Sample records for long-term interest rates

  1. Factors Behind Low Long-Term Interest Rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudiger Ahrend; Pietro Catte; Robert Price

    2006-01-01

    Long-term bond yields have been low in recent years both in nominal and real terms, and . especially in the United States - they have reacted differently to shifts in monetary and fiscal stances relative to previous cycles. This article examines various possible explanations for this behaviour, such as the effects of changes in monetary policy frameworks on inflation and

  2. Between the cup and the lip On Post Keynesian interest rate rules and long-term interest rates management

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (but not slowly). Moving the interest rate convention is harder to get in the context of the current1 Between the cup and the lip On Post Keynesian interest rate rules and long-term interest rates, although Post Keynesian interest rules may be feasible and sustainable in favourable circumstances

  3. Long-term cosmogenic 3 He production rates

    E-print Network

    Zreda, Marek

    Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: cosmogenic elements; helium; production; rates; magnetic ¢eldLong-term cosmogenic 3 He production rates (152 ka^1.35 Ma) from 40 Ar/39 Ar dated basalt £ows production rates in olivines for the last 1.35 Ma are presented. We investigated three basaltic lava flow

  4. Interest in Long-Term Care among Health Services Administration Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, April; Thompson, Jon M.

    2011-01-01

    The aging of the population has created increased opportunities for health administrators in long-term care. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of 68 undergraduate health services administration students to explore factors related to interest in a career in long-term care administration. One third expressed interest working in the…

  5. Designing a Community to Support Long-term Interest in Programming for Middle School Children

    E-print Network

    Kelleher, Caitlin

    Designing a Community to Support Long-term Interest in Programming for Middle School Children Kyle@cse.wustl.edu ABSTRACT To facilitate long-term engagement in programming for middle school children, we developed program. Middle school is a critical time when many children, especially girls, decide whether

  6. Determining long-term regional erosion rates using impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, Stefan; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    More than 300,000 impact craters have been found on Mars, while the surface of Moon's highlands is even saturated with craters. In contrast, only 184 impact craters have been confirmed on Earth so far with only 125 of them exposed at the surface. The spatial distribution of these impact craters is highly inhomogeneous. Beside the large variation in the age of the crust, consumption of craters by erosion and burial by sediments are the main actors being responsible for the quite small and inhomogeneous crater record. In this study we present a novel approach to infer long-term average erosion rates at regional scales from the terrestrial crater inventory. The basic idea behind this approach is a dynamic equilibrium between the production of new craters and their consumption by erosion. It is assumed that each crater remains detectable until the total erosion after the impact exceeds a characteristic depth depending on the crater's diameter. Combining this model with the terrestrial crater production rate, i.e., the number of craters per unit area and time as a function of their diameter, allows for a prediction of the expected number of craters in a given region as a function of the erosion rate. Using the real crater inventory, this relationship can be inverted to determine the regional long-term erosion rate and its statistical uncertainty. A limitation by the finite age of the crust can also be taken into account. Applying the method to the Colorado Plateau and the Deccan Traps, both being regions with a distinct geological history, yields erosion rates in excellent agreement with those obtained by other, more laborious methods. However, these rates are formally exposed to large statistical uncertainties due to the small number of impact craters. As higher crater densities are related to lower erosion rates, smaller statistical errors can be expected when large regions in old parts of the crust are considered. Very low long-term erosion rates of less than 4 meters per million years are obtained for large parts of the Baltic Shield and the Canadian Shield. A rather coarse world-wide map of erosion rates can be created using Voronoi diagrams.

  7. 18 CFR 367.4270 - Account 427, Interest on long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4270 Account 427, Interest on long-term debt. (a)...

  8. Rates of Long-Term Cochlear Implant Use in Children

    PubMed Central

    Contrera, Kevin J.; Choi, Janet S.; Blake, Caitlin R.; Betz, Joshua F.; Niparko, John K.; Lin, Frank R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of long-term cochlear implant (CI) use in children Study Design: Consecutive case series Setting: Tertiary referral center Patients: 474 patients <18 years who received a first CI from 1999-2011 Interventions: Cochlear implantation Main Outcome Measure(s): Regular CI use, defined as using the CI for ? 8 hours per day Results: We successfully contacted and obtained follow-up data on 402 patients (85%) via email, telephone, and postal survey. The rate of regular CI use was 93.2% (95% CI, 90.0-95.4) at 5 years post-implantation and 87.7% (95% CI, 82.9-91.3) at 10 years post-implantation. The mean number of hours of use per day was 12.0 hours (SD, 4.1 hrs). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis demonstrated a linear association between the age at implantation and the risk of discontinuing regular CI use. Rates of CI discontinuation increased by 18.2% per year of age at implantation (95% CI, 7.2-30.4%). Reported reasons for CI use < 8 hours of per day include poor hearing benefit (53.2%), social pressure (21.3%), and recurrent displacement of the transmitter coil (17.0%). Conclusions: High rates of regular CI use are sustained after childhood implantation, and younger age at implantation is associated with a higher rate of continued device usage. PMID:24518403

  9. Analyzing network traces to identify long-term high rate flows 

    E-print Network

    Kim, In-Koo

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis we look at a scalable way of identifying long-term high rate flows without maintaining per flow state information proportional to the number of flows. Identification of high-rate flows is useful at the time ...

  10. Long-term release rates of borosilicate glass waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Macedo, P.B.; Barkatt, A.; Gibson, B.C.; Montrose, C.J.

    1986-05-01

    Evaluating the durability of nuclear waste glass material in terms of leach test results requires that one make reasonable extrapolations from laboratory experiments performed over a few years' duration to repository behavior over time scales ranging up to tens of thousands of years. These require an understanding of the mechanisms that govern the leaching of glass as well as an accompanying predictive capability. By comparing the measured behavior with the prediction of mechanistic models, it can be concluded that at high flow rates, kinetic factors are predominant, while at low flow rates, saturation of the aqueous medium with respect to major matrix elements, particularly with respect to silica present in the glass and in its alteration products, becomes a controlling factor. A mathematical framework in which this synthesized picture can be expressed is presented. A careful analysis of the situation indicates that under likely repository conditions the fractional annual release rates can be expected to fall below the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission criterion of 10/sup -5/ yr/sup -1/.

  11. Short-Term and Long-Term Consequences of Achievement Goals: Predicting Interest and Performance Over Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith M. Harackiewicz; Kenneth E. Barron; John M. Tauer; Suzanne M. Carter; Andrew J. Elliot

    2000-01-01

    Why do some students excel in their college classes and develop interest in an academic discipline? The authors examined both the short-term and long-term consequences of students' achievement goals in an introductory psychology course. Mastery goals positively predicted subsequent interest in the course, but not course grades. Performance goals positively predicted grades, but not interest. Three semesters later, the authors

  12. HRV measures for CHF detection Page nr. 1 of 8 Discrimination power of long-term heart rate variability

    E-print Network

    Oakley, Jeremy

    HRV measures for CHF detection Page nr. 1 of 8 1 Discrimination power of long-term heart rate: Melillo P, Fusco R, Sansone M, Bracale M, Pecchia L (2011) Discrimination power of long-term heart rate-010-0728-5 Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the discrimination power of standard long-term Heart Rate

  13. Long-Term Erosion and Sedimentation Rates of the Ri Chagres Basin Based on Cosmogenic 10

    E-print Network

    Nichols, Kyle K.

    Long-Term Erosion and Sedimentation Rates of the Rió Chagres Basin Based on Cosmogenic 10 Be Kyle K on the first point bar upstream of Lake Alhajuela to determine the average basin-wide erosion rate range of nuclide activities and thus basin-wide erosion rates (54 to 134 mm ky-1 ; average = 92 ± 22 mm

  14. Interest Rate Sensitivities of REIT Returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling T. He; James. R. Webb; Neil Myer

    2003-01-01

    In order to identify effective interest rate proxies for equity and mortgage REITs, this study analyzes seven different interest rate proxies that have been widely used in the REIT literature. They are the monthly holding period returns on long-term U.S. government bonds and high-grade corporate bonds, the percentage changes in yields for long-term U.S. government bonds and high-yield (Baa) corporate

  15. What moves the interest rate term structure?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Bauer

    2011-01-01

    To understand the effects of news on bond markets, it is instructive to look beyond individual maturities and consider the entire term structure of interest rates. For example, unexpected changes in monthly nonfarm payroll employment numbers cause large movements at short and medium maturities, but do not affect long-term interest rates. Inflation news affects the long end of the term

  16. Long-Term Care Insurance: An Assessment of States' Capacity to Review and Regulate Rates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alecxih, Lisa Maria B.

    2002-01-01

    Issued by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Public Policy Institute, this report explores the inadequacies of the state government's review process of long-term care insurance premiums, and offers recommendations to remedy these problems. Authors Steven Lutzky, Lisa Maria B. Alecxih, and Ryan Foreman of the Lewin Group suggest that states require premium reviews by an actuary with training in long-term care insurance, review the process used to set the premiums, and offer consumers comparative rate guides as well as information regarding insurance companies' rate increase histories. The entire report can be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. This report is not easily readable online; therefore, printing the report is recommended.

  17. A long-term forecast of shallow seismicity based on the Global Strain Rate Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, P.; Kreemer, C. W.; Holt, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Global Strain Rate Map (GSRM) of Kreemer et al. [2003] was project II-8 of the International Lithosphere Program; it describes the spatial variations of horizontal strain rate tensor components, rotation rates and velocities for the whole Earth. The model consists of 25 rigid spherical plates and ~25,000 0.6 x 0.5-degree deformable grid areas within the diffuse plate boundary zones. We convert GSRM to a forecast of long-term shallow seismicity by applying the hypotheses and equations of Bird & Liu [2007], known as the Seismic Hazard Inferred From Tectonics (SHIFT) hypotheses: (1) The long-term seismic moment rate of any tectonic fault, or any large volume of permanently-deforming lithosphere, is approximately that computed using the coupled seismogenic thickness of the most comparable type of plate boundary; and (2) The long-term rate of earthquakes generated along any tectonic fault, or within any large volume of permanently-deforming lithosphere, is approximately that computed from its moment rate by using the frequency/magnitude distribution of the most comparable type of plate boundary. We faced 4 difficulties: First, the GSRM strain-rates are largely elastic and thus have smoother map patterns than long-term permanent strain-rates. However, on the scale of global maps and forecasts this is relatively insignificant. Second, GSRM treats plate interiors as rigid. Our solution is to forecast a uniform low seismicity rate in all plate interiors, based on their collective frequency/magnitude distribution. Third, the basic SHIFT hypotheses do not specify how to decide which is the “most comparable type of plate boundary” at each grid point. We use the global map of deformation regimes by Kreemer et al. [2002], and in some cases also use the tectonic style of the local strain-rate tensor. Finally, we found that our uncorrected forecast was underpredicting global shallow seismicity (by a factor of 2) and that this was primarily due to underpredictions of subduction seismicity (by a factor >3). We identified three sources of underprediction in subduction zones; compounding these corrections requires scaling-up the forecast seismicities of all subduction zones by about a factor of 3. We also apply smaller empirical correction factors to each of the other three deformation regimes. This yields an adjusted forecast that is reasonably consistent with the map-pattern and frequency/magnitude graph of the 32-year-old Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog. Specifically, when grid cells are sorted by forecast seismicity, and then cumulative actual earthquakes are plotted against cumulative forecast earthquakes, the relationship is close to linear, with a nondimensional Cramér/von Mises error measure of only 0.032.

  18. Hyperpolarization induces a long-term increase in the spontaneous firing rate of cerebellar Golgi cells.

    PubMed

    Hull, Court A; Chu, YunXiang; Thanawala, Monica; Regehr, Wade G

    2013-04-01

    Golgi cells (GoCs) are inhibitory interneurons that influence the cerebellar cortical response to sensory input by regulating the excitability of the granule cell layer. While GoC inhibition is essential for normal motor coordination, little is known about the circuit dynamics that govern the activity of these cells. In particular, although GoC spontaneous spiking influences the extent of inhibition and gain throughout the granule cell layer, it is not known whether this spontaneous activity can be modulated in a long-term manner. Here we describe a form of long-term plasticity that regulates the spontaneous firing rate of GoCs in the rat cerebellar cortex. We find that membrane hyperpolarization, either by mGluR2 activation of potassium channels, or by somatic current injection, induces a long-lasting increase in GoC spontaneous firing. This spike rate plasticity appears to result from a strong reduction in the spike after hyperpolarization. Pharmacological manipulations suggest the involvement of calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II and calcium-activated potassium channels in mediating these firing rate increases. As a consequence of this plasticity, GoC spontaneous spiking is selectively enhanced, but the gain of evoked spiking is unaffected. Hence, this plasticity is well suited for selectively regulating the tonic output of GoCs rather than their sensory-evoked responses. PMID:23554471

  19. Region-of-Interest Video Compression with a Composite and a Long-Term Frame

    E-print Network

    Cosman, Pamela C.

    and Pamela C. Cosman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of California, San Diego proved successful in increas- ing the performance of motion compensated video coders. Region rates. Applications include rate-constrained coding for (un- manned) aerial vehicles (UAV), lossy

  20. Metamemory ratings predict long-term changes in reactivated episodic memories

    PubMed Central

    Yacoby, Amnon; Dudai, Yadin; Mendelsohn, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of long-term memory can render the memory item temporarily labile, offering an opportunity to modify it via behavioral or pharmacological intervention. Declarative memory reactivation is accompanied by a metamemory ability to subjectively assess the knowledge available concerning the target item (Feeling of knowing, FOK). We set out to examine whether FOK can predict the extent of change of long-term episodic memories by post-retrieval manipulations. To this end, participants watched a short movie and were immediately thereafter tested on their memory for it. A day later, they were reminded of that movie, and either immediately or 1 day later, were presented with a second movie. The reminder phase consisted of memory cues to which participants were asked to judge their FOK regarding the original movie. The memory performance of participants to whom new information was presented immediately after reactivating the original episode corresponded to the degree of FOK ratings upon reactivation such that the lower their FOK, the less their memory declined. In contrast, no relation was found between FOK and memory strength for those who learned new information 1 day after the reminder phase. Our findings suggest that the subjective accessibility of reactivated memories may determine the extent to which new information might modify those memories. PMID:25709571

  1. Fetal electrocardiography: feasibility of long-term fetal heart rate recordings.

    PubMed

    Graatsma, E M; Jacod, B C; van Egmond, L A J; Mulder, E J H; Visser, G H A

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility and accuracy of long-term transabdominal fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) recordings throughout pregnancy were studied using a portable fECG monitor. Fifteen-hour recordings of fetal heart rate (FHR) were performed in 150 pregnant women at 20-40 weeks of gestation and 1-hour recordings were performed in 22 women in labour and compared with simultaneous scalp electrode recordings. When >or=60% of fECG signals was present, the recording was defined as good. Eighty-two percent (123/150) of antenatal recordings were of good quality. This percentage increased to 90.7 (136/150 recordings) when only the night part (11 p.m.-7 a.m.) was considered. Transabdominal measurement of FHR and its variability correlated well with scalp electrode recordings (r=0.99, P<0.01; r=0.79, P<0.01, respectively). We demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of long-term transabdominal fECG monitoring. PMID:19076966

  2. Do erosion rates control the long-term carbon isotope mass balance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields-Zhou, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term marine carbon isotope record responds to changes in the proportional burial rates of organic carbon relative to carbonate carbon on a global scale. For this reason, high ?13C values in marine carbonate rocks are normally interpreted to reflect faster rates of organic burial and increased atmospheric oxygenation. Geochemical redox tracers fail to support this paradigm for sustained deviations from the long-term ?13C mean, indicating perhaps that proportionally high organic burial may be associated with lower overall flux rates. Here I propose that ~107-108 year trends in average ?13C, as with seawater 87Sr/86Sr, are driven by changes in the balance between volcanism and denudation (~uplift). In other words, high proportional organic burial may be related to increases in the net CO2 flux (= organic carbon burial + Ca-Mg silicate weathering) relative to the carbonate weathering flux. According to this model, high baseline ?13C values will be associated with periods of heightened volcanic activity and/or diminished tectonic uplift. Conversely, lower baseline ?13C values can be related to times when the global carbon cycle was dominated by carbonate and oxidative weathering due to high rates of physical erosion. Shorter 105-106 year positive ?13C excursions have also been interpreted as the 'smoking gun' to extreme oxygenation events. However, large increases in organic burial are difficult to sustain under steady-state conditions without very high volcanic fluxes, indicating that some of these excursions might be better explained by transient changes to the isotopic composition of carbon sources and sinks.

  3. Preliminary investigations of Spirulina effect on cancer cells: interest for long-term manned space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baatout, S.; Bekaert, S.; Hendrickx, L.; Derradji, H.; Mergeay, M.

    Background In view of long haul space exploration missions the development of regenerative life support systems is of crucial importance to increase the crew autonomy and decrease the cost associated to the mass embarked Therefore in the late 80 s the European Space Agency initiated the MELiSSA project Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative MELiSSA has been conceived as a micro-organisms and higher plant process enabling high recycling efficiency The cyanobacteria Arthrospira sp is occupying one of the MELiSSA compartments Its genome is now being sequenced and this will help to better understand or improve its food value as well as to have a look at its putative toxic potential Aim In this study we were interested in studying the threshold of intrinsic cytotoxic effects of Spirulina dry extract from Sigma containing washed and lyophilized mixed Arthrospira strains on human cancer cells and its cell type dependency Method For that purpose we used flow cytometry to estimate cell death apoptosis and necrosis in three human leukaemic cell lines HELA cervix carcinoma IM-9 multiple myeloma K562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia Cells were cultured in the presence of an aqueous extract of Spirulina concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 mu g ml for 15 to 40 hours Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by annexin-V-PI staining cell size and granularity Early apoptosis was monitored by analysing the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential DioC 6 3 and the

  4. Long?term Cardiovascular Risks Associated With an Elevated Heart Rate: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jennifer E.; Larson, Martin G.; Ghorbani, Anahita; Cheng, Susan; Coglianese, Erin E.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher heart rate has been associated with an adverse prognosis, but most prior studies focused on individuals with known cardiovascular disease or examined a limited number of outcomes. We sought to examine the association of baseline heart rate with both fatal and nonfatal outcomes during 2 decades of follow?up. Methods and Results Our study included 4058 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 55 years, 56% women). Cox models were performed with multivariable adjustment for clinical risk factors and physical activity. A total of 708 participants developed incident cardiovascular disease (303 heart failure, 343 coronary heart disease, and 216 stroke events), 48 received a permanent pacemaker, and 1186 died. Baseline heart rate was associated with incident cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15 per 1 SD [11 bpm] increase in heart rate, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.24, P=0.0002), particularly heart failure (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.48, P<0.0001). Higher heart rate was also associated with higher all?cause (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.24, P<0.0001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.33, P=0.01). Spline analyses did not suggest a lower threshold beyond which the benefit of a lower heart rate abated or increased. In contrast, individuals with a higher heart rate had a lower risk of requiring permanent pacemaker placement (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.79, P=0.001). Conclusions Individuals with a higher heart rate are at elevated long?term risk for cardiovascular events, in particular, heart failure, and all?cause death. On the other hand, a higher heart rate is associated with a lower risk of future permanent pacemaker implantation. PMID:24811610

  5. Chronic Atrioventricular Nodal Vagal Stimulation First Evidence for Long-Term Ventricular Rate Control in Canine Atrial Fibrillation Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youhua Zhang; Hirotsugu Yamada; Steve Bibevski; Shaowei Zhuang; Kent A. Mowrey; Don W. Wallick; Seil Oh; Todor N. Mazgalev

    2010-01-01

    Background—We have previously demonstrated that selective atrioventricular nodal (AVN) vagal stimulation (AVN-VS) can be used to control ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation (AF) in acute experiments. However, it is not known whether this approach could provide a long-term treatment in conscious animals. Thus, this study reports the first observations on the long-term efficacy and safety of this novel approach to

  6. Daily and Long Term Variations of Out-Door Gamma Dose Rate in Khorasan Province, Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Toossi, M. T. Bahreyni; Bayani, SH. [Environmental dosimetery laboratory, Medical Physics Research Center, Mashad University of Medical Sciences, Mashad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-08-07

    In Iran before 1996, only a few hot spots had been identified, no systematic study had been envisaged. Since then preparation of out-door environmental gamma radiation map of Iran was defined as a long term goal in our center, at the same time simultaneous monitoring of outdoor gamma level in Khorasan was also proposed. A Rados area monitoring system (AAM-90) including 10 intelligent RD-02 detector and all associated components were purchased. From 2003 gradually seven stations have been setup in Khorasan. For all seven stations monthly average and one hour daily average on four time intervals have been computed. Statistically no significant differences have been observed. This is also true for monthly averages. The overall average dose rate for present seven stations varies from 0.11 {mu}Sv{center_dot}h{sup -1} for Ferdows, to 0.04 {mu}Sv{center_dot}h{sup -1} for Dargaz. Based on our data, 50 minutes sample in any time interval is an accurate sample size to estimate out door Gamma dose rate.

  7. Long-term flow rates and biomat zone hydrology in soil columns receiving septic tank effluent.

    PubMed

    Beal, C D; Gardner, E A; Kirchhof, G; Menzies, N W

    2006-07-01

    Soil absorption systems (SAS) are used commonly to treat and disperse septic tank effluent (STE). SAS can hydraulically fail as a result of the low permeable biomat zone that develops on the infiltrative surface. The objectives of this experiment were to compare the hydraulic properties of biomats grown in soils of different textures, to investigate the long-term acceptance rates (LTAR) from prolonged application of STE, and to assess if soils were of major importance in determining LTAR. The STE was applied to repacked sand, Oxisol and Vertisol soil columns over a period of 16 months, at equivalent hydraulic loading rates of 50, 35 and 8L/m(2)/d, respectively. Infiltration rates, soil matric potentials, and biomat hydraulic properties were measured either directly from the soil columns or calculated using established soil physics theory. Biomats 1 to 2 cm thick developed in all soils columns with hydraulic resistances of 27 to 39 d. These biomats reduced a 4 order of magnitude variation in saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) between the soils to a one order of magnitude variation in LTAR. A relationship between biomat resistance and organic loading rate was observed in all soils. Saturated hydraulic conductivity influenced the rate and extent of biomat development. However, once the biomat was established, the LTAR was governed by the resistance of the biomat and the sub-biomat soil unsaturated flow regime induced by the biomat. Results show that whilst initial soil K(s) is likely to be important in the establishment of the biomat zone in a trench, LTAR is determined by the biomat resistance and the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity, not the K(s) of a soil. The results call into question the commonly used approach of basing the LTAR, and ultimately trench length in SAS, on the initial K(s) of soils. PMID:16764900

  8. Ram mating behavior after long-term selection for reproductive rate in Rambouillet ewes.

    PubMed

    Stellflug, J N; Berardinelli, J G

    2002-10-01

    Mating behavior is known to be heritable in several species, but it is not known if selection schemes for ewe reproductive traits affect mating behavior of rams. Therefore, our objectives were to determine if divergent (high vs low index) selection of a female reproductive trait (lambs born divided by age of ewe minus one) affects mating behavior patterns of male offspring during training to service an artificial vagina (AV) in a less than natural setting (Exp. 1) or during serving capacity tests (SCT) in simulated natural mating conditions (Exp. 2). The method for evaluating male mating behavior was a series of serving capacity tests to estimate sexual performance. For Exp. 1, five, 30-min observations were conducted to assess the mating behavior of 29 rams (22 mo old) being trained to service an AV. In Exp. 1, percentages of rams mounting (73 vs 36%) and ejaculating (67 vs 29%) differed (P < 0.05) between rams from high and low Rambouillet ewe selection lines, respectively. In Exp. 2, ram classification consisted of exposing each 22- to 24-mo-old ram (n = 48) to three unrestrained ewes in estrus for 18, 30-min tests. Any ram that had not mounted or ejaculated during SCT was evaluated for sexual orientation in a 30-min preference test in which each ram had access to both restrained estrual ewes and restrained rams. In Exp. 2, there was no difference (P > 0.2) in percentages of rams mounting (92 vs 78%) and ejaculating (88 vs 74%) between rams from high and low Rambouillet ewe selection lines, respectively. There was no difference (P > 0.33) between high and low ewe selection line rams for mounts or ejaculations for 18 SCT. Only one male-oriented ram was identified, which was from the high line. In Exp. 2, six SCT were necessary to obtain 95% reliability in sexual performance scores. Results of these studies indicate that long-term selection of ewes for litter size did not alter ram sexual performance after SCT under simulated natural mating conditions or affect incidence of male-oriented rams. Mating behavior observed during training to service an AV was lower for rams from ewes of the low selection line than for rams from ewes of the high selection line. We concluded that long-term selection for reproductive rate in ewes did not alter mating behavior patterns of male offspring; however, test conditions, such as restrained and unrestrained ewes and number of serving capacity tests, may affect conclusions in studies that evaluate sexual performance of rams. PMID:12413080

  9. Seismicity rates of slow, intermediate, and fast spreading ridges: Insights from long-term hydroacoustic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R. P.; Haxel, J. H.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Goslin, J.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean basin earthquakes recorded on NOAA/OSU and U.S. Navy hydrophone arrays are used to evaluate long-term volcano-tectonic seismicity levels from segments of the fast-spreading rate East Pacific Rise (EPR) from 20° S-20° N, intermediate-spreading rate Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) from 39° -52° N and Galapagos Rift (GR) from 90° -103° W, and the slow-spreading northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) from 5° -60° N. The hydrophones record the acoustic energy of seafloor earthquakes that propagate along the ocean sound channel with little attenuation over large distances. Frequency-magnitude relationships (Bohnenstiehl et al., 2002; Dziak et al., 2004) indicate the hydrophone catalogs are complete in these regions to body-wave magnitude ˜2.5 (EPR and GR), 2.5 (JdFR), and 3.0 (MAR), an improvement of 1.5 to 2 units over the land-based seismic catalogs for mid-ocean ridge systems. Using the hydrophone earthquake catalog, we will compare seismicity rates of the JdFR (12 years of data), to seismicity rates along the GR (6 years) and EPR (6 years) and MAR (4 years of data from 5° -39° N; 16 months from 39° -60° N). During these monitoring periods, five confirmed seafloor spreading events (four of which were associated with magmatic activity) were recorded on discrete JdFR segments, while 6 possible magmatic events were observed on the EPR, one on the GR, and one on the MAR. Empirical orthogonal functions will be used to elucidate the space-time patterns of seismicity and compare between the various spreading rates ridges, as well as to investigate the recurrence rate of seafloor spreading events present. In addition, single-link cluster analysis (SLC; Frolich and Davis, 1990) will be used to de-cluster the earthquake databases to reduce the effects of aftershock sequences and magmatic swarms, allowing us to evaluate how overall plate motion and changes in spreading rate effect levels of seismicity between ridge segments and different ridge systems. Preliminary results indicate the distribution of seismicity at the JdFR "super"-segments (between transforms) are positively skewed, indicating there are significant, yet brief periods of time (1-2 months) when seismic activity is well above the mean. Transforms along the JdFR, however, exhibit a random distribution.

  10. Neotectonic Kinematic Analysis of Philippines Orogen: Regional Strain-Rates and a Forecast of Long-term Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucker, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    The Philippines orogen accommodates oblique convergence of the Sunda and Philippine Sea plates which subduct at bounding trenches to the West and East respectively. Relative benchmark velocities from GPS campaigns, principal stress directions, and geologic slip-rates in the literature do not completely describe deformation in the region. I construct a 2-D finite element grid and use program Neokinema to fit internal observations by a weighted least squares method. The preferred model predicts long-term (104-106yr) neotectonic velocities, fault slip-rates, and long-term anelastic strain-rates (~9.5%/Ma). The preferred model results suggest SU-PS velocity transfer occurs primarily by changing rates of subduction at the Philippine Trench, (rates decrease to the North) and Manilla Trench (rates increase to the North). We also report especially high (30%/Ma) long-term anelastic strain-rates in the Luzon province where unmapped faults, related to active propagation of the Philippine Fault System, contribute to apparent anelastic strain. We further use model velocities and strain rates to compute a spatial forecast of long-term seismicity. Compared to 630 events of ?5.5 in the CMT catalog (1976-2005), our area integral of seismicity predicts 752 earthquakes of ?5.5 in a typical 30-year interval. Largest discrepancies between the CMT catalog and our spatial seismicity forecast occur in Mindanao province along the Siayan-Sindangan Suture Zone where we under-forecast seismicity, possibly due to especially sparse data coverage.

  11. Ductile strain rates measurements reveal continental crust long-term deformation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutonnet, E.; Leloup, P. H.; Sassier, C.; Gardien, V.; Ricard, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Any discussion on the long-term crustal rheology is hindered by our poor knowledge of deformation rates in the deep crust. These rates have only been estimated to be ?10-15 and ?10-13 s-1 in the "stable" and highly deforming zones respectively, and measured in a few peculiar cases. Because quartz ribbons are ubiquitous in continental shear zones, the quartz-strain-rate-metry (QRS) method, based on experimentally calibrated quartz piezometers and ductile flow laws, could provide deformation rates measurements in many geological contexts. However, the results are highly sensitive on the deformation temperature that is difficult to measure. Furthermore, results vary by three orders of magnitude depending on the chosen piezometer and rheological law. If recent technical progress allow measuring more precisely the deformation temperature, it is still not clear what is the most accurate piezometer - rheological law association. We solved that dilemma by comparing strain rates measured by the QRS method with a reference one measured with another method on the same outcrop of the Ailao Shan - Red River (ASRR) shear zone. At site C1, by combining dating of syntectonic dykes and measurements of their deformation, the strain rate is calculated between 3 and 4 x10-14 s-1 between 29 to 22 Ma, (Sassier et al., JGR, 2009). Quartz ribbons sampled in site C1 show large grains recrystallized by grain boundary migration (GBM), themselves recrystallized at lower temperature by sub-grain rotation (SGR). The mean recrystallized quartz grain size for the SGR event range between 74.0 and 79.3 ?m. The associated stresses, measured with Shimizu (JSG, 2008) piezometer, range between 35.2 and 38.1 MPa. Conditions of deformation of P? 1.5 kbar and T? 430°C were inferred by combining several thermobarometers on quartz, such as TitaniQ, fluid inclusions microthermometry and crystallographic fabrics. The calculated strain rate with five flow laws and three piezometers range between 3.5 x10-18 and 4.3 x10-13 s-1. Strain rates of natural quartz ribbons deformation under mid-crustal conditions appear better approximated by the QRS method if using Hirth (J. Earth Sciences, 2001) power flow law and the Shimizu piezometer. Most other combinations underestimate the strain rate. Applying the QRS method to major continental shear zones, we can quantify across-strike local strain rate variations and document where deformation localizes. For example, nine quartz ribbons sampled across the ASRR shear zone provided strain rates progressively increasing from the south-western border to the north-eastern border, from 2.5 x10-15 to 1.34 x10-12 s-1. The north-eastern border of the ASRR shear zone has been interpreted as the paleo-center of the shear zone, exhumed in the footwall of the active normal Red River fault. We conclude that strain localized at the paleo-center of the shear zone, as inferred by most of numerical models of shear zones deformation. Summation of the local strain rates yield global strain rates compatible with the fault rate deduced from geological constraints. This opens the way to extensive strain rate measurements, quantification of deformation localization and direct comparison with numerical models for continental lithosphere rheology and strain localisation.

  12. Biological effects of long-term exposure to low dose-rate radiation -- Comparisons of WAM model and LQ model

    E-print Network

    Wada, Takahiro; Nakamura, Issei; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Bando, Masako

    2015-01-01

    Newly proposed Whack-A-Mole (WAM) model which is to be used to estimate the biological effects of artificial radiations is compared with conventionally used Linear-Quadratic model. Basic properties of WAM model are discussed emphasizing on the dose-rate dependence. By adopting the parameters that are determined to fit the mega mouse experiments, biological effects of long-term exposure to extremely low dose-rate radiation are discussed. In WAM model, the effects of the long-term exposure show a saturation property, which makes a clear distinction from the LNT hypothesis which predicts a linear increase of the effects with time.

  13. Timing and rates of long-term landscape evolution in Southern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollenz, S.; Glasmacher, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. North of the Sierras Septentrionales the Salado basin is located. The Sierras Septentrionales and the Sierras Australes are also divided by a smaller intracratonic basin. Further in the South the Colorado basin is located. The Sierras Australes is a variscian fold belt originated by strong phases of metamorphosis, but till now it is unclear by how many tectonic phases the area was influenced (Tomezzoli & Vilas, 1999). It consists of Proterozoic to Paleozoic rocks. The Sierras Septentrionales consists mainly of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The Precambrian sequences are overlain by younger Sediments (Cingolani, 2010). The aim is to understand the long-term landscape evolution of the area by quantifiying erosion- and exhumation-rates and by dating ancient rock-uplift-events. Another goal is to find out how the opening of the south atlantic took effect on this region. To fulfill this goal, thermochronological techniques, such as fission-track dating and (U-Th-Sm)/He dating has been applied to samples from the region. Because there was no low- temperature thermochronology done in this area, both techniques were applied on apatites and zircons. Furthermore, numerical modeling of the cooling history has provided the data base for the quantification of the exhumation rates. The data-set shows clusters of different ages which can be linked to tectonic activities during late Paleozoic times. Also the thermokinematic modeling is leading to new insights of the evolution of both mountain ranges and shows patterns of ongoing tectonic processes in this region. Caltculated exhumation rates show also varying cooling historys and the influence of tectonics throughout the research area. References: Renata Nela Tomezzoli and Juan Francisco Vilas (1999): Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of deformation of the Sierras Australes thrust and fold belt, Argentina. Geophys. J. Int. (1999) 138, 857-870 Carlos A. Cingolani (2010): The Tandilia System of Argentina as a southern extension of the Rio de la Plata craton: an overview, Int. J. Earth. Sci. (Geol. Rundsch.) (2011) 100, 221-242

  14. Electronic Medical Record and Quality Ratings of Long Term Care Facilities Long-Term Care Facility Characteristics and Reasons and Barriers for Adoption of Electronic Medical Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Cheryl Andrea

    2013-01-01

    With the growing elderly population, compounded by the retirement of the babyboomers, the need for long-term care (LTC) facilities is expected to grow. An area of great concern for those that are seeking a home for their family member is the quality of care provided by the nursing home to the residents. Electronic medical records (EMR) are often…

  15. Money and interest rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyril Monnet; Warren E. Weber

    2001-01-01

    This study describes and reconciles two common, seemingly contradictory views about a key monetary policy relationship: that between money and interest rates. Data since 1960 for about 40 countries support the Fisher equation view, that these variables are positively related. But studies taking expectations into account support the liquidity effect view, that they are negatively related. A simple model incorporates

  16. Simulating long-term effects of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on corn yield and nitrogen dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thoroughly tested agricultural systems models can be used to quantify the long-term effects of crop management practices under conditions where measurements are lacking. In a field near Story City, Iowa, ten years (1996-2005) of measured data were collected from plots receiving low, medium, and high...

  17. Higher long-term cancer survival rates in southeastern Netherlands using up-to-date period analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Houterman; M. L. G. Janssen-Heijnen; L. V. van de Poll-Franse; H. Brenner; J. W. W. Coebergh

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim was to compare long-term survival rates for different types of cancer estimated by means of up to date period analysis with those from more traditional cohort analysis. Patients and methods: Data from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry were used. In total 140 137 newly diagnosed patients diagnosed between 1980 and 2002 and followed until 1 January 2005 were

  18. Depth-Mediated Reversal of the Effects of Climate Change on Long-Term Growth Rates of Exploited Marine Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald E. Thresher; J. A. Koslow; A. K. Morison; D. C. Smith

    2007-01-01

    The oceanographic consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, but the biological impacts of this change on marine species much less so, in large part because of few long-term data sets. Using otolith analysis, we reconstructed historical changes in annual growth rates for the juveniles of eight long-lived fish species in the southwest Pacific, from as early as 1861.

  19. [Variation characteristics of maize yield and fertilizer utilization rate on an upland yellow soil under long term fertilization].

    PubMed

    Luo, Long-Zao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wen-An; Xiao, Hou-Jun; Jiang, Tai-Ming

    2013-10-01

    An analysis was made on the 16-year experimental data from the long term fertilization, experiment of maize on a yellow soil in Guizhou of Southwest China. Four treatments, i. e. , no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (165 kg N x hm(-2), 82.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2), and 82.5 kg K2O x hm(-2), NPK), organic manure (30555 kg x hm(-2), M), and combined applicatioin of chemical fertilizers and organic manure (NPKM), were selected to analyze the variation trends of maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency on yellow soil under effects of different long term fertilization modes, aimed to provide references for evaluating and establishing long term fertilization mode and promote the sustainable development of crop production. Overall, the maize yield under long term fertilization had an increasing trend, with a large annual variation. Treatment NPKM had the best yield-increasing effect, with the maize yield increased by 4075.71 kg x hm(-2) and the increment being up to 139.2%. Long term fertilization increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of maize. In treatment M, the nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates were increased significantly by 35.4% and 18.8%, respectively. Treatment NPK had obvious effect in improving potassium utilization rate, with an increment of 20% and being far higher than that in treatments M (8.7%) and NPKM (9.2%). The results showed that long term fertilization, especially the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, was of great importance in increasing crop yield and fertilizer use efficiency. PMID:24483072

  20. A comparison of recent, short-, and long-term carbon accumulation rates for a vegetation gradient in central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manies, K.; Harden, J. W.; Turetsky, M.; Fuller, C.

    2013-12-01

    Information regarding historical rates of carbon (C) accumulation will aid scientists in understanding how climate change may affect biogeochemical cycles in the future. We examined rates of C accumulation for the following three time periods: the last two thousand years (long-term rates), the last 30 years (short-term rates), and the last several years (recent rates). We compared C accumulation rates among these time periods for five different ecosystems found along a ~300-m transect within the Bonanza Creek Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) site. These sites were dominated by black spruce, low shrubs, tussock grass, Carex sp., or brown moss. The black spruce and shrub site are the only ecosystems currently underlain by permafrost. Three soil cores were taken at each site and analyzed for C content. In order to gain a robust understanding of C accumulation rates at each site, 14C measurements and 210Pb chronologies were also obtained, and flux measurements were taken at each site. 14C dates were acquired for the basal horizon of one profile for each ecosystem type, providing estimations of C accumulation rates since organic matter began to form. 210Pb chronologies for each soil profile allowed us to estimate C accumulation rates for the last several decades. Finally, CO2 flux measurements were taken at each site from May - September for five years (2007 - 2011), capturing recent C losses and gains. Although short-term C accumulation rates were lowest in the black spruce ecosystem, rates among ecosystems were not significantly different, due to large variability among soil profiles within each site (coefficient of variations of up to 50%). The long-term C accumulation rate at the black spruce site corresponds well to values measured in an adjacent black spruce forest using eddy covariance. The brown moss site had the highest long-term rates of C accumulation among the five ecosystems. Short-term C accumulation rates were always higher than long-term rates (40-100 gC/m2/yr and 3-30 gC/m2/yr, respectively). This information provides insights into the fate of C over different time scales for ecosystems which comprise important parts the boreal forest.

  1. Factors Associated With Nursing Assistant Quality-of-Life Ratings for Residents With Dementia in Long-Term Care Facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary S. Winzelberg; Christianna S. Williams; John S. Preisser; Sheryl Zimmerman; Philip D. Sloane

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We identify resident, nursing assistant, and facility factors associated with nursing assistant quality-of-life ratings for residents with dementia in long-term care. Design and Methods: We used a cross-sectional survey of 143 nursing assistants providing care to 335 residents in 38 residential care\\/assisted living (RC\\/AL) facilities and nursing homes in four states. We assessed resident quality of life by using

  2. Impact of road traffic injuries on disability rates and long-term care costs in Spain.

    PubMed

    Alemany, Ramon; Ayuso, Mercedes; Guillén, Montserrat

    2013-11-01

    Road traffic injuries are one of the leading causes of increasing disability-adjusted life expectancy. We analyze long-term care needs associated with motor vehicle crash-related disability in Spain and conclude that needs attributable traffic injuries are most prevalent during victims' mid-life years, they create a significant burden for both families and society as a whole given that public welfare programmes supporting these victims need to be maintained over a long time frame. High socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents (in Spain 0.04% of the GDP in 2008) are clearly indicative of the need for governments and policymakers to strengthen road accident preventive measures. PMID:24036315

  3. Accelerated forgetting? An evaluation on the use of long-term forgetting rates in patients with memory problems

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Sofie; van der Werf, Sieberen P.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of this review was to evaluate whether long-term forgetting rates (delayed tests, days, to weeks, after initial learning) are more sensitive measures than standard delayed recall measures to detect memory problems in various patient groups. It has been suggested that accelerated forgetting might be characteristic for epilepsy patients, but little research has been performed in other populations. Here, we identified eleven studies in a wide range of brain injured patient groups, whose long-term forgetting patterns were compared to those of healthy controls. Signs of accelerated forgetting were found in three studies. The results of eight studies showed normal forgetting over time for the patient groups. However, most of the studies used only a recognition procedure, after optimizing initial learning. Based on these results, we recommend the use of a combined recall and recognition procedure to examine accelerated forgetting and we discuss the relevance of standard and optimized learning procedures in clinical practice.

  4. Incorporating elastic and plastic work rates into energy balance for long-term tectonic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, M. S.; Choi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation-related energy budget is usually considered in the simplest form or even completely omitted from the energy balance equation. We derive an energy balance equation that accounts not only for heat energy but also for elastic and plastic work. Such a general description of the energy balance principle will be useful for modeling complicated interactions between geodynamic processes such as thermoelastisity, thermoplasticity and mechanical consequences of metamorphism. Following the theory of large deformation plasticity, we start from the assumption that Gibbs free energy (g) is a function of temperature (T), the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress (S), density (?) and internal variables (qj, j=1…n). In this formulation, new terms are derived, which are related to the energy dissipated through plastic work and the elastically stored energy that are not seen in the usual form of the energy balance equation used in geodynamics. We then simplify the generic equation to one involving more familiar quantities such as Cauchy stress and material density assuming that the small deformation formulation holds for our applications. The simplified evolution equation for temperature is implemented in DyanEarthSol3D, an unstructured finite element solver for long-term tectonic deformation. We calculate each of the newly derived terms separately in simple settings and compare the numerical results with a corresponding analytic solution. We also present the effects of the new energy balance on the evolution of a large offset normal fault.

