Section 351.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL...

  1. Trophic position and metabolic rate predict the long-term decay process of radioactive cesium in fish: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Tanaka, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (¹³⁷Cs) can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term ¹³⁷Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate) and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type) influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1) trophic position could predict the day of maximum ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2) the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish. PMID:22279534

  2. Trophic Position and Metabolic Rate Predict the Long-Term Decay Process of Radioactive Cesium in Fish: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Tanaka, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (137Cs) can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term 137Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate) and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type) influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1) trophic position could predict the day of maximum 137Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2) the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of 137Cs activity concentration in fish. PMID:22279534

  3. Rates, causes, and dynamic of long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic "passive continental margin", Brazil and Namibia, as revealed by thermo-kinematic numerical modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Stippich; Anton, Glasmacher Ulrich; Peter, Christian, Hackspacher

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the research is to quantify the long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in SE-Brazil and NW-Namibia. Excellent onshore outcrop conditions and complete rift to post-rift archives between Sao Paulo and Porto Alegre and in the transition from Namibia to Angola (onshore Walvis ridge) allow a high precision quantification of exhumation, and uplift rates, influencing physical parameters, long-term acting forces, and process-response systems. Research will integrate the published and partly published thermochronological data from Brazil and Namibia, and test lately published new concepts on causes of long-term landscape evolution at rifted margins. The climate-continental margin-mantle coupled process-response system is caused by the interaction between endogenous and exogenous forces, which are related to the mantle-process driven rift - drift - passive continental margin evolution of the South Atlantic, and the climate change since the Early/Late Cretaceous climate maximum. Special emphasis will be given to the influence of long-living transform faults such as the Florianopolis Fracture Zone (FFZ) on the long-term topography evolution of the SAPCM's. A long-term landscape evolution model with process rates will be achieved by thermo-kinematic 3-D modeling (software code PECUBE and FastCape). Testing model solutions obtained for a multidimensional parameter space against the real thermochronological and geomorphological data set, the most likely combinations of parameter rates, and values can be constrained. The data and models will allow separating the exogenous and endogenous forces and their process rates.

  4. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1980.320 Section 1980.320 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.320 Interest rate. The interest rate must not... interest rate over the life of the loan. The rate shall be agreed upon by the borrower and the Lender...

  5. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more... market and pass interest-rate savings on to the borrower. (a) A variable interest rate agreed to by the.... The variable interest rate may be adjusted at different intervals during the term of the loan, but...

  6. A New Paradigm for Gamma Ray Bursts: Long Term Accretion Rate Modulation by an External Accretion Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizzo, John; Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of looking at the very long term evolution of GRBs in which the disk of material surrounding the putative black hole powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the efficacy of the process that extracts rotational energy from the black hole and inner accretion disk. The pre-Swift paradigm of achromatic, shallow-to-steep "breaks" in the long term GRB light curves has not been borne out by detailed Swift data amassed in the past several years. We argue that, given the initial existence of a fall-back disk near the progenitor, an unavoidable consequence will be the formation of an "external disk" whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. The mass reservoir at large radii moves outward with time and gives a natural power law decay to the GRB light curves. In this model, the different canonical power law decay segments in the GRB identified by Zhang et al. and Nousek et al. represent different physical states of the accretion disk. We identify a physical disk state with each power law segment.

  7. A NEW PARADIGM FOR GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: LONG-TERM ACCRETION RATE MODULATION BY AN EXTERNAL ACCRETION DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Cannizzo, J. K. E-mail: gehrels@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov

    2009-08-01

    We present a new way of looking at the very long-term evolution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in which the disk of material surrounding the putative black hole powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the efficacy of the process that extracts rotational energy from the black hole and inner accretion disk. The pre-Swift paradigm of achromatic, shallow-to-steep 'breaks' in the long-term GRB light curves has not been borne out by detailed Swift data amassed in the past several years. We argue that, given the initial existence of a fall-back disk near the progenitor, an unavoidable consequence will be the formation of an 'external disk' whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. The mass reservoir at large radii moves outward with time and gives a natural power-law decay to the GRB light curves. In this model, the different canonical power-law decay segments in the GRB identified by Zhang et al. and Nousek et al. represent different physical states of the accretion disk. We identify a physical disk state with each power-law segment.

  8. Constraints on long-term carbon-climate feedbacks from spatially resolved CO2 growth rate fluctuations linked to temperature and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    Feedbacks between the global carbon cycle and climate represent one of the largest uncertainties in climate prediction. A promising method for reducing uncertainty in predictions of carbon-climate feedbacks is based on identifying an "emergent constraint" that leverages correlations between mechanistically linked long-term feedbacks and short-term variations within the model ensemble. By applying contemporary observations to evaluate model skill in simulating short-term variations, we may be able to better assess the probability of simulated long-term feedbacks. We probed the constraint on long-term terrestrial carbon stocks provided by climate-driven fluctuations in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate at contemporary timescales. We considered the impact of both temperature and precipitation anomalies on terrestrial ecosystem exchange and further separated the direct influence of fire where possible. When we explicitly considered the role of atmospheric transport in smoothing the imprint of climate-driven flux anomalies on atmospheric CO2 patterns, we found that the extent of temporal averaging of both the observations and ESM output leads to estimates for the long-term climate sensitivity of tropical land carbon storage that are different by a factor of two. In the context of these results, we discuss strategies for applying emergent constraints for benchmarking biogeochemical feedbacks in ESMs. Specifically, our results underscore the importance of selecting appropriate observational benchmarks and, for future model intercomparison projects, outputting fields that most closely correspond to available observational datasets.

  9. Height of faceted spurs, a proxy for determining long-term throw rates on normal faults: Evidence from the North Baikal Rift System, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Carole; Meyer, Bertrand; Gunnell, Yanni; Jolivet, Marc; San'kov, Vladimir; Strak, Vincent; Gonga-Saholiariliva, Nahossio

    2010-05-01

    We present new results on the long-term throw rates of active normal faults in the North Baikal Rift (NBR), eastern Siberia, based on a statistical analysis of triangular faceted scarps. Faceted spurs or triangular facets are morphologic features frequently observed along normal fault scarps, and result from the progressive denudation and incision of the footwall during fault activity. Fault-bounded ridges in the NBR display such typical morphologies with several contiguous facets separated by fault-perpendicular catchments. Over a range of 20 fault segments analyzed, triangular facet heights vary from ~200 to >900 m. As fault scarps have been developing under similar long-term climatic conditions, we infer that the scatter in mean facet height arises from long-term differences in fault throw rate. We compare the morphology of NBR facets with results obtained in a previously published numerical model of facet growth, which predicts that the mean height of triangular facets is proportional to the fault throw rate. Using facet height as an input, model results provide estimates of the long-term fault throw rates in the NBR. These vary between 0.2 and 1.2 mm/yr. The throw rates are then compared with the cumulated throw, which has been constrained by geophysical and stratigraphic data in the basins. This provides an estimate of the age of fault and basin initiation. We show that the modern stage of basin development started circa 3 Myr ago, except for the North Baikal basin (~ 8 Ma). Our results also suggest that a proportion of the observed throw is inherited from an earlier tectonic stage.

  10. Wildfire and monsoon induced short-term hillslope degradation rates compared with model long-term rates,San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bursik, M.

    2003-04-01

    Event-scale erosion data were collected in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, AZ, from 1996 to 2000, to establish natural short-term hillslope degradation rates and compare these with existing computational models of long-term rates. This Neogene scoria cone field consists of late Miocene to Holocene volcanic cones, with a wide range of degradation stages. The semiarid climate makes the area exceptionally suitable for studies of extreme erosion events, because of the annual intense July and August monsoon season. Being the first study to collect an integrated set of natural hillslope degradation data, the results can be used to validate and improve existing computational models. Data on rainfall, rainsplash, overland flow and soil creep were collected with the help of splashboards, erosion pins, erosion plots, raingauges and channel cross-sections on slopes of 0^o to 30^o. Rainsplash data are consistent with a long-term diffusion model of slope degradation, but measured sediment fluxes are slightly higher than those predicted by such a model. Rainfall events cause formation of rilling and gullying by overland flow while dry periods cause diffusional infilling of the gullies and rills, as observed in successive channel cross-section and erosion pin measurements. Data on degradation by overland flow are not consistent with any type of diffusive-degradation model but have been compared to a channel-forming computational model, producing satisfactory results regarding flow speed, path and channel development, and erosion/deposition patterns. A severe forest fire burned one of two hillslope observation sites in 1996. This has given us the opportunity to observe the impact of fire on erosion due to drizzle (15 mm h-1) in areas having different severities of fire damage. This was compared to barren slopes on the unburned cone. The degradation has been accelerated in areas of high fire severity and high vegetation bareness by almost one order of magnitude. In particular, the rate of degradation by overland and pipe flow increased. A multiple regression of the field data including slope angle, vegetation, precipitation and fire severity fits data on degradation rate at alpha = 1 when fire severity is included in the regression.

  11. Using low-temperature thermochronometers to determine the long-term erosion rate pattern in the Olympic Mountains of Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolar, D. B.; Brandon, M. T.; Willett, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    Models of convergent mountain building can be tested with low-temperature thermochronometers and similar data sets provided that mass and heat transport are reasonably well-understood in the setting of interest. Here, we consider the topographically-highest and most deeply-exhumed portion of the Cascadia accretionary wedge, the Olympic Mountains of Washington State, where previous work suggests the long-term steadiness of the pattern of surface erosion and, hence, the mean topography and the temperature and rock velocity fields since soon after the onset of exhumation around 15-18 Ma. We test the hypothesis of a steady erosion rate pattern in the Olympic Mountains by using a thermo- mechanical model of a steady-state accretionary wedge and multiple low-temperature thermochronometers to solve for the patterns of mass influx (accretion) and mass outflux (surface erosion) through the Cascadia margin. Inversions of synthetic data indicate that the methodology is capable of accurately resolving the pattern of surface erosion. Inversions of real data appear to constrain both the duration and pattern of steady surface erosion. Vitrinite reflectance (VR) data, which record maximum temperatures, suggest that exhumation began ~15 Ma, matching previous estimates. Estimates of the erosion rate pattern from inversions of reset apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) ages are in rough agreement with each other and with fluvial incision rates near the western coast of the Olympic Peninsula, suggesting a steady erosion rate pattern over many millions of years. Inversions of reset zircon fission track (ZFT) ages suggest higher erosion rates in the core of the range than indicated by either the AFT or AHe data. Because the youngest reset ZFT age in the range is 9 Ma, we infer that the erosion rate pattern has remained relatively steady since 8 Ma. Finally, the erosion rate pattern determined from a simultaneous inversion of the AFT and AHe ages does not agree with the predicted pattern from a recently-proposed tectonic-erosional model.

  12. Male and Female Subpopulations of Salix viminalis Present High Genetic Diversity and High Long-Term Migration Rates between Them

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Feifei; Mao, Jinmei; Liu, Junxiang; Peng, Xiangyong; Han, Lei; Sun, Zhenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Dioecy distributed in 157 flowering plant families and 959 flowering plant genera. Morphological and physiological differences between male and female plants have been studied extensively, but studies of sex-specific genetic diversity are relatively scarce in dioecious plants. In this study, 20 SSR loci were employed to examine the genetic variance of male subpopulations and female subpopulations in Salix viminalis. The results showed that all of the markers were polymorphic (Na = 14.15, He = 0.7566) and workable to reveal the genetic diversity of S. viminalis. No statistically significant difference was detected between male and female subpopulations, but the average genetic diversity of male subpopulations (Na = 7.12, He = 0.7071) and female subpopulations (Na = 7.31, He = 0.7226) were high. Under unfavorable environments (West Liao basin), the genetic diversity between male and female subpopulations was still not significantly different, but the genetic diversity of sexual subpopulations were lower. The differentiation of the ten subpopulations in S. viminalis was moderate (FST = 0.0858), which was conformed by AMOVA that most of genetic variance (94%) existed within subpopulations. Pairwise FST indicated no differentiation between sexual subpopulations, which was accompanied by high long-term migrate between them (M = 0.73~1.26). However, little recent migration was found between sexual subpopulations. Therefore, artificial crossing or/and transplantation by cutting propagation should be carried out so as to increase the migration during the process of ex situ conservation. PMID:27047511

  13. Male and Female Subpopulations of Salix viminalis Present High Genetic Diversity and High Long-Term Migration Rates between Them.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Feifei; Mao, Jinmei; Liu, Junxiang; Peng, Xiangyong; Han, Lei; Sun, Zhenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Dioecy distributed in 157 flowering plant families and 959 flowering plant genera. Morphological and physiological differences between male and female plants have been studied extensively, but studies of sex-specific genetic diversity are relatively scarce in dioecious plants. In this study, 20 SSR loci were employed to examine the genetic variance of male subpopulations and female subpopulations in Salix viminalis. The results showed that all of the markers were polymorphic (Na = 14.15, He = 0.7566) and workable to reveal the genetic diversity of S. viminalis. No statistically significant difference was detected between male and female subpopulations, but the average genetic diversity of male subpopulations (Na = 7.12, He = 0.7071) and female subpopulations (Na = 7.31, He = 0.7226) were high. Under unfavorable environments (West Liao basin), the genetic diversity between male and female subpopulations was still not significantly different, but the genetic diversity of sexual subpopulations were lower. The differentiation of the ten subpopulations in S. viminalis was moderate (FST = 0.0858), which was conformed by AMOVA that most of genetic variance (94%) existed within subpopulations. Pairwise FST indicated no differentiation between sexual subpopulations, which was accompanied by high long-term migrate between them (M = 0.73~1.26). However, little recent migration was found between sexual subpopulations. Therefore, artificial crossing or/and transplantation by cutting propagation should be carried out so as to increase the migration during the process of ex situ conservation. PMID:27047511

  14. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan shall... management may adjust rates, and provide the upper and lower limits on management authority. Any interest... its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan....

  15. Long Term Prognosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... TERM PROGNOSIS The long-term outlook of pediatric cardiomyopathy continues to be unpredictable because it occurs with ... a child also depends on the type of cardiomyopathy and the stage the disease is first diagnosed. ...

  16. Long-term observations of SO2 gas emission rates from Nyiragongo volcano (RD Congo) during 2004-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalire, Matthiew; Galle, Bo; Arellano, Santiago; Norman, Patrik; Johansson, Mattias

    2010-05-01

    Mount Nyiragongo (3470 m a.s.l.) is an active stratovolcano of mafic composition located in the Virunga Mountains in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is considered as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world due to generation of voluminous and highly fluidized lava flows during historical eruptions and the proximity to densely inhabited areas. Nyiragongo volcano is also a source of prodigious gaseous emissions to the atmosphere during periods of both eruptive and non-eruptive activity. Documented records of the style, speciation, and magnitude of degassing from this volcano exist in the literature since three decades ago. These studies are mostly based on observations made during sporadic field campaigns or by satellite-borne sensors, owing to logistical constraints imposed by volcanic and political unrest. With the aim of strengthen the gas monitoring capabilities of Nyiragongo volcano, an automatic scanning spectroscopic (DOAS) system was installed in March 2004 in the Rusayo seismic station, 10 km from the volcano crater. This instrument is powered by solar panels and linked by radio telemetry to the Goma Volcanological Observatory. Combined with plume velocity data, this instrument provides near-to-real-time SO2 fluxes with a typical temporal resolution of 10 minutes during sunlight hours. In 2005 the instrument was upgraded and incorporated as part of the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC). Since 2005 three additional instruments has been installed, at 10 - 14 km distance W - SW of the crater, as part of the NOVAC project. We present the results of the measurements performed at Nyiragongo during the period March 2004-October 2009. Wind data has been obtained from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model based on data from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to account for the effect of local topography. A statistical analysis of the results and its relation with other volcanological observations is presented. This study emphasizes the importance of long-term and continuous gas monitoring to better understand the human and environmental effects of the persistent activity of this volcano.

  17. Long-term cattle gain responses to stocking rate and grazing systems in northern mixed-grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of stocking rate and grazing system on gains of yearling beef cattle grazing rangelands have largely been addressed in short-term (<10 yr) studies, and often stocking rates are confounded within grazing systems with higher stocking rates for short-duration rotational grazing systems comp...

  18. 38 CFR 36.4312 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... result in a change in either direction of more than one percentage point from the interest rate in effect... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rates. 36.4312... GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4312 Interest rates....

  19. Long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault, from 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating of an offset alluvial fan

    SciTech Connect

    der Woerd, J v; Klinger, Y; Sieh, K; Tapponnier, P; Ryerson, F; M?riaux, A

    2006-01-13

    We determine the long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault in the southeastern Indio Hills using {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al isotopes to date an offset alluvial fan surface. Field mapping complemented with topographic data, air photos and satellite images allow to precisely determine piercing points across the fault zone that are used to measure an offset of 565 {+-} 80 m. A total of twenty-six quartz-rich cobbles from three different fan surfaces were collected and dated. The tight cluster of nuclide concentrations from 19 samples out of 20 from the offset fan surface implies a simple exposure history, negligible prior exposure and erosion, and yield an age of 35.5 {+-} 2.5 ka. The long-term slip rate of the San Andreas Fault south of Biskra Palms is thus 15.9 {+-} 3.4 mm/yr. This rate is about 10 mm/yr slower than geological (0-14 ka) and short-term geodetic estimates for this part of the San Andreas Fault implying changes in slip rate or in faulting behavior. This result puts new constraints on the slip rate of the San Jacinto and on the Eastern California Shear Zone for the last 35 ka. Our study shows that more sites along the major faults of southern California need to be targeted to better constrain the slip-rates over different time scales.

  20. Retention Rates - Renewed Interest but Whose Interest is Being Served?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longden, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Explores the increased level of interest in retention rates among full-time, undergraduate students, considering the interests served by the state, universities and colleges, and students, and suggesting that as British higher education moves from an elite to a mass system, the elite instincts continue to dominate, working against student…

  1. Variability of OH(3-1) emission altitude from 2003 to 2011: Long-term stability and universality of the emission rate-altitude relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Savigny, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Vertical volume emission rate profiles of the OH(3-1) Meinel emission near the mesopause are retrieved from nighttime limb-emission observations with the SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) instrument on the Envisat satellite. Mean emission altitudes are determined by weighting altitude with the vertical OH(3-1) volume emission rate profile. Analysis of the SCIAMACHY data set from January 2003 to December 2011 shows a clear semi-annual variation of the mean emission altitudes at low latitudes - where SCIAMACHY performs measurements throughout the year - with an amplitude of 0.5-1.0 km. Confirming earlier studies, we find a near constant, or universal, scaling of mean OH emission altitude and vertically integrated emission rate, which can be employed by ground-based observers to infer indirect information on OH emission altitude and its variability, if measurements of OH emission rates are performed. For this purpose we provide climatological fit parameters for the altitude/emission rate relationship. No obvious long-term trends or 11-year solar cycle signatures are present in the OH emission altitude time series, partly contradicting earlier studies. The long-term stability in OH emission altitude at the local time of the SCIAMACHY nighttime observations (10 p.m.) strengthens the use of ground-based OH rotational temperature measurements to study middle atmospheric climate change.

  2. Uncertainties in Long-Term Geologic Offset Rates of Faults: General Principles Illustrated With Data From California and Other Western States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, P.

    2006-12-01

    Because the slip rates of seismic faults are highly variable, a better target for statistical estimation is the long- term offset rate, which can be defined as the rate of one component of the slip which would be measured between any two times when fault-plane shear tractions are equal. The probability density function for the sum of elastic offset plus fault slip offset since a particular geologic event includes uncertainties associated with changes in elastic strain between that event and the present, which are estimated from the sizes of historic earthquake offsets on other faults of similar type. The probability density function for the age of a particular geologic event may be non-Gaussian, especially if it is determined from cross-cutting relations, or from radiocarbon or cosmogenic-nuclide ages containing inheritance. Two alternate convolution formulas relating the distributions for offset and age give the probability density function for long-term offset rate; these are computed for most published cases of dated offset features along active faults in California and other western states. After defining a probabilistic measure of disagreement between two long-term offset rate distributions measured on the same fault section, I investigate how disagreement varies with geologic time (difference in age of the offset features) and with publication type (primary, secondary, or tertiary). Patterns of disagreement suggest that at least 4.3% of offset rates in primary literature are incorrect (due to failure to span the whole fault, undetected complex initial shapes of offset features, or faulty correlation in space or in geologic time) or unrepresentative (due to variations in offset rate along the trace). Tertiary (third-hand) literature sources have a higher error rate of 14.5%. In the western United States, it appears that rates from offset features as old as 3 Ma can be averaged without introducing age-dependent bias. Offsets of older features can and should be used as well, but it is necessary to make allowance for the increased risk, rising to rapidly to 48%, that they are inapplicable to neotectonics. Based on these results, best-estimate combined probability density functions are computed for the long-term offset rates of all active faults in California and other conterminous western states, and described in tables using several scalar measures. Of 849 active and potentially-active faults in the conterminous western United States, only 48 are "well-constrained" (having combined probability density functions for long-term offset rate in which the width of the 95%-confidence range is smaller than the median). It appears to require about 4 offset features to give an even chance of achieving a well-constrained combined rate, and at least 7 offset features to guarantee it.

  3. 7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates... business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest... more often than quarterly). (2) The lender must incorporate within the variable rate note,...

  4. Long-term testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000--10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  5. The use of a passive sampler for the simultaneous determination of long-term ventilation rates and VOC concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mailahn, W.; Seifert, B.; Ullrich, D. ); Moriske, H. )

    1989-01-01

    When interpreting seasonal variations of indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC), the ventilation rate must be known. Therefore, a method has been developed which permits the simultaneous determination of the average ventilation rate and the concentration of VOC in a room over an integration period of two week with the same passive sampler. Hexafluorobenzene (HFB), a non-toxic substance, was chosen as the tracer so as not to interfere in the gas chromatographic analysis of VOC in indoor air. Emission rates of HFB sources were determined at various temperatures from 15 to 30{degree}C. After a test of the procedure for sampling periods of one and two weeks in an experimental chamber at ventilation rates between 0.5 and 2 h{sup {minus}1}, the procedure was successfully applied under field conditions. Good agreement was obtained when comparing the HFB method with a perfluorocarbon technique.

  6. Long-term monitoring of creep rate along the Hayward fault and evidence for a lasting creep response to 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, J.J.; Galehouse, J.S.; Simpson, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    We present results from over 30 yr of precise surveys of creep along the Hayward fault. Along most of the fault, spatial variability in long-term creep rates is well determined by these data and can help constrain 3D-models of the depth of the creeping zone. However, creep at the south end of the fault stopped completely for more than 6 years after the M7 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPEQ), perhaps delayed by stress drop imposed by this event. With a decade of detailed data before LPEQ and a decade after it, we report that creep response to that event does indeed indicate the expected deficit in creep.

  7. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates... course of business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication....

  8. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates... course of business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication....

  9. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates... course of business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication....

  10. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates... course of business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication....

  11. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates... course of business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication....

  12. Long-term survival rates of gravity-assisted, adjustable differential pressure valves in infants with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Anna-Felicitas; Schulz, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of adjustable differential pressure valves with gravity-assisted units in shunt therapy of children with hydrocephalus was reported to be feasible and promising as a way to avoid chronic overdrainage. In this single-center study, the authors' experiences in infants, who have higher rates of shunt complications, are presented. METHODS All data were collected from a cohort of infants (93 patients [37 girls and 56 boys], less than 1 year of age [mean age 4.1 ± 3.1 months]) who received their first adjustable pressure hydrocephalus shunt as either a primary or secondary implant between May 2007 and April 2012. Rates of valve and shunt failure were recorded for a total of 85 months until the end of the observation period in May 2014. RESULTS During a follow-up of 54.2 ± 15.9 months (range 26-85 months), the Kaplan-Meier rate of shunt survival was 69.2% at 1 year and 34.1% at 85 months; the Kaplan-Meier rate of valve survival was 77.8% at 1 year and 56% at 85 months. Survival rates of the shunt were significantly inferior if the patients had previous shunt surgery. During follow-up, 44 valves were exchanged in cases of infection (n = 19), occlusion (n = 14), dysfunction of the adjustment unit (n = 10), or to change the gravitational unit (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Although a higher shunt complication rate is observed in infant populations compared with older children, reasonable survival rates demonstrate the feasibility of using this sophisticated valve technology. The gravitational unit of this valve is well tolerated and its adjustability offers the flexible application of opening pressure in an unpredictable cohort of patients. This may adequately address overdrainage-related complications from early in treatment. PMID:26799410

  13. Erosion Rates at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites and Long-Term Climate Change on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L. S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Weitz, C. M.; Sullivan, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Soderblom, L. A.; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of approx.0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga).

  14. Erosion rates at the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites and long-term climate change on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L. S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F.; Weitz, C. M.; Sullivan, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Soderblom, L. A.; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-12-01

    Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of ~0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga).

  15. Erosion rates at the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites and long-term climate change on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F., III; Weitz, C.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Christensen, P.R.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of ???0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga). Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Carbon accumulation in a permafrost polygon peatland: steady long-term rates in spite of shifts between dry and wet conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Couwenberg, John

    2015-02-01

    Ice-wedge polygon peatlands contain a substantial part of the carbon stored in permafrost soils. However, little is known about their long-term carbon accumulation rates (CAR) in relation to shifts in vegetation and climate. We collected four peat profiles from one single polygon in NE Yakutia and cut them into contiguous 0.5 cm slices. Pollen density interpolation between AMS (14)C dated levels provided the time span contained in each of the sample slices, which--in combination with the volumetric carbon content--allowed for the reconstruction of CAR over decadal and centennial timescales. Vegetation representing dry palaeo-ridges and wet depressions was reconstructed with detailed micro- and macrofossil analysis. We found repeated shifts between wet and dry conditions during the past millennium. Dry ridges with associated permafrost growth originated during phases of (relatively) warm summer temperature and collapsed during relatively cold phases, illustrating the important role of vegetation and peat as intermediaries between ambient air temperature and the permafrost. The average long-term CAR across the four profiles was 10.6 ± 5.5 g C m(-2) yr(-1). Time-weighted mean CAR did not differ significantly between wet depression and dry ridge/hummock phases (10.6 ± 5.2 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 10.3 ± 5.7 g C m(-2) yr(-1), respectively). Although we observed increased CAR in relation to warm shifts, we also found changes in the opposite direction and the highest CAR actually occurred during the Little Ice Age. In fact, CAR rather seems to be governed by strong internal feedback mechanisms and has roughly remained stable on centennial time scales. The absence of significant differences in CAR between dry ridge and wet depression phases suggests that recent warming and associated expansion of shrubs will not affect long-term rates of carbon burial in ice-wedge polygon peatlands. PMID:25230297

  17. A new animal model for evaluation of long-term growth rate over one month by rhGH/PLGA microcapsule formulations.

    PubMed

    Takada, Shigeyuki; Kurokawa, Tomofumi; Misaki, Masafumi; Taira, Keiko; Yamagata, Yutaka

    2003-07-01

    A new animal model to evaluate the long-term growth rate produced by a sustained-release formulation of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) over one month was developed and the usefulness of our microcapsule formulations was demonstrated in this model. Long-term pharmacological effects by subcutaneous injection of microcapsules for sustained release of rhGH were evaluated in hypophysectomized (Hpx) rats treated with immunosuppressive agent along with hormone supplement. Copoly(DL-lactic/glycolic)acid (PLGA) microcapsules for sustained release of rhGH, a two-week sustained-release formulation (rhGH-SR-2W) and a one-month sustained-release formulation (rhGH-SR-1M), were prepared by a solid-in-oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Body-weight gain, body-length gain and serum levels of rat insulin-like growth factor-I (rIGF-I) induced by subcutaneous injection of rhGH-SR were compared with those by daily injections of rhGH solution in Hpx rats for 35 days. Serum IGF-I levels in Hpx rats after the injection of rhGH-SR2W microcapsules were higher than those after daily injections of rhGH solution. Body-length gain, a new parameter, after single injection of rhGH-SR-1M microcapsules demonstrated the higher growth rate than that after daily injections of rhGH solution for 35 days. Thus, single injection of rhGH-SR microcapsules demonstrated long-term pharmacological effects greater than those by daily injections of rhGH solution in a newly developed model, immunosuppressed Hpx rats. PMID:12906752

  18. In Vivo Tumor Growth Rate Measured by US in Preoperative Period and Long Term Disease Outcome in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyoon; Lee, Eunshin; Kim, Jongjin; Lee, Han-Byoel; Kang, Young Joon; Kim, Yun-Gyoung; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of tumor growth rate, calculated from tumor size measurements by US, on breast cancer patients outcome. Patients and Methods Breast cancer patients who received at least two serial breast ultrasonographies (US) in our institution during preoperative period and were surgically treated between 2002 and 2010 were reviewed. Tumor growth rate was determined by specific growth rate (SGR) using the two time point tumor sizes by US. Results A total of 957 patients were analyzed. The median duration between initial and second US was 28 days (range, 8140). The median initial tumor size was 1.7cm (range, 0.47.0) and median second size was 1.9cm (range, 0.37.2). 523(54.6%) cases had increase in size. The median SGR(x10-2) was 0.59 (range, -11.90~31.49) and mean tumor doubling time was 14.51 days. Tumor growth rate was higher when initial tumor size was smaller. Lymphovascular invasion, axillary lymph node metastasis, and higher histologic grade were significantly associated with higher SGR. SGR was significantly associated with disease-free survival (DFS) in a univariate analysis (p = 0.04), but not in a multivariate Cox analysis (p>0.05). High SGR was significantly associated with worse DFS in a subgroup of initial tumor size >2cm (p = 0.018), but not in those with tumor size <2cm (p>0.05). Conclusion Our results showed that tumor growth rate measured by US in a relatively short time interval was associated with other worse prognostic factors and DFS, but it was not an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer patients. PMID:26657267

  19. THE LONG-TERM DECAY IN PRODUCTION RATES FOLLOWING THE EXTREME OUTBURST OF COMET 17P/HOLMES

    SciTech Connect

    Schleicher, David G.

    2009-10-15

    Numerous sets of narrowband filter photometry were obtained of Comet 17P/Holmes from Lowell Observatory during the interval of 2007 November 1 to 2008 March 5. Observations began 8 days following its extreme outburst, at which time the derived water production rate, based on OH measurements, was 5 x 10{sup 29} molecule s{sup -1} and the derived proxy of dust production, A({theta})f{rho}, was about 5 x 10{sup 5} cm. Relative production rates for the other gas species, CN, C{sub 2}, C{sub 3}, and NH, are consistent with 'typical' composition (based on our update to the classifications by A'Hearn et al.). An exponential decay in the logarithm of measured production rates as a function of time was observed for all species, with each species dropping by factors of about 200-500 after 125 days. All gas species exhibited clear trends with aperture size, and these trends are consistent with larger apertures having a greater proportion of older material that was released when production rates were higher. Much larger aperture trends were measured for the dust, most likely because the dust grains have smaller outflow velocities and longer lifetimes than the gas species; therefore, a greater proportion of older, i.e., higher production dust is contained within a given aperture. By extrapolating to a sufficiently small aperture size, we derive near-instantaneous water and dust production rates throughout the interval of observation, and also estimate values immediately following the outburst. The finite lifetime of the gas species requires that much higher ice vaporization rates were taking place throughout the observation interval than occurred prior to the outburst, likely due to the continued release of icy grains from the nucleus. The relatively small aperture trends for the gas species also imply that the bulk of fresh, excess volatiles are confined to the nucleus and near-nucleus regime, rather than being associated with the outburst ejecta cloud. A minimum of about 0.1% of the total nucleus volume was vaporized water ice, while a dust volume corresponding to at least 1%-2% was likely to have been released from the nucleus.

  20. Visualization of Heart Rate Variability of Long-Term Heart Transplant Patient by Transition Networks: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Wdowczyk, Joanna; Makowiec, Danuta; Dorniak, Karolina; Gruchała, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    We present a heart transplant patient at his 17th year of uncomplicated follow-up. Within a frame of routine check out several tests were performed. With such a long and uneventful follow-up some degree of graft reinnervation could be anticipated. However, the patient's electrocardiogram and exercise parameters seemed largely inconclusive in this regard. The exercise heart rate dynamics were suggestive of only mild, if any parasympathetic reinnervation of the graft with persisting sympathetic activation. On the other hand, traditional heart rate variability (HRV) indices were inadequately high, due to erratic rhythm resulting from interference of the persisting recipient sinus node or non-conducted atrial parasystole. New tools, originated from network representation of time series, by visualization short-term dynamical patterns, provided a method to discern HRV increase due to reinnervation from other reasons. PMID:27014081

  1. Visualization of Heart Rate Variability of Long-Term Heart Transplant Patient by Transition Networks: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wdowczyk, Joanna; Makowiec, Danuta; Dorniak, Karolina; Gruchała, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    We present a heart transplant patient at his 17th year of uncomplicated follow-up. Within a frame of routine check out several tests were performed. With such a long and uneventful follow-up some degree of graft reinnervation could be anticipated. However, the patient's electrocardiogram and exercise parameters seemed largely inconclusive in this regard. The exercise heart rate dynamics were suggestive of only mild, if any parasympathetic reinnervation of the graft with persisting sympathetic activation. On the other hand, traditional heart rate variability (HRV) indices were inadequately high, due to erratic rhythm resulting from interference of the persisting recipient sinus node or non-conducted atrial parasystole. New tools, originated from network representation of time series, by visualization short-term dynamical patterns, provided a method to discern HRV increase due to reinnervation from other reasons. PMID:27014081

  2. Outcomes of High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Long-term Results

    PubMed Central

    Pinn-Bingham, Melva; Puthawala, Ajmel A.; Syed, A.M. Nisar; Sharma, Anil; DiSaia, Philip; Berman, Michael; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Randall-Whitis, Leslie; Mahmood, Usama; Ramsinghani, Nilam; Kuo, Jeffrey; Chen, Wen-Pin; McLaren, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and toxicity of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials Between March 1996 and May 2009, 116 patients with cervical cancer were treated. Of these, 106 (91%) patients had advanced disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA). Ten patients had stage IB, 48 had stage II, 51 had stage III, and 7 had stage IVA disease. All patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the pelvis (5040 cGy) and 2 applications of HDR-ISBT to a dose of 3600 cGy to the implanted volume. Sixty-one percent of patients also received interstitial hyperthermia, and 94 (81%) patients received chemotherapy. Results Clinical LRC was achieved in 99 (85.3%) patients. Three-year DFS rates were 59%, 67%, 71%, and 57% for patients with stage IB, II, III, and IVA disease, respectively. The 5-year DFS and overall survival rates for the entire group were 60% and 44%, respectively. Acute and late toxicities were within acceptable limits. Conclusions Locally advanced cervical cancer patients for whom intracavitary BT is unsuitable can achieve excellent LRC and OS with a combination of EBRT and HDR-ISBT. PMID:22763030

  3. Outcomes of High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Long-term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pinn-Bingham, Melva; Puthawala, Ajmel A.; Syed, A.M. Nisar; Sharma, Anil; DiSaia, Philip; Berman, Michael; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Randall-Whitis, Leslie; Mahmood, Usama; Ramsinghani, Nilam; Kuo, Jeffrey; Chen, Wen-Pin; McLaren, Christine E.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and toxicity of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between March 1996 and May 2009, 116 patients with cervical cancer were treated. Of these, 106 (91%) patients had advanced disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA). Ten patients had stage IB, 48 had stage II, 51 had stage III, and 7 had stage IVA disease. All patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the pelvis (5040 cGy) and 2 applications of HDR-ISBT to a dose of 3600 cGy to the implanted volume. Sixty-one percent of patients also received interstitial hyperthermia, and 94 (81%) patients received chemotherapy. Results: Clinical LRC was achieved in 99 (85.3%) patients. Three-year DFS rates were 59%, 67%, 71%, and 57% for patients with stage IB, II, III, and IVA disease, respectively. The 5-year DFS and overall survival rates for the entire group were 60% and 44%, respectively. Acute and late toxicities were within acceptable limits. Conclusions: Locally advanced cervical cancer patients for whom intracavitary BT is unsuitable can achieve excellent LRC and OS with a combination of EBRT and HDR-ISBT.

  4. Germline mutation rates and the long-term phenotypic effects of mutation accumulation in wild-type laboratory mice and mutator mice.

    PubMed

    Uchimura, Arikuni; Higuchi, Mayumi; Minakuchi, Yohei; Ohno, Mizuki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Miura, Ikuo; Wakana, Shigeharu; Nishino, Jo; Yagi, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    The germline mutation rate is an important parameter that affects the amount of genetic variation and the rate of evolution. However, neither the rate of germline mutations in laboratory mice nor the biological significance of the mutation rate in mammalian populations is clear. Here we studied genome-wide mutation rates and the long-term effects of mutation accumulation on phenotype in more than 20 generations of wild-type C57BL/6 mice and mutator mice, which have high DNA replication error rates. We estimated the base-substitution mutation rate to be 5.4 × 10(-9) (95% confidence interval = 4.6 × 10(-9)-6.5 × 10(-9)) per nucleotide per generation in C57BL/6 laboratory mice, about half the rate reported in humans. The mutation rate in mutator mice was 17 times that in wild-type mice. Abnormal phenotypes were 4.1-fold more frequent in the mutator lines than in the wild-type lines. After several generations, the mutator mice reproduced at substantially lower rates than the controls, exhibiting low pregnancy rates, lower survival rates, and smaller litter sizes, and many of the breeding lines died out. These results provide fundamental information about mouse genetics and reveal the impact of germline mutation rates on phenotypes in a mammalian population. PMID:26129709

  5. 76 FR 59767 - Interest Rates; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates; Notice AGENCY: Small Business Administration. The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This...

  6. A long-term rock uplift rate for eastern Crete and geodynamic implications for the Hellenic subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobl, M.; Hetzel, R.; Fassoulas, C.; Kubik, P.

    2014-12-01

    The island of Crete in the forearc of the Hellenic subduction zone has a rugged topography with a local relief exceeding 2 km. Based on the elevation of marine shorelines, rates of rock uplift during the Late Holocene were previously estimated to range between 1 and 4 mm/a in different parts of the island (e.g. Lambeck, 1995). These rates may, however, not be representative for longer timescales, because subduction earthquakes with up to 9 m of vertical coseismic displacement have recently affected Crete (Stiros, 2001). Here we use a well preserved sequence of marine terraces near Kato Zakros in eastern Crete to determine the rate of rock uplift over the last ˜600 ka. Field investigations and topographic profiles document a flight of more than 13 marine bedrock terraces that were carved into limestones of the Tripolitza unit. Preliminary age constraints for the terraces were obtained by 10Be exposure dating of rare quartz-bearing sandstone clasts, which are present on some terraces. The 10Be ages of these samples, which have been corrected for an inherited nuclide component, yielded exposure ages between ˜100 ka and zero. Combined with geomorphologic evidence the two oldest 10Be ages suggest that the terraces T4 and T5, with shoreline angles at an elevation of ca. 68 and ca. 76 m above sea level, respectively, formed during the marine isotope stage 5e about 120 ka ago. The correlation of the higher terraces (T6 to T13) with regional sea-level high-stands (Siddall et al., 2003) indicates sustained rock uplift at a rate of ˜0.5 m/ka since at least ˜600 ka. As normal faulting has dominated the tectonics of Crete during the last several million years, upper crustal shortening can be ruled out as a cause for rock uplift. We argue that the sustained uplift of the island results from the continuous underplating of sediments, which are transferred from the subducting African plate to the base of the crust beneath Crete. Lambeck, 1995, Geophys. J. Int. 122, 1022-1044.Siddall et al., 2003, Nature, 423, 853-858.Stiros, 2001, J. Struct. Geol., 23, 545-562.

  7. The impact of long-term water stress on relative growth rate and morphology of needles and shoots of Metasequoia glyptostroboides seedlings: research toward identifying mechanistic models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Equiza, Maria Alejandra; Zheng, Quanshui; Tyree, Melvin T

    2011-09-01

    Leaf morphology in the upper canopy of trees tends to be different from that lower down. The effect of long-term water stress on leaf growth and morphology was studied in seedlings of Metasequoia glyptostroboides to understand how tree height might affect leaf morphology in larger trees. Tree height increases water stress on growing leaves through increased hydraulic resistance to water flow and increased gravitational potential, hence we assume that water stress imposed by soil dehydration will have an effect equivalent to stress induced by height. Seedlings were subjected to well-watered and two constant levels of long-term water stress treatments. Drought treatment significantly reduced final needle count, area and mass per area (leaf mass area, LMA) and increased needle density. Needles from water-stressed plants had lower maximum volumetric elastic modulus (?(max)), osmotic potential at full turgor (???(?)) (and at zero turgor (??(?)) (than those from well-watered plants. Palisade and spongy mesophyll cell size and upper epidermal cell size decreased significantly in drought treatments. Needle relative growth rate, needle length and cell sizes were linear functions of the daily average water potential at the time of leaf growth (r 0.88-0.999). We conclude that water stress alone does mimic the direction and magnitude of changes in leaf morphology observed in tall trees. The results are discussed in terms of various models for leaf growth rate. PMID:21534977

  8. Sources of variability in spotted owl population growth rate: testing predictions using long-term mark-recapture data.

    PubMed

    Seamans, Mark E; Gutiérrez, R J

    2007-05-01

    For long-lived iteroparous vertebrates that annually produce few young, life history theory predicts that reproductive output (R) and juvenile survival should influence temporal variation in population growth rate (lambda) more than adult survival does. We examined this general prediction using 15 years of mark-recapture data from a population of California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). We found that survival of individuals > or =1 year old (phi) exhibited much less temporal variability (CV = 0.04), where CV is coefficient of variation, than R (CV = 0.83) and that R was strongly influenced by environmental stochasticity. Although lambda was most sensitive (ê; log-transformed sensitivity) to phi (ê = 0.77), and much less sensitive to either R (ê = 0.12) or juvenile survival (survival rate of owls from fledging to 1 year old; ê = 0.12), we estimated that R contributed as much as phi to the observed annual variability in lambda. The contribution of juvenile survival to variability in lambda was proportional to its ê. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that natural selection may have favored the evolution of longevity in spotted owls as a strategy to increase the probability of experiencing favorable years for reproduction. Our finding that annual weather patterns that most affected R (temperature and precipitation during incubation) and phi (conditions during winter related to the Southern Oscillation Index) were equally good at explaining temporal variability in lambda supports the conclusion that R and phi were equally responsible for variability in lambda. Although currently accepted conservation measures for spotted owl populations attempt to enhance survival, our results indicated that conservation measures that target R may be as successful, as long as actions do not reduce phi. PMID:17160689

  9. In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives.

    PubMed

    Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B; Horvitz, Carol C

    2014-03-25

    A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, λc, and its geometric mean, λper-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined λc and λper-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (λper-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (λper-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trillium's λper-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (λper-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives' success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide. PMID:24616522

  10. In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives

    PubMed Central

    Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B.; Horvitz, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, ?c, and its geometric mean, ?per-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined ?c and ?per-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (?per-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (?per-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trilliums ?per-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (?per-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide. PMID:24616522

  11. Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids.

    PubMed

    Bell, James R; Alderson, Lynda; Izera, Daniela; Kruger, Tracey; Parker, Sue; Pickup, Jon; Shortall, Chris R; Taylor, Mark S; Verrier, Paul; Harrington, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. The Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) runs a network of 12·2-m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. In 2014, the RIS celebrated its 50th anniversary. This paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatiotemporal analysis and the provision of the first British annotated checklist of aphids since 1964. Our main aim was to elucidate mechanisms that advance aphid phenology under climate change and explain these using life-history traits. We then highlight emerging pests using accumulation patterns. Linear and nonlinear mixed-effect models estimated the average rate of change per annum and effects of climate on annual counts, first and last flights and length of flight season since 1965. Two climate drivers were used: the accumulated day degrees above 16 °C (ADD16) indicated the potential for migration during the aphid season; the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signalled the severity of the winter before migration took place. All 55 species studied had earlier first flight trends at rate of β = -0·611 ± SE 0·015 days year(-1). Of these species, 49% had earlier last flights, but the average species effect appeared relatively stationary (β = -0·010 ± SE 0·022 days year(-1)). Most species (85%) showed increasing duration of their flight season (β = 0·336 ± SE 0·026 days year(-1)), even though only 54% increased their log annual count (β = 0·002 ± SE <0·001 year(-1)). The ADD16 and NAO were shown to drive patterns in aphid phenology in a spatiotemporal context. Early in the year when the first aphids were migrating, the effect of the winter NAO was highly significant. Further into the year, ADD16 was a strong predictor. Latitude had a near linear effect on first flights, whereas longitude produced a generally less-clear effect on all responses. Aphids that are anholocyclic (permanently parthenogenetic) or are monoecious (non-host-alternating) were advancing their phenology faster than those that were not. Climate drives phenology and traits help explain how this takes place biologically. Phenology and trait ecology are critical to understanding the threat posed by emerging pests such as Myzus persicae nicotianae and Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis, as revealed by the species accumulation analysis. PMID:25123260

  12. Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids

    PubMed Central

    Bell, James R; Alderson, Lynda; Izera, Daniela; Kruger, Tracey; Parker, Sue; Pickup, Jon; Shortall, Chris R; Taylor, Mark S; Verrier, Paul; Harrington, Richard

    2015-01-01

    1. Aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. The Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) runs a network of 12·2-m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. In 2014, the RIS celebrated its 50th anniversary. This paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatiotemporal analysis and the provision of the first British annotated checklist of aphids since 1964. 2. Our main aim was to elucidate mechanisms that advance aphid phenology under climate change and explain these using life-history traits. We then highlight emerging pests using accumulation patterns. 3. Linear and nonlinear mixed-effect models estimated the average rate of change per annum and effects of climate on annual counts, first and last flights and length of flight season since 1965. Two climate drivers were used: the accumulated day degrees above 16 °C (ADD16) indicated the potential for migration during the aphid season; the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signalled the severity of the winter before migration took place. 4. All 55 species studied had earlier first flight trends at rate of β = −0·611 ± SE 0·015 days year−1. Of these species, 49% had earlier last flights, but the average species effect appeared relatively stationary (β = −0·010 ± SE 0·022 days year−1). Most species (85%) showed increasing duration of their flight season (β = 0·336 ± SE 0·026 days year−1), even though only 54% increased their log annual count (β = 0·002 ± SE <0·001 year−1). 5. The ADD16 and NAO were shown to drive patterns in aphid phenology in a spatiotemporal context. Early in the year when the first aphids were migrating, the effect of the winter NAO was highly significant. Further into the year, ADD16 was a strong predictor. Latitude had a near linear effect on first flights, whereas longitude produced a generally less-clear effect on all responses. Aphids that are anholocyclic (permanently parthenogenetic) or are monoecious (non-host-alternating) were advancing their phenology faster than those that were not. 6. Climate drives phenology and traits help explain how this takes place biologically. Phenology and trait ecology are critical to understanding the threat posed by emerging pests such as Myzus persicae nicotianae and Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis, as revealed by the species accumulation analysis. PMID:25123260

  13. Wearable monitoring for mood recognition in bipolar disorder based on history-dependent long-term heart rate variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Gaetano; Nardelli, Mimma; Lanat, Antonio; Gentili, Claudio; Bertschy, Gilles; Paradiso, Rita; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2014-09-01

    Current clinical practice in diagnosing patients affected by psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder is based only on verbal interviews and scores from specific questionnaires, and no reliable and objective psycho-physiological markers are taken into account. In this paper, we propose to use a wearable system based on a comfortable t-shirt with integrated fabric electrodes and sensors able to acquire electrocardiogram, respirogram, and body posture information in order to detect a pattern of objective physiological parameters to support diagnosis. Moreover, we implemented a novel ad hoc methodology of advanced biosignal processing able to effectively recognize four possible clinical mood states in bipolar patients (i.e., depression, mixed state, hypomania, and euthymia) continuously monitored up to 18 h, using heart rate variability information exclusively. Mood assessment is intended as an intrasubject evaluation in which the patient's states are modeled as a Markov chain, i.e., in the time domain, each mood state refers to the previous one. As validation, eight bipolar patients were monitored collecting and analyzing more than 400 h of autonomic and cardiovascular activity. Experimental results demonstrate that our novel concept of personalized and pervasive monitoring constitutes a viable and robust clinical decision support system for bipolar disorders recognizing mood states with a total classification accuracy up to 95.81%. PMID:24240031

  14. Effects of short- and long-term exposure to ozone on heart rate and blood pressure of emphysematous rats

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, I.; Yokoyama, E.

    1989-02-01

    Electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure of elastase-treated emphysematous rats (E rats) and saline-treated control rats (S rats) were recorded continuously during exposure to either 1 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/) for 3 hr or 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ for 6 hr. The heart rates (HRs) of both groups decreased to about 50 and 65% of the initial levels at the end of 1 ppm and 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ exposure, respectively. Mean arterial blood pressures (MAPs) also decreased to about 76 and 82%, respectively. There was no significant difference in these responses between E and S rats, although the levels of HRs and MAPs of the E rats were always a little lower than those of the S rats. Another group of E and S rats was continuously exposed to 0.2 ppm O/sub 3/ for 4 weeks. The HRs of both E and S groups decreased to about 81 and 88% of the initial levels on the first day, respectively, although they recovered completely by the third day. No significant difference in the variation of HRs during exposure was noted between E and S rats. However, the HR responses of these rats to a challenge exposure of 0.8 ppm O/sub 3/ for 1.5 hr appeared to be different. That is, S rats were more tolerant of the challenge exposure to O/sub 3/ for 1.5 hr than the E rats.

  15. Long-term repeatability makes basal metabolic rate a likely heritable trait in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata.

    PubMed

    Rønning, Bernt; Moe, Børge; Bech, Claus

    2005-12-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is a physiological trait believed to show adaptational changes. Few studies have tested whether BMR shows stable between-individual variations. Repeatability indicates that the trait might be heritable and therefore a possible target for natural selection. We tested whether BMR was repeatable over a considerable time of the lifespan of a small passerine bird: the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. BMR was measured six times over a 2.5 year period in captive zebra finches. BMR residuals showed significant repeatabilities over a short (1.5 months) and a long (2.5 years) period for each sex as well as for both sexes pooled. In contrast to earlier studies on metabolism, our calculated repeatability (R) did not change significantly from the short to the long period in either males (R from 0.501 to 0.465), females (R from 0.413 to 0.522) or the pooled data (R from 0.571 to 0.567). Our results show that there are consistent between-individual variations in BMR on which natural selection can work, provided that this trait is heritable. PMID:16326947

  16. The Long-Term Effective Rate of Different Branches of Idiopathic Trigeminal Neuralgia After Single Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuan-Zhang; Wu, Bai-Shan; Yang, Li-Qiang; Yue, Jian-Ning; He, Liang-Liang; Li, Na; Ni, Jia-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of computed tomography (CT) guided single radiofrequency thermocoagualtion (RFT) in 1137 patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia after a follow-up period of 11 years, specially focused on duration of pain relief in different branches of trigeminal nerve, side effect, and complications. Retrospective study of patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia treated with a single CT guided RFT procedure between January 2002 and December 2013. The mean follow-up time was 46.14 ± 30.91 months. Immediate postprocedure pain relief was 98.4%. V2 division obtained the best pain relief rate: 91%, 89%, 80%, 72%, 60%, and 54% at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 years, respectively. No statistical difference pairwise comparison was in other groups. The complications included masseter muscle weakness, corneitis, diplopia, ptosis, hearing loss, limited mouth opening, and low pressure headache. Masticatory weakness mostly occurred in patients with V3 branch involvement, while Corneitis and Diplopia all in patients with V1 branch involvement. No mortalities observed during or after RFT. All different branches division of trigeminal neuralgia achieved comparable satisfactory curative effect; V2 obtained the best excellent pain relief, after RFT procedure. Facial numbness is inevitable after RFT, which patients who have pain in all 3 trigeminal divisions and patients who desire no facial numbness should be cautious. Masticatory weakness is mainly related with V3 injured, while Corneitis and Diplopia in patients with V1 injured by RFT. PMID:26559288

  17. How are pools influencing the long-term rate of peat accumulation at the ecosystem scale in northern peatlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, J.; Pelletier, L.; Sonnentag, O.; Frolking, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Estimates of the global amount of carbon stored in peatlands are based on spatial extrapolations of peat carbon content values derived from peat core analysis. However, due to the labor-intensive nature and costs associated with peat core collection and analysis, most site-wide or region-wide peat carbon content or peat accumulation rate estimates are based on a very limited number of cores (often only one per site), ignoring the potential peat accumulation variations within a site. Variations in peat accumulation values between microforms, especially small open water features (pools) are therefore generally not quantified. Although poorly documented, the area occupied by pools in a given peatland can be quite significant, reaching up to 30% in peatlands of the Hudson's Bay Lowlands. As pools can be relatively deep (> 2 m), the carbon stored per unit area under pools is significantly lower than on the adjacent vegetated surfaces, where peat cores are typically collected. We present first order estimates of the potential impact of overlooking pools in regional peat carbon content inventories based on a review of the available data on pool coverage and depths, and on peat profiles generated by the Holocene Peat Model. We also present the implications of these results for future research.

  18. Evaluating release alternatives for a long-lived bird species under uncertainty about long-term demographic rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Clinton T.; Converse, Sarah J.; Folk, Martin J.; Runge, Michael C.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The release of animals to reestablish an extirpated population is a decision problem that is often attended by considerable uncertainty about the probability of success. Annual releases of captive-reared juvenile Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) were begun in 1993 in central Florida, USA, to establish a breeding, non-migratory population. Over a 12-year period, 286 birds were released, but by 2004, the introduced flock had produced only four wild-fledged birds. Consequently, releases were halted over managers' concerns about the performance of the released flock and uncertainty about the efficacy of further releases. We used data on marked, released birds to develop predictive models for addressing whether releases should be resumed, and if so, under what schedule. To examine the outcome of different release scenarios, we simulated the survival and productivity of individual female birds under a baseline model that recognized age and breeding-class structure and which incorporated empirically estimated stochastic elements. As data on wild-fledged birds from captive-reared parents were sparse, a key uncertainty that confronts release decision-making is whether captive-reared birds and their offspring share the same vital rates. Therefore, we used data on the only population of wild Whooping Cranes in existence to construct two alternatives to the baseline model. The probability of population persistence was highly sensitive to the choice of these three models. Under the baseline model, extirpation of the population was nearly certain under any scenario of resumed releases. In contrast, the model based on estimates from wild birds projected a high probability of persistence under any release scenario, including cessation of releases. Therefore, belief in either of these models suggests that further releases are an ineffective use of resources. In the third model, which simulated a population Allee effect, population persistence was sensitive to the release decision: high persistence probability was achieved only through the release of more birds, whereas extirpation was highly probable with cessation of releases. Despite substantial investment of time and effort in the release program, evidence collected to date does not favor one model over another; therefore, any decision about further releases must be made under considerable biological uncertainty. However, given an assignment of credibility weight to each model, a best, informed decision about releases can be made under uncertainty. Furthermore, if managers can periodically revisit the release decision and collect monitoring data to further inform the models, then managers have a basis for confronting uncertainty and adaptively managing releases through time.

  19. Long-term erosion and exhumation rates across different climatic zones in the Indian NW-Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeken, A.; Hourigan, J. K.; Thiede, R. C.; Sobel, E. R.; Strecker, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Concepts have been developed that explain the changeover from tectonically to erosionally controlled exhumation processes in the tectonic evolution of the Himalayan orogen. However, the degree to which climate-driven erosion controls the late Cenozoic development of the southern Himalayan front is still a matter of debate. The Himalaya forms an orographic barrier with strong gradients both perpendicular to and along strike of the orogen. Thus, quantifying whether or not precipitation, erosion, and deformation patterns are correlated over geologic time should provide important insights into the tectonic evolution of the orogen. To constrain spatial and temporal variations in erosion and along strike variations in the timing and magnitude of deformation in the NW-Himalaya, we are establishing a data set of multiple low-temperature thermochronometers. Together with previous published data, our new apatite fission track (AFT) and zircon (U-Th)/He ages (ZHe) ages will be integrated with 3D-thermo-kinematic modeling. On a first sampling campaign, we collected 40 bedrock samples from the hanging wall of the MCT along an approximately 100 km long, strike perpendicular transect across the High Himalaya of the Chamba/Zanskar region that is situated between the Kishtwar- and the Larji-Kulu-Rampur-Windows. It extends from the southern Himalayan front, that is characterised by concentrated monsoonal precipitation, to the arid interior of the orogen. We present ca. 33 new AFT and 30 new ZHe from 3 elevation transects, which span between 2400 m and 3600 m. Our data constrain the exhumation history of the Chamba/Zanskar region spanning from the Miocene until present. ZHe and AFT ages range between 6.3 and 18.1 Ma, and 1.7 and 9.3 Ma, respectively. Our new data reveal spatiotemporal variation in the exhumation between the frontal range and the more internal compartments of the High Himalaya. At the internal ranges to the north, ZHe ages (9.4-18.1 Ma) as well as AFT ages (3.8-9.3 Ma) increase with sample elevation. In contrast, AFT ages, and to some degree ZHe ages at the southernmost frontal range are young (<3.7 Ma and <9.2 Ma, respectively), and are not correlated with sample elevation. Our preliminary interpretation of these observations is that as a consequence of moderate exhumation rates at earlier times (Miocene) isotherms were sub-horizontal (forming an age/elevation relationship), whereas the frontal range has been affected by more deep-seated and rapid exhumation over the last couple of Ma causing more advected isotherms, which are running sub-parallel to the first order topography (no age/elevation relationship). Our new data provide insight in lateral variations in exhumation along strike of the northwesternmost segment of the Himalaya in space and time. In contrast to most other regions of the NW Himalaya, the Chamba/Zanskar region is characterized by rapid exhumation along the southernmost frontal range in the hanging wall of the MBT, whereas to the northwest and to the southeast, at the tectonic Kishtwar and Larji-Kullu-Rampur windows, focused denudation is concentrated in a narrow belt ~100 km north of the orogenic front.

  20. Long-Term Data Reveal a Population Decline of the Tropical Lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a Negative Affect of El Nino Years on Population Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Stapley, Jessica; Garcia, Milton; Andrews, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change threatens biodiversity worldwide, however predicting how particular species will respond is difficult because climate varies spatially, complex factors regulate population abundance, and species vary in their susceptibility to climate change. Studies need to incorporate these factors with long-term data in order to link climate change to population abundance. We used 40 years of lizard abundance data and local climate data from Barro Colorado Island to ask how climate, total lizard abundance and cohort-specific abundance have changed over time, and how total and cohort-specific abundance relate to climate variables including those predicted to make the species vulnerable to climate change (i.e. temperatures exceeding preferred body temperature). We documented a decrease in lizard abundance over the last 40 years, and changes in the local climate. Population growth rate was related to the previous years’ southern oscillation index; increasing following cooler-wetter, la niña years, decreasing following warmer-drier, el nino years. Within-year recruitment was negatively related to rainfall and minimum temperature. This study simultaneously identified climatic factors driving long-term population fluctuations and climate variables influencing short-term annual recruitment, both of which may be contributing to the population decline and influence the population’s future persistence. PMID:25671423

  1. Heart rate reduction for 36 months with ivabradine reduces left ventricular mass in cardiac allograft recipients: a long-term follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Doesch, Andreas O; Mueller, Susanne; Erbel, Christian; Gleissner, Christian A; Frankenstein, Lutz; Hardt, Stefan; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Ehlermann, Philipp; Dengler, Thomas; Katus, Hugo A

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to graft denervation, sinus tachycardia is a common problem after heart transplantation, underlining the importance of heart rate control without peripheral effects. However, long-term data regarding the effects of ivabradine, a novel If channel antagonist, are limited in patients after heart transplantation. Methods In this follow-up analysis, the resting heart rate, left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area (LVMI), tolerability, and safety of ivabradine therapy were evaluated at baseline and after 36 months in 30 heart transplant recipients with symptomatic sinus tachycardia versus a matched control group. Results During the study period, ivabradine medication was stopped in three patients (10% of total). Further analysis was based on 27 patients with 36 months of drug intake. The mean patient age was 53.3±11.3 years and mean time after heart transplantation was 5.0±4.8 years. After 36 months, the mean ivabradine dose was 12.0±3.4 mg/day. Resting heart rate was reduced from 91.0±10.7 beats per minute before initiation of ivabradine therapy (ie, baseline) to 81.2±9.8 beats per minute at follow-up (P=0.0006). After 36 months of ivabradine therapy, a statistically significant reduction of LVMI was observed (104.3±22.7 g at baseline versus 93.4±18.4 g at follow-up, P=0.002). Hematologic, renal, and liver function parameters remained stable during ivabradine therapy. Except for a lower mycophenolate mofetil dose at follow-up (P=0.02), no statistically significant changes in immunosuppressive drug dosage or blood levels were detected. No phosphenes were observed during 36 months of ivabradine intake despite active inquiry. Conclusion In line with previously published 12-month data, heart rate reduction with ivabradine remained effective and safe in chronic stable patients after heart transplantation, and also during 36-month long-term follow-up. Further, a significant reduction of LVMI was observed only during ivabradine therapy. Therefore, ivabradine may have a sustained long-term beneficial effect with regard to left ventricular remodeling in heart transplant patients. PMID:24235815

  2. 24 CFR 206.21 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... disclosure provisions of 12 CFR part 226 (Truth in Lending) shall constitute full compliance with paragraph... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 206.21 Section 206... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.21 Interest rate. (a)...

  3. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rates in patients on long term lithium: a comparative study and a meta-analysis of literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that long-term lithium use is associated with a subtle decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate. This study compared mean estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in patients on long term lithium, against matched controls. Methods Patients with bipolar affective disorder, who are on lithium (for at least a year), were compared against controls that were matched (1:1) for age, gender and presence or absence of diabetes or hypertension. The eGFR was calculated from creatinine values according to the ‘modification of diet in renal disease study’ (MDRD) formula and was compared between cases and controls. A meta-analysis was performed to compare our findings with similar studies in literature. Results Forty seven patients met the inclusion criteria. They were matched with 47 controls. The eGFR values of lithium users were significantly lower (p = 0.04) compared to controls. This difference persisted between the subgroup of lithium users without comorbidities (diabetes and hypertension) and their controls but disappeared for lithium users with comorbidities and their controls. Nonetheless, lithium users had lower eGFR values in both subgroups. A meta-analysis of 9 studies showed a significant lowering in the glomerular filtration rate in lithium users compared to controls [mean difference -10.3 ml/min (95% confidence interval: -15.13 to -5.55, p < 0.0001)]. Conclusions Lithium causes a subtle decline in glomerular filtration rate; renal function needs to be monitored in patients on lithium treatment. PMID:24400671

  4. Payment Rates for Personal Care Assistants and the Use of Long-Term Services and Supports among Those Dually Eligible for Medicare and Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Michelle; Newcomer, Robert; Kang, Taewoon; Hulett, Denis; Chu, Philip; Bindman, Andrew B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between payment rates for personal care assistants and use of long-term services and supports (LTSS) following hospital discharge among dual eligible Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. Data Sources State hospital discharge, Medicaid and Medicare claims, and assessment data on California Medicaid LTSS users from 2006 to 2008. Study Design Cross-sectional study. We used multinomial logistic regression to analyze county personal care assistant payment rates and postdischarge LTSS use, and estimate marginal probabilities of each outcome across the range of rates paid in California. Data Extraction Methods We identified dual eligible Medicare and Medicaid adult beneficiaries discharged from an acute care hospital with no hospitalizations or LTSS use in the preceding 12 months. Principal Findings Personal care assistant payment rates were modestly associated with home and community-based services (HCBS) use versus nursing facility entry following hospital discharge (RRR 1.2, 95 percent CI: 1.0–1.4). For a rate of $6.75 per hour, the probability of HCBS use was 5.6 percent (95 percent CI: 4.2–7.1); at $11.75 per hour, 18.0 percent (95 percent CI: 12.5–23.4). Payment rate was not associated with the probability of nursing facility entry. Conclusions Higher payment rates for personal care assistants may increase utilization of HCBS, but with limited substitution for nursing facility care. PMID:25327166

  5. Differential ratings of pleasantness following right and left hemispheric application of low energy magnetic fields that stimulate long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Persinger, M A; Richards, P M; Koren, S A

    1994-12-01

    A total of 40 normal men and women were exposed under double blind conditions for 20 min to either sham-conditions or to 1 microT (10 mG) electromagnetic fields (known to produce long-term potentiation within hippocampal slices) that were applied primarily over the right temporal lobe, over the left temporal lobe or over both temporal lobes homogeneously. The men and women who received the stimulation over the right hemisphere rated their experiences as significantly more pleasant than those who received the same stimulation over the left hemisphere [eta = 0.51]. Covariance for the variation in ambient geomagnetic activity, which was negatively correlated with pleasantness, increased the significance of the experimental treatment. The potential clinical utility of applying computer-generated local and penetrative but weak intensity complex magnetic fields over portions of the human brain is discussed. PMID:7744561

  6. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of (90)Sr in the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2012-01-01

    The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of (90)Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of (90)Sr were conducted with a whole body counter (WBC) for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of (90)Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested (90)Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption. PMID:21871673

  7. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-06-01

    The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

  8. Long-term stability of liquid ionization chambers with regard to their qualification as local reference dosimeters for low dose-rate absorbed dose measurements in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar-Gogani, Jalil; Grindborg, Jan Erik; Johansson, Bengt Erik; Wickman, Göran

    2001-03-01

    The long-term sensitivity and calibration stability of liquid ionization chambers (LICs) has been studied at a local and a secondary standards dosimetry laboratory over a period of 3 years. The chambers were transported several times by mail between the two laboratories for measurements. The LICs used in this work are designed for absorbed dose measurements in the dose rate region of 0.1-100 mGy min-1 and have a liquid layer thickness of 1 mm and a sensitive volume of 16.2 mm3. The liquids used as sensitive media in the chambers are mixtures of isooctane (C8H18) and tetramethylsilane (Si(CH3)4) in different proportions (about 2 to 1). Operating at a polarizing voltage of 300 V the leakage current of the chambers was stable and never exceeded 3% of the observable current at a dose rate of about 1 mGy min-1. The volume sensitivity of the chambers was measured to be of the order of 10-9 C Gy-1 mm-3. No systematic changes in the absorbed dose to water calibration was observed for any of the chambers during the test period (σ<0.2%). Variations in chamber dose response with small changes in the polarizing voltage as well as sensitivity changes with accumulated absorbed dose were also investigated. Measurements showed that the LIC response varies by 0.15% per 1% change in applied voltage around 300 V. No significant change could be observed in the LIC sensitivity after a single absorbed dose of 15 kGy. The results indicate that the LIC can be made to serve as a calibration transfer instrument and a reference detector for absorbed dose to water determinations providing good precision and long-term reproducibility.

  9. Long-term stroke rates after catheter ablation or antiarrhythmic drug therapy for atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis of randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ya-Ru; Chen, Zhi-Yun; Ye, Li-Fang; Wang, Li-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke and is associated with increased risk of death. Randomized studies suggest improved quality of life for patients with AF after successful catheter ablation compared to antiarrhythmic drug therapy. The value of ablation in long-term risk of ischemic stroke, however, has not been assessed. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether AF ablation reduces the long-term risk of stroke compared to antiarrhythmic drug therapy in randomized controlled trials. Methods & Results PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register were searched for randomized trials from January 1990 to December 2014 comparing AF catheter ablation to drug therapy. The results are reported as risk differences (RDs) and 95% CI. Thirteen trials were analyzed with 1097 patients treated by catheter ablation and 855 patients received antiarrhythmic drug therapy. Overall, seven patients (0.64%) in the catheter ablation group had ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attacks vs. two patients (0.23%) in the drug therapy group. No difference was shown in the rate of stroke or transient ischemic attack between ablation and drug therapy (RD: 0.003, 95% CI: ?0.006 to 0.012, P = 0.470), and no evidence of heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 0, P = 0.981). No potential publication bias was found. There was also no difference in mortality between the two groups (RD: ?0.004, 95% CI: ?0.014 to 0.006, P = 0.472). Conclusions This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed similar rates of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and death in AF patients undergoing catheter ablation compared to drug therapy. A larger prospective randomized trial to confirm this finding is warranted. PMID:26512242

  10. Caregiver Ratings of Long-term Executive Dysfunction and Attention Problems After Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: Family Functioning Is Important

    PubMed Central

    Kurowski, Brad G.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay C.; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship of family and parenting factors to long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that the magnitude of executive dysfunction and attention problems would be moderated by family and parenting factors. Design A multicenter, prospective cohort study that included an orthopedic injury (OI) reference group. Setting Three tertiary academic children’s hospital medical centers and one general medical center. Participants Children, ages 3–7 years, hospitalized for OI, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. Methods and Outcome Measurements Parental ratings of family functioning and parenting styles were obtained 18 months after the injury occurred. The main outcome measurements, which were parental ratings of children’s executive function and attention, were performed at least 24 months after the injury occurred (mean, 39 months; range, 25–63 months). Analysis Group comparisons were conducted with use of t-tests, χ2 analysis, analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlations. Regression analysis was used to examine associations of the outcomes with family functioning and parenting styles and to test moderating effects of these factors on group differences. Results Participants with severe TBI demonstrated increased executive dysfunction and attention problems compared with those who sustained moderate TBI or OI. Lower levels of family dysfunction were associated with better executive function and attention across groups but did not moderate group differences. However, attention deficits after severe TBI were exacerbated under conditions of more permissive parenting relative to attention deficits after OIs. Conclusions Executive function and attention problems persisted on a long-term basis (>24 months) after early childhood TBI, and positive global family functioning and nonpermissive parenting were associated with better outcomes. Better characterization of the optimal family environment for recovery from early childhood TBI could help target future interventions. PMID:21944301

  11. Long-term stability of liquid ionization chambers with regard to their qualification as local reference dosimeters for low dose-rate absorbed dose measurements in water.

    PubMed

    Bahar-Gogani, J; Grindborg, J E; Johansson, B E; Wickman, G

    2001-03-01

    The long-term sensitivity and calibration stability of liquid ionization chambers (LICs) has been studied at a local and a secondary standards dosimetry laboratory over a period of 3 years. The chambers were transported several times by mail between the two laboratories for measurements. The LICs used in this work are designed for absorbed dose measurements in the dose rate region of 0.1-100 mGy min(-1) and have a liquid layer thickness of 1 mm and a sensitive volume of 16.2 mm3. The liquids used as sensitive media in the chambers are mixtures of isooctane (C8H18) and tetramethylsilane (Si(CH3)4) in different proportions (about 2 to 1). Operating at a polarizing voltage of 300 V the leakage current of the chambers was stable and never exceeded 3% of the observable current at a dose rate of about 1 mGy min(-1). The volume sensitivity of the chambers was measured to be of the order of 10(-9) C Gy(-1) mm3. No systematic changes in the absorbed dose to water calibration was observed for any of the chambers during the test period (sigma < 0.2%). Variations in chamber dose response with small changes in the polarizing voltage as well as sensitivity changes with accumulated absorbed dose were also investigated. Measurements showed that the LIC response varies by 0.15% per 1% change in applied voltage around 300 V. No significant change could be observed in the LIC sensitivity after a single absorbed dose of 15 kGy. The results indicate that the LIC can be made to serve as a calibration transfer instrument and a reference detector for absorbed dose to water determinations providing good precision and long-term reproducibility. PMID:11277221

  12. Linking Historical Earthquake Records to Long Term Fault Slip Rates Using Cosmogenic 36Cl: Evidence for Migrating Earthquake Activity on a Millenial Timescale Across the Central Italian Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G.; Cowie, P. A.; Phillips, R. J.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Gregory, L. C.; Faure Walker, J.; Dunai, T. J.; Binnie, S. A.; Freeman, S. P. H. T.; Wilcken, K.; Wedmore, L. N. J.; Watson, Z.; Papanikolaou, I.

    2014-12-01

    Where deformation is accommodated by complex arrays of interacting faults, individual fault strands often show fluctuating levels of activity through time with intervals of high, or low, slip rate corresponding to earthquake clusters or quiescence, respectively. Thus earthquakes may occur on structures other than those defined as active based on historical events and paleoseismic records, confounding attempts to map seismic hazard with such datasets. A major challenge is to identify which faults are ahead of their long-term slip rate, which faults are behind their long term rate but still active, and which faults are no longer active. We show that cosmogenic 36Cl depth profiles measured systematically along the fault plane in trenches excavated below the base of bedrock scarps as well as along the exhumed scarp formed by extensional fault slip can be used to estimate both the average Holocene slip rate and the elapsed time since the last earthquake. Specifically, the increase in 36Cl concentration with height immediately above and below the ground surface at the scarp base reveals whether the elapsed time is anomalously long (or short) compared to the expected mean earthquake recurrence. For an area of active extension in Italy, we demonstrate that independent constraints on Holocene slip rates and elapsed times of historical earthquakes show a close correspondence with estimates derived from the 36Cl profiles. However, some faults slipped at rates higher than their Holocene-averaged rate from ~5 ka to the Middle Ages, indicating greater strain accumulation on the SW flank of the central Apennines in a zone that is now quiescent. The historical catalogue shows that, since the earthquake of 1349 A.D., activity has been concentrated in a 50km wide zone of faults further to the NE. In contrast, when viewed over the whole Holocene, strain is symmetrically distributed across the whole array. When taken together, along with documented earthquake shaking since Roman times, these data suggest that the locus of strain accumulation has migrated from one crustal scale fault system to another over a distance of several 10's of km over a time scale of several thousand years and that deformation in this area is more variable in both space and time than the geodetically-determined interseismic strain accumulation would predict.

  13. Extracting factors for interest rate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molgedey, L.; Galic, E.

    2001-04-01

    Factor based interest rate models are widely used for risk managing purposes, for option pricing and for identifying and capturing yield curve anomalies. The movements of a term structure of interest rates are commonly assumed to be driven by a small number of orthogonal factors such as SHIFT, TWIST and BUTTERFLY (BOW). These factors are usually obtained by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of historical bond prices (interest rates). Although PCA diagonalizes the covariance matrix of either the interest rates or the interest rate changes, it does not use both covariance matrices simultaneously. Furthermore higher linear and nonlinear correlations are neglected. These correlations as well as the mean reverting properties of the interest rates become crucial, if one is interested in a longer time horizon (infrequent hedging or trading). We will show that Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is a more appropriate tool than PCA, since ICA uses the covariance matrix of the interest rates as well as the covariance matrix of the interest rate changes simultaneously. Additionally higher linear and nonlinear correlations may be easily incorporated. The resulting factors are uncorrelated for various time delays, approximately independent but nonorthogonal. This is in contrast to the factors obtained from the PCA, which are orthogonal and uncorrelated for identical times only. Although factors from the ICA are nonorthogonal, it is sufficient to consider only a few factors in order to explain most of the variation in the original data. Finally we will present examples that ICA based hedges outperforms PCA based hedges specifically if the portfolio is sensitive to structural changes of the yield curve.

  14. Who Becomes a Physics Major? A Long-term Longitudinal Study Examining the Roles of Pre-college Beliefs about Physics and Learning Physics, Interest, and Academic Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Katherine K.; Gratny, Mindy

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we examine the correlation between students' beliefs upon entering college and their likelihood of continuing on to become a physics major. Since 2004, we have collected CLASS survey and self-reported level-of-interest responses from students in the first-term, introductory calculus-based physics course (N>2500). Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis of students' incoming CLASS scores and level of interest, comparing those students who go on to become physics majors with those who do not. We find the incoming CLASS scores and reported interest of these future physics majors to be substantially higher than the class average, indicating that these students enter their first college course already having quite expert-like beliefs. The comparative differences are much smaller for grades, SAT score, and university predicted-GPA.

  15. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web Consortium, an independent standards body) as a new data interchange tool is being investigated and implemented. In order to facilitate data archiving, Raman data needs calibration as well as some other kinds of data treatment. Figure 1 illustrates schematically the present situation for Raman data calibration in the world-wide Raman spectroscopy community, and presents some of the terminology used.

  16. Long-term erosion rates of Neogene to Quaternary volcanoes of the Altiplano-Puna plateau, Central Andes: an SRTM DEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karátson, Dávid; Telbisz, Tamás.; Wörner, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    Neogene to Quaternary volcanism of the Central Andes offers a unique opportunity to study long-term erosion of stratovolcanoes. On the basis of SRTM DEM data, we invesigated 35 stratovolcanoes of the 3,800-4,000 m high, arid-hyperarid Altiplano-Puna plateau (from 14oS, 64oW to 27oS, 74oW). The volcanoes have been selected on geomorphological criteria such as (1) a single, "mature" cone-shape with considerable size, (2) location on a relatively flat basement, (3) no overlap with other volcanic centres, and (4) lack of calderas or sector collapse scars. Volcanoes of various age (Mid-Miocene to Quaternary based on sporadic radiometric dates) and various degradation stage have been included in order to infer long-term erosion rates. The method we follow is to quantitatively compare the existing topography with the present-day active volcanoes, e.g. Parinacota (Northern Chile). By applying an advanced computational method, we fit the relief of the undissected, almost perfect reference cone over the degraded volcanic edifice. This way, we can precisely calculate (a) the degree of denudation by difference between the computed initial volume from the fit and the observed volume, and (b) for volcanoes with radiometric age constraint the erosion rate (m/Ma) as the areal mean of denudation divided by age. Our results show that (a) the studied volcanoes are degraded to various extent up to ~40% (denudation ratio) of the paleo-volume. In accordance, their relative height which is progressively lower shows a moderately good correlation with denudation (r2 = 0.70). Using the available age constraints, we obtained a stronger correlation between age and denudation (r2 = 0.82 for all volcanoes, and r2 = 0.95 without the southernmost hyperarid and northernmost semihumid volcanoes). (b) Therefore, calculating erosion rates gives highly reliable results. The youngest volcanoes (e.g. Ollagüe, Tacora) shows 50-100 m/Ma erosion rates which fits well to the initially rapid degradation of active volcanic edifices without vegetation cover. Long-term erosion rates of the Pliocene to Miocene volcanoes, in constrast, are much lower and more uniform (7-17 m/Ma), in agreement with other, similarly low erosion rates obtained by other methods (e.g. cosmogenic nuclides) for the Altiplano-Puna highland. Our rates show the smallest values for the hyperarid Puna and the southern Altiplano (e.g. Maricunga volcano), and the greatest values for the semihumid Southern Peru (e.g. Ccarhuaraso, Jatunpuco volcanoes). Moreover, using the very good age vs denudation correlation as a geomorphological dating tool, we are able to estimate ages for undated volcanoes of the Central Andes or for other regions under similar climate conditions.

  17. Long-term Trends and Confidence in Global Natural Gas Fugitive Emissions Rates Based on δ13C-CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwietzke, S.; Sherwood, O.; Tans, P. P.; Michel, S. E.; Miller, J. B.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Griffin, W. M.; Bruhwiler, L.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous life cycle assessment (LCA) and field studies have estimated natural gas (NG) fugitive emissions rates (FER) - the fraction of produced NG, mostly CH4, emitted to the atmosphere, unintentionally or by design, during extraction, processing, transport, and distribution - at local, regional, and national scales. In a recent study, we estimated for the first time the global mean FER using long-term (three decades) atmospheric CH4, δ13C-CH4, and C2H6 measurements from global monitoring networks. As a further development, this work investigates the global mean FER uncertainty range (factor of 2) in more detail to increase confidence in the results. The objectives of this research are to (i) estimate probability distribution functions (PDF) of global mean FER, and (ii) identify long-term trends in global fossil fuel (FF) and other CH4 sources. In order to achieve these objectives, global atmospheric δ13C-CH4 measurements since the mid-1980s are analyzed using a box-model of the global CH4 sources and sinks. First, we derive PDFs of the key model parameters including literature isotopic source signatures, atmospheric lifetimes, natural and anthropogenic emissions, and FF hydrocarbon gas composition. Second, a Monte Carlo simulation of the box-model is performed to quantify FER confidence intervals. While our model attributes the majority of increased CH4 levels over the past three decades to microbial sources, FF sources have also increased slightly. However, FER - an indicator of NG life cycle efficiency - has decreased over the same period given the large NG production increase worldwide. Results are most sensitive to global average microbial isotopic signatures (weighted by source strength) and bottom-up estimates of biomass burning emissions, which will be discussed in more detail.

  18. Assessment of individual adaptation to microgravity during long term space flight based on stepwise discriminant analysis of heart rate variability parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baevsky, Roman M.; Chernikova, Anna G.; Funtova, Irina I.; Tank, Jens

    2011-12-01

    Optimization of the cardiovascular system under conditions of long term space flight is provided by individual changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is an easy to use method under these extreme conditions. We tested the hypothesis that individual HRV analysis provides important information for crew health monitoring. HRV data from 14 Russian cosmonauts measured during long term space flights are presented (two times before and after flight, monthly in flight). HRV characteristics in the time and in the frequency domain were calculated. Predefined discriminant function equations obtained in reference groups (L1=-0.112*HR-1.006*SI-0.047*pNN50-0.086*HF; L2=0.140*HR-0.165*SI-1.293*pNN50+0.623*HF) were used to define four functional states. (1) Physiological normal, (2) prenosological, (3) premorbid and (4) pathological. Geometric mean values for the ISS cosmonauts based on L1 and L2 remained within normal ranges. A shift from the physiological normal state to the prenosological functional state during space flight was detected. The functional state assessed by HRV improved during space flight if compared to pre-flight and early post-flight functional states. Analysis of individual cosmonauts showed distinct patterns depending on the pre-flight functional state. Using the developed classification a transition process from the state of physiological normal into a prenosological state or premorbid state during different stages of space flight can be detected for individual Russian cosmonauts. Our approach to an estimation of HR regulatory pattern can be useful for prognostic purposes.

  19. Reconstructing shifts in vital rates driven by long-term environmental change: a new demographic method based on readily available data

    PubMed Central

    González, Edgar J; Martorell, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Frequently, vital rates are driven by directional, long-term environmental changes. Many of these are of great importance, such as land degradation, climate change, and succession. Traditional demographic methods assume a constant or stationary environment, and thus are inappropriate to analyze populations subject to these changes. They also require repeat surveys of the individuals as change unfolds. Methods for reconstructing such lengthy processes are needed. We present a model that, based on a time series of population size structures and densities, reconstructs the impact of directional environmental changes on vital rates. The model uses integral projection models and maximum likelihood to identify the rates that best reconstructs the time series. The procedure was validated with artificial and real data. The former involved simulated species with widely different demographic behaviors. The latter used a chronosequence of populations of an endangered cactus subject to increasing anthropogenic disturbance. In our simulations, the vital rates and their change were always reconstructed accurately. Nevertheless, the model frequently produced alternative results. The use of coarse knowledge of the species' biology (whether vital rates increase or decrease with size or their plausible values) allowed the correct rates to be identified with a 90% success rate. With real data, the model correctly reconstructed the effects of disturbance on vital rates. These effects were previously known from two populations for which demographic data were available. Our procedure seems robust, as the data violated several of the model's assumptions. Thus, time series of size structures and densities contain the necessary information to reconstruct changing vital rates. However, additional biological knowledge may be required to provide reliable results. Because time series of size structures and densities are available for many species or can be rapidly generated, our model can contribute to understand populations that face highly pressing environmental problems. PMID:23919169

  20. Long-Term Efficacy and Toxicity of Low-Dose-Rate {sup 125}I Prostate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy in Low-, Intermediate-, and High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kittel, Jeffrey A.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Smith, Kristin L.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Ulchaker, James; Angermeier, Kenneth; Campbell, Steven; Stephenson, Andrew; Klein, Eric A.; Wilkinson, D. Allan; Ciezki, Jay P.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose/Objectives: To report long-term efficacy and toxicity for a single-institution cohort of patients treated with low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy permanent implant (PI) monotherapy. Methods and Materials: From 1996 to 2007, 1989 patients with low-risk (61.3%), intermediate-risk (29.8%), high-intermediate-risk (4.5%), and high-risk prostate cancer (4.4%) were treated with PI and followed up prospectively in a registry. All patients were treated with {sup 125}I monotherapy to 144 Gy. Late toxicity was coded retrospectively according to a modified Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 4.0 scale. The rates of biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS), and prostate cancer–specific mortality (PCSM) were calculated. We identified factors associated with late grade ≥3 genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, bRFS, DMFS, OS, PCSM, and incontinence. Results: The median age of the patients was 67 years, and the median overall and prostate-specific antigen follow-up times were 6.8 years and 5.8 years, respectively. The overall 5-year rates for bRFS, DMFS, OS, and PCSM were 91.9%, 97.8%, 93.7%, and 0.71%, respectively. The 10-year rates were 81.5%, 91.5%, 76.1%, and 2.5%, respectively. The overall rates of late grade ≥3 GU and GI toxicity were 7.6% and 0.8%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, age and prostate length were significantly associated with increased risk of late grade ≥3 GU toxicity. The risk of incontinence was highly correlated with both pre-PI and post-PI transurethral resection of the prostate. Conclusions: Prostate brachytherapy as monotherapy is an effective treatment for low-risk and low-intermediate-risk prostate cancer and appears promising as a treatment for high-intermediate-risk and high-risk prostate cancer. Significant long-term toxicities are rare when brachytherapy is performed as monotherapy.

  1. Assessment of application-rate dependent effects of a long-term fire retardant chemical (Fire Trol 934) on Typha domingensis germination.

    PubMed

    Angeler, David G; Rodríguez, Marta; Martín, Silvia; Moreno, José M

    2004-05-01

    Although long-term fire retardants (LTR) gain increasingly acceptance as effective tools for wildfire management, recent studies indicate their potential harmfulness in the environment, especially in aquatic ecosystems. This study comprises a first laboratory impact assessment of LTR action in temporal Mediterranean wetlands, using seed germination of Typha domingensis as indicator of impact. Our aim was to identify application rates upon which seed germination could be significantly affected. We tested for low (1 l m(-2)) and high (3 l m(-2)) application rates of Fire Trol 934 which are recommended by the manufacturers as a function of fuel characteristics. In addition, we simulated the impact of a higher application rate of 5 l m(-2) because inhomogeneous dispersal of the LTR during fire control and prevention operations can result in locally elevated applications. Results of a microcosm experiment indicate that application rates of 1 or 3 l m(-2) can impact Typha germination rates in the short-term via indirect LTR-mediated effects on water quality, which suppressed necessary cues for germination. However, a subsequent experiment with Petri dishes, using seeds isolated from the LTR treated sediments did not show significantly different germination rates between the control and the treatments with application rates of 1 or 3 l m(-2). This suggests that retardant pre-application germination success could be recovered in nature once the retardant is eliminated. By contrast, seeds almost completely failed to germinate in the microcosm experiment and the subsequent Petri dish essay when an application rate of 5 l m(-2) was used. This suggests a critical level upon which Typha seed germination may be perpetually limited. Research should be extended to other plant species to provide fire managers with guidelines for environmentally safe use of LTR in the Mediterranean region. PMID:14987869

  2. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest rate. 1980.320 Section 1980.320 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... must not be more than the lender's published rate for VA first mortgage loans with no discount...

  3. Nitrogen transformations in a Vertisol under long-term tillage and no tillage management in dryland agricultual systems: key genes and potential rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melero, Sebastiana; Perez de Mora, Alfredo; Murillo, J. Manuel; Buegger, Franz; Kleinedam, Kristina; Kublik, Susanne; Vanderlinden, Karl; Moreno, Felix; Schloter, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The impact of tillage practices on microbial N transformations in semiarid regions is poorly understood and data from long-term field experiments are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the effects of traditional tillage (TT) vs no-tillage (NT) on key processes of the N cycle such as nitrification and denitrification in a long-term field experiment under a rainfed crop rotation system (cereal-sunflower-legumes) on a vertisol (SW Spain). Besides general soil chemical and biological parameters, we quantified the size of the ammonia oxidizing and denitrifying bacterial populations via real-time PCR (amoA, nirS and nosZ genes), and measured potential nitrification and denitrification rates. Soil was sampled at two depths (0-30, till layer; and 30-50 cm), once during the growing period of the crop (wheat) and another time after harvesting. Conservation tillage slightly increased total organic carbon and microbial biomass C content, whereas no effect on nutrient availability (C and N) was observed, likely due to the fertilization regime and the textural characteristics of the soil type (Vertisol). Gene abundance and potential rates were influenced by the interaction between tillage treatment and sampling period, mainly at 0-30 cm depth. In general, ammonia oxidizers and potential nitrification were enhanced under TT, particularly after harvesting. By contrast, higher abundance of denitrifiers, as reflected by both nirS and nosZ gene copy numbers and larger potential denitrification rates were found under NT during the growing period, but not after harvesting. Results also showed that the N2O/N2 ratio was constant throughout the experiment and thus was affected more significantly by environmental parameters such as the availability carbon than by changes in denitrifier abundance. Our results stress the importance of quantifying microbial populations to address the impact of agricultural practices on N transformations in soil. Furthermore, results suggest that the spatial and seasonal variability of tillage practices need to be taken into account as they can substantially influence the size and activity of microbial communities involved in nitrification and denitrification.

  4. The fate of 5N-nitrate in mesocosms from five European peatlands differing in long-term nitrogen deposition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zając, K.; Blodau, C.

    2015-10-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition changes the retention, transformation, and fluxes of N in ombrotrophic peatlands. To evaluate such effects we applied a 15N tracer (NH415NO3) at a rate of 2.3 g N m-2 yr-1 to mesocosms of five European peatlands with differing long-term N deposition rates for a period of 76 days of dry and 90 days of wet conditions. We determined background N content and moss length growth, and recovered the 15N tracer from the mosses, graminoids, shrubs, the peat, and dissolved N. Background N contents in Sphagnum mosses increased from 5.5 (Degerö Stormyr, deposition < 0.2 g N m-2 yr-1) up to 12.2 mg g-1 (Frölichshaier Sattelmoor, 4.7-6.0 g N m-2 yr-1). In peat from Degerö nitrate and ammonium concentrations were below 3 mg L-1, whereas up to 30 mg L-1 (nitrate) and 11 mg L-1 (ammonium) was found in peat from Frölichshaier Sattelmoor. Sphagnum mosses (down to 5 cm below surface) generally intercepted large amounts of 15N (0.2-0.35 mg g-1) and retained the tracer most effectively relative to their biomass. Similar quantities of the 15N were recovered from the peat, followed by shrubs, graminoids and the dissolved pool. At the most polluted sites we recovered more 15N from shrubs (up to 12.4 %) and from nitrate and ammonium (up to 0.7 %). However, no impact of N deposition on 15N retention by Sphagnum could be identified and their length growth was highest under high N background deposition. Our experiment suggests that the decline in N retention at levels above ca. 1.5 g m-2 yr-1, as expressed by elevated near-surface peat N content and increased dissolved N concentrations, is likely more modest than previously thought. This conclusion is related to the finding that Sphagnum species can apparently thrive at elevated long-term N deposition rates in European peatlands.

  5. The fate of 15N-nitrate in mesocosms from five European peatlands differing in long-term nitrogen deposition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zając, K.; Blodau, C.

    2016-02-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition changes the retention, transformation, and fluxes of N in ombrotrophic peatlands. To evaluate such effects we applied a 15N tracer (NH4 15NO3) at a rate of 2.3 g N m-2 yr-1 to mesocosms of five European peatlands with differing long-term N deposition rates for a period of 76 days of dry and 90 days of wet conditions. We determined background N content and moss length growth, and recovered the 15N tracer from the mosses, graminoids, shrubs, the peat, and dissolved N. Background N contents in Sphagnum mosses increased from 5.5 (Degerö Stormyr, deposition < 0.2 g N m-2 yr-1) up to 12.2 mg g-1 (Frölichshaier Sattelmoor, 4.7-6.0 g N m-2 yr-1). In peat from Degerö, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were below 3 mg L-1, whereas up to 30 (nitrate) and 11 mg L-1 (ammonium) was found in peat from Frölichshaier Sattelmoor. Sphagnum mosses (down to 5 cm below surface) generally intercepted large amounts of 15N (0.2-0.35 mg g-1) and retained the tracer most effectively relative to their biomass. Similar quantities of the 15N were recovered from the peat, followed by shrubs, graminoids, and the dissolved pool. At the most polluted sites we recovered more 15N from shrubs (up to 12.4 %) and from nitrate and ammonium (up to 0.7 %). However, no impact of N deposition on 15N retention by Sphagnum could be identified and their length growth was highest under high N background deposition. Our experiment suggests that the decline in N retention at levels above ca. 1.5 g m-2 yr-1, as expressed by elevated near-surface peat N content and increased dissolved N concentrations, is likely more modest than previously thought. This conclusion is related to the finding that Sphagnum species can apparently thrive at elevated long-term N deposition rates in European peatlands.

  6. Contrasts Between Short- and Long-Term Erosion Rates in the NW Himalaya: Disequilibrium at 103 to 106-yr Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookhagen, B.; Burbank, D. W.; Strecker, M. R.; Thiede, R. C.; Nishiizumi, K.

    2006-12-01

    Along the Sutlej Valley in the NW Indian Himalaya, large tectonic and climatic gradients influence landscape evolution in different spatial and temporal domains. Here, we present (1) results from 8 new cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) river-sand samples that help quantify Holocene basin-wide erosion rates, (2) a surface- processes model based on specific stream power to explain the measured erosion rates in light of present-day climatic conditions, and (3) a comparison of short-term (103 - 104 yr) erosion and long-term (105 - 106 yr) exhumation rates based on published apatite fission-track (AFT) ages that reveal large spatiotemporal discrepancies. CRN-derived erosion rates from the upper Sutlej River draining ~30,000 km2 within the Tibetan Plateau average ~0.2 mm/yr (all rates represent an averaged value from Al and Be cosmogenic isotopes). Erosion rates, as measured from tributary catchments, increase downstream to a peak of ~3 mm/yr in the midst of the High Himalaya (~2000 m asl on the main stem). Near the toe of the Himalayan mountains, erosion rates based on detrital CRNs are ~1.1 mm/yr along the Sutlej main stem at river elevations of ~1000 m asl and thus represent an integrated rate over the entire catchment. Next, we compare the measurements to an erosion model that utilizes river discharge, width, and slope to calculate specific stream power, a proxy for the energy per unit stream length. In this numerical model, (1) river discharge is explicitly derived from calibrated, high resolution satellite-rainfall measurements (TRMM), (2) river width is taken from a discharge width scaling law adjusted to the Himalaya, and (3) river slope is taken from a hydrologically corrected, 90m Digital Elevation Model (SRTM) where data gaps have been carefully patched with DEMs derived from stereo-pair satellite imagery and other high-resolution datasets. Using the present-day monsoonal rainfall as input for discharge, a linear relation emerges between measured erosion rates and modeled specific stream power. This simple relationship predicts an erosion threshold such that no significant erosion occurs where specific stream power is low. In contrast, long-term erosion rates derived from AFT data appear to be moderate to high in some parts of the landscape with low, present-day specific stream power amounts. We suggest that this apparent discrepancy results from the variable efficiency of erosive processes throughout the last few Ma. During phases of intensified monsoonal circulation associated with increased precipitation, fluvial and glacial erosion is likely to have been accelerated, particularly in the presently drier regions. This may dominate the temporally-averaged erosion signal, especially in areas where present-day erosion rates are lower.

  7. Impact of organic loading rate on the performance of psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and wheat straw: long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Saady, Noori M Cata; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-04-01

    Development of efficient processes for valorising animal wastes would be a major advancement in cold-climate regions. This paper reports the results of long term (315 days experiment) of novel psychrophilic (20°C) dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) of cow feces and wheat straw in laboratory scale sequence batch reactor operated at increasing organic loading rate. The PDAD process fed with a mixture of feces and straw (TS of 27%) over a treatment cycle length of 21 days at organic loading rate (OLR) 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1) (of 2.9 ± 0.1, 3.7 ± 0.1, and 4.4 ± 0.1g VS kg(-1) inoculum d(-1), respectively) resulted in average specific methane yield (SMY) of 187.3 ± 18.1, 163.6 ± 39.5, 150.8 ± 32.9 N L CH4 kg(-1)VS fed, respectively. PDAD of cow feces and wheat straw is possible with VS-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 1.4 at OLR of 6.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1). Hydrolysis was the limiting step reaction. PMID:25681795

  8. Why history matters for quantitative target setting: long-term trends in socioeconomic and racial/ethnic inequities in US infant death rates (1960–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy; Singh, Nakul; Chen, Jarvis T.; Coull, Brent A.; Beckfield, Jason; Kiang, Mathew V.; Waterman, Pamela D.; Gruskin, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Policy-oriented population health targets, such as the Millennium Development Goals and national targets to address health inequities, typically are based on trends of a decade or less. To test whether expanded timeframes might be more apt, we analyzed 50-year trends in US infant death rates (1960–2010) jointly by income and race/ethnicity. The largest annual percent changes in the infant death rate (between −4% and −10%) occurred, for all racial/ethnic groups, in the lowest income quintile between the mid-1960s and early 1980s, and in the second lowest income quintile between the mid-1960s and 1973; since the 1990s, they have hovered, in all groups, between −1% and −3%. Hence, to look back only 15 years, in 2014, to 1999, would ignore gains achieved prior to the post-1980 onset of neoliberal policies. Target setting should be informed by a deeper and more long-term appraisal of what is possible to achieve. PMID:25971237

  9. Endocrine MPA enhances the effects of TAC chemotherapy on improvement of prognosis and increase in long-term survival rates for patients with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, XIUHONG; WANG, LU; XUE, JUAN; LI, LI; ZHANG, JING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of taxol, adriamycin and carboplatin (TAC) chemotherapy combined with endocrine medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) therapy for the treatment of patients with endometrial cancer. A retrospective analysis of 124 patients with endometrial cancer was performed by dividing the cohort into an experimental and control group. The 64 patients in the experimental group received TAC and MPA chemotherapy, whereas the 60 patients in the control group were treated with TAC chemotherapy only. Tissue samples scraped from the uterus were used to extract the total proteins and RNAs for the western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses, respectively. All the patients were followed up for 20–45 months, during which time prognostic data, and one- to three-year survival rates were recorded and compared. The rate of recurrence or metastasis was significantly lower in the experimental group compared with that in the control group (P<0.05) and the three-year survival rate of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the mean metastasis-associated 1 (MTA1) protein and RNA expression levels were significantly lower in the experimental group compared with the control group (P<0.05), exhibiting ~30 and ~15% of the levels in the control group, respectively. Therefore, a treatment strategy of TAC chemotherapy combined with endocrine MPA therapy appears to effectively improve the prognosis and increase the long-term survival rates of patients with endometrial cancer. Such an enhancing effect may be mediated by the transcriptional downregulation of MTA1 expression. PMID:26622772

  10. Long-term follow-up and suboptimal treatment rates of treatment-eligible chronic hepatitis B patients in diverse practice settings: a gap in linkage to care

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Vinh D; Do, Ailinh; Nguyen, Nghia H; Kim, Lily H; Trinh, Huy N; Nguyen, Huy A; Nguyen, Khanh K; Nguyen, My; Huynh, Andrew; Nguyen, Mindie H

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Despite available effective therapies, only a minority of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) receive treatment. Our goal is to study treatment rates and time to treatment initiation in patients who meet treatment criteria on long-term follow-up. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of 608 consecutive treatment-eligible patients with CHB (by 2008 US Panel or 2009 American Association for the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD) criteria) at a US community gastroenterology clinic and a university liver clinic between 2007 and 2011. Patients were observed until they started treatment or last follow-up if untreated. Results Mean age was 44 and most were Asian (96%) with community patients being younger and having lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. A total of 62% started treatment, and 38% remained untreated after median follow-up of 17 months (IQR=1–40 months). Overall, treatment rate was significantly higher at university liver clinic than in the community (66.7% vs 59.9%, p=0.01). In multivariate analysis, older age (HR 1.02, p=0.002), male gender (HR 1.37, p=0.02), and baseline ALT >45 U/L for males and >29 U/L for females (HR 2.24, p<0.0001) were significant predictors of treatment initiation, but not practice setting. Conclusions Approximately 40% of treatment-eligible patients still have not started treatment on longer follow-up. Treatment rates were higher at university clinics, but practice setting was not a predictor for treatment, but older age, male gender, and higher ALT levels were. Further studies are needed to determine the barriers for treatment initiation and to improve treatment rates in treatment-eligible patients. PMID:26543565

  11. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  12. An appraisal of the use of an infrared digital monitoring system for long-term measurement of heart rate in reptilian embryos.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Marina R; Taylor, Edwin W; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of heart rate (fH) in embryonic reptiles has previously imposed some degree of invasive treatment on the developing embryo. Recently a non-invasive technique of fH detection from intact eggs was developed for commercial avian breeders and has since been used in biological research. This device uses infrared light, enabling it to detect heartbeats in very early embryos. However, infrared light is a source of heat and extended enclosure of an egg in the device is likely to affect temperature with consequent effects on physiological processes, including fH. We studied the effect of use of the monitor on the temperature of eggs and on fH in two species of reptiles, the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Egg temperature increased from a room temperature of 27-28 °C, by 26% in turtles and 14% in iguanas over 1h of enclosure, resulting in an increase in fH of 76-81% in turtles and 35-50% iguanas. These effects on fH can either be avoided by brief enclosure of each egg in the monitor or measured and accounted for during the design of long-term experiments. PMID:26086361

  13. Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. Part II: Solute profiles, gradients and the comparisons of contemporary and long-term weathering rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Vivit, D.V.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Bullen, T.D.; Maher, K.; Blum, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and pore water elemental and 87Sr/86Sr compositions are used to determine contemporary weathering rates in a 65- to 226-kyr-old soil chronosequence formed from granitic sediments deposited on marine terraces along coastal California. Soil moisture, tension and saturation exhibit large seasonal variations in shallow soils in response to a Mediterranean climate. These climate effects are dampened in underlying argillic horizons that progressively developed in older soils, and reached steady-state conditions in unsaturated horizons extending to depths in excess of 15 m. Hydraulic fluxes (qh), based on Cl mass balances, vary from 0.06 to 0.22 m yr-1, resulting in fluid residence times in the terraces of 10-24 yrs. As expected for a coastal environment, the order of cation abundances in soil pore waters is comparable to sea water, i.e., Na > Mg > Ca > K > Sr, while the anion sequence Cl > NO3 > HCO3 > SO4 reflects modifying effects of nutrient cycling in the grassland vegetation. Net Cl-corrected solute Na, K and Si increase with depth, denoting inputs from feldspar weathering. Solute 87Sr/86Sr ratios exhibit progressive mixing of sea water-dominated precipitation with inputs from less radiogenic plagioclase. While net Sr and Ca concentrations are anomalously high in shallow soils due to biological cycling, they decline with depth to low and/or negative net concentrations. Ca/Mg, Sr/Mg and 87Sr/86Sr solute and exchange ratios are similar in all the terraces, denoting active exchange equilibration with selectivities close to unity for both detrital smectite and secondary kaolinite. Large differences in the magnitudes of the pore waters and exchange reservoirs result in short-term buffering of the solute Ca, Sr, and Mg. Such buffering over geologic time scales can not be sustained due to declining inputs from residual plagioclase and smectite, implying periodic resetting of the exchange reservoir such as by past vegetational changes and/or climate. Pore waters approach thermodynamic saturation with respect to albite at depth in the younger terraces, indicating that weathering rates ultimately become transport-limited and dependent on hydrologic flux. Contemporary rates Rsolute are estimated from linear Na and Si pore weathering gradients bsolute such that Rsolute = frac(qh, bsolute ?? Sv) where Sv is the volumetric surface area and ?? is the stoichiometric coefficient. Plagioclase weathering rates (0.38-2.8 ?? 10-15 mol m-2 s-1) are comparable to those based on 87Sr/86Sr mass balances and solid-state Na and Ca gradients using analogous gradient approximations. In addition, contemporary solute gradients, under transport-limited conditions, approximate long-term solid-state gradients when normalized against the mass of protolith plagioclase and its corresponding aqueous solubility. The multi-faceted weathering analysis presented in this paper is perhaps the most comprehensive yet applied to a single field study. Within uncertainties of the methods used, present day weathering rates, based on solute characterizations, are comparable to average long-term past rates as evidenced by soil profiles.

  14. Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. Part II: Solute profiles, gradients and the comparisons of contemporary and long-term weathering rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Art F.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Stonestrom, David A.; Vivit, Davison V.; Fitzpatrick, John; Bullen, Tom D.; Maher, Kate; Blum, Alex E.

    2009-05-01

    The spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and pore water elemental and 87Sr/ 86Sr compositions are used to determine contemporary weathering rates in a 65- to 226-kyr-old soil chronosequence formed from granitic sediments deposited on marine terraces along coastal California. Soil moisture, tension and saturation exhibit large seasonal variations in shallow soils in response to a Mediterranean climate. These climate effects are dampened in underlying argillic horizons that progressively developed in older soils, and reached steady-state conditions in unsaturated horizons extending to depths in excess of 15 m. Hydraulic fluxes ( q h), based on Cl mass balances, vary from 0.06 to 0.22 m yr -1, resulting in fluid residence times in the terraces of 10-24 yrs. As expected for a coastal environment, the order of cation abundances in soil pore waters is comparable to sea water, i.e., Na > Mg > Ca > K > Sr, while the anion sequence Cl > NO 3 > HCO 3 > SO 4 reflects modifying effects of nutrient cycling in the grassland vegetation. Net Cl-corrected solute Na, K and Si increase with depth, denoting inputs from feldspar weathering. Solute 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios exhibit progressive mixing of sea water-dominated precipitation with inputs from less radiogenic plagioclase. While net Sr and Ca concentrations are anomalously high in shallow soils due to biological cycling, they decline with depth to low and/or negative net concentrations. Ca/Mg, Sr/Mg and 87Sr/ 86Sr solute and exchange ratios are similar in all the terraces, denoting active exchange equilibration with selectivities close to unity for both detrital smectite and secondary kaolinite. Large differences in the magnitudes of the pore waters and exchange reservoirs result in short-term buffering of the solute Ca, Sr, and Mg. Such buffering over geologic time scales can not be sustained due to declining inputs from residual plagioclase and smectite, implying periodic resetting of the exchange reservoir such as by past vegetational changes and/or climate. Pore waters approach thermodynamic saturation with respect to albite at depth in the younger terraces, indicating that weathering rates ultimately become transport-limited and dependent on hydrologic flux. Contemporary rates R solute are estimated from linear Na and Si pore weathering gradients b solute such that Rsolute={qh}/{bsoluteβSv} where S v is the volumetric surface area and β is the stoichiometric coefficient. Plagioclase weathering rates (0.38-2.8 × 10 -15 mol m -2 s -1) are comparable to those based on 87Sr/ 86Sr mass balances and solid-state Na and Ca gradients using analogous gradient approximations. In addition, contemporary solute gradients, under transport-limited conditions, approximate long-term solid-state gradients when normalized against the mass of protolith plagioclase and its corresponding aqueous solubility. The multi-faceted weathering analysis presented in this paper is perhaps the most comprehensive yet applied to a single field study. Within uncertainties of the methods used, present day weathering rates, based on solute characterizations, are comparable to average long-term past rates as evidenced by soil profiles.

  15. Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 μg SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

  16. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest rates. 614.4155 Section 614.4155 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS General Loan... its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan....

  17. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest rates. 4279.125 Section 4279.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans §...

  18. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interest rates. 4279.125 Section 4279.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans §...

  19. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interest rates. 4279.125 Section 4279.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans §...

  20. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest rates. 4279.125 Section 4279.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans §...

  1. 7 CFR 4280.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interest rates. 4280.125 Section 4280.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program...

  2. 7 CFR 4279.231 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interest rates. 4279.231 Section 4279.231 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Biorefinery Assistance Loans §...

  3. 7 CFR 4279.231 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest rates. 4279.231 Section 4279.231 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Biorefinery Assistance Loans §...

  4. 7 CFR 4279.231 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interest rates. 4279.231 Section 4279.231 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Biorefinery Assistance Loans §...

  5. Outcomes of a ventilator-associated pneumonia bundle on rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia and other health care-associated infections in a long-term acute care hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Sulis, Carol A; Walkey, Allan J; Abadi, Yafet; Campbell Reardon, Christine; Joyce-Brady, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Long-term trends in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates, and other health care-associated infections, were examined prior to, during, and after introduction of a VAP bundle in a long-term acute care hospital setting. VAP incidence rate declined in a step-wise fashion and reached a null value. Incidence rates of bacteremia from any cause declined in a similar fashion. The incidence rates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization or infection rates also decreased, but that of Clostridium difficile infection did not. VAP in the long-term acute care hospital setting can be controlled over time with implementation of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based VAP bundle. This outcome also may decrease certain other health care-associated infections. PMID:24773791

  6. Long-term care in international perspective

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Pamela

    1988-01-01

    The findings of a study of long-term care policies in 18 countries are reported in this article. Initial data were collected by a questionnaire survey under the auspices of the International Social Security Association. These data were supplemented by published documents and government statistics obtained while researching long-term care for the International Social Security Association and, subsequently, for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The principal focus is a cross-national comparison of institutionalization rates for the elderly. Differences in use rates for medically oriented facilities are less than those for nonmedical residential long-term care facilities. Only a small amount of variation is related to demographic differences, such as older or more female elderly populations in those countries with higher institutionalization rates. Included also is a description of the modes of financing long-term care. PMID:10312969

  7. Alarming rates of virological failure and drug resistance in patients on long-term antiretroviral treatment in routine HIV clinics in Togo.

    PubMed

    Konou, Abla A; Dagnra, Anoumou Y; Vidal, Nicole; Salou, Mounerou; Adam, Zakillatou; Singo-Tokofai, Assétina; Delaporte, Eric; Prince-David, Mireille; Peeters, Martine

    2015-11-28

    Information on efficacy of long-term antiretroviral treatment (ART) exposure in resource-limited countries is still scarce. In 767 patients attending routine HIV centers in Togo and receiving first-line ART for more than four years, 42% had viral load greater than 1000 copies/ml and either were on a completely ineffective ART regime or were with only a single drug active. The actual conditions to ensure lifelong ART in resource-limited countries can have dramatic long-term outcomes. PMID:26558549

  8. Long-term slip rates of the Elsinore-Laguna Salada fault, southern California, by U-series Dating of Pedogenic Carbonate in Progressively Offset Alluvial fan Remnants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, K. E.; Rockwell, T. K.; Sharp, W. D.

    2007-12-01

    The Elsinore-Laguna Salada (ELS) fault is one of the principal strands of the San Andreas fault system in southern California, however its seismic potential is often de-emphasized due to previous estimates of a low slip rate. Nevertheless, the fault zone has produced two historic earthquakes over M6, with the 1892 event estimated at >M7; thus further investigation of the long-term slip rate on the ELS fault is warranted. On the western slopes of the Coyote Mountains (CM), southwest Imperial Valley, a series of alluvial fans are progressively offset by the Elsinore fault. These fans can be correlated to their source drainages via distinctive clast assemblages, thereby defining measurable offsets on the fault. Dating of the CM fans (to compute slip rates), however, is challenging. Organic materials appropriate for C-14 dating are rare or absent in the arid, oxidizing environment. Cosmogenic surface exposure techniques are limited by the absence of suitable sample materials and are inapplicable to numerous buried fan remnants that are otherwise excellent strain markers. Pedogenic carbonate datable by U-series, however, occurs in CM soil profiles, ubiquitously developed in fan gravels, and is apparent in deposits as young as ~1 ka. In CM gravels 10's ka and older, carbonate forms continuous, dense, yellow coatings up to 3 mm thick on the undersides of clasts. Powdery white carbonate may completely engulf clasts, but is not dateable. Carefully selected samples of dense, innermost carbonate lamina weighing 10's of milligrams and analyzed by TIMS, are geochemically favorable for precise U-series dating (e.g., U = 1-1.5 ppm, median 238U/232Th ~ 7), and yield reproducible ages for coatings from the same microstratigraphic horizon (e.g., 48.2 ± 2.7 and 49.9 ± 2.2 ka), indicating that U-Th systems have remained closed and that inherited coatings, though present, have been avoided. Accordingly, U-series on pedogenic carbonate provides reliable minimum ages for deposition of host landforms, thereby facilitating determination of maximum bounds on corresponding slip rates. Results to date show that pedogenic carbonate dating in the CM has a useful range of at least 140 ka, thus progressively offset geomorphic surfaces in the CM study area afford the opportunity to examine the pattern of slip on the Elsinore fault over time scales from circa 10 to >100 ka.

  9. Training-induced changes in muscle CSA, muscle strength, EMG, and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse.

    PubMed

    Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per; Rosted, Anna; Jakobsen, Ane K; Duus, Benn; Kjaer, Michael; Magnusson, S Peter

    2004-11-01

    The ability to develop muscle force rapidly may be a very important factor to prevent a fall and to perform other tasks of daily life. However, information is still lacking on the range of training-induced neuromuscular adaptations in elderly humans recovering from a period of disuse. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of three types of training regimes after unilateral prolonged disuse and subsequent hip-replacement surgery on maximal muscle strength, rapid muscle force [rate of force development (RFD)], muscle activation, and muscle size. Thirty-six subjects (60-86 yr) were randomized to a 12-wk rehabilitation program consisting of either 1) strength training (3 times/wk for 12 wk), 2) electrical muscle stimulation (1 h/day for 12 wk), or 3) standard rehabilitation (1 h/day for 12 wk). The nonoperated side did not receive any intervention and thereby served as a within-subject control. Thirty subjects completed the trial. In the strength-training group, significant increases were observed in maximal isometric muscle strength (24%, P < 0.01), contractile RFD (26-45%, P < 0.05), and contractile impulse (27-32%, P < 0.05). No significant changes were seen in the two other training groups or in the nontrained legs of all three groups. Mean electromyogram signal amplitude of vastus lateralis was larger in the strength-training than in the standard-rehabilitation group at 5 and 12 wk (P < 0.05). In contrast to traditional physiotherapy and electrical stimulation, strength training increased muscle mass, maximal isometric strength, RFD, and muscle activation in elderly men and women recovering from long-term muscle disuse and subsequent hip surgery. The improvement in both muscle mass and neural function is likely to have important functional implications for elderly individuals. PMID:15247162

  10. Promising Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlgren, Thomas Nilsson, Sten; Lennernaes, Bo; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To explore the long-term general and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) >5 years after combined radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer, including a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost and hormonal deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: Of 196 eligible patients with localized prostate cancer (Stage T1-T3a) consecutively treated with curative radiotherapy at our institution between June 1998 and August 2000, 182 (93%) completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25, including specific questions on fecal incontinence >5 years after treatment in September 2005. A comparison with age-matched normative data was done, as well as a longitudinal analysis using HRQOL data from a previous study. Results: The analysis included 158 nonrecurrent patients. Comparisons made with normative data showed that physical and role functioning were significantly better statistically and social functioning was significantly worse. Diarrhea and sleep disturbances were more pronounced and pain less pronounced than in a normal male population. The longitudinal analysis of disease-specific HRQOL showed that urinary urgency and erectile problems persisted 5 years after treatment, and nocturia and hormonally dependent symptoms had declined significantly, with a statistically significant difference. Fecal incontinence was recognized by 25% of patients, of whom 80% considered it a minor problem. Conclusion: More than 5 years after combined radiotherapy, irritative urinary problems and erectile dysfunction remain concerns, although severe bowel disturbance and fecal incontinence seem to be minor problems. Longitudinally, a decline mainly in hormonally dependent symptoms was seen. Minor differences in general HRQOL compared with normative data were observed, possibly including 'response shift' effects.

  11. γ-H2AX responds to DNA damage induced by long-term exposure to combined low-dose-rate neutron and γ-ray radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junlin; He, Ying; Shen, Xianrong; Jiang, Dingwen; Wang, Qingrong; Liu, Qiong; Fang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Risk estimates for low-dose radiation (LDR) remain controversial. The possible involvement of DNA repair-related genes in long-term low-dose-rate neutron-gamma radiation exposure is poorly understood. In this study, 60 rats were divided into control groups and irradiated groups, which were exposed to low-dose-rate n-γ combined radiation (LDCR) for 15, 30, or 60 days. The effects of different cumulative radiation doses on peripheral blood cell (PBC), subsets of T cells of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and DNA damage repair were investigated. Real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses were used to detect expression of DNA DSB-repair-related genes involved in the NHEJ pathway, such as Ku70 and Ku80, in PBL. The mRNA level of H2AX and the expression level of γ-H2AX were detected by real-time PCR, immunoblot, and flow cytometry. White blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT) of all ionizing radiation (IR) groups decreased significantly, while no difference was seen between the 30 day and 60 day exposure groups. The numbers of CD3(+), CD4(+) T cells and CD4(+)/CD8(+) in the PBL of IR groups were lower than in the control group. In the 30 day and 60 day exposure groups, CD8(+) T cells decreased significantly. Real-time PCR and immunoblot results showed no significant difference in the mRNA and protein expression of Ku70 and Ku80 between the control groups and IR groups. However, the mRNA of H2AX increased significantly, and there was a positive correlation with dose. There was no difference in the protein expression of γ-H2AX between 30 day and 60 day groups, which may help to explain the damage to PBL. In conclusion, PBL damage increased with cumulative dose, suggesting that γ-H2AX, but neither Ku70 nor Ku80, plays an important role in PBL impairment induced by LDCR. PMID:26774665

  12. Long-term rates and the depth extent of fault creep along the San Andreas Fault system in northern California from alinement arrays and GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienkaemper, J. J.; McFarland, F. S.; Simpson, R. W.; Caskey, J.

    2013-12-01

    The dextral San Andreas Fault system (SAFS) in northern California comprises five branches that exhibit considerable variation in the amount and spatial extent of aseismic release or creep. We estimate the depth extent of creep with a forward elastic model using the algorithms of Okada (1992) and boundary value dislocation solutions for creep rate and depth of creeping patches. For purposes of analysis we label branches, from west to east: A (San Gregorio), B (San Andreas), C (Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama), D (Northern Calaveras-Green Valley-Bartlett Springs) and E (Greenville. Since the 1960s alinement arrays have provided one of the most accurate means to estimate the long-term creep rate and these rates have been reasonably well determined for much of the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) southward. Over the past decade we have been installing alinement arrays along the more remote faults, especially northward of the SFBA, to monitor the extent of creep on branches C and D. We currently monitor about 80 such arrays throughout the northern SAFS. To analyze the depth extent of creep over the entire system, we model 30 fault sections on these five branches, delineated either by geometric discontinuities between them or by distinctly different creeping behaviors. We have removed any significant transient rate changes imposed by large regional earthquakes. We use crustal velocities determined for global-positioning station pairs of survey mode and continuous (SGPS, CGPS or mixed pairs) that are located near each fault to provide additional constraint on average creep rates. We estimate the mean depth of creep from the mean observed surface creep rate for each section and the rate uncertainty allows estimation of a depth uncertainty. Uncertainties are generally much higher where only five years or less of alinement array data are available, but in some cases the addition of CGPS or multiple SGPS station pairs has been essential for a more complete evaluation of the extent of creep. For example near-fault CGPS data clearly indicate that significant dextral creep occurs on both branches C and D north of the Mendocino triple junction. However, creep depth on some remote sections of branches C and D remains poorly constrained and will require a few more years of data to adequately evaluate the impact of creep on their seismic hazard. On the two urban fault sections in the northern SFBA, the Rodgers Creek and southern Green Valley faults, our denser creep measurements made over the past decade now allow us to characterize the along-strike and depth extent of their creep with much greater certainty for seismic hazard purposes. Two other urban faults, the Northern Calaveras and the Greenville faults, located in the eastern SFBA, we have also monitored more densely for creep over the past decade, and hence we now can more accurately characterize their seismic hazard.

  13. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: An analysis of variables associated with late toxicity and long-term cosmetic outcome after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wazer, David E. . E-mail: dwazer@tufts-nemc.org; Kaufman, Seth; Cuttino, Laurie; Di Petrillo, Thomas; Arthur, Douglas W.

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To perform a detailed analysis of variables associated with late tissue effects of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in a large cohort of patients with prolonged follow-up. Methods and Materials: Beginning in 1995, 75 women with Stage I/II breast cancer were enrolled in identical institutional trials evaluating APBI as monotherapy after lumpectomy. Patients eligible included those with T1-2, N0-1 ({<=}3 nodes positive), M0 tumors of nonlobular histology with negative surgical margins, no extracapsular nodal extension, and negative results on postexcision mammogram. All patients underwent surgical excision and postoperative irradiation with HDR interstitial brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the excision cavity plus a 2-cm margin. Treatment was delivered with a high-activity Ir-192 source at 3.4 Gy per fraction twice daily for 5 days to a total dose of 34 Gy. Dosimetric analyses were performed with three-dimensional postimplant dose and volume reconstructions. All patients were evaluated at 3-6-month intervals and assessed with a standardized cosmetic rating scale and according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late normal tissue toxicity scoring criteria. Clinical and therapy-related features were analyzed for their relationship to cosmetic outcome and toxicity rating. Clinical features analyzed included age, volume of resection, history of diabetes or hypertension, extent of axillary surgery, and systemic therapies. Therapy-related features analyzed included volume of tissue encompassed by the 100%, 150%, and 200% isodose lines (V100, V150, and V200, respectively), the dose homogeneity index (DHI), number of source dwell positions, and planar separation. Results: The median follow-up of all patients was 73 months (range, 43-118 months). The cosmetic outcome at last follow-up was rated as excellent, good, and fair/poor in 67%, 24%, and 9% of patients, respectively. Suboptimal cosmetic outcome was significantly associated with the number of source dwell positions, V150, and V200 and inversely associated with DHI (0.77 vs. 0.73; p = 0.05). Late skin toxicity was rated as Grade 0, 1, or 2 in 77%, 19%, and 4% of patients, respectively. The risk of Grade 1/2 skin toxicity was significantly associated with V150 and V200 and inversely associated with DHI (0.77 vs. 0.71; p = 0.009). Late subcutaneous toxicity was rated as Grade 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 in 55%, 15%, 12%, 5%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The risk of Grade 0/1 vs. Grade 2-4 subcutaneous toxicity was significantly associated only with a lower value of DHI (0.77 vs. 0.73; p = 0.02). To further explore factors that might contribute to the risk of fat necrosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic), a separate analysis showed that only dose hotspots as reflected in V150 and V200 were significantly associated with elevated risk. The use of adriamycin-based chemotherapy after APBI was found to be associated with a significant increase in the incidence of higher-grade skin toxicity and a higher risk of fat necrosis and suboptimal cosmetic outcome. Patient age, volume of resection, extent of axillary surgery, a history of diabetes or hypertension, and the use of tamoxifen were not found to be significantly associated with cosmetic outcome or late normal tissue complications. Conclusions: Long-term cosmetic results and the risk of late skin and subcutaneous toxicity after APBI with interstitial HDR brachytherapy can be correlated with specific treatment-related variables. These data provide dosimetric parameters that might be used to minimize the risk of normal tissue injury after APBI interstitial brachytherapy.

  14. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors.

  15. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  16. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  17. Nitrogen Isotopes as an Indicator of Long-Term N Cycling in a Grazed Temperate Pasture Receiving Different Rates of Superphosphate Fertilizer and Irrigation for ~50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudge, P. L.; Schipper, L. A.; Ghani, A.; Baisden, W. T.; Dodd, M.

    2010-12-01

    Pastoral agriculture is the dominant land use in New Zealand and intensification (as a result of fertilizer inputs and in some areas irrigation) has led to increased nitrogen (N) losses to the wider environment. An indicator that could identify soils which are vulnerable to N loss would be useful for the development of management practices and regulations aimed at reducing unwanted N losses. The natural abundance of 15N relative to 14N (δ15N) in soils is one potential indicator. Most N cycle processes associated with N losses (e.g. nitrification, denitrification, and volatilisation) discriminate against 15N and therefore soil δ15N could provide an indication of cumulative N losses. In this study we measured δ15N in archived soils from two long-term field trials receiving different rates of superphosphate fertilizer and irrigation. Both trials were in mid-Canterbury, New Zealand and were grazed by sheep. The fertilizer trial began in 1952, and treatments used were the control (nilP), 376 kg superphosphate ha-1 y-1 (376PA) and a treatment where 376 kg superphosphate ha-1 y-1 was applied between 1952 and 1957, no fertilizer from 1958 to 1979 and then 250 kg superphosphate ha-1 y-1 from 1980 to 2009 (376-0-250PA). The irrigation trial was initiated in 1949 and ceased in 2002. The dryland treatment and treatments irrigated when soil moisture was 10% and 20% were used in this study. From 1958, soil samples (0-75 mm depth) were taken annually from each trial, air dried and archived. Soil samples at four year intervals were analysed for this study. Pasture production varied considerably between treatments, with higher rates of fertilizer and irrigation promoting greater pasture growth and therefore higher grazing intensities. Initially δ15N was about the same (3.3‰) in all treatments of both trials. δ15N in the 376PA treatment of the fertilizer trial increased gradually with time and by 2009 was 4.5‰. In the 376-0-250PA treatment, δ15N stayed constant until about 1980 and then increased rapidly, which coincided with re-commencement of P fertilizer application. δ15N in the nilP treatment initially declined slightly and then remained relatively constant. In the irrigation trial, δ15N stayed constant (~3.3‰) in all three treatments up until around 1985 and then increased. After 1985 there was a separation between treatments with δ15N in the 20% treatment increasing marginally more than the 10% treatment and considerably more than the dryland treatment. We had anticipated an increase and divergence in δ15N values from the start of the irrigation trial. In general soil δ15N scaled with intensity of grazing, which suggests that N losses were greater under more intensive systems. δ15N therefore shows potential as an indicator of the vulnerability of soils to N loss. Further work will investigate the relationship between changes in δ15N and total C and N at these two trials, and future work will seek to directly relate soil δ15N to cumulative N losses via leaching and gaseous emissions.

  18. Interest Rates and Coupon Bonds in Quantum Finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2009-09-01

    1. Synopsis; 2. Interest rates and coupon bonds; 3. Options and option theory; 4. Interest rate and coupon bond options; 5. Quantum field theory of bond forward interest rates; 6. Libor Market Model of interest rates; 7. Empirical analysis of forward interest rates; 8. Libor Market Model of interest rate options; 9. Numeraires for bond forward interest rates; 10. Empirical analysis of interest rate caps; 11. Coupon bond European and Asian options; 12. Empirical analysis of interest rate swaptions; 13. Correlation of coupon bond options; 14. Hedging interest rate options; 15. Interest rate Hamiltonian and option theory; 16. American options for coupon bonds and interest rates; 17. Hamiltonian derivation of coupon bond options; Appendixes; Glossaries; List of symbols; Reference; Index.

  19. Long-Term Stability of Tutor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the extent to which tutor ratings remained stable in the long term by evaluating 291 ratings of 140 tutors at Maastricht University in the Netherlands between 1992 and 1995. The results indicated that, if the aggregated score and overall judgement are used to interpret the precision of individual scores, four and two occasions,…

  20. Scenarios for long-term analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis of High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments data is described and summarized in this talk. The summary covers information presented at the First Workshop on Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis. Experiments representing e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions (LEP, B Factories and CLEO), ep collisions (H1 and ZEUS), p{bar p} collisions (CDF and D0) and others presented interesting information related to utilizing the large datasets collected over many years at these HEP facilities. Many questions and issues remain to be explored.

  1. LONG-TERM MONITORING OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SILICA-BASED NANOPARTICLES ON THE RATE OF ENDOCYTOSIS AND EXOCYTOSIS AND CONSEQUENCES OF CELL DIVISION

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Shin-Woo; Camalier, Corinne E.; Weitzmann, M. Neale; Beck, George R.; Lee, Jin-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Nanomaterials are diverse in size, shape and charge and these differences likely alter their physicochemical properties in biological systems. We have investigated how these properties alter the initial and long-term dynamics of endocytosis, cell viability, cell division, exocytosis, and interaction with a collagen extracellular matrix using silica-based fluorescent nanoparticles and the murine pre-osteoblast cell line, MC3T3-E1. Three surface modified nanoparticles were analyzed: positively charged (PTMA), negatively charged (OH), and neutrally charged polyethylene glycol (PEG). Positively charged PTMA-modified nanoparticles demonstrated the most rapid uptake, within 2 hours, while PEG modified and negatively charged OH nanoparticles demonstrated slower uptake. Cell viability was >80% irrespective of nanoparticle surface charge suggesting a general lack of toxicity. Long-term monitoring of fluorescent intensity revealed that nanoparticles were passed to daughter cells during mitotic cell division with a corresponding decrease in fluorescent intensity. These data suggest that irrespective of surface charge silica nanoparticles have the potential to internalize into osteoblasts, albeit with different kinetics. Furthermore, long lived nanoparticles have the potential to be transferred to daughter cells during mitosis and can be maintained for weeks intracellularly or within a collagen matrix without toxicity and limited exocytosis. PMID:24058289

  2. The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.

    PubMed

    Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment. PMID:18752014

  3. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  4. Long Term Storage of Lyophilized Liposomal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Xu, Y.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Because aqueous liposomal formulations containing multiply unsaturated lipids are susceptible to chemical degradation, these formulations are often lyophilized. Despite their limited chemical stability, interest in the use of multiply unsaturated lipids to promote intracellular delivery has increased considerably in recent years. The goal of the current study was to examine the long term storage stability of lyophilized formulations containing lipids with increasing levels of unsaturation, and various strategies which can be employed to improve stability. Aqueous lipid-trehalose formulations containing 1,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLinPC) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were lyophilized and stored at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. We observed that the lipid degradation rate increased as the storage temperature and unsaturation level were increased. Even the cleanest sugars which are available commercially contain iron contaminants, and it was observed that the chelation of these iron contaminants significantly improved the stability of DLPC during storage. However, the glass transition temperature of the sugar which was included in the formulation, the reduction of the oxygen in the aqueous sample prior to lyophilization, the inclusion of helper lipids (i.e., cholesterol), and the rate of freezing did not significantly improve stability. PMID:25308534

  5. 7 CFR 4280.124 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... guaranteed loan will be negotiated between the lender and the applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. The variable rate must be based on published indices, such as...

  6. Reforming long-term care financing through insurance

    PubMed Central

    Meiners, Mark R.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently, insurance for long-term care was not viewed as feasible. This perception has changed dramatically in the past few years. Several models of long-term care insurance have begun to be tested. Although the application of insurance principles to long-term care is still new, the emergence of private market interest in developing long-term care insurance has been a catalyst to renewed public-policy support for reforming the way we pay for long-term care. States, in particular, have become interested in developing public-private partnerships to support the emergence of long-term care insurance that could help relieve the mounting pressure on Medicaid budgets. PMID:10312962

  7. 26 CFR 301.6621-1 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... date of the return, to June 30, 1975, and at the rate of 9 percent per annum from June 30, 1975, to... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 301.6621-1 Section 301.6621-1... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Interest Interest on Underpayments § 301.6621-1 Interest rate. (a)...

  8. 38 CFR 36.4312 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... October 1, 2003, adjustable rate mortgage loans which comply with the requirements of this paragraph (d... than 36 months from the date of the borrower's first mortgage payment. The adjusted rate will become... index figure shall be the most recent figure available before the date of mortgage loan origination....

  9. Long-term Outcomes after Severe Shock

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Cristina M.; Hirshberg, Eliotte L.; Jones, Jason P.; Kuttler, Kathryn G.; Lanspa, Michael J.; Wilson, Emily L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Brown, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Methods Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 mcg/kg/min of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured three-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. Results The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years: 82% (62/76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of five years after hospital admission. The patients’ Physical Functioning scores were below US population norms (p<0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full time. Conclusions Early survivors of severe shock had a high three-year survival rate. Patients’ long term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill ICU survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely critically ill patients have similar outcome to general ICU survivor populations. PMID:25394248

  10. Long Term Illness and Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

  11. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Patient-Provider Communication, Quality-of-Care Ratings, and Patient Activation Among Long-Term Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Nynikka R.A.; Kent, Erin E.; Forsythe, Laura P.; Arora, Neeraj K.; Rowland, Julia H.; Aziz, Noreen M.; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid; Hamilton, Ann S.; Weaver, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined racial and ethnic disparities in patient-provider communication (PPC), perceived care quality, and patient activation among long-term cancer survivors. Methods In 2005 to 2006, survivors of breast, prostate, colorectal, ovarian, and endometrial cancers completed a mailed survey on cancer follow-up care. African American, Asian/Pacific Islander (Asian), Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white (white) survivors who had seen a physician for follow-up care in the past 2 years (n = 1,196) composed the analytic sample. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to identify racial and ethnic differences in PPC (overall communication and medical test communication), perceived care quality, and patient activation in clinical care (self-efficacy in medical decisions and perceived control). We further examined the potential contribution of PPC to racial and ethnic differences in perceived care quality and patient activation. Results Compared with white survivors (mean score, 85.16), Hispanic (mean score, 79.95) and Asian (mean score, 76.55) survivors reported poorer overall communication (P = .04 and P < .001, respectively), and Asian survivors (mean score, 79.97) reported poorer medical test communication (P = .001). Asian survivors were less likely to report high care quality (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.72) and reported lower self-efficacy in medical decisions (mean score, 74.71; P < .001) compared with white survivors (mean score, 84.22). No disparity was found in perceived control. PPC was positively associated with care quality (P < .001) and self-efficacy (P < .001). After adjusting for PPC and other covariates, when compared with whites, Asian disparities remained significant. Conclusion Asian survivors report poorer follow-up care communication and care quality. More research is needed to identify contributing factors beyond PPC, such as cultural influences and medical system factors. PMID:25403220

  12. 12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Monthly interest rate survey. 906.5 Section 906... OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of Rates and Terms on Conventional One-Family Non-farm Mortgage...

  13. 12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monthly interest rate survey. 906.5 Section 906... OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of Rates and Terms on Conventional One-Family Non-farm Mortgage...

  14. 12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Monthly interest rate survey. 906.5 Section 906... OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of Rates and Terms on Conventional One-Family Non-farm Mortgage...

  15. 12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Monthly interest rate survey. 906.5 Section 906... OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of Rates and Terms on Conventional One-Family Non-farm Mortgage...

  16. 12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Monthly interest rate survey. 906.5 Section 906... OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of Rates and Terms on Conventional One-Family Non-farm Mortgage...

  17. 7 CFR 4274.325 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program... intermediary and ultimate recipient. The rate must be within limits established by the intermediary's work...

  18. 7 CFR 4274.325 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program... intermediary and ultimate recipient. The rate must be within limits established by the intermediary's work...

  19. 7 CFR 4274.325 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program... intermediary and ultimate recipient. The rate must be within limits established by the intermediary's work...

  20. 7 CFR 4274.325 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program... intermediary and ultimate recipient. The rate must be within limits established by the intermediary's work...

  1. 7 CFR 4274.325 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program... intermediary and ultimate recipient. The rate must be within limits established by the intermediary's work...

  2. Credit Cards, Economization of Money, and Interest Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steindl, Frank G.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the effect of interest rates on the increased use of credit cards, a popular method of financing households. Uses three models to demonstrate that interest rates must rise, resulting in increased consumption expenditures. (CMK)

  3. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135... of interest rate risk. The board of directors of each Farm Credit Bank, bank for cooperatives, and agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth...

  4. 12 CFR 652.30 - Interest rate risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interest rate risk management. 652.30 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS § 652.30 Interest rate risk management. (a) The board of directors of Farmer Mac must provide effective oversight (direction, controls, and supervision) of interest rate...

  5. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135... of interest rate risk. The board of directors of each Farm Credit Bank, bank for cooperatives, and agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth...

  6. 38 CFR 36.4212 - Interest rates and late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... direction of more than one percentage point from the interest rate in effect for the period immediately... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rates and late... Site Preparation General Provisions § 36.4212 Interest rates and late charges. (a) In guaranteeing...

  7. 76 FR 9870 - Financial Management Policies-Interest Rate Risk

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk AGENCY: Office of Thrift... of Proposal: Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk OMB Number: 1550-0094 Form Number: N/A... is to ensure that institutions are appropriately managing their exposure to interest rate risk....

  8. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135... agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth in subpart G of this part. The board of directors shall adopt an interest rate risk management section of...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135... agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth in subpart G of this part. The board of directors shall adopt an interest rate risk management section of...

  11. 38 CFR 36.4307 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rate reduction... 36.4307 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. (a) Pursuant to 38 U.S.C. 3710(a)(8), (a)(9)(B)(i... provision, the interest rate reduction refinancing loan may be guaranteed without regard to the amount...

  12. 38 CFR 36.4223 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rate reduction..., Including Site Preparation General Provisions 36.4223 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. (a) A... being refinanced. (b) Notwithstanding any other regulatory provision, the interest rate...

  13. Using the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) to Predict Long Term Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L.; Brewer, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the predictive validity of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, Autism detection in early childhood: ADEC. Australian Council of Educational Research, Camberwell, VIC 2007) and a well-established screening tool, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler et al. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS).…

  14. Using the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) to Predict Long Term Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L.; Brewer, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the predictive validity of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, Autism detection in early childhood: ADEC. Australian Council of Educational Research, Camberwell, VIC 2007) and a well-established screening tool, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler et al. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS).

  15. Changes in emotional state modulate neuronal firing rates of human speech motor cortex: a case study in long-term recording.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Philip

    2011-10-01

    In many brain areas, modulations in neuronal firing rates are thought to code information. However, in electrophysiological recording experiments, especially recordings in human patients, the type of information that is coded by a neuron's discharge patterns is often not known, or difficult to determine. From our long experience with chronic recordings in humans, we have come to suspect that such unexplained modulations in firing rates are often due to state changes in the subject. We here present two case studies, with extensive data in one subject to illustrate the point that a change in the subject's emotions, such as sudden fear, surprise, or happiness, may trigger substantial changes in firing rates. PMID:21967282

  16. 78 FR 13999 - Maximum Interest Rates on Guaranteed Farm Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ...The Farm Service Agency (FSA) is issuing this interim rule amending the regulations that specify interest rates on guaranteed farm loans. This rule will tie the maximum interest rate that may be charged on FSA guaranteed farm loans to nationally published indices, specifically the 3-month London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) or the 5-year Treasury note rate, unless the lender uses a formal......

  17. 12 CFR 7.4001 - Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... institutions; charging interest to corporate borrowers. 7.4001 Section 7.4001 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF... interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate borrowers. (a... the law of that state. If state law permits different interest charges on specified classes of...

  18. Consider long-term care as service alternative.

    PubMed

    Loria, L S

    1987-04-01

    The increasing demand for elderly care services, pressures on inpatient average length of stay and payment levels, and potential financial rewards from providing additional services, makes long-term care look attractive to hospitals. Long-term care, however, is not for every hospital. Before deciding to establish long-term care services, management should examine how the service fits within the hospital's strategic plan. The action plan below provides guidance in evaluating a decision to use hospital facilities for long-term care. Examine how long-term care services fit within the hospital's strategic plan. Study area demographics and competitors to assess the need and supply of long-term care services. Survey the medical staff, consumers and payers to determine attitudes, perceptions and interests regarding long-term care services. Develop a facility plan that identifies areas of excess capacity that can be most easily converted into long-term care with minimal effects on hospital operations. Prepare a financial feasibility analysis of the contribution margin and return on investment attributable to long-term care services. Include an impact analysis on hospital operations. Establish a management task force to develop a detailed implementation plan including assigned individual responsibilities and related timetable. Develop an effective marketing plan designed to generate increased patient market share. PMID:10312056

  19. Effects of Wyoming big sagebrush seeding rate and grass competition on the long-term density and canopy volume of the big sagebrush and wildlife habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was initiated in 1997 to evaluate the effects of seeding rates of grass and Wyoming big sagebrush on the establishment of big sagebrush. The research was accomplished at the Belle Ayr West mine, south of Gillette, WY using a randomized complete block experimental design with three big ...

  20. Tolerance of the vaginal vault to high-dose rate brachytherapy and concomitant chemo-pelvic irradiation: Long-term perspective☆

    PubMed Central

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Abdah-Bortnyak, Roxolyana; Amit, Amnon; Nevelsky, Alexander; Berniger, Alison; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Ben-Yosef, Rahamim; Kuten, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Aim/background We sought to determine the tolerance level and complication rates of the vaginal vault to combined high-dose-rate intra-cavitary brachytherapy with concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. Patients and methods A retrospective review of medical records of all the patients who received definitive chemo-radiotherapy for cervical cancer between 1998 and 2002 was undertaken. The records were reviewed for doses and for radiation-associated early and late sequelae of the vagina, rectum and bladder. Cumulative biological effective dose was calculated for two reference vaginal surface points. Results Fifty patients were included. Average age at diagnosis was 54 years. Median follow-up was 59 months. There were no recorded instances of acute grade IV toxicity. Maximal high-dose-rate vaginal surface dose (upper central point) was 103 Gy, and maximal brachytherapy lateral surface dose was 70 Gy. Maximal cumulative biological effective dose for the lateral surface reference point was 465.5 Gy3, and the maximal cumulative biological effective dose for the superior reference point was 878.6 Gy3. There were no cases of vaginal necrosis or fistulas, and no cases of grade IV late vaginal, rectal or bladder toxicity. No correlation was found between the maximal vaginal surface dose and vaginal, rectal or bladder toxicity. Conclusions The maximal surface HDR brachytherapy dose of 103 Gy and the maximal cBED of 878.6 Gy3 were not associated with fistula or necrosis or other grade 3–4 vaginal complications. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy, including pelvic radiotherapy and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy, is relatively safe for cervical cancer patients. PMID:24936320

  1. Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

  2. A comparison of methods for deriving solute flux rates using long-term data from streams in the mirror lake watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bukaveckas, P.A.; Likens, G.E.; Winter, T.C.; Buso, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Calculation of chemical flux rates for streams requires integration of continuous measurements of discharge with discrete measurements of solute concentrations. We compared two commonly used methods for interpolating chemistry data (time-averaging and flow-weighting) to determine whether discrepancies between the two methods were large relative to other sources of error in estimating flux rates. Flux rates of dissolved Si and SO42- were calculated from 10 years of data (1981-1990) for the NW inlet and Outlet of Mirror Lake and for a 40-day period (March 22 to April 30, 1993) during which we augmented our routine (weekly) chemical monitoring with collection of daily samples. The time-averaging method yielded higher estimates of solute flux during high-flow periods if no chemistry samples were collected corresponding to peak discharge. Concentration-discharge relationships should be used to interpolate stream chemistry during changing flow conditions if chemical changes are large. Caution should be used in choosing the appropriate time-scale over which data are pooled to derive the concentration-discharge regressions because the model parameters (slope and intercept) were found to be sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual variation. Both methods approximated solute flux to within 2-10% for a range of solutes that were monitored during the intensive sampling period. Our results suggest that errors arising from interpolation of stream chemistry data are small compared with other sources of error in developing watershed mass balances.

  3. Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-03-22

    The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

  4. Seismically induced changes in bedrock erosional efficiency along the Peikang River, central Taiwan: the role of sediment cover variability in controlling long-term incision rates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanites, B. J.; Tucker, G. E.; Hsu, H. L.; Chen, C. C.; Chen, Y. G.; Mueller, K. J.; Wilcox, T.

    2009-04-01

    Sediment cover in a fluvial system can modulate bedrock incision rates by mantling underlying bedrock from erosion processes. The degree of sediment buffering can be variable in both time and space, and therefore documenting and understanding changes in sediment cover along a river is important for landscape evolution studies. The supply of sediment to the fluvial system is highly variable in dynamic landscapes as earthquakes and weather events can induce regionally correlated landslide events of diverse magnitudes. Landslides caused by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan are an example of this variable sediment supply. We examine the sediment cover response from this event along a segment of the Peikang River, central Taiwan. This river is undergoing differential incision as it passes over the active Shuilikeng Fault, thus providing a unique natural experiment that highlights the spatially variable responses to this sudden increase in sediment supply. Data derived from topographic cross-section records at a gauging station show that the maximum riverbed aggradation occurred sometime between 2001 and 2003, and field observations indicate that it has not significantly degraded as of January, 2008. Further, we present high-resolution electrical resistivity surveys taken in March, 2008, along the actively incising Peikang River in central Taiwan. The surveys allow the quantification of the spatial variability of the thickness of sediment stored in the river valley following the sudden increase in sediment supply. Comparison of the thickness of sediment cover with incision rate and transport capacity reveals a strong inverse relationship (i.e. high capacity and high incision rate reaches have low sediment cover and vice versa). The high volume of sediment (6-12 m depth) currently stored in the low incision zone suggests that vertical incision has been effectively shut off since the arrival of this sediment pulse. In contrast, the shallower (zero to 4m) stored in the high-incision zone suggest that erosion processes are ongoing, although potentially at a reduced rate. The data presented here support the hypothesis that the frequency of bed exposure to erosive wear is related to channel hydraulics (e.g. transport capacity) and is an important mechanism for the dynamic adjustment of channels to differential incision. The close correspondence between the spatial variability in sediment cover, transport capacity, and incision rate suggests that the degree of sediment buffering in a particular reach is a strong, mechanistic control on the rate of incision along the Peikang River. Further, the data suggests that sediment cover is temporally variable, and the magnitude of this variation may depend on local transport capacity. This suggests that sediment-flux dependent fluvial incision models must account for the temporal variability of sediment supply from hillslopes in order to fully capture the channel response to tectonic and/or climatic forcings. Finally, this study reveals that events that lead to rapid hillslope denudation can reduce the efficiency of fluvial processes.

  5. The influence of environmental factors on heart rate chronostructure depending on the individual characteristics of autonomic regulation. Results of long-term medical-ecological studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaeva, Olga; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Breus, Tamara; Chernikova, Anna; Baevsky, Roman

    It was previously shown [Baevsky, Petrov, 1998] that during space flight under influence of geomagnetic disturbances there are both specific response of the autonomic regulation system in the form of vasomotor cardiovascular center activation (LF spectral components) and non-specific stress response, which depends on the actual autonomic balance [Breus, Baevsky, 2002]. Within the project "Mars-500" the parallel medical-ecological studies were conducted in 10 groups (10-16 people), that lived in different regions of the world under the influence of various environmental factors - climatic, geographic, industrial, social and other. It allowed us to obtain a sufficiently large number of variants of adaptive reactions caused by differences in external impacts. The main research method was the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in short ECG samples (5 minutes) for assessing heart rate chronostructure and functional status of autonomic regulation. Results of studies have demonstrated that environmental loads on the regulatory mechanisms is higher in the northern and north-eastern regions of Russia - Magadan and Syktyvkar. Stress-index of regulatory systems and adaptive risk indicator is significantly higher in these groups [Baevsky, Berseneva, 2013]. The preliminary search of weather factors (atmospheric pressure, air temperature, humidity and magnetic index Kp) influence on the autonomic regulation of heart rate showed that there are no any significant changes and relationships in the entire group of participants. We have assumed that the character of adaptive responses, including responses to changing weather and geomagnetic conditions, is associated with the individual characteristics and the initial functional state of autonomic regulation. To test this hypothesis, we have identified two groups of subjects with different autonomic balance. The first group included individuals with a pronounced predominance of sympathetic regulation (n = 127), the second - with a strong predominance of parasympathetic activity (n = 64). The analysis of correlations between weather and heart rate chronostructure and functional condition of autonomic regulation revealed that attitude of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) of heart rhythm spectrum higher in both groups at declining geomagnetic activity and lower at its growth. The comparison of other HRV indicators at decreasing and increasing geomagnetic activity displayed the opposite trends in these groups. Stress-index of regulatory systems (SI), which reflects the sympathetic activity, rises in group with sympathetic dominance at reducing geomagnetic activity, and at its growth - in group with parasympathetic dominance. So, we can see that specific adaptive reaction as response to changing geomagnetic situation, which manifested in activation of vasomotor cardiovascular center, is the similar in subjects with different autonomic balance. Non-specific component depends on initial dominance of one or another regulatory mechanism.

  6. Implementation of seven echocardiographic parameters of myocardial asynchrony to improve the long-term response rate of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)

    PubMed Central

    Knebel, Fabian; Schattke, Sebastian; Bondke, Hansjürgen; Richter, Christoph; Melzer, Christoph; Dreger, Henryk; Grohmann, Andrea; Baumann, Gert; Borges, Adrian C

    2008-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization Therapy (CRT) is an effective therapy for chronic heart failure with beneficial hemodynamic effects leading to a reduction of morbidity and mortality. The responder rates, however, are low. There are various and contentious echocardiographic parameters of myocardial asynchrony. Patient selection by echocardiographic assessment of asynchrony is thought to improve responder rates. Methods In this small single-center pilot-study, seven established parameters of myocardial asynchrony were used to select patients for CRT: (1) interventricular electromechanical delay (IMD, cut-off ≥ 40 ms), (2) Septal-to-posterior wall motion delay (SPWMD, ≥ 130 ms), (3) maximal difference in time-to-peak velocities between any two of twelve LV segments (Ts-12 ≥ 104 ms), (4) standard deviation of time to peak myocardial velocities (Ts-12-SD, ≥ 34.4 ms), (5) difference between the septal and basal time-to-peak velocity (TDId, ≥ 60 ms), (6) left ventricular electromechanical delay (LVEMD, > 140 ms) and (7) delayed longitudinal contraction (DLC, > 2 segments). 16 chronic heart failure patients (NYHA III–IV, LVEF < 0.35, QRS ≥ 120 ms) at least two out of seven parameters of myocardial asynchrony received cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-ICD). Follow-up echo examination was after 6 months. The control group was a historic group of CRT patients (n = 38) who had not been screened for echocardiographic signs of myocardial asynchrony prior to device implantation. Results Based on reverse remodeling (relative reduction of LVESV > 15%, relative increase of LVEF > 25%), the responder rate to CRT was 81.2% in patients selected for CRT according to our protocol as compared to 47.4% in the control group (p = 0.04). At baseline, there were on average 4.1 ± 1.6 positive parameters of asynchrony (follow-up: 3.7 [± 1.6] parameters positive, p = 0.52). Only the LVEMD decreased significantly after CRT (p = 0.027). The remaining parameters showed a non-significant trend towards reduction of myocardial asynchrony. Conclusion The implementation of different markers of asynchrony in the selection process for CRT improves the hemodynamic response rate to CRT. PMID:19032733

  7. LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES: A CORNUCOPIA OF VIRAL PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study sought to determine the frequency and types of respiratory viruses circulating in 33 Boston long term care facilities during a three year period and correlate rates of infection with serum zinc levels. Participants were residents of long term care that had previously participated in a tria...

  8. Lack of significant differences in association rates and affinities of antibodies from short-term and long-term responses to hen egg lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Goldbaum, F A; Cauerhff, A; Velikovsky, C A; Llera, A S; Riottot, M M; Poljak, R J

    1999-05-15

    The affinities (Ka) and association rate constants (kon) of 23 mouse (BALB/c) anti-lysozyme mAbs obtained after short and prolonged immunizations have been measured by plasmon resonance techniques. The affinities for the 23 Abs, measured using their Fab, range from Ka = 1.1 x 10(7) to 1.4 x 10(10) M-1. There is no significant correlation between time or dose of immunization and affinity or association rates, indicating no time- or dose-dependent maturation of the response within the doses and times that were explored. IgMs are produced early and late in the response, with intrinsic affinities <10(5) M-1. Two independently derived mAbs, D44.1 (short term) and F10.6.6 (from a longer term response), result from identical or nearly identical somatic recombination events of germline gene segments. F10.6.6 has more mutations and a higher affinity constant (Ka = 1.4 x 10(10) M-1) than D44.1 (Ka = 1.1 x 10(7) M-1). Although higher affinities may result from an accumulation of mutations, they do not correlate with the length and dose of immunogenic challenge. PMID:10229844

  9. A long-term comparison of carbon sequestration rates in impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the lower Waccamaw River, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Krauss, Ken W.; Sasser, M. Craig; Fuller, Christopher C.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Powell, Amber; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Orlando, James

    2013-01-01

    Carbon storage was compared between impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the Lower Waccamaw River in South Carolina, USA. Soil cores were collected in (1) naturally tidal, (2) moist soil (impounded, seasonally drained since ~1970), and (3) deeply flooded “treatments” (impounded, flooded to ~90 cm since ~2002). Cores were analyzed for % organic carbon, % total carbon, bulk density, and 210Pb and 137Cs for dating purposes. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 25 to 200 g C m−2 yr−1 (moist soil), 80–435 g C m−2 yr−1 (naturally tidal), and 100–250 g C m−2 yr−1 (deeply flooded). The moist soil and naturally tidal treatments were compared over a period of 40 years. The naturally tidal treatment had significantly higher carbon storage (mean = 219 g C m−2 yr−1 vs. mean = 91 g C m−2 yr−1) and four times the vertical accretion rate (mean = 0.84 cm yr−1 vs. mean = 0.21 cm yr−1) of the moist soil treatment. The results strongly suggest that the long drainage period in moist soil management limits carbon storage over time. Managers across the National Wildlife Refuge system have an opportunity to increase carbon storage by minimizing drainage in impoundments as much as practicable.

  10. 5 CFR 842.605 - Election of insurable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beneficiary's date of birth. (f) OPM will notify the employee or Member of initial monthly annuity rates with... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election of insurable interest rate. 842... Election of insurable interest rate. (a) At the time of retirement, an employee or Member in good...

  11. Long-term results of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the primary treatment of medically inoperable stage I-II endometrial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Niazi, Tamim M.; Souhami, Luis . E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Portelance, Lorraine; Bahoric, Boris; Gilbert, Lucy; Stanimir, Gerald

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: Total-abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAHBSO) is the gold-standard therapy for patients with endometrial carcinoma. However, patients with high operative risks are usually treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone. The goal of this study was to update our experience of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB), with or without external-beam irradiation (EBRT), for such patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1984 and 2003, 38 patients with Stage I and Stage II adenocarcinoma of the endometrium considered high operative risk received RT as the primary treatment. The median age was 74.1 years. Before 1996, the local extent of the disease was assessed by an examination under anesthesia (EUA) and by EUA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thereafter. Eight patients (21%) were treated with combined HDRB and EBRT, and 30 patients (79%) were treated with with HDRB alone. The median HDRB dose was 23.9 Gy, typically delivered in 3 fractions in a weekly schedule. The median EBRT dose was 42 Gy. Results: At a median follow-up of 57.5 months for patients at risk, 11 patients (29%) have failed: 6 patients (16%) locally, 4 patients (10.5%) distantly, and 1 patient (3%) locally and distantly. Local failure was established by biopsy, and 4 patients were salvaged by TAHBSO. Higher stage and higher grade were both associated with increased failure rate. The 15-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 78% for all stages, 90% for Stage I, and 42% for Stage II (p < 0.0001). The 15-year DSS was 91% for Grade I and 67% for Grade II and III combined (p = 0.0254). Patients with Stage I disease established by MRI (11 patients) and who received a total HDRB dose of 30 Gy had a DSS rate of 100% at 10 years. Four patients experienced late toxicities: 1 Grade II and 3 Grade III or IV. Conclusion: Medically inoperable Stage I endometrial carcinoma may be safely and effectively treated with HDRB as the primary therapy. In selected Stage I patients, our results are equivalent to that of surgery. We believe that the alternative option of HDRB as the primary therapy for selected Stage I endometrial carcinoma, even in patients with low operative risks, needs further evaluation.

  12. No improvement in long-term wear and revision rates with the second-generation Biomet cup (RingLoc) in young patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A number of excellent results with the cementless titanium femoral component of the Mallory Head Total Hip Replacement have been published. Unfortunately, these excellent results have been counteracted by the poor performance of the cementless titanium acetabular components. In 1994, the HexLoc acetabular component was replaced with a second-generation design, the RingLoc. We hypothesized that the new generation would have improved the results. Methods We retrospectively studied 111 consecutive patients (150 hips) younger than 55 years. Median follow-up time was 14 (6–18) years for the HexLoc and 10 (1–14) years for the RingLoc. 7 patients were lost to follow-up and 7 patients died. The 10-year survival rate, radiographic liner wear, and radiographic signs of prosthesis failure were compared between the 2 acetabular components. Results The Kaplan-Meier survival estimate with revision for any reason as the endpoint showed a 10-year survival of 89% (95% CI: 81–97) for the HexLoc and 92% (CI: 85–98) for the RingLoc. The mean annual wear rate for the HexLoc was 0.16 (SD 0.16) mm and it was 0.15 (0.1) mm for the RingLoc (p = 0.3). The radiographic signs of failure were equally distributed between the 2 groups. Interpretation Compared to the HexLoc type, the RingLoc system did not improve the mean percentage survival at 10 years; nor did it reduce the liner wear. Despite correction of the known design flaws in the HexLoc design, the RingLoc system did not show a clinically relevant improvement compared to its predecessor. PMID:22066563

  13. Long-Term Follow-Up of Proteinuria and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in HIV-Infected Patients with Tubular Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Peyriere, Hélène; Cournil, Amandine; Casanova, Marie-Laure; Badiou, Stéphanie; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Reynes, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this prospective observational study was to describe the evolution of tubular proteinuria detected in HIV-infected patients, and to evaluate the impact of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) discontinuation. Methods Proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were followed during a median duration of 32 months, in 81 HIV-infected patients with tubular proteinuria and eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (determined using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) Collaboration equation). Tubular proteinuria was defined by urine protein to creatinine ratio (uPCR) ≥200 mg/g and albumin to protein ratio (uAPR) <0.4. Results Twenty per cent of patients had persistence of tubular proteinuria: TDF continuation was the main factor associated with this persistence [OR 9.0; 95%CI: 1.9–41.4; p = 0.01]. Among the 23 patients who discontinued TDF, uPCR returned below the threshold of 200 mg/g in 11 patients. Overall, eGFR decreased with a mean rate of decline of 3.8 ml/min/1.73m2/year. The decline in eGFR was lesser after discontinuation of TDF (5.8 ml/min/1.73m2/year during TDF exposure versus 3 ml/min/1.73m2/year after TDF discontinuation; p = 0.01). Conclusions The continuation of TDF was the main factor associated with the persistence of proteinuria. Moreover, proteinuria was normalized in only half of the patients who discontinued TDF. The clinical significance of TDF-related low level of proteinuria as a factor associated with renal disease progression and bone loss remains poorly understood. PMID:26571117

  14. Long-Term Results of Fixed High-Dose I-131 Treatment for Toxic Nodular Goiter: Higher Euthyroidism Rates in Geriatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aktaş, Gül Ege; Turoğlu, Halil Turgut; Erdil, Tanju Yusuf; İnanır, Sabahat; Dede, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Geriatric patient population has special importance due to particular challenges. In addition to the increase in incidence of toxic nodular goiter (TNG) with age, it has a high incidence in the regions of low-medium iodine intake such as in our country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall outcome of high fixed dose radioiodine (RAI) therapy, and investigate the particular differences in the geriatric patient population. Methods: One hundred and three TNG patients treated with high dose I-131 (370-740 MBq) were retrospectively reviewed. The baseline characteristics; age, gender, scintigraphic patterns and thyroid function tests before and after treatment, as well as follow-up, duration of antithyroid drug (ATD) medication and achievement of euthyroid or hypothyroid state were evaluated. The patient population was divided into two groups as those=>65 years and those who were younger, in order to assess the effect of age. Results: Treatment success was 90% with single dose RAI therapy. Hyperthyroidism was treated in 7±7, 2 months after RAI administration. At the end of the first year, overall hypothyroidism rate was 30% and euthyroid state was achieved in 70% of patients. Age was found to be the only statistically significant variable effecting outcome. A higher ratio of euthyroidism was achieved in the geriatric patient population. Conclusion: High fixed dose I-131 treatment should be preferred in geriatric TNG patients in order to treat persistent hyperthyroidism rapidly. The result of this study suggests that high fixed dose RAI therapy is a successful modality in treating TNG, and high rates of euthyroidism can be achieved in geriatric patients.

  15. Sea Star Wasting Disease in the Keystone Predator Pisaster ochraceus in Oregon: Insights into Differential Population Impacts, Recovery, Predation Rate, and Temperature Effects from Long-Term Research

    PubMed Central

    Menge, Bruce A.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Johnson, Angela; Sullivan, Jenna; Gravem, Sarah; Chan, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Sea star wasting disease (SSWD) first appeared in Oregon in April 2014, and by June had spread to most of the coast. Although delayed compared to areas to the north and south, SSWD was initially most intense in north and central Oregon and spread southward. Up to 90% of individuals showed signs of disease from June-August 2014. In rocky intertidal habitats, populations of the dominant sea star Pisaster ochraceus were rapidly depleted, with magnitudes of decline in density among sites ranging from -2x to -9x (59 to 84%) and of biomass from -2.6x to -15.8x (60 to 90%) by September 2014. The frequency of symptomatic individuals declined over winter and persisted at a low rate through the spring and summer 2015 (~5–15%, at most sites) and into fall 2015. Disease expression included six symptoms: initially with twisting arms, then deflation and/or lesions, lost arms, losing grip on substrate, and final disintegration. SSWD was disproportionally higher in orange individuals, and higher in tidepools. Although historically P. ochraceus recruitment has been low, from fall 2014 to spring 2015 an unprecedented surge of sea star recruitment occurred at all sites, ranging from ~7x to 300x greater than in 2014. The loss of adult and juvenile individuals in 2014 led to a dramatic decline in predation rate on mussels compared to the previous two decades. A proximate cause of wasting was likely the “Sea Star associated Densovirus” (SSaDV), but the ultimate factors triggering the epidemic, if any, remain unclear. Although warm temperature has been proposed as a possible trigger, SSWD in Oregon populations increased with cool temperatures. Since P. ochraceus is a keystone predator that can strongly influence the biodiversity and community structure of the intertidal community, major community-level responses to the disease are expected. However, predicting the specific impacts and time course of change across west coast meta-communities is difficult, suggesting the need for detailed coast-wide investigation of the effects of this outbreak. PMID:27144391

  16. Sea Star Wasting Disease in the Keystone Predator Pisaster ochraceus in Oregon: Insights into Differential Population Impacts, Recovery, Predation Rate, and Temperature Effects from Long-Term Research.

    PubMed

    Menge, Bruce A; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Johnson, Angela; Sullivan, Jenna; Gravem, Sarah; Chan, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Sea star wasting disease (SSWD) first appeared in Oregon in April 2014, and by June had spread to most of the coast. Although delayed compared to areas to the north and south, SSWD was initially most intense in north and central Oregon and spread southward. Up to 90% of individuals showed signs of disease from June-August 2014. In rocky intertidal habitats, populations of the dominant sea star Pisaster ochraceus were rapidly depleted, with magnitudes of decline in density among sites ranging from -2x to -9x (59 to 84%) and of biomass from -2.6x to -15.8x (60 to 90%) by September 2014. The frequency of symptomatic individuals declined over winter and persisted at a low rate through the spring and summer 2015 (~5-15%, at most sites) and into fall 2015. Disease expression included six symptoms: initially with twisting arms, then deflation and/or lesions, lost arms, losing grip on substrate, and final disintegration. SSWD was disproportionally higher in orange individuals, and higher in tidepools. Although historically P. ochraceus recruitment has been low, from fall 2014 to spring 2015 an unprecedented surge of sea star recruitment occurred at all sites, ranging from ~7x to 300x greater than in 2014. The loss of adult and juvenile individuals in 2014 led to a dramatic decline in predation rate on mussels compared to the previous two decades. A proximate cause of wasting was likely the "Sea Star associated Densovirus" (SSaDV), but the ultimate factors triggering the epidemic, if any, remain unclear. Although warm temperature has been proposed as a possible trigger, SSWD in Oregon populations increased with cool temperatures. Since P. ochraceus is a keystone predator that can strongly influence the biodiversity and community structure of the intertidal community, major community-level responses to the disease are expected. However, predicting the specific impacts and time course of change across west coast meta-communities is difficult, suggesting the need for detailed coast-wide investigation of the effects of this outbreak. PMID:27144391

  17. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed. PMID:25747921

  18. Rutile TiO2 Mesocrystals/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Rate and Long-Term Performance for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Tongbin; Qiu, Heyuan; Xie, Fengyan; Yang, Jie; Wei, Mingdeng

    2015-01-01

    An in situ hydrothermal route is developed for fabricating rutile TiO2 mesocrystals/reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (TGR) hybrids in the presence of dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (ADBS). These rutile TiO2 mesocrystals with a Wulff shape are composed of ultra-tiny rod-like subunits with the same oriented direction and closely wrapped by the nanosheets of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). It is found that ADBS played a key role for the formation of mesocrystals during the self-assembly process, which pillared the graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and involved the aggregation of the mesocrystal subunits. Furthermore, the TGR hybrids are used as an anode material and exhibited a large capacity over 150 mA h g−1 at 20 C after 1000 cycles, and high rate capability up to 40 C. These high performance characteristics may be due to the intrinsic characteristics of rutile TiO2 mesocrystals constructed from ultra-tiny subunits and hybridized with super conductive RGO nanosheets. PMID:25688035

  19. Rutile TiO2 Mesocrystals/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Rate and Long-Term Performance for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Tongbin; Qiu, Heyuan; Xie, Fengyan; Yang, Jie; Wei, Mingdeng

    2015-02-01

    An in situ hydrothermal route is developed for fabricating rutile TiO2 mesocrystals/reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (TGR) hybrids in the presence of dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (ADBS). These rutile TiO2 mesocrystals with a Wulff shape are composed of ultra-tiny rod-like subunits with the same oriented direction and closely wrapped by the nanosheets of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). It is found that ADBS played a key role for the formation of mesocrystals during the self-assembly process, which pillared the graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and involved the aggregation of the mesocrystal subunits. Furthermore, the TGR hybrids are used as an anode material and exhibited a large capacity over 150 mA h g-1 at 20 C after 1000 cycles, and high rate capability up to 40 C. These high performance characteristics may be due to the intrinsic characteristics of rutile TiO2 mesocrystals constructed from ultra-tiny subunits and hybridized with super conductive RGO nanosheets.

  20. Rutile TiO2 mesocrystals/reduced graphene oxide with high-rate and long-term performance for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tongbin; Qiu, Heyuan; Xie, Fengyan; Yang, Jie; Wei, Mingdeng

    2015-01-01

    An in situ hydrothermal route is developed for fabricating rutile TiO2 mesocrystals/reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (TGR) hybrids in the presence of dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (ADBS). These rutile TiO2 mesocrystals with a Wulff shape are composed of ultra-tiny rod-like subunits with the same oriented direction and closely wrapped by the nanosheets of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). It is found that ADBS played a key role for the formation of mesocrystals during the self-assembly process, which pillared the graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and involved the aggregation of the mesocrystal subunits. Furthermore, the TGR hybrids are used as an anode material and exhibited a large capacity over 150 mA h g(-1) at 20 C after 1000 cycles, and high rate capability up to 40 C. These high performance characteristics may be due to the intrinsic characteristics of rutile TiO2 mesocrystals constructed from ultra-tiny subunits and hybridized with super conductive RGO nanosheets. PMID:25688035

  1. Long-term variation of energetic electron precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asikainen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    The long-term evolution of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) is of considerable interest, e.g., because of its atmospheric and climatic effects. However, the long-term evolution of EEP over several solar cycles has been problematic due to the lack of reliable long-term data. The NOAA/POES satellites have measured energetic particles for more than 35 years. This dataset has been used widely but it has been plagued by several instrumental problems, which have restricted its use for long-term studies. However, we have recently corrected and recalibrated the entire NOAA/POES energetic particle dataset. Using this unique dataset we present here an overview of the long-term evolution of EEP paying particular attention to the role of different types of solar wind disturbances in driving the EEP.

  2. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment - Task 4: Modeling - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Starr

    2005-10-31

    Trichloroethene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, can be degraded under certain conditions by microorganisms that occur naturally in the subsurface. TCE can be degraded under anaerobic conditions to less chlorinated compounds and ultimately into the non-chlorinated, non-hazardous end product, ethene, via anaerobic reductive dechlorination (ARD). ARD is widely recognized as a TCE degradation mechanism, and occurs in active groundwater remediation and can occur during monitored natural attenuation (MNA). MNA relies on natural processes, such as dispersion and degradation, to reduce contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels without active human intervention other than monitoring. TCE can also be biodegraded under aerobic conditions via cometabolism, in which microbial enzymes produced for other purposes fortuitously also react with TCE. In cometabolism, TCE is oxidized directly to non-hazardous products. Cometabolism as a TCE-degrading process under aerobic conditions is less well known than ARD. Natural attenuation is often discounted as a TCE remedial alternative in aerobic conditions based on the paradigm that TCE is biodegradable only under anaerobic conditions. In contrast to this paradigm, TCE was shown to degrade relative to conservative co-contaminants at an environmentally significant rate in a large (approximately 3 km long) TCE plume in aerobic groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the degradation mechanism was shown to be cometabolism. MNA was selected as the remedy for most of this plume, resulting in a considerable cost savings relative to conventional remedial methods. To determine if cometabolism might be a viable remedy at other sites with TCE-contaminated aerobic groundwater, TCE plumes at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities were screened to evaluate whether TCE commonly degrades in aerobic groundwater, and if degradation rates are fast enough that natural attenuation could be a viable remedy. One hundred and twenty seven plumes at 24 DOE facilities were screened, and 14 plumes were selected for detailed examination. In the plumes selected for further study, spatial changes in the concentration of a conservative co-contaminant were used to compensate for the effects of mixing and temporal changes in TCE release from the contaminant source. Decline in TCE concentration along a flow path in excess of the co contaminant concentration decline was attributed to cometabolic degradation. This study indicated that TCE was degraded in 9 of the 14 plumes examined, with first order degradation half-lives ranging from about 1 to 12 years. TCE degradation in about two-thirds of the plumes examined suggests that cometabolism of TCE in aerobic groundwater is a common occurrence, in contrast to the conventional wisdom that TCE is recalcitrant in aerobic groundwater. The degradation half-life values calculated in this study are short enough that natural attenuation may be a viable remedy in many aerobic plumes. Computer modeling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport and degradation is frequently used to predict the evolution of groundwater plumes, and for evaluating natural attenuation and other remedial alternatives. An important aspect of a computer model is the mathematical approach for describing degradation kinetics. A common approach is to assume that degradation occurs as a first-order process. First order kinetics are easily incorporated into transport models and require only a single value (a degradation half-life) to describe reaction kinetics. The use of first order kinetics is justified in many cases because more elaborate kinetic equations often closely approximate first order kinetics under typical field conditions. A previous modeling study successfully simulated the INL TCE plume using first order degradation kinetics. TCE cometabolism is the result of TCE reacting with microbial enzymes that were produced for other purposes, such as oxidizing a growth substrate to obtain energy. Both TCE and the growth substrate compete for enzyme reactive sites, and the presence of one interferes with reactions with the enzyme by the other. It was assumed that a competitive inhibition kinetic expression would be more technically rigorous than a first order decay kinetic model. Two activities were undertaken to evaluate this assumption. First, a collaborator measured the parameters of this kinetic model under conditions similar to those of the INL TCE plume. The results will be used in a transport model to compare transport simulated using these measured values with transport simulated using kinetic parameter values from the literature, which are typically for actively growing microorganisms, in contrast to the steady-state, near starvation conditions in the INL TCE plume. Second, modification of flow and reactive transport simulation software to include a competitive inhibition kinetic model was begun.

  3. 78 FR 39063 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Fiscal Service...). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92 Stat. 2389, and the Prompt Payment... by which the interest shall be computed for interest payments under section 12 of the...

  4. 76 FR 23646 - Financial Management Policies-Interest Rate Risk

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... following information collection. Title of Proposal: Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk. OMB... Office of Thrift Supervision Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comment. SUMMARY: The proposed...

  5. Thailand's Student Loans Fund: Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Burdens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha; Polsiri, Piruna; Sarachitti, Rangsit; Sitthipongpanich, Thitima

    2010-01-01

    Government student loan schemes typically have implicit interest rate subsidies which, while these are a cost to taxpayers, they have the benefit of diminishing repayment burdens for graduates. Our goal is to illustrate the extent of both interest rate subsidies and repayment burdens with respect to Thailand's Student Loans Fund (SLF), using…

  6. 78 FR 67364 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the... Service Award Program (42 U.S.C. 288(c)(4)(B)).'' This interest rate will be applied to overdue debt...

  7. 78 FR 44124 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the... Award Program (42 U.S.C. 288(c)(4)(B)).'' This interest rate will be applied to overdue debt until...

  8. 38 CFR 36.4212 - Interest rates and late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interest rates and late... Site Preparation General Provisions § 36.4212 Interest rates and late charges. (a) In guaranteeing or... any advance, or in the event of any delinquency or default; Provided, that a late charge not in...

  9. 38 CFR 36.4212 - Interest rates and late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interest rates and late... Site Preparation General Provisions § 36.4212 Interest rates and late charges. (a) In guaranteeing or... any advance, or in the event of any delinquency or default; Provided, that a late charge not in...

  10. 38 CFR 36.4212 - Interest rates and late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interest rates and late... Site Preparation General Provisions § 36.4212 Interest rates and late charges. (a) In guaranteeing or... any advance, or in the event of any delinquency or default; Provided, that a late charge not in...

  11. Consumer Direction in Long-Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Generations, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Issue includes 17 theme articles on long-term care, covering legal issues, federal role, state programs, demonstration programs, family caregivers, home health care, home care workers, culturally appropriate long-term care, financial support, and cognitive impairments. (SK)

  12. Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program (OAA, Title VII, Chapter 2, Sections ... Services Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2013 indicate that ...

  13. Long-term equilibrium tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, John A.; Cerveny, Randall S.

    1998-08-01

    Extreme equilibrium tides, or ``hypertides,'' are computed in a new equilibrium tidal model combining algorithms of a version of the Chapront ELP-2000/82 Lunar Theory with the BER78 Milankovitch astronomical expansions. For the recent past, a high correspondence exists between computed semidiurnal tide levels and a record of coastal flooding demonstrating that astronomical alignment is a potential influence on such flooding. For the Holocene and near future, maximum tides demonstrate cyclic variations with peaks at near 5000 B.P. and 4000 A.P. On the late Quaternary timescale, variations in maximum equilibrium tide level display oscillations with periods of approximately 10,000, 100,000 and 400,000 years, because of precessional shifts in tidal maxima between vernal and autumnal equinoxes. While flooding occurs under the combined effects of tides and storms via ``storm surges,'' the most extensive flooding will occur with the coincidence of storms and the rarer hypertides and is thus primarily influenced by hypertides. Therefore we suggest that astronomical alignment's relationship to coastal flooding is probabilistic rather than deterministic. Data derived from this model are applicable to (1) archaeological and paleoclimatic coastal reconstructions, (2) long-term planning, for example, radioactive waste site selection, (3) sealevel change and paleoestuarine studies or (4) ocean-meteorological interactions.

  14. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  15. High-dose-rate brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy combined with long-term hormonal therapy for high-risk and very high-risk prostate cancer: outcomes after 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Kitano, Masashi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Komori, Shouko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Soda, Itaru; Kurosaka, Shinji; Sekiguchi, Akane; Kimura, Masaki; Kawakami, Shogo; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria-defined high-risk (HR) and very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer. Data from 178 HR (n = 96, 54%) and VHR (n = 82, 46%) prostate cancer patients who underwent 192Ir-HDR brachytherapy and hypofractionated EBRT with long-term ADT between 2003 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After five fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent ≥6 months of neoadjuvant ADT, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months after EBRT. The median follow-up was 61 months (range, 25–94 months) from the start of radiotherapy. The 5-year biochemical non-evidence of disease, freedom from clinical failure and overall survival rates were 90.6% (HR, 97.8%; VHR, 81.9%), 95.2% (HR, 97.7%; VHR, 92.1%), and 96.9% (HR, 100%; VHR, 93.3%), respectively. The highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late genitourinary toxicities were Grade 2 in 7.3% of patients and Grade 3 in 9.6%. The highest late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 2 in 2.8% of patients and Grade 3 in 0%. Although the 5-year outcome of this tri-modality approach seems favorable, further follow-up is necessary to validate clinical and survival advantages of this intensive approach compared with the standard EBRT approach. PMID:24222312

  16. High-dose-rate brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy combined with long-term hormonal therapy for high-risk and very high-risk prostate cancer: outcomes after 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Kitano, Masashi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Komori, Shouko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Soda, Itaru; Kurosaka, Shinji; Sekiguchi, Akane; Kimura, Masaki; Kawakami, Shogo; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria-defined high-risk (HR) and very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer. Data from 178 HR (n = 96, 54%) and VHR (n = 82, 46%) prostate cancer patients who underwent (192)Ir-HDR brachytherapy and hypofractionated EBRT with long-term ADT between 2003 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After five fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent ≥ 6 months of neoadjuvant ADT, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months after EBRT. The median follow-up was 61 months (range, 25-94 months) from the start of radiotherapy. The 5-year biochemical non-evidence of disease, freedom from clinical failure and overall survival rates were 90.6% (HR, 97.8%; VHR, 81.9%), 95.2% (HR, 97.7%; VHR, 92.1%), and 96.9% (HR, 100%; VHR, 93.3%), respectively. The highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late genitourinary toxicities were Grade 2 in 7.3% of patients and Grade 3 in 9.6%. The highest late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 2 in 2.8% of patients and Grade 3 in 0%. Although the 5-year outcome of this tri-modality approach seems favorable, further follow-up is necessary to validate clinical and survival advantages of this intensive approach compared with the standard EBRT approach. PMID:24222312

  17. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  18. 49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal. The rate levels will be determined as follows: (1... by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the day when the unlawful charge is paid. The interest rate in complaint proceedings shall be updated whenever The Wall Street Journal publishes a change to...

  19. 49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal. The rate levels will be determined as follows: (1... by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the day when the unlawful charge is paid. The interest rate in complaint proceedings shall be updated whenever The Wall Street Journal publishes a change to...

  20. [Long-term use of benzodiazepines].

    PubMed

    Gorgels, W J; Oude Voshaar, R C; Mol, A J; Breteler, M H; van de Lisdonk, E H; Zitman, F G

    2001-07-14

    Benzodiazepines are the most prescribed drugs in the Netherlands. There is scarcely an indication for long-term benzodiazepine use. Long-term use may lead to dependency and is associated with an increased risk of accidents/falls and cognitive function impairment. Therefore national and international guidelines advocate a conservative prescription policy, especially with respect to long-term prescription. It appears that these guidelines are not followed in practice. A standard sized general practice in the Netherlands contains, on average, 75 long-term benzodiazepine users. There appear to be both patient and GP related factors which influence the maintenance of this long-term use of benzodiazepines. PMID:11484430

  1. 7 CFR 1714.6 - Interest rate term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... face value, it must notify the Director of the appropriate Regional Division or the Power Supply... cannot exceed the final maturity as set forth in 7 CFR 1710.115. The hardship interest rate applies...

  2. 7 CFR 1714.6 - Interest rate term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... face value, it must notify the Director of the appropriate Regional Division or the Power Supply... cannot exceed the final maturity as set forth in 7 CFR 1710.115. The hardship interest rate applies...

  3. Solutions of two-factor models with variable interest rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinglu; Clemons, C. B.; Young, G. W.; Zhu, J.

    2008-12-01

    The focus of this work is on numerical solutions to two-factor option pricing partial differential equations with variable interest rates. Two interest rate models, the Vasicek model and the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model (CIR), are considered. Emphasis is placed on the definition and implementation of boundary conditions for different portfolio models, and on appropriate truncation of the computational domain. An exact solution to the Vasicek model and an exact solution for the price of bonds convertible to stock at expiration under a stochastic interest rate are derived. The exact solutions are used to evaluate the accuracy of the numerical simulation schemes. For the numerical simulations the pricing solution is analyzed as the market completeness decreases from the ideal complete level to one with higher volatility of the interest rate and a slower mean-reverting environment. Simulations indicate that the CIR model yields more reasonable results than the Vasicek model in a less complete market.

  4. 20 CFR 606.30 - Interest rates on advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rates on advances. 606.30 Section 606.30 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest...

  5. 20 CFR 606.30 - Interest rates on advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interest rates on advances. 606.30 Section 606.30 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest...

  6. Applications of information geometry to interest rate theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Dorje C.; Hughston, Lane P.

    2001-02-01

    There is an information geometry associated with the theory of interest rates. This arises from the fact that the system of smooth yield curves is isomorphic to the convex space of density functions on the positive real line. The arbitrage-free interest rate dynamics of Heath, Jarrow & Morton (1992) can be represented as a process on this space. Properties of this process are investigated and some special cases examined.

  7. [Long-term health effects of breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Bosnjak, Anita Pavicić; Grgurić, Josip

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing interest in possible long-term benefits of breastfeeding for health and development. Most relevant studies published from the second half of 2001 to 2006 suggest that breastfeeding is likely to protect against later obesity, type 1 diabetes, coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases and childhood cancer. Also, breastfeeding seems to have beneficial effects on later cardiovascular risk factors. A positive association between breastfeeding and cognitive development continues to be the most consistent and important effect, whereas the effect of breastfeeding in the prevention of atopy remains controversial. Possible mechanisms which might mediate the protective effect of breastfeeding are considered. Evidence suggests that breastfeeding can to some degree programme future health, although most studies are observational and cannot prove causation. Promotion of breastfeeding is of great importance and may contribute to the prevention of some major health risks at the population level. PMID:18198630

  8. The Long-Term Influence of Body Mass Index on the Success Rate of Mid-Urethral Sling Surgery among Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence or Stress-Predominant Mixed Incontinence: Comparisons between Retropubic and Transobturator Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seong Jin; Lee, Han Sol; Lee, Jeong Keun; Jeong, Jin Woo; Lee, Sang Cheol; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Mid-urethral sling (MUS) surgery for the treatment of urinary incontinence has been widespread since the introduction of tension-free vaginal tape in the mid-1990s. The majority of studies with short-term follow-up <2 years found no differences in the surgical outcomes according to body mass index (BMI). However, considering the chronic influence of obesity on pelvic floor musculature, it is cautiously speculated that higher BMI could increase stress on pelvic floor and sub-urethral tape, possibly decreasing the long-term success rate in the obese population. We aimed to compare the long-term effects of BMI on the outcomes of MUS between women with retropubic and transobturator approaches. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis on 243 consecutive women who received MUS and were followed up for ≥36 months. The influence of BMI on the success rates was separately estimated and the factors for treatment failure were examined using logistic regression in either approach. Results The mean follow-up was 58.4 months, and 30.5% were normal weight, 51.0% overweight, and 18.5% obese. Patients received either the retropubic (30.5%) or transobturator (69.5%) approach. The success rates (%) under the transobturator approach differed according to the BMI groups (94.3, 88.6, and 78.6, respectively; P = 0.037) while those under the retropubic approach were not different according to the BMI groups. However, in multivariate models, only the presence of preoperative mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) was proven to be the risk factor for treatment failure in the transobturator approach (OR 6.39, P = 0.003). The percent of subjects with MUI was higher in obese women than in non-obese women with the transobturator approach. Conclusions BMI was not independently associated with failures in either approach. Higher success rates in women with lower BMI in the transobturator approach were attributed to the lower percent of preoperative MUI in those with lower BMI. PMID:25415490

  9. Long-term reductions in tinnitus severity

    PubMed Central

    Folmer, Robert L

    2002-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to assess long-term changes in tinnitus severity exhibited by patients who completed a comprehensive tinnitus management program; to identify factors that contributed to changes in tinnitus severity within this population; to contribute to the development and refinement of effective assessment and management procedures for tinnitus. Methods Detailed questionnaires were mailed to 300 consecutive patients prior to their initial appointment at the Oregon Health & Science University Tinnitus Clinic. All patients were then evaluated and treated within a comprehensive tinnitus management program. Follow-up questionnaires were mailed to the same 300 patients 6 to 36 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. Results One hundred ninety patients (133 males, 57 females; mean age 57 years) returned follow-up questionnaires 6 to 36 months (mean = 22 months) after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. This group of patients exhibited significant long-term reductions in self-rated tinnitus loudness, Tinnitus Severity Index scores, tinnitus-related anxiety and prevalence of current depression. Patients who improved their sleep patterns or Beck Depression Inventory scores exhibited greater reductions of tinnitus severity scores than patients who continued to experience insomnia and depression at follow-up. Conclusions Individualized tinnitus management programs that were designed for each patient contributed to overall reductions in tinnitus severity exhibited on follow-up questionnaires. Identification and treatment of patients experiencing anxiety, insomnia or depression are vital components of an effective tinnitus management program. Utilization of acoustic therapy also contributed to improvements exhibited by these patients. PMID:12234379

  10. Craniopharyngioma in Children: Long-term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    STEINBOK, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The survival rate for childhood craniopharyngioma has been improving, with more long-term survivors. Unfortunately it is rare for the patient to be normal, either from the disease itself or from the effects of treatment. Long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma suffer a number of impairments, which include visual loss, endocrinopathy, hypothalamic dysfunction, cerebrovascular problems, neurologic and neurocognitive dysfunction. Pituitary insufficiency is present in almost 100%. Visual and hypothalamic dysfunction is common. There is a high risk of metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and Moyamoya syndrome. Cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional problems are prevalent. Finally, there is a higher risk of premature death among survivors of craniopharyngioma, and often this is not from tumor recurrence. It is important to consider craniopharyngioma as a chronic disease. There is no perfect treatment. The treatment has to be tailored to the individual patient to minimize dysfunction caused by tumor and treatments. So “cure” of the tumor does not mean a normal patient. The management of the patient and family needs multidisciplinary evaluation and should involve ophthalmology, endocrinology, neurosurgery, oncology, and psychology. Furthermore, it is also important to address emotional issues and social integration. PMID:26345668

  11. People with limiting long-term conditions report poorer experiences and more problems with hospital care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term conditions have a significant impact on individuals, their families, and the health service. As people with these conditions represent a high proportion of hospital admissions, investigating their experiences of inpatient care has become an important area of investigation. We conducted a secondary analysis of the NHS adult inpatient survey for England to compare the hospital experiences of three groups of patients: those without long-term conditions, those with a single long-term condition, and those with multiple long-term conditions. We were particularly interested in the extent to which these patients received self-management support from hospital staff, so we developed a brief summary tool drawn from salient questions in the survey to aid the comparison. Methods Analysis of data from the 2011 national adult inpatient survey (n = 65,134) to compare the experiences of three groups of patients: those with no limiting long-term conditions (No-LLTC), those with one limiting long-term condition (S-LLTC), and those with two or more limiting long-term conditions (M-LLTC). The main outcome measure was patients’ self-reports of their experience of inpatient care, including staff-patient interactions, information provision, involvement in decisions and support for self-care and overall ratings of care. A short form scale, the Oxford Patient Involvement and Experience scale (OxPIE) was developed from the adult inpatient survey and used to compare the groups using logistic regression. Results There were significant differences between the No-LLTC group in comparison to both the S-LLTC and M-LLTC groups. Patients with limiting long-term conditions reported significantly worse hospital experiences than those without, as measured by OxPIE: S-LLTC odds ratio = 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.48; M-LLTC odds ratio = 1.64, 95% CI 1.19 – 2.26. Responses to a single global rating question were more positive but not strongly correlated with OxPIE. Conclusions Patients with LLTCs were more critical of their inpatient care than those with no LLTCs. Those with more than one long-term condition reported worse experiences than those with a single limiting condition. Simple rating questions may not be sufficiently sensitive to reflect important aspects of patients’ experience. PMID:24456971

  12. 49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rate shall be the coupon equivalent yield in effect on the date the statement is filed accounting for..., the interest rate shall be the coupon equivalent yield in effect on the first day of the calendar... as of the first day of all subsequent calendar quarters, at the coupon equivalent yields in effect...

  13. 49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rate shall be the coupon equivalent yield in effect on the date the statement is filed accounting for..., the interest rate shall be the coupon equivalent yield in effect on the first day of the calendar... as of the first day of all subsequent calendar quarters, at the coupon equivalent yields in effect...

  14. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Types of Loans... end of the Forecast Period for that loan. At the end of the Forecast Period, the interest rate for the loan may be annually adjusted by the Administrator upward to a rate not greater than 5 percent,...

  15. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Types of Loans... end of the Forecast Period for that loan. At the end of the Forecast Period, the interest rate for the loan may be annually adjusted by the Administrator upward to a rate not greater than 5 percent,...

  16. Individuals and Environments: Linking Ability and Skill Ratings with Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthoney, Sarah Fetter; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

    2010-01-01

    Holland's (1997) theory of corresponding person and work environment structures was evaluated by comparing the integration of individual and occupational ratings of interests, abilities, and skills. Occupational ratings were obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database (U.S. Department of Labor, 2007). College students (494 women,…

  17. Prediction of interest rate using CKLS model with stochastic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Khor Chia; Hin, Pooi Ah

    2014-06-01

    The Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff and Sanders (CKLS) model is a popular one-factor model for describing the spot interest rates. In this paper, the four parameters in the CKLS model are regarded as stochastic. The parameter vector φ(j) of four parameters at the (J+n)-th time point is estimated by the j-th window which is defined as the set consisting of the observed interest rates at the j'-th time point where j≤j'≤j+n. To model the variation of φ(j), we assume that φ(j) depends on φ(j-m), φ(j-m+1),…, φ(j-1) and the interest rate rj+n at the (j+n)-th time point via a four-dimensional conditional distribution which is derived from a [4(m+1)+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. Treating the (j+n)-th time point as the present time point, we find a prediction interval for the future value rj+n+1 of the interest rate at the next time point when the value rj+n of the interest rate is given. From the above four-dimensional conditional distribution, we also find a prediction interval for the future interest rate rj+n+d at the next d-th (d≥2) time point. The prediction intervals based on the CKLS model with stochastic parameters are found to have better ability of covering the observed future interest rates when compared with those based on the model with fixed parameters.

  18. Determinants of interest rates on tax-exempt hospital bonds.

    PubMed

    Grossman, M; Goldman, F; Nesbitt, S W; Mobilia, P

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the determinants of interest rates on tax-exempt hospital bonds. The results highlight the potential and actual roles of Federal and state policy in the determination of these rates. The shift to a Prospective Payment System under Medicare has subsidized the borrowing costs of some hospitals at the expense of others. The selection of underwriters by negotiation rather than by competitive bidding results in higher interest rates. The Federal tax act of 1986 raised the cost of hospital debt by encouraging bond issues to contain call features. PMID:10131753

  19. 7 CFR 1714.5 - Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administration (FmHA) at 7 CFR 1942.17(f) (1) and (4). Pursuant to the FmHA rule, the interest rates are set... interest rate terms beginning in the quarter. All interest rates will be adjusted to the nearest one eighth...) of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7 U.S.C. 1927(a)(3)(A)) for Water and...

  20. 7 CFR 1714.5 - Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administration (FmHA) at 7 CFR 1942.17(f) (1) and (4). Pursuant to the FmHA rule, the interest rates are set... interest rate terms beginning in the quarter. All interest rates will be adjusted to the nearest one eighth...) of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7 U.S.C. 1927(a)(3)(A)) for Water and...

  1. Empirical analysis of quantum finance interest rates models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yang, Cao

    2009-07-01

    Empirical forward interest rates drive the debt markets. Libor and Euribor futures data is used to calibrate and test models of interest rates based on the formulation of quantum finance. In particular, all the model parameters, including interest rate volatilities, are obtained from market data. The random noise driving the forward interest rates is taken to be a Euclidean two dimension quantum field. We analyze two models, namely the bond forward interest rates, which is a linear theory and the Libor Market Model, which is a nonlinear theory. Both the models are analyzed using Libor and Euribor data, with various approximations to match the linear and nonlinear models. The results are quite good, with the linear model having an accuracy of about 99% and the nonlinear model being slightly less accurate. We extend our analysis by directly using the Zero Coupon Yield Curve (ZCYC) data for Libor and for bonds; but due to some technical difficulties we could not derive the models parameters directly from the ZCYC data.

  2. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil erosion accentuates the often very low inherent fertility of many soils in the tropics. An integrated approach involving inorganic and organic inputs is required where animal and plant residues are returned, as far as practicable. Chemical fertilizers alone cannot achieve long-term productivity on many soils and organic material inputs are required to maintain soil organic matter levels and crop productivity. A major research effort is required to develop improved strategies for halting and reversing soil degradation if long-term productivity is to be secured.

  3. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  4. 76 FR 20697 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ..., published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  5. 75 FR 37823 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable overpayments or underpayments of customs... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  6. 78 FR 1222 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Decision 85-93, published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  7. 77 FR 59411 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ..., published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  8. 76 FR 64964 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable overpayments or... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue... Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and...

  9. 78 FR 20349 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Decision 85-93, published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  10. 77 FR 18256 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ..., published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  11. 77 FR 38076 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ..., published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  12. 76 FR 41283 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ..., published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  13. Planning long-term vegetation studies at landscape scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term ecological research is receiving more attention now than ever before. Two recent books, Long-term Studies in Ecology: Approaches and Alternatives, edited by Gene Likens (1989), and Long-term Ecological Research: An International Perspective, edited by Paul Risser (1991), prompt the question, “Why are these books so thin?” Except for data from paleoecological, retrospective studies (see below), there are exceptionally few long-term data sets in terrestrial ecology (Strayer et al. 1986; Tilman 1989; this volume). In a sample of 749 papers published in Ecology, Tilman (1989) found that only 1.7% of the studies lasted at least five field seasons. Only one chapter in each of the review books dealt specifically with expanding both the temporal and the spatial scales of ecological research (Berkowitz et al. 1989; Magnuson et al. 1991). Judging by the growing number of landscape-scale long-term studies, however, such as the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program (Callahan 1991), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP; Palmer et al. 1991), the U.S. Army’s Land Condition-Trend Analysis (LCTA) Program (Diersing et al. 1992), and various agencies’ global change research programs (CEES 1993), there is a growing interest to expand ecological research both temporally and spatially.

  14. Long-term prognosis in community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Marcos I.; Faverio, Paola; Anzueto, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Pneumonia is considered the leading infectious diseases cause of death and the seventh leading cause of death overall in the US. There is significant interest in understanding the relationship between community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and mortality. Recent findings Most clinical studies examining patients with CAP have used an arbitrary in-hospital or 30-day mortality as a short-term mortality clinical end point. However, long-term mortality (arbitrary >3 months) factors, incidence, prediction, and implications on patient care are important issues that require further evaluation in patients with CAP. This review focuses on the most recent literature assessing the importance and the frequency of long-term associated outcomes in patients with CAP, the risk factors, and possible implications for future strategies. Multiple risk factors that include age, sex, comorbid conditions, type of pneumonia, and severity of illness are associated with higher long-term mortality. In addition, several biomarkers were demonstrated to be independently associated with long-term mortality. Summary Despite advances in the understanding of long-term mortality among CAP patients, there is still a high unacceptable long-term mortality. Public health programs should address this important gap, considering the high level of complexity factors in patients with CAP. PMID:23426328

  15. Phase II Trial of Radiation Dose Escalation With Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy and High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Suppression in Unfavorable Prostate Cancer: Feasibility Report

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, Jeanette; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Galan, Carlos; Teijeira, Mercedes; Romero, Pilar; Zudaire, Javier; Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Aristu, Jose Javier; Martinez-Monge, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist-based androgen suppressive therapy (AST) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for high-risk (HRPC) or very-high-risk prostate cancer (VHRPC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and October 2006, 134 patients (median age, 70 years) with either National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria-defined HRPC (n = 47, 35.1%) or VHRPC (n = 87, 64.9%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of 14.6 ng/mL, a median clinical stage of T2c, and a median Gleason score of 7. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (54 Gy in 30 fractions) was followed by HDR brachytherapy (19 Gy in 4 b.i.d. treatments). Androgen suppressive therapy started 0-3 months before three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and continued for 2 years. Results: One implant was repositioned with a new procedure (0.7%). Five patients (3.7%) discontinued AST at a median of 13 months (range, 6-18 months) because of disease progression (n = 1), hot flashes (n = 2), fatigue (n = 1), and impotence (n = 1). After a median follow-up of 37.4 months (range, 24-90 months), the highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late urinary toxicities were Grade 0 in 47.8%, Grade 1 in 38.1%, Grade 2 in 7.5%, and Grade 3 in 6.7% of patients. Maximal late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 0 in 73.1%, Grade 1 in 16.4%, Grade 2 in 7.5%, and Grade 3 in 2.9% of patients. There were no Grade 4 or 5 events. Conclusions: Intermediate-term results show that dose escalation with HDR brachytherapy combined with long-term AST is feasible and has a toxicity profile similar to that reported by previous HDR brachytherapy studies.

  16. Individuals and environments: Linking ability and skill ratings with interests.

    PubMed

    Anthoney, Sarah Fetter; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

    2010-01-01

    Holland's (1997) theory of corresponding person and work environment structures was evaluated by comparing the integration of individual and occupational ratings of interests, abilities, and skills. Occupational ratings were obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database (U.S. Department of Labor, 2007). College students (494 women, 526 men) provided self-ratings of their interests, abilities, and skills. Property vector fitting was used to embed ability and skill ratings into the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC) interest structure, and bootstrapping was used to generate confidence intervals for the angles of the vectors and the magnitude of their fit to the Holland model. Across the individual and occupational ratings, 18 of 45 (40%) ability vectors and 41 of 48 (85%) skill vectors were fit into the RIASEC model. No significant gender differences were found in the integration of self-rated abilities and skills into the RIASEC circumplex; however, some differences were found between individual and environmental ratings. Obtained results highlight the potential utility and limitations of using Holland's model for representing both individual and occupational data in a common structure. PMID:21133559

  17. Long-term fluvial incision rates and postglacial river relaxation time in the French Western Alps from 10Be dating of alluvial terraces with assessment of inheritance, soil development and wind ablation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocard, G. Y.; van der Beek, P. A.; Bourls, D. L.; Siame, L. L.; Mugnier, J.-L.

    2003-04-01

    Studying river long-profile development as a response to tectonic and climatic controls requires reliable age-dating of palaeo-profile remnants preserved as river terraces. Cosmic ray exposure (CRE) dating often represents the only method available to date river terraces, but the interpretation of cosmogenic nuclide concentrations is complicated by pre-depositional inheritance and post-depositional disturbance of the terrace deposits through pedogenesis and surface inflation or deflation. Here, we use cosmogenic 10Be measurements to date alluvial terraces in the French Western Alps, in order to estimate river incision rates and to infer river response to climatic fluctuations and tectonic forcing. We assess inheritance by constructing 10Be concentration vs. pebble depth profiles and use a Monte Carlo technique to estimate terrace ages. We find that inheritance is negligible on all terraces, enabling us to date terraces as young as 5 kyr. Terraces that predate the last glaciation experienced intense pedogenesis and wind ablation, which led to significant scatter in the 10Be concentrations of surface samples. We assess these effects using a model of 10Be ingrowth and show that the oldest CRE ages of surface clasts are close to the probable terrace age. We study two catchments which have undergone varying degrees of glacial disruption. The Buch River experienced variations in runoff and sediment flux during the last glaciation, as well as occasional ice-dammings of its outlet. Its upper terraces record incision rates averaged over 190 kyr of 0.8 mm yr -1, consistent with denudation rates estimated in the surrounding areas and suggesting long-term stability of river incision rates. Climatic forcing is well documented for the Drac River, which was repeatedly dammed by glaciers during cold periods. Its postglacial incision history was triggered by an 800 m drop in base level following ice-dam disappearance. Long-profile development by knickpoint propagation explains the time-lag of 2-5 kyr between this base-level drop and terrace abandonment upstream, as well as subsequent peak incision rates of >6 cm yr -1 followed by a gradual decrease in incision rates. The present knickpoint location, 55 km upstream from the glacial damming site, enables us to calculate a fluvial response time of 15-20 kyr, controlled by knickpoint propagation rates of several metres per year, within the Drac River.

  18. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic versions ... In inhaled form, they are used exclusively for long-term control; they are not very effective for acute ...

  19. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  20. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web

  1. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  2. Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

  3. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  4. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  5. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  6. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  7. 24 CFR 221.790 - Debenture interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 221.790 Section 221.790 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  8. 24 CFR 221.790 - Debenture interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 221.790 Section 221.790 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  9. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  10. 77 FR 57990 - Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 741 RIN 3133-AD66 Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program Correction In rule document 2012-02091, appearing on pages 55155-5167 in the issue of Thursday, February 2, 2012, make...

  11. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest rate adjustments. 4287.112 Section 4287.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Business and Industry...

  12. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interest rate adjustments. 4287.112 Section 4287.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Business and Industry...

  13. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest rate adjustments. 4287.112 Section 4287.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Business and Industry...

  14. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interest rate adjustments. 4287.112 Section 4287.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Business and Industry...

  15. 24 CFR 220.830 - Debenture interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 220.830 Section 220.830 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  16. 24 CFR 220.830 - Debenture interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 220.830 Section 220.830 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  17. 24 CFR 220.830 - Debenture interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 220.830 Section 220.830 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  18. 24 CFR 220.830 - Debenture interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 220.830 Section 220.830 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  19. 24 CFR 220.830 - Debenture interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 220.830 Section 220.830 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  20. Healthy investor interest in non-rated hospital bonds.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J

    1992-12-01

    Despite persistent rumors of a "credit crunch," tax-exempt financing remains a viable source of capital for many hospitals that can't obtain investment-grade ratings. In fact, say experts, there's still strong investor interest in debt issued by lower-credit quality hospitals. PMID:1446909

  1. Exploring Fiscal Policy at Zero Interest Rates in Intermediate Macroeconomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramamurthy, Srikanth; Sedgley, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Since the financial meltdown of 2007, advanced macroeconomic theory has delved more deeply into the question of the appropriate fiscal policy when the nominal interest rate is close to or at zero percent. Such analysis is typically conducted with the aid of New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium models. The policy implications are,…

  2. Macroeconomic Stabilization When the Natural Real Interest Rate Is Falling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttet, Sebastien; Roy, Udayan

    2015-01-01

    The authors modify the Dynamic Aggregate Demand-Dynamic Aggregate Supply model in Mankiw's widely used intermediate macroeconomics textbook to discuss monetary policy when the natural real interest rate is falling over time. Their results highlight a new role for the central bank's inflation target as a tool of macroeconomic stabilization. They…

  3. 75 FR 22136 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  4. 77 FR 20399 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  5. 76 FR 30721 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  6. 76 FR 8370 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  7. 78 FR 23936 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the... debt until the Department of Health and Human Services publishes a revision. Dated: April 17,...

  8. 75 FR 22136 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR Part 30) provides that...

  9. 77 FR 76492 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office Of The Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  10. 77 FR 35681 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  11. 77 FR 60438 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  12. 75 FR 48690 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR Part 30) provides that...

  13. 75 FR 80055 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  14. Actuarial models of life insurance with stochastic interest rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiang; Hu, Ping

    2009-07-01

    On the basis of general actuarial model of life insurance, this article has carried on research to continuous life insurance actuarial models under the stochastic interest rate separately. And it provide net single premium for life insurance and life annuity due over a period based on that de Moivre law of mortality and Makeham's law of mortality separately.

  15. 12 CFR 614.4160 - Differential interest rate programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Differential interest rate programs. 614.4160 Section 614.4160 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND..., beginning or small farmers....

  16. 12 CFR 614.4160 - Differential interest rate programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Differential interest rate programs. 614.4160 Section 614.4160 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND..., beginning or small farmers....

  17. Modifying Effect of a Common Polymorphism in the Interleukin-6 Promoter on the Relationship between Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Particulate Matter and Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Martin; Imboden, Medea; Boes, Eva; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Künzli, Nino; Phuleria, Harish Chandra; Kronenberg, Florian; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Carballo, David; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with an increase in many inflammatory markers, including interleukin 6 (IL6). Air pollution exposure has also been suggested to induce an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), such as a decrease in heart rate variability (HRV). In this study we aimed to investigate the modifying effect of polymorphisms in a major proinflammatory marker gene, interleukin 6 (IL6), on the relationship between long-term exposure to traffic-related PM10 (TPM10) and HRV. Methods For this cross-sectional study we analysed 1552 participants of the SAPALDIA cohort aged 50 years and older. Included were persons with valid genotype data, who underwent ambulatory 24-hr electrocardiogram monitoring, and reported on medical history and lifestyle. Main effects of annual average TPM10 and IL6 gene variants (rs1800795; rs2069827; rs2069840; rs10242595) on HRV indices and their interaction with average annual exposure to TPM10 were tested, applying a multivariable mixed linear model. Results No overall association of TPM10 on HRV was found. Carriers of two proinflammatory G-alleles of the functional IL6 -174 G/C (rs1800795) polymorphism exhibited lower HRV. An inverse association between a 1 µg/m3 increment in yearly averaged TPM10 and HRV was restricted to GG genotypes at this locus with a standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) (GG-carriers: −1.8%; 95% confidence interval −3.5 to 0.01; pinteraction(additive) = 0.028); and low frequency power (LF) (GG-carriers: −5.7%; 95%CI: −10.4 to −0.8; pinteraction(dominant) = 0.049). Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that traffic-related air pollution decreases heart rate variability through inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:25133672

  18. Interest rates in quantum finance: Caps, swaptions and bond options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2010-01-01

    The prices of the main interest rate options in the financial markets, derived from the Libor (London Interbank Overnight Rate), are studied in the quantum finance model of interest rates. The option prices show new features for the Libor Market Model arising from the fact that, in the quantum finance formulation, all the different Libor payments are coupled and (imperfectly) correlated. Black’s caplet formula for quantum finance is given an exact path integral derivation. The coupon and zero coupon bond options as well as the Libor European and Asian swaptions are derived in the framework of quantum finance. The approximate Libor option prices are derived using the volatility expansion. The BGM-Jamshidian (Gatarek et al. (1996) [1], Jamshidian (1997) [2]) result for the Libor swaption prices is obtained as the limiting case when all the Libors are exactly correlated. A path integral derivation is given of the approximate BGM-Jamshidian approximate price.

  19. Transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy: Long term results

    PubMed Central

    Kaynak, Pelin; Ozturker, Can; Karabulut, Gamze; Çelik, Burcu; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk; Demirok, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes of transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy (TRC-DCR) surgery in patients with epiphora due to primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) at second year follow-up. Methods In this retrospective, interventional study, 33 eyes of 29 patients, with epiphora due to PANDO, are included. Lower eyelid conjunctiva is incised at vestibulum inferomedially to access the lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa. Bone is perforated with burr and rongeurs and saccal and nasal flaps are anastomosed. Conjunctival wound edges are apposed and left unsutured. Intraoperative difficulties, surgical time and complications are noted. Average follow-up time was 2 years. Anatomical success was defined as patent lacrimal passages upon irrigation and functional success was defined as relief of epiphora. Results In nineteen (57.6%) eyes the surgeries were completed with the anterior and the posterior flaps sutured. In eight eyes (24.2%) only anterior flaps could be sutured. In 6 eyes (18.2%), the surgical procedure was converted to external dacryocystorhinostomy since the nasal mucosa could not be exposed adequately via transconjunctival route. The mean surgical time was 65.1 min. One patient had a millimeter long lower eyelid margin laceration in one eye (3.7%) intraoperatively due to traction for visualization of the operative site. Epiphora resolved in 25 of 27 eyes (92.5%) in whom TRC-DCR could be completed. Epiphora and failure to irrigation were noted in two eyes (7.4%) at the postoperative 4th and 8th months, respectively and required reoperation. No complications occurred, except granuloma formation at the conjunctival incision site in three eyes (11.1%). Epiphora resolved in all the six eyes of patients who underwent an external DCR (100%). Conclusion Transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy is a scarless dacryocystorhinostomy technique which is performed without endoscope and/or laser assistance, with 92.5% success rate comparable to external DCR at the second year follow-up without major complications. PMID:24526861

  20. 78 FR 37839 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ...This notice advises the public of the quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and refunds (overpayments) of customs duties. For the calendar quarter beginning July 1, 2013, the interest rates for overpayments will be 2 percent for corporations and 3 percent for non- corporations, and the interest rate for underpayments......

  1. 75 FR 59279 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used In Calculating Interest On Overdue Accounts and Refunds On...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ...This notice advises the public of the quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and refunds (overpayments) of customs duties. For the calendar quarter beginning October 1, 2010, the interest rates for overpayments will be 3 percent for corporations and 4 percent for non-corporations, and the interest rate for underpayments......

  2. 78 FR 63238 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...This notice advises the public of the quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and refunds (overpayments) of customs duties. For the calendar quarter beginning October 1, 2013, the interest rates for overpayments will be 2 percent for corporations and 3 percent for non-corporations, and the interest rate for underpayments......

  3. 77 FR 2308 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ...This notice advises the public of the quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and refunds (overpayments) of customs duties. For the calendar quarter beginning January 1, 2012, the interest rates for overpayments will be 2 percent for corporations and 3 percent for non-corporations, and the interest rate for underpayments......

  4. 75 FR 419 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...This notice advises the public of the quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and refunds (overpayments) of customs duties. For the calendar quarter beginning January 1, 2010, the interest rates for overpayments will be 3 percent for corporations and 4 percent for non-corporations, and the interest rate for underpayments......

  5. Addition of the Multidimensional Prognostic Index to the Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Improves Prediction of Long-Term All-Cause Mortality in Older Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sancarlo, Daniele; Aucella, Filippo; Fontana, Andrea; Addante, Filomena; Copetti, Massimiliano; Panza, Francesco; Strippoli, Giovanni F.M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Current prognostic scores of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not accurate in older patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) in comparison with and in addition to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to predict long-term all-cause mortality in hospitalized older patients with CKD. In a prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 2 years, we calculated eGFR according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study and collected information on functional, cognitive, nutritional, co-morbidities, drug use, and co-habitation status to calculate the MPI on 1,198 patients aged ≥65 years with a diagnosis of CKD from an hospital-based sample. The all-cause mortality incidence rate for 100 person-years was 18.3 (men 22.7 vs. women 15.3, p<0.0001). Adding the MPI to the eGFR model significantly improved all-cause mortality prediction accuracy: The C-index increased from 0.579 to 0.648 (p<0.0001), with correct reclassification of 25.9% of patients (Net Reclassification Improvement [NRI], 0.259, p<0.0001; Integrated Discrimination Improvement [IDI], 3.8%, p<0.0001). The correct reclassification was higher in patients who did not die (259/741 patients, reclassification rate=34.9%) than in patients who died (62/457 patients, reclassification rate=13.6%). Conversely, adding the eGFR to the MPI model seems to improve prediction accuracy less consistently. In fact, the C-index increased, but not significantly (from 0.639 to 0.648, p=0.444), with correct reclassification of 5.8% of patients (NRI, 0.058, p=0.012; IDI, 0.009, p=0.001), suggesting a small, although significant improvement. Adding MPI information to the eGFR markedly improved the prediction of 2-year all-cause mortality in older patients with CKD. A multidimensional evaluation for all-cause mortality risk prediction should be considered in older patients with CKD. PMID:22352434

  6. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, L R

    1996-01-01

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

  7. External-Beam Radiation Therapy and High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy in High and Very High Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Data on Clinical Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio; Gaztanaga, Miren; Arbea, Leire; Pascual, Ignacio; Aristu, Javier

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 200 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (32.5%) or very high-risk prostate cancer (67.5%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen of 15.2 ng/mL, a clinical stage of T2c, and a Gleason score of 7. Treatment consisted of 54 Gy of external irradiation (three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [3DCRT]) followed by 19 Gy of HDR brachytherapy in four twice-daily treatments. ADT started 0-3 months before 3DCRT and continued for 2 years. Results: One hundred and ninety patients (95%) received 2 years of ADT. After a median follow-up of 3.7 years (range, 2-9), late Grade {>=}2 urinary toxicity was observed in 18% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 was observed in 5%. Prior transurethral resection of the prostate (p = 0.013) and bladder D{sub 50} {>=}1.19 Gy (p = 0.014) were associated with increased Grade {>=}2 urinary complications; age {>=}70 (p = 0.05) was associated with Grade {>=}3 urinary complications. Late Grade {>=}2 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 9% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 in 1.5%. CTV size {>=}35.8 cc (p = 0.007) and D{sub 100} {>=}3.05 Gy (p = 0.01) were significant for increased Grade {>=}2 complications. The 5-year and 9-year biochemical relapse-free survival (nadir + 2) rates were 85.1% and 75.7%, respectively. Patients with Gleason score of 7-10 had a decreased biochemical relapse-free survival (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Intermediate-term results at the 5-year time point indicate a favorable outcome without an increase in the rate of late complications.

  8. Analysis of Solar Irradiation Anomalies in Long Term Over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cony, M.; Polo, J.; Martin, L.; Navarro, A.; Serra, I.

    2012-04-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of global hemispheric irradiation measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of solar irradiation in India using anomalies techniques and trends in ten places over India. Most of the places have exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

  9. Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

  10. Long-term treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Becattini, Cecilia; Manina, Giorgia

    2014-05-01

    Long term treatment of venous thromboembolism is essential to complete therapy of the index episode and to reduce recurrences. Vitamin K antagonists are the mainstay for the long term treatment of venous thromboembolism for the majority of the patients as they allow oral administration. Low-molecular weight heparins are recommended for the long term treatment of cancer patients. The duration of long term anticoagulation depends on the features of the index venous thromboembolism and on the presence of associated risk factors. Patients at high risk for recurrence - mainly those who suffered unprovoked venous thromboembolism and those with cancer - should be evaluated for extended anticoagulation. The risk for major bleeding complications and the inconvenience for monitoring, dose adjustment and drug-food interactions are the main constraints for indefinite anticoagulant treatment. New anticoagulants with more favourable efficacy- safety profile and reduced need for monitoring could improve the feasibility of extended anticoagulation. PMID:24846227

  11. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  12. Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

  13. First Long-term Slip-rate Along The San Andreas Fault Based On 10be-26al Surface Exposure Dating : The Biskra Palms Site, 23 Mm/yr For The Last 30000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Y.; van der Woerd, J.; Sieh, K.; Tapponnier, P.; Ryerson, F. J.

    Slip-rate along the San Andreas fault is known precisely at only two locations : at Wallace Creek, 34 +- 3 mm/yr for the past 13,500 yrs and at Cajon Creek, 24.5 +- 3 mm/yr for the past 14,500 yrs. When compared to the long-term and far-field plate motion, these rates provide important constraint on how and where strain is accommo- dated across the plate boundary. Here we present a new determination of the slip-rate along the San Andreas Fault at Biskra Palms, based on 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating. The studied area is located southeast of the San Gorgonio restraining bend, a complex section of the fault which has not produced a large earthquake in historical time. At Biskra Palms, the San Andreas Fault offsets an alluvial fan (T2) about 700 m. Keller et al. (1982) recognized the importance of this site and estimated the age of the offset fan surfaces based on degree of soil development between 20 and 70 kyrs, providing a very loosely constraint slip-rate between 10 and 35 mm/yr. We have an- alyzed 21 quartz rich cobbles from the surface of the fan, upstream, downstream and within the fault zone. 10Be and 26Al measurements yield consistent results implying simple exposure at the surface. 7 samples collected on the T2 fan surface downstream yield an average exposure age of 30.7 +- 2.1 kyrs. The tight cluster of these ages in- dicate no or minor pre-exposition during transport in the small catchment upstream. 7 samples from T2 upstream from the fault yield an average exposure age of 29.5 +- 2.8 kyrs. One additional sample of this surface (38.4s3.6 kyrs) is older than the others ´ and may have been pre-exposed before deposition on the fan. 2 samples from a T2 remnant within the fault zone yield an average age of 29.6 +- 2.6 kyrs. 4 additional samples were collected from two smaller alluvial surfaces (T3 and T4) remnant found only upstream from the fault zone and yield average ages of 33.3 and 27.3 kyrs that are similar to the age of T2. This suggest that these surfaces were emplaced rapidly in a few thousands years or so ~30,000 years ago. Taking the 700 m offset and dividing it by the average age of T2 (30.1 +- 2.4 kyrs) yields a slip-rate of 23.3 +- 3.5 mm/yrs. The different fault strands of the San Gorgonio step-over converge southeastward to- ward the Biskra Palms site, so that this rate applies to the the entire San Andreas fault zone. The 23 mm/yr rate is undistinguishable from the rate derived at Cajon Creek, 1 120 km to the northwest, and places an important new constraint on the behavior of the San Andreas Fault across the San Gorgonio Pass restraining bend. Keller et al. (1982), Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 93, 46-56. 2

  14. First Long-Term slip-Rate Along the San Andreas Fault Based on 10Be-26Al Surface Exposure Dating : The Biskra Palms Site, 23 mm/yr for the last 30,000 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Woerd, J.; Klinger, Y.; Sieh, K.; Tapponnier, P.; Ryerson, F.

    2001-12-01

    Slip-rate along the San Andreas fault is known precisely at only two locations : at Wallace Creek, 34 +/- 3 mm/yr for the past 13,500 yrs and at Cajon Creek, 24.5+/- 3 mm/yr for the past 14,500 yrs. When compared to the long-term and far-field plate motion, these rates provide important constraint on how and where strain is accommodated across the plate boundary. Here we present a new determination of the slip-rate along the San Andreas Fault at Biskra Palms, based on 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating. The studied area is located southeast of the San Gorgonio restraining bend, a complex section of the fault which has not produced a large earthquake in historical time. At Biskra Palms, the San Andreas Fault offsets an alluvial fan (T2) about 700 m. Keller et al. (1982) recognized the importance of this site and estimated the age of the offset fan surfaces based on degree of soil development between 20 and 70 kyrs, providing a very loosely constraint slip-rate between 10 and 35 mm/yr. We have analyzed 21 quartz rich cobbles from the surface of the fan, upstream, downstream and within the fault zone. 10Be and 26Al measurements yield consistent results implying simple exposure at the surface. 7 samples collected on the T2 fan surface downstream yield an average exposure age of 30.7 +/- 2.1 kyrs. The tight cluster of these ages indicate no or minor pre-exposition during transport in the small catchment upstream. 7 samples from T2 upstream from the fault yield an average exposure age of 29.5 +/- 2.8 kyrs. One additional sample of this surface (38.4+/-3.6 kyrs) is older than the others and may have been pre-exposed before deposition on the fan. 2 samples from a T2 remnant within the fault zone yield an average age of 29.6 +/- 2.6 kyrs. 4 additional samples were collected from two smaller alluvial surfaces (T3 and T4) remnant found only upstream from the fault zone and yield average ages of 33.3 and 27.3 kyrs that are similar to the age of T2. This suggest that these surfaces were emplaced rapidly in a few thousands years or so ~30,000 years ago. Taking the 700 m offset and dividing it by the average age of T2 (30.1 +/-2.4 kyrs) yields a slip-rate of 23.3+/-3.5 mm/yrs. The different fault strands of the San Gorgonio step-over converge southeastward toward the Biskra Palms site, so that this rate applies to the the entire San Andreas fault zone. The 23 mm/yr rate is undistinguishable from the rate derived at Cajon Creek, 120 km to the northwest, and places an important new constraint on the behavior of the San Andreas Fault across the San Gorgonio Pass restraining bend. Keller et al. (1982), Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 93, 46-56.

  15. Equivalence of interest rate models and lattice gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjol, Dan

    2012-04-01

    We consider the class of short rate interest rate models for which the short rate is proportional to the exponential of a Gaussian Markov process x(t) in the terminal measure r(t)=a(t)exp[x(t)]. These models include the Black-Derman-Toy and Black-Karasinski models in the terminal measure. We show that such interest rate models are equivalent to lattice gases with attractive two-body interaction, V(t1,t2)=-Cov[x(t1),x(t2)]. We consider in some detail the Black-Karasinski model with x(t) as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and show that it is similar to a lattice gas model considered by Kac and Helfand, with attractive long-range two-body interactions, V(x,y)=-?(e-?|x-y|-e-?(x+y)). An explicit solution for the model is given as a sum over the states of the lattice gas, which is used to show that the model has a phase transition similar to that found previously in the Black-Derman-Toy model in the terminal measure.

  16. Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516

  17. 75 FR 20373 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ....C. 1505 and Treasury Decision 85-93, published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue... Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and...

  18. 76 FR 2404 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ....C. 1505 and Treasury Decision 85-93, published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832... SECURITY Customs And Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue... Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and...

  19. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Cristina; Montanari, Alberto; José Polo, María

    2016-05-01

    How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  20. Long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, H A; Saudek, C D; Zacur, H A

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, 21 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have been managed at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions with variable rate, remotely controlled implanted insulin pumps. To date, nearly 70 patient-years of experience has been gained with intraperitoneal delivery of a new U-400 insulin with a surfactant. All 21 patients are alive after a mean of 39.3 months (range, 10 to 65 months) after insulin pump implantation. Nineteen of the 21 patients remain on intraperitoneal insulin, for a 5-year actuarial system survival of 90%. Glucose control was improved, especially during the first 16 months after pump implantation, without an increased incidence of severe hypoglycemia. Catheter blockage has been a significant problem, occurring in nine of the 21 patients (43%). Catheter occlusion has been successfully managed, however, with laparoscopic repair in seven of 10 attempts or with catheter change in four of five patients. Nevertheless, quality of life and patient acceptance remain excellent. Moreover, pre-existing nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy have been surprisingly stable. With an aggressive policy of catheter change or laparoscopic clearance of catheter blockage, long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery is now a safe and effective treatment for type I diabetics. PMID:1417197

  1. Long-term survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).

    PubMed

    Smoll, Nicolas R; Schaller, Karl; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2013-05-01

    Long-term survival is an often used, yet poorly defined, concept in the study of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This study suggests a method to define a time-point for long-term survival in patients with GBM. Data for this study were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results database, which was limited to the most recent data using the period approach. Relative survival measures were used and modelled using piecewise constant hazards to describe the survival profile of long-term survivors of GBM. For patients with GBM, the first quarter of the second year (5th quarter) post-diagnosis is considered to be the peak incidence of mortality with an excess hazard ratio of 7.58 (95% confidence interval=6.54, 8.78) and the risk of death due to GBM decreases to half of its rate at 2.5 years post-diagnosis. The 2.5-year cumulative relative survival (CRS) for all patients is approximately 8%, with a CRS of approximately 2% at 10 years. Using the definition of long-term survival suggested here, the results indicate that long-term survivors are patients who survive at least 2.5 years post-diagnosis. The most likely time period for patients with GBM to die is the 5th quarter post-diagnosis. PMID:23352352

  2. Cross-correlation between interest rates and commodity prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Yiming

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate cross-correlations between interest rate and agricultural commodity markets. Based on a statistic of Podobnik et al. (2009), we find that the cross-correlations are all significant. Using the MF-DFA and MF-DXA methods, we find strong multifractality in both auto-correlations and cross-correlations. Moreover, the cross-correlations are persistent. Finally, based on the technique of rolling window, the time-variation property of cross-correlations is also revealed.

  3. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

  4. Private Long-Term Care Insurance: Cost, Coverage, and Restrictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Joshua M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Conducted descriptive analysis of 31 private long-term care insurance policies. Examined policies for premium rates, extent and levels of coverage, restrictions of eligibility to purchase a policy, and indemnity payment levels. Findings suggest that policies are expensive, impose numerous restrictions, offer limited coverage for certain services,…

  5. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource

  6. The Long-Term Effects of the Couple Communication Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joanning, Harvey

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the immediate and long-term impact of the Couple Communication Program. Married couples (N=17) were assigned to training groups. Change was assessed using self-report measures of marital adjustment and communication quality along with behavioral ratings of couple verbal interaction. Couples increased significantly on all measures at…

  7. Private Long-Term Care Insurance: Value to Claimants and Implications for Long-Term Care Financing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Pamela; Cohen, Marc A.; Miller, Jessica; Shi, Xiaomei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain a profile of individuals with private long-term care (LTC) insurance as they begin using paid LTC services and track their patterns of service use, satisfaction with services and insurance, claims denial rates, and transitions over a 28-month period. Design and Methods: Ten LTC insurance companies…

  8. Environmental and Genetic Preconditioning for Long-Term Anoxia Responses Requires AMPK in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    LaRue, Bobby L.; Padilla, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Preconditioning environments or therapeutics, to suppress the cellular damage associated with severe oxygen deprivation, is of interest to our understanding of diseases associated with oxygen deprivation. Wildtype C. elegans exposed to anoxia enter into a state of suspended animation in which energy-requiring processes reversibly arrest. C. elegans at all developmental stages survive 24-hours of anoxia exposure however, the ability of adult hermaphrodites to survive three days of anoxia significantly decreases. Mutations in the insulin-like signaling receptor (daf-2) and LIN-12/Notch (glp-1) lead to an enhanced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we show that the combined growth environment of 25°C and a diet of HT115 E. coli will precondition adult hermaphrodites to survive long-term anoxia; many of these survivors have normal movement after anoxia treatment. Animals fed the drug metformin, which induces a dietary-restriction like state in animals and activates AMPK in mammalian cell culture, have a higher survival rate when exposed to long-term anoxia. Mutations in genes encoding components of AMPK (aak-2, aakb-1, aakb-2, aakg-2) suppress the environmentally and genetically induced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. We further determine that there is a correlation between the animals that survive long-term anoxia and increased levels of carminic acid staining, which is a fluorescent dye that incorporates in with carbohydrates such as glycogen. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that small changes in growth conditions such as increased temperature and food source can influence the physiology of the animal thus affecting the responses to stress such as anoxia. Furthermore, this supports the idea that metformin should be further investigated as a therapeutic tool for treatment of oxygen-deprived tissues. Finally, the capacity for an animal to survive long bouts of severe oxygen deprivation is likely dependent on specific subunits of the heterotrimeric protein AMPK and energy stores such as carbohydrates. PMID:21304820

  9. Long-term consequences of foodborne infections.

    PubMed

    Batz, Michael B; Henke, Evan; Kowalcyk, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Foodborne infections with Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, Toxoplasma gondii, and other pathogens can result in long-term sequelae to numerous organ systems. These include irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, chronic kidney disease, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, neurological disorders from acquired and congenital listeriosis and toxoplasmosis, and cognitive and developmental deficits due to diarrheal malnutrition or severe acute illness. A full understanding of the long-term sequelae of foodborne infection is important both for individual patient management by clinicians, as well as to inform food safety and public health decision making. PMID:24011832

  10. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light spectrum. The light intensities reaching the Foraminifera in cultivation however largely depend on the substrate provided (e.g. sand and silt where individuals dig close to the surface or coral rubble used as shelter by the Foraminiferans and as an easy way of retaining the organisms within a designated container by the investigator).

  11. 26 CFR 19.3-1 - Interest on certain deferred payments; interest rate for use in determining whether there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest on certain deferred payments; interest rate for use in determining whether there is total unstated interest under a contract. 19.3-1 Section... (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY REGULATIONS UNDER THE REVENUE ACT OF 1964 § 19.3-1 Interest on certain...

  12. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love

    PubMed Central

    Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E.; Brown, Lucy L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding. PMID:21208991

  13. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  14. Long-Term Impacts of Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, David James

    2010-01-01

    The school accountability movement has led to a marked increase in the use of standardized test scores to measure school and teacher productivity, yet little is known about the correlation between test score gains and improvements in long-term outcomes. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I study the impact of a school choice policy in

  15. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  16. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  17. NATIONAL LONG TERM CARE SURVEY (NLTCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...

  18. Long-Term Care Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This article provides a framework for understanding how long-term care (LTC) research contributes to policy, develops a typology of research contributions to policy with examples of each type, and suggests ways to ensure that contributions continue in the future. The article draws on in-depth interviews with LTC experts working at the interface…

  19. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  20. Long Term Care Aide. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbee, Judy

    This course outline is intended to assist the instructor in the development of a curriculum for a long-term care aide program by specifying one component of the curriculum--the objectives. These objectives, or competencies expected as outcomes for student performance on completion of the program, describe the capabilities an individual must…

  1. Long-term lysimeter data on evapotranspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term crop evapotranspiration (ET) data measured using large weighing lysimeters have only been gathered in a few places in the world, yet are of great importance for ground truthing of many models of plant water use, mesoscale climate, remote sensing estimation of ET, climate change and climate...

  2. Long-term cropping systems study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This long-term study has been conducted on the Agronomy Farm at ARDC since the early 1970’s. In the beginning, the objectives were mainly related to crop production as affected by different cropping systems. The cropping systems included in the study are Continuous Corn, Soybean, and Sorghum; 2-year...

  3. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  4. Evaluating Long-Term Disability Insurance Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Jan

    1992-01-01

    This report analyzes the factors involved in reviewing benefits and services of employer-sponsored group long-term disability plans for higher education institutions. Opening sections describe the evolution of disability insurance and its shape today. Further sections looks at the complex nature of "value" within a plan, relationship between plan…

  5. Oil Prices and Interest Rates: Do They Determine the Exchange Rate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, I. A.; Old, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the relationship between the British pound sterling, interest rates, and oil prices has been overemphasized by economic commentators because they ignored a basic economic theory about the determination of the exchange rate. Provides an example and suggestions for follow up instruction. (Author/JDH)

  6. Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximately 10% and remained at approximately that level throughout follow-up. The proportion meeting criteria for remission (Hamilton Depression score of 7 or less) rose gradually to approximately 45%. Long-term prognosis (i.e. probability of remission at 6 months and beyond) was strongly related to remission status at 3 months (odds ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.81-4.76) and only modestly related to various clinical characteristics assessed at baseline (e.g. prior history of recurrent depression, medical comorbidity, comorbid anxiety symptoms). The findings indicate that potentially modifiable risk factors influence the long-term prognosis of depression. This suggests that more systematic and effective depression treatment programmes might have an important effect on long-term course and reduce the overall burden of chronic and recurrent depression. PMID:10885162

  7. Long Term Corrosion/Degradation Test Six Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    M. K. Adler Flitton; C. W. Bishop; M. E. Delwiche; T. S. Yoder

    2004-09-01

    The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains neutron-activated metals from non-fuel, nuclear reactor core components. The Long-Term Corrosion/Degradation (LTCD) Test is designed to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements to the environment. The test is using two proven, industry-standard methods—direct corrosion testing using metal coupons, and monitored corrosion testing using electrical/resistance probes—to determine corrosion rates for various metal alloys generally representing the metals of interest buried at the SDA, including Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, Beryllium S200F, Aluminum 6061, Zircaloy-4, low-carbon steel, and Ferralium 255. In the direct testing, metal coupons are retrieved for corrosion evaluation after having been buried in SDA backfill soil and exposed to natural SDA environmental conditions for times ranging from one year to as many as 32 years, depending on research needs and funding availability. In the monitored testing, electrical/resistance probes buried in SDA backfill soil will provide corrosion data for the duration of the test or until the probes fail. This report provides an update describing the current status of the test and documents results to date. Data from the one-year and three-year results are also included, for comparison and evaluation of trends. In the six-year results, most metals being tested showed extremely low measurable rates of general corrosion. For Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, and Ferralium 255, corrosion rates fell in the range of “no reportable” to 0.0002 mils per year (MPY). Corrosion rates for Zircaloy-4 ranged from no measurable corrosion to 0.0001 MPY. These rates are two orders of magnitude lower than those specified in the performance assessment for the SDA. The corrosion on the carbon steel, beryllium, and aluminum were more evident with a clear difference in corrosion performance between the 4-ft and 10-ft levels. Notable surface corrosion products were evident as well as numerous pit initiation sites. Since the corrosion of the beryllium and aluminum is characterized by pitting, the geometrical character of the corrosion becomes more significant than the general corrosion rate. Both pitting factor and weight loss data should be used together. For six-year exposure, the maximum carbon steel corrosion rate was 0.3643 MPY while the maximum beryllium corrosion rate was 0.3282 MPY and the maximum aluminum corrosion rate was 0.0030 MPY.

  8. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Long-Term Radiation Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, Kenneth D.; Smith, Leon E.; Carlson, Deborah K.; Anderson, Dale N.; Metz.er, S.

    2004-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is currently developing a prototype instrumented container system for the detection of illicit nuclear and radiological materials in maritime scenarios. Data collection during this long-term monitoring of radiation sensor signals will be inherently sequential in that wireless data transmission will occur at set intervals. Among the possible decision-making algorithms for sequentially-acquired radiation sensor data is the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT). The suitability of the SPRT for this long-term monitoring application is discussed, and the decision-making performance of the SPRT is compared to that of the commonly used single-interval test (SIT). The analysis spans a wide range of signal and background count rates so that results are applicable to sensors of all sizes operating in different ambient conditions, and a spectrum of alarm thresholds. It is demonstrated that for these simulated long-term monitoring scenarios, decisions to issue an alarm when the measured count rate equals the threshold count rate, are made 3-5 times faster using the SPRT than with the SIT. The ability of the SPRT to provide an ''all-clear'' indication when the measured count rate is consistent with the expected background count rate is contrasted to the inconclusive results of the SIT test under the same conditions. The need for SPRT truncation strategies for measured count rate regions where the SPRT decision times become excessive is discussed. Finally, it is shown that the truncated SPRT provides a greater probability of detection than the SIT in a case of ''early termination'' of both tests, a situation likely to occur in long-term monitoring applications.

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  10. Development of a Self-Assessment Tool to Facilitate Decision-Making in Choosing a Long Term Care Administration Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johs-Artisensi, Jennifer L.; Olson, Douglas M.; Nahm, Abraham Y.

    2016-01-01

    Long term care administrators need a broad base of knowledge, skills, and interests to provide leadership and be successful in managing a fiscally responsible, quality long term care organization. Researchers developed a tool to help students assess whether a long term care administration major is a compatible fit. With input from professionals in…

  11. Long-term recovery from alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Chappel, J N

    1993-03-01

    AA has demonstrated success in steadily increasing membership, with no loss of the proportion of those with over 5 years of sobriety. It has been recognized as effective long-term treatment for alcoholism by psychiatrists and psychoanalysts experienced in treatment of the addictions. The triennial membership surveys of AA have shown stability in 1. A 50% dropout rate within the first 3 months of starting AA. Only 41% of those in the first year will remain in the Fellowship for another year. 2. Roughly equal numbers of those with less than 1 year, 1 to 5 years, and over 5 years of sobriety, with an average length of sobriety of about 4 years. 3. Members having a sponsor (85%) and belonging to a home group (88%). 4. Attendance by members of about three meetings a week, regardless of duration of sobriety. 5. Members telling their doctor that they are in AA, but not helping him or her learn about the program. The survey data also indicate that AA is changing in the following ways: 1. The number of women members has increased to more than one third the total membership. 2. An increasing number of young people, under 30 years of age, to more than one fifth the total. 3. A decreasing number of older people, over 50 years of age, to just under one fourth the total. 4. An increasing number of members who were also addicted to other drugs (46%). Psychiatrists can use these data and knowledge of AA to 1. Increase the effectiveness of referrals of alcoholic patients to AA regardless of age, sex, race, or other characteristics. All are welcome and can benefit. 2. Deal with resistance, which occurs when patients begin to make contact with AA. 3. Help alcoholic patients through the difficult first year of sobriety. 4. Encourage their alcoholic patients to use AA as a program for personal growth and development. 5. Helping dually addicted patients use AA's singleness of purpose to facilitate their recovery. 6. Cooperate with alcohol and drug treatment programs in helping patients transfer to AA and work on an effective program of recovery. 7. Work with members of the local AA Treatment Facilities and Cooperation with the Professional Community Committees in helping alcoholic patients enter and use AA. 8. Provide psychiatric treatment for AA members in ways that support and sustain their program of recovery, especially by avoiding dependence-producing medications. PMID:8456043

  12. Bounded rational expectations and the stability of interest rate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Orlando; Mendes, Diana A.; Mendes, Vivaldo M.

    2008-06-01

    The New Keynesian model has recently been subject to two serious criticisms: the model cannot produce plausible inflation and output dynamics following a monetary shock, and the stability of its dynamics suffers from indeterminacy. The procedures that have been proposed to eliminate these two shortcomings fall into two categories: the introduction of some sort of backward price indexation into the standard model and/or other forms of stickiness (like sticky information); and the adoption of some form of policy rule that completely offsets the effects of forward looking dynamics in the optimization process. In this paper we do not eradicate forward looking behavior from the dynamics of the New Keynesian model, neither do we impose some form of backward price indexation. We assume that private economic agents have forward looking behavior and that they do try to optimize with all available information; the only novelty is that they are allowed to make small mistakes near the rational expectations equilibrium, in a fully deterministic setup. These “near rational” or “bounded rational” expectations show that the dynamics of the model with active interest rate rules is much richer than the simple problem of local indeterminacy as is usually found in the literature.

  13. Long term mortality in burned children

    PubMed Central

    Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  14. [Bariatric surgery - significance, risks, long term consequences].

    PubMed

    Schubert, T; Jahn, U; Eben, E; Deuber, H J

    2013-03-21

    In recent years the number of bariatric surgery has markedly increased in industrial nations. Surgery provides a more rapid decrease of body weight than conservative approach. However a long term conservative follow up therapy is mandatory to stabilize reduced weight. Due to increasing knowledge from long term follow up of surgically treated obese patients there is a growing body of evidence that frequently there is necessity of reoperations and of substitution both of trace elementsand of minerals or vitamins due to their hampered enteral resorption. Additionally therapy of surgery induced endocrine alterations not seldom is necessary.These insights are of outstanding importance because meanwhile an enlargement of the indications for bariatric surgery as a therapeutic option for metabolic disorders is being discussed. This review refers to the recent internationally published papers concerning consequences of bariatric surgery. PMID:23678666

  15. Long-term variability of climate

    SciTech Connect

    Pielke, R.A.; Zeng, X. )

    1994-01-01

    In this research note, the authors address the following general question: In a nonlinear dynamical system (such as the climate system), can a known short-periodic variation lead to significant long-term variability It is known for chaos studies (e.g., Lorenz 1991) that any perturbations in chaotic dynamic systems can lead to a red-noise spectrum; however, whether a significant long-term variability can be induced is unknown. To perform this study, an idealized nonlinear model developed by Lorenz (1984, 1990) is used. The model and the results are presented in sections 2 and 3, respectively. Finally, the implications of this research to the understanding of the natural variability of the climate system due to internal dynamics will be discussed in section 4. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. TANK S-109 LONG TERM HUMAN HEALTH RISK CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    CARLSON, S.E.

    2003-12-16

    This document provides Tank S-109 long-term human risks calculations, in support of Functions and Requirements document (RPP-18812) as required by milestone M-45-00 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This calculation was performed to provide a screening-level assessment of long-term human health risk associated with potential leakage that could occur during waste retrieval operations for tank S-109 This calculation supports the development of tank S-109 waste retrieval functions and requirements as documented in RPP-18812. Risks associated with current waste and potential residual waste in tank S-109, as well as risk associated with other S farm tanks, were not of interest and were not evaluated.

  17. Is Current Hydrogeologic Research Addressing Long-TermPredictions?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2004-09-10

    Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and, in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods, but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physico-chemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

  18. Prokaryotic community structure and respiration during long-term incubations

    PubMed Central

    Baltar, Federico; Lindh, Markus V; Parparov, Arkadi; Berman, Tom; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of incubation assays for studies in microbial ecology that frequently require long confinement times, few reports are available in which changes in the assemblage structure of aquatic prokaryotes were monitored during long-term incubations. We measured rates of dissolved organic carbon degradation and microbial respiration by consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO) in four experiments with Lake Kinneret near-surface water and, concomitantly, we analyzed the variability in prokaryotic community structure during long-term dark bottle incubations. During the first 24 h, there were only minor changes in bacterial community composition. Thereafter there were marked changes in the prokaryotic community structure during the incubations. In contrast, oxygen consumption rates (a proxy for both respiration and dissolved organic carbon degradation rates) remained stable for up to 1023 days. This study is one of the first to examine closely the phylo-genetic changes that occur in the microbial community of untreated freshwater during long-term (days) incubations in dark, sealed containers. Novel information on the diversity of the main bacterial phylotypes that may be involved in dissolved organic matter degradation in lake Kinneret is also provided. Our results suggest that, under certain ecological settings, constant community metabolic rates can be maintained as a result of shifts in community composition. PMID:22950026

  19. The predictors of long-term care service utilization among older Americans.

    PubMed

    Pan, S M; Yang, J T; Chen, C C

    1998-04-01

    Long-term care for the elderly has recently become an area of great interest for practicing social workers because of the increasing number of aged persons and the important role of government in financing and regulating their care. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide a set of estimates on patterns in long-term care service use among older Americans over an eight-year period. This study applied multinomial logistic regression to analyzing the data from the National Long-Term Care Survey of 1982-1989 (NLTCS). The results of this study showed a number of differences from the results with cross-sectional studies. Of the 6,393 sample persons, more than half (56.5%) died over the eight years from 1982 to 1989. The rate of entering nursing homes (12.6%) was low. The rate of using community-based care services was fairly low. About 10.4 percent of the sample received care from helping professional personnel or paid helpers. As expected, the number receiving care from kin and other informal support was high. Long-term care services in the United States were distributed very unequally among various social groups. The indicator of need was not the only determinant of service utilization. Other variables such as number of household members, race, age and education were also important for service utilization. The predictors of deceased versus informal help were need, age, number of household member, gender and marital status. The predictors of nursing home care versus informal help were need, age, number of household members, education, attitude toward nursing home and race. The predictors of community-based help care versus informal help were need, number of household members, and education. PMID:9589617

  20. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  1. Long-term predictive capability of erosion models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadra, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    A brief overview of long-term cavitation and liquid impingement erosion and modeling methods proposed by different investigators, including the curve-fit approach is presented. A table was prepared to highlight the number of variables necessary for each model in order to compute the erosion-versus-time curves. A power law relation based on the average erosion rate is suggested which may solve several modeling problems.

  2. Long Term Hydrologic Observatories: Issues and Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, L. E.

    2002-05-01

    Long Term Hydrologic Observatories (LTHO) are one of the center pieces of the CUAHSI initiative and require careful consideration of a set of scientific and logistical issues. They are conceived as major research facilities to address critical hydrologic science and management questions identified by the research community, and which require large scale, long term observations. Recent NSF and NRC white papers on the future of hydrology outline a set of science initiatives and questions focussing on variability and predictability in the hydrologic cycle at multiple scales, the coupling of hydrologic processes with atmospheric and ecosystem processes, and interactions of hydrologic systems with human societal activities. The LTHO will serve to provide the research community with a network of sites for long term, multiple scale data collection, experimental design and implementation, and hypothesis testing to address these issues. In order to maximize their scientific return, we need to identify a balance between the number of sites in the network to gain representation in different environmental conditions, and the amount of resources available for each site to assure comprehensive sampling and experimentation. Some of the topical aspects of the LTHO mission have been implemented in the form of a subset of the more hydrologically oriented LTER sites, the ARS and WEB experimental watersheds, and through the long term monitoring program of the USGS. However, these efforts have either not been at the scales envisioned for the LTHO (e.g. 104-105 km2), have not emphasized long term measurement, or have not addressed the development of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary information base necessary to respond to the driving scientific and management questions. The LTHO can be designed to build on and integrate these ongoing efforts by identifying larger basins that contain longer term LTER, ARS or WEB sites, or implement more comprehensive, multidisciplinary data collection schemes in monitored basins. Critical issues to address will be identification of core data that all LTHO sites will collect, the degree of standardization in sampling and analysis methods that can be achieved, and how the resulting information will be made available to the research community. A significant difference between these sites and previous experimental watersheds will be that, in general, the LTHO will be too large to restrict scientific activity within the watersheds to LTHO or CUAHSI sanctioned projects. Therefore, the LTHO will require significant outreach and collaboration with local community, municipal, county and state governments who may have a much greater presence and range of environmental monitoring than the LTHO will provide.

  3. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Long-Term Cryopreserved Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Kar Wey; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Choi, Jane Ru; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Chua, Kien Hui; Safwani, Wan Kamarul Zaman Wan

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation represents an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and allows pooling of cells via long-term storage for clinical applications, e.g., cell-based therapies. It is crucial to reduce freezing injury during the cryopreservation process by loading the ASCs with the optimum concentration of suitable cryoprotective agents (CPAs). In this study, human ASCs were preserved for 3 months in different combinations of CPAs, including 1) 0.25 M trehalose; 2) 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO); 3) 10% DMSO; 4) 5% DMSO + 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS); 5) 10% DMSO + 20% FBS; 6) 10% DMSO + 90% FBS. Interestingly, even with a reduction of DMSO to 5% and without FBS, cryopreserved ASCs maintained high cell viability comparable with standard cryomedium (10% DMSO + 90% FBS), with normal cell phenotype and proliferation rate. Cryopreserved ASCs also maintained their differentiation capability (e.g., to adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes) and showed an enhanced expression level of stemness markers (e.g., NANOG, OCT-4, SOX-2 and REX-1). Our findings suggest that 5% DMSO without FBS may be an ideal CPA for an efficient long-term cryopreservation of human ASCs. These results aid in establishing standardized xeno-free long-term cryopreservation of human ASCs for clinical applications. PMID:25872464

  4. 38 CFR 36.4212 - Interest rates and late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjustable rate mortgage being refinanced with a fixed rate loan. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3703, 3712) (b) For... considered a violation of this limitation. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3712) (e) Adjustable rate mortgage loans... borrower's first mortgage payment. The adjusted rate will become effective the first day of the...

  5. Transcription Factors in Long-Term Memory and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Alberini, Cristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription is a molecular requisite for long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. Thus, in the last several years, one main interest of molecular neuroscience has been the identification of families of transcription factors that are involved in both of these processes. Transcription is a highly regulated process that involves the combined interaction and function of chromatin and many other proteins, some of which are essential for the basal process of transcription, while others control the selective activation or repression of specific genes. These regulated interactions ultimately allow a sophisticated response to multiple environmental conditions, as well as control of spatial and temporal differences in gene expression. Evidence based on correlative changes in expression, genetic mutations, and targeted molecular inhibition of gene expression have shed light on the function of transcription in both synaptic plasticity and memory formation. This review provides a brief overview of experimental work showing that several families of transcription factors, including CREB, C/EBP, Egr, AP-1, and Rel have essential functions in both processes. The results of this work suggest that patterns of transcription regulation represent the molecular signatures of long-term synaptic changes and memory formation. PMID:19126756

  6. The Long-Term Public Health Benefits of Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Binns, Colin; Lee, MiKyung; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding has many health benefits, both in the short term and the longer term, to infants and their mothers. There is an increasing number of studies that report on associations between breastfeeding and long-term protection against chronic disease. Recent research evidence is reviewed in this study, building on previous authoritative reviews. The recent World Health Organization reviews of the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding concluded that there was strong evidence for many public health benefits of breastfeeding. Cognitive development is improved by breastfeeding, and infants who are breastfed and mothers who breastfeed have lower rates of obesity. Other chronic diseases that are reduced by breastfeeding include diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, and some types of cancer. PMID:26792873

  7. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia.

    PubMed

    Talmi, Deborah; Caplan, Jeremy B; Richards, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM) despite an intact short-term memory (STM). The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR). This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors) and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only) condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant's recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation. PMID:26046770

  8. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be presented. ACKNOWLEDGMENTs The financial support by the European Community through the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure Action under the 7th Framework Programme under ACTRIS Grant Agreement n° 262254 is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Talmi, Deborah; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Richards, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM) despite an intact short-term memory (STM). The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR). This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors) and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only) condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant’s recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation. PMID:26046770

  10. Timber beams subjected to long - term loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sógel, K.

    2010-09-01

    Wood is a significant structural material, which is often used for timber bearing structures. Elements of timber structures must especially satisfy safety requirements, which are expressed by the ultimate limit states in the established standards. The structure must also satisfy the serviceability limit states. Local and global deformations make it impossible for the structure to serve the purpose it was designed for. It is important to take the deflections and their possible increase into account in the design to provide a structure which can be used during the whole period of service. Based on earlier examinations, it is known that a timber element over the course of long-term loading shows creep behavior. The structure of wood is able to adapt to the conditions of the surrounding environment. The properties of wood are especially affected by the relative humidity of the air and then by the type, intensity and duration of the loading. The most important factors affecting the serviceability of timber structures are volume changes caused by humidity and additional deflections caused by the effects of long-term loading. These phenomena emphasize the importance of serviceability limit states for timber structures. The paper deals with a long-term experimental investigation of timber girders that are currently often used. The aim was to obtain the deflection curves and mark the time dependence and the final deflections. The paper will also define the approximations for simulating the time-dependent deflections and obtain the creep coefficients for calculating the final deflections of the girders investigated.

  11. Long Term Archiving and CCSDS Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucon, Danièle

    This article presents some conceptual and implementation CCSDS -Consultative Committee for Space Data Systemsstandards for long term archiving. It focuses on the most recent one, the Producer Archive Interface Specification (PAIS) standard. This standard, currently available as a draft on the CCSDS web site, will be published by the beginning of 2014. It will enable the Producer to share with the Archive a sufficiently precise and unambiguous formal definition of the Digital Objects to be produced and transferred, by means of a model. It will also enable a precise definition of the packaging of these objects in the form of Submission Information Packages (SIPs), including the order in which they should be transferred.

  12. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  13. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  14. Long-term effects of sibling incest.

    PubMed

    Daie, N; Witztum, E; Eleff, M

    1989-11-01

    Although sexual abuse of children is recognized as a serious problem, sibling incest has received relatively little attention. A distinction has been made between power-oriented sibling incest and nurturance-oriented incest. The authors review the relevant literature and present four clinical examples. The cases illustrate the broad range of sibling incest and demonstrate its effects, including the long-term consequences for the perpetrator. Lasting difficulties in establishing and maintaining close relationships, especially sexual ones, are prominent features of each case. Without denying the occurrences of benign sex-play between siblings, the authors emphasize exploitation and abuse as pathogenic aspects of sibling incest. PMID:2808310

  15. Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

  16. Technique for long-term feline tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Hanson, D G

    1983-06-01

    When long-term feline tracheostomy is desired for experimental purposes, a permanent stoma may be established by a modification of the technique described by Miles. Crusting, injury, and obstruction of the stoma are bypassed during healing by an intratracheal tube stent. With the bypass tube in place, the animal breathes humidified air through its nose, and tracheal crusting is minimized. A stout neck dressing prevents scratching and injury to the stoma until it is healed. The technique provides a well-healed, well-tolerated permanent stoma with minimal special animal care. PMID:6342586

  17. Shift work and long-term injury among police officers

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Hartley, Tara A; Vila, Bryan; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our previous work has suggested that the incidence of any occurrence of injury leave among police officers is higher on night shifts. In this study, we extended our inquiry to determine whether the incidence of long-term injury leave varies across shifts. Methods Police officers (N=419) from an urban department were included in the analysis. Daily payroll work history data from 1994–2010 was collected. Injury leave duration was examined ranging from ≥1–≥90 days. Poisson regression models were used to compute incidence rates (IR) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) of long-term injury. Results Cumulative incidence of injury for different durations of leave defined as ≥1, ≥5, ≥10, ≥15, ≥30, and ≥90 days were 61.3%, 45.4%, 39.9%, 33.9%, 26.5%, and 9.6% respectively. Age-and gender adjusted IRR of long-term injury (≥90 days) for night versus day shifts was IRR 3.12, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.35–7.21 and IRR 2.21, 95% CI 1.04–4.68, for night versus afternoon shifts. Among all durations examined, the largest IRR was for injury ≥90 days, night versus day shifts (IRR 3.12, 95% CI 1.35–7.21). Conclusions Night shift work was significantly associated with long-term injury among police officers after adjustment for age and gender. Although type of injury was not available, it is possible that variation in injury type across shifts might account for some of this association. PMID:23503596

  18. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all long-term debt to nonassociates and not subject to current settlement. Note: Subaccounts shall be...

  19. Clinically meaningful parameters of progression and long-term outcome of Parkinson disease: An international consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Andreas; Brighina, Laura; Markopoulou, Katerina; Aasly, Jan; Chung, Sun Ju; Frigerio, Roberta; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios; Kõks, Sulev; Krüger, Rejko; Siuda, Joanna; Wider, Christian; Zesiewicz, Theresa A; Maraganore, Demetrius M

    2015-07-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with a clinical course of variable duration, severity, and a combination of motor and non-motor features. Recent PD research has focused primarily on etiology rather than clinical progression and long-term outcomes. For the PD patient, caregivers, and clinicians, information on expected clinical progression and long-term outcomes is of great importance. Today, it remains largely unknown what factors influence long-term clinical progression and outcomes in PD; recent data indicate that the factors that increase the risk to develop PD differ, at least partly, from those that accelerate clinical progression and lead to worse outcomes. Prospective studies will be required to identify factors that influence progression and outcome. We suggest that data for such studies is collected during routine office visits in order to guarantee high external validity of such research. We report here the results of a consensus meeting of international movement disorder experts from the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) consortium, who convened to define which long-term outcomes are of interest to patients, caregivers and clinicians, and what is presently known about environmental or genetic factors influencing clinical progression or long-term outcomes in PD. We propose a panel of rating scales that collects a significant amount of phenotypic information, can be performed in the routine office visit and allows international standardization. Research into the progression and long-term outcomes of PD aims at providing individual prognostic information early, adapting treatment choices, and taking specific measures to provide care optimized to the individual patient's needs. PMID:25952959

  20. Long-Term Refugee Health: Health Behaviors and Outcomes of Cambodian Refugee and Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha L.; Toof, Robin; Liang, Sidney L.; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C.

    2015-01-01

    Refugees in the United States have high rates of chronic disease. Both long-term effects of the refugee experience and adjustment to the U.S. health environment may contribute. While there is significant research on health outcomes of newly resettled refugees and long-term mental health experiences of established refugees, there is currently…

  1. Long-Term Refugee Health: Health Behaviors and Outcomes of Cambodian Refugee and Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha L.; Toof, Robin; Liang, Sidney L.; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C.

    2015-01-01

    Refugees in the United States have high rates of chronic disease. Both long-term effects of the refugee experience and adjustment to the U.S. health environment may contribute. While there is significant research on health outcomes of newly resettled refugees and long-term mental health experiences of established refugees, there is currently

  2. Soil respiration is not limited by reductions in microbial biomass during long-term soil incubations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining rates of soil respiration are reliably observed during long-term laboratory incubations, but the cause is uncertain. We explored different controls on soil respiration during long-term soil incubations. Following a 707 day incubation (30 C) of soils from cultivated and forested plots at Ke...

  3. Integration of Research with Long-Term Monitoring: Breeding Wood Ducks on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennamer, R.A.; Hepp, G.R.

    2000-10-01

    In 1981, long-term monitoring of breeding wood ducks was initiated. Females were marked and recaptured for 15 years and annual population parameters were developed. Precise parameter estimates were possible due to high capture rates. The results contribute to the long-term understanding of wood duck populations.

  4. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as ‘storage’. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation—which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes—with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  5. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  6. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers. PMID:26808468

  7. [Long-term results after liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Schrem, H; Till, N; Becker, T; Bektas, H; Manns, M P; Strassburg, C P; Klempnauer, J

    2008-02-01

    Liver transplantation has been reported to reach excellent results for selected indications. We analysed the results of liver transplantation in our centre over a period of 23 years, with a total of 2,114 consecutive liver transplants in 1,773 patients (eras I-III 5.5 years each, era IV 6.5 years). Overall 20-year survival after liver transplantation was 29.8%. The most frequent leading causes of death were infections of various origins (30%), tumour recurrence (14.2%), and pneumonia (8.4%). The most frequent leading causes for graft loss were infection of various origins (19.6%), initial nonfunction of the graft (14.6%), and tumour recurrence (9.6%). Both long-term patient and graft survival were significantly better after primary liver transplantation than after first retransplantation (P<0.001). Patient and graft long-term survival improved significantly across all four consecutive eras (P<0.001). In era IV, the most recent, 5-year patient survival reached 96% for PBC, 89.4% for PSC, 78.5% for biliary atresia, 70% for acute liver failure, 69.1% for HBV-related cirrhosis, 61.3% for hepatocellular carcinoma, and 56% for HCV-related cirrhosis. PMID:18209988

  8. Long-term anticoagulation. Indications and management.

    PubMed Central

    Stults, B M; Dere, W H; Caine, T H

    1989-01-01

    Each year half a million persons in the United States receive long-term anticoagulant therapy to prevent venous and arterial thromboembolism. Unfortunately, the relative benefits and risks of anticoagulant therapy have not been adequately quantified for many thromboembolic disorders, and the decisions as to whether, for how long, and how intensely to administer anticoagulation are often complex and controversial. Several expert panels have published recommendations for anticoagulant therapy for different thromboembolic disorders; the primary area of disagreement among these panels concerns the optimal intensity of anticoagulation. Recent research and analytic reviews have helped to clarify both the risk factors for and the appropriate diagnostic evaluation of anticoagulant-induced hemorrhage. Clinicians must be aware of the nonhemorrhagic complications of anticoagulant therapy, particularly during pregnancy. The administration of anticoagulants is difficult both in relation to dosing and long-term monitoring. Knowledge of the pharmacology of the anticoagulants, an organized approach to ongoing monitoring, and thorough patient education may facilitate the safe and effective use of these drugs. PMID:2686173

  9. Long-term preservation of anammox bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, Michael J; Vanotti, Matias B; Szögi, Ariel A; Gonzalez, Maria Cruz Garcia; Fujii, Takao

    2011-10-01

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass was frozen or lyophilized at two different freezing temperatures (-60°C and in liquid nitrogen (-200°C)) in skim milk media (with and without glycerol), and the reactivation of anammox activity was monitored after a 4-month storage period. Of the different preservation treatments tested, only anammox biomass preserved via freezing in liquid nitrogen followed by lyophilization in skim milk media without glycerol achieved stoichiometric ratios for the anammox reaction similar to the biomass in both the parent bioreactor and in the freshly harvested control treatment. A freezing temperature of -60°C alone, or in conjunction with lyophilization, resulted in the partial recovery of the anammox bacteria, with an equal mixture of anammox and nitrifying bacteria in the reactivated biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful reactivation of anammox biomass preserved via sub-zero freezing and/or lyophilization. The simple preservation protocol developed from this study could be beneficial to accelerate the integration of anammox-based processes into current treatment systems through a highly efficient starting anammox biomass. PMID:21590289

  10. 31 CFR 535.440 - Commercially reasonable interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... bank and Iran. However, where a deposit has in fact operated as a demand account under Treasury license... bearing account. Furthermore, in the event that the Iran-U.S Claims Tribunal (the “Tribunal”) determines that interest additional to that agreed upon between the bank and Iran, or compensation or damages...

  11. 31 CFR 535.440 - Commercially reasonable interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... bank and Iran. However, where a deposit has in fact operated as a demand account under Treasury license... bearing account. Furthermore, in the event that the Iran-U.S Claims Tribunal (the “Tribunal”) determines that interest additional to that agreed upon between the bank and Iran, or compensation or damages...

  12. 31 CFR 535.440 - Commercially reasonable interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... bank and Iran. However, where a deposit has in fact operated as a demand account under Treasury license... bearing account. Furthermore, in the event that the Iran-U.S Claims Tribunal (the “Tribunal”) determines that interest additional to that agreed upon between the bank and Iran, or compensation or damages...

  13. 31 CFR 535.440 - Commercially reasonable interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... bank and Iran. However, where a deposit has in fact operated as a demand account under Treasury license... bearing account. Furthermore, in the event that the Iran-U.S Claims Tribunal (the “Tribunal”) determines that interest additional to that agreed upon between the bank and Iran, or compensation or damages...

  14. 31 CFR 535.440 - Commercially reasonable interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bank and Iran. However, where a deposit has in fact operated as a demand account under Treasury license... bearing account. Furthermore, in the event that the Iran-U.S Claims Tribunal (the “Tribunal”) determines that interest additional to that agreed upon between the bank and Iran, or compensation or damages...

  15. 26 CFR 19.3-1 - Interest on certain deferred payments; interest rate for use in determining whether there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rate for use in determining whether there is total unstated interest under a contract. 19.3-1 Section 19.3-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY REGULATIONS UNDER THE REVENUE ACT OF 1964 § 19.3-1 Interest on certain...

  16. 26 CFR 19.3-1 - Interest on certain deferred payments; interest rate for use in determining whether there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... rate for use in determining whether there is total unstated interest under a contract. 19.3-1 Section 19.3-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY REGULATIONS UNDER THE REVENUE ACT OF 1964 § 19.3-1 Interest on certain...

  17. 26 CFR 19.3-1 - Interest on certain deferred payments; interest rate for use in determining whether there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rate for use in determining whether there is total unstated interest under a contract. 19.3-1 Section 19.3-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY REGULATIONS UNDER THE REVENUE ACT OF 1964 § 19.3-1 Interest on certain...

  18. 26 CFR 19.3-1 - Interest on certain deferred payments; interest rate for use in determining whether there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rate for use in determining whether there is total unstated interest under a contract. 19.3-1 Section 19.3-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY REGULATIONS UNDER THE REVENUE ACT OF 1964 § 19.3-1 Interest on certain...

  19. Increased Risk of Long-Term Sickness Absence, Lower Rate of Return to Work, and Higher Risk of Unemployment and Disability Pensioning for Thyroid Patients: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Watt, T.; Pedersen, J.; Bonnema, S. J.; Hegedüs, L.; Rasmussen, A. K.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Bjorner, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Little is known about how thyroid diseases affect work ability. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of work disability for patients with thyroid disease compared with the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a longitudinal register study, outpatients (n = 862) with nontoxic goiter, hyperthyroidism, Graves' orbitopathy (GO), autoimmune hypothyroidism, or other thyroid diseases and their matched controls (n = 7043) were observed in the years 1994–2011 in Danish national registers of social benefits, health, and work characteristics. Cox regression analyses estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the first year after diagnosis and subsequent years. Main Outcome Measures: Transitions between work, long-term sickness absence, unemployment, and disability pension were measured. Results: Patients differed significantly from the general population with regard to sickness absence, disability pension, return from sickness absence, and unemployment. In the first year after diagnosis, higher risks of sickness absence was seen for GO (HR 6.94) and other hyperthyroid patients (HR 2.08), who also had lower probability of returning from sickness absence (HR 0.62) and higher risk of disability pension (HR 4.15). Patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism showed a lower probability of returning from sickness absence (HR 0.62). In subsequent years, GO patients had significantly higher risk of sickness absence (HR 2.08), lower probability of return from sickness absence (HR 0.51), and unemployment (HR 0.52) and a higher risk of disability pension (HR 4.40). Hyperthyroid patients also had difficulties returning from sickness absence (HR 0.71). Conclusions: Thyroid patients' risk of work disability is most pronounced in the first year after diagnosis and attenuates in subsequent years. GO patients have the highest risk of work disability. PMID:24937367

  20. Long-term solar activity: improvements and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Juerg; McCracken, Ken; Abreu, Jose

    2012-07-01

    A detailed and accurate long-term record of solar activity is crucial in order to improve our understanding of how the solar dynamo works and how and to what extent it influences the climate on Earth. Combining records of different radionuclides from different sites covering the past about 10,000 years helps reducing the noise introduced by the transport and deposition processes of the involved radionuclides. A detailed analysis of this combined record reveals interesting features which are potentially useful to make predictions about the future of solar activity.