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1

A Simple Account of the Behavior of Long-Term Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent empirical research on the term structure of interest rates has shown that the long-term interest rate is well described by adistributed lag on short-term interest rates, but does not conform to the expectations theory of the term structure. It has been suggested that the long rate \\

John Y. Campbell; Robert J. Shiller

1983-01-01

2

When units roots matter: excess volatility and excess smoothness of long-term interest rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper re-examines volatility tests of the expectations model of the term structure of interest rates. In a multivariate vector autoregression (VAR) including interest rates, prices, money and output, we find that the long-term interest rate overreacts to all transitory shocks, and underreacts to all permanent shocks, irrespective of the number of unit roots and the cointegration structure in the

Peter C. Schotman

2001-01-01

3

Liquidity Effects of Quantitative Easing on Long-Term Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the expansion in reserves following recent quantitative easing programs of the Federal Reserve may have affected long-term interest rates through liquidity effects. The data lends some support for liquidity effects, in that reserves were negatively correlated with long-term yields at the zero lower bound. Estimates suggest that between January 2009 and 2011, 10-year US Treasury yields

Signe Krogstrup; Samuel Reynard; Barbara Sutter

2012-01-01

4

The Effect of Quantitative Easing on Long-Term Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 2008, with the target Fed Funds rate at a zero lower bound, the Federal Reserve had to use an unprecedented monetary policy tool known as quantitative easing to help stimulate the economy and achieve economic goals. This paper will explain what quantitative easing is, why it became necessary and how it has been implemented. In t his paper,

Lance Vought

2011-01-01

5

Device for long term measurement of heart rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, a device for long term measurement of heart rate is described. The device is created based on development kit STM32-Primer2. Heart rate frequency is calculated from selected electrocardiograph lead from the external module. The device allows simultaneous recoding of acceleration which makes is appropriate for physical activity detection of the test subject. The recorded data is saved

Jakub Parak; Jan Dvorak; Jan Havlik

2011-01-01

6

Long-term decline of South Pole neutron rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The count rate recorded by a neutron monitor at South Pole, Antarctica, displays a long-term decline over the 32-year span from 1965 to 1997. The neutron rate follows an 11-year cycle with maxima at times of low solar activity, but the 1997 peak rate was approximately 8% lower than the 1965 peak rate based on 27-d averages. This change is

J. W. Bieber; J. Clem; D. Desilets; P. Evenson; D. Lal; C. Lopate; R. Pyle

2007-01-01

7

Long-Term Decline of South Pole Neutron Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The count rate recorded by a neutron monitor at South Pole, Antarctica displays a long-term decline over the 22-year span from 1965 to 1987. The neutron rate follows an 11-year cycle with maxima at times of low solar activity, but the 1987 peak rate was approximately 9% lower than the 1965 peak rate based on 27-day averages. This change is

J. W. Bieber; J. Clem; P. Evenson; R. Pyle; D. Lal; D. Desilets; C. Lopate

2003-01-01

8

Long-term investing and your bond rating.  

PubMed

Days cash on hand is an important measure of a healthcare organization's financial condition--but not the only one. A well-diversified investment portfolio managed against long-term objectives is equally important--and can be a significant asset in the eyes of bond rating agencies. PMID:16184969

Doody, Dennis

2005-09-01

9

Covered interest parity arbitrage and temporal long-term dependence between the US dollar and the Yen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a daily time series from 1983 to 2005 of currency prices in spot and forward USD/Yen markets and matching equivalent maturity short-term US and Japanese interest rates, we investigate the sensitivity of the difference between actual prices in forward markets to those calculated from differentials in short-term interest rates. According to a fundamental theorem in financial economics termed covered interest parity (CIP), the actual and estimated prices should be identical once transaction and other costs are accommodated. The paper presents three important findings: first, we find evidence of considerable variation in CIP deviations from equilibrium; second, these deviations have diminished significantly and by 2000 have been almost eliminated; third, an analysis of the CIP deviations using the local Hurst exponent finds episodes of time-varying dependence over the various sample periods, which appear to be linked to episodes of dollar decline/Yen appreciation, or vice versa. The finding of temporal long-term dependence in CIP deviations is consistent with recent evidence of temporal long-term dependence in the returns of currency, stock and commodity markets.

Batten, Jonathan A.; Szilagyi, Peter G.

2007-03-01

10

Long-term measurement of heart rate in chicken eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking advantage of acoustocardiogram (ACG), we measured the heart rate (HR) of chick embryos continuously from day 12 until hatching and then investigated the development of HR irregularities (HRI), HR variability (HRV), and the existence of a circadian rhythm in mean HR (MHR). HRI comprised transient bradycardia and tachycardia, which first developed on day 14 and 16 in most embryos,

Ryuichi Akiyama; Akira Matsuhisa; James T Pearson; Hiroshi Tazawa

1999-01-01

11

Imprint of long-term solar signal in groundwater recharge fluctuation rates from Northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

spectral and statistical analyses of a 700 yearlong temporal record of groundwater recharge from the dry lands, Badain Jaran Desert (Inner Mongolia) of Northwest China reveal a stationary harmonic cycle at ~200 ± 20 year. Interestingly, the underlying periodicity in groundwater recharge fluctuations is similar to those of solar-induced climate cycle "Suess wiggles" and appears to be coherent with phases of the climate fluctuations and solar cycles. Matching periodicity of groundwater recharge rates and solar and climate cycles renders a strong impression that solar-induced climate signals may act as a critical amplifier for driving the underlying hydrographic cycle through the common coupling of long-term Sun-climate groundwater linkages.

Tiwari, R. K.; Rajesh, Rekapalli

2014-05-01

12

Investigating possible gravity change rates expected from long-term deep crustal processes in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to test if gravimetry can prove useful in discriminating different models of long-term deep crustal processes in the case of the Taiwan mountain belt. We discuss two existing tectonic models that differ in the deep processes proposed to sustain the long-term growth of the orogen. One model assumes underplating of the uppermost Eurasian crust with subduction of the deeper part of the crust into the mantle. The other one suggests the accretion of the whole Eurasian crust above crustal-scale ramps, the lower crust being accreted into the collisional orogen. We compute the temporal gravity changes caused only by long-term rock mass transfers at depth for each of them. We show that the underplating model implies a rate of gravity change of -6 × 10-2 ?Gal yr-1, a value that increases to 2 × 10-2 ?Gal yr-1 if crustal subduction is neglected. If the accretion of the whole Eurasian crust occurs, a rate of 7 × 10-2 ?Gal yr-1 is obtained. The two models tested differ both in signal amplitude and spatial distribution. The yearly gravity changes expected by long-term deep crustal mass processes in Taiwan are two orders of magnitude below the present-day uncertainty of land-based gravity measurements. Assuming that these annually averaged long-term gravity changes will linearly accumulate with ongoing mountain building, multidecadal time-series are needed to identify comparable rates of gravity change. However, as gravity is sensitive to any mass redistribution, effects of short-term processes such as seismicity and surface mass transfers (erosion, sedimentation, ground-water) may prevent from detecting any long-term deep signal. This study indicates that temporal gravity is not appropriate for deciphering the long-term deep crustal processes involved in the Taiwan mountain belt.

Mouyen, M.; Simoes, M.; Mouthereau, F.; Masson, F.; Hwang, C.; Cheng, C.-C.

2014-04-01

13

Investigating possible gravity change rates expected from long-term deep crustal processes in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to test if gravimetry can prove useful in discriminating different models of long-term deep crustal processes in the case of the Taiwan mountain belt. We discuss two existing tectonic models that differ in the deep processes proposed to sustain the long-term growth of the orogen. One model assumes underplating of the uppermost Eurasian crust with subduction of the deeper part of the crust into the mantle. The other one suggests the accretion of the whole Eurasian crust above crustal-scale ramps, the lower crust being accreted into the collisional orogen. We compute the temporal gravity changes caused only by long-term rock mass transfers at depth for each of them. We show that the underplating model implies a rate of gravity change of -6 × 10-2 ?Gal yr-1, a value that increases to 2 × 10-2 ?Gal yr-1 if crustal subduction is neglected. If the accretion of the whole Eurasian crust occurs, a rate of 7 × 10-2 ?Gal yr-1 is obtained. The two models tested differ both in signal amplitude and spatial distribution. The yearly gravity changes expected by long-term deep crustal mass processes in Taiwan are two orders of magnitude below the present-day uncertainty of land-based gravity measurements. Assuming that these annually averaged long-term gravity changes will linearly accumulate with ongoing mountain building, multidecadal time-series are needed to identify comparable rates of gravity change. However, as gravity is sensitive to any mass redistribution, effects of short-term processes such as seismicity and surface mass transfers (erosion, sedimentation, ground-water) may prevent from detecting any long-term deep signal. This study indicates that temporal gravity is not appropriate for deciphering the long-term deep crustal processes involved in the Taiwan mountain belt.

Mouyen, M.; Simoes, M.; Mouthereau, F.; Masson, F.; Hwang, C.; Cheng, C.-C.

2014-07-01

14

Physical exercise rehabilitation: Long-term dropout rate in cardiac patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term dropout rate was examined in a physical exercise rehabilitation program in which 203 cardiac patients were followed for 40 months. The dropout curve was found to be downward-sloping and negatively accelerated with most of the dropouts occurring during the first 3 months. This dropout rate appeared to resemble the group relapse curve previously found in the treatment of

Timothy P. Carmody; John W. Senner; Manuel R. Malinow; Joseph D. Matarazzo

1980-01-01

15

Estimating hydroxyl radical photochemical formation rates in natural waters during long-term laboratory irradiation experiments.  

PubMed

In this study it was observed that, during long-term irradiations (>1 day) of natural waters, the methods for measuring hydroxyl radical (?OH) formation rates based upon sequentially determined cumulative concentrations of photoproducts from probes significantly underestimate actual ?OH formation rates. Performing a correction using the photodegradation rates of the probe products improves the ?OH estimation for short term irradiations (<1 day), but not long term irradiations. Only the 'instantaneous' formation rates, which were obtained by adding probes to aliquots at each time point and irradiating these sub-samples for a short time (?2 h), were found appropriate for accurately estimating ?OH photochemical formation rates during long-term laboratory irradiation experiments. Our results also showed that in iron- and dissolved organic matter (DOM)-rich water samples, ?OH appears to be mainly produced from the Fenton reaction initially, but subsequently from other sources possibly from DOM photoreactions. Pathways of ?OH formation in long-term irradiations in relation to H2O2 and iron concentrations are discussed. PMID:24513701

Sun, Luni; Chen, Hongmei; Abdulla, Hussain A; Mopper, Kenneth

2014-03-27

16

Sharp decrease in long-term chemical weathering rates along an altitudinal transect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used cosmogenic nuclide and geochemical mass balance methods to measure long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion across a steep climatic gradient in the Santa Rosa Mountains, Nevada. Our study sites are distributed along a 2 km ridgeline transect that spans 2090 to 2750 m in altitude, and encompasses marked contrasts in both vegetative cover and snow depth,

Clifford S. Riebe; James W. Kirchner; Robert C. Finkel

2004-01-01

17

Long-term flow rates and biomat zone hydrology in soil columns receiving septic tank effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil absorption systems (SAS) are used commonly to treat and disperse septic tank effluent (STE). SAS can hydraulically fail as a result of the low permeable biomat zone that develops on the infiltrative surface. The objectives of this experiment were to compare the hydraulic properties of biomats grown in soils of different textures, to investigate the long-term acceptance rates (LTAR)

C. D. Beal; E. A. Gardner; G. Kirchhof; N. W. Menzies

2006-01-01

18

SPREADSHEET FOR ESTIMATING LONG TERM ACCEPTANCE RATE FOR ON SITE WASTEWATER SYSTEMS IN GEORGIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long Term Acceptance Rates (LTAR) are used to specify the bottom area of drainfield trenches required for onsite wastewater systems (OWSs). Cur- rently, Georgia uses an empirical approach to estimate LTAR. We have helped in developing a proposal for presentation to the Georgia Department of Human Re- sources (DHR) Technical Review Committee to convert to a more scientific method based

David E. Radcliffe; Philip D. Freshley; Larry T. West

19

Interest rates mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study deals with the analysis and mapping of Swiss franc interest rates. Interest rates depend on time and maturity, defining term structure of the interest rate curves (IRC). In the present study IRC are considered in a two-dimensional feature space-time and maturity. Exploratory data analysis includes a variety of tools widely used in econophysics and geostatistics. Geostatistical models and machine learning algorithms (multilayer perceptron and Support Vector Machines) were applied to produce interest rate maps. IR maps can be used for the visualisation and pattern perception purposes, to develop and to explore economical hypotheses, to produce dynamic asset-liability simulations and for financial risk assessments. The feasibility of an application of interest rates mapping approach for the IRC forecasting is considered as well.

Kanevski, M.; Maignan, M.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Timonin, V.

2008-06-01

20

Long-Term Profile Stability of the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profile stability of the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey (1966) for 729 persons was assessed by computing rank order correlations between the sets of scales on two profiles obtained 12 or 19 years apart, with first administrations at five different ages from 13 to 20. Median rhos varied from just over .40 for the youngest to near .80 for the oldest

Donald G. Zytowski

1976-01-01

21

Unconstrained monitoring of long-term heart and breath rates during sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unconstrained method for the long-term monitoring of heart and breath rates during sleep is proposed. The system includes a sensor unit and a web-based network module. The sensor unit is set beneath a pillow to pick up the pressure variations from the head induced by inhalation\\/exhalation movements and heart pulsation during sleep. The measured pressure signal was digitized and

Wenxi Chen; Xin Zhu; Tetsu Nemoto; Kei-ichiro Kitamura; Kayo Sugitani; Daming Wei

2008-01-01

22

Discrimination power of long-term heart rate variability measures for chronic heart failure detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the discrimination power of standard long-term heart rate variability (HRV) measures\\u000a for the diagnosis of chronic heart failure (CHF). The authors performed a retrospective analysis on four public Holter databases,\\u000a analyzing the data of 72 normal subjects and 44 patients suffering from CHF. To assess the discrimination power of HRV measures,\\u000a an

Paolo Melillo; Roberta Fusco; Mario Sansone; Marcello Bracale; Leandro Pecchia

2011-01-01

23

Determination of the long-term intergranular corrosion rate of stainless steel in concentrated nitric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stainless steels with low carbon content and free from any precipitation undergo intergranular attack in hot nitric acid. The corrosion rate measured by weight loss requires prolonged immersion testing to reach the apparent steady state corrosion, which coincides with the onset of grain dropping. A more appropriate method for predicting the long-term penetration rate is described in this study. A close observation and a statistical analysis of the attack grooves were firstly undertaken using immersion testing. The major findings are an outstanding morphology of the grooves with flat planes and preserved angle even after the onset of grain dropping, as well as a constant rate of the penetration into the surface. The formation of the grooves could then be represented by a geometrical model put forward by Beaunier and co-workers. Consequently, the method proposed for predicting the penetration rate consists in measuring the depth and the angle of the grooves obtained in short time immersion testing. Multiplying the penetration rate calculated from the previous data by the ratio between the penetration depth and the length of the grain boundary path does give an accurate long-term penetration rate. The method has been shown to apply successfully to AISI 304L stainless steel in several nitric solutions.

Bague, V.; Chachoua, S.; Tran, Q. T.; Fauvet, P.

2009-08-01

24

Hyperpolarization induces a long-term increase in the spontaneous firing rate of cerebellar Golgi cells  

PubMed Central

Golgi cells (GoCs) are inhibitory interneurons that influence the cerebellar cortical response to sensory input by regulating the excitability of the granule cell layer. While GoC inhibition is essential for normal motor coordination, little is known about the circuit dynamics that govern the activity of these cells. In particular, while GoC spontaneous spiking influences the extent of inhibition and gain throughout the granule cell layer, it is not known whether this spontaneous activity can be modulated in a long-term manner. Here we describe a form of long-term plasticity that regulates the spontaneous firing rate of GoCs in the rat cerebellar cortex. We find that membrane hyperpolarization, either by mGluR2 activation of potassium channels, or by somatic current injection, induces a long-lasting increase in GoC spontaneous firing. This spike rate plasticity appears to result from a strong reduction in the spike afterhyperpolarization (AHP). Pharmacological manipulations suggest the involvement of calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and calcium-activated potassium channels in mediating these firing rate increases. As a consequence of this plasticity, GoC spontaneous spiking is selectively enhanced, but the gain of evoked spiking is unaffected. Hence this plasticity is well-suited for selectively regulating the tonic output of GoCs rather than their sensory-evoked responses.

Hull, Court; Chu, YunXiang; Thanawala, Monica; Regehr, Wade G.

2013-01-01

25

Natural Selection Fails to Optimize Mutation Rates for Long-Term Adaptation on Rugged Fitness Landscapes  

PubMed Central

The rate of mutation is central to evolution. Mutations are required for adaptation, yet most mutations with phenotypic effects are deleterious. As a consequence, the mutation rate that maximizes adaptation will be some intermediate value. Here, we used digital organisms to investigate the ability of natural selection to adjust and optimize mutation rates. We assessed the optimal mutation rate by empirically determining what mutation rate produced the highest rate of adaptation. Then, we allowed mutation rates to evolve, and we evaluated the proximity to the optimum. Although we chose conditions favorable for mutation rate optimization, the evolved rates were invariably far below the optimum across a wide range of experimental parameter settings. We hypothesized that the reason that mutation rates evolved to be suboptimal was the ruggedness of fitness landscapes. To test this hypothesis, we created a simplified landscape without any fitness valleys and found that, in such conditions, populations evolved near-optimal mutation rates. In contrast, when fitness valleys were added to this simple landscape, the ability of evolving populations to find the optimal mutation rate was lost. We conclude that rugged fitness landscapes can prevent the evolution of mutation rates that are optimal for long-term adaptation. This finding has important implications for applied evolutionary research in both biological and computational realms.

Clune, Jeff; Misevic, Dusan; Ofria, Charles; Lenski, Richard E.; Elena, Santiago F.; Sanjuan, Rafael

2008-01-01

26

Predictors of Response Rates to a Long Term Follow-Up Mail out Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective Very little is known about predictors of response rates to long-term follow-up mail-out surveys, including whether the timing of an incentive affects response rates. We aimed to determine whether the timing of the incentive affects response rates and what baseline demographic and psychological factors predict response rates to a 12 year follow-up survey. Study design and setting: Participants were 450 randomly selected people from the Penrith population, Australia who had previously participated in a mail-out survey 12 years earlier. By random allocation, 150 people received no incentive, 150 received a lottery ticket inducement with the follow-up survey and 150 received a lottery ticket inducement on the return of a completed survey. Results The overall response rate for the study was 63%. There were no significant differences in terms of response rates between the no incentive (58.8%;95%CI 49.8%,67.3%), incentive with survey (65.1%;95%CI 56.2%,73.3%) and promised incentive (65.3%;95%CI 56.1%,73.7%) groups. Independent predictors of responding to the 12 year survey were being older (OR=1.02, 95%CI 1.01,1.05,P=0.001) and being less neurotic as reported on the first survey 12 years earlier (OR=0.92, 95%CI 0.86,0.98, P=0.010). Conclusions Psychological factors may play a role in determining who responds to long-term follow-up surveys although timing of incentives does not.

Koloski, Natasha A.; Jones, Michael; Eslick, Guy; Talley, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

27

Long-term Accretion Rate Modulation by an External Accretion Disk in Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the very long-term evolution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) fed by an accretion disk. Regardless of whether the GRB is due to the merger of two neutron stars or a hypernova explosion, the existence of a transient fall-back disk near the progenitor without an external, confining torque will lead to a power law decay in the rate of accretion onto the central engine. This is unavoidable consequence of the fact that the outer edge of an "external disk" continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport. The mass reservoir at large radii moves outward with time and gives a natural power-law decay to the GRB light curves. The different power-law decay segments seen by XRT would represent different physical states of the accretion disk.

Cannizzo, John K.; Gehrels, N.

2010-02-01

28

Effect of long-term aging on the fatigue crack growth rate of a nickel-based superalloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue crack growth rate test was conducted for a nickel-based superalloy at room temperature to investigate the effect of long-term aging at 700°C and 750°C. It is found that the precipitation of topologically close packed (TCP) phases as well as the coarsening of ?? phase and carbides at grain boundaries is induced by long-term aging. Fatigue crack growth rate of

Shuai Wang; Lei Wang; Yang Liu; Guohua Xu; Beijiang Zhang; Guangpu Zhao

2011-01-01

29

Cell Tropism Predicts Long-term Nucleotide Substitution Rates of Mammalian RNA Viruses  

PubMed Central

The high rates of RNA virus evolution are generally attributed to replication with error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. However, these long-term nucleotide substitution rates span three orders of magnitude and do not correlate well with mutation rates or selection pressures. This substitution rate variation may be explained by differences in virus ecology or intrinsic genomic properties. We generated nucleotide substitution rate estimates for mammalian RNA viruses and compiled comparable published rates, yielding a dataset of 118 substitution rates of structural genes from 51 different species, as well as 40 rates of non-structural genes from 28 species. Through ANCOVA analyses, we evaluated the relationships between these rates and four ecological factors: target cell, transmission route, host range, infection duration; and three genomic properties: genome length, genome sense, genome segmentation. Of these seven factors, we found target cells to be the only significant predictors of viral substitution rates, with tropisms for epithelial cells or neurons (P<0.0001) as the most significant predictors. Further, one-tailed t-tests showed that viruses primarily infecting epithelial cells evolve significantly faster than neurotropic viruses (P<0.0001 and P<0.001 for the structural genes and non-structural genes, respectively). These results provide strong evidence that the fastest evolving mammalian RNA viruses infect cells with the highest turnover rates: the highly proliferative epithelial cells. Estimated viral generation times suggest that epithelial-infecting viruses replicate more quickly than viruses with different cell tropisms. Our results indicate that cell tropism is a key factor in viral evolvability.

Hicks, Allison L.; Duffy, Siobain

2014-01-01

30

Sharp decrease in long-term chemical weathering rates along an altitudinal transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used cosmogenic nuclide and geochemical mass balance methods to measure long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion across a steep climatic gradient in the Santa Rosa Mountains, Nevada. Our study sites are distributed along a 2 km ridgeline transect that spans 2090 to 2750 m in altitude, and encompasses marked contrasts in both vegetative cover and snow depth, but is underlain by a single, roughly uniform, granodiorite bedrock. Cosmogenic nuclides in colluvial soils reveal that denudation rates vary by less than a factor of 1.4 (104-144 t/km 2/yr) along this transect. Bulk elemental analyses indicate that, relative to the parent rock, soils are less intensively weathered with increasing altitude, and show little evidence of weathering-related mass losses near the top of the ridge. Chemical weathering rates decrease rapidly with increasing altitude, both in absolute terms (from 24 to 0 t/km 2/yr) and as a fraction of total denudation rates (from 20 to 0%). Thus these results indicate an increasing dominance of physical erosion with altitude. The observed decrease in chemical weathering rates is greater than one would predict from the decrease in mean annual temperature using simple weathering kinetics, suggesting that weathering rates along our transect may also be affected by the progressive decline in vegetative cover and increase in snow depth with increasing altitude. These results, considered together with weathering rate measurements for a wide range of climates in the Sierra Nevada, USA, suggest that chemical weathering rates may be particularly sensitive to differences in climate at higher-altitude sites. Consistent with this hypothesis, chemical weathering rates fall virtually to zero at the highest sites on our transect, suggesting that sparsely vegetated, high-altitude crystalline terrain may often be characterized by extremely slow silicate weathering rates.

Riebe, Clifford S.; Kirchner, James W.; Finkel, Robert C.

2004-02-01

31

Low slip rates and long-term preservation of geomorphic features in Central Asia.  

PubMed

In order to understand the dynamics of the India Asia collision zone, it is important to know the strain distribution in Central Asia, whose determination relies on the slip rates for active faults. Many previous slip-rate estimates of faults in Central Asia were based on the assumption that offset landforms are younger than the Last Glacial Maximum (approximately 20 kyr ago). In contrast, here we present surface exposure ages of 40 to 170 kyr, obtained using cosmogenic nuclide dating, for a series of terraces near a thrust at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Combined with the tectonic offset, the ages imply a long-term slip rate of only about 0.35 mm x yr(-1) for the active thrust, an order of magnitude lower than rates obtained from the assumption that the terraces formed after the Last Glacial Maximum. Our data demonstrate that the preservation potential of geomorphic features in Central Asia is higher than commonly assumed. PMID:12024210

Hetzel, Ralf; Niedermann, Samuel; Tao, Mingxin; Kubik, Peter W; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Gao, Bo; Strecker, Manfred R

2002-05-23

32

Revised long-term creep rates on the Hayward Fault, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although the Hayward fault is a source of major earthquakes, it also creeps or slips aseismically, and has done so steadily for several decades (certainly since 1921 and probably since 1869). Most of the fault creeps between 3 and 6 mm/yr, except for a 4- to 6-km-long segment near its south end that creeps at about 9 mm/yr. We present results of our recent surveys to recover angles and deflection lines established across the fault in the 1960s and 1970s, but unmonitored since. We have added data from more offset cultural features to the long-term creep rate data set and made substantial improvements to the analytical method used to compute offsets. The revised creep rate values improve our knowledge of spatial and temporal variation along the fault. The more accurate revised data has reduced the estimate of the average creep rate along most of the fault from 5.1 mm/yr to 4.6 mm/yr. Creep rates in the 9 mm/yr section near the south end have remained the same.

Lienkaemper, James J.; Galehouse, Jon S.

1997-01-01

33

Daily and Long Term Variations of Out-Door Gamma Dose Rate in Khorasan Province, Iran  

SciTech Connect

In Iran before 1996, only a few hot spots had been identified, no systematic study had been envisaged. Since then preparation of out-door environmental gamma radiation map of Iran was defined as a long term goal in our center, at the same time simultaneous monitoring of outdoor gamma level in Khorasan was also proposed. A Rados area monitoring system (AAM-90) including 10 intelligent RD-02 detector and all associated components were purchased. From 2003 gradually seven stations have been setup in Khorasan. For all seven stations monthly average and one hour daily average on four time intervals have been computed. Statistically no significant differences have been observed. This is also true for monthly averages. The overall average dose rate for present seven stations varies from 0.11 {mu}Sv{center_dot}h{sup -1} for Ferdows, to 0.04 {mu}Sv{center_dot}h{sup -1} for Dargaz. Based on our data, 50 minutes sample in any time interval is an accurate sample size to estimate out door Gamma dose rate.

Toossi, M. T. Bahreyni; Bayani, SH. [Environmental dosimetery laboratory, Medical Physics Research Center, Mashad University of Medical Sciences, Mashad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-08-07

34

Daily and Long Term Variations of Out Door Gamma Dose Rate in Khorasan Province, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Iran before 1996, only a few hot spots had been identified, no systematic study had been envisaged. Since then preparation of out-door environmental gamma radiation map of Iran was defined as a long term goal in our center, at the same time simultaneous monitoring of outdoor gamma level in Khorasan was also proposed. A Rados area monitoring system (AAM-90) including 10 intelligent RD-02 detector and all associated components were purchased. From 2003 gradually seven stations have been setup in Khorasan. For all seven stations monthly average and one hour daily average on four time intervals have been computed. Statistically no significant differences have been observed. This is also true for monthly averages. The overall average dose rate for present seven stations varies from 0.11 ?Sv.h-1 for Ferdows, to 0.04 ?Sv.h-1 for Dargaz. Based on our data, 50 minutes sample in any time interval is an accurate sample size to estimate out door Gamma dose rate.

Toossi, M. T. Bahreyni; Bayani, Sh.

2008-08-01

35

Effect of Long-term Smoking on Whole-mouth Salivary Flow Rate and Oral Health  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Change in the resting whole-mouth salivary flow rate (SFR) plays a significant role in patho-genesis of various oral conditions. Factors such as smoking may affect SFR as well as the oral and dental health. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of smoking on SFR, and oral and dental health. Materials and methods One-hundred smokers and 100 non-tobacco users were selected as case and control groups, respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data and smoking habits. A previously used questionnaire about dry mouth was also employed. Then, after a careful oral examination, subjects’ whole saliva was collected in the resting condition. Data was analyzed by chi-square test using SPSS 15. Results The mean (±SD) salivary flow rate were 0.38 (± 0.13) ml/min in smokers and 0.56 (± 0.16) ml/min in non-smokers. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.00001). Also, 39% of smokers and 12% of non-smokers reported experiencing at least one xerostomia symptom, with statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.0001). Oral lesions including cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus and halitosis were significantly higher in smokers. Conclusion Our findings indicated that long-term smoking would significantly reduce SFR and increase oral and dental disorders associated with dry mouth, especially cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus, and halitosis.

Rad, Maryam; Kakoie, Shahla; Niliye Brojeni, Fateme; Pourdamghan, Nasim

2010-01-01

36

Motivation and Learning--The Role of Interest in Construction of Representation of Text and Long-Term Retention: Inter- and Intraindividual Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present work examined the influence of topic interest on the strength of different components of text representation and long-term retention according to the model of text processing by van Dijk and Kintsch (1983). A Series of relevant personality characteristics were assessed to control for alternative explanations of interest effect, A total…

Naceur, Abdelmajid; Schiefele, Ulrich

2005-01-01

37

The impact and implication of interest rate adjustment to risk management for Chinese commercial banks: Based on interest rate sensitivity model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the background of economic globalization, interest rate risk has become one of the most important risks for commercial banks in China. However, Chinese commercial banks are not sensitive to changes in interest rates because of the long-term control of interest rate. With the development of the process of marketization of interest rates, the interest rate risk of Chinese commercial

Yingying Xue; Zhirong Yang

2011-01-01

38

Extremely low long-term erosion rates around the Gamburtsev Mountains in interior East Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high elevation and rugged relief (>3 km) of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) have long been considered enigmatic. Orogenesis normally occurs near plate boundaries, not cratonic interiors, and large-scale tectonic activity last occurred in East Antarctica during the Pan-African (480-600 Ma). We sampled detrital apatite from Eocene sands in Prydz Bay at the terminus of the Lambert Graben, which drained a large pre-glacial basin including the northern Gamburtsev Mountains. Apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He cooling ages constrain bedrock erosion rates throughout the catchment. We double-dated apatites to resolve individual cooling histories. Erosion was very slow, averaging 0.01-0.02 km/Myr for >250 Myr, supporting the preservation of high elevation in interior East Antarctica since at least the cessation of Permian rifting. Long-term topographic preservation lends credence to postulated high-elevation mountain ice caps in East Antarctica since at least the Cretaceous and to the idea that cold-based glaciation can preserve tectonically inactive topography.

Cox, S. E.; Thomson, S. N.; Reiners, P. W.; Hemming, S. R.; van de Flierdt, T.

2010-11-01

39

Coupling of realistic rate estimates with genomic for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Phone  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved dense nonaqueous-phase liquid plumes are persistent, widespread problems in the DOE complex. While perceived as being difficult to degrade, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) is disappearing from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) by natural attenuation, a finding that saves significant site restoration costs. Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation as a preferred treatment technology requires direct proof of the process and rate of the degradation. Our proposal aims to provide that proof for one such site by testing two hypotheses. First, we believe that realistic values for in situ rates of TCE cometabolism can be obtained by sustaining the putative microorganisms at the low catabolic activities consistent with aquifer conditions. Second, the patterns of functional gene expression evident in these communities under starvation conditions while carrying out TCE cometabolism can be used to diagnose the cometabolic activity in the aquifer itself. Using the cometabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained at this location and validate the long term stewardship of this plume. Realistic terms for cometabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE's ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics at other sites, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. Finally, this project will derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

2003-06-01

40

Long-term dynamics of death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and improving air quality  

PubMed Central

Background The respiratory tract is a major target of exposure to air pollutants, and respiratory diseases are associated with both short- and long-term exposures. We hypothesized that improved air quality in North Carolina was associated with reduced rates of death from respiratory diseases in local populations. Materials and methods We analyzed the trends of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia mortality and changes of the levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using monthly data measurements from air-monitoring stations in North Carolina in 1993–2010. The log-linear model was used to evaluate associations between air-pollutant levels and age-adjusted death rates (per 100,000 of population) calculated for 5-year age-groups and for standard 2000 North Carolina population. The studied associations were adjusted by age group-specific smoking prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of disease-specific respiratory deaths. Results Decline in emphysema deaths was associated with decreasing levels of SO2 and CO in the air, decline in asthma deaths–with lower SO2, CO, and PM10 levels, and decline in pneumonia deaths–with lower levels of SO2. Sensitivity analyses were performed to study potential effects of the change from International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 to ICD-10 codes, the effects of air pollutants on mortality during summer and winter, the impact of approach when only the underlying causes of deaths were used, and when mortality and air-quality data were analyzed on the county level. In each case, the results of sensitivity analyses demonstrated stability. The importance of analysis of pneumonia as an underlying cause of death was also highlighted. Conclusion Significant associations were observed between decreasing death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and decreases in levels of ambient air pollutants in North Carolina.

Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Abernethy, Amy P; Holman, Sheila; Ross, William G; Lyerly, H Kim

2014-01-01

41

Seismicity rates of slow, intermediate, and fast spreading ridges: Insights from long-term hydroacoustic monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean basin earthquakes recorded on NOAA/OSU and U.S. Navy hydrophone arrays are used to evaluate long-term volcano-tectonic seismicity levels from segments of the fast-spreading rate East Pacific Rise (EPR) from 20° S-20° N, intermediate-spreading rate Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) from 39° -52° N and Galapagos Rift (GR) from 90° -103° W, and the slow-spreading northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) from 5° -60° N. The hydrophones record the acoustic energy of seafloor earthquakes that propagate along the ocean sound channel with little attenuation over large distances. Frequency-magnitude relationships (Bohnenstiehl et al., 2002; Dziak et al., 2004) indicate the hydrophone catalogs are complete in these regions to body-wave magnitude ˜2.5 (EPR and GR), 2.5 (JdFR), and 3.0 (MAR), an improvement of 1.5 to 2 units over the land-based seismic catalogs for mid-ocean ridge systems. Using the hydrophone earthquake catalog, we will compare seismicity rates of the JdFR (12 years of data), to seismicity rates along the GR (6 years) and EPR (6 years) and MAR (4 years of data from 5° -39° N; 16 months from 39° -60° N). During these monitoring periods, five confirmed seafloor