  5. Depth-mediated reversal of the effects of climate change on long-term growth rates of exploited marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Thresher, Ronald E.; Koslow, J. A.; Morison, A. K.; Smith, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    The oceanographic consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, but the biological impacts of this change on marine species much less so, in large part because of few long-term data sets. Using otolith analysis, we reconstructed historical changes in annual growth rates for the juveniles of eight long-lived fish species in the southwest Pacific, from as early as 1861. Six of the eight species show significant changes in growth rates during the last century, with the pattern differing systematically with depth. Increasing temperatures near the ocean surface correlate with increasing growth rates by species found in depths <250 m, whereas growth rates of deep-water (>1,000 m) species have declined substantially during the last century, which correlates with evidence of long-term cooling at these depths. The observations suggest that global climate change has enhanced some elements of productivity of the shallow-water stocks but also has reduced the productivity, and possibly the resilience, of the already slow-growing deep-water species. PMID:17460046

  6. Depth-mediated reversal of the effects of climate change on long-term growth rates of exploited marine fish.

    PubMed

    Thresher, Ronald E; Koslow, J A; Morison, A K; Smith, D C

    2007-05-01

    The oceanographic consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, but the biological impacts of this change on marine species much less so, in large part because of few long-term data sets. Using otolith analysis, we reconstructed historical changes in annual growth rates for the juveniles of eight long-lived fish species in the southwest Pacific, from as early as 1861. Six of the eight species show significant changes in growth rates during the last century, with the pattern differing systematically with depth. Increasing temperatures near the ocean surface correlate with increasing growth rates by species found in depths <250 m, whereas growth rates of deep-water (>1,000 m) species have declined substantially during the last century, which correlates with evidence of long-term cooling at these depths. The observations suggest that global climate change has enhanced some elements of productivity of the shallow-water stocks but also has reduced the productivity, and possibly the resilience, of the already slow-growing deep-water species. PMID:17460046

  7. Improving Nursing Assistant Turnover and Stability Rates in a Long-term Care Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin E. Remsburg; Karen A. Armacost; Richard G. Bennett

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, we developed formulas to calculate nursing assistant turnover and stability rates, identified reasons for termination and facility-specific strategies to reduce turnover, and evaluated the effectiveness of implemented strategies. Although turnover remained relatively unchanged (23% in year 1, 28% in year 2), the stability rate remained high (76% in year 1, 75% in year 2). Tracking turnover

  8. Long-term stability of global erosion rates and weathering during late-Cenozoic cooling.

    PubMed

    Willenbring, Jane K; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2010-05-13

    Over geologic timescales, CO(2) is emitted from the Earth's interior and is removed from the atmosphere by silicate rock weathering and organic carbon burial. This balance is thought to have stabilized greenhouse conditions within a range that ensured habitable conditions. Changes in this balance have been attributed to changes in topographic relief, where varying rates of continental rock weathering and erosion are superimposed on fluctuations in organic carbon burial. Geological strata provide an indirect yet imperfectly preserved record of this change through changing rates of sedimentation. Widespread observations of a recent (0-5-Myr) fourfold increase in global sedimentation rates require a global mechanism to explain them. Accelerated uplift and global cooling have been given as possible causes, but because of the links between rates of erosion and the correlated rate of weathering, an increase in the drawdown of CO(2) that is predicted to follow may be the cause of global climate change instead. However, globally, rates of uplift cannot increase everywhere in the way that apparent sedimentation rates do. Moreover, proxy records of past atmospheric CO(2) provide no evidence for this large reduction in recent CO(2) concentrations. Here we question whether this increase in global weathering and erosion actually occurred and whether the apparent increase in the sedimentation rate is due to observational biases in the sedimentary record. As evidence, we recast the ocean dissolved (10)Be/(9)Be isotope system as a weathering proxy spanning the past approximately 12 Myr (ref. 14). This proxy indicates stable weathering fluxes during the late-Cenozoic era. The sum of these observations shows neither clear evidence for increased erosion nor clear evidence for a pulse in weathered material to the ocean. We conclude that processes different from an increase in denudation caused Cenozoic global cooling, and that global cooling had no profound effect on spatially and temporally averaged weathering rates. PMID:20463736

  9. Long-Term Data Reveal Rate and Risk Factors for Subsequent Surgeries Following Initial ACL Reconstruction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Risk Factors for Subsequent Surgeries Following Initial ACL Reconstruction Nearly one-fifth of patients who undergo knee ... several years after the patients underwent initial ACL reconstruction. They wanted to determine the rate at which ...

  10. Long-term starvation and subsequent reactivation of a high-rate partial nitrification activated sludge pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Torà, Josep A; Lafuente, Javier; Baeza, Juan A; Carrera, Julián

    2011-11-01

    The starvation process of a high-rate partial nitrification system during 30 days and its controlled recovery were studied in an activated sludge pilot plant. Four ammonium-starved reactors under anoxic, aerobic and two different alternating aerobic/anoxic conditions were evaluated. The highest and the lowest decay rates of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were obtained under full aerobic (0.24 d(-1)) and full anoxic (0.11 d(-1)) conditions, respectively. The evolution of biomass activity correlated well with the AOB quantification using FISH technique. AOB fractions lower than 1% were measured in the four reactors after 23 days of starvation. The recovery of the system was achieved in only 5 days using a nitrogen loading rate (NLR) control loop, obtaining the same conditions than before the long-term starvation period with a NLR of 1.2 g N L(-1)d(-1) and 98% of nitrite accumulation in the effluent. PMID:21890345

  11. Bluff formation and long-term recession rates, southwestern Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Rovey, C.W. II (Southwest Missouri State Univ., Springfield, MO (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Where eroding cohesive sediments are present, Lake Michigan bluffs range up to 140 ft. in height and expose multiple stratigraphic units. According to the model presented here, bluffs form as a wave cut terrace erodes inland from a point near the original shoreline. The erosion plane is nearly horizontal, in contrast with the eastward dip of the glacial units inherited from underlying bedrock. Therefore, terraces eroding inland (west) produce progressively higher bluffs and expose successively older units at the toe and beneath the lake. This process repeated several times as lake levels sequentially dropped to their modern stage. The initial modern shoreline, and hence the width of the wave cut terrace, was determined from 4 offshore seismic profiles. It is picked as an inflection point in the slope of the lake bed, occurring offshore of dipping reflectors intersecting the lake bottom. The calculated average recession rate over the 2,500 year duration of the modern stage is 5 ft/yr in contrast to average rates of 2 ft/yr measured over the last century. Thus rates decrease through time as the terrace widens and wave energy is damped. By correlating bluff height to amount of recession of modern bluffs, a third rate of 12 ft/yr of the first 800 years of a recession is calculated for relict bluffs formed at the Nipissing II level. The 3 rates define a steeply decaying exponential curve in early stages of bluff retreat, flattening into a nearly linear function after 1,000 years.

  12. Bluff evolution and long-term recession rates, southwestern Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovey, C. W.; Borucki, M. K.

    1994-06-01

    Where eroding cohesive sediments are present, Lake Michigan bluffs range up to 40 m in height, exposing multiple glacial stratigraphic units. Following the model presented here, bluffs form as a wave-cut terrace erodes inland from a point near the original shoreline. The erosion plane is nearly horizontal, in contrast with the eastward dip of the glacial units inherited from underlying bedrock. Therefore, terraces eroding inland produce progressively higher bluffs and expose successively older units at the toe and beneath the lake. This process was repeated several times as lake levels sequentially dropped to their modern stage. The initial modern shoreline, and hence the width of the wave-cut terrace, was determined from four offshore seismic and bottom-sampling profiles. It was picked as an inflection point in the lake bed, occurring offshore of dipping reflectors intersecting the lake bottom. The calculated average recession rate over a 2500-year duration of the modern stage is 1.5 m/yr in contrast to average rates of approximately 0.6 m/yr measured over the last century. Thus rates decrease through time as the terrace widens and wave energy is dampened. By correlating bluff height to recession distance, a third rate of approximately 2.7 m/yr for the first 940 years of recession is calculated from relict Nipissing bluffs. The three rates define a steeply decaying exponential curve in early stages of bluff retreat, flattening into a nearly linear function after 1000 years.

  13. Analysis of long term heart rate variability: methods, 1/f scaling and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saul, J. P.; Albrecht, P.; Berger, R. D.; Cohen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of spectral techniques to quantify short term heart rate fluctuations on the order of seconds to minutes has helped define the autonomic contributions to beat-to-beat control of heart rate. We used similar techniques to quantify the entire spectrum (0.00003-1.0 Hz) of heart rate variability during 24 hour ambulatory ECG monitoring. The ECG from standard Holter monitor recordings from normal subjects was sampled with the use of a phase locked loop, and a heart rate time series was constructed at 3 Hz. Frequency analysis of the heart rate signal was performed after a nonlinear filtering algorithm was used to eliminate artifacts. A power spectrum of the entire 24 hour record revealed power that was inversely proportional to frequency, 1/f, over 4 decades from 0.00003 to 0.1 Hz (period approximately 10 hours to 10 seconds). Displaying consecutive spectra calculated at 5 minute intervals revealed marked variability in the peaks at all frequencies throughout the 24 hours, probably accounting for the lack of distinct peaks in the spectra of the entire records.

  14. Long-term evolution of biodegradation and volatilization rates in a crude oil-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, B.P.; Delin, G.N.; Baker, R.J.; Lahvis, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Rates of biodegradation and volatilization were documented twice 12 yr apart at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji. Minnesota. Model results indicated that the coupled pathway has resulted in significant hydrocarbon mass loss at the site, and it was estimated that ??? 10.52 kg/day were lost in 1985 and 1.99 kg/day in 1997. In 1985, 3% of total volatile hydrocarbons diffusing from the floating oil were biodegraded in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone and increased to 52% by 1997. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation above the center of the floating oil were relatively stable from 1985 to 1997, as the primary metabolic pathway shifted from aerobic to methanogenic biodegradation. Model results indicate that in 1997 biodegradation under methanogenic conditions represented ??? 50% of total hydrocarbon biodegradation in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone. Further downgradient, where substrate concentrations have greatly increased, total biodegradation rates increased by greater than an order of magnitude from 0.04 to 0.43 g/sq m-day.

  15. The Effect of Long-Term Marsh Management on Land-Loss Rates in Coastal Louisiana

    PubMed

    BOYER

    1997-01-01

    / Louisiana's coastal wetlands have been actively and passively managed since the 1950s to reduce land loss, change plant composition, control water levels, and determine property boundaries, among other reasons. Marsh management is the primary technique that has been used in Louisiana to try to slow or halt dramatic wetland losses (0.8%/yr from 1955 to 1978, or 288,000 ha). Because of the large amount of Louisiana's coastal wetlands under management and the high cost associated with marsh management, it is important to determine if those efforts have been successful. The purpose of this study was to determine if land-loss rates were changed as a result of marsh management. This study used data from a previous study and additional new data. Data for 13 paired managed and unmanaged sites (total area = 22 x 10(3) ha) studied previously were obtained, expanded, and tested statistically to provide empirically valid conclusions over a longer management period than previously available (1-32 years compared to 6-37 years). There was no statistically significant difference between managed and nearby reference sites. The effects of changes in the regional environment appear to have had much greater influence on the land-loss rates than did management at individual sites.KEY WORDS: Marsh management; Land loss; Louisiana; Weirs; Levees; Spoil banks PMID:8939789

  16. Groundwater Recharge in Juniper Woodlands: Insights from Long-Term Monitoring of Cave Drip Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, B. P.; Sun, Z.; Munster, C.; Owens, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Edwards Plateau in Central Texas covers some 230,000 square kilometers. It is underlain by limestone and dolomite, and these karst parent materials give the region its distinct hydrologic character. Although the climate is semiarid, springs are abundant and support many perennial rivers. In particular, the Edwards Plateau is the source area for the prolific and regionally important Edwards Aquifer, the main water source for much of central Texas. Compared with other semiarid regions, the Edwards Plateau has abundant water resources; but an expanding population is now taxing those resources, and ways are being sought to increase groundwater recharge. Over the past 150 years, the expansion of juniper and oak have turned the Plateau into a shrub-dominated semiarid rangeland-a legacy of the historical overgrazing that took place from around 1880 to 1950. Many believe that reducing this woodland cover would lead to higher groundwater recharge. We undertook our study to try to understand the influence of juniper on groundwater recharge. For six years, we monitored drip rates in caves underlying juniper forests (these rates are surrogate measurements for groundwater recharge). After four years of monitoring, we removed the juniper from the study site and continued monitoring. Surprisingly, our results indicate that removing the trees had a negative effect on recharge. Several mechanisms may contribute to the reduction in recharge: for example, surface runoff increased following removal of the trees; and it is possible that the trees assist recharge by funneling water to their roots, hastening its movement through the substrate.

  17. Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate (HoLEP): Long-Term Results, Reoperation Rate, and Possible Impact of the Learning Curve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ehab A. Elzayat; Mostafa M. Elhilali

    2007-01-01

    ObjectivesTo evaluate long-term outcomes and reoperation rate of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) for patients with symptomatic enlarged prostate, including patients who were operated during the learning curve.

  18. Effect of the Presence of Long Term Correlated Common Source Fluctuations to the Heart Rate Feedback Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, S.; Yana, K.; Mizuta, H.; Ono, T.

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the presence of long term correlated common driving forces to the bivariate autoregressive (BAR) analysis for the closed loop characterization of heart rate fluctuations (HRF) and systolic blood pressure change (SBP). It has been shown that the estimation accuracy decreases as common noise power and Hurst parameter value increases. However, the accuracy is acceptable even with relatively high common driving force power at 50% and with high Hurst parameter values at 0.95. The relative mean squared error in the impulse response estimation is shown to be 12% in that ill condition. As an illustrative example of the bivariate fluctuation analysis, the change in impulse responses between HRF and SBP due to the water intake has been examined.

  19. Long-term Trends and Confidence in Global Natural Gas Fugitive Emissions Rates Based on ?13C-CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwietzke, S.; Sherwood, O.; Tans, P. P.; Michel, S. E.; Miller, J. B.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Griffin, W. M.; Bruhwiler, L.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous life cycle assessment (LCA) and field studies have estimated natural gas (NG) fugitive emissions rates (FER) - the fraction of produced NG, mostly CH4, emitted to the atmosphere, unintentionally or by design, during extraction, processing, transport, and distribution - at local, regional, and national scales. In a recent study, we estimated for the first time the global mean FER using long-term (three decades) atmospheric CH4, ?13C-CH4, and C2H6 measurements from global monitoring networks. As a further development, this work investigates the global mean FER uncertainty range (factor of 2) in more detail to increase confidence in the results. The objectives of this research are to (i) estimate probability distribution functions (PDF) of global mean FER, and (ii) identify long-term trends in global fossil fuel (FF) and other CH4 sources. In order to achieve these objectives, global atmospheric ?13C-CH4 measurements since the mid-1980s are analyzed using a box-model of the global CH4 sources and sinks. First, we derive PDFs of the key model parameters including literature isotopic source signatures, atmospheric lifetimes, natural and anthropogenic emissions, and FF hydrocarbon gas composition. Second, a Monte Carlo simulation of the box-model is performed to quantify FER confidence intervals. While our model attributes the majority of increased CH4 levels over the past three decades to microbial sources, FF sources have also increased slightly. However, FER - an indicator of NG life cycle efficiency - has decreased over the same period given the large NG production increase worldwide. Results are most sensitive to global average microbial isotopic signatures (weighted by source strength) and bottom-up estimates of biomass burning emissions, which will be discussed in more detail.

  20. Fed to Raise Interest Rates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Missner, Emily D.

    As expected, the Federal Reserve voted to raise interest rates 0.25 percent, the fifth rate raise since June. The interest rate boost is expected to help keep inflation in check during this record period (108 months) of economic expansion. Technology companies have continued to signal healthy economic growth, and unemployment rates remain low. Despite drastic price hikes in gasoline and heating oil prices, consumers are still spending. This worries economists who watched consumers pay little heed to the last four interest rate increases. The quarter point interest rate increase will average out to an extra $1 a month on consumers's credit cards, which in this period of prosperity, will not curb consumers's spending.

  1. Observations of historical sea cliff retreat rates exceed long-term estimates derived from cosmogenic 10Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Martin D.; Rood, Dylan H.; Ellis, Michael A.; Anderson, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Historical observation of coastal retreat are limited to relatively short timescales (< 150 years), during which time humans may have modified the coastal environment. There is growing concern that rates of coastal change may be accelerated in the face of anticipated stormier climates and rising sea level, yet there is little knowledge of rates of coastal change prior to the relatively brief historical records. In order to make predictions about potential future coastal change it is important to establish baseline conditions averaged over longer time periods. Here we present analysis of sea cliff retreat throughout the Holocene averaged for chalk cliffs in south-east England using cosmogenic isotopes. We determine long-term rates of sea cliff erosion from 10Be measured from in-situ flint samples collected from three transects across coastal platforms in East Sussex. A numerical model of 10Be accumulation on an evolving coastal profile allows estimation of cliff retreat rate during the Holocene. The model accounts for variation in 10Be accumulation with tides and sea-level rise, and takes into account platform downwear and topographic shielding by adjacent cliffs. We find that cliff retreat rates during the Holocene were significantly slower (2-6 cm yr-1) than those derived from recent historical observations (15-25 cm yr-1). Modelled accumulation of 10Be requires retreat rates that increase rapidly in recent times, potentially reflecting human modification of the coastal sediment budget through construction of sea defences, flood defenses and aggregate extraction. Therefore knowledge of past human activity at the coastline may be important in anticipating future rates of coastal retreat.

  2. Forced Migration and Mortality in the Very Long Term: Did Perestroika Affect Death Rates Also in Finland?

    PubMed Central

    SAARELA, JAN; FINNÄS, FJALAR

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we analyze mortality rates of Finns born in areas that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II and from which the entire population was evacuated. These internally displaced persons are observed during the period 1971–2004 and compared with people born in the same region but on the adjacent side of the new border. We find that in the 1970s and 1980s, the forced migrants had mortality rates that were on par with those of people in the comparison group. In the late 1980s, the mortality risk of internally displaced men increased by 20% in relation to the expected time trend. This deviation, which manifests particularly in cardiovascular mortality, coincides with perestroika and the demise of the Soviet Union, which were events that resulted in an intense debate in civil society about restitution of the ceded areas. Because state actors were reluctant to engage, the debate declined after some few years, and after the mid-1990s, the death risk again approached the long-term trend. Our findings indicate that when internally displaced persons must adjust to situations for which appropriate coping behaviors are unknown, psychosocial stress might arise several decades after their evacuation. PMID:19771945

  3. Regression Method for Estimating Long-Term Mean Annual Ground-Water Recharge Rates from Base Flow in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.; Thompson, Ronald E.; Stuckey, Marla H.

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for making estimates of long-term, mean annual ground-water recharge from streamflow data at 80 streamflow-gaging stations in Pennsylvania. The method relates mean annual base-flow yield derived from the streamflow data (as a proxy for recharge) to the climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and physiographic characteristics of the basins (basin characteristics) by use of a regression equation. Base-flow yield is the base flow of a stream divided by the drainage area of the basin, expressed in inches of water basinwide. Mean annual base-flow yield was computed for the period of available streamflow record at continuous streamflow-gaging stations by use of the computer program PART, which separates base flow from direct runoff on the streamflow hydrograph. Base flow provides a reasonable estimate of recharge for basins where streamflow is mostly unaffected by upstream regulation, diversion, or mining. Twenty-eight basin characteristics were included in the exploratory regression analysis as possible predictors of base-flow yield. Basin characteristics found to be statistically significant predictors of mean annual base-flow yield during 1971-2000 at the 95-percent confidence level were (1) mean annual precipitation, (2) average maximum daily temperature, (3) percentage of sand in the soil, (4) percentage of carbonate bedrock in the basin, and (5) stream channel slope. The equation for predicting recharge was developed using ordinary least-squares regression. The standard error of prediction for the equation on log-transformed data was 9.7 percent, and the coefficient of determination was 0.80. The equation can be used to predict long-term, mean annual recharge rates for ungaged basins, providing that the explanatory basin characteristics can be determined and that the underlying assumption is accepted that base-flow yield derived from PART is a reasonable estimate of ground-water recharge rates. For example, application of the equation for 370 hydrologic units in Pennsylvania predicted a range of ground-water recharge from about 6.0 to 22 inches per year. A map of the predicted recharge illustrates the general magnitude and variability of recharge throughout Pennsylvania.

  4. Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-07-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

  5. Estimated soil respiration rates decreased with long-term soil microclimate changes in successional forests in southern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuhui; Zhou, Guoyi; Tang, Xuli; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhang, Qianmei

    2011-12-01

    The response of soil respiration to short-term environmental factors changes has been well studied, whereas the influences of long-term soil microclimate changes on soil respiration are still highly unclear, especially in tropical ecosystems. We hypothesized that soil carbon accumulation in southern China, especially in mature forest during recent years, partly resulted from reducing soil respiration rates. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the temporal trends and variations of air temperature, soil temperature and soil water content (hereafter referred to as SWC), and then estimated soil respiration rates in the 1980s and 2000s with soil temperature and SWC by regression model in three subtropical forests which are at early-, mid-, and advanced-successional stages, respectively, in Dinghushan Nature Reserve (hereafter referred to as DNR) in southern China. The annual mean ambient air temperature increased by 1.03 ± 0.15°C in the last 50 years (1954-2007) in DNR. Rainfall amount in the corresponding period did not change significantly, but rainfall pattern changed remarkably in the last three decades (1978-2007). Soil temperature is correlated with ambient air temperature. The average SWC was 36.8 ± 8.4%, 34.7 ± 8.1% and 29.6 ± 8.1% in the 1980s, and then dropped sharply to 23.6 ± 2.9%, 20.5 ± 4.2% and 17.6 ± 3.9% in the 2000s, for the advanced, mid- and early-successional forests, respectively. Concurrent changes of soil temperature and SWC may have a negative effect on soil respiration rates for all three forests, implicated that soil respiration may have a negative feedback to regional climate change and carbon could be sequestered in subtropical forests in southern China. PMID:21983997

  6. Dynamic relationship between interest rate and inflation: the case of Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seungryul Ma

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of the 1997 economic crisis on the dynamic relationship between the interest rate and inflation rate in Korea using the cointegration test and the spectral analysis method. The findings show that, at some point in 1997, the direction of long-term lead-lag movement between the interest rate and the inflation rate time series reversed, that is

  7. Long-Term Nutrient Accumulation Rates in the Everglades K. R. Reddy,* R. D. DeLaune, W. F. DeBusk, and M. S. Koch

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    the vertical peat accretion rates, as determined by l37 Cs dating, and nutrient concentration profiles. IntactLong-Term Nutrient Accumulation Rates in the Everglades K. R. Reddy,* R. D. DeLaune, W. F. DeBusk, and M. S. Koch ABSTRACT Anthropogenic nutrient inputs to the northern Everglades of Flor- ida during

  8. FEASIBILITY OF DOSE ADJUSTMENT BASED ON DIFFERENCE IN LONG-TERM CLEARANCE RATES OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term pulmonary clearance rates were evaluated for several laboratory animal species, dogs, and humans to determine if differences among species exist, and if so, the adequacy of the data for dose adjustment. Within each species, large variations in clearance rates were seen,...

  9. Future rates of sea-level rise from long-term coupled climate-ice sheet projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelzer, Heiko; Huybrechts, Philippe; Loutre, Marie-France; Fichefet, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Global mean sea level rose at an average rate of ~3.1 mm yr?1 since the early 1990s and is projected to rise between 0.28 and 0.98 m until year 2100, strongly depending on the assumed anthropogenic forcing scenario (IPCC AR5). This global rise in sea level is a combination of contributions from ocean thermal expansion, glaciers and small ice caps, from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and changes in land water storage. Except for the latter, all components are expected to contribute to further sea-level rise well beyond the end of this century due to the long residence time of CO2 in the atmosphere. In the present study we present results from long-term future sea-level change experiments over 1000 years with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM version 1.3 forced by four extended RCP scenarios. The model includes fully coupled three-dimensional thermomechanical models of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, a global glacier melt algorithm to account for the response of mountain glaciers and small ice caps, and a diagnostic for oceanic thermal expansion. A range of the model's sensitivity to greenhouse warming was sampled by systematic parameter variations leading to an ensemble of model versions that simulate the present-day climate consistent with observations, while producing contrasted results for the future period. We analyse sea-level rates of change for all components over the course of the third millennium for the entire ensemble of model versions and forcing scenarios.

  10. The dual effect of Mg on the long-term alteration rate of AVM nuclear waste glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thien, Bruno M. J.; Godon, Nicole; Ballestero, Anthony; Gin, Stéphane; Ayral, André

    2012-08-01

    Inactive Mg-containing nuclear waste glasses simulating actual HLW glasses produced at the AVM facility since 1995 (Marcoule, France), were leached in aqueous solution in order to assess their long term behaviour. The focus was on the effect of Mg. Our findings show that the distribution of Mg between the gel and the secondary crystalline phases strongly influences the glass dissolution rate. The glasses were leached in initially pure water (T = 50 °C, surface/volume ratio (S/V) = 55 cm-1) with and without addition of Mg2+ in the solution. "Mg-free" AVM glasses were also leached in initially pure water (50 °C, 200 cm-1) with and without addition of Mg2+ in the solution. Accurate identification of Mg-smectite secondary phases and gel composition calculations enable us to explain the different observed behaviours. Glass AVM 10 was the less altered glass in pure water. Its gel is more protective than the other probably because it is mainly balanced by Mg2+. The addition of Mg2+ in the solution triggers the precipitation of smectite (not observed in pure water experiments), which consumes silicon from the gel, leading finally to a significant increase of the glass alteration. We also focused on the AVM 6 glass which was the most altered glass in pure water of available AVM glasses. Contrary to AVM 10, the gel of AVM 6 is mainly balanced by Na+. The addition of Mg2+ in the solution allows the replacement of Na by Mg within the gel. This reaction clearly improves the gel properties and allows the rate to decrease more rapidly, in spite of the precipitation of smectite (also observed in pure water experiments). Finally, the two glasses were altered in synthetic groundwater (SGW) with a high Mg-Ca content. As expected from the previous observations, AVM 10 was insensitive to the presence of alkaline earths in the leaching solution whereas AVM 6 glass exhibited a lower rate than in pure water thanks to the incorporation of Mg and Ca within the gel.

  11. Revisiting Money - Interest Rate Relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srivyal Vuyyuri; Ganesh S Mani; Chakrapani V Chaturvedula

    2003-01-01

    This paper tries to revisit the relationship between money supply and interest rates. Data for countries from 1981 to 1998 seem to support the positive relationship between the two variables as described by the Fisher equation. The empirical findings have been substantiated by a simple mathematical model. It incorporates the Fisher equation view as well as the liquidity effect and

  12. CANCER PROGRESSION AND SURVIVAL RATES FOLLOWING ANATOMICAL RADICAL RETROPUBIC PROSTATECTOMY IN 3,478 CONSECUTIVE PATIENTS: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KIMBERLY A. ROEHL; MISOP HAN; CHRISTIAN G. RAMOS; JO ANN V. ANTENOR; WILLIAM J. CATALONA

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We updated a long-term cancer control outcome in a large anatomical radical retro- pubic prostatectomy (RRP) series. We also evaluated the perioperative parameters that predict cancer specific outcomes following surgery. Materials and Methods: From May 1983 to February 2003, 1 surgeon (WJC) performed RRP in 3,478 consecutive men. Patients were followed with semiannual serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests

  13. Long-term erosion rate measurements in gypsum caves of Sorbas (SE Spain) by the Micro-Erosion Meter method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Laura; De Waele, Jo; Calaforra, José Maria; Forti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the results of long-term micro-erosion measurements in the most important gypsum cave of Spain, the Cueva del Agua (Sorbas, Almeria, SE Spain). Nineteen MEM stations were positioned in 1992 in a wide range of morphological and environmental settings (gypsum floors and walls, carbonate speleothems, dry conduits and vadose passages) inside and outside the cave, on gypsum and carbonate bedrocks and exposed to variable degree of humidity, different air flow and hydrodynamic conditions. Four different sets of stations have been investigated: (1) the main cave entrance (Las Viñicas spring); (2) the main river passage; (3) the abandoned Laboratory tunnel; and (4) the external gypsum surface. Data over a period of about 18 years are available. The average lowering rates vary from 0.014 to 0.016 mm yr- 1 near the main entrance and in the Laboratory tunnel, to 0.022 mm - 1 on gypsum floors and 0.028 mm yr- 1 on carbonate flowstones. The denudation data from the external gypsum stations are quite regular with a rate of 0.170 mm yr- 1. The observations allowed the collecting of important information concerning the feeding of the karst aquifer not only by infiltrating rainwater, but under present climate conditions also by water condensation of moist air flow. This contribution to the overall karst processes in the Cueva del Agua basin represents over 20% of the total chemical dissolution of the karst area and more than 50% of the speleogenetically removed gypsum in the cave system, thus representing all but a secondary role in speleogenesis. Condensation-corrosion is most active along the medium walls, being slower at the roof and almost absent close to the floor. This creates typical corrosion morphologies such as cupola, while gypsum flowers develop where evaporation dominates. This approach also shows quantitatively the morphological implications of condensation-corrosion processes in gypsum karst systems in arid zones, responsible for an average surface lowering of 0.047 mm yr- 1, while mechanical erosion produces a lowering of 0.123 mm yr- 1.

  14. Changes in long-term no-till corn growth and yield under different rates of stover mulch

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, Dr. Humberto [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Lal, Dr. Rattan [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Owens, Lloyd [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

    2006-09-01

    Received for publication January 4, 2006. Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. We assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam (fine loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston in Ohio, and predicted corn yield from soil properties using principal component analysis (PCA). The study was conducted in 2005 on the ongoing experiments started in May 2004 under 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200)% of stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal promoted early emergence and rapid seedling growth (P < 0.01). Early-emerging plants grew taller than late-emerging plants up to about 50 d, and then the heights reversed at Coshocton and were comparable at other two sites. Stover management affected corn yield only at the Coshocton site where average grain and stover yields in the T200, T100, T75, and T50 (10.8 and 10.3 Mg ha-1) were higher than those in the T0 and T25 treatments (8.5 and 6.5 Mg ha-1) (P < 0.01), showing that stover removal at rates as low as 50% (2.5 Mg ha-1) decreased crop yields. Soil properties explained 71% of the variability in grain yield and 33% of the variability in stover yield for the Coshocton site. Seventeen months after the start of the experiment, effects of stover management on corn yield and soil properties were site-specific.

  15. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... 8 sec Click to watch this video Most Care Provided at Home Click for more information Long- ...

  16. A 10-year Experience with Laparoscopic Gastric Banding for Morbid Obesity: High Long-Term Complication and Failure Rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Suter; J. M. Calmes; A. Paroz; V. Giusti

    2006-01-01

    Background: Since its introduction about 10 years ago, and because of its encouraging early results regarding weight loss\\u000a and morbidity, laparoscopic gastric banding (LGB) has been considered by many as the treatment of choice for morbid obesity.\\u000a Few long-term studies have been published. We present our results after up to 8 years (mean 74 months) of follow-up. Methods:\\u000a Prospective data

  17. Rates, causes, and dynamic of long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic "passive continental margin", Brazil and Namibia, as revealed by thermo-kinematic numerical modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Stippich; Anton, Glasmacher Ulrich; Peter, Christian, Hackspacher

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the research is to quantify the long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in SE-Brazil and NW-Namibia. Excellent onshore outcrop conditions and complete rift to post-rift archives between Sao Paulo and Porto Alegre and in the transition from Namibia to Angola (onshore Walvis ridge) allow a high precision quantification of exhumation, and uplift rates, influencing physical parameters, long-term acting forces, and process-response systems. Research will integrate the published and partly published thermochronological data from Brazil and Namibia, and test lately published new concepts on causes of long-term landscape evolution at rifted margins. The climate-continental margin-mantle coupled process-response system is caused by the interaction between endogenous and exogenous forces, which are related to the mantle-process driven rift - drift - passive continental margin evolution of the South Atlantic, and the climate change since the Early/Late Cretaceous climate maximum. Special emphasis will be given to the influence of long-living transform faults such as the Florianopolis Fracture Zone (FFZ) on the long-term topography evolution of the SAPCM's. A long-term landscape evolution model with process rates will be achieved by thermo-kinematic 3-D modeling (software code PECUBE and FastCape). Testing model solutions obtained for a multidimensional parameter space against the real thermochronological and geomorphological data set, the most likely combinations of parameter rates, and values can be constrained. The data and models will allow separating the exogenous and endogenous forces and their process rates.

  18. Fed Leaves Interest Rates Alone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Waters, Megan.

    This week's In the News looks at the recent Federal Reserve Board decision to leave interest rates unchanged. The eight resources discussed provide background information on interest rates and inflation, Federal Reserve news, and current US economic data. With the stock market at record highs and global economic crises fading, the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) showed increased concern about the risk of inflation this month at a May 18, 1999 meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Although committee members ultimately decided not to raise the rate at which banks lend to each other, they cited a "tight" domestic labor market and "ongoing strength in demand in excess of productivity gains" as possible reasons for future rate hikes. Wall Street reacted to the Fed news with a 100 point Dow Jones Industrial Average fall on May 18 but recovered by the end of the day down just 16.52, and many market watchers expressed optimism over the FOMC action. Irwin Kellner, chief economist at CBS.MarketWatch.com, for example, deemed the decision "great" and praised the Fed for a flexible policy that is not locked into a particular course of action should the economy change unexpectedly.

  19. Short-term foraging costs and long-term fueling rates in central-place foraging swans revealed by giving-up exploitation times.

    PubMed

    van Gils, J A; Tijsen, W

    2007-05-01

    Foragers tend to exploit patches to a lesser extent farther away from their central place. This has been interpreted as a response to increased risk of predation or increased metabolic costs of prey delivery. Here we show that migratory Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii), though not incurring greater predation risks farther out or delivering food to a central place, also feed for shorter periods at patches farther away from their roost. Predictions from an energy budget model suggest that increasing metabolic travel costs per se are responsible. Establishing the relation between intake rate and exploitation time enabled us to express giving-up exploitation times as quitting harvest rates (QHRs). This revealed that net QHRs were not different from observed long-term net intake rates, a sign that the birds were maximizing their long-term net intake rate. This study is unique because giving-up decisions were measured at the individual level, metabolic and predation costs were assessed simultaneously, the relation with harvest rate was made explicit, and finally, short-term giving-up decisions were related to long-term net intake rates. We discuss and conceptualize the implications of metabolic traveling costs for carrying-capacity predictions by bridging the gap between optimal-foraging theory and optimal-migration theory. PMID:17427132

  20. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates will be those rates...subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest rate must be tied to a base...

  1. 7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates will be those rates...subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest rate must be tied to a base...

  2. Constraints on long-term carbon-climate feedbacks from spatially resolved CO2 growth rate fluctuations linked to temperature and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    Feedbacks between the global carbon cycle and climate represent one of the largest uncertainties in climate prediction. A promising method for reducing uncertainty in predictions of carbon-climate feedbacks is based on identifying an "emergent constraint" that leverages correlations between mechanistically linked long-term feedbacks and short-term variations within the model ensemble. By applying contemporary observations to evaluate model skill in simulating short-term variations, we may be able to better assess the probability of simulated long-term feedbacks. We probed the constraint on long-term terrestrial carbon stocks provided by climate-driven fluctuations in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate at contemporary timescales. We considered the impact of both temperature and precipitation anomalies on terrestrial ecosystem exchange and further separated the direct influence of fire where possible. When we explicitly considered the role of atmospheric transport in smoothing the imprint of climate-driven flux anomalies on atmospheric CO2 patterns, we found that the extent of temporal averaging of both the observations and ESM output leads to estimates for the long-term climate sensitivity of tropical land carbon storage that are different by a factor of two. In the context of these results, we discuss strategies for applying emergent constraints for benchmarking biogeochemical feedbacks in ESMs. Specifically, our results underscore the importance of selecting appropriate observational benchmarks and, for future model intercomparison projects, outputting fields that most closely correspond to available observational datasets.

  3. A New Paradigm for Gamma Ray Bursts: Long Term Accretion Rate Modulation by an External Accretion Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizzo, John; Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of looking at the very long term evolution of GRBs in which the disk of material surrounding the putative black hole powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the efficacy of the process that extracts rotational energy from the black hole and inner accretion disk. The pre-Swift paradigm of achromatic, shallow-to-steep "breaks" in the long term GRB light curves has not been borne out by detailed Swift data amassed in the past several years. We argue that, given the initial existence of a fall-back disk near the progenitor, an unavoidable consequence will be the formation of an "external disk" whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. The mass reservoir at large radii moves outward with time and gives a natural power law decay to the GRB light curves. In this model, the different canonical power law decay segments in the GRB identified by Zhang et al. and Nousek et al. represent different physical states of the accretion disk. We identify a physical disk state with each power law segment.

  4. A NEW PARADIGM FOR GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: LONG-TERM ACCRETION RATE MODULATION BY AN EXTERNAL ACCRETION DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Cannizzo, J. K. [CRESST/Joint Center for Astrophysics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Gehrels, N. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)], E-mail: John.K.Cannizzo@nasa.gov, E-mail: gehrels@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov

    2009-08-01

    We present a new way of looking at the very long-term evolution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in which the disk of material surrounding the putative black hole powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the efficacy of the process that extracts rotational energy from the black hole and inner accretion disk. The pre-Swift paradigm of achromatic, shallow-to-steep 'breaks' in the long-term GRB light curves has not been borne out by detailed Swift data amassed in the past several years. We argue that, given the initial existence of a fall-back disk near the progenitor, an unavoidable consequence will be the formation of an 'external disk' whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. The mass reservoir at large radii moves outward with time and gives a natural power-law decay to the GRB light curves. In this model, the different canonical power-law decay segments in the GRB identified by Zhang et al. and Nousek et al. represent different physical states of the accretion disk. We identify a physical disk state with each power-law segment.

  5. Prediction of long-term tritium retention in the divertor of ITER: influence of modelling assumptions on retention rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, A.; Ohya, K.; Borodin, D.; Ding, R.; Matveev, D.; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.

    2009-12-01

    ERO modelling of long-term tritium (T) retention has been done for the divertor of ITER with graphite target plates assuming a certain beryllium influx into the divertor, eroded from the main chamber. The divertor beryllium (Be) influx relative to the deuterium ion flux has been fixed at 0.1% for the outer divertor and 1.0% for the inner divertor. In addition to the original B2-Eirene plasma background, the influence of variations of temperature and density in the divertor has been studied. Moreover, assumptions for enhanced erosion of redeposited carbon and effective sticking for hydrocarbons have been analysed. With graphite target plates, long-term tritium retention is dominated by T co-deposition in deposits. Within the studied parameter range, the modelling yields 200-500 possible ITER discharges without cleaning before reaching the safety limit of 700 g of in-vessel retained tritium. Surface temperature-dependent tritium amounts in carbon and beryllium deposits have been taken into account.

  6. Loan Interest Rate & Fees Loan Cost Examples

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daeyeol

    Loan Interest Rate & Fees Loan Cost Examples Yale University Your Interest Rate during the life of the loan Your rate is fixed. Loan Fees Origination Fee Late Charge Returned Check Charge fixed interest rate 7.75 % Repayment Option Amount Provided Interest Rate Loan Term Total Paid over 10 years 1. DEFER

  7. Loan Interest Rate & Fees Loan Cost Examples

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daeyeol

    Loan Interest Rate & Fees Loan Cost Examples Yale University Your Interest Rate during the life of the loan Your rate is fixed. Loan Fees Late Charge Returned Check Charge fixed interest rate 5 % Repayment Option Amount Provided Interest Rate Loan Term Total Paid over 10 years 1. DEFER PAYMENTS 2 MAKE FULL

  8. Loan Interest Rate & Fees Loan Cost Examples

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daeyeol

    Loan Interest Rate & Fees Loan Cost Examples Yale University Your Interest Rate during the life of the loan Your rate is fixed. Loan Fees Late Charge Returned Check Charge fixed interest rate 7.5 % Repayment Option Amount Provided Interest Rate Loan Term Total Paid over 10 years 1. DEFER PAYMENTS 2 PAY

  9. Loan Interest Rate & Fees Loan Cost Examples

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daeyeol

    Loan Interest Rate & Fees Loan Cost Examples Yale University Your Interest Rate during the life of the loan Your rate is fixed. Loan Fees Late Charge Returned Check Charge fixed interest rate 7.5 % Repayment Option Amount Provided Interest Rate Loan Term Total Paid over 10 years 1. DEFER PAYMENTS 2 MAKE

  10. Responses of herbage and cattle tail switch hair ?N value to long-term stocking rates on a rough fescue grassland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunli Li; Xiying Hao; Walter D. Willms; Tim A. Mcallister

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of ?N in herbage and cattle tail switch hair to long-term grazing pressure on a rough fescue grassland (Festuca campestris Rydb.) near Stavely, Alberta, Canada. Cattle have grazed the paddocks from 15 May to 15 November annually since 1949. Stocking rates were 0, 2.4 and 4.8 animal unit months ha

  11. Short and long term mortality rates associated with first pregnancy outcome: Population register based study for Denmark 1980–2004

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, David C.; Coleman, Priscilla K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background There is a growing interest in examining death rates associated with different pregnancy outcomes for time periods beyond one year. Previous population studies, however, have failed to control for complete reproductive histories. In this study we seek to eliminate the potential confounding effect of unknown prior pregnancy history by examining mortality rates associated specifically with first pregnancy outcome alone. We also examine differences in mortality rates associated with early abortion and late abortions (after 12 weeks). Material/Method Medical records for the entire population of women born in Denmark between 1962 and 1991 and were alive in 1980, were linked to death certificates. Mortality rates associated with first pregnancy outcomes (delivery, miscarriage, abortion, and late abortion) were calculated. Odds ratios examining death rates based on reproductive outcomes, adjusted for age at first pregnancy and year of women’s births, were also calculated. Results A total of 463,473 women had their first pregnancy between 1980 and 2004, of whom 2,238 died. In nearly all time periods examined, mortality rates associated with miscarriage or abortion of a first pregnancy were higher than those associated with birth. Compared to women who delivered, the age and birth year adjusted cumulative risk of death for women who had a first trimester abortion was significantly higher in all periods examined, from 180 days (OR=1.84; 1.11 <95% CI <3.71) through 10 years (1.39; 1.22 <95% CI <1.61), as was the risk for women who had abortions after 12 weeks from one year (OR=4.31; 2.18 <95% CI <8.54) through 10 years (OR=2.41; 1.56 <95% CI <2.41). For women who miscarried, the risk was significantly higher for cumulative deaths through 4 years (OR=1.75; 1.34 <95% CI <2.27) and at 10 years (OR=1.48; 1.18 <95% CI <1.85). Conclusions Compared to women who delivered, women who had an early or late abortion had significantly higher mortality rates within 1 through 10 years. A lesser effect may also be present relative to miscarriage. Recommendations for additional research are offered. PMID:22936199

  12. Long-term survival rates of patients with stage IIIB and IV non-small cell lung cancer treated with cisplatin plus vinorelbine or gemcitabine

    PubMed Central

    OZKAYA, SEVKET; FINDIK, SERHAT; DIRICAN, ADEM; ATICI, ATILLA GÜVEN

    2012-01-01

    Limited data exist concerning the long-term (?5 year) survival rates of patients with stage IIIB and IV non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) receiving chemotherapy. We aimed to determine the long-term results of cisplatin plus third-generation (vinorelbine or gemcitabine) cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced and advanced NSCLC. The study included 141 patients, and all patients were followed up from the time of diagnosis until death. The median age of the patients was 59.1±9.9 years. The male-to-female ratio was 124/17; 62.4% of the patients had stage IIIB and 37.6% had stage IV NSCLC. Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated NSCLC subtypes accounted for 69.5, 17.7 and 12.7% of the cases, respectively. The overall response rate was 32.6% and the median survival time was 12.3 months (95% CI, 10.2–14.5). The median survival times for stages IIIB and IV were 12.6±1.4 and 11.9±1.7 months, respectively. The 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 33, 7.5, 4.3 and 2.8%, respectively. In conclusion, cisplatin-based new-generation cytotoxic agents for combined modality therapy offer an increased hope of long-term survival for patients with locally advanced and advanced NSCLC. PMID:23226770

  13. Estimating and Interpreting Forward Interest RatesSweden 1992-1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars E. O. Svensson

    1994-01-01

    The use of forward interest rates as a monetary policy indicator is demonstrated, using Sweden 1992-1994 as an example. The forward rates are interpreted as indicating market expectations of the time-path of future interest rates, future inflation rates, and future currency depreciation rates. They separate market expectations for the short-, medium-, and long-term more easily than the standard yield curve.

  14. The Association Between Rate of Initial Weight Loss and Long-Term Success in Obesity Treatment: Does Slow and Steady Win the Race?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Kathryn M.; Perri, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Controversy exists regarding the optimal rate of weight loss for long-term weight management success. Purpose This study examined whether gradual initial weight loss was associated with greater long-term weight reduction than rapid initial loss. Methods Groups were drawn from participants in the TOURS trial, which included a sample of middle-aged (mean =59.3 years) obese women (mean BMI =36.8) who received a 6-month lifestyle intervention followed by a 1-year extended care program. Participants were encouraged to reduce caloric intake to achieve weight losses of 0.45 kg/ week. Groups were categorized as “FAST” (?0.68 kg/week, n=69), “MODERATE” (?0.23 and <0.68 kg/week, n= 104), and “SLOW” (<0.23 kg/week, n=89) based on rate of weight loss during first month of treatment. Results The FAST, MODERATE, and SLOW groups differed significantly in mean weight changes at 6 months (?13.5, ?8.9, and ?5.1 kg, respectively, ps <0.001), and the FAST and SLOW groups differed significantly at 18 months (?10.9, ?7.1, and ?3.7 kg, respectively, ps <0.001). No significant group differences were found in weight regain between 6 and 18 months (2.6, 1.8, and 1.3 kg, respectively, ps < 0.9). The FAST and MODERATE groups were 5.1 and 2.7 times more likely to achieve 10% weight losses at 18 months than the SLOW group. Conclusion Collectively, findings indicate both short- and long-term advantages to fast initial weight loss. Fast weight losers obtained greater weight reduction and long-term maintenance, and were not more susceptible to weight regain than gradual weight losers. PMID:20443094

  15. Long Term Ecological Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scott Cooper

    Students analyze data on temperature and precipitation collected from 26 different Long Term Ecological Research sites and compare them with annual net primary productivity. The students then form an ecological rule to explain their results.

  16. Changes in heart rate variability are associated with expression of short-term and long-term contextual and cued fear memories.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wei, Wei; Kuang, Hui; Zhao, Fang; Tsien, Joe Z

    2013-01-01

    Heart physiology is a highly useful indicator for measuring not only physical states, but also emotional changes in animals. Yet changes of heart rate variability during fear conditioning have not been systematically studied in mice. Here, we investigated changes in heart rate and heart rate variability in both short-term and long-term contextual and cued fear conditioning. We found that while fear conditioning could increase heart rate, the most significant change was the reduction in heart rate variability which could be further divided into two distinct stages: a highly rhythmic phase (stage-I) and a more variable phase (stage-II). We showed that the time duration of the stage-I rhythmic phase were sensitive enough to reflect the transition from short-term to long-term fear memories. Moreover, it could also detect fear extinction effect during the repeated tone recall. These results suggest that heart rate variability is a valuable physiological indicator for sensitively measuring the consolidation and expression of fear memories in mice. PMID:23667644

  17. Relationship of long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy on salivary flow rate and CD4 Count among HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J Vijay; Baghirath, P Venkat; Naishadham, P Parameswar; Suneetha, Sujai; Suneetha, Lavanya; Sreedevi, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) therapy alters salivary flow rate and also to compare its relation of CD4 count with unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 150 individuals divided into three groups. Group I (50 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients, but not on HAART therapy), Group II (50 HIV-infected subjects and on HAART for less than 3 years called short-term HAART), Group III (50 HIV-infected subjects and on HAART for more than or equal to 3 years called long-term HAART). Spitting method proposed by Navazesh and Kumar was used for the measurement of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. Chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean CD4 count was 424.78 ± 187.03, 497.82 ± 206.11 and 537.6 ± 264.00 in the respective groups. Majority of the patients in all the groups had a CD4 count between 401 and 600. Both unstimulated and stimulated whole salivary (UWS and SWS) flow rates in Group I was found to be significantly higher than in Group II (P < 0.05). Unstimulated salivary flow rate between Group II and III subjects were also found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). ANOVA performed between CD4 count and unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva in each group demonstrated a statistically significant relationship in Group II (P < 0.05). There were no significant results found between CD4 count and stimulated whole saliva in each groups. Conclusion: The reduction in CD4 cell counts were significantly associated with salivary flow rates of HIV-infected individuals who are on long-term HAART.

  18. Long-term n-3 fatty acid deficiency induces no substantial change in the rate of protein synthesis in rat brain and liver.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Osakabe, T; Ikemoto, A; Watanabe, S; Kobayashi, T; Okuyama, H

    1999-08-01

    The influence of long-term n-3 fatty acid deficiency on the rate of protein synthesis in rat brain and liver was investigated in relation to learning behavior or a presumed survival time-shortening factor (SSF) in rapeseed oil, using a large-dose [3H]phenylalanine (Phe) injection method. When Wistar rats were made n-3 fatty acid-deficient by feeding a safflower oil (alpha-linolenate-deficient) diet for 2 generations, conditions under which the safflower oil group had been shown to exhibit altered learning behaviors, compared with the perilla oil group, no significant changes in the rate of protein synthesis were observed compared with the perilla oil (alpha-linolenate-sufficient) or rapeseed oil (alpha-linolenate-sufficient but SSF-containing) groups. However, the rapeseed oil group had a reduced specific radioactivity of free Phe in the cerebral cortex, compared with the safflower oil group. In contrast to the reported observation of very long-term n-3 fatty acid deficiency inducing an almost 2-fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis in the brain, our results indicate that altered learning behavior resulting from n-3 fatty acid deficiency in rats is not associated with any substantial changes in the rate of protein synthesis in the brain. PMID:10480312

  19. Long-term observations of SO2 gas emission rates from Nyiragongo volcano (RD Congo) during 2004-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalire, Matthiew; Galle, Bo; Arellano, Santiago; Norman, Patrik; Johansson, Mattias

    2010-05-01

    Mount Nyiragongo (3470 m a.s.l.) is an active stratovolcano of mafic composition located in the Virunga Mountains in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is considered as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world due to generation of voluminous and highly fluidized lava flows during historical eruptions and the proximity to densely inhabited areas. Nyiragongo volcano is also a source of prodigious gaseous emissions to the atmosphere during periods of both eruptive and non-eruptive activity. Documented records of the style, speciation, and magnitude of degassing from this volcano exist in the literature since three decades ago. These studies are mostly based on observations made during sporadic field campaigns or by satellite-borne sensors, owing to logistical constraints imposed by volcanic and political unrest. With the aim of strengthen the gas monitoring capabilities of Nyiragongo volcano, an automatic scanning spectroscopic (DOAS) system was installed in March 2004 in the Rusayo seismic station, 10 km from the volcano crater. This instrument is powered by solar panels and linked by radio telemetry to the Goma Volcanological Observatory. Combined with plume velocity data, this instrument provides near-to-real-time SO2 fluxes with a typical temporal resolution of 10 minutes during sunlight hours. In 2005 the instrument was upgraded and incorporated as part of the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC). Since 2005 three additional instruments has been installed, at 10 - 14 km distance W - SW of the crater, as part of the NOVAC project. We present the results of the measurements performed at Nyiragongo during the period March 2004-October 2009. Wind data has been obtained from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model based on data from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to account for the effect of local topography. A statistical analysis of the results and its relation with other volcanological observations is presented. This study emphasizes the importance of long-term and continuous gas monitoring to better understand the human and environmental effects of the persistent activity of this volcano.

  20. Long-term cattle gain responses to stocking rate and grazing systems in northern mixed-grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of stocking rate and grazing system on gains of yearling beef cattle grazing rangelands have largely been addressed in short-term (<10 yr) studies, and often stocking rates are confounded within grazing systems with higher stocking rates for short-duration rotational grazing systems comp...

  1. Feasibility of dose adjustment based on difference in long-term clearance rates of inhaled particulate matter in humans and laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Pepelko, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term pulmonary clearance rates were evaluated for several laboratory animal species, dogs, and humans to determine if differences among species exist, and if so, the adequacy of the data for dose adjustment. Within each species, large variations in clearance rates were seen, probably as a result of differences in solubility of the aerosol particles, differences in measurement techniques, possible lung damage, transport to lung-associated lymph nodes, and binding of dissolved chemicals to cellular macromolecules in the lung. While few direct comparisons among species using the same aerosol were available, mechanical clearance of particles from the alveolar regions of dogs and humans was generally slower than in most laboratory species, with t1/2 values several-fold longer. Particle clearance rate-variations of the magnitude were shown to induce potentially large differences in bioavailability. This can result in large errors in assessing human risk from animal studies unless a dose adjustment is made.

  2. Erosion Rates at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites and Long-Term Climate Change on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L. S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Weitz, C. M.; Sullivan, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Soderblom, L. A.; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of approx.0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga).

  3. Erosion rates at the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites and long-term climate change on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J.A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R.E.; Bell, J.F., III; Weitz, C.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Christensen, P.R.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of ???0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga). Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Erosion rates at the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites and long-term climate change on Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Golombek; J. A. Grant; L. S. Crumpler; R. Greeley; R. E. Arvidson; J. F. Bell; C. M. Weitz; R. Sullivan; P. R. Christensen; L. A. Soderblom; S. W. Squyres

    2006-01-01

    Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks

  5. Effect of Age-at-Release on Long Term Sexual Re-offense Rates in Civilly Committed Sexual Offenders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Alan Prentky; Austin F. S. Lee

    2007-01-01

    A cohort of 136 rapists and 115 child molesters civilly committed to a prison in Massachusetts and followed for 25 years (see\\u000a Prentky, Lee, Knight, & Cerce, 1997) was examined for the effect of age at time of release on sexual recidivism. The present\\u000a study (1) examined the recidivism rates for each of five age-at-release groups, separately for rapists and

  6. A long-term rock uplift rate for eastern Crete and geodynamic implications for the Hellenic subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobl, M.; Hetzel, R.; Fassoulas, C.; Kubik, P. W.

    2014-08-01

    The island of Crete in the forearc of the Hellenic subduction zone has a rugged topography with local relief exceeding 2 km. Based on the elevation of marine shorelines, rates of rock uplift during the Late Holocene were previously estimated to range between 1 and 4 mm/a in different parts of the island. These rates may, however, not be representative for longer timescales, because subduction earthquakes with up to 9 m of vertical coseismic displacement have affected Crete in the Late Holocene. Here we use a well preserved sequence of marine terraces near Kato Zakros in eastern Crete to determine the rate of rock uplift over the last ?600 ka. Field investigations and topographic profiles document a flight of more than 13 marine bedrock terraces that were carved into limestones of the Tripolitza unit. Preliminary age constraints for the terraces were obtained by 10Be exposure dating of rare quartz-bearing sandstone clasts, which are present on some terraces. The 10Be ages of these samples, which have been corrected for an inherited nuclide component, yielded exposure ages between ?100 ka and zero. Combined with geomorphologic evidence the two oldest 10Be ages suggest that the terraces T4 and T5, with shoreline angles at an elevation of ?68 and ?76 m above sea level, respectively, formed during the marine isotope stage 5e about 120 ka ago. The correlation of the higher terraces (T6 to T13) with regional sea-level highstands indicates sustained rock uplift at a rate of ?0.5 m/ka since at least ?600 ka. As normal faulting has dominated the tectonics of Crete during the last several million years, upper crustal shortening can be ruled out as a cause for rock uplift. We argue that the sustained uplift of the island results from the continuous underplating of sediments, which are transferred from the subducting African plate to the base of the crust beneath Crete.

  7. Outcomes of High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Long-term Results

    PubMed Central

    Pinn-Bingham, Melva; Puthawala, Ajmel A.; Syed, A.M. Nisar; Sharma, Anil; DiSaia, Philip; Berman, Michael; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Randall-Whitis, Leslie; Mahmood, Usama; Ramsinghani, Nilam; Kuo, Jeffrey; Chen, Wen-Pin; McLaren, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and toxicity of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials Between March 1996 and May 2009, 116 patients with cervical cancer were treated. Of these, 106 (91%) patients had advanced disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA). Ten patients had stage IB, 48 had stage II, 51 had stage III, and 7 had stage IVA disease. All patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the pelvis (5040 cGy) and 2 applications of HDR-ISBT to a dose of 3600 cGy to the implanted volume. Sixty-one percent of patients also received interstitial hyperthermia, and 94 (81%) patients received chemotherapy. Results Clinical LRC was achieved in 99 (85.3%) patients. Three-year DFS rates were 59%, 67%, 71%, and 57% for patients with stage IB, II, III, and IVA disease, respectively. The 5-year DFS and overall survival rates for the entire group were 60% and 44%, respectively. Acute and late toxicities were within acceptable limits. Conclusions Locally advanced cervical cancer patients for whom intracavitary BT is unsuitable can achieve excellent LRC and OS with a combination of EBRT and HDR-ISBT. PMID:22763030

  8. Outcomes of High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Long-term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pinn-Bingham, Melva [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States); Puthawala, Ajmel A., E-mail: aputhawla@memorialcare.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, California (United States); Syed, A.M. Nisar; Sharma, Anil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, California (United States); DiSaia, Philip; Berman, Michael; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Randall-Whitis, Leslie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecology and Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecology and Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States); Mahmood, Usama [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ramsinghani, Nilam; Kuo, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States); Chen, Wen-Pin [Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States); McLaren, Christine E. [Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and toxicity of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between March 1996 and May 2009, 116 patients with cervical cancer were treated. Of these, 106 (91%) patients had advanced disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA). Ten patients had stage IB, 48 had stage II, 51 had stage III, and 7 had stage IVA disease. All patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the pelvis (5040 cGy) and 2 applications of HDR-ISBT to a dose of 3600 cGy to the implanted volume. Sixty-one percent of patients also received interstitial hyperthermia, and 94 (81%) patients received chemotherapy. Results: Clinical LRC was achieved in 99 (85.3%) patients. Three-year DFS rates were 59%, 67%, 71%, and 57% for patients with stage IB, II, III, and IVA disease, respectively. The 5-year DFS and overall survival rates for the entire group were 60% and 44%, respectively. Acute and late toxicities were within acceptable limits. Conclusions: Locally advanced cervical cancer patients for whom intracavitary BT is unsuitable can achieve excellent LRC and OS with a combination of EBRT and HDR-ISBT.

  9. Long-term data reveal a population decline of the tropical lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a negative affect of el nino years on population growth rate.

    PubMed

    Stapley, Jessica; Garcia, Milton; Andrews, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Climate change threatens biodiversity worldwide, however predicting how particular species will respond is difficult because climate varies spatially, complex factors regulate population abundance, and species vary in their susceptibility to climate change. Studies need to incorporate these factors with long-term data in order to link climate change to population abundance. We used 40 years of lizard abundance data and local climate data from Barro Colorado Island to ask how climate, total lizard abundance and cohort-specific abundance have changed over time, and how total and cohort-specific abundance relate to climate variables including those predicted to make the species vulnerable to climate change (i.e. temperatures exceeding preferred body temperature). We documented a decrease in lizard abundance over the last 40 years, and changes in the local climate. Population growth rate was related to the previous years' southern oscillation index; increasing following cooler-wetter, la niña years, decreasing following warmer-drier, el nino years. Within-year recruitment was negatively related to rainfall and minimum temperature. This study simultaneously identified climatic factors driving long-term population fluctuations and climate variables influencing short-term annual recruitment, both of which may be contributing to the population decline and influence the population's future persistence. PMID:25671423

  10. A long-term rock uplift rate for eastern Crete and geodynamic implications for the Hellenic subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobl, M.; Hetzel, R.; Fassoulas, C.; Kubik, P.

    2014-12-01

    The island of Crete in the forearc of the Hellenic subduction zone has a rugged topography with a local relief exceeding 2 km. Based on the elevation of marine shorelines, rates of rock uplift during the Late Holocene were previously estimated to range between 1 and 4 mm/a in different parts of the island (e.g. Lambeck, 1995). These rates may, however, not be representative for longer timescales, because subduction earthquakes with up to 9 m of vertical coseismic displacement have recently affected Crete (Stiros, 2001). Here we use a well preserved sequence of marine terraces near Kato Zakros in eastern Crete to determine the rate of rock uplift over the last ˜600 ka. Field investigations and topographic profiles document a flight of more than 13 marine bedrock terraces that were carved into limestones of the Tripolitza unit. Preliminary age constraints for the terraces were obtained by 10Be exposure dating of rare quartz-bearing sandstone clasts, which are present on some terraces. The 10Be ages of these samples, which have been corrected for an inherited nuclide component, yielded exposure ages between ˜100 ka and zero. Combined with geomorphologic evidence the two oldest 10Be ages suggest that the terraces T4 and T5, with shoreline angles at an elevation of ca. 68 and ca. 76 m above sea level, respectively, formed during the marine isotope stage 5e about 120 ka ago. The correlation of the higher terraces (T6 to T13) with regional sea-level high-stands (Siddall et al., 2003) indicates sustained rock uplift at a rate of ˜0.5 m/ka since at least ˜600 ka. As normal faulting has dominated the tectonics of Crete during the last several million years, upper crustal shortening can be ruled out as a cause for rock uplift. We argue that the sustained uplift of the island results from the continuous underplating of sediments, which are transferred from the subducting African plate to the base of the crust beneath Crete. Lambeck, 1995, Geophys. J. Int. 122, 1022-1044.Siddall et al., 2003, Nature, 423, 853-858.Stiros, 2001, J. Struct. Geol., 23, 545-562.

  11. An arbitrage-free interest rate model consistent with economic constraints

    E-print Network

    Touzi, Nizar

    with long-term commitments are aware of the impact of economic hypothesis on risk perception, they prefer´en´eral de Gaulle, F-92141 Clamart Cedex, rene.aid@edf.fr, tel. 33 (0)1 47 65 46 86 and FiME Lab, Finance involves generally the dynamics of the inflation, the term structure of interest rates, equities

  12. Seismic cycle, long-term faulting behavior and slip rate variations along the Dead Sea Fault (Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, M.; Meghraoui, M.; Abou Karaki, N.

    2009-12-01

    The recurrence of large and destructive earthquakes along major fault systems is key to understanding the seismic cycle, the driving mechanism and forecast future behavior. We study the ~ 110-km-long Jordan Valley Fault segment (JVF) of the North-South trending Dead Sea Transform Fault and plate boundary by means of two independent approaches: i) the build-up of a paleoseismic catalogue of surface-rupturing events for the last 14 kyr, and ii) the construction of a history of slip rate over the last 48.5 kyr from different generations of left-lateral offset streams of the late Pleistocene and Holocene Lissan lacustrine deposits. Firstly, we combine published historical data, re-appraised archaeological data and paleoseismic trenching to produce and unprecedentedly complete catalogue of large (Mw > 7) earthquakes with at least 13 events in the last 14 kyr. The average ~1000 yrs recurrence interval presents large variations from 300 to more than 1500 yrs, with the various datasets intersecting and completing each other. Secondly, we present a detailed map of the active fault trace that intersects a set of 20 gullies. Stream incisions are classified as a function of their depth and relative age and characterized in terms of cumulative offsets. Absolute ages are obtained from paleoclimatic analysis of lacustrine deposits. Using the numerous isotopic dating of lacustrine deposits, lake-level fluctuations and extreme rainfall episodes, we obtain an average 4.9 mm/yr slip rate with extreme values of 3.5 and 11 mm/yr. Our results indicate slip rate variations and provide evidence for episodic faulting behavior. Both approaches indicate that the JVF encounters periods of increased seismic activity which suggests episodicity or mode-switching. Reduced recurrence intervals and/or larger co-seismic slip (and magnitudes) are required to account for observations as suggested by GPS observations (4.5 mm/yr) and seismic moment summation. The JVF has accumulated 3.5 m to 5 m of slip deficit after the AD 1033 earthquake and may be the site for a large earthquake in the near future.

  13. In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives.

    PubMed

    Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B; Horvitz, Carol C

    2014-03-25

    A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, ?c, and its geometric mean, ?per-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined ?c and ?per-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (?per-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (?per-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trillium's ?per-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (?per-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives' success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide. PMID:24616522

  14. In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives

    PubMed Central

    Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B.; Horvitz, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, ?c, and its geometric mean, ?per-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined ?c and ?per-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (?per-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (?per-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trillium’s ?per-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (?per-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives’ success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide. PMID:24616522

  15. Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids.

    PubMed

    Bell, James R; Alderson, Lynda; Izera, Daniela; Kruger, Tracey; Parker, Sue; Pickup, Jon; Shortall, Chris R; Taylor, Mark S; Verrier, Paul; Harrington, Richard

    2014-08-14

    Aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. The Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) runs a network of 12·2-m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. In 2014, the RIS celebrated its 50th anniversary. This paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatiotemporal analysis and the provision of the first British annotated checklist of aphids since 1964. Our main aim was to elucidate mechanisms that advance aphid phenology under climate change and explain these using life-history traits. We then highlight emerging pests using accumulation patterns. Linear and nonlinear mixed-effect models estimated the average rate of change per annum and effects of climate on annual counts, first and last flights and length of flight season since 1965. Two climate drivers were used: the accumulated day degrees above 16 °C (ADD16) indicated the potential for migration during the aphid season; the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signalled the severity of the winter before migration took place. All 55 species studied had earlier first flight trends at rate of ? = -0·611 ± SE 0·015 days year(-1) . Of these species, 49% had earlier last flights, but the average species effect appeared relatively stationary (? = -0·010 ± SE 0·022 days year(-1) ). Most species (85%) showed increasing duration of their flight season (? = 0·336 ± SE 0·026 days year(-1) ), even though only 54% increased their log annual count (? = 0·002 ± SE <0·001 year(-1) ). The ADD16 and NAO were shown to drive patterns in aphid phenology in a spatiotemporal context. Early in the year when the first aphids were migrating, the effect of the winter NAO was highly significant. Further into the year, ADD16 was a strong predictor. Latitude had a near linear effect on first flights, whereas longitude produced a generally less-clear effect on all responses. Aphids that are anholocyclic (permanently parthenogenetic) or are monoecious (non-host-alternating) were advancing their phenology faster than those that were not. Climate drives phenology and traits help explain how this takes place biologically. Phenology and trait ecology are critical to understanding the threat posed by emerging pests such as Myzus persicae nicotianae and Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis, as revealed by the species accumulation analysis. PMID:25123260

  16. Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids

    PubMed Central

    Bell, James R; Alderson, Lynda; Izera, Daniela; Kruger, Tracey; Parker, Sue; Pickup, Jon; Shortall, Chris R; Taylor, Mark S; Verrier, Paul; Harrington, Richard

    2015-01-01

    1. Aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. The Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) runs a network of 12·2-m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. In 2014, the RIS celebrated its 50th anniversary. This paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatiotemporal analysis and the provision of the first British annotated checklist of aphids since 1964. 2. Our main aim was to elucidate mechanisms that advance aphid phenology under climate change and explain these using life-history traits. We then highlight emerging pests using accumulation patterns. 3. Linear and nonlinear mixed-effect models estimated the average rate of change per annum and effects of climate on annual counts, first and last flights and length of flight season since 1965. Two climate drivers were used: the accumulated day degrees above 16 °C (ADD16) indicated the potential for migration during the aphid season; the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signalled the severity of the winter before migration took place. 4. All 55 species studied had earlier first flight trends at rate of ? = ?0·611 ± SE 0·015 days year?1. Of these species, 49% had earlier last flights, but the average species effect appeared relatively stationary (? = ?0·010 ± SE 0·022 days year?1). Most species (85%) showed increasing duration of their flight season (? = 0·336 ± SE 0·026 days year?1), even though only 54% increased their log annual count (? = 0·002 ± SE <0·001 year?1). 5. The ADD16 and NAO were shown to drive patterns in aphid phenology in a spatiotemporal context. Early in the year when the first aphids were migrating, the effect of the winter NAO was highly significant. Further into the year, ADD16 was a strong predictor. Latitude had a near linear effect on first flights, whereas longitude produced a generally less-clear effect on all responses. Aphids that are anholocyclic (permanently parthenogenetic) or are monoecious (non-host-alternating) were advancing their phenology faster than those that were not. 6. Climate drives phenology and traits help explain how this takes place biologically. Phenology and trait ecology are critical to understanding the threat posed by emerging pests such as Myzus persicae nicotianae and Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis, as revealed by the species accumulation analysis. PMID:25123260

  17. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate...savings on to the borrower. (a) A variable interest rate agreed to by the lender...to by the lender and the Agency. The variable interest rate may be adjusted at...

  18. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...the applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate...savings on to the borrower. (a) A variable interest rate agreed to by the lender...to by the lender and the Agency. The variable interest rate may be adjusted at...

  19. Measuring the equilibrium real interest rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Justiniano; Giorgio E. Primiceri

    2010-01-01

    The equilibrium real interest rate represents the real rate of return required to keep the economy’s output equal to potential output. This article discusses how to measure the equilibrium real interest rate, using an empirical structural model of the economy.

  20. Wearable monitoring for mood recognition in bipolar disorder based on history-dependent long-term heart rate variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Gaetano; Nardelli, Mimma; Lanatà, Antonio; Gentili, Claudio; Bertschy, Gilles; Paradiso, Rita; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2014-09-01

    Current clinical practice in diagnosing patients affected by psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder is based only on verbal interviews and scores from specific questionnaires, and no reliable and objective psycho-physiological markers are taken into account. In this paper, we propose to use a wearable system based on a comfortable t-shirt with integrated fabric electrodes and sensors able to acquire electrocardiogram, respirogram, and body posture information in order to detect a pattern of objective physiological parameters to support diagnosis. Moreover, we implemented a novel ad hoc methodology of advanced biosignal processing able to effectively recognize four possible clinical mood states in bipolar patients (i.e., depression, mixed state, hypomania, and euthymia) continuously monitored up to 18 h, using heart rate variability information exclusively. Mood assessment is intended as an intrasubject evaluation in which the patient's states are modeled as a Markov chain, i.e., in the time domain, each mood state refers to the previous one. As validation, eight bipolar patients were monitored collecting and analyzing more than 400 h of autonomic and cardiovascular activity. Experimental results demonstrate that our novel concept of personalized and pervasive monitoring constitutes a viable and robust clinical decision support system for bipolar disorders recognizing mood states with a total classification accuracy up to 95.81%. PMID:24240031

  1. Mechanism and rate of degradation of polyhydroxyoctanoate films in aqueous media: A long-term in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Marois, Y; Zhang, Z; Vert, M; Deng, X; Lenz, R; Guidoin, R

    2000-02-01

    The present study investigated the in vitro mechanism and degradation rate of polyhydroxyoctanoate (PHO). Solution-cast PHO films were incubated in either water or isoosmotic phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for periods ranging from 1 to 24 months. Physical characterization included weight loss, water absorption, pH change, tensile strength, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. Analytical investigations including electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and size exclusion chromatography were also performed to assess chemical and morphological changes to the structure of the PHO. The results show that the PHO-cast films incubated in either water or isoosmotic PBS underwent a simple hydrolytic degradation process characterized by water absorption, gradual molecular weight decrease, and negligible mass loss after 24 months of incubation. DSC results suggest that degradation occurred in the amorphous zone, followed by an attack in the crystalline domain. An increase in the vibration stretching of OH after 24 months of incubation, as revealed by FTIR, may indicate that the degradation process began internally, moving outwardly toward the surface of the PHO films. This process was more rapid in the films incubated in PBS than in those incubated in water. However, no significant changes in the morphology of the films were detected by SEM. This study demonstrated that the in vitro degradation of PHO in water or in PBS is a very slow hydrolytic process, exceeding 2 years. Our findings also suggest that the internal degradation mechanism is faster in PBS because of the ionic strength of the medium and that this internal process surface moves gradually toward the surface. PMID:10571908

  2. Evaluating release alternatives for a long-lived bird species under uncertainty about long-term demographic rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Clinton T.; Converse, Sarah J.; Folk, Martin J.; Runge, Michael C.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The release of animals to reestablish an extirpated population is a decision problem that is often attended by considerable uncertainty about the probability of success. Annual releases of captive-reared juvenile Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) were begun in 1993 in central Florida, USA, to establish a breeding, non-migratory population. Over a 12-year period, 286 birds were released, but by 2004, the introduced flock had produced only four wild-fledged birds. Consequently, releases were halted over managers' concerns about the performance of the released flock and uncertainty about the efficacy of further releases. We used data on marked, released birds to develop predictive models for addressing whether releases should be resumed, and if so, under what schedule. To examine the outcome of different release scenarios, we simulated the survival and productivity of individual female birds under a baseline model that recognized age and breeding-class structure and which incorporated empirically estimated stochastic elements. As data on wild-fledged birds from captive-reared parents were sparse, a key uncertainty that confronts release decision-making is whether captive-reared birds and their offspring share the same vital rates. Therefore, we used data on the only population of wild Whooping Cranes in existence to construct two alternatives to the baseline model. The probability of population persistence was highly sensitive to the choice of these three models. Under the baseline model, extirpation of the population was nearly certain under any scenario of resumed releases. In contrast, the model based on estimates from wild birds projected a high probability of persistence under any release scenario, including cessation of releases. Therefore, belief in either of these models suggests that further releases are an ineffective use of resources. In the third model, which simulated a population Allee effect, population persistence was sensitive to the release decision: high persistence probability was achieved only through the release of more birds, whereas extirpation was highly probable with cessation of releases. Despite substantial investment of time and effort in the release program, evidence collected to date does not favor one model over another; therefore, any decision about further releases must be made under considerable biological uncertainty. However, given an assignment of credibility weight to each model, a best, informed decision about releases can be made under uncertainty. Furthermore, if managers can periodically revisit the release decision and collect monitoring data to further inform the models, then managers have a basis for confronting uncertainty and adaptively managing releases through time.

  3. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-06-01

    The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

  4. Semiparametric Odds Rate Model for Modeling Short-Term and Long-Term Effects with Application to a Breast Cancer Genetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Mengdie

    2014-01-01

    The proportional odds model is commonly used in the analysis of failure time data. The assumption of constant odds ratios over time in the proportional odds model, however, can be violated in some applications. Motivated by a genetic study with breast cancer patients, we propose a novel semiparametric odds rate model for the analysis of right-censored survival data. The proposed model incorporates the short-term and long-term covariate effects on the failure time data and includes the proportional odds model as a nested model. We develop efficient likelihood-based inference procedures and establish the large sample properties of the proposed non-parametric maximum likelihood estimators. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well in practical settings. An application to the motivating example is provided. PMID:24815054

  5. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web Consortium, an independent standards body) as a new data interchange tool is being investigated and implemented. In order to facilitate data archiving, Raman data needs calibration as well as some other kinds of data treatment. Figure 1 illustrates schematically the present situation for Raman data calibration in the world-wide Raman spectroscopy community, and presents some of the terminology used.

  6. Linking Historical Earthquake Records to Long Term Fault Slip Rates Using Cosmogenic 36Cl: Evidence for Migrating Earthquake Activity on a Millenial Timescale Across the Central Italian Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G.; Cowie, P. A.; Phillips, R. J.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Gregory, L. C.; Faure Walker, J.; Dunai, T. J.; Binnie, S. A.; Freeman, S. P. H. T.; Wilcken, K.; Wedmore, L. N. J.; Watson, Z.; Papanikolaou, I.

    2014-12-01

    Where deformation is accommodated by complex arrays of interacting faults, individual fault strands often show fluctuating levels of activity through time with intervals of high, or low, slip rate corresponding to earthquake clusters or quiescence, respectively. Thus earthquakes may occur on structures other than those defined as active based on historical events and paleoseismic records, confounding attempts to map seismic hazard with such datasets. A major challenge is to identify which faults are ahead of their long-term slip rate, which faults are behind their long term rate but still active, and which faults are no longer active. We show that cosmogenic 36Cl depth profiles measured systematically along the fault plane in trenches excavated below the base of bedrock scarps as well as along the exhumed scarp formed by extensional fault slip can be used to estimate both the average Holocene slip rate and the elapsed time since the last earthquake. Specifically, the increase in 36Cl concentration with height immediately above and below the ground surface at the scarp base reveals whether the elapsed time is anomalously long (or short) compared to the expected mean earthquake recurrence. For an area of active extension in Italy, we demonstrate that independent constraints on Holocene slip rates and elapsed times of historical earthquakes show a close correspondence with estimates derived from the 36Cl profiles. However, some faults slipped at rates higher than their Holocene-averaged rate from ~5 ka to the Middle Ages, indicating greater strain accumulation on the SW flank of the central Apennines in a zone that is now quiescent. The historical catalogue shows that, since the earthquake of 1349 A.D., activity has been concentrated in a 50km wide zone of faults further to the NE. In contrast, when viewed over the whole Holocene, strain is symmetrically distributed across the whole array. When taken together, along with documented earthquake shaking since Roman times, these data suggest that the locus of strain accumulation has migrated from one crustal scale fault system to another over a distance of several 10's of km over a time scale of several thousand years and that deformation in this area is more variable in both space and time than the geodetically-determined interseismic strain accumulation would predict.

  7. Long-term conditions.

    PubMed

    2015-03-25

    Technology enabled care services (TECS), which include technologies such as telehealth, telecare, telemedicine and self-care apps, are designed to help people manage long-term conditions and retain as much independence as possible. The NHS Commissioning Assembly has published TECS Resource for Commissioners, a toolkit that raises awareness of the range of TECS available and their benefits to patients and professionals, supports commissioners to collaborate with providers to implement TECS, and advises how to create a TECS strategy, oversee implementation plans and ensure effective evaluation. The publication is at tinyurl.com/khsebyr. PMID:25806457

  8. Why Do Central Banks Smooth Interest Rates?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Srour

    2001-01-01

    It is commonly observed that central banks respond gradually to economic shocks, moving the interest rate in small discrete steps in the same direction over an extended period of time. This paper examines the empirical evidence regarding central banks' smoothing of interest rates, paying particular attention to the case of Canada. It then reviews the alternative explanations of the stylized

  9. Monetary Policy and Market Interest Rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tore Ellingsen; Ulf Soderstrom

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between mon- etary policy and market interest rates is of ut- most importance to bond traders and central bankers alike. Unanticipated changes in mone- tary policy strongly affect interest rates of al- most all maturities, representing recurrent opportunities for traders to win or lose money. All serious bond analysts have their own quan- titative model of the

  10. Long-term erosion rates of Neogene to Quaternary volcanoes of the Altiplano-Puna plateau, Central Andes: an SRTM DEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karátson, Dávid; Telbisz, Tamás.; Wörner, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    Neogene to Quaternary volcanism of the Central Andes offers a unique opportunity to study long-term erosion of stratovolcanoes. On the basis of SRTM DEM data, we invesigated 35 stratovolcanoes of the 3,800-4,000 m high, arid-hyperarid Altiplano-Puna plateau (from 14oS, 64oW to 27oS, 74oW). The volcanoes have been selected on geomorphological criteria such as (1) a single, "mature" cone-shape with considerable size, (2) location on a relatively flat basement, (3) no overlap with other volcanic centres, and (4) lack of calderas or sector collapse scars. Volcanoes of various age (Mid-Miocene to Quaternary based on sporadic radiometric dates) and various degradation stage have been included in order to infer long-term erosion rates. The method we follow is to quantitatively compare the existing topography with the present-day active volcanoes, e.g. Parinacota (Northern Chile). By applying an advanced computational method, we fit the relief of the undissected, almost perfect reference cone over the degraded volcanic edifice. This way, we can precisely calculate (a) the degree of denudation by difference between the computed initial volume from the fit and the observed volume, and (b) for volcanoes with radiometric age constraint the erosion rate (m/Ma) as the areal mean of denudation divided by age. Our results show that (a) the studied volcanoes are degraded to various extent up to ~40% (denudation ratio) of the paleo-volume. In accordance, their relative height which is progressively lower shows a moderately good correlation with denudation (r2 = 0.70). Using the available age constraints, we obtained a stronger correlation between age and denudation (r2 = 0.82 for all volcanoes, and r2 = 0.95 without the southernmost hyperarid and northernmost semihumid volcanoes). (b) Therefore, calculating erosion rates gives highly reliable results. The youngest volcanoes (e.g. Ollagüe, Tacora) shows 50-100 m/Ma erosion rates which fits well to the initially rapid degradation of active volcanic edifices without vegetation cover. Long-term erosion rates of the Pliocene to Miocene volcanoes, in constrast, are much lower and more uniform (7-17 m/Ma), in agreement with other, similarly low erosion rates obtained by other methods (e.g. cosmogenic nuclides) for the Altiplano-Puna highland. Our rates show the smallest values for the hyperarid Puna and the southern Altiplano (e.g. Maricunga volcano), and the greatest values for the semihumid Southern Peru (e.g. Ccarhuaraso, Jatunpuco volcanoes). Moreover, using the very good age vs denudation correlation as a geomorphological dating tool, we are able to estimate ages for undated volcanoes of the Central Andes or for other regions under similar climate conditions.

  11. Assessment of individual adaptation to microgravity during long term space flight based on stepwise discriminant analysis of heart rate variability parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baevsky, Roman M.; Chernikova, Anna G.; Funtova, Irina I.; Tank, Jens

    2011-12-01

    Optimization of the cardiovascular system under conditions of long term space flight is provided by individual changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is an easy to use method under these extreme conditions. We tested the hypothesis that individual HRV analysis provides important information for crew health monitoring. HRV data from 14 Russian cosmonauts measured during long term space flights are presented (two times before and after flight, monthly in flight). HRV characteristics in the time and in the frequency domain were calculated. Predefined discriminant function equations obtained in reference groups (L1=-0.112*HR-1.006*SI-0.047*pNN50-0.086*HF; L2=0.140*HR-0.165*SI-1.293*pNN50+0.623*HF) were used to define four functional states. (1) Physiological normal, (2) prenosological, (3) premorbid and (4) pathological. Geometric mean values for the ISS cosmonauts based on L1 and L2 remained within normal ranges. A shift from the physiological normal state to the prenosological functional state during space flight was detected. The functional state assessed by HRV improved during space flight if compared to pre-flight and early post-flight functional states. Analysis of individual cosmonauts showed distinct patterns depending on the pre-flight functional state. Using the developed classification a transition process from the state of physiological normal into a prenosological state or premorbid state during different stages of space flight can be detected for individual Russian cosmonauts. Our approach to an estimation of HR regulatory pattern can be useful for prognostic purposes.

  12. Feasibility of dose adjustment based on differences in long-term clearance rates of inhaled particulate matter in humans and laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Pepelko, W.E.

    1987-09-01

    Long-term pulmonary clearance rates were evaluated for several laboratory animal species, dogs, and humans to determine if differences among species exist, and if so, the adequacy of the data for dose adjustment. Within each species, large variations in clearance rates were seen, probably as a result of differences in solubility of the aerosol particles, differences in measurement techniques, possible lung damage, transport to lung-associated lymph nodes, and binding of dissolved chemicals to cellular macromolecules in the lung. While few direct comparisons among species using the same aerosol were available, mechanical clearance of particles from the alveolar regions of dogs and humans was generally slower than in most laboratory species, with t1/2 values several-fold longer. Particle clearance rate variations of this magnitude were shown to induce potentially large differences in bioavailability. This can result in large errors in assessing human risk from animal studies unless a dose adjustment is made. It is suggested that despite limitations on available data, a two- to threefold adjustment of dose when extrapolating from small laboratory animals to humans, for quantitative risk assessment, should be considered, unless solubility half-times are very short. 67 references.

  13. Single-Fraction High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Hypofractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer - Long Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Cury, Fabio L., E-mail: fabio.cury@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Duclos, Marie [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Aprikian, Armen [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Patrocinio, Horacio [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Shenouda, George; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc; Souhami, Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: We present the long-term results of a cohort of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) treated with single-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (HypoRT). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated exclusively with HDRB and HypoRT. HDRB delivered a dose of 10 Gy to the prostate surface and HypoRT consisted of 50 Gy delivered in 20 daily fractions. The first 121 consecutive patients with a minimum of 2 years posttreatment follow-up were assessed for toxicity and disease control. Results: The median follow-up was 65.2 months. No acute Grade III or higher toxicity was seen. Late Grade II gastrointestinal toxicity was seen in 9 patients (7.4%) and Grade III in 2 (1.6%). Late Grade III genitourinary toxicity was seen in 2 patients (1.6%). After a 24-month follow-up, a rebiopsy was offered to the first 58 consecutively treated patients, and 44 patients agreed with the procedure. Negative biopsies were found in 40 patients (91%). The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival rate was 90.7% (95% CI, 84.5-96.9%), with 13 patients presenting biochemical failure. Among them, 9 were diagnosed with distant metastasis. Prostate cancer-specific and overall survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 98.8% (95% CI, 96.4-100%), respectively. Conclusion: The combination of HDRB and HypoRT is well tolerated, with acceptable toxicity rates. Furthermore, results from rebiopsies revealed an encouraging rate of local control. These results confirm that the use of conformal RT techniques, adapted to specific biological tumor characteristics, have the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in intermediate-risk PC patients.

  14. Interest Rate Transmission to Commercial Credit Rates in Austria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johann Burgstaller; Johannes Kepler

    2003-01-01

    The transmission process from policy-controlled interest rates to bank lending rates deserves reconsideration owing to the implementation of the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1999. Additional attention to the subject in Austria is due to several large banks which, in 2002, have been charged for not passing on interest rate decreases to their customers. I examine dynamic responses of commercial

  15. US Interests Rates Take a Hike

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Missner, Emily D.

    As speculated, on Tuesday, May 16, 2000, the Federal Reserve Board decided to raise US interest rates another 0.5 percent, to 6.5 percent. This interest rate hike follows five previous increases of a quarter-point each since June 1999. This is the first time in sixteen years that US interest rates have risen above 5 percent. The new rate will affect the borrowing costs for many Americans, including those with unpaid credit card balances and home equity loans, and also for small business that have taken out bank loans. Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan has long worried that the low unemployment rate coupled with booming economic growth will cause inflation to rise, which is why he has continued to advocate for these interest rate increases. Following Tuesday's announcement by the Fed, Wall Street remained stable; the Dow Jones ended the day up 127 points at 10,935. While President Clinton stands behind the Fed's decision to raise the rates, others, including NAM President Jerry Jasinowski, John Sweeney the president of AFL-CIO, and Democratic Senator Tom Harken of Iowa, have all spoken against the latest interest rate hike.

  16. Hybrid analysis for up-to-date long-term survival rates in cancer registries with delayed recording of incident cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Brenner; Bernard Rachet

    2004-01-01

    Up-to-date monitoring of long-term survival is an important task of population-based and clinical cancer registries. A few years ago, a new method of survival analysis, denoted period analysis, was introduced to provide more up-to-date estimates of long-term survival. However, a prototypical period analysis may not be applicable in situations with delayed recording of incident cases. We introduce herein a hybrid

  17. Health, cultural and socioeconomic factors related to self-rated health of long-term Jewish residents, immigrants, and Arab women in midlife in Israel.

    PubMed

    Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Blumstein, Tzvia; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2014-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) has been found to predict future health, yet its importance is unique in the information it captures, beyond more objective measures. This information can include psychosocial and cultural factors that can be important in understanding women's health. Our goal was to test whether long-term Jewish residents (LTJR), immigrant, and Arab women differed in their SRH, whether these differences were maintained after controlling for indicators of health status, and, if so, whether the differences among the three groups reflected psychosocial or socioeconomic factors. A nationally representative sample of 814 women in Israel aged 45-64 years was interviewed (between June 2004 and March 2006) regarding socio-demographics, physical health, health behaviors, and psychosocial aspects. Both immigrant and Arab women reported poorer SRH, physical and mental health, and socioeconomic status. Differences between Arab women and LTJR were mostly explained by differences in health measures (e.g., medications and symptoms) and psychosocial measures (e.g., caregiving load and depressive symptoms) and were eliminated when socioeconomic measures were added to the multiple regression models. Differences in SRH between immigrants and LTJR remained after multiple adjustments, suggesting that they reflected unmeasured cultural factors. Even with universal healthcare coverage in a small country (i.e., with minimal financial and geographical barriers to healthcare) minority groups' health suffers in relation to their socioeconomic and life circumstances. PMID:24791665

  18. Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 ?g SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

  19. Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy Is Associated with a Higher Long-Term Recurrence Rate of Internal Hemorrhoids Compared with Conventional Excisional Hemorrhoid Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiva Jayaraman; Patrick H. D. Colquhoun; Richard A. Malthaner

    2007-01-01

    \\u000a Purpose  The purpose of this systematic review was to compare the long-term results of stapled hemorrhoidopexy with conventional excisional\\u000a hemorrhoidectomy in patients with internal hemorrhoids.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A systematic review of all randomized, controlled trials comparing stapled hemorrhoidopexy and conventional hemorrhoidectomy\\u000a with long-term results was performed by using the Cochrane methodology. The minimum follow-up was six months. Primary outcomes\\u000a were hemorrhoid recurrence, hemorrhoid

  20. New U-Th/Pb constraints on timing of shearing and long-term slip-rate on the Karakorum fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valli, Franck; Leloup, Philippe Hervé; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Arnaud, Nicolas; Li, Haibing; Tapponnier, Paul; Lacassin, Robin; Guillot, StéPhane; Liu, Dunyi; Deloule, Etienne; Xu, Zhiqin; MahéO, Gweltaz

    2008-10-01

    Zircons and monazites from 6 samples of the North Ayilari dextral shear zone (NAsz), part of the Karakorum fault zone (KFZ), have been dated with the U-Th-Pb method, using both ID-TIMS and SIMS techniques. The ages reveal (1) inheritance from several events spanning a long period between the late Archean and the Jurassic; (2) an Eocene-Oligocene magmatic event (˜35-32 Ma); (3) an Oligo-Miocene magmatic event (˜25-22 Ma), at least partly synkinematic to the right-lateral deformation; and (4) a period of metamorphism metasomatism (˜22-14 Ma) interpreted as thermal and fluid advection in the shear zone. The Labhar Kangri granite located ˜375 km farther Southeast along the KFZ is dated at 21.1 ± 0.3 Ma. Such occurrence of several Oligo-Miocene granites along the KFZ, some of which show evidence for synkinematic emplacement, suggests that the fault zone played an important role in the genesis and /or collection of crustal melts. We discuss several scenarios for the onset and propagation of the KFZ, and offset estimates based on the main sutures zones. Our preferred scenario is an Oligo-Miocene initiation of the fault close to the NA range, and propagation along most of its length prior to ˜19 Ma. In its southern half, the averaged long-term fault-rate of the KFZ is greater than 8 to 10 mm/a, in good agreement with some shorter-term estimates based on the Indus river course, or Quaternary moraines and geodesy. Our results show the KFZ cannot be considered as a small transient fault but played a major role in the collision history.

  1. Promising Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlgren, Thomas [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: thomas.wahlgren@karolinska.se; Nilsson, Sten [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Lennernaes, Bo [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Hospital and Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Brandberg, Yvonne [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To explore the long-term general and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) >5 years after combined radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer, including a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost and hormonal deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: Of 196 eligible patients with localized prostate cancer (Stage T1-T3a) consecutively treated with curative radiotherapy at our institution between June 1998 and August 2000, 182 (93%) completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25, including specific questions on fecal incontinence >5 years after treatment in September 2005. A comparison with age-matched normative data was done, as well as a longitudinal analysis using HRQOL data from a previous study. Results: The analysis included 158 nonrecurrent patients. Comparisons made with normative data showed that physical and role functioning were significantly better statistically and social functioning was significantly worse. Diarrhea and sleep disturbances were more pronounced and pain less pronounced than in a normal male population. The longitudinal analysis of disease-specific HRQOL showed that urinary urgency and erectile problems persisted 5 years after treatment, and nocturia and hormonally dependent symptoms had declined significantly, with a statistically significant difference. Fecal incontinence was recognized by 25% of patients, of whom 80% considered it a minor problem. Conclusion: More than 5 years after combined radiotherapy, irritative urinary problems and erectile dysfunction remain concerns, although severe bowel disturbance and fecal incontinence seem to be minor problems. Longitudinally, a decline mainly in hormonally dependent symptoms was seen. Minor differences in general HRQOL compared with normative data were observed, possibly including 'response shift' effects.

  2. What Moves OECD Real Interest Rates?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Driffill; Andrew Snell

    2003-01-01

    This paper conducts a structural time-series analysis of ex-ante real interest rates of the five major OECD economies. The relationships of rates to permanent and temporary real and nominal shocks appear to be qualitatively consistent with predictions of stochastic general equilibrium business cycle models. U.S. real and nominal shocks are found to be the most important causes of persistence in

  3. Long-term symbolic learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G. Kennedy; J. Gregory Trafton

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks. Long sequences of problems were run collecting data to answer fundamental questions about long-term, symbolic learning. We examined whether symbolic learning continues indefinitely, how the learned knowledge is used, and whether

  4. Crop productivity under increasing nitrogen rates and different organic fertilization systems in a long-term IOSDV experiment in the Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Káš; Jan Haberle; Stepanka Mat?jková

    2010-01-01

    The yields of winter wheat, winter barley, and potatoes in a long-term field experiment on one of the international IOSDV network sites, were evaluated. The experiment was set up in 1983 in Lukavec, Czech Republic, within a potato growing region on a sandy-loam soil. The experiment includes three systems of organic fertilization: Without manure; manure added for the potatoes; and

  5. Long-term rates and the depth extent of fault creep along the San Andreas Fault system in northern California from alinement arrays and GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienkaemper, J. J.; McFarland, F. S.; Simpson, R. W.; Caskey, J.

    2013-12-01

    The dextral San Andreas Fault system (SAFS) in northern California comprises five branches that exhibit considerable variation in the amount and spatial extent of aseismic release or creep. We estimate the depth extent of creep with a forward elastic model using the algorithms of Okada (1992) and boundary value dislocation solutions for creep rate and depth of creeping patches. For purposes of analysis we label branches, from west to east: A (San Gregorio), B (San Andreas), C (Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama), D (Northern Calaveras-Green Valley-Bartlett Springs) and E (Greenville. Since the 1960s alinement arrays have provided one of the most accurate means to estimate the long-term creep rate and these rates have been reasonably well determined for much of the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) southward. Over the past decade we have been installing alinement arrays along the more remote faults, especially northward of the SFBA, to monitor the extent of creep on branches C and D. We currently monitor about 80 such arrays throughout the northern SAFS. To analyze the depth extent of creep over the entire system, we model 30 fault sections on these five branches, delineated either by geometric discontinuities between them or by distinctly different creeping behaviors. We have removed any significant transient rate changes imposed by large regional earthquakes. We use crustal velocities determined for global-positioning station pairs of survey mode and continuous (SGPS, CGPS or mixed pairs) that are located near each fault to provide additional constraint on average creep rates. We estimate the mean depth of creep from the mean observed surface creep rate for each section and the rate uncertainty allows estimation of a depth uncertainty. Uncertainties are generally much higher where only five years or less of alinement array data are available, but in some cases the addition of CGPS or multiple SGPS station pairs has been essential for a more complete evaluation of the extent of creep. For example near-fault CGPS data clearly indicate that significant dextral creep occurs on both branches C and D north of the Mendocino triple junction. However, creep depth on some remote sections of branches C and D remains poorly constrained and will require a few more years of data to adequately evaluate the impact of creep on their seismic hazard. On the two urban fault sections in the northern SFBA, the Rodgers Creek and southern Green Valley faults, our denser creep measurements made over the past decade now allow us to characterize the along-strike and depth extent of their creep with much greater certainty for seismic hazard purposes. Two other urban faults, the Northern Calaveras and the Greenville faults, located in the eastern SFBA, we have also monitored more densely for creep over the past decade, and hence we now can more accurately characterize their seismic hazard.

  6. Long-Term Stability of Tutor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the extent to which tutor ratings remained stable in the long term by evaluating 291 ratings of 140 tutors at Maastricht University in the Netherlands between 1992 and 1995. The results indicated that, if the aggregated score and overall judgement are used to interpret the precision of individual scores, four and two occasions,…

  7. A note on affine interest rate models

    E-print Network

    Lescot, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Bernstein processes are Brownian diffusions that appear in Euclidean Quantum Mechanics. Knowledge of the symmetries of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation associated with these processes allows one to obtain relations between stochastic processes (Lescot-Zambrini, Progress in Probability, vols 58 and 59). More recently it has appeared that each one--factor affine interest rate model (in the sense of Leblanc-Scaillet) could be described using such a Bernstein process.

  8. Glossary (Long-Term Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not as intensive as care offered at a nursing home. Types and sizes of facilities vary, ranging from ... a cognitive impairment. Community Spouse Spouse of a nursing home resident applying for or receiving Medicaid long-term ...

  9. Long-term orbital lifetime predictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Dreher; A. T. Lyons

    1990-01-01

    Long-term orbital lifetime predictions are analyzed. Predictions were made for three satellites: the Solar Max Mission (SMM), the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), and the Pegasus Boiler Plate (BP). A technique is discussed for determining an appropriate ballistic coefficient to use in the lifetime prediction. The orbital decay rate should be monitored regularly. Ballistic coefficient updates should be done whenever

  10. A review on long-term sorption solar energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Edem N’Tsoukpoe; Hui Liu; Nolwenn Le Pierrès; Lingai Luo

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, long-term sorption and thermochemical heat storage has generated lot of interest. This paper presents the state of the art in this field of research, materials used in these systems and technological difficulties that researchers are set against. An emphasis is put on recent demonstrative projects including absorption and adsorption for long-term solar energy storage. It emerges

  11. Pregnancy in women who undergo long-term hemodialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An-Shine Chao; Jeng-Yi Huang; Reyin Lien; Fu-Tsai Kung; Po-Jen Chen; Peter C. C. Hsieh

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Pregnancy is rare in women who require long-term hemodialysis, and pregnancy outcome with a live birth has a low success rate. The purpose of this study was to describe the treatment of pregnancy and the outcome in a series of patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis treatment. Study Design: A total of 15 women who were undergoing long-term hemodialysis treatment who

  12. Page 1 of 2 Loan Interest Rate & Fees

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daeyeol

    Page 1 of 2 Loan Interest Rate & Fees Loan Cost Examples Yale University P.O. Box 208338 New Haven, CT 06520-8338 203-432-2727 Your Interest Rate during the life of the loan Your rate is fixed. This means that your rate will remain fixed at the interest rate stated on this form. Loan Fees Late Charge

  13. Page 1 of 2 Loan Interest Rate & Fees

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daeyeol

    Page 1 of 2 Loan Interest Rate & Fees Loan Cost Examples Yale University P.O. Box 208338 New Haven, CT 06520-8338 203-432-2727 Your Interest Rate during the life of the loan Your rate is fixed. This means that your rate will remain fixed at the interest rate stated on this form. Loan Fees Origination

  14. Estimating Long-Term Mating Systems Using DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, B. G.

    1996-01-01

    Plant mating systems often involve a mixture of self fertilizations and outcross fertilizations. The degree of selfing has a large impact on the genetic composition of natural populations and on the evolution of the mating system itself in response to such factors as inbreeding depression. This paper describes a means of estimating the long-term rate of self-fertilization from samples of alleles taken from individuals in a population. Use is made of the genealogy of pairs of alleles at a locus within individuals and pairs between individuals. The degree of selfing is closely related to the extent to which the number of nucleotide sites differing within an individual is reduced relative to the number differing between individuals. Importantly, the estimate of long-term selfing is largely independent of population size and is not affected by historical fluctuations in population size; instead it responds directly to the mating system itself. The approach outlined here is most appropriate to evolutionary problems in which the long-term nature of the mating system is of interest, such as to determine the relationship between prior inbreeding and inbreeding depression. PMID:8852858

  15. ? Carinae long-term variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damineli, Augusto; Teodoro, Mairan; Corcoran, Michael F.; Groh, Jose H.

    2011-07-01

    We present preliminary results of our analysis on the long-term variations observed in the optical spectrum of the LBV star ? Carinae. Based on the hydrogen line profiles, we conclude that the physical parameters of the primary star did not change in the last 15 years.

  16. 5 CFR 842.605 - Election of insurable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...insurable interest rate, an employee or...insurable interest rate may be elected to...beneficiary's date of birth. (f) OPM will...initial monthly annuity rates with and without...8420 of title 5, United States Code,...

  17. Northern bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus) abundance in relation to yearly weather and long-term climate patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Lusk; Fred S. Guthery; Stephen J. DeMaso

    2001-01-01

    We used a multilayered, backpropagation neural network to investigate the relative effects of yearly weather and long-term climate patterns on the abundance of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus: hereafter, bobwhite) in Oklahoma, USA. Bobwhite populations have been declining for several decades across the United States, and predicted global climate change might accelerate the rate of decline. We were interested in whether

  18. Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-03-22

    The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

  19. Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Petursson; M H Lader

    1981-01-01

    Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels

  20. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variable interest rate loans. 1735.33 ...PROGRAM Types of Loans § 1735.33 Variable interest rate loans. After June...to November 1, 1993, RUS made certain variable rate loans at interest rates less...

  1. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable interest rate loans. 1735.33 ...PROGRAM Types of Loans § 1735.33 Variable interest rate loans. After June...to November 1, 1993, RUS made certain variable rate loans at interest rates less...

  2. Monetary Policy When Interest Rates Are Bounded At Zero

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey C. Fuhrer; Brian F. Madigan

    1997-01-01

    This paper assesses the importance of the zero lower bound on nominal interest rates for the interest-rate channel of monetary policy. We simulate several interest-rate setting policy rules with either high or low inflation targets. We determine the extent to which the zero bound prevents real rates from falling, thus cushioning aggregate output in response to negative spending shocks. For

  3. Long-term complications related to the modified Indiana pouch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel G Holmes; J. Brantley Thrasher; Gerald Y Park; Deborah C Kueker; John W Weigel

    2002-01-01

    ObjectivesTo describe a single-institution, single-surgeon experience with 125 modified Indiana pouches performed during a period of 14 years and their long-term complications. The modified Indiana pouch is a widely accepted and often used form of continent urinary diversion. Few studies have established the long-term complication rates associated with the procedure.

  4. 31 CFR 351.12 - What do I need to know about the long-term savings bond rate, to understand redemption value...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...rate, to understand redemption value calculations in this subpart...SERIES EE Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings Bonds General...rate, to understand redemption value calculations in this...

  5. 7 CFR 4280.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.125 Interest...

  6. 7 CFR 4280.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.125 Interest...

  7. A Geometric View of Interest Rate Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomas Bjork

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to give an overview of some recent work concerning structural properties of the evolution of the forward rate curve in an arbitrage free bond market. The main problems to be discussed are as follows. When is a given forward rate model consistent with a given family of forward rate curves? When can the inherently

  8. Long-term tree growth rate, water use efficiency, and tree ring nitrogen isotope composition of Pinus massoniana L. in response to global climate change and local nitrogen deposition in Southern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fangfang Sun; Yuanwen Kuang; Dazhi Wen; Zhihong Xu; Jianli Li; Weidong Zuo; Enqing Hou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  We aimed to investigate long-term tree growth rates, water use efficiencies (WUE), and tree ring nitrogen (N) isotope compositions\\u000a (?15N) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) in response to global climate change and local N deposition in Southern China.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Tree annual growth rings of Masson pine were collected from four forest sites, viz. South China Botanical Garden (SBG),

  9. Long-term Variation of AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Xie, G. Z.; Adam, G.; Copin, Y.; Lin, R. G.; Bai, J. M.; Quin, Y. P.

    In this paper we will present the long-term variation in the optical and the infrared bands for some selected AGNs. 1. Some new optical data observed by us have been presented for BL Lacertae (1995-1996) and OJ 287 (1994-1995), and new infrared data are presented for OJ 287 (Nov=2E 1995), which corresponds to the second optical peak (Sillanpaa et al. 1996; Takalo et al. 1996) and during last outburst. 2. For objects with long term observations, the Jurkevich's method has been used to analyses the long-term variation period. It is interesting that the reported periods of AGNs are of the similar value of about 10 years: 3C 345 11.4 years (Webb et al. 1988), 3C 120 15 years (Belokon et al. 1987; Hagen-Thorn et al. 1997), ON 231 13.6 years (Liu et al. 1995), OJ 287 12 years (Sillanpaa et al. 1988; Kidger et al. 1992), PKS 0735+178 14 years (Fan et al. 1997), NGC 4151 15 years (Fan et al. 1998a), BL Lacertae 14.0 years (Fan et al. 1998b). Is the mechanism for the long-term variation the same for different AGNs? 3. The DCF method has been adopted to analysis the variation correlation in the optical and infrared bands for BL Lac object OJ 287, the results show that these two bands are strongly correlated, which suggest that the emission mechanism in the two bands is the same. 4. For the optical and infrared bands, the maximum variations are correlated.

  10. 12 CFR 652.30 - Interest rate risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01... Interest rate risk management. 652.30 Section 652.30 Banks and Banking FARM...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL... Interest rate risk management. (a) The...

  11. Credit Cards, Economization of Money, and Interest Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steindl, Frank G.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the effect of interest rates on the increased use of credit cards, a popular method of financing households. Uses three models to demonstrate that interest rates must rise, resulting in increased consumption expenditures. (CMK)

  12. Do Exchange Rates Move in Line With Uncovered Interest Parity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Huisman; Ronald Mahieu; Arjen Mulder

    2007-01-01

    According to uncovered interest rate Parity (UIP), the expected relative change in an exchange rate is equal to the difference between interest rates between the two currencies. Empirically, UIP is frequently rejected. In this paper, we examine whether exchange rates have at least any tendency to move in the direction predicted by UIP and whether exchange rates tend to move

  13. Long-term variation of energetic electron precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asikainen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    The long-term evolution of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) is of considerable interest, e.g., because of its atmospheric and climatic effects. However, the long-term evolution of EEP over several solar cycles has been problematic due to the lack of reliable long-term data. The NOAA/POES satellites have measured energetic particles for more than 35 years. This dataset has been used widely but it has been plagued by several instrumental problems, which have restricted its use for long-term studies. However, we have recently corrected and recalibrated the entire NOAA/POES energetic particle dataset. Using this unique dataset we present here an overview of the long-term evolution of EEP paying particular attention to the role of different types of solar wind disturbances in driving the EEP.

  14. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan...

  15. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan...

  16. Interest-rate risk in the Indian banking system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ila Patnaik; Ajay Shah

    2005-01-01

    Many observers have expressed concerns about the impact of a rise in interest rates upon banks in India. In this paper, we measure the interest rate risk of a sample of major banks in India, using two methodologies. The first consists of estimating the impact upon equity capital of certain interest rate shocks. The second consists of measuring the elasticity

  17. Interest-Rate Risk in the Indian Banking System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ila Patnaik; Ajay Shah

    2003-01-01

    Many observers have expressed concerns about the impact of a rise in interest rates upon banks in India. In this paper, we measure the interest rate risk of a sample of major banks in India, using two methodologies. The first consists of estimating the impact upon equity capital of certain interest rate shocks. The second consists of measuring the elasticity

  18. Using the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) to Predict Long Term Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L.; Brewer, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the predictive validity of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, Autism detection in early childhood: ADEC. Australian Council of Educational Research, Camberwell, VIC 2007) and a well-established screening tool, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler et al. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS).…

  19. Late Cenozoic reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the comparison of short-term and long-term deformation rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Allen; James Jackson; Richard Walker

    2004-01-01

    The Arabia-Eurasia collision deforms an area of ?3,000,000 km2 of continental crust, making it one of the largest regions of convergent deformation on Earth. There are now estimates for the active slip rates, total convergence and timing of collision-related deformation of regions from western Turkey to eastern Iran. This paper shows that extrapolating the present day slip rates of many

  20. Assessment of capacity loss in low-rate lithium/bromine chloride in thionyl chloride cells by microcalorimetry and long-term discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, E. S.; Meyer, S. M.; Holmes, C. F.

    1990-06-01

    Real-time discharge is one of the few reliable methods available for determining capacities of low-rate cells. The utilization of high energy density lithium batteries in low-rate implantable applications has increased the need for more time-efficient methods of predicting cell longevity since cells have been shown to last in excess of eight years. The relationship between heat dissipation and self-discharge of low-rate lithium/BCX (bromine chloride in thionyl chloride) cells was studied and allows prediction of cell life prior to the availability of real-time data. The method was verified by real-time cell discharge data and provided estimates of delivered capacity within 6 percent of the actual values.

  1. Negative nominal interest rates: history and current proposals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cordelius Ilgmann; Martin Menner

    2011-01-01

    Given the renewed interest in negative interest rates on base money—or equivalently ‘taxing money’—as a means for overcoming\\u000a the zero bound on short-term nominal interest rates, this article reviews the history of negative nominal interest rates starting\\u000a from the ‘taxing money’ proposal of Silvio Gesell up to current proposals that received popular attention in the wake of the\\u000a financial crisis

  2. Long-term Observation of 64 Patients with Roentgenographically Occult Lung Cancer Treated with External Irradiation and Intraluminal Irradiation Using Low-dose-rate Iridium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobukazu Fuwa; Takeshi Kodaira; Hiroyuki Tachibana; Tatsuya Nakamura; Natsuo Tomita; Takashi Daimon

    Objective: Therapeutic results of intraluminal irradiation were analyzed in 64 patients with roentgenographically occult lung cancer (ROLC). Methods: The subjects were 64 patients who underwent intraluminal irradiation between 1987 and 2003. Radiotherapy was performed by combining external irradiation with intralum- inal irradiation using low-dose-rate iridium (four 370-MBq wires) through a catheter with a spacer. The doses of radiation were 0

  3. Effect of diabetes mellitus on short- and long-term mortality rates of patients with acute myocardial infarction: A statewide study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziad A. Abbud; Daniel M. Shindler; Alan C. Wilson; John B. Kostis

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on mortality rate in 42,595 patients in the statewide Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System (MIDAS), which included patients with myocardial infarction from 90 nonfederal hospitals in New Jersey during the years 1986 and 1987. Of these patients 9695 (22.8%) had DM. DM was more prevalent among female, black, and older patients. DM

  4. Isoenzyme frequencies in long-term selection lines of Drosophila melanogaster : IV. Isoenzyme frequencies of the leucine aminopeptidases (LAP) in lines selected for short and long developmental rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-J. Muhs

    1975-01-01

    1)Selection lines derived from a reference line, the continuation of an initial population which were founded by a double cross of four laboratory stocks, were selected for short (line KS and K) and long (line LS and L) developmental rate for up to 183 generations.2)Frequencies of the linkage groups, AODF , AFDF and ASDS , of two closely linked loci,

  5. The long-term reinfection rate and the course of duodenal ulcer disease after eradication of Helicobacter pylori in a developing country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Rollan; Rossana Giancaspero; Francisco Fuster; Claudia Acevedo; Cecilia Figueroa; Karen Hola; Marcela Schulz; Ignacio Duarte

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication on the natural history of duodenal ulcer disease and the reinfection rate after treatment in a developing country.METHODS:A total of 111 H. pylori-infected patients with duodenal ulcer were treated with either omeprazole or famotidine plus two antibiotics for 2 wk. Those failed to respond

  6. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (1) Fixed rates can be changed to variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than...to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed...

  7. Microbial degradation at a shallow coastal site: Long-term spectra and rates of exoenzymatic activities in the NE Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celussi, Mauro; Del Negro, Paola

    2012-12-01

    The degradation of organic matter along the water column is mediated by enzymes released into the environment by planktonic organisms. Variations in enzymes profiles (types and levels of activity) reflect the trophic status of the environment and could be caused by shifts in the dominant species or in the level of enzyme expression by the same species in response to changes in the spectrum of organic substrates. To explore this issue, we examined the maximum rates of hydrolysis of 6 different enzymes (protease, ?-glucosidase, ?-glucosidase, ?-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase and lipase) along the water column (4 depths) at a coastal station in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea), from 2000 to 2005. Most of the studied enzymes exhibited a pronounced seasonal variability with winter minima and maxima from April to October. During summer, alkaline phosphatase, lipase and protease reached the highest activities, while polysaccharide degradation prevailed in spring and autumn, associated to phytoplankton blooms. Phosphatase/protease activities ratio was generally low, indicating that microbial communities were rarely P-limited, possibly because of the use of organic P sources. A pronounced interannual variability of degradation patterns was found, with maximum rates of protease being the highest in most of the samples, followed by the alkaline phosphatase's ones. Water column features greatly affected hydrolysis rates, being degradation of linear polysaccharides, lipids, phosphorilated compounds and polypeptides significantly different at different depths during stratified condition. Mixing processes affected especially ?-glucosidase activity, possibly as a consequence of resuspension of organic matter from the seabed. Large-impact phenomena such as the 2003 heat wave and mucilage influenced the degradation of specific substrates. Mucilage enhanced lipase, phosphatase and protease, whereas a pronounced inhibition characterised phosphatase and protease during summer 2003.

  8. The influence of environmental factors on heart rate chronostructure depending on the individual characteristics of autonomic regulation. Results of long-term medical-ecological studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaeva, Olga; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Breus, Tamara; Chernikova, Anna; Baevsky, Roman

    It was previously shown [Baevsky, Petrov, 1998] that during space flight under influence of geomagnetic disturbances there are both specific response of the autonomic regulation system in the form of vasomotor cardiovascular center activation (LF spectral components) and non-specific stress response, which depends on the actual autonomic balance [Breus, Baevsky, 2002]. Within the project "Mars-500" the parallel medical-ecological studies were conducted in 10 groups (10-16 people), that lived in different regions of the world under the influence of various environmental factors - climatic, geographic, industrial, social and other. It allowed us to obtain a sufficiently large number of variants of adaptive reactions caused by differences in external impacts. The main research method was the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in short ECG samples (5 minutes) for assessing heart rate chronostructure and functional status of autonomic regulation. Results of studies have demonstrated that environmental loads on the regulatory mechanisms is higher in the northern and north-eastern regions of Russia - Magadan and Syktyvkar. Stress-index of regulatory systems and adaptive risk indicator is significantly higher in these groups [Baevsky, Berseneva, 2013]. The preliminary search of weather factors (atmospheric pressure, air temperature, humidity and magnetic index Kp) influence on the autonomic regulation of heart rate showed that there are no any significant changes and relationships in the entire group of participants. We have assumed that the character of adaptive responses, including responses to changing weather and geomagnetic conditions, is associated with the individual characteristics and the initial functional state of autonomic regulation. To test this hypothesis, we have identified two groups of subjects with different autonomic balance. The first group included individuals with a pronounced predominance of sympathetic regulation (n = 127), the second - with a strong predominance of parasympathetic activity (n = 64). The analysis of correlations between weather and heart rate chronostructure and functional condition of autonomic regulation revealed that attitude of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) of heart rhythm spectrum higher in both groups at declining geomagnetic activity and lower at its growth. The comparison of other HRV indicators at decreasing and increasing geomagnetic activity displayed the opposite trends in these groups. Stress-index of regulatory systems (SI), which reflects the sympathetic activity, rises in group with sympathetic dominance at reducing geomagnetic activity, and at its growth - in group with parasympathetic dominance. So, we can see that specific adaptive reaction as response to changing geomagnetic situation, which manifested in activation of vasomotor cardiovascular center, is the similar in subjects with different autonomic balance. Non-specific component depends on initial dominance of one or another regulatory mechanism.

  9. Long-term interferon-? treatment formultiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Ruggieri; N. Settipani; L. Viviano; M. Attanasio; L. Giglia; P. Almasio; V. La Bella; F. Piccoli

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract.\\u000a   The aim of our study was to analyze the dropout rate in\\u000apatients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS)\\u000aunder long-term treatment with the three commercially available\\u000ainterferon beta (IFN) preparations. According to the drug\\u000ataken, we divided 122 RRMS patients into 4 groups: Betaferon\\u000agroup, 56 patients taking INF-1b (24 MIU weekly, subcutaneous\\u000ainjections); Avonex group, 38 patients taking

  10. 24 CFR 241.1070 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FOR INSURED PROJECT MORTGAGES Insurance for Equity Loans and Acquisition Loans-Eligibility...241.1070 Agreed interest rate. The equity or acquisition loan shall bear interest...

  11. 24 CFR 241.1070 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FOR INSURED PROJECT MORTGAGES Insurance for Equity Loans and Acquisition Loans-Eligibility...241.1070 Agreed interest rate. The equity or acquisition loan shall bear interest...

  12. 24 CFR 241.1070 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FOR INSURED PROJECT MORTGAGES Insurance for Equity Loans and Acquisition Loans-Eligibility...241.1070 Agreed interest rate. The equity or acquisition loan shall bear interest...

  13. 24 CFR 241.1070 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FOR INSURED PROJECT MORTGAGES Insurance for Equity Loans and Acquisition Loans-Eligibility...241.1070 Agreed interest rate. The equity or acquisition loan shall bear interest...

  14. 24 CFR 241.1070 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FOR INSURED PROJECT MORTGAGES Insurance for Equity Loans and Acquisition Loans-Eligibility...241.1070 Agreed interest rate. The equity or acquisition loan shall bear interest...

  15. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment - Task 4: Modeling - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Starr

    2005-10-31

    Trichloroethene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, can be degraded under certain conditions by microorganisms that occur naturally in the subsurface. TCE can be degraded under anaerobic conditions to less chlorinated compounds and ultimately into the non-chlorinated, non-hazardous end product, ethene, via anaerobic reductive dechlorination (ARD). ARD is widely recognized as a TCE degradation mechanism, and occurs in active groundwater remediation and can occur during monitored natural attenuation (MNA). MNA relies on natural processes, such as dispersion and degradation, to reduce contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels without active human intervention other than monitoring. TCE can also be biodegraded under aerobic conditions via cometabolism, in which microbial enzymes produced for other purposes fortuitously also react with TCE. In cometabolism, TCE is oxidized directly to non-hazardous products. Cometabolism as a TCE-degrading process under aerobic conditions is less well known than ARD. Natural attenuation is often discounted as a TCE remedial alternative in aerobic conditions based on the paradigm that TCE is biodegradable only under anaerobic conditions. In contrast to this paradigm, TCE was shown to degrade relative to conservative co-contaminants at an environmentally significant rate in a large (approximately 3 km long) TCE plume in aerobic groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the degradation mechanism was shown to be cometabolism. MNA was selected as the remedy for most of this plume, resulting in a considerable cost savings relative to conventional remedial methods. To determine if cometabolism might be a viable remedy at other sites with TCE-contaminated aerobic groundwater, TCE plumes at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities were screened to evaluate whether TCE commonly degrades in aerobic groundwater, and if degradation rates are fast enough that natural attenuation could be a viable remedy. One hundred and twenty seven plumes at 24 DOE facilities were screened, and 14 plumes were selected for detailed examination. In the plumes selected for further study, spatial changes in the concentration of a conservative co-contaminant were used to compensate for the effects of mixing and temporal changes in TCE release from the contaminant source. Decline in TCE concentration along a flow path in excess of the co contaminant concentration decline was attributed to cometabolic degradation. This study indicated that TCE was degraded in 9 of the 14 plumes examined, with first order degradation half-lives ranging from about 1 to 12 years. TCE degradation in about two-thirds of the plumes examined suggests that cometabolism of TCE in aerobic groundwater is a common occurrence, in contrast to the conventional wisdom that TCE is recalcitrant in aerobic groundwater. The degradation half-life values calculated in this study are short enough that natural attenuation may be a viable remedy in many aerobic plumes. Computer modeling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport and degradation is frequently used to predict the evolution of groundwater plumes, and for evaluating natural attenuation and other remedial alternatives. An important aspect of a computer model is the mathematical approach for describing degradation kinetics. A common approach is to assume that degradation occurs as a first-order process. First order kinetics are easily incorporated into transport models and require only a single value (a degradation half-life) to describe reaction kinetics. The use of first order kinetics is justified in many cases because more elaborate kinetic equations often closely approximate first order kinetics under typical field conditions. A previous modeling study successfully simulated the INL TCE plume using first order degradation kinetics. TCE cometabolism is the result of TCE reacting with microbial enzymes that were produced for other purposes, such as oxidizing a growth substrate to obtain energy. Both TCE and the growth substrate compete for enzyme reactive sites, and the presence of

  16. Glomerular filtration rate after alpha-radioimmunotherapy with 211At-MX35-F(ab')2: a long-term study of renal function in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Bäck, Tom; Haraldsson, Börje; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Johansson, Martin E; Lindegren, Sture; Jacobsson, Lars

    2009-12-01

    Besides bone marrow, the kidneys are often dose-limiting organs in internal radiotherapy. The effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the kidneys after alpha-radioimmunotherapy (alpha-RIT) with the alpha-particle emitter, (211)At, were studied in nude mice by serial measurements of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The renal toxicity was evaluated at levels close to the dose limit for the bone marrow and well within the range for therapeutic efficacy on tumors. Astatinated MX35-F(ab')(2) monoclonal antibodies were administered intravenously to nude mice. Both non-tumor-bearing animals and animals bearing subcutaneous xenografts of the human ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-3, were used. The animals received approximately 0.4, 0.8, or 1.2 MBq in one, two, or three fractions. The mean absorbed doses to the kidneys ranged from 1.5 to 15 Gy. The renal function was studied by serial GFR measurements, using plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA, up to 67 weeks after the first astatine injection. A dose-dependent effect on GFR was found and at the time interval 8-30 weeks after the first administration of astatine, the absorbed doses causing a 50% decrease in GFR were 16.4 +/- 3.3 and 14.0 +/- 4.1 Gy (mean +/- SEM), tumor- and non-tumor-bearing animals, respectively. The reduction in GFR progressed with time, and at the later time interval, (31-67 weeks) the corresponding absorbed doses were 7.5 +/- 2.4 and 11.3 +/- 2.3 Gy, respectively, suggesting that the effects of radiation on the kidneys were manifested late. Examination of the kidney sections showed histologic changes that were overall subdued. Following alpha-RIT with (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2) at levels close to the dose limit of severe myelotoxicity, the effects found on renal function were relatively small, with only minor to moderate reductions in GFR. These results suggest that a mean absorbed dose to the kidneys of approximately 10 Gy is acceptable, and that the kidneys would not be the primary dose-limiting organ in systemic alpha-RIT when using (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2). PMID:20025544

  17. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  18. Long-term outcomes of stapled hemorrhoidopexy

    PubMed Central

    Michalik, Maciej; Bobowicz, Maciej; Witzling, Mieczys?aw

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hemorrhoidal disease is one of the commonest anorectal disorders worldwide. Stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH) is a treatment modality associated with low postoperative pain and early mobilization. Aim To assess long-term outcomes after SH. Material and methods All 326 patients who underwent SH in 1999–2003 were invited by mail to participate. For each patient we analyzed their medical records, and conducted a questionnaire survey and a digital rectal examination. Results Only 91 patients attended the final examination and the mean ± SD follow-up time was 8.7 ±1.2 years. Recurrences were diagnosed in one third of the 91 subjects. There were correlations between recurrences and: the duration of disease (p = 0.047); female gender (p = 0.037); and childbirth (vaginal delivery) (p = 0.026). Sixty-seven patients (73.6%) were satisfied with the outcomes. In the group of dissatisfied patients symptoms such as pain (p = 0.0001), burning (p = 0.0002) and itching (p = 0.014) were most common. Long-term outcomes were good with 75% and 88% reductions in pain sensation and severe and moderate hemorrhoidal bleeding. Pruritus, burning and discomfort resolved in more than 50% of patients. Flatus incontinence, fecal incontinence, or soiling occurred in 21%, 11%, and 32% of patients. Conclusions Long-term results of stapled hemorrhoidopexy are satisfactory in most patients. The 36% recurrence rate correlates with the degree of hemorrhoidal prolapse before the operation, duration of the disease, female gender, and previous vaginal delivery. PMID:24729805

  19. Long-term injectable progestogens.

    PubMed

    Tyler, E T

    1967-01-01

    Prof. Edward T. Tyler, medical director of the Family Planning Clinics of Los Angeles, gave an interim report on a study into the use of unjectable progestogens as a long-term method of contraception. An intramuscular injection of medroxy-progesterone acetate (150 mg.) is given three-monthly, with no supplementary oestrogen. Over the past two years about 150 women began this form of contraception in a continuing study. There have been no pregnancies in the series. The most frequent side-effect has been bleeding. An attempt was made to see how soon the contraceptive effects cease after treatment is stopped. The injections were therefore stopped in 36 women, who were then fitted with various mechanical forms of contraception, including IUDs. Tests for the re-establishment of ovulation were undertaken, including basal temperature studies, frequent pelvic examinations, cervical and vagianl smears, endometrial biopsies, gonadotrophin and pregnanediol estimations. It appeared that the earliest return of ovulation is a little under six months from the time of the last injection. The early results of this study, presented here, suggest that long-acting injectable progestogens are an extremely effective form of contraception. While the delay in return of fertility for some months may be a problem in certain areas, this method may well be of importance in general population control. PMID:12254706

  20. Long-term effects of sludge application to land

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, W.S. (Metcalf and Eddy Pacific Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)); Knocke, W.R.; Novak, J.T.; Dove, D. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term environmental effects of applying alum sludge to land. Investigations at the original field site included soil analysis, soil water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and analysis of tissues from pine needles. No long-term (30 months) effects were observed, and the authors conclude that alum coagulant sludges can be applied to forest lands at loading rates of at least 1.5 to 2.5% by dry weight without adverse effect.

  1. Uncovered Interest Parity and the USD\\/COP Echange Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Rowland

    2002-01-01

    This paper test the uncovered interest parity (UIP) hypothesis for the USD\\/COP exchange rate, using weekly data for the period from january 1994, when Colombia introduced its crawling band exchange rate regime, to august 2002. The study yields several interesting results. For the period october 1996 to august 2002 the UIP hypothesis receives relatively strong support, even if this is

  2. 38 CFR 36.4212 - Interest rates and late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Interest rates and late charges. 36.4212 Section 36.4212...Provisions § 36.4212 Interest rates and late charges. (a) In guaranteeing...delinquency or default; Provided, that a late charge not in excess of an amount...

  3. The Long-Term Influence of Body Mass Index on the Success Rate of Mid-Urethral Sling Surgery among Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence or Stress-Predominant Mixed Incontinence: Comparisons between Retropubic and Transobturator Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seong Jin; Lee, Han Sol; Lee, Jeong Keun; Jeong, Jin Woo; Lee, Sang Cheol; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Mid-urethral sling (MUS) surgery for the treatment of urinary incontinence has been widespread since the introduction of tension-free vaginal tape in the mid-1990s. The majority of studies with short-term follow-up <2 years found no differences in the surgical outcomes according to body mass index (BMI). However, considering the chronic influence of obesity on pelvic floor musculature, it is cautiously speculated that higher BMI could increase stress on pelvic floor and sub-urethral tape, possibly decreasing the long-term success rate in the obese population. We aimed to compare the long-term effects of BMI on the outcomes of MUS between women with retropubic and transobturator approaches. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis on 243 consecutive women who received MUS and were followed up for ?36 months. The influence of BMI on the success rates was separately estimated and the factors for treatment failure were examined using logistic regression in either approach. Results The mean follow-up was 58.4 months, and 30.5% were normal weight, 51.0% overweight, and 18.5% obese. Patients received either the retropubic (30.5%) or transobturator (69.5%) approach. The success rates (%) under the transobturator approach differed according to the BMI groups (94.3, 88.6, and 78.6, respectively; P?=?0.037) while those under the retropubic approach were not different according to the BMI groups. However, in multivariate models, only the presence of preoperative mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) was proven to be the risk factor for treatment failure in the transobturator approach (OR 6.39, P?=?0.003). The percent of subjects with MUI was higher in obese women than in non-obese women with the transobturator approach. Conclusions BMI was not independently associated with failures in either approach. Higher success rates in women with lower BMI in the transobturator approach were attributed to the lower percent of preoperative MUI in those with lower BMI. PMID:25415490

  4. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil erosion accentuates the often very low inherent fertility of many soils in the tropics. An integrated approach involving inorganic and organic inputs is required where animal and plant residues are returned, as far as practicable. Chemical fertilizers alone cannot achieve long-term productivity on many soils and organic material inputs are required to maintain soil organic matter levels and crop productivity. A major research effort is required to develop improved strategies for halting and reversing soil degradation if long-term productivity is to be secured.

  5. 38 CFR 36.4212 - Interest rates and late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and Lots, Including Site Preparation General Provisions § 36.4212 Interest rates and late charges. (a) In...

  6. 38 CFR 36.4212 - Interest rates and late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and Lots, Including Site Preparation General Provisions § 36.4212 Interest rates and late charges. (a) In...

  7. 38 CFR 36.4307 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4307 Section 36.4307 Pensions...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting §...

  8. 38 CFR 36.4307 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4307 Section 36.4307 Pensions...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting §...

  9. 38 CFR 36.4307 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4307 Section 36.4307 Pensions...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting §...

  10. 38 CFR 36.4223 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4223 Section 36.4223 Pensions, Bonuses... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and...

  11. 38 CFR 36.4307 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4307 Section 36.4307 Pensions...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting §...

  12. 38 CFR 36.4307 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4307 Section 36.4307 Pensions...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting §...

  13. 38 CFR 36.4223 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4223 Section 36.4223 Pensions, Bonuses... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and...

  14. 38 CFR 36.4223 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4223 Section 36.4223 Pensions, Bonuses... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and...

  15. Unspanned Stochastic Volatilities and Interest Rate Derivatives Pricing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Zhao

    \\u000a This paper first reviews the recent literature on the Unspanned Stochastic Volatilities (USV) documented in the interest rate\\u000a derivatives markets. The USV refers to the volatilities factors implied in the interest rate derivatives prices that have\\u000a little correlation with the yield curve factors. We then present the result in Li and Zhao (J Finance 61:341–378, 2006) that\\u000a a sophicated DTSM

  16. Phase II Trial of Radiation Dose Escalation With Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy and High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Suppression in Unfavorable Prostate Cancer: Feasibility Report

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, Jeanette; Cambeiro, Mauricio [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Galan, Carlos [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Rioja, Logrono (Spain); Teijeira, Mercedes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Divino Valles, Burgos (Spain); Romero, Pilar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Zudaire, Javier [Department of Urology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Aristu, Jose Javier [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Martinez-Monge, Rafael, E-mail: rmartinezm@unav.e [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain)

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist-based androgen suppressive therapy (AST) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for high-risk (HRPC) or very-high-risk prostate cancer (VHRPC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and October 2006, 134 patients (median age, 70 years) with either National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria-defined HRPC (n = 47, 35.1%) or VHRPC (n = 87, 64.9%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of 14.6 ng/mL, a median clinical stage of T2c, and a median Gleason score of 7. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (54 Gy in 30 fractions) was followed by HDR brachytherapy (19 Gy in 4 b.i.d. treatments). Androgen suppressive therapy started 0-3 months before three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and continued for 2 years. Results: One implant was repositioned with a new procedure (0.7%). Five patients (3.7%) discontinued AST at a median of 13 months (range, 6-18 months) because of disease progression (n = 1), hot flashes (n = 2), fatigue (n = 1), and impotence (n = 1). After a median follow-up of 37.4 months (range, 24-90 months), the highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late urinary toxicities were Grade 0 in 47.8%, Grade 1 in 38.1%, Grade 2 in 7.5%, and Grade 3 in 6.7% of patients. Maximal late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 0 in 73.1%, Grade 1 in 16.4%, Grade 2 in 7.5%, and Grade 3 in 2.9% of patients. There were no Grade 4 or 5 events. Conclusions: Intermediate-term results show that dose escalation with HDR brachytherapy combined with long-term AST is feasible and has a toxicity profile similar to that reported by previous HDR brachytherapy studies.

  17. Long-term treatment with recombinant

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Joe Henry

    Long-term treatment with recombinant nerve growth factor for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. No effective treatment is available. The au- thors investigated the long-term effect (48 weeks and significantly im- proved pain symptoms. However, there was no improvement of neuropathy severity as assessed

  18. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-01-01

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor.

  19. Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    MedlinePLUS

    Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program (OAA, Title VII, Chapter 2, Sections 711/712) The Purpose of the Program and How it ... Services Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2013 indicate that ...

  20. Veterans Affairs Benefits (Long-Term Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to obtain information about services available in your area. LTC PathFinder Long-term care is a big topic. Use the PathFinder to get to the information most relevant and useful to you now. Please fill out all questions How old are you? Less than 50 51-64 65+ Do you currently require long-term ...

  1. Prediction of interest rate using CKLS model with stochastic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, Khor Chia [Faculty of Computing and Informatics, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Hin, Pooi Ah [Sunway University Business School, No. 5, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Sunway, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    The Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff and Sanders (CKLS) model is a popular one-factor model for describing the spot interest rates. In this paper, the four parameters in the CKLS model are regarded as stochastic. The parameter vector ?{sup (j)} of four parameters at the (J+n)-th time point is estimated by the j-th window which is defined as the set consisting of the observed interest rates at the j?-th time point where j?j??j+n. To model the variation of ?{sup (j)}, we assume that ?{sup (j)} depends on ?{sup (j?m)}, ?{sup (j?m+1)},…, ?{sup (j?1)} and the interest rate r{sub j+n} at the (j+n)-th time point via a four-dimensional conditional distribution which is derived from a [4(m+1)+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. Treating the (j+n)-th time point as the present time point, we find a prediction interval for the future value r{sub j+n+1} of the interest rate at the next time point when the value r{sub j+n} of the interest rate is given. From the above four-dimensional conditional distribution, we also find a prediction interval for the future interest rate r{sub j+n+d} at the next d-th (d?2) time point. The prediction intervals based on the CKLS model with stochastic parameters are found to have better ability of covering the observed future interest rates when compared with those based on the model with fixed parameters.

  2. Modifying Effect of a Common Polymorphism in the Interleukin-6 Promoter on the Relationship between Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Particulate Matter and Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Martin; Imboden, Medea; Boes, Eva; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Künzli, Nino; Phuleria, Harish Chandra; Kronenberg, Florian; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Carballo, David; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with an increase in many inflammatory markers, including interleukin 6 (IL6). Air pollution exposure has also been suggested to induce an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), such as a decrease in heart rate variability (HRV). In this study we aimed to investigate the modifying effect of polymorphisms in a major proinflammatory marker gene, interleukin 6 (IL6), on the relationship between long-term exposure to traffic-related PM10 (TPM10) and HRV. Methods For this cross-sectional study we analysed 1552 participants of the SAPALDIA cohort aged 50 years and older. Included were persons with valid genotype data, who underwent ambulatory 24-hr electrocardiogram monitoring, and reported on medical history and lifestyle. Main effects of annual average TPM10 and IL6 gene variants (rs1800795; rs2069827; rs2069840; rs10242595) on HRV indices and their interaction with average annual exposure to TPM10 were tested, applying a multivariable mixed linear model. Results No overall association of TPM10 on HRV was found. Carriers of two proinflammatory G-alleles of the functional IL6 -174 G/C (rs1800795) polymorphism exhibited lower HRV. An inverse association between a 1 µg/m3 increment in yearly averaged TPM10 and HRV was restricted to GG genotypes at this locus with a standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) (GG-carriers: ?1.8%; 95% confidence interval ?3.5 to 0.01; pinteraction(additive)?=?0.028); and low frequency power (LF) (GG-carriers: ?5.7%; 95%CI: ?10.4 to ?0.8; pinteraction(dominant)?=?0.049). Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that traffic-related air pollution decreases heart rate variability through inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:25133672

  3. Empirical analysis of quantum finance interest rates models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yang, Cao

    2009-07-01

    Empirical forward interest rates drive the debt markets. Libor and Euribor futures data is used to calibrate and test models of interest rates based on the formulation of quantum finance. In particular, all the model parameters, including interest rate volatilities, are obtained from market data. The random noise driving the forward interest rates is taken to be a Euclidean two dimension quantum field. We analyze two models, namely the bond forward interest rates, which is a linear theory and the Libor Market Model, which is a nonlinear theory. Both the models are analyzed using Libor and Euribor data, with various approximations to match the linear and nonlinear models. The results are quite good, with the linear model having an accuracy of about 99% and the nonlinear model being slightly less accurate. We extend our analysis by directly using the Zero Coupon Yield Curve (ZCYC) data for Libor and for bonds; but due to some technical difficulties we could not derive the models parameters directly from the ZCYC data.

  4. Effect of Long-Term Castration and Long-Term Androgen Treatment on Sexually Dimorphic

    E-print Network

    Crews, David

    Effect of Long-Term Castration and Long-Term Androgen Treatment on Sexually Dimorphic Estrogen be modified by steroid hormone manipulation. We castrated male whiptail lizards for 1 week (short term) or 6 that in male whiptail lizards, long-term castration increases sensitivity to estradiol as measured by induction

  5. Long-term potentiation in the Eocene.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, G

    2003-01-01

    The first ten years of long-term potentiation (LTP) research are reviewed. Surprisingly, given the intensity of current interest, the discovery paper did not trigger a wave of follow-on experiments. Despite this, the initial work laid out what ultimately became standard questions and paradigms. The application of the then still novel hippocampal slice technique oriented LTP towards basic neuroscience, perhaps somewhat at the cost of lesser attention to its functional significance. The use of slices led to the discovery of the events that trigger the formation of LTP and provided some first clues about its extraordinary persistence. Signs of the intense controversy over the nature of LTP expression (release vs receptors) emerged towards the end of the first decade of work. What appears to be lacking in the literature of that time is a widespread concern about LTP and memory. This may reflect a somewhat different attitude that neurobiologists then had towards memory research and a perceived need to integrate the new potentiation phenomenon into the web of established science before advancing extended arguments about its contributions to behaviour. PMID:12740106

  6. Transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy: Long term results

    PubMed Central

    Kaynak, Pelin; Ozturker, Can; Karabulut, Gamze; Çelik, Burcu; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk; Demirok, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes of transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy (TRC-DCR) surgery in patients with epiphora due to primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) at second year follow-up. Methods In this retrospective, interventional study, 33 eyes of 29 patients, with epiphora due to PANDO, are included. Lower eyelid conjunctiva is incised at vestibulum inferomedially to access the lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa. Bone is perforated with burr and rongeurs and saccal and nasal flaps are anastomosed. Conjunctival wound edges are apposed and left unsutured. Intraoperative difficulties, surgical time and complications are noted. Average follow-up time was 2 years. Anatomical success was defined as patent lacrimal passages upon irrigation and functional success was defined as relief of epiphora. Results In nineteen (57.6%) eyes the surgeries were completed with the anterior and the posterior flaps sutured. In eight eyes (24.2%) only anterior flaps could be sutured. In 6 eyes (18.2%), the surgical procedure was converted to external dacryocystorhinostomy since the nasal mucosa could not be exposed adequately via transconjunctival route. The mean surgical time was 65.1 min. One patient had a millimeter long lower eyelid margin laceration in one eye (3.7%) intraoperatively due to traction for visualization of the operative site. Epiphora resolved in 25 of 27 eyes (92.5%) in whom TRC-DCR could be completed. Epiphora and failure to irrigation were noted in two eyes (7.4%) at the postoperative 4th and 8th months, respectively and required reoperation. No complications occurred, except granuloma formation at the conjunctival incision site in three eyes (11.1%). Epiphora resolved in all the six eyes of patients who underwent an external DCR (100%). Conclusion Transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy is a scarless dacryocystorhinostomy technique which is performed without endoscope and/or laser assistance, with 92.5% success rate comparable to external DCR at the second year follow-up without major complications. PMID:24526861

  7. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Genescà, A; Caballín, M R; Miró, R; Benet, J; Bonfill, X; Egozcue, J

    1990-06-01

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa. PMID:2340495

  8. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, A.; Caballin, M.R.; Miro, R.; Benet, J.; Bonfill, X.; Egozcue, J. (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain))

    1990-06-01

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa.

  9. Long-term care and the elderly

    E-print Network

    Coe, Norma B

    2005-01-01

    Long-term care expenditures represent one of the largest uninsured financial risks facing the elderly. Medicaid provides incomplete insurance against these costs: unlimited nursing home benefits with a deductible equal to ...

  10. Long Term TOA - M Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-08-06

    ... 30 years to date.   The proposed project utilizes knowledge gained in the last 10 years through CERES data analyses and apply the knowledge to existing data to develop long-term (nearly 30 years) consistent ...

  11. CHAPTER FOUR COLLABORATIVE LONG-TERM ETHNOGRAPHY

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    for the Tzintzuntzan project was begun in 1998 and is still in progress (see the Tzintzuntzan website, currently available at www.santafe.edu/tarasco/Mexican.html). Through longitudinal analysis, long-term field sites

  12. Long-Term Mortality after Gastric Bypass Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted D. Adams; Richard E. Gress; Sherman C. Smith; R. Chad Halverson; Steven C. Simper; Wayne D. Rosamond; Michael J. LaMonte; Antoinette M. Stroup; Steven C. Hunt

    2007-01-01

    In this retrospective cohort study, we determined the long-term mortality (from 1984 to 2002) among 9949 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery and 9628 severely obese persons who applied for driver's licenses. From these subjects, 7925 surgical patients and 7925 severely obese control subjects were matched for age, sex, and body-mass index. We determined the rates of death from

  13. Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Simon

    2000-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The

  14. LONG-TERM OUTCOME AFTER PULMONARY ENDARTERECTOMY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo G. Corsico; Andrea M. D'Armini; Isa Cerveri; Catherine Klersy; Elena Ansaldo; Rosanna Niniano; Elena Gatto; Cristian Monterosso; Marco Morsolini; Salvatore Nicolardi; Corrado Tramontin; Ernesto Pozzi; Mario Viganò

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: There are few follow-up studies on long-term cardiopul- monary function after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), the oper- ation of choice for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hyperten- sion (CTEPH). Objectives: To prospectively evaluate long-term outcome of patients with CTEPH treated with PEA. Methods: Between 1994 and 2006, 157 patients (mean age 55 yr) were treated with PEA at Pavia University Hospital. The

  15. Long-term broadband technology forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KJELL STORDAHL

    The paper gives an overview of the relevant broadband technologies, describes their market positions and possibilities. Diffusion models are used to make long-term broadband forecasts for the Western European residential market. The forecasts are separated for the main broadband technologies ADSL, ADSL2+\\/VDSL, Cable modem and other technologies (FTTx, BWA) based on market share predictions for each technology. The long-term forecasts

  16. External-Beam Radiation Therapy and High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy in High and Very High Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Data on Clinical Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Monge, Rafael, E-mail: rmartinezm@unav.es [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Cambeiro, Mauricio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio [Department of Medical Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Gaztanaga, Miren; Arbea, Leire [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Pascual, Ignacio [Department of Urology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Aristu, Javier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 200 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (32.5%) or very high-risk prostate cancer (67.5%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen of 15.2 ng/mL, a clinical stage of T2c, and a Gleason score of 7. Treatment consisted of 54 Gy of external irradiation (three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [3DCRT]) followed by 19 Gy of HDR brachytherapy in four twice-daily treatments. ADT started 0-3 months before 3DCRT and continued for 2 years. Results: One hundred and ninety patients (95%) received 2 years of ADT. After a median follow-up of 3.7 years (range, 2-9), late Grade {>=}2 urinary toxicity was observed in 18% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 was observed in 5%. Prior transurethral resection of the prostate (p = 0.013) and bladder D{sub 50} {>=}1.19 Gy (p = 0.014) were associated with increased Grade {>=}2 urinary complications; age {>=}70 (p = 0.05) was associated with Grade {>=}3 urinary complications. Late Grade {>=}2 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 9% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 in 1.5%. CTV size {>=}35.8 cc (p = 0.007) and D{sub 100} {>=}3.05 Gy (p = 0.01) were significant for increased Grade {>=}2 complications. The 5-year and 9-year biochemical relapse-free survival (nadir + 2) rates were 85.1% and 75.7%, respectively. Patients with Gleason score of 7-10 had a decreased biochemical relapse-free survival (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Intermediate-term results at the 5-year time point indicate a favorable outcome without an increase in the rate of late complications.

  17. Budget Deficits and Rates of Interest in the World Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob A. Frenkel; Assaf Razin

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with the international transmission of the effects of budget deficits on world rates of interest and spending. The model assumes a two-country world within which capital markets are integrated, individuals behave rationally, and the behavior of individuals and governments are governed by temporal and intertemporal budget constraints. Adopting Olivier Blanchard's formulation it is assumed that due to

  18. Physica A 355 (2005) 2133 Interest rates hierarchical structure

    E-print Network

    Di Matteo, Tiziana

    2005-01-01

    -graph and they preserve its hierarchical structure. This produces a clear cluster differentiation and allows us to compute: Interest rates; Data clustering; Correlations; Econophysics 1. Introduction In this paper we investigate on stock market prices. Recently, these studies have become very attractive and approached from many

  19. The term structures of equity and interest rates Martin Lettau

    E-print Network

    Kahana, Michael J.

    The term structures of equity and interest rates Martin Lettau University of California: lettau@haas.berkeley.edu. Wachter: Department of Finance, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania of Southern California, Washington University, Yale University, the 2007 UBC Summer Finance Conference

  20. Evolving macroeconomic perceptions and the term structure of interest rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athanasios Orphanides; Min Wei

    2012-01-01

    We explore the role of evolving beliefs regarding the structure of the macroeconomy in improving our understanding of the term structure of interest rates within the context of a simple macro-finance model. Using quarterly vintages of real-time data and survey forecasts for the United States over the past 40 years, we show that a recursively estimated VAR on real GDP

  1. 75 FR 37881 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ...Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau...S.C. 3902(a). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92 Stat. 2389...payments under section 12 of the Contract Disputes Act of 1978...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk... Section 615.5135 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL...OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5135 Management...directors of each Farm Credit Bank, bank for...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk... Section 615.5135 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL...OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5135 Management...directors of each Farm Credit Bank, bank for...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk... Section 615.5135 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL...OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5135 Management...directors of each Farm Credit Bank, bank for...

  5. Exploring Fiscal Policy at Zero Interest Rates in Intermediate Macroeconomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramamurthy, Srikanth; Sedgley, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Since the financial meltdown of 2007, advanced macroeconomic theory has delved more deeply into the question of the appropriate fiscal policy when the nominal interest rate is close to or at zero percent. Such analysis is typically conducted with the aid of New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium models. The policy implications are,…

  6. Optimal Pension Management under Stochastic Interest Rates, Wages, and Inflation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo BATTOCCHIO; Francesco MENONCIN

    2002-01-01

    We consider a stochastic model for a defined-contribution pension fund in continuous time. In particular, we focus on the portfolio problem of a fund manager who wants to maximize the expected utility of his terminal wealth in a complete financial market with stochastic interest rate. The fund manager must cope with two background risks: the salary risk and the inflation

  7. F-BF Compounding with a 5% Interest Rate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A man invests \\$1000 in an account with a 5% annual interest rate. He knows that money in an account where interest is compounded semi-annually will ea...

  8. A basic strategy for financing long term care.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J A; Leutz, W N

    1984-02-01

    As pressure mounts to contain Medicaid long term care spending, short-range "quick fixes" must be avoided. Three such false solutions in particular have shortcomings that may actually exacerbate long term care's financial dilemma because they are based on inadequate definitions of the problem. Two of these proposals--legislation to broaden family responsibility toward institutionalized elders on Medicaid and expanded state power to put liens on such elders' real property--err by trying to mandate "caring" and are predicated on a misunderstanding of the "spend-down" problem. The other proposal--to provide tax incentives to family members who care for elders--requires a large administrative apparatus, assumes an elasticity of supply that may not exist, and could disrupt the "gift relationship" on which family exchanges are often based. What is needed is a strategy with short term, intermediate, and long term objectives that move toward an insurance approach. The short term plan should lay the groundwork for intermediate strategy and control costs by changing rate-setting methods and putting limits on facility construction. The intermediate plan should change the problem's definition from one of merely controlling Medicaid long term care expenditures to one of efficiently managing state resources for the elderly through the development of state financing and local delivery systems that target older persons in greatest need. An effective means of doing this is through the creation of social/HMOs, which have five key features: integration of service responsibility and authority; flexibility in organizational design; balanced clientele; pooled prepaid funding; and financial risk for the provider organization. Finally, the long term strategy should transfer much of the long term care financial burden from individuals and state Medicaid agencies to insurance mechanisms. Many individuals would thus avoid impoverishment caused by health care spending and Medicaid would greatly reduce its caseload. Insurance coverage is an appropriate funding mechanism, moreover, in that relatively few persons will ever incur high costs. PMID:10310445

  9. Long term effects of antenna cables on GPS timing receivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Weiss

    2000-01-01

    We report efforts to minimize the effect of reflected signals in GPS antenna cables on the delay stability of common-view time-transfer receivers. The day stability of interest is at long-term time intervals from five days to about one year. We measured cables for a commercial receiver with the signal transmitted from the antenna to the receiver at the L-band frequency.

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  11. A Test for Long-Term Cyclical Clustering of Stock Market Regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Powell; Rubén Roa; Jing Shi; Viliphonh Xayavong

    2007-01-01

    This paper finds that observed monthly United States stock index returns are consistent with an underlying mechanism of shifts in regimes amongst multiple states with differing means and volatility. An issue of especial interest is whether long-term clustering of regimes gives rise to stock market cycles. The paper therefore introduces a likelihood ratio test for long-term clustering of regimes. Clustering

  12. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light spectrum. The light intensities reaching the Foraminifera in cultivation however largely depend on the substrate provided (e.g. sand and silt where individuals dig close to the surface or coral rubble used as shelter by the Foraminiferans and as an easy way of retaining the organisms within a designated container by the investigator).

  13. Long term exposure of metals to hydrazine nitrate blend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Clifford M.; Blue, Gary D.

    1986-01-01

    A long term testing program is being conducted to determine the effects of materials in contact with a hydrazine nitrate blend for the purpose of designing chemical propulsion systems which can be used for current as well as future planetary spacecraft. Analysis of this data indicates that some aluminum alloys are acceptable for use with the particular blend of fuel used. Titanium alloy was identified as being acceptable for 10-year applications. Corrosion resistant steels, however, were found to have excessive corrosion rates and are therefore considered unacceptable for long-term use. There is also some evidence that the propellant decomposed at a rate far in excess of the acceptable rate of 0.1 percent per year when in contact with stainless steel.

  14. Long Term Corrosion/Degradation Test Six Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    M. K. Adler Flitton; C. W. Bishop; M. E. Delwiche; T. S. Yoder

    2004-09-01

    The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains neutron-activated metals from non-fuel, nuclear reactor core components. The Long-Term Corrosion/Degradation (LTCD) Test is designed to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements to the environment. The test is using two proven, industry-standard methods—direct corrosion testing using metal coupons, and monitored corrosion testing using electrical/resistance probes—to determine corrosion rates for various metal alloys generally representing the metals of interest buried at the SDA, including Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, Beryllium S200F, Aluminum 6061, Zircaloy-4, low-carbon steel, and Ferralium 255. In the direct testing, metal coupons are retrieved for corrosion evaluation after having been buried in SDA backfill soil and exposed to natural SDA environmental conditions for times ranging from one year to as many as 32 years, depending on research needs and funding availability. In the monitored testing, electrical/resistance probes buried in SDA backfill soil will provide corrosion data for the duration of the test or until the probes fail. This report provides an update describing the current status of the test and documents results to date. Data from the one-year and three-year results are also included, for comparison and evaluation of trends. In the six-year results, most metals being tested showed extremely low measurable rates of general corrosion. For Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, and Ferralium 255, corrosion rates fell in the range of “no reportable” to 0.0002 mils per year (MPY). Corrosion rates for Zircaloy-4 ranged from no measurable corrosion to 0.0001 MPY. These rates are two orders of magnitude lower than those specified in the performance assessment for the SDA. The corrosion on the carbon steel, beryllium, and aluminum were more evident with a clear difference in corrosion performance between the 4-ft and 10-ft levels. Notable surface corrosion products were evident as well as numerous pit initiation sites. Since the corrosion of the beryllium and aluminum is characterized by pitting, the geometrical character of the corrosion becomes more significant than the general corrosion rate. Both pitting factor and weight loss data should be used together. For six-year exposure, the maximum carbon steel corrosion rate was 0.3643 MPY while the maximum beryllium corrosion rate was 0.3282 MPY and the maximum aluminum corrosion rate was 0.0030 MPY.

  15. Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximately 10% and remained at approximately that level throughout follow-up. The proportion meeting criteria for remission (Hamilton Depression score of 7 or less) rose gradually to approximately 45%. Long-term prognosis (i.e. probability of remission at 6 months and beyond) was strongly related to remission status at 3 months (odds ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.81-4.76) and only modestly related to various clinical characteristics assessed at baseline (e.g. prior history of recurrent depression, medical comorbidity, comorbid anxiety symptoms). The findings indicate that potentially modifiable risk factors influence the long-term prognosis of depression. This suggests that more systematic and effective depression treatment programmes might have an important effect on long-term course and reduce the overall burden of chronic and recurrent depression. PMID:10885162

  16. Long-term effects of gypsiferous coal combustion ash applied at disposal levels on soil chemical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Korcak; W. Doral Kemper

    1993-01-01

    Currently, there is renewed interest in the agricultural utilization of coal combustion byproducts. Field sites where high rates (112 Mg ha-1) of high gypsum coal combustion spent bed ashes were surface applied in 1980 within fruit tree orchard rows were identified and sampled with depth. The objective of this study was to examine the effects on long-term exposure\\/leaching of these

  17. Long Term Forecast ofLong Term Forecast of TsunamisTsunamis

    E-print Network

    Model comparisons: · Inundation field data at Seaside, Oregon · Tide gage measurement at Hilo, Hawaii 3 (Seaside Pilot Study) Long-term Forecast: #12;1- Validated Numerical Code #12;Relocation of emergency Approach (Seaside Pilot Study) Long-term Forecast: #12;2- Development of a high resolution Digital

  18. Long Term Capability Requirements as derived from the Long Term Requirements Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brownlee

    2010-01-01

    Of the 38 Long Term Capability Requirements indentified by NATO in the 2009 Long Term Requirements Study, at least four can be directly applied to waterside security research and technology. First, Area Access Control, the capability of controlling access to designated unattended areas and borders, denying or allowing access to appropriate personnel and equipment. It must be capable of monitoring

  19. Phenotypic and functional characterization of long-term cryopreserved human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yong, Kar Wey; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Choi, Jane Ru; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Chua, Kien Hui; Wan Safwani, Wan Kamarul Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation represents an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and allows pooling of cells via long-term storage for clinical applications, e.g., cell-based therapies. It is crucial to reduce freezing injury during the cryopreservation process by loading the ASCs with the optimum concentration of suitable cryoprotective agents (CPAs). In this study, human ASCs were preserved for 3 months in different combinations of CPAs, including 1) 0.25 M trehalose; 2) 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO); 3) 10% DMSO; 4) 5% DMSO + 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS); 5) 10% DMSO + 20% FBS; 6) 10% DMSO + 90% FBS. Interestingly, even with a reduction of DMSO to 5% and without FBS, cryopreserved ASCs maintained high cell viability comparable with standard cryomedium (10% DMSO + 90% FBS), with normal cell phenotype and proliferation rate. Cryopreserved ASCs also maintained their differentiation capability (e.g., to adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes) and showed an enhanced expression level of stemness markers (e.g., NANOG, OCT-4, SOX-2 and REX-1). Our findings suggest that 5% DMSO without FBS may be an ideal CPA for an efficient long-term cryopreservation of human ASCs. These results aid in establishing standardized xeno-free long-term cryopreservation of human ASCs for clinical applications. PMID:25872464

  20. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Long-Term Cryopreserved Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Kar Wey; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Choi, Jane Ru; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Chua, Kien Hui; Safwani, Wan Kamarul Zaman Wan

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation represents an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and allows pooling of cells via long-term storage for clinical applications, e.g., cell-based therapies. It is crucial to reduce freezing injury during the cryopreservation process by loading the ASCs with the optimum concentration of suitable cryoprotective agents (CPAs). In this study, human ASCs were preserved for 3 months in different combinations of CPAs, including 1) 0.25 M trehalose; 2) 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO); 3) 10% DMSO; 4) 5% DMSO + 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS); 5) 10% DMSO + 20% FBS; 6) 10% DMSO + 90% FBS. Interestingly, even with a reduction of DMSO to 5% and without FBS, cryopreserved ASCs maintained high cell viability comparable with standard cryomedium (10% DMSO + 90% FBS), with normal cell phenotype and proliferation rate. Cryopreserved ASCs also maintained their differentiation capability (e.g., to adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes) and showed an enhanced expression level of stemness markers (e.g., NANOG, OCT-4, SOX-2 and REX-1). Our findings suggest that 5% DMSO without FBS may be an ideal CPA for an efficient long-term cryopreservation of human ASCs. These results aid in establishing standardized xeno-free long-term cryopreservation of human ASCs for clinical applications. PMID:25872464

  1. Long term ground movement of TRISTAN synchrotron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Endo; Y. Ohsawa; M. Miyahara

    1989-01-01

    The long-term ground movement was estimated in a geological survey done in connection with the siting of the TRISTAN-MR (main ring). The movement of the synchrotron magnet mainly results from the structure of the tunnel. If the movement of an individual magnet exceeds a certain threshold limit, it exerts a significant influence on the particle behavior in a synchrotron. The

  2. Long-Term Oxygen Therapy in Ioannina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stamatis Katsenos; Marios E. Froudarakis; Alexandros Charisis; Miltiadis P. Vassiliou; Stavros H. Constantopoulos

    2004-01-01

    Background: Long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT) is very important, especially in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its efficacy is closely related to patient compliance. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the compliance of patients under LTOT in the Prefecture of Ioannina (north-western Greece) and to identify factors that might be involved. Methods: The

  3. Long term ecological research and information management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William K. Michener; John Porter; Mark Servilla; Kristin Vanderbilt

    2011-01-01

    The United States Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program has supported research in the ecological and environmental sciences for more than three decades. The Program has grown from six to 26 sites and has been the precursor to a worldwide network of International LTER sites. Extracting knowledge from the massive volume of disparate data collected across ecosystems and decades depends

  4. Dynamics of long-term genomic selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Luc Jannink

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simulation and empirical studies of genomic selection (GS) show accuracies sufficient to generate rapid gains in early selection cycles. Beyond those cycles, allele frequency changes, recombination, and inbreeding make analytical prediction of gain impossible. The impacts of GS on long-term gain should be studied prior to its implementation. METHODS: A simulation case-study of this issue was done for barley,

  5. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  6. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  7. Neonatal desensitization allows long-term

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    for long-term immune protection of human fetal and stem cell­derived neural cells transplanted into the adult rat brain, by desensitizing the host rat to similar cells in the neonatal period, without the need appropriate immunosuppression, neural xenografts in the adult rat or mouse brain are rejected within 2­4 weeks

  8. Foundation work in long-term care.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Lauren; Treanor, Katherine; Art, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Health foundations have invested in services, research, and advocacy to improve the financing and delivery of long-term services and supports. This article describes some of the broad array of approaches they have taken--in such areas as aging in place, assisted living, "culture change" in nursing homes, quality improvement, augmenting the workforce, and paying for care. PMID:20048379

  9. NATIONAL LONG TERM CARE SURVEY (NLTCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...

  10. TOXIC MODELING SYSTEM LONG-TERM (TOXLT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toxic Modeling System Long-Term (TOXLT) is a personal-computer- based model that has been developed in conjunction with the release of the new version of the EPAs Industrial Source Complex (ISC2) Dispersion Models (EPA, 1992) and the promulgation of the EPAs A Tiered Modeling...

  11. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  12. 4, 26712726, 2004 Long-term global

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with long-term climatological data from the Inter- national Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-D2 The mean monthly shortwave (SW) radiation budget at the top of atmosphere (TOA) was computed on 2 validated against Earth Radiation Budget Ex- periment (ERBE) S4 scanner satellite data (1985

  13. Coats' syndrome: long term follow up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devron H Char

    2000-01-01

    AIMTo increase the understanding of the long term results in pseudo-retinoblastoma eyes with infantile Coats' syndrome.METHODSThis study design was a retrospective case review. 10 patients were analysed who were initially referred with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma but had Coats' syndrome on the basis of ocular oncological evaluation. Vision, fundus photography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography scans were obtained and evaluated. Changes

  14. Long-term cropping systems study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This long-term study has been conducted on the Agronomy Farm at ARDC since the early 1970’s. In the beginning, the objectives were mainly related to crop production as affected by different cropping systems. The cropping systems included in the study are Continuous Corn, Soybean, and Sorghum; 2-year...

  15. Long-term US energy outlook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    Chase Econometrics summarizes the assumptions underlying long-term US energy forecasts. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they compare Chase Econometrics forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the DOE Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Scenario B, the mid-range reference case, is emphasized. The

  16. Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Robert; Laurent Argaud

    2007-01-01

    Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected

  17. Long-term variation of total ozone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Kane

    1988-01-01

    The long-term variation of total ozone is studied for 1957 up to date for different latitude zones. The 3-year running averages show that, apart from a small portion showing parallelism with sunspot cycles, the trends in different latitude zones are dissimilar. In particular, where northern latitudes show a rising trend, the southern latitudes show an opposite (decreasing) trend. In the

  18. Long-term biological investigations in space.

    PubMed

    Lotz, R G; Fuchs, H; Bertsche, U

    1975-01-01

    Missions in space within the next two decades will be of longer duration than those carried out up to the present time, and the effects of such long-term flights on biological organisms are unknown. Results of biological experiments that have been performed to date cannot be extrapolated to results in future flights because of the unknown influence of adaptation over a long period of time. Prior experiments with Axolotl, fishes, and vertebrates by our research team (in part with sounding rockets) showed that these specimens did not appear to be suitable for long-term missions on which minimization of expense, technique, and energy is required. Subsequent investigations have shown the suitability of the leech (Hirudo medicinalis), which consumes blood of mammals up to ten times its own weight (1 g) and can live more than 2 years without further food supply. Emphasis in the experiments with Hirudo medicinalis is placed on metabolic rhythm and motility. Resorption and diffusion in tissue, development, and growth under long-term effects of cosmic proton radiation and zero-gravity are other focal points. The constancy of cellular life in the mature animals is a point in favor of these specimens. We have also taken into account the synergistic effects of the space environment on the problems just mentioned. The life-support system constructed for the leech has been tested successfully in four sounding rocket flights and, on that basis, has been prepared for a long-term mission. Long-term investigations out of the terrestrial biosphere will provide us with information concerning the degree of adaptation of certain physiological and biochemical functions and as to what extent biological readjustment or repair processes can occur under the specific stress conditions of space flight. PMID:11841093

  19. Cross-correlation between interest rates and commodity prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Yiming

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate cross-correlations between interest rate and agricultural commodity markets. Based on a statistic of Podobnik et al. (2009), we find that the cross-correlations are all significant. Using the MF-DFA and MF-DXA methods, we find strong multifractality in both auto-correlations and cross-correlations. Moreover, the cross-correlations are persistent. Finally, based on the technique of rolling window, the time-variation property of cross-correlations is also revealed.

  20. Long-term care insurance in China: public or private?

    PubMed

    Shen, Suyan; Li, Fang; Tanui, John Kipkorir

    2014-01-01

    China faces an overwhelming and urgent need for long-term care (LTC). We explored long-term care insurance (LTCI) plans in China and the factors associated with each plan's contribution rate. A cross-sectional survey of 814 residents (18-59 years) was conducted to assess the expectations of elderly care, public and private LTCI features. Public LTCI may be more popular whether in terms of participation or contribution. The factors associated with public LTCI contribution rate were healthcare costs, household income, and number of daughters; for private LTCI, the factors were the proportion of living expenditures, worry about future care problems, and healthcare costs. Policymakers should develop public LTCI as a solid foundation and improve private LTCI as a substitute to meet the urgent LTC needs in China. PMID:25133301

  1. Long term investigations of silver cathodes for alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, N.; Schulze, M.; Gülzow, E.

    Alkaline fuel cells (AFC) are an interesting alternative to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). In AFC no expensive platinum metal is necessary; silver can be used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) (cathode catalyst). For technical use of AFC the long term behavior of AFC components is important, especially that of the electrodes. The investigated cathodes for AFC consist of a mixture of silver catalyst and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) as organic binder rolled onto a metal web. The electrodes were electrochemically investigated through measuring V- i curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical characterization and the long term tests were performed in half-cells at 70 °C using pure oxygen (1 bar) under galvanostatic conditions. The cathodes were electrochemically investigated in half-cells using reference electrodes (Hg/HgO) by periodically recording V- i curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the cathodes were physically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  2. Using home equity to finance long-term care.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, B; Weissert, W

    1987-01-01

    A majority of elderly Americans have the bulk of their assets tied up in the houses they own. Reverse mortgages could tap this home equity, providing loan disbursements without requiring older homeowners to make monthly payments on principal and interest. In this paper we analyze the potential of using home equity to finance long-term care of the elderly, including payments for home care and for long-term care insurance. We first estimate each homeowner's risk of need for care (and risk of institutionalization) and then calculate the degree to which home equity could be used to cover the costs of home care (or of insurance premiums). Special emphasis is placed on those in the highest risk group and on those with the lowest incomes, who often turn out to be the same people. PMID:3108359

  3. 76 FR 2404 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...Customs And Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest...determined by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) on behalf of the Secretary of the Treasury...quarter. In Revenue Ruling 2010-31, the IRS determined the rates of interest for...

  4. 13 CFR 120.214 - What conditions apply for variable interest rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false What conditions apply for variable interest rates? 120.214 Section 120... § 120.214 What conditions apply for variable interest rates? A Lender may use a variable rate of interest, upon SBA's...

  5. 13 CFR 120.214 - What conditions apply for variable interest rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false What conditions apply for variable interest rates? 120.214 Section 120... § 120.214 What conditions apply for variable interest rates? A Lender may use a variable rate of interest, upon SBA's...

  6. Convergence of Mobile Communications and Broadcasting: A long term perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich K. Jondral; Dennis Burgkhardt; Jens Elsner; Arnold Picot; Nico Grove

    Terrestrial unidirectional broadcasting is currently being substituted by wired bidirectional IP-based services. In practical day-to-day use, user mobility for the 'last mile' is supported by wireless local area networks with massively growing data rates. Terrestrial bidirectional mobile communications, on the other hand, is currently moving into its fourth technological generation. With the new UMTS Long Term Evolution (LTE) standards, data

  7. Clinically meaningful parameters of progression and long-term outcome of Parkinson disease: An international consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Andreas; Brighina, Laura; Markopoulou, Katerina; Aasly, Jan; Chung, Sun Ju; Frigerio, Roberta; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios; Kõks, Sulev; Krüger, Rejko; Siuda, Joanna; Wider, Christian; Zesiewicz, Theresa A; Maraganore, Demetrius M

    2015-07-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with a clinical course of variable duration, severity, and a combination of motor and non-motor features. Recent PD research has focused primarily on etiology rather than clinical progression and long-term outcomes. For the PD patient, caregivers, and clinicians, information on expected clinical progression and long-term outcomes is of great importance. Today, it remains largely unknown what factors influence long-term clinical progression and outcomes in PD; recent data indicate that the factors that increase the risk to develop PD differ, at least partly, from those that accelerate clinical progression and lead to worse outcomes. Prospective studies will be required to identify factors that influence progression and outcome. We suggest that data for such studies is collected during routine office visits in order to guarantee high external validity of such research. We report here the results of a consensus meeting of international movement disorder experts from the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) consortium, who convened to define which long-term outcomes are of interest to patients, caregivers and clinicians, and what is presently known about environmental or genetic factors influencing clinical progression or long-term outcomes in PD. We propose a panel of rating scales that collects a significant amount of phenotypic information, can be performed in the routine office visit and allows international standardization. Research into the progression and long-term outcomes of PD aims at providing individual prognostic information early, adapting treatment choices, and taking specific measures to provide care optimized to the individual patient's needs. PMID:25952959

  8. Long-term recovery from alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Chappel, J N

    1993-03-01

    AA has demonstrated success in steadily increasing membership, with no loss of the proportion of those with over 5 years of sobriety. It has been recognized as effective long-term treatment for alcoholism by psychiatrists and psychoanalysts experienced in treatment of the addictions. The triennial membership surveys of AA have shown stability in 1. A 50% dropout rate within the first 3 months of starting AA. Only 41% of those in the first year will remain in the Fellowship for another year. 2. Roughly equal numbers of those with less than 1 year, 1 to 5 years, and over 5 years of sobriety, with an average length of sobriety of about 4 years. 3. Members having a sponsor (85%) and belonging to a home group (88%). 4. Attendance by members of about three meetings a week, regardless of duration of sobriety. 5. Members telling their doctor that they are in AA, but not helping him or her learn about the program. The survey data also indicate that AA is changing in the following ways: 1. The number of women members has increased to more than one third the total membership. 2. An increasing number of young people, under 30 years of age, to more than one fifth the total. 3. A decreasing number of older people, over 50 years of age, to just under one fourth the total. 4. An increasing number of members who were also addicted to other drugs (46%). Psychiatrists can use these data and knowledge of AA to 1. Increase the effectiveness of referrals of alcoholic patients to AA regardless of age, sex, race, or other characteristics. All are welcome and can benefit. 2. Deal with resistance, which occurs when patients begin to make contact with AA. 3. Help alcoholic patients through the difficult first year of sobriety. 4. Encourage their alcoholic patients to use AA as a program for personal growth and development. 5. Helping dually addicted patients use AA's singleness of purpose to facilitate their recovery. 6. Cooperate with alcohol and drug treatment programs in helping patients transfer to AA and work on an effective program of recovery. 7. Work with members of the local AA Treatment Facilities and Cooperation with the Professional Community Committees in helping alcoholic patients enter and use AA. 8. Provide psychiatric treatment for AA members in ways that support and sustain their program of recovery, especially by avoiding dependence-producing medications. PMID:8456043

  9. Integration of Research with Long-Term Monitoring: Breeding Wood Ducks on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennamer, R.A.; Hepp, G.R.

    2000-10-01

    In 1981, long-term monitoring of breeding wood ducks was initiated. Females were marked and recaptured for 15 years and annual population parameters were developed. Precise parameter estimates were possible due to high capture rates. The results contribute to the long-term understanding of wood duck populations.

  10. Long term results of lumbar sequestrectomy versus aggressive microdiscectomy.

    PubMed

    Kotil, Kadir; Köksal, Neslihan Sutpideler; Kayaci, Selim

    2014-10-01

    It remains unknown whether aggressive microdiscectomy (AD) provides a better outcome than simple sequestrectomy (S) with little disc disruption for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy. We compared the long term results for patients with lumbar disc herniation who underwent either AD or S. The patients were split into two groups: 85 patients who underwent AD in Group A and 40 patients who underwent S in Group B. The patients were chosen from a cohort operated on by the same surgeon using either of the two techniques between 2003 and 2008. The demographic characteristics were similar. The difference in complication rates between the two groups was not statistically significant. During the first 10 days post-operatively, the Visual Analog Scale score for back pain was 4.1 in Group A and 2.1 in Group B, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.005). The Oswestry Disability Index score was 11% in Group A and 19% in Group B at the last examination. The reherniation rate was 1.5% in Group A and 4.1% in Group B (p<0.005). We argue that reherniation rates are much lower over the long term when AD is used with microdiscectomy. AD increases back pain for a short time but does not change the long term quality of life. To our knowledge this is the first study with a very long term follow-up showing that reherniation is three times less likely after AD than S. PMID:24890447

  11. Exploring the interaction between working memory and long-term memory: Evidence for the workspace model 

    E-print Network

    van der Meulen, Marian

    There is a large range of models of working memory, each with different scopes and emphases. Current interest focuses strongly on the interaction of working memory with long-term memory, as it has become clear that models ...

  12. Case presentation: long-term treatment.

    PubMed

    Glucksman, Myron L

    2013-01-01

    The long-term (14 years) psychodynamic psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of a depressed, suicidal, self-mutilating female patient is described. Her diagnoses included Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Recurrent Major Depression. Treatment was punctuated with repeated hospitalizations for self-mutilation (cutting) and suicidal ideation. A major determinant for her psychopathology was sexual abuse by her father from ages 6 to 14. This resulted in feelings of guilt and rage that she repressed and acted out through self-mutilating and suicidal behavior. A prolonged negative transference gradually became ambivalent, then positive. This was associated with her internalization of the healing qualities of the therapeutic relationship. She also gained insight into the reasons for her need to punish herself. Her initial self-representation as unworthy and bad was transformed into perceiving herself as a worthwhile, loving person. This case illustrates the role of long-term treatment for a complex, life-threatening, psychiatric disorder. PMID:24001161

  13. Emotional behavior in long-term marriage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L. Carstensen; John M. Gottman; Robert W. Levenson

    1995-01-01

    In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction.

  14. Assessing long term backache after childbirth.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, R; Groves, P; Taub, N; O'Dowd, J; Reynolds, F

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate the factors associated with long term backache after childbirth, to assess all women reporting new onset long term backache, and to investigate any relation with pain relief in labour. DESIGN--Data collected from obstetric records and postal questionnaires or telephone interviews on morbidity after childbirth from all women delivering their first baby between March 1990 and February 1991, followed by analysis of data collected from outpatient consultations. SETTING--St Thomas's Hospital, London. SUBJECTS--Questionnaires were sent to 1615 women who had delivered their first baby in the defined period; 1015 either replied by post or were contacted by telephone. RESULTS--299 women (29.5% of responders) reported backache lasting more than six months and of these 156 (15.4%) said they had had no back problems previously. Those women who had received epidural analgesia in labour were significantly more likely to report new onset backache (17.8%; 95% confidence interval 14.8% to 20.8%) than those who did not (11.7%; 8.6% to 14.8%). Younger women, unmarried women, and those reporting other antenatal symptoms were significantly more likely to report new long term backache. The 156 women reporting new backache were asked to attend an outpatient clinic and 36 (23%) did so. The majority had a postural backache which was not severe. Psychological factors were present in 14 women. CONCLUSIONS--Though new long term backache is reported more commonly after epidural analgesia in labour, it tends to be postural and not severe. There were no differences in the nature of the backache between those who had or had not received epidural analgesia in labour. PMID:8518569

  15. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  16. Posterior urethral valves: long-term outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Caione; Simona Gerocarni Nappo

    Posterior urethral valves represent the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infancy that impairs renal and\\u000a bladder function. Long-term outcome of patients with previous PUV is evaluated. Patients over 18 years of age, treated from\\u000a 1982 to 1995 before the age of 3 years were considered. Previous surgery, renal function, bladder activity, urinary incontinence,\\u000a and fertility\\/sexual activity were evaluated. Clinical

  17. Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Frey; Richard G. M. Morris

    1997-01-01

    Repeated stimulation of hippocampal neurons can induce an immediate and prolonged increase in synaptic strength that is called long-term potentiation (LTP)-the primary cellular model of memory in the mammalian brain1. An early phase of LTP (lasting less than three hours) can be dissociated from late-phase LTP by using inhibitors of transcription and translation2-8. Because protein synthesis occurs mainly in the

  18. Long-term health consequences of PCOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Wild

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance\\/diabetes and\\/or uterine pathology appears to be increased in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although more outcome studies are necessary to determine incidence. Data pertaining to some of the potential long-term health consequences associated with PCOS are summarized. Medline, Current Contents and PubMed were searched for studies from the time of our

  19. Long-term ambulatory enterogastric reflux monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Bechi; Filippo Pucciani; Francesco Baldini; Franco Cosi; Riccardo Falciai; Roberto Mazzanti; Antonio Castagnoli; Alessandro Passeri; Sergio Boscherini

    1993-01-01

    A new technique for the long-term ambulatory detection of enterogastric and nonacid gastroesophageal reflux has been conceived, developed, and validated. It is based on the use of a fiberoptic sensor that utilizes the optical properties of bile.In vitro studies have shown good precision, good stability, sensitivity of 2.5 µmol\\/liter bilirubin concentration, as well as a useful working range of 2.5–100

  20. Elderly and long-term care trends and policy in Taiwan: challenges and opportunities for health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Tsay, Shwn-Feng

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to address the trends and policy of elderly and long-term care in Taiwan. In response to the increasing demand of an aging society, healthcare professionals play crucial roles in elderly and long-term care and quality assurance of services. This article focuses on the current situation of elderly health care, demands of long-term care, long-term care policy in Taiwan, draft of the Long-term Care Services Act, and draft of the Long-term Care Insurance Act. After the 10-year long-term care project was proposed by the Taiwan government, the supply of health care services and demand for long-term care have created many challenges and opportunities for innovative health professional development. Challenges consist of low old dependency ratio caused by low birth rate, lack of elderly and long-term care related manpower, services and education reform related to long-term care for the future society, and interprofessional collaboration and team work of long-term care. Opportunities include expanding the roles and the career pathways of healthcare professionals, promoting the concepts of active aging and good quality of life, and developing industrial cooperation related to long-term care services. Under these circumstances, healthcare professonals are actively involved in practice, education and research of long-term care services that ensure elderly and disabled people can live a healthier and better life. PMID:22974664

  1. Optimized Sedation Improves Colonoscopy Quality Long-Term

    PubMed Central

    Sioulas, Athanasios D.; Kalli, Theodora; Misailidis, Nikolaos; Polymeros, Dimitrios; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S.; Karamanolis, George; Ladas, Spiros D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Quality monitoring and improvement is prerequisite for efficient colonoscopy. Aim. To assess the effects of increased sedation administration on colonoscopy performance. Materials and Methods. During Era 1 we prospectively measured four colonoscopy quality indicators: sedation administration, colonoscopy completion rate, adenoma detection rate, and early complications rate in three cohorts: cohort A: intention for total colonoscopy cases; cohort B: cohort A excluding bowel obstruction cases; cohort C: CRC screening-surveillance cases within cohort B. We identified deficiencies and implemented our plan to optimize sedation. We prospectively evaluated its effects in both short- (Era 2) and long-term period (Era 3). Results. We identified that sedation administration and colonoscopy completion rates were below recommended standards. After sedation optimization its use rate increased significantly (38.1% to 55.8% to 69.5%) and colonoscopy completion rate increased from 88.3% to 90.6% to 96.4% in cohort B and from 93.2% to 95.3% to 98.3% in cohort C, in Eras 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Adenoma detection rate increased in cohort C (25.9% to 30.6% to 35%) and early complications rate decreased from 3.4% to 1.9% to 0.3%. Most endoscopists increased significantly their completion rate and this was preserved long-term. Conclusion. Increased sedation administration results in long-lasting improvement of colonoscopy quality indicators. PMID:25648556

  2. Malaria prophylaxis for long-term travellers.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C; Tucker, R; Bannister, B; Bradley, D J

    2003-09-01

    These guidelines are designed to assist healthcare workers who are advising long-term travellers on malaria prophylaxis, defined for the purpose of this document as those travelling for longer than 6 months. The document focuses on long-term use of antimalarials for adults, but also identifies specific issues for women and children. However, data on the long-term use of antimalarials is limited for all travellers and few data are available on the incidence of malaria in travellers overseas or, indeed, deaths overseas from malaria. Whilst all available evidence is taken into account, the advice provided also reflects experienced professional opinion. This document has been written on behalf of the Health Protection Agency's Advisory Committee on Malaria Prevention for UK Travellers, and is designed to act as a supplement to the 'Guidelines for malaria prevention in travellers from the United Kingdom for 2003'. The latter document contains a more complete description of antimalarials and additional preventive measures, together with recommendations for malaria chemoprophylaxis for individuals countries. Decisions on the terms under which different drugs are licensed for use are the responsibility of the Committee on Safety of Medicines. This paper should also, therefore, be used in conjunction with Summary of Product Characteristics (data sheets). PMID:14708269

  3. Long-term EEG in children.

    PubMed

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

    2015-03-01

    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. PMID:25687590

  4. Pyrophoricity of uranium in long-term storage environments

    SciTech Connect

    Solbrig, C W; Krsul, J R; Olsen, D N

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion cycle for uranium is postulated which can be used to assess whether a given storage situation might produce fire hazards and/or continual uranium corrosion. A significant reaction rate of uranium and moisture occurs at room temperature which produces uranium oxide and hydrogen. If the hydrogen cannot escape, it will react slowly with uranium to form uranium hydride. The hydride is pyrophoric at room temperature when exposed to air. Either the hydrogen or the hydride can produce a dangerous situation as demonstrated by two different incidents described here. Long-term corrosion will occur even if the normal precautions are taken as is demonstrated by the long-term storage of stainless steel clad uranium fuel plates. The major initiator of these problems is attributed to any moisture condensed on the metal or any brought in by the cover gas. The postulated corrosion cycle is used to suggest ways to circumvent these problems.

  5. Long-term clinical course of acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    den Exter, P L; van der Hulle, T; Lankeit, M; Huisman, M V; Klok, F A

    2013-07-01

    The long-term clinical course of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is complicated by high rates of serious adverse events, both before and after cessation of anticoagulant therapy. These adverse events include recurrent venous thromboembolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, arterial thrombotic events and increased risk of death, all compared to patients without thromboembolic disease. Several pharmacological options are available that may beneficially influence patients' prognosis. Nonetheless, because of insufficient knowledge of the benefit-to-harm ratio of these pharmacological agents, unambiguous recommendations are scarcely available. This review will cover the epidemiological aspects of the various possible complications in the long-term clinical course of acute PE as well as the latest evidence on preventive strategies. In addition, the unresolved issues regarding frequency, duration and focus of medical follow-up after acute PE are discussed. PMID:23791363

  6. Nuclear effects on bremsstrahlung neutrino rates of astrophysical interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Sabin; Horvath, J. E.

    2002-02-01

    We calculate in this work the rates for the neutrino pair production by nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung taking into account the full contribution from a nuclear one-pion-exchange potential. It is shown that if the temperatures are low enough (T<=20 MeV), the integration over the nuclear part can be done for the general case, ranging from the completely degenerate (D) to the nondegenerate (ND) regime. We find that the inclusion of the full nuclear contribution enhances the neutrino pair production by nn and pp bremsstrahlung by a factor of about 2 in both the D and ND limits when compared with previous calculations. This result may be relevant for the physical conditions of interest in the semitransparent regions near the neutrinosphere in type II supernovae, cooling of neutron stars, and other astrophysical situations.

  7. A test for interest rate parity among seven nations from 1975–1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Guin; Charles Maxwell

    1996-01-01

    Theory and practice blend quite well when one is studying interest rate parity. Early studies examined short-term interest rate parity relationships with mixed and uncertain results. Few, however, have examined interest rate parity conditions over a longer period. This study uses weekly data over an 18-year period and tests for interest rate parity among seven trading nations. These seven nations

  8. Spent filter packaging for long term storage and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Duberville, T.M. [NUKEM Corporation, Columbia, SC (United States); Miller, C. [Pacific Gas and Electric, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Avila Bach, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper will discuss filter packaging experience using spent filter transfer casks, a filter shear and the NUKEM macro-encapsulation process. Marco-encapsulation of spent filters in cement has provided sufficient shielding to enable filter containers to be shipped in less expensive IP-2 casks. The lower dose rate and higher density also off-sets disposal rates at Barnwell based on mass. No re-dewatering of encapsulated filter containers is required after a period of long term storage and encapsulation eliminates the possibility of gas generation from filters during storage. Encapsulation can be performed on filters loaded into poly HICs or carbon steel liners. (authors)

  9. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be presented. ACKNOWLEDGMENTs The financial support by the European Community through the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure Action under the 7th Framework Programme under ACTRIS Grant Agreement n° 262254 is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia.

    PubMed

    Talmi, Deborah; Caplan, Jeremy B; Richards, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM) despite an intact short-term memory (STM). The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR). This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors) and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only) condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant's recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation. PMID:26046770

  11. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Talmi, Deborah; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Richards, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM) despite an intact short-term memory (STM). The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR). This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors) and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only) condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant’s recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation. PMID:26046770

  12. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  13. Hypoglycemia in childhood: long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Flykanaka-Gantenbein, Christina

    2004-08-01

    Glucose is the main cerebral fuel throughout life. Inadequate cerebral glucose supply, due to recurrent episodes of severe hypoglycemia during the neonatal period or infancy, when the brain is still developing, lead to serious long-term neurological impairments, ranging from mild neurocognitive dysfunction to severe mental retardation, epilepsy, microcephaly or even hemiparesis or aphasia. Moreover, in the most common form of severe recurrent hypoglycemia of infancy due to hyperinsulinism, not only abnormalities in neurocognitive function, but also the later development of diabetes mellitus are observed. Furthermore, recurrent hypoglycemia, supervening as a side-effect of intensified insulin treatment in young diabetic children, may also induce mild neurocognitive dysfunction and, specifically, memory deficits that predispose these children to new hypoglycemic episodes and hypoglycemia unawareness. In conclusion, prompt and meticulous management of hypoglycemia and its prevention during the neonatal period, infancy and childhood constitute the main goal of physicians taking care of these patients in order to ascertain a long-standing quality of life devoid of long-term sequelae. PMID:16444188

  14. Long-term intracranial pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    de Jong, D A; Maas, A I; den Ouden, A H; de Lange, S A

    Continuous or intermittent measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is important in patients at risk for raised ICP. Indications exist for short- and long-term measurements. The various methods used for short-term monitoring are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages. For long-term measurements of ICP use of a completely implantable telemetric epidural pressure transducer is indicated. No such device is commercially available. We have developed an inexpensive passive telemetric transducer for this purpose. Results obtained up till now have demonstrated its reliability for measurements of two to three months duration. The life span of the device is limited by degrading of the epoxy utilized for sealing of the titanium pressure sensing part to the radiolucent ceramic cap of the transducer, causing leakage of water into the transducer and false low measurements. Because of these problems new hermetic sealing techniques were tested. Both active metal brazing and glass bonding yielded good results and hermetic sealing could be obtained. The metal to ceramic bonding presented is generally applicable within the design of implants. Besides the technical progress reported, the experience with clinical use in 12 patients is presented. PMID:6674738

  15. Pediatric HIV Long-Term Nonprogressors.

    PubMed

    Rimawi, B H; Rimawi, R H; Micallef, M; Pinckney, L; Fowler, S L; Dixon, T C

    2014-01-01

    Patients infected with HIV are best categorized along a continuum from rapid progressors to HIV long-term nonprogressors. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) are those in which AIDS develop many years after being infected with HIV, often beyond the 10-year mark, and represent 15-20% of the HIV infected patients. Many of these patients are able to control their infection and maintain undetectable viral loads for long periods of time without antiretroviral therapy. After a comprehensive literature search, we found extensive data related to HIV LTNPs in the adult population; however, very limited data was available related to LTNPs within the pediatric population. We present a case of pediatric HIV LTNPs, perinatally infected patient with undetectable viral loads, despite never receiving ART. Although there are not many instances of LTNPs among children, this child may be one, though she had intermittent viremia. She has continued to manifest serologic evidence of infection, with yearly ELISA and western blot positive tests. Based on the viral fitness studies that were performed, this case exemplifies an adolescent LTNP. PMID:25247098

  16. Pediatric HIV Long-Term Nonprogressors

    PubMed Central

    Rimawi, B. H.; Rimawi, R. H.; Micallef, M.; Pinckney, L.; Fowler, S. L.; Dixon, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Patients infected with HIV are best categorized along a continuum from rapid progressors to HIV long-term nonprogressors. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) are those in which AIDS develop many years after being infected with HIV, often beyond the 10-year mark, and represent 15–20% of the HIV infected patients. Many of these patients are able to control their infection and maintain undetectable viral loads for long periods of time without antiretroviral therapy. After a comprehensive literature search, we found extensive data related to HIV LTNPs in the adult population; however, very limited data was available related to LTNPs within the pediatric population. We present a case of pediatric HIV LTNPs, perinatally infected patient with undetectable viral loads, despite never receiving ART. Although there are not many instances of LTNPs among children, this child may be one, though she had intermittent viremia. She has continued to manifest serologic evidence of infection, with yearly ELISA and western blot positive tests. Based on the viral fitness studies that were performed, this case exemplifies an adolescent LTNP. PMID:25247098

  17. Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by <15% decrease in DMY and <30 days until return to normal (n?=?5), and 'long inflammation', characterized by >15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands. PMID:24906501

  18. Long-term mechanical ventilation and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Clini, Enrico

    2004-05-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) in chronic situations is commonly used, either delivered invasively or by means of non-invasive interfaces, to control hypoventilation in patients with chest wall, neuromuscular or obstructive lung diseases (either in adulthood or childhood). The global prevalence of ventilator-assisted individuals (VAI) in Europe ranges from 2 to 30 per 100000 population according to different countries. Nutrition is a common problem to face with in patients with chronic respiratory diseases: nonetheless, it is a key component in the long-term management of underweight COPD patients whose muscular disfunction may rapidly turn to peripheral muscle waste. Since long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) is usually prescribed in end-stage respiratory diseases with poor nutritional status, nutrition and dietary intake related problems need to be carefully assessed and corrected in these patients. This paper aims to review the most recent innovations in the field of nutritional status and food intake-related problems of VAI (both in adulthood and in childhood). PMID:15139570

  19. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy

    PubMed Central

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J; Benowitz, N; Connolly, G; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M; Boyle, P

    2005-01-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source. PMID:15923465

  20. Long-term changes in macroalgal assemblages after increased sedimentation and turbidity in Western Port,

    E-print Network

    Burgman, Mark

    The long-term impacts of declining water quality from coastal development on macro-algal communities can zone and hence available habitat for algae, and reduce their growth rates. While these two factors

  1. Development of a new test of accelerated long-term forgetting in epilepsy 

    E-print Network

    Williams, Katie

    2010-11-24

    Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is a novel form of memory impairment in which epilepsy patients demonstrate intact recall and recognition after standard delays, but they show an accelerated rate of forgetting in comparison to controls when...

  2. Long-term performance of filtration layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radfar, A.; Rockaway, T. D.

    2013-12-01

    Permeable pavements are commonly employed to capture and divert stormwater before it enters the stormwater or sewer conveyance systems. During a storm event, runoff water passes through the permeable pavement surface, enters a storage gallery and finally exfiltrates into the surrounding soil. Thus, the ability of the system to store an appropriate volume of runoff water is an important consideration for stormwater control design. Traditionally, crushed stone or other porous material has been used to provide the necessary interstitial void space to store the runoff water. Unfortunately, over time the available void space within the storage gallery is reduced due to settlement, biological growth and sediment accumulation. This gradual reduction in void space reduces the long-term effectiveness of these stormwater controls by limiting its ability to store and pass runoff water. This study examined the long-term performance of the storage gallery layer with respect to its ability to both store and pass runoff water. As the porosity within the storage gallery decreased, it was anticipated that volumetric water content within the gallery would increase and that time necessary to drain the gallery would increase as well. The effects of the gallery porosity were assessed over a one-year study using both laboratory experimentation and monitoring data from naturally occurring rain events. Changes in gallery porosity were first assessed by correlating monitoring piezometer data with surface infiltration testing; building a relation between know volume of poured water being used for the test and the associated pressure head at the base of the gallery. As a known volume of water enters the system, volume change in the gallery directly correlate to increases in pressure head. Second, the time required for water to permeate through pavers and gallery layer to trigger the TDRs in the filtration layer and the time to drain it from the crushed stone were calculated and compared by the age of permeable pavement. These data were utilized to develop a model that more appropriately considered changes in gallery porosity. By better understanding the progression of the runoff water through the storage gallery a better assessment of the long-term performance of the entire system can be developed. Future storage gallery designs can be appropriately modified to account for changes within the storage gallery so that volume and flow requirements are maintained throughout the life of the structure.

  3. Increased Risk of Long-Term Sickness Absence, Lower Rate of Return to Work, and Higher Risk of Unemployment and Disability Pensioning for Thyroid Patients: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Watt, T.; Pedersen, J.; Bonnema, S. J.; Hegedüs, L.; Rasmussen, A. K.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Bjorner, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Little is known about how thyroid diseases affect work ability. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of work disability for patients with thyroid disease compared with the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a longitudinal register study, outpatients (n = 862) with nontoxic goiter, hyperthyroidism, Graves' orbitopathy (GO), autoimmune hypothyroidism, or other thyroid diseases and their matched controls (n = 7043) were observed in the years 1994–2011 in Danish national registers of social benefits, health, and work characteristics. Cox regression analyses estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the first year after diagnosis and subsequent years. Main Outcome Measures: Transitions between work, long-term sickness absence, unemployment, and disability pension were measured. Results: Patients differed significantly from the general population with regard to sickness absence, disability pension, return from sickness absence, and unemployment. In the first year after diagnosis, higher risks of sickness absence was seen for GO (HR 6.94) and other hyperthyroid patients (HR 2.08), who also had lower probability of returning from sickness absence (HR 0.62) and higher risk of disability pension (HR 4.15). Patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism showed a lower probability of returning from sickness absence (HR 0.62). In subsequent years, GO patients had significantly higher risk of sickness absence (HR 2.08), lower probability of return from sickness absence (HR 0.51), and unemployment (HR 0.52) and a higher risk of disability pension (HR 4.40). Hyperthyroid patients also had difficulties returning from sickness absence (HR 0.71). Conclusions: Thyroid patients' risk of work disability is most pronounced in the first year after diagnosis and attenuates in subsequent years. GO patients have the highest risk of work disability. PMID:24937367

  4. Long-term Follow-up After Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Puzziferri, Nancy; Roshek, Thomas B.; Mayo, Helen G.; Gallagher, Ryan; Belle, Steven H.; Livingston, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Bariatric surgery is an accepted treatment for obesity. Despite extensive literature, few studies report long-term follow-up in cohorts with adequate retention rates. OBJECTIVE To assess the quality of evidence and treatment effectiveness 2 years after bariatric procedures for weight loss, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in severely obese adults. EVIDENCE REVIEW MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched from 1946 through May 15, 2014. Search terms included bariatric surgery, individual bariatric procedures, and obesity. Studies were included if they described outcomes for gastric bypass, gastric band, or sleeve gastrectomy performed on patients with a body mass index of 35 or greater, had more than 2 years of outcome information, and had follow-up measures for at least 80% of the initial cohort. Two investigators reviewed each study and a third resolved study inclusion disagreements. FINDINGS Of 7371 clinical studies reviewed, 29 studies (0.4%, 7971 patients) met inclusion criteria. All gastric bypass studies (6 prospective cohorts, 5 retrospective cohorts) and sleeve gastrectomy studies (2 retrospective cohorts) had 95% confidence intervals for the reported mean, median, or both exceeding 50% excess weight loss. This amount of excess weight loss occurred in 31% of gastric band studies (9 prospective cohorts, 5 retrospective cohorts). The mean sample-size–weighted percentage of excess weight loss for gastric bypass was 65.7% (n = 3544) vs 45.0% (n = 4109) for gastric band. Nine studies measured comorbidity improvement. For type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin <6.5% without medication), sample-size–weighted remission rates were 66.7% for gastric bypass (n = 428) and 28.6% for gastric band (n = 96). For hypertension (blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg without medication), remission rates were 38.2% for gastric bypass (n = 808) and 17.4% for gastric band (n = 247). For hyperlipidemia (cholesterol <200 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein >40 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein <160 mg/dL, and triglycerides <200 mg/dL), remission rates were 60.4% for gastric bypass (n = 477) and 22.7% for gastric band (n = 97). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Very few bariatric surgery studies report long-term results with sufficient patient follow-up to minimize biased results. Gastric bypass has better outcomes than gastric band procedures for long-term weight loss, type 2 diabetes control and remission, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Insufficient evidence exists regarding long-term outcomes for gastric sleeve resections. PMID:25182102

  5. Time Series Analysis of Sea-Level Records: Characterising Long-Term Variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana M. Barbosa; Maria Eduarda Silva; Maria Joana Fernandes

    The characterisation and quantification of long-term sea-level variability is of considerable interest in a climate change\\u000a context. Long time series from coastal tide gauges are particularly appropriate for this purpose. Long-term variability in\\u000a tide gauge records is usually expressed through the linear slope resulting from the fit of a linear model to the time series,\\u000a thus assuming that the generating

  6. Changes in monetary policy and the variation in interest rate changes across credit markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devin Reilly; Pierre-Daniel G. Sarte

    2010-01-01

    This article uses principal component methods to assess the importance of changes in the federal funds rate in driving interest rate changes across a broad array of credit markets. We find that most of the variability in interest rate changes across these markets is explained by a small number of common components. Furthermore, for many of the interest rate series

  7. Radiation risk during long-term spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Petrov, V M

    2002-01-01

    Cosmonauts' exposure to cosmic rays during long-term spaceflight can cause unfavorable effects in health and risk for the crew members' lives. All unfavorable effects induced by exposure should be taken into consideration for the risk estimation. They should include both the acute deterministic effects and delayed effects called stochastic. On the ground the limitation of unfavorable consequences of acute exposure is achieved by means of establishing dose limits. But in space applications this approach can't be acceptable. Establishing a fixed dose limit is adequate to introducing indefinite reserve coefficient and therefore ineffective usage of spacecraft resource. The method of radiation risk calculation caused by acute and delayed effects of cosmonauts' exposure is discussed and substantiated in the report. Peculiarities of the impact of permanent radiation sources (galactic cosmic rays and trapped radiation) and the variable one (solar cosmic rays) are taken into consideration. PMID:12539775

  8. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  9. [Childhood liver transplantation. Long-term results].

    PubMed

    Jara, Paloma; Hierro, Loreto

    2010-05-01

    Liver transplantation allows long-term survival (10 years or more) in 75% of children receiving transplants before 2000. The risk of mortality after the first year is 4-10% in the next 10-20 years. Chronic rejection affects 6%. The need for late retransplantation is 3-5%. However, the follow-up of these patients involves the management of diverse problems in the graft (immunological, biliary, vascular) and others related to the use of immunosuppressants (renal dysfunction, lymphoproliferative syndrome). The transition from pediatric to adult care generates special needs. Adolescence and young adulthood are associated with a lack of compliance. Adult specialists should be aware of the special features of the original diagnosis and the surgical techniques used in childhood transplantation. Final quality of life is good overall but is lower than that in healthy young persons. PMID:20122757

  10. [Strongyloidiasis following long-term corticosteroid therapy].

    PubMed

    Yamori, S; Yamamoto, M; Kawabata, A; Nakashima, K; Iinuma, Y; Satake, T; Shimokata, K

    1989-10-01

    A 64-year-old man who was born and raised in Fukuoka Prefecture was admitted because of dyspnea. The chest X-ray film showed multiple pulmonary cysts. Corticosteroid therapy was given because of repeated episodes of dyspnea and wheezing. He complained of epigastric pain 20 months after administration of corticosteroid therapy. Gastro-endoscopic examination showed inflammatory changes of the gastric mucosa and the biopsy specimens revealed the filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Furthermore, the larvae were frequently detected in both sputum specimens and stools. Pyrvinium pamoate was initially administered and was switched to thiabendazole because of the presence of hyperinfection. Although two cycles of thiabendazole treatment were given, the larvae were not eradicated. This case report suggests that long term corticosteroid therapy caused the hyperinfection syndrome of Strongyloides stercoralis in a patient who was auto-infected with this nematode. PMID:2615077

  11. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  12. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  13. Performance Evaluation Using Expert Elicitation and Long Term Environmental Monitoring Optimization for Long Term Stewardship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Moore; Jack Ditmars; Barbara Minsker; James Bachmaier

    Long term environmental monitoring is a critical component of stewardship for three reasons: (1) data provide ongoing evidence of environmental compliance and protection of the public and the environment; (2) the monitoring program, in part, determines the life cycle cost and extent of stewardship; and (3) the monitoring program provides a framework to develop trust and agreement between the site

  14. Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression in Experience-Dependent Plasticity

    E-print Network

    Crair, Michael C

    -term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) more than 30 years ago, a great deal of experimental-dependent develop- ment and plasticity of sensory systems and addresses how LTP and LTD mechanisms at excitatory synapses might be used to mediate such changes. Mechanisms of LTP and LTD LTP and LTD are nearly ubiquitous

  15. F-BF Compounding with a 100% Interest Rate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A man knows that money in an account where interest is compounded semi-annually will earn interest faster than money in an account where interest is co...

  16. Where Can You Receive Care? (Long-Term Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may need. Share page: Where Can You Receive Care? Most long-term care is provided at home. ... in long-term care facilities. Examples of home care services include: An unpaid caregiver who may be ...

  17. Erosion rates on subalpine paleosurfaces in the western Mediterranean by in-situ 10 Be concentrations in granites: implications for surface processes and long-term landscape evolution in Corsica (France)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Kuhlemann; Klaas van der Borg; Paul D. Bons; Martin Danisík; Wolfgang Frisch

    2008-01-01

    A study of erosion rates by in-situ 10Be concentrations in granites of Miocene high-elevation paleosurfaces in Corsica indicates maximum erosion rates between 8\\u000a and 24 mm\\/kyear. The regional distribution of measured erosion rates indicates that the local climatic conditions, namely\\u000a precipitation, the petrographic composition of granites, and the degree of brittle deformation govern erosion rates. Chemical\\u000a erosion dominates even at elevations

  18. Long-Term Maintenance of Weight Loss: Current Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Jeffery; Adam Drewnowski; Leonard H. Epstein; Albert J. Stunkard; G. Terence Wilson; Rena R. Wing; Dana Robin Hill

    2000-01-01

    Intervention strategies for promoting long-term weight loss are examined empirically and conceptually. Weight control research over the last 20 years has dramatically improved short-term treatment efficacy but has been less successful in improving long-term success. Interventions in preadolescent children show greater long-term efficacy than in adults. Extending treatment length and putting more emphasis on energy expenditure have modestly improved long-term

  19. Modeling long-term carbon dynamics in colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; van oost, K.; Govers, G.

    2013-12-01

    A significant part of the soil organic carbon that is eroded in uplands is deposited and buried in colluvial settings. Understanding the fate of this deposited SOC is of key importance for the understanding of the role of (accelerated) erosion in the global C cycle: the residence time of the deposited carbon will determine if, and for how long, accelerated erosion due to human disturbance will induce sequestration of SOC from the atmosphere to the soil. Experimental studies may provide useful information, but, given the time scale under consideration, the response of the colluvial SOC can only be simulated using numerical models. In this study, we present a depth explicit SOC model including soil profile evolution due to sedimentation (ICBM-SE) to simulate the long-term C dynamics in colluvial soils. The SOC profile predicted by our model is in good agreement with field observation. Simulations show that the C storage within a given soil depth in colluvial soils is determined by the sedimentation rate with higher colluvial SOC storages associated with higher deposition rates. It takes centuries for the SOC in the deposited sediments to reach its equilibrium C burial efficiency (the ratio of current C content of the buried sediments to the original C content at the time of sedimentation). Also, the equilibrium C burial efficiency is positively correlated with the sedimentation rate. With increasing sedimentation rate, the contribution from originally associated SOC at the time sedimentation to the bulk SOC (including originally associated SOC and assimilated SOC from input after sedimentation) increases, while that from C input increases with decreasing sedimentation rate. The reason why sedimentation rate is crucial in the long-term dynamics of the deposited SOC is due to the fact that sedimentation rate determines the duration of the sediments at a given depth while the C input and decomposition rate decrease with depth due to the vertical variation of root distribution and soil environmental factors such as humidity, temperature and aeration condition. A better understanding of the long-term C dynamics in colluvial soils is a necessity in order to evaluate the role of soil erosion in global C cycles.

  20. 78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...1327 RIN 0985-AA08 State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program AGENCY: Administration...Older Americans Act, the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman program. This proposed rule...compliance in carrying out the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program functions. This...

  1. 31 CFR 359.9 - When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Information ...When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced...rates, and composite rates for Series I savings bonds in announcements...announce rates at any other...

  2. 31 CFR 359.9 - When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Information ...When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced...rates, and composite rates for Series I savings bonds in announcements...announce rates at any other...

  3. 31 CFR 359.9 - When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Information ...When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced...rates, and composite rates for Series I savings bonds in announcements...announce rates at any other...

  4. 31 CFR 359.9 - When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Information ...When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced...rates, and composite rates for Series I savings bonds in announcements...announce rates at any other...

  5. 13 CFR 123.302 - What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan? 123.302...ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Economic Injury Disaster Loans § 123.302 What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan? Your...

  6. 13 CFR 123.302 - What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan? 123.302...ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Economic Injury Disaster Loans § 123.302 What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan? Your...

  7. 13 CFR 123.302 - What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan? 123.302...ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Economic Injury Disaster Loans § 123.302 What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan? Your...

  8. 13 CFR 123.302 - What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan? 123.302...ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Economic Injury Disaster Loans § 123.302 What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan? Your...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615...Section 615.5181 Banks and Banking FARM...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL...Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5181 Bank interest rate...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615...Section 615.5181 Banks and Banking FARM...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL...Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5181 Bank interest rate...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615...Section 615.5181 Banks and Banking FARM...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL...Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5181 Bank interest rate...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5180 - Bank interest rate risk management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615...Section 615.5180 Banks and Banking FARM...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL...Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5180 Bank interest rate...

  13. 7 CFR 773.19 - Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.19 Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a) Interest rate....

  14. 7 CFR 773.19 - Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.19 Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a) Interest rate....

  15. 7 CFR 773.19 - Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.19 Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a) Interest rate....

  16. 7 CFR 773.19 - Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.19 Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a) Interest rate....

  17. 7 CFR 773.19 - Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.19 Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a) Interest rate....

  18. Health Practice in Long-Term Survivors of Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Andrea K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: ang@lroc.harvard.edu; Li Sigui [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Recklitis, Christopher; Diller, Lisa R. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Neuberg, Donna [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara; Mauch, Peter M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the health practice of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) survivors and their siblings, and to assess the impact of socioeconomic status and disease history on health practice of HL survivors. Methods and Materials: We conducted a questionnaire study on long-term HL survivors and their siblings on health care utilization, health habits, and screening behavior. Results: A total of 511 HL survivors (response rate of 50%, including survivors lost to contact) and 224 siblings (response rate, 58%) participated. Median time from HL diagnosis was 15 years. Significantly more survivors than siblings had a physical examination in the past year (63% vs. 49%, p = 0.0001). Male survivors were significantly more likely than siblings to perform monthly self-testicular examinations (19% vs. 9%, p = 0.02). Among survivors, higher household income (p = 0.01) independently predicted for having had a physical examination in the past year. Lower educational level (p = 0.0004) and history of relapsed HL (p = 0.03) were independent predictors for smoking, moderate/heavy alcohol use, and/or physical inactivity. Conclusions: Compared with siblings, long-term HL survivors have a higher level of health care utilization and better screening practice. Survivors from lower socioeconomic background had lower adherence to routine health care and greater report of unhealthy habits. Survivors with history of relapsed HL were also more likely to engage in unhealthy habits.

  19. Long-term outcome of renal transplantation from marginal donors.

    PubMed

    Collini, A; De Bartolomeis, C; Ruggieri, G; Barni, R; Bernini, M; Carmellini, M

    2006-12-01

    Long-term survival of kidneys from suboptimal donors is known to be not as good as that from optimal ones. However, the shortage of donors has led many transplant centers to consider accepting older donors with comorbidities. We analyzed 238 patients who received deceased donor renal transplants in the period 2000-2005. The recipients were matched to be no more than 15 years older or younger than the corresponding donors. Among them 125 received a single and 18 a double transplantation from donors considered marginal, according to UNOS criteria for expanded criteria donor (ECD). Most kidneys were evaluated with a pretransplant biopsy, using the scoring system introduced by Karpinski in 1999. The analysis indicated clearly better results in the non-ECD group: both patients and graft survival rates were 10% higher at 1, 2, and 3 years. However, the ECD group showed satisfactory outcomes, confirming the utility of this procedure. The long-term survival rates of single or double grafts from marginal donors are satisfactory, confirming the practice of allocating kidneys after a preimplantation histological evaluation, allowing expansion of the donor pool and providing older patients access to the waiting lists. PMID:17175283

  20. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brienen, R. J. W.; Phillips, O. L.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Gloor, E.; Baker, T. R.; Lloyd, J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A.; Malhi, Y.; Lewis, S. L.; Vásquez Martinez, R.; Alexiades, M.; Álvarez Dávila, E.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Andrade, A.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Araujo-Murakami, A.; Arets, E. J. M. M.; Arroyo, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Bánki, O. S.; Baraloto, C.; Barroso, J.; Bonal, D.; Boot, R. G. A.; Camargo, J. L. C.; Castilho, C. V.; Chama, V.; Chao, K. J.; Chave, J.; Comiskey, J. A.; Cornejo Valverde, F.; da Costa, L.; de Oliveira, E. A.; di Fiore, A.; Erwin, T. L.; Fauset, S.; Forsthofer, M.; Galbraith, D. R.; Grahame, E. S.; Groot, N.; Hérault, B.; Higuchi, N.; Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Keeling, H.; Killeen, T. J.; Laurance, W. F.; Laurance, S.; Licona, J.; Magnussen, W. E.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Mendoza, C.; Neill, D. A.; Nogueira, E. M.; Núñez, P.; Pallqui Camacho, N. C.; Parada, A.; Pardo-Molina, G.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Claros, M.; Pickavance, G. C.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Poorter, L.; Prieto, A.; Quesada, C. A.; Ramírez, F.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Restrepo, Z.; Roopsind, A.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R. P.; Schwarz, M.; Silva, N.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Silveira, M.; Stropp, J.; Talbot, J.; Ter Steege, H.; Teran-Aguilar, J.; Terborgh, J.; Thomas-Caesar, R.; Toledo, M.; Torello-Raventos, M.; Umetsu, R. K.; van der Heijden, G. M. F.; van der Hout, P.; Guimarães Vieira, I. C.; Vieira, S. A.; Vilanova, E.; Vos, V. A.; Zagt, R. J.

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models.

  1. Surgical procedure and long-term survival of hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Yang, Helen; Shen, Chunjian; Luo, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the influencing factors related to outcome of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: From January 1999 to January 2009, 204 cases of hilar cholangiocarcinoma undergoing surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Bismuth-Corlette classification showed type I in 18 patients, type II in 40, type IIIa in 65, type IIIb in 54, type IV in 27. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the relationship between each of the clinicopathologic variables and survival was assessed by the log-rank test. Multivatiate results were confirmed using Cox regression. Results: Radical resection was accomplished in 161 of 204 patients (78.9%). Radical resection offered the best chance of long-term survival, with the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rate were 62.6%, 42.4%, 23.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that lymph node metastasis, surgical margin, operative procedure and tumor differentiation were prognostic impacts. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Cox multivariate analysis showed that lymph node metastasis and surgical margin are two separate prognostic factors. Conclusion: Racical resection is the key to improve the long-term survival rate of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and a favorable outcome after resection is mainly determined by curative resection and the absence of lymph node metastasis. PMID:25785102

  2. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart sensors housed in anti-fouling sensor chambers. The monitoring network is highly versatile and can be applied to a variety of subsurface sensing scenarios in different media. However, the current project focused on monitoring water quality parameters of pH, oxidation-reduction potential, conductivity, and temperature in groundwater.

  3. Interactions between assembly order and temperature can alter both short- and long-term community composition.

    PubMed

    Clements, Christopher F; Warren, Philip H; Collen, Ben; Blackburn, Tim; Worsfold, Nicholas; Petchey, Owen

    2013-12-01

    Both the order in which species arrive in a community, and environmental conditions, such as temperature, are known to affect community structure. Little is known, however, about the potential for, and occurrence of, interactions between assembly history and the environment. Of particular, interest may be the interaction between temperature and community assembly dynamics, especially in the light of predicted global climatic change and the fundamental processes that are governed, through metabolic rate, by an individual's environmental temperature. We present, to our knowledge, the first experimental exploration of how the influence of assembly history, temperature, and the interaction between the two alters the structure of communities of competitors, using small-scale protist microcosm communities where temperature and assembly order were manipulated factorially. In our experiment, the most important driver of long-term abundance was temperature but long-lasting assembly order effects influenced the relationship between temperature and abundance. Any advantage of early colonization proved to be short-lived, and there was rarely any long-term advantage to colonizing a habitat before other species. The results presented here suggest that environmental conditions shape community composition, but that occasionally temperature could interact with the stochastic nature of community assembly to significantly alter future community composition, especially where temperature change has been large. This could have important implications for the dynamics of both rare and invasive species. PMID:24455149

  4. NICE guidance on long-term sickness and incapacity.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, Mark; Taylor, Lorraine; Sheppard, Linda; Hillage, Jim; Bambra, Clare; Ford, Fiona; Preece, Richard; Taske, Nichole; Kelly, Michael P

    2011-03-01

    Long-term sickness absence and incapacity benefits (disability pension) rates have increased across industrialised countries. Effective measures are needed to support return to work. The recommendations of this guidance were informed by the most appropriate available evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Public health evidence was provided by research using a variety of study designs that attempted to determine the outcome of a particular intervention by evaluating status before and after the intervention had been effected, and was not limited to randomised control trials. Where the evidence base was depleted or underdeveloped, expert witnesses were called to give their opinion on the best available evidence and emerging interventions. The process enabled challenge and contestability from stakeholder groups at different points as the guidance was developed. Forty-five heterogeneous studies were included in the review of interventions to reduce long-term sickness absence and transitions from short-term to long-term absence (mainly covering the former and also mainly examining musculoskeletal conditions). The analysis of evidence was restricted to descriptive synthesis. Three general themes emerged from an analysis of the studies that were more likely to report positive results: early interventions; multidisciplinary approaches; and interventions with a workplace component. Two further reviews were undertaken, one on interventions to reduce the re-occurrence of sickness absence, which identified seven studies on lower back pain, and concluded that early intervention and direct workplace input are important factors. The final evidence review focused on six studies of interventions for those in receipt of incapacity benefit. The evidence was that work-focused interviews coupled with access to tailored support are effective and cost-effective interventions. Practitioners should consider the impact of interventions and management options on work ability for patients of working age. Work ability should be considered a key outcome for future intervention studies. PMID:21375894

  5. The value of interest rate smoothing : how the private sector helps the Federal Reserve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffery D. Amato; Thomas Laubach

    1999-01-01

    Most central banks conduct monetary policy by setting targets for overnight interest rates. During the 1990s, central banks have tended to move these interest rates in small steps without reversing direction quickly, a practice called interest rate smoothing. For example, the majority of Federal Reserve policy moves in the last decade and a half have come in a sequence of

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  7. Preparing Tomorrow's Nursing Home Nurses: The Wisconsin Long Term Care Clinical Scholars Program.

    PubMed

    Nolet, Kim; Roberts, Tonya; Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Andrea; Roiland, Rachel; Gullickson, Colleen; Ryther, Brenda; Bowers, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    Preparing future nurses to care for the growing population of older adults has become a national priority. The demand for long term care services is expected to double between 2000 and 2040, yet the field remains stigmatized as an undesirable place for highly skilled nurses to work. Recent efforts to increase student preparation in geriatrics have been shown to improve student attitudes toward working with older adults and increase knowledge, but long term care settings remain unattractive to students. This article reports on the development, implementation, and evaluation of The Wisconsin Long Term Care Clinical Scholars Program, a nursing home internship for baccalaureate nursing students. The program couples a paid nursing home work experience with an evidence-based long term care nursing curriculum. The program increased student preparation and interest in working both with older adults and in nursing homes, while increasing the capacity of nursing homes to provide a positive student experience. PMID:25162659

  8. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  11. Interest Rate Model Calibration Using Semidefinite Program ming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. d'Aspremont

    We show that, for the purpose of pricing Swaptions, the Swap rate and the corresponding Forward rates can be considered lognormal under a single martingale measure. Swaptions can then be priced as options on a basket of lognormal assets and an approximation formula is derived for such options. This formula is centered around a Black- Scholes price with an appropriate

  12. A probabilistic clustering method for US interest rate analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Foued Saâdaoui

    2010-01-01

    Finite mixture distributions provide a flexible method for high-dimensional data modeling. They are widely used in many disciplines such as astronomy and genetics. One reason for their popularity is their flexibility and straightforward implementation. The interest increase in multivariate mixtures and their applicability when they are combined with clustering methods motivated us to opt for these methods to analyse financial

  13. Future Demand For Long-Term Care Workers Will Be Influenced By Demographic And Utilization Changes.

    PubMed

    Spetz, Joanne; Trupin, Laura; Bates, Timothy; Coffman, Janet M

    2015-06-01

    A looming question for policy makers is how growing diversity of the US elderly population and greater use of home and community-based services will affect demand for long-term care workers. We used national surveys to analyze current use and staffing of long-term care, project demand for long-term care services and workers through 2030, and assess how projections varied if we changed assumptions about utilization patterns. If current trends continue, the occupations anticipated to grow the most over the period are counselors and social workers (94 percent), community and social services workers (93 percent), and home health and personal care aides (88 percent). Alternative projections were computed for scenarios that assumed changing racial and ethnic patterns of long-term care use or shifts toward noninstitutional care. For instance, if Hispanics used services at the same rate as non-Hispanic blacks, the projected demand for long-term care workers would be 5 percent higher than if current trends continued. If 20 percent of nursing home care were shifted to home health services, total employment growth would be about 12 percent lower. Demographic and utilization changes would have little effect on projections of robust long-term care employment growth between now and 2030. Policy makers and educators should redouble efforts to create and sustainably fund programs to recruit, train, and retain long-term care workers. PMID:26056198

  14. Long-term behavior of ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Anson, D.; Ramesh, K.S.

    1992-02-19

    This topical report has been prepared in response to the need to address the question of long term durability of high-strength structural ceramic materials. In a new project to demonstrate the use of such materials as replacements for metals in the hot gas path of industrial gas turbines, the longest projected test bed run will be 1000 hours. Creep in ceramic materials seldom exceeds one percent strain before failure, but the strain takes place almost entirely in the intergranular regions, which can be severely weakened by accumulated damage as creep occurs. In this report, we discuss the nature of creep in silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramic materials, the method of evaluating creep, and the interpretation of data obtained under various creep test conditions. A review of creep data illustrates the importance of intergranular phases and of the history of the material. Also, in most cases, the histories applying to laboratory investigations are different from those that will apply to engineering situations in which measurable creep will be generally unacceptable. Fatigue in ceramic materials usually is assessed in static fatigue tests, which are dependent on the same types of grain boundary damage as those occurring in creep, but over shorter time periods. Corrosion of silicon-based ceramics by oxygen and water vapor results in the formation of protective SiO{sub 2} under gas turbine operating conditions.

  15. Bacterial Cellulose: Long-Term Biocompatibility Studies.

    PubMed

    Pértile, Renata A N; Moreira, Susana; Costa, Rui M Gil da; Correia, Alexandra; Guardão, Luisa; Gartner, Fátima; Vilanova, Manuel; Gama, Miguel

    2011-06-28

    The bacterial cellulose (BC) secreted by Gluconacetobacter xylinus is a network of pure cellulose nanofibres which has high crystallinity, wettability and mechanical strength. These characteristics make BC an excellent material for tissue-engineering constructs, noteworthy for artificial vascular grafts. In this work, the in vivo biocompatibility of BC membranes produced by two G. xylinus strains was analyzed through histological analysis of long-term subcutaneous implants in the mice. The BC implants caused a mild and benign inflammatory reaction that decreased along time and did not elicit a foreign body reaction. A tendency to calcify over time, which may be related to the porosity of the BC implants, was observed, especially among the less porous BC-1 implants. In addition, the potential toxicity of BC nanofibres - obtained by chemical-mechanical treatment of BC membranes - subcutaneously implanted in mice was analysed through bone marrow flow cytometryand histological analyses. At 2 and 4 months post-implantation, the nanofibres implants were found to accumulate intracellularly, in subcutaneous foamy macrophages aggregates. Moreover, no differences were observed between the controls and implanted animals in thymocyte populations and in B lymphocyte precursors and myeloid cells in the bone marrow. PMID:21722421

  16. Long-term potentiation and memory.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard G M

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP) transformed research on the neurobiology of learning and memory. This did not happen overnight, but the discovery of an experimentally demonstrable phenomenon reflecting activity-driven neuronal and synaptic plasticity changed discussions about what might underlie learning from speculation into something much more concrete. Equally, however, the relationship between the discovery of LTP and research on the neurobiology of learning and memory has been reciprocal; for it is also true that studies of the psychological, anatomical and neurochemical basis of memory provided a developing and critical intellectual context for the physiological discovery. The emerging concept of multiple memory systems, from 1970 onwards, paved the way for the development of new behavioural and cognitive tasks, including the watermaze described in this paper. The use of this task in turn provided key evidence that pharmacological interference with an LTP induction mechanism would also interfere with learning, a finding that was by no means a foregone conclusion. This reciprocal relationship between studies of LTP and the neurobiology of memory helped the physiological phenomenon to be recognized as a major discovery. PMID:12740109

  17. Long-term variations in sunspot characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlatov, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Relative variations in the number of sunspots and sunspot groups in activity cycles have been analyzed based on data from the Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station and international indices. The following regularities have been established: (1) The relative fraction of small sunspots decreases linearly and that of large sunspots increase with increasing activity cycle amplitude. (2) The variation in the average number of sunspots in one group has a trend, and this number decreased from ˜12 in cycle 19 to ˜7.5 in cycle 24. (3) The ratio of the sunspot index (Ri) to the sunspot group number index ( G gr) varies with a period of about 100 years. (4) An analysis of the sunspot group number index ( G gr) from 1610 indicates that the Gnevyshev-Ohl rule reverses at the minimums of secular activity cycles. (5) Ratio of the total area to area of Ssp/Sum nuclei has long-term variation with a period approximately 8 cycles. Minimum ratio falls on 16-17 cycles of activity. (6) It has been indicated that the magnetic field intensity and sunspot area in the current cycle are related to the amplitude of the next activity cycle.

  18. Long-term changes in Saturn's troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, L.

    1985-09-01

    The author reports the results of monitoring Saturn's H2 quadrupole and CH4 band absorptions outside of the equatorial zone over one-half of Saturn's year. This interval covers most of the perihelion half of Saturn's elliptical orbit, which happens to be approximately bounded by the equinoxes. Marked long-term changes occur in the CH4 absorption accompanied by weakly opposite changes in the H2 absorption. Around the 1980 equinox, the H2 and CH4 absorptions in the northern hemisphere appear to be discontinuous with those in the southern hemisphere. This discontinuity and the temporal variation of the absorptions are evidence for seasonal changes. The absorption variations can be attributed to a variable haze in Saturn's troposphere, responding to changes in temperature and insolation through the processes of sublimation and freezing. The author models the vertical haze distribution of Saturn's south temperate latitudes during 1971 - 1977 in terms of a distribution having a particle scale height equal to a fraction of the atmospheric scale height. He also reports spatial measurements of the absorption in the 6450 Å NH3 band made annually since the 1980 equinox.

  19. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Long-term demographic analysis in goshawk Accipiter gentilis : the role of density dependence and stochasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Krüger

    2007-01-01

    Density dependence and environmental stochasticity are both potentially important processes influencing population demography\\u000a and long-term population growth. Quantifying the importance of these two processes for population growth requires both long-term\\u000a population as well as individual-based data. I use a 30-year data set on a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population from Eastern Westphalia, Germany, to describe the key vital rate elements to

  1. Bronchial artery embolization for hemoptysis: Immediate and long-term results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsumi Hayakawa; Fumiko Tanaka; Tatsuo Torizuka; Michihide Mitsumori; Yoshishige Okuno; Akira Matsui; Yoshikazu Satoh; Kazuhisa Fujiwara; Takashi Misaki

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term results in 63 patients who underwent transarterial embolization\\u000a for control of hemoptysis. Overall immediate success rate was 86.1%. At long-term follow-up 50% of patients showed complete\\u000a remission, 22% partial remission, and 28% recurrent hemoptysis. Hemoptysis remained controlled for a mean of 22 months and\\u000a a median of 14

  2. In vitro replication capacity of HIV2 variants from long-term aviremic individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hetty Blaak; Marchina E. van der Ende; Patrick H. M. Boers; Hanneke Schuitemaker; Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus

    2006-01-01

    To establish whether efficient suppression of virus replication in HIV-2-infected individuals is associated with low replicative capacity of HIV-2, replication kinetics of HIV-2 variants from long-term aviremic individuals was analyzed and compared with that of the relatively slow-replicating HIV-1 variants from asymptomatics and long-term nonprogressors (AS\\/LTNP). On average, HIV-2 from aviremic individuals had lower replication rates than HIV-1 variants from

  3. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage estuaries below by removing all incoming freshwater. At Toolik Lake, long-term experiments of removing top predators from the good web of lakes showed dramatic alterations of lake populations of small fish and zooplankton. In New Mexico, LTER research on small mammal populations is successfully predicting rodent increases and the potential for increased zoonotic diseases such as Hantavirus and bubonic plague. This ability to forecast based on El Nino prediction is being used to increase scientific awareness and public health awareness through media based communication with the public. In Oregon, the Andrews Forest LTER program has had long, strong links with natural resource policy and management. Basic understanding of forest-stream interactions, characteristics of old-growth forests, roles of woody debris in temperate forest ecosystems, invertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function have been incorporated in management guidelines, plans and regulations for public and private lands throughout the Pacific Northwest. Other examples of the values of long-term research and monitoring will be presented.

  4. NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTP/LTD).

    PubMed

    Lüscher, Christian; Malenka, Robert C

    2012-06-01

    Long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTP/LTD) can be elicited by activating N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, typically by the coincident activity of pre- and postsynaptic neurons. The early phases of expression are mediated by a redistribution of AMPA-type glutamate receptors: More receptors are added to potentiate the synapse or receptors are removed to weaken synapses. With time, structural changes become apparent, which in general require the synthesis of new proteins. The investigation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these forms of synaptic plasticity has received much attention, because NMDA receptor-dependent LTP and LTD may constitute cellular substrates of learning and memory. PMID:22510460

  5. No requirement of TRPV1 in long-term potentiation or long-term depression in the anterior cingulate cortex

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    One major interest in the study of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) in sensory system is that it may serve as a drug target for treating chronic pain. While the roles of TRPV1 in peripheral nociception and sensitization have been well documented, less is known about its contribution to pain-related cortical plasticity. Here, we used 64 multi-electrode array recording to examine the potential role of TRPV1 in two major forms of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We found that pharmacological blockade of TRPV1 with either [(E)-3-(4-t-Butylphenyl)-N-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)acrylamide] (AMG9810, 10 ?M) or N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-chlorocinnamide (SB366791, 20 ?M) failed to affect LTP induced by strong theta burst stimulation in the ACC of adult mice. Similarly, neither AMG9810 nor SB366791 blocked the cingulate LTD induced by low-frequency stimulation. Analysis of the results from different layers of the ACC obtained the same conclusions. Spatial distribution of LTP or LTD-showing channels among the ACC network was also unaltered by the TRPV1 antagonists. Since cortical LTP and LTD in the ACC play critical roles in chronic pain triggered by inflammation or nerve injury, our findings suggest that TRPV1 may not be a viable target for treating chronic pain, especially at the cortical level. PMID:24708859

  6. Impaired long-term memory and long-term potentiation in N-type Ca2+ channel-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, D; Kim, C; Yang, Y-M; Rhim, H; Yim, E; Oh, U; Shin, H-S

    2007-06-01

    Voltage-dependent N-type Ca(2+) channels, along with the P/Q-type, have a crucial role in controlling the release of neurotransmitters or neuromodulators at presynaptic terminals. However, their role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory has never been examined. Here, we investigated hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and synaptic plasticity at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses in mice deficient for the alpha(1B) subunit of N-type Ca(2+) channels. The mutant mice exhibited impaired learning and memory in the Morris water maze and the social transmission of food preference tasks. In particular, long-term memory was impaired in the mutant mice. Interestingly, among activity-dependent long-lasting synaptic changes, theta burst- or 200-Hz-stimulation-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) was decreased in the mutant, compared with the wild-type mice. This type of LTP is known to require brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It was found that both BDNF-induced potentiation of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and facilitation of the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) were reduced in the mutant. Taken together, these results demonstrate that N-type Ca(2+) channels are required for hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, and certain forms of LTP. PMID:16939638

  7. 78 FR 13999 - Maximum Interest Rates on Guaranteed Farm Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ...and add a reference to the abbreviation, LIBOR. The changes in...showed that the Wall Street Journal Prime Rate and 10 year...alphabetical order, the abbreviation ``LIBOR'' to read as...customer''. Sec. 761.2 Abbreviations and...

  8. Long-term vaginal antibody delivery: delivery systems and biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, W M; Sherwood, J K; Adams, D R; Castle, P; Haller, P

    2000-02-01

    Topical delivery systems can provide prolonged delivery of antibodies to the vaginal mucosal surface for long-term protection against infectious diseases. We examined the biodistribution of antibodies during 30 days of vaginal antibody delivery in mice. Different antibody preparations (including monoclonal IgG and IgM, as well as several different (125)I-labeled IgGs) were administered by polymer vaginal rings, which were designed to provide continuous antibody delivery. Antibody concentrations remained high in the vaginal secretions for up to 30 days after disk insertion; radiolabeled antibody was also found, at approximately 100 times lower concentration, in the blood and other tissues. The measured concentrations agreed reasonably well with a simple pharmacokinetic model, which was used to calculate mucosal and systemic concentrations as a function of antibody delivery and elimination rates. Results from the model were consistent with previously reported antibody pharmacokinetic measurements: the half-life for antibody elimination for the vagina was approximately 3 h; the half-life for IgG(1) clearance from the blood was >1 day; and the overall permeability constant for vaginal uptake of IgG was approximately 0.01 to 0.03 h(-1). These results provide important information for the design of controlled antibody delivery devices for vaginal use, and suggest that high-dose, long-term vaginal administration of antibodies may be a reasonable approach for achieving sustained mucosal and systemic antibody levels. PMID:10620255

  9. Explaining lapse in long-term care insurance markets.

    PubMed

    Konetzka, R Tamara; Luo, Ye

    2011-10-01

    Expansion of private long-term care insurance (LTCI) is often posited as a potential mechanism to finance long-term care (LTC) for a growing elderly population in the US. One largely ignored issue is lapse or cancellation of policies. Individuals who let a LTCI policy lapse face resumed risk of LTC expenditures while suffering the financial loss of premiums paid. The motivation for lapse has been poorly understood, though some have hypothesized that improvements in health risk may be responsible. We use 1996-2006 Health and Retirement Study data from 3974 respondents who report having private LTCI to estimate baseline and dynamic predictors of lapse and test for ex post adverse selection. Individuals who lapse are generally poorer, less educated, less healthy, and more likely to be racial and ethnic minorities than those who retain their policies. Changes in health status play a relatively small role in lapse, and we find little evidence for adverse selection associated with lapse. We conclude that lapse of LTCI is more an issue of finances and alternatives than a reassessment of health risk. Because lapse rates are highest among the least healthy individuals, lapse should be considered explicitly in efforts to expand the LTCI market. PMID:20882573

  10. Long-Term Lunar Radiation Degradation Effects on Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; ORourke, Mary Jane; Koontz, Steve; Alred, John; Hill, Charles; Devivar, Rodrigo; Morera-Felix, Shakira; Atwell, William; Nutt, Steve; Sabbann, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is focused on developing technologies for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit. These technologies are to advance the state-of-the-art and provide for longer duration missions outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere. One technology of great interest for large structures is advanced composite materials, due to their weight and cost savings, enhanced radiation protection for the crew, and potential for performance improvements when compared with existing metals. However, these materials have not been characterized for the interplanetary space environment, and particularly the effects of high energy radiation, which is known to cause damage to polymeric materials. Therefore, a study focusing on a lunar habitation element was undertaken to investigate the integrity of potential structural composite materials after exposure to a long-term lunar radiation environment. An overview of the study results are presented, along with a discussion of recommended future work.

  11. LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

    2003-07-23

    Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are also presented.

  12. Long term observations of Saturn's northern auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    Auroral emissions are a vital tool in diagnosing the dynamics of planetary magnetospheres. While SaturnA?s southern UV auroras have been observed with high-sensitivity cameras onboard the Hubble Space Telescope {HST}, the northern auroras have only been observed at very oblique angles. Our understanding of SaturnA?s auroral emissions is thus only half complete. However, Saturn has now passed equinox and is moving toward summer in the northern hemisphere, such that the northern auroras are now visible from Earth, and recent results from HST have indicated that SaturnA?s northern auroras are not simply mirror images of the southern. The changing seasons are also expected to result in significant changes in magnetospheric phenomena related to the auroras. Observing these changes is a specific goal of the Cassini Solstice Mission {CSM} and, since joint HST-Cassini observations have repeatedly proved to be invaluable, CSM operations are currently being planned specifically with joint HST observations in mind. The observations proposed here will thus execute over Cycles 18-20, and will address the following science questions:What is the morphology of SaturnA?s northern auroras? Do SaturnA?s auroras change with the planetA?s season? How are the auroral emissions of different wavelengths related?The importance of long term HST observations of SaturnA?s northern auroras are highlighted by the fact that recent key discoveries would have been missed without the multiyear archive of observations of the planetA?s southern auroras. The opportunity to obtain HST images while Cassini makes specifically-tailored supporting observations is an extremely valuable opportunity, and HST is the only instrument capable of providing sustained, high time resolution observations of Saturns auroral emission.

  13. A new long-term care manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for. PMID:26035606

  14. Long-term outcome of abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Chevignard, Mathilde P; Lind, Katia

    2014-12-01

    Abusive head trauma is a severe inflicted traumatic brain injury, occurring under the age of 2 years, defined by an acute brain injury (mostly subdural or subarachnoidal haemorrhage), where no history or no compatible history with the clinical presentation is given. The mortality rate is estimated at 20-25% and outcome is extremely poor. High rates of impairments are reported in a number of domains, such as delayed psychomotor development; motor deficits (spastic hemiplegia or quadriplegia in 15-64%); epilepsy, often intractable (11-32%); microcephaly with corticosubcortical atrophy (61-100%); visual impairment (18-48%); language disorders (37-64%), and cognitive, behavioral and sleep disorders, including intellectual deficits, agitation, aggression, tantrums, attention deficits, memory, inhibition or initiation deficits (23-59%). Those combined deficits have obvious consequences on academic achievement, with high rates of special education in the long term. Factors associated with worse outcome include demographic factors (lower parental socioeconomic status), initial severe presentation (e.g., presence of a coma, seizures, extent of retinal hemorrhages, presence of an associated cranial fracture, extent of brain lesions, cerebral oedema and atrophy). Given the high risk of severe outcome, long-term comprehensive follow-up should be systematically performed to monitor development, detect any problem and implement timely adequate rehabilitation interventions, special education and/or support when necessary. Interventions should focus on children as well as families, providing help in dealing with the child's impairment and support with psychosocial issues. Unfortunately, follow-up of children with abusive head trauma has repeatedly been reported to be challenging, with very high attrition rates. PMID:25501726

  15. 31 CFR 535.440 - Commercially reasonable interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...be the rate agreed upon by the bank and Iran. However, where a deposit has in...account. Furthermore, in the event that the Iran-U.S Claims Tribunal (the “Tribunal...to that agreed upon between the bank and Iran, or compensation or damages in lieu...

  16. Assessment Of Errors In Long-Term Mass Balance Records From Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, R. S.; van Beusekom, A. E.; O'Neel, S.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS maintains a long-term glacier mass balance monitoring program at Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers in Alaska. The records produced by this program are a major component of the world’s mountain glacier balance inventory due to the scarcity of such long-term measurements. Recent data that show rapid glacier volume loss in Alaska further emphasize the importance of these records. An integral part of the long-term mass balance program is repeated assessment of the validity of the methods because bias errors in mass balance data are cumulative. Long-term glacier mass balance records in Alaska have previously been shown to be in good agreement with geodetically determined volume changes despite a minimal network of mass balance stakes. Because the rates of negative mass balance and change in glacier geometry have recently increased, this work reassess whether or not the existing stake networks and method of determining glacier-average balance are still working adequately.

  17. Peer Mentoring in Long-Term Care: Rational, Design, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegeman, Carol; Hoskinson, Debi; Munro, Heather; Maiden, Patricia; Pillemer, Karl

    2007-01-01

    This article describes two successful peer-mentoring programs designed to improve the quality of care in nursing homes and retention rates among direct care staff. The first program, "Growing Strong Roots," examined CNA retention rates and the second program, "Peer Mentoring for Long Term Charge Nurses," examined RN and LPN retention rates. These…

  18. Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowark, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for our Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program (NRA 94-OSS-12) grant NAG 5-3225. The proposal is entitled 'Spectral and Temporal Properties of Black Hole Candidates', and began funding in May 1995, and ran through 31 Aug 2000. The project summary from the original proposal was as follows: 'We will study the spectral and temporal properties of black hole candidates (BHC) by using data from archival sources (e.g., EXOSAT, Ginga, ROSAT) and proposed follow-up observations with modern instruments (e.g., ASCA, XTE). Our spectral studies will focus on identifying the basic characteristics and luminosities of the emission components in the various 'states' of BHC. We hope to understand and quantify the global energetics of these states. Our temporal studies will focus on expanding and classifying our knowledge of BHC variability properties in each state. We will explore the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in BHC. We will combine our spectral and temporal studies by analyzing time lags and variability coherence between energy channels. In addition, we will investigate ways of correlating observed variability behavior with specific emission components.' We have accomplished many of these goals laid out within the original proposal. As originally proposed, we have utilized both archival and proprietary satellite data. In terms of archival data, we have utilized data from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), ROSAT, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We also obtained proprietary data from ASCA, RXTE, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). In terms of sources, we have examined a wide variety of both galactic black hole candidates and extra-galactic black holes. For the galactic black holes we have observed and analyzed both the low/hard state and the high/soft state. We have performed both spectral and timing analyses on all of these objects. In addition, we have also examined a number of neutron stars or potential neutron stars. All of our research on the above mentioned objects has resulted in one or more publications in peer-reviewed journals. Attached is a list of refereed publications of research results which have been funded by this grant over approximately the past five and a half years. In addition, we have included a list of conference proceedings and other similar reports that have been associated with this grant.

  19. Long-Term Environmental Policy: Definition, Knowledge, Future Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Detlef F. Sprinz

    2009-01-01

    Considering the long-term is not new, yet we seem to be overwhelmed by the long-term nature of many of our environmental policy problems. Following a definition of long-term policy problems, this editorial introduces the contributions to this special issue of Global Environmental Politics and outlines three major challenges for future research, including the time inconsistency problem, the effect of democratic

  20. Long term physical sequelae after adult-onset cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie D. Fosså; Rena Vassilopoulou-Sellin; Alv A. Dahl

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  With two thirds of cancer patients living for at least 5 years, clinical research has increasingly focused on the long-term\\u000a health of cancer survivors. Contrary to the amount of knowledge on long-term consequences observations on late effects after\\u000a childhood cancer in adult-onset cancer are sparse. Only limited literature is available recommending guidelines for long-term\\u000a follow-up of cancer patients and their implementation

  1. Long-term operation of manure-microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Zhao, Qingliang; Jiao, Yan; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-03-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is applied to produce electricity using dairy manure as a fuel. Since the way MFC utilizes manure as a fuel and the long-term operation stability of manure-MFC remains unclear, this study examined the evolution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in anodic chamber and power generation by MFC in a 171days test. The tested MFC can produce electricity over the entire testing period by single feed of manure, with stable power output and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal rate in the period of day 30-140. The hydrophobic acid (HPO-A) and hydrophilic (HPI) fractions of manure were the principal components of anolyte DOM, with the concentrations of both being reduced over MFC operation. The degradable organic matters were converted to compounds with high aromaticity. PMID:25603729

  2. Managing pain medications in long-term care: nurses' views.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Sharon; Agarwal, Gina; Dolovich, Lisa; Brazil, Kevin; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2015-05-14

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of their current practices related to administering pain medications to long-term care (LTC) residents. A cross-sectional survey design was used, including both quantitative and open-ended questions. Data were collected from 165 nurses (59% response rate) at nine LTC homes in southern Ontario, Canada. The majority (85%) felt that the medication administration system was adequate to help them manage residents' pain and 98% felt comfortable administering narcotics. In deciding to administer a narcotic, nurses were influenced by pain assessments, physician orders, diagnosis, past history, effectiveness of non-narcotics and fear of making dosage miscalculations or developing addictions. Finally, most nurses stated that they trusted the physicians and pharmacists to ensure orders were safe. These findings highlight nurses' perceptions of managing pain medications in LTC and related areas where continuing education initiatives for nurses are needed. PMID:25978282

  3. Long-term effects of flipper bands on penguins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier-Clerc, M.; Gendner, J.-P.; Ribic, C.A.; Fraser, William R.; Woehler, Eric J.; Descamps, S.; Gilly, C.; Le, Bohec C.; Le, Maho Y.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in seabird populations, and particularly of penguins, offer a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of fisheries and climatic variations on marine resources. Such investigations often require large-scale banding to identify individual birds, but the significance of the data relies on the assumption that no bias is introduced in this type of long-term monitoring. After 5 years of using an automated system of identification of king penguins implanted with electronic tags (100 adult king penguins were implanted with a transponder tag, 50 of which were also flipper banded), we can report that banding results in later arrival at the colony for courtship in some years, lower breeding probability and lower chick production. We also found that the survival rate of unbanded, electronically tagged king penguin chicks after 2-3 years is approximately twice as large as that reported in the literature for banded chicks. ?? 2004 The Royal Society.

  4. Long Term Sea Level Changes in the Falkland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, P. L.; Pugh, D. T.

    2009-04-01

    In 1842, James Clark Ross measured sea levels at Port Louis, 30 km NW of Port Stanley in the Falkland Islands, over a period of 8 months. The benchmarks with respect to which the levels were measured have been perfectly preserved, and in 2009 a new series of sea level measurements was made at the same site. In addition, a set of GPS measurements was made at Port Louis and Port Stanley, where there is a permanent modern tide gauge. The collected measurements enable us to estimate the average rate of sea level change in the area since 1842 with an accuracy of approximately 0.4 mm/year. This is one of the few estimates of long term sea level change in the southern hemisphere. This poster will describe how the measurements were made and will present some of the first results.

  5. Identifying research priorities in long term care homes.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Kevin; Maitland, Janine; Ploeg, Jenny; Denton, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about the quality of care in long term care (LTC) homes range from inadequate daily care to understaffing and insufficient funding. LTC decision makers are challenged to keep up with the changing demographics of residents admitted to LTC who have increasingly complex care needs. Decisions regarding LTC policies and procedures need to be informed by research that identifies the most effective and efficient care practices. This study solicited feedback from LTC decision makers in Ontario, Canada, regarding research priorities to guide improvement in the quality of care in LTC homes. Representatives from 134 LTC homes responded (53.6% response rate). Nine thematic areas of research were identified: delivery of care; staffing; organization and structure of homes; funding; indicators, standards, policies, and procedures; managing difficult behaviors; education; safety; and infectious disease control. It is anticipated that these themes will steer research down a path that is responsive to the information needs of practitioners in LTC homes. PMID:21621469

  6. North Temperate Lakes Long-Term Ecological Research (NTL-LTER)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Wisconsin's world-renown Center for Limnology operates the North Temperate Lakes Long-Term Ecological Research program, emphasizing long-term ecological phenomena in urban, agricultural, and forested watersheds. This information-rich site offers general and detailed information on the North Temperate Lakes LTER's impressive array of projects. Research projects encompass several themes, including long-term trends in physical, chemical, and biological properties of lake ecosystems; the dynamics of internal and external processes affecting lake ecosystems; the temporal responses of lake ecosystems to disturbance and stress; the interaction between spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability of lake ecosystems; and lake-ecosystem properties in a broad regional context. Also of interest are descriptions of lake properties, a searchable bibliography, biodiversity and species lists, and more than a dozen online datasets ranging from Aquatic Macrophytes through Zooplankton. A query-able climate data section and Links to Other Sites of Interest round out the site.

  7. Bond Pricing and the Term Structure of Interest Rates: A New Methodology for Contingent Claims Valuation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Heath; Robert Jarrow; Andrew Morton

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a unifying theory for valuing contingent claims under a stochastic term structure of interest rates. The methodology, based on the equivalent martingale measure technique, takes as given an initial forward rate curve and a family of potential stochastic processes for its subsequent movements. A no-arbitrage condition restricts this family of processes, yielding valuation formula for interest rate

  8. CALL OPTION ON THE MAXIMUM OF THE INTEREST RATE IN THE ONE FACTOR AFFINE MODEL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    affine model We denote by B(t, t+ ) the price at time t of a discount bond of maturity t+ , iCALL OPTION ON THE MAXIMUM OF THE INTEREST RATE IN THE ONE FACTOR AFFINE MODEL MOHAMAD HOUDA interest rate when the instantaneous rate satisfies Cox-Ingersoll-Ross's model. This generalizes

  9. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. (editor); Rossow, W. (editor); Fung, I. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

  10. Draft Report A Forecast Model of Long-Term PCB

    E-print Network

    Draft Report A Forecast Model of Long-Term PCB Fate in San Francisco Bay John J. Oram and Jay A................................................................................................ 8 Estimation of Future PCB Loads

  11. Long-term patient-reported outcomes following Bennett's fractures.

    PubMed

    Middleton, S D; McNiven, N; Griffin, E J; Anakwe, R E; Oliver, C W

    2015-07-01

    We define the long-term outcomes and rates of further operative intervention following displaced Bennett's fractures treated with Kirschner (K-) wire fixation between 1996 and 2009. We retrospectively identified 143 patients (127 men and 16 women) with a mean age at the time of injury of 33.2 years (18 to 75). Electronic records were examined and patients were invited to complete the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire in addition to a satisfaction questionnaire. The time since injury was a mean of 11.5 years (3.4 to 18.5). In total 11 patients had died, one had developed dementia and 12 patients were lost to follow-up. This left 119 patients available for recruitment. Of these, 57 did not respond, leaving a study group of 62 patients. Patients reported excellent functional outcomes and high levels of satisfaction at follow-up. Median satisfaction was 94% (interquartile range 91.5 to 97.5) and the mean DASH score was 3.0 (0 to 38). None of the patients had undergone salvage procedures and none of the responders had changed occupation or sporting activities. Long-term patient reported outcomes following displaced Bennett's fractures treated by closed reduction and K-wire fixation show excellent functional results and a high level of patient satisfaction. The rate of infection is low and similar to other surgical procedures with percutaneous K-wires. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1004-6. PMID:26130360

  12. Prediction of long-term failure in Kevlar 49 composites

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstle, F.P. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Creep rupture data in Kevlar 49 epoxy usually exhibit considerable scatter: the coefficient of variation (CV) about the mean failure time at a given stress exceeds 100%. Quasi-static strength data, in contrast, shows little scatter: <4% CV for pressure vessels and <10% for impregnated strands. In this paper analysis of existing creep rupture data on Kevlar epoxy vessels at four storage pressures has produced an interesting and useful result. It was found that a significant portion of the scatter in failure times for pressure vessels is due to spool-to-spool variation in the eight spools of Kevlar fibers used to wind the vessels. The order rank of mean times to failure was consistent over a pressure range from 3400 to 4300 psi, 68 to 86% of short term burst. Also, the coefficient of variation about the mean failure time for each spool was less than that for the total sample. The statistical inference that the sample is nonhomogeneous was supported by a nonparametric check using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and by a parametric analysis of variance. The order rank found in long-term tests did not unequivocally agree with static strength ranks; several spool sets were distinctly high or low. The implication is that, while static strengths are not valid predictors of long-term behavior, short term creep rupture tests at high stress definitely are. The material difference which causes the spool-to-spool variations has not yet been identified for all eight spools. However, it appears that Kevlar behavior at lower pressures may be predicted through the use of curves fitted to the data for each spool. A power law relating failure time to pressure, t = t/sub 0/(p/p/sub 0/)/sup m/, was found to fit the data reasonably well. The implication is that, both in composite vessel design and in creep rupture experiments, the pressure (or stress) level be carefully controlled.

  13. How and why do small firms manage interest rate risk? Evidence from commercial loans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Vickery

    2005-01-01

    Although small firms are most sensitive to interest rate and other shocks, empirical work on corporate risk management has focused instead on large public companies. This paper studies fixed-rate and adjustable-rate loans to see how small firms manage their exposure to interest rate risk. The cross-sectional findings are as follows: credit-constrained firms consistently favor fixed-rate loans, minimizing their exposure to

  14. The role of interest and inflation rates in life-cycle cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberger, I.; Remer, D. S.; Lorden, G.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of projected interest and inflation rates on life cycle cost calculations is discussed and a method is proposed for making such calculations which replaces these rates by a single parameter. Besides simplifying the analysis, the method clarifies the roles of these rates. An analysis of historical interest and inflation rates from 1950 to 1976 shows that the proposed method can be expected to yield very good projections of life cycle cost even if the rates themselves fluctuate considerably.

  15. Exploratory models of long-term crustal flow and resulting seismicity across the Alpine-Aegean orogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy M. Howe; Peter Bird

    2010-01-01

    Long-term crustal flow is computed with a kinematic finite element model based on iterated weighted least squares fits to data and prior constraints. Data include 773 fault traces, 106 fault offset rates, 510 geodetic velocities, 2566 principal stress azimuths, and velocity boundary conditions representing the rigid parts of the Eurasia, Africa, and Anatolia plates. Model predictions include long-term velocities, fault

  16. Biological Aortic Valve Replacement. Long-Term Follow-Up and Predictors of Mortality, Rehospitalization and Reintervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FERNANDO PICCININI; JUAN M. VRANCIC; GUILLERMO VACCARINO; HERNÁN D. RAICH; JORGE THIERER; DANIEL O. NAVIA; Blanco Encalada

    Background Aortic valve replacement is the conventional procedure in aortic valve disease; neverthe- less, choosing the most suitable model of prosthesis is a complex decision. The use of novel biological models specially treated to reduce long-term structural deterioration has been encouraged, even in young populations. Objective To assess long-term survival of biological valve replacement, quality of life, rates of re-

  17. Long-term Memory and Volatility Clustering in Daily and High-frequency Price Changes

    E-print Network

    Oh, G J; Um, C J; Kim, Seunghwann; Oh, GabJin; Um, Cheol-Jun

    2006-01-01

    We study the long-term memory in diverse stock market indices and foreign exchange rates using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis(DFA). For all daily and high-frequency market data studied, no significant long-term memory property is detected in the return series, while a strong long-term memory property is found in the volatility time series. The possible causes of the long-term memory property are investigated using the return data filtered by the AR(1) model, reflecting the short-term memory property, and the GARCH(1,1) model, reflecting the volatility clustering property, respectively. Notably, we found that the memory effect in the AR(1) filtered return and volatility time series remains unchanged, while the long-term memory property either disappeared or diminished significantly in the volatility series of the GARCH(1,1) filtered data. We also found that in the high-frequency data the long-term memory property may be generated by the volatility clustering as well as higher autocorrelation. Our results i...

  18. Long-term parotid gland function after radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Braam, Petra M. [Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: P.M.Braam@azu.nl; Roesink, Judith M. [Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Moerland, Marinus A. [Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J. [Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schipper, Maria [Centre of Biostatistics, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Terhaard, Chris H.J. [Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: Irradiation of the parotid glands causes salivary dysfunction, resulting in reduced salivary flow. Recovery can be seen with time; however, long-term prospective data are lacking. The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term parotid gland function after irradiation for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 patients with head-and-neck cancer and treated with radiotherapy (RT) were prospectively evaluated. Stimulated bilateral parotid salivary flow rates were measured before RT and 6 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and at least 3.5 years after RT completion. A complication was defined as a stimulated parotid flow rate of <25% of the pre-RT flow rate. The normal tissue complication probability model proposed by Lyman was fit to the data. Multilevel techniques were used to model the patterns of flow rates with time. Results: The mean stimulated flow rate of the parotid glands before RT was 0.31 mL/min (standard deviation [SD], 0.21). This was reduced to 0.14 mL/min (SD, 0.15) at 6 weeks after RT and recovered to 0.20 mL/min (SD, 0.22) at 6 months and 0.19 mL/min (SD, 0.21) at 12 months after RT. The mean stimulated flow rate was 0.25 mL/min (SD, 0.28) 5 years after RT. The mean dose to the parotid gland resulting in a 50% complication probability increased from 34 Gy at 6 weeks to 40 Gy at 6 months, 42 Gy at 12 months, and 46 Gy at 5 years after RT. Multilevel modeling indicated that both dose and time were significantly associated with the flow ratio. Conclusion: Salivary output can still recover many years after RT. At 5 years after RT, we found an increase in the salivary flow rate of approximately 32% compared with at 12 months after RT.

  19. LONG TERM MONITORING FOR NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have good statistical methods to: (1) determine whether concentrations of a contaminant are attenuating over time, (2) determine the rate of attenuation and confidence interval on the rate, and (3) determine whether concentrations have met a particular clean up goal. We do no...

  20. How well do U.S. consumers predict the direction of change in interest rates?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid Baghestani; Samer Kherfi

    2008-01-01

    The Michigan survey asks U.S. consumers about their 1-year expected directional change in interest rates. For 1978–1983 when interest rates are volatile, we find a strong association between the actual and predicted changes, with no asymmetry (the proportions of incorrectly predicted upward and downward moves are statistically the same.) For 1984–2005 when interest rates are relatively stable, we find asymmetry

  1. The Long-Term Inflow and Structural Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,HERBERT J; JONES,PERRY L.; NEAL,BYRON A.

    2000-10-17

    The Long-term Inflow and Structural Test (LIST) program is collecting long-term, continuous inflow and structural response data to characterize the extreme loads on wind turbines. A heavily instrumented Micon 65/13M turbine with SERI 8-m blades is being used as the first test turbine for this test program. This turbine and its two sister turbines are located in Bushland, TX a test site that exposes the turbines to a wind regime that is representative of a Great Plains commercial site. The turbines and their inflow are being characterized with 60 measurements: 34 to characterize the inflow, 19 to characterize structural response, and 7 to characterize the time-varying state of the turbine. The primary characterization of the inflow into the LIST turbine relies upon an array of five sonic anemometers. These three-axis anemometers are placed approximately 2-diameters upstream of the turbine in a pattern designed to describe the inflow. Primary characterization of the structural response of the turbine uses several sets of strain gauges to measure bending loads on the blades and the tower and two accelerometers to measure the motion of the nacelle. Data from the various instruments are sampled at a rate of 30 Hz using a newly developed data acquisition system that features a time-synchronized continuous data stream that is telemetered from the turbine rotor. The data, taken continuously, are automatically divided into 10-minute segments and archived for analysis. Preliminary data are presented to illustrate the operation of the turbine and the data acquisition and analysis system.

  2. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LAND APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER: MILTON, WISCONSIN, RAPID INFILTRATION SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the findings of a research study on the long-term effects of applying treated domestic wastewater to an infiltration site at Milton, Wisconsin. On the test site a high-rate rapid infiltration method, applying effluent at an estimated rate of 244 m (800 ft) pe...

  3. Economic efficiency of short-term versus long-term water rights buyouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the decline of the Ogallala Aquifer, water districts, regional water managers, and state water officers are becoming increasingly interested in conservation policies. This study evaluates both short-term and long-term water rights buyout policies. This research develops dynamic production...

  4. Efficiency in California-Type Community-Based Long-Term Care Waiver Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leonard S.

    Interest in the development of community-based long-term care (CBLTC) programs as a substitute for institutional-based care has been steadily growing. The estimated benefits from the Multipurpose Senior Services Program (MSSP), California's intensive CBLTC system, were measured by the expected increase in community residency days for clients for a…

  5. The Pumapaint Project: Long Term Usage Trends And The Move To Three Dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew R. Stein; Christopher P. Madden

    2005-01-01

    Online since the summer of 1998, the PumaPaint project can be considered an elder statesman of networked robotics. Although never a profound technical achievement to attach a PUMA robot to a network, the extended period of operation permits interesting observations of long-term usage trends, comparison of operation through several generations of user interface and a voluminous body of artwork to

  6. Long-Term Outcomes of Spinal Cord Stimulation With Percutaneously Introduced Paddle Leads in

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Long-Term Outcomes of Spinal Cord Stimulation With Percutaneously Introduced Paddle Leads for spinal cord stimulation. Methods: Twenty-one patients diagnosed with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS of interest. OBJECTIVE Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an implantable, safe, reversible, and efficacious pain

  7. The prognostic factors regarding long-term functional outcome of full-thickness hand burns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. M. van Zuijlen; R. W. Kreis; A. F. P. M. Vloemans; F. Groenevelt; D. P. Mackie

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of the burned hand has always been a subject of special interest. In order to obtain a better understanding of the parameters involved in the long-term functional outcome of hand burns a retrospective study was performed on 88 consecutive patients with hand burns (143 hands), treated according to a standardised protocol. Patients were followed for at least 12

  8. eschweizerbartxxx Long-term zooplankton size in L. Kinneret 1

    E-print Network

    Hambright, K. David

    eschweizerbartxxx Long-term zooplankton size in L. Kinneret 1 DOI: 10-term zooplankton body size and species changes in a subtropical lake: implications for lake management K. David figures and 3 tables Abstract: Analysis of long-term (1970­2002) zooplankton body sizes in Lake Kinneret

  9. Improving secure long-term archival of digitally signed documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmela Troncoso; Danny De Cock; Bart Preneel

    2008-01-01

    Long-term archival of signed documents presents specic challenges that do not need to be considered in short-term storage systems. In this paper we present a Secure Long- Term Archival System (SLTAS) that protects, in a veri- able way, the validity of today's digital signatures in a dis- tant future. Moreover, our protocol is the rst proposal that provides a proof

  10. Long-Term Retention of Electronic Theses and Dissertations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teper, Thomas H.; Kraemer, Beth

    2002-01-01

    Examines the increasing trend of universities to pursue electronic thesis and dissertation (ETD) programs. Although the goal of most programs is similar, procedural variations impact a program's long-term success. As primary research generators, responsibility for providing long-term access to unique materials must be borne by universities.…

  11. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  12. Long Term Real Trajectory Reuse through Region Goal Satisfaction

    E-print Network

    Iyengar, Garud

    Long Term Real Trajectory Reuse through Region Goal Satisfaction Junghyun Ahn1 , St´ephane Gobron1 collision avoidance through long term anticipation of pedestrian trajectories. For this aim, we choose to reuse outdoor pedestrian trajectories obtained with non-invasive means. This initial step is achieved

  13. Developing a Long-Term Drought Plan for Phoenix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedykt Dziegielewski; William R. Mee Jr.; Keith R. Larson

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the economic consequences of potential water supply shortages can help water agencies determine the need for investment in long-term protection from drought. In Phoenix, Ariz., the risk of drought damage in the long term justifies the need for additional drought protection through developing standby groundwater supplies and implementing permanent demand-reduction measures. The most efficient way of dealing with the

  14. It's Not Your Grandmother's Long-Term Care Anymore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua M. Wiener

    Recently, a colleague of mine, who used to do research on long-term care but has been out of the field for the last 15 years, commented to me that long-term care seemed stagnant to him and that the issues he had worked on long ago were still the issues of today. Aside from my annoyed rejoinder that the issues of

  15. Market-Consistent Valuation of Long-Term Insurance Contracts -

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Market-Consistent Valuation of Long-Term Insurance Contracts - Valuation Framework-Consistent Valuation of Long-Term Insurance Contracts Valuation Framework and Application to German Private Health with respect to prot sharing rules and premium adjustment mechanisms. In contrast to the valuation of life

  16. Apoptosis of monocytes cultured from long-term hemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Heidenreich; Michael Schmidt; Jürgen Bachmann; Bärbel Harrach

    1996-01-01

    Apoptosis of monocytes cultured from long-term hemodialysis patients. Monocyte apoptosis in vitro was studied in patients on long-term hemodialysis, CAPD, and in predialytic uremia to gain insight into the high susceptibility of these patients to infections. Monocytes from dialysis and control subjects were cultured for 24 to 120 hours in vitro to analyze the level and progression of DNA fragmentation

  17. ENDOPYELOTOMY AFTER FAILED PYELOPLASTY: THE LONG-TERM RESULTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHEL E. JABBOUR; EVAN R. GOLDFISCHER; WLODZIMIERZ J. KLIMA; KONSTANTINOS G. STRAVODIMOS; ARTHUR D. SMITH

    1998-01-01

    PurposeEndopyelotomy has been proposed as a technique to treat ureteropelvic junction obstruction after failed open pyeloplasty. However, to our knowledge no long-term results of this treatment have been reported. We report the long-term followup of a cohort of patients in whom pyeloplasty failed and who subsequently were treated with endopyelotomy.

  18. Setting the stage for long-term reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Payne, Craig A; Vander Ley, Brian; Poock, Scott E

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses some of the aspects of heifer development that contribute to long-term health and productivity, such as disease prevention and control. Nutrition is also an important component of long-term health, and body condition score is discussed as a way to determine whether the nutrient demands of heifers are being met. PMID:24182434

  19. An Empirical Comparison of Alternative Models of the Short-Term Interest Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Karolyi; F. A. Longsta; A. B. Saunders

    1992-01-01

    The authors estimate and compare a variety of continuous-time models of the short-term riskless rate using the Generalized Method of Moments. The authors find that the most successful models in capturing the dynamics of the short-term interest rate are those that allow the volatility of interest rate changes to be highly sensitive to the level of the riskless rate. A

  20. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  1. Adapting Collaborative Depression Care for Public Community Long-Term Care: Using Research-Practice Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Lenze, Shannon; Brown, Teresa; Lawrence, Lisa; Nickel, Mike; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola K.

    2014-01-01

    Description This manuscript details potential benefits for using a research-practice partnership to adapt collaborative depression care for public community long-term care agencies serving older adults. We used sequential, multi-phase, and mixed methods approaches for documenting the process of adaptation within a case study. Systematic adaptation strategies are described, such as leveraging long-term research-practice collaborations, consulting with multiple stakeholders across all levels and disciplines, and balancing demands to monitor treatment fidelity, clinical outcomes, and implementation results. These examples demonstrate that researchers interested in implementation science need skills to negotiate the competing demands that arise from both the research and practice settings. PMID:24072560

  2. Why Money Announcements Move Interest Rates: An Answer from the Foreign Exchange Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Engel; Jeffrey A. Frankel

    1984-01-01

    On a Friday that the Fed announces a money supply greater than had been anticipated, interest rates move up in response. Why? One explanation is that the market perceives the fluctuation in the moneystock as an unintended deviation from the Fed's target growth rate that will be reversed in subsequent periods. The anticipation of this future tightening drives up interest

  3. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments C Appendix C to Part 4022 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...C to Part 4022—Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments [In using this...

  4. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments C Appendix C to Part 4022 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...C to Part 4022—Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments [In using this...

  5. Estimating the neutral real interest rate in an emerging market economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fethi Ö?ünç; ?nci Batmaz

    2011-01-01

    This study estimates the neutral real interest rate and output gap jointly under two different multivariate unobserved components models. In the analyses, Kalman filter is applied to a small-scale macroeconomic model of the Turkish economy to estimate the unobserved variables for the period 1989 to 2005. In addition, two alternative specifications for neutral real interest rate are exploited in the

  6. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas: What Happens Long Term?

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Daniel E., E-mail: daniel.roos@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); University of Adelaide School of Medicine, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Potter, Andrew E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Brophy, Brian P. [Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); University of Adelaide School of Medicine, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the clinical outcomes for acoustic neuroma treated with low-dose linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) >10 years earlier at the Royal Adelaide Hospital using data collected prospectively at a dedicated SRS clinic. Methods and Materials: Between November 1993 and December 2000, 51 patients underwent SRS for acoustic neuroma. For the 44 patients with primary SRS for sporadic (unilateral) lesions, the median age was 63 years, the median of the maximal tumor diameter was 21 mm (range, 11-34), and the marginal dose was 14 Gy for the first 4 patients and 12 Gy for the other 40. Results: The crude tumor control rate was 97.7% (1 patient required salvage surgery for progression at 9.75 years). Only 8 (29%) of 28 patients ultimately retained useful hearing (interaural pure tone average {<=}50 dB). Also, although the Kaplan-Meier estimated rate of hearing preservation at 5 years was 57% (95% confidence interval, 38-74%), this decreased to 24% (95% confidence interval, 11-44%) at 10 years. New or worsened V and VII cranial neuropathy occurred in 11% and 2% of patients, respectively; all cases were transient. No case of radiation oncogenesis developed. Conclusions: The long-term follow-up data of low-dose (12-14 Gy) linear accelerator SRS for acoustic neuroma have confirmed excellent tumor control and acceptable cranial neuropathy rates but a continual decrease in hearing preservation out to {>=}10 years.

  7. Long-Term Nuclear Industry Outlook - 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.

    2004-09-30

    The nuclear industry has become increasingly efficient and global in nature, but may now be poised at a crossroads between graceful decline and profound growth as a viable provider of electrical energy. Predicted population and energy-demand growth, an increased interest in global climate change, the desire to reduce the international dependence on oil as an energy source, the potential for hydrogen co-generation using nuclear power reactors, and the improved performance in the nuclear power industry have raised the prospect of a “nuclear renaissance” in which nuclear power would play an increasingly more important role in both domestic and international energy market. This report provides an assessment of the role nuclear-generated power will plan in the global energy future and explores the impact of that role on export controls.

  8. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  9. Long-Term Clinical Practice Experience with Cinacalcet for Treatment of Hypercalcemic Hyperparathyroidism after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gessl, Alois; Borchhardt, Kyra

    2015-01-01

    Within this prospective, open-label, self-controlled study, we evaluated the long-term effects of the calcimimetic cinacalcet on calcium and phosphate homeostasis in 44 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism by comparing biochemical parameters of mineral metabolism between pre- and posttreatment periods. Results are described as mean differences (95% CIs) between pre- and posttreatment medians that summarize all repeated measurements of a parameter of interest between the date of initial hypercalcemia and cinacalcet initiation (median of 1.6 (IQR: 0.6–3.8) years) and up to four years after treatment start, respectively. Cinacalcet was initiated after 1.8 (0.8–4.7) years posttransplant and maintained for 6.2 (3.9–7.6) years. It significantly decreased total serum calcium (?0.30 (?0.34 to ?0.26)?mmol/L, P < 0.001) and parathyroid hormone levels (?79 (?103 to ?55)?pg/mL, P < 0.001). Serum levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate to glomerular filtration rate (TmP/GFR) increased simultaneously (Pi: 0.19 (0.15–0.23)?mmol/L, P < 0.001, TmP/GFR: 0.20 (0.16–0.23)?mmol/L, P < 0.001). In summary, cinacalcet effectively controlled hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism in KTRs in the long-term and increased low Pi levels without causing hyperphosphatemia, pointing towards a novel indication for the use of cinacalcet in KTRs. PMID:25861621

  10. Long-term evolution of denudational escarpments in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherem, Luis Felipe Soares; Varajão, Cesar Augusto C.; Braucher, Regis; Bourlés, Didier; Salgado, André Augusto R.; Varajão, Angélica C.

    2012-11-01

    Topographic relief in southeastern Brazil consists of a sequence of stepped surfaces that formed after the fragmentation of Gondwana during the Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary tectonic pulses. This region is drained by four major rivers within four major river basins, with interfluves that contain denudational escarpments, fault escarpments and mountain ranges. This study presents an analysis of the long-term evolution of two denudational escarpments, the Cristiano Otoni and the São Geraldo steps, which divide the river basins of the São Francisco, Doce and Paraíba do Sul rivers in southeastern Brazil. Denudation rates were obtained through the measurement of mean concentrations of in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in sand-sized fluvial quartz sediments collected from granitic terrains. The rates were calculated and compared with one another and correlated to the basin-scale mean relief, slope, area, and stream power. The mean denudation rates of the Cristiano Otoni and São Geraldo highlands are 8.77 (± 2.78) m My- 1 and 15.68 (± 4.53) m My- 1, respectively. The mean denudation rates of the Cristiano Otoni and São Geraldo escarpments are 17.50 (± 2.71) m My- 1 and 21.22 (± 4.24) m My- 1, respectively. The denudation rates of the catchments of highlands that drain toward the escarpments are similar to those of their respective highlands. The results demonstrate that relief and slope have similar positive control on the denudation rates for all of the samples despite their different geomorphic context and history of landscape evolution. The São Francisco River Basin is losing area to the Doce River Basin, which, in turn, is losing area to the Paraíba do Sul River Basin.

  11. Long-Term Transport of Cryptosporidium Parvum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrea, C.; Harter, T.; Hou, L.; Atwill, E. R.; Packman, A.; Woodrow-Mumford, K.; Maldonado, S.

    2005-12-01

    The protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a leading cause of waterborne disease. Subsurface transport and filtration in natural and artificial porous media are important components of the environmental pathway of this pathogen. It has been shown that the oocysts of C. parvum show distinct colloidal properties. We conducted a series of laboratory studies on sand columns (column length: 10 cm - 60 cm, flow rates: 0.7 m/d - 30 m/d, ionic strength: 0.01 - 100 mM, filter grain size: 0.2 - 2 mm, various solution chemistry). Breakthrough curves were measured over relatively long time-periods (hundreds to thousands of pore volumes). We show that classic colloid filtration theory is a reasonable tool for predicting the initial breakthrough, but it is inadequate to explain the significant tailing observed in the breakthrough of C. parvum oocyst through sand columns. We discuss the application of the Continuous Time Random Walk approach to account for the strong tailing that was observed in our experiments. The CTRW is generalized transport modeling framework, which includes the classic advection-dispersion equation (ADE), the fractional ADE, and the multi-rate mass transfer model as special cases. Within this conceptual framework, it is possible to distinguish between the contributions of pore-scale geometrical (physical) disorder and of pore-scale physico-chemical heterogeneities (e.g., of the filtration, sorption, desorption processes) to the transport of C. parvum oocysts.

  12. Long term trend of selected halogenated hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchers, R.; Gunawardena, R.; Rasmussen, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    The so-called 'Library of Background Air' at the Oregon Graduate Institute was used to determine the trend in volume mixing ratios of selected halogenated hydrocarbons in the time period 1977-1989. This library consists of background air samples most of them taken at Cape Meares (Oregon). For storage stainless steel containers are used. Tests have shown the gases under consideration to be stable in these containers. Analyses using a GC/MS-system were performed for the CFCs 11, 12, 12B1 (HALON 1211, CBrClF2), 22, 113, 114 and CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3CCl3, CCl4. The advantage of this unique investigation: different aged air samples are analyzed at the same time with the same instrument. No calibrations or intercalibrations are needed. All data are presented in normalized mixing ratios versus time. We discuss the results, derive rate constants and present a formula to describe the nonlinear increases.

  13. Modeling the conditional distribution of interest rates as a regime-switching process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen F. Gray

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops a generalized regime-switching (GRS) model of the short-term interest rate. The model allows the short rate to exhibit both mean reversion and conditional heteroskedasticity and nests the popular generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) and square root process specifications. The conditional variance process accommodates volatility clustering and dependence on the level of the interest rate. A first-order Markov

  14. Long-term outcomes of children after solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jon Jin; Marks, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has transformed the lives of many children and adults by providing treatment for patients with organ failure who would have otherwise succumbed to their disease. The first successful transplant in 1954 was a kidney transplant between identical twins, which circumvented the problem of rejection from MHC incompatibility. Further progress in solid organ transplantation was enabled by the discovery of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids and azathioprine in the 1950s and ciclosporin in 1970. Today, solid organ transplantation is a conventional treatment with improved patient and allograft survival rates. However, the challenge that lies ahead is to extend allograft survival time while simultaneously reducing the side effects of immunosuppression. This is particularly important for children who have irreversible organ failure and may require multiple transplants. Pediatric transplant teams also need to improve patient quality of life at a time of physical, emotional and psychosocial development. This review will elaborate on the long-term outcomes of children after kidney, liver, heart, lung and intestinal transplantation. As mortality rates after transplantation have declined, there has emerged an increased focus on reducing longer-term morbidity with improved outcomes in optimizing cardiovascular risk, renal impairment, growth and quality of life. Data were obtained from a review of the literature and particularly from national registries and databases such as the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies for the kidney, SPLIT for liver, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation and UNOS for intestinal transplantation. PMID:24860856

  15. Long-term cognitive effects of Lyme disease in children.

    PubMed

    Adams, W V; Rose, C D; Eppes, S C; Klein, J D

    1999-01-01

    Most studies of adults infected with Lyme disease (LD) have found adverse cognitive effects from the disease. In contrast, the only controlled study investigating cognitive effects of LD in a pediatric population found no effects after a 2-year follow-up. However, it was questioned whether the negative effects might take longer than 2 years to emerge. Therefore, this investigation reports a 4-year follow-up of the original sample. Twenty-five children with strictly defined LD were compared with 17 sibling control children. A neuropsychological battery was utilized, including assessment of the cognitive areas of IQ, information processing speed, fine-motor dexterity, novel problem solving and executive functioning, short-term and intermediate memory, and acquisition of new learning. In addition, parents' subjective ratings were obtained on the disease's impact on their child's participation in everyday activities. No between-group differences were found for 17 of the 18 neuropsychological test measures, nor were there differences in parents' subjective ratings. Therefore, in contrast with studies of adults with LD, the results of long-term follow-up of the pediatric population continue to strongly support the finding that children treated appropriately for LD have an excellent prognosis for normal cognitive functioning. PMID:10382570

  16. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  17. Endocannabinoid Signaling and Long-term Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Heifets, Boris D.; Castillo, Pablo E.

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are key activity-dependent signals regulating synaptic transmission throughout the CNS. Accordingly, eCBs are involved in neural functions ranging from feeding homeostasis to cognition. There is great interest in understanding how exogenous (e.g. cannabis) and endogenous cannabinoids affect behavior. As behavioral adaptations are widely considered to rely on changes in synaptic strength, the prevalence of eCB-mediated long term depression (eCB-LTD) at synapses throughout the brain merits close attention. The induction and expression of eCB-LTD, while remarkably similar at various synapses, is controlled by an array of regulatory influences which we are just beginning to uncover. This complexity endows eCB-LTD with important computational properties, such as coincidence detection and input specificity, critical for higher CNS functions like learning and memory. In this article, we review the major molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying eCB-LTD, as well as the potential physiological relevance of this widespread form of synaptic plasticity. PMID:19575681

  18. Recognition of ships for long-term tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; Bouma, Henri; Veerman, Henny E. T.; Benoist, Koen W.; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Schwering, Piet B. W.

    2014-06-01

    Long-term tracking is important for maritime situational awareness to identify currently observed ships as earlier encounters. In cases of, for example, piracy and smuggling, past location and behavior analysis are useful to determine whether a ship is of interest. Furthermore, it is beneficial to make this assessment with sensors (such as cameras) at a distance, to avoid costs of bringing an own asset closer to the ship for verification. The emphasis of the research presented in this paper, is on the use of several feature extraction and matching methods for recognizing ships from electro-optical imagery within different categories of vessels. We compared central moments, SIFT with localization and SIFT with Fisher Vectors. From the evaluation on imagery of ships, an indication of discriminative power is obtained between and within different categories of ships. This is used to assess the usefulness in persistent tracking, from short intervals (track improvement) to larger intervals (re-identifying ships). The result of this assessment on real data is used in a simulation environment to determine how track continuity is improved. The simulations showed that even limited recognition will improve tracking, connecting both tracks at short intervals as well as over several days.

  19. Long term evolution of super active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Ram Ajor

    In the solar cycle 23, there were some active regions (ARs) which produced energetic events, e.g. flares, CMEs, of unprecedented magnitudes during their disc passes, termed as super active regions (SARs). For example, NOAA 10486 stood unrivaled as it produced flares of unprecedented magnitude, such as X17/4B, X10/2B and X28 in quick succession. Occurrence of flares of such magnitude at this rate evidently requires extremely rapid energy buildup mechanism. Therefore, from their energetic considerations, these SARs are expected to possess distinctly different sup-photospheric flows as compared to less productive ARs. Study of such SARs is expected to provide important insights in our understanding of flare productivity, characterization of ARs, and in space-weather predictions. We derived sup-photospheric flows beneath these SARs using ring diagram technique, one of the local helioseismic techniques. We found strong and largely twisted sub-photospheric flows in the interior of SARs as compared to ARs. We present maps of sub-photospheric flows beneath some SARs and their evolution from one to next Carrington rotation.

  20. Predicting long-term response to selection.

    PubMed

    Reeve, J P

    2000-02-01

    Lande's equation for predicting the response of trait means to a shift in optimal trait values is tested using a stochastic simulation model. The simulated population is finite, and each individual has a finite number of loci. Therefore, selection may cause allele frequencies and distributions to change over time. Since the equation assumes constant genetic parameters, the degree to which such allelic changes affect predictions can be examined. Predictions are based only on information available at generation zero of directional selection. The quality of the predictions depends on the nature of allelic distributions in the original population. If allelic effects are approximately normally distributed, as assumed in Lande's Gaussian approximation to the continuum-of-alleles model, the predictions are very accurate, despite small changes in the G matrix. If allelic effects have a leptokurtic distribution, as is likely in Turelli's 'house-of-cards' approximation, the equation underestimates the rate of response and correlated response, and overestimates the time required for the trait means to reach their equilibrium values. Models with biallelic loci have limits as to the amount of trait divergence possible, since only two allelic values are available at each of a finite set of loci. If the new optimal trait values lie within these limits, predictions are good, if not, singularity in the G matrix results in suboptimal equilibria, despite the presence of genetic variance for each individual trait. PMID:10740924

  1. Management and Long-Term Prognosis of Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    PubMed

    Lettieri, Corrado; Zavalloni, Dennis; Rossini, Roberta; Morici, Nuccia; Ettori, Federica; Leonzi, Ornella; Latib, Azeem; Ferlini, Marco; Trabattoni, Daniela; Colombo, Paola; Galli, Mario; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Napodano, Massimo; Piccaluga, Emanuela; Passamonti, Enrico; Sganzerla, Paolo; Ielasi, Alfonso; Coccato, Micol; Martinoni, Alessandro; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Zanini, Roberto; Castiglioni, Battistina

    2015-07-01

    The optimal management and short- and long-term prognoses of spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) remain not well defined. The aim of this observational multicenter study was to assess long-term clinical outcomes in patients with SCAD. In-hospital and long-term outcomes were assessed in 134 patients with documented SCAD, as well as the clinical impact and predictors of a conservative rather than a revascularization strategy of treatment. The mean age was 52 ± 11, years and 81% of patients were female. SCAD presented as an acute coronary syndromes in 93% of patients. A conservative strategy was performed in 58% of patients and revascularization in 42%. On multivariate analysis, distal versus proximal or mid location of dissection (odds ratio 9.27) and basal Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 2 or 3 versus 0 or 1 (odds ratio 0.20) were independent predictors of conservative versus revascularization strategy. A conservative strategy was associated with better in-hospital outcomes compared with revascularization (rates of major adverse cardiac events 3.8% and 16.1%, respectively, p = 0.028); however, no significant differences were observed in the long-term outcomes. In conclusion, in this large observational study of patients with SCAD, angiographic features significantly influenced the treatment strategy, providing an excellent short- and long-term prognosis. PMID:25937347

  2. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-07-03

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

  3. Interventional radiology in the provision and maintenance of long-term central venous access.

    PubMed

    Lyon, S M; Given, M; Marshall, N L

    2008-02-01

    Establishing and maintaining venous access forms an increasing proportion of the workload in interventional radiology. Several patient groups require medium-term to long-term venous catheters for a variety of purposes, including chemotherapy, long-term antimicrobials, parenteral nutrition, short-term access for haemodialysis or exhausted haemodialysis. Often, these catheters are required for treatment and frequent blood testing, which can quickly exhaust the peripheral veins. Long-term venous access devices minimize the discomfort of frequent cannulation while preserving the peripheral veins. Venous access devices include implantable catheters (ports), tunnelled catheters and peripherally inserted central catheters, which have different functions, advantages and limitations. Imaging-guided placement is the preferred method of insertion in many institutions because of higher success rates and radiologists are well suited to address catheter complications. PMID:18373820

  4. Singaporeans' perceptions of and attitudes toward long-term care services.

    PubMed

    Wee, Shiou-Liang; Hu, Athel J; Yong, Joel; Chong, Wayne F; Raman, Prassanna; Chan, Angelique

    2015-02-01

    Use of long-term care (LTC) services among older adults in Asia has emerged as an important issue in light of rapidly aging countries and changing family structures. Simply building more LTC facilities will not result in higher usage rates, and more insight is needed on the usage of existing services. Few studies have been conducted among Asian populations outside Western settings on this topic. The multi-ethnic population in Singapore is useful for understanding the factors influencing the use of long-term care services in Asia. We present our qualitative findings on long-term care service usage in the older population (50+ years) over time. We highlight caregivers' needs as an important determinant of LTC use. Although preferences of the care recipients were considered, caregiver needs, the availability of formal and informal care support, attitudes, perceived control, and social norms surrounding family caregiving governed the use of formal LTC services in Singapore. PMID:25201582

  5. Nanofibrous gelatin substrates for long-term expansion of human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Yoshioka, Momoko; Nakajima, Minako; Ogasawara, Arata; Liu, Jun; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Li, Sisi; Zou, Jianli; Nakatsuji, Norio; Kamei, Ken-Ichiro; Chen, Yong

    2014-08-01

    Nanofibrous gelatin substrates are suited for long-term expansion of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) under feeder- and serum-free culture conditions. A combinatorial library with different sets of processing parameters was established to assess the culture performance of hPSCs on nanofibrous substrates in terms of cell adhesion and growth rate, using Matrigel as control. Then, the optimal conditions were applied to long-term expansion of hPSCs with several cell lines, showing a maintained pluripotency over more than 20 passages without introducing any abnormal chromosome. In addition, this approach allowed us to avoid enzymatic disassociation and mechanic cutting during passages, thereby promoting a better hPSC culture and long-term expansion. PMID:24811263

  6. Genetic Testing For Alzheimer’s And Long-Term Care Insurance

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Donald H.; Cook-Deegan, Robert M.; Hiraki, Susan; Roberts, J. Scott; Blazer, Dan G.; Green, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    A genetic marker known as apolipoprotein E provides a clear signal of a person’s risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and thus that person’s future need for long-term care. People who find that they have the variant of the trait that increases Alzheimer’s disease risk are more likely to purchase long-term care insurance after receiving this information. If the information is widely introduced into the insurance market, coverage rates could be affected in different ways, depending on who possesses that information. Policymakers will eventually need to confront the issue of the use of this and other markers in the pricing of long-term care insurance. PMID:20048367

  7. Insuring Long-Term Care in the United States

    E-print Network

    Finkelstein, Amy

    Long-term care expenditures constitute one of the largest uninsured financial risks facing the elderly in the United States and thus play a central role in determining the retirement security of elderly Americans. In this ...

  8. Long-Term Quiescent Fibroblast Cells Transit into Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Hemmerich, Peter; Klement, Karolin; Diekmann, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development. PMID:25531649

  9. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...assure reasonable progress toward the national visibility goal; (v) The progress achieved in implementing best available retrofit technology (BART) and meeting other schedules set forth in the long-term strategy; (vi) The impact of any...

  10. Endowments and New Institutions for Long-Term Observation

    E-print Network

    Baker, D. James

    2007-01-01

    An ever-increasing volume of publications on the changing ocean environment underscores the requirement for long-term observations to understand and predict ocean and climate change. Such observations must be globally ...

  11. Learning The Long-Term Structure of the Blues

    E-print Network

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    Molle di Studi sull'Intelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA) Galleria 2, CH 6928 Manno, Switzerland doug structure and rhythmic organization." In short, RNNs do not excel at finding long-term dependencies in data

  12. Learning The LongTerm Structure of the Blues #

    E-print Network

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    Molle di Studi sull'Intelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA) Galleria 2, CH 6928 Manno, Switzerland doug structure and rhythmic organization.'' In short, RNNs do not excel at finding long­term dependencies in data

  13. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  14. Long-term Stewardship Science and Technology Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdonald, Jaimee Kristen; Nickelson, Reva Anne

    2002-08-01

    To ensure technology developed for long-term stewardship will meet existing requirements, a review of requirements was performed. In addition to identifying existing science and technology related requirements, gaps and conflicts of requirements were identified.

  15. How Much Care Will You Need? (Long-Term Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... care you may need. Share page: How Much Care Will You Need? The duration and level of ... in facilities. Distribution and duration of long-term care services Type of care Average number of years ...

  16. Who Will Provide Your Care? (Long-Term Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may need. Share page: Who Will Provide Your Care? Long-term care services and support typically come ... you live at home. About 80 percent of care at home is provided by unpaid caregivers and ...

  17. Long-term Career Goals for Professional Women in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, Betty

    1986-01-01

    Encourages the formation of long-term career goals for women in agronomy. Offers perspectives and practical suggestions for obtaining positions, maintaining professional credentials, and managing personal and career related obligations. (ML)

  18. Long Term SuboxoneTM Emotional Reactivity As

    E-print Network

    epidemic and the need for buprenorphine/naloxone (SuboxoneH; SUBX) as an opioid maintenance substance knowledge to evaluate ``true ground'' emotionality in long-term buprenorphine/naloxone combination (Suboxone

  19. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  20. Long-term memories in online users' selecting activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the long-term memory effect in the behavior of online users. Two user-oriented online movie systems are used in this study. Due to the short length of the series, the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy approach is used to evaluate scaling-invariance in selecting activities of users in the two online movie systems. Our results indicate that persistence (long-term memory) exists widely in the movie selecting series. However, there is generally significant difference between a user's objective and subjective behaviors. Additionally, statistically, the long-term memory depends on activity levels, as results show that the much more active a users' group, the stronger the long-term memory will be. These findings provide a new criterion for constructing reasonable models, and can help understand how individuals' behaviors form a collective behavior of an online society.

  1. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED...long-term lease agreement is subject to the source and origin requirements of this subpart B. For purposes of...

  2. Long-term results of extensor mechanism reconstructionA standard for evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Turba; W. Michael Walsh; William D. Mcleod

    1979-01-01

    A numerical rating system was designed as a method of evalu ating results of extensor mechanism reconstructions of the knee. The method was applied in evaluating the long-term results of patients treated at one orthopaedic clinic. A para mount goal was to maintain objectivity in evaluations of pa tients' knees after reconstruction. Parameters of evaluations were swelling, pain, symptoms of

  3. Long-term care cost drivers and expenditure projection to 2036 in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Y Chung; Keith YK Tin; Benjamin J Cowling; King Pan Chan; Wai Man Chan; Su Vui Lo; Gabriel M Leung

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hong Kong's rapidly ageing population, characterised by one of the longest life expectancies and the lowest fertility rate in the world, is likely to drive long-term care (LTC) expenditure higher. This study aims to identify key cost drivers and derive quantitative estimates of Hong Kong's LTC expenditure to 2036. METHODS: We parameterised a macro actuarial simulation with data from

  4. Production scenarios and the effect of soil degradation on long-term food security in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liming Ye; Eric Van Ranst

    2009-01-01

    Food security in China underlies the foundation of the livelihood and welfare for over one-fifth of the world's population. Soil degradation has an immense negative impact on the productive capacity of soils. We simulated the effect of soil degradation, which occurs in combination with increases in population size, urbanization rate, cropping intensity and decrease in cropland area, on long-term food

  5. The Long-Term Economic Impact of in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreca, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential…

  6. Detection of delirium by nurses among long-term care residents with dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Voyer; Sylvie Richard; Lise Doucet; Christine Danjou; Pierre-Hugues Carmichael

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delirium is a prevalent problem in long-term care (LTC) facilities where advanced age and cognitive impairment represent two important risk factors for this condition. Delirium is associated with numerous negative outcomes including increased morbidity and mortality. Despite its clinical importance, delirium often goes unrecognized by nurses. Although rates of nurse-detected delirium have been studied among hospitalized older patients, this

  7. Long-Term Fluctuations in the Earth's Rotation: 700 BC to AD 1990

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Stephenson; L. V. Morrison

    1995-01-01

    Records of solar and lunar eclipses in the period 700 BC to AD 1600, originating from the ancient and medieval civilizations of Babylon, China, Europe and the Arab world, are amassed and critically appraised for their usefulness in answering questions about the long-term variability of the Earth's rate of rotation. Results from previous analyses of lunar occultations in the period

  8. Long-term tillage and cropping sequence effects on dryland residue and soil carbon fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dryland soil N conservation and mineralization as influenced by long-term management practices is needed to reduce N fertilization rate, N leaching, and N2O (a greenhouse gas) emission. We evaluated the 21-yr effects of combinations of tillage and cropping sequences on dryland crop biomass (stems + ...

  9. Successful Long Term Rural Superintendents: An Examination of the Individuals and Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaluso, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of three long-term rural superintendents and their districts. The districts were selected due to the academic successes of their students as indicated by high school graduation rate, percent of students receiving advanced designation diplomas, and percentage of graduates planning to attend college.…

  10. Long-Term Transfer of Learning from Books and Video during Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brito, Natalie; Barr, Rachel; McIntyre, Paula; Simcock, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    Television viewing and picture book reading are prevalent activities during toddlerhood, and research has shown that toddlers can imitate from both books and videos after short delays. This is the first study to directly compare toddlers' long-term retention rates for target actions learned from a video or book. Toddlers (N = 158) at 18- and…

  11. Psychosocial Disability During the Long-term Course of Unipolar Major Depressive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis L. Judd; Hagop S. Akiskal; Pamela J. Zeller; Martin Paulus; Andrew C. Leon; Jack D. Maser; Jean Endicott; William Coryell; Jelena L. Kunovac; Timothy I. Mueller; John P. Rice; Martin B. Keller

    2000-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to investigate psychosocial disability in relation to depressive symp- tom severity during the long-term course of unipolar ma- jor depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Monthly ratings of impairment in major life functions and social relationships were obtained during an average of 10 years' systematic follow-up of 371 pa- tients with unipolar MDD in the

  12. The relationship of long term global temperature change and human fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Fisch; Howard F Andrews; Karen S Fisch; Robert Golden; Gary Liberson; Carl A Olsson

    2003-01-01

    According to the United Nations, global fertility has declined in the last century as reflected by a decline in birth rates. The earth’s surface air temperature has increased considerably and is referred to as global warming. Since changes in temperature are well known to influence fertility we sought to determine if a statistical relationship exists between long-term changes in global

  13. Near-Real-Time Double-Difference Event Location Using Long-Term Seismic Archives, with

    E-print Network

    Waldhauser, Felix

    Near-Real-Time Double-Difference Event Location Using Long-Term Seismic Archives, with Application with those archived for nearby past events to measure accu- rate differential phase arrival times. These data Center, and a locally stored copy of the NCSN seismic archive. New events are automatically relocated

  14. Long-Term User Study of Forcing and Training Login Mechanisms Against Phishing

    E-print Network

    Lewenstein, Moshe

    Long-Term User Study of Forcing and Training Login Mechanisms Against Phishing Amir Herzberg of phishing attacks, and when several images are displayed in the login page, the best detection rates (82 present WAPP (Web Application Phishing-Protection), an ef- fective server-side solution which combines

  15. Long-term retention of self-fertilization in a fish clade Andrey Tatarenkova

    E-print Network

    Avise, John

    Long-term retention of self-fertilization in a fish clade Andrey Tatarenkova , Sergio M. Q. Limab) was known to self-fertilize. Here, we use micro- satellite analyses to document a high selfing rate (97 of males and hermaphrodites). In contrast, we find no evidence of self-fertilization in Kryptolebias

  16. Short-and Long-Term Effects of Various Milk-Delivery

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Regina M.

    Short- and Long-Term Effects of Various Milk-Delivery Contingencies on Sucking and Nipple Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, New York Varied milk delivery of milk than when receiving no milk, and continued to suck at a high rate for at least 30 min after

  17. Breaking the Cycle of Intergenerational Abuse: The Long-Term Impact of a Residential Care Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huefner, Jonathan C.; Ringle, Jay L.; Chmelka, M. Beth; Ingram, Stephanie D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The number of youth in residential care programs who have been abused is high. The relationship between childhood abuse victimization and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) is well documented. This study compared the rates of IPV 16 years after individuals had participated in a long-term residential care program with individuals…

  18. Long-term parotid gland function after radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra M.. Braam; Judith M. Roesink; Marinus A. Moerland; Cornelis P. J. Raaijmakers; Maria Schipper; Chris H. J. Terhaard

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Irradiation of the parotid glands causes salivary dysfunction, resulting in reduced salivary flow. Recovery can be seen with time; however, long-term prospective data are lacking. The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term parotid gland function after irradiation for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 patients with head-and-neck cancer and treated with radiotherapy (RT)

  19. Forest site evaluation and long-term productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, D.W; Gessel, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the evaluation of factors affecting forest site and a discussion of long-term changes in site caused by human activity. Contributions include papers covering such critical issues as evaluation of site, interlaboratory comparison of chemical analyses, long-term growth effects of chemical fertilizers, influence of nitrogen fixation on soil acidification and nitrogen accumulation, potential effects of atmospheric deposition on productivity, and the reclamation of land by using municipal sewage sludge.

  20. Long-term hydraulic properties of subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    E-print Network

    Turner, Glenn Allen

    1994-01-01

    LONG-TERM HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF SUBSURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS A Thesis by GLENN ALLEN TURNER Submitted to the Office of Graduate studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1994 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering LONG-TERM HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF SUBSURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS by GLENN ALLEN TURNER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfdlment of the requirements for the degree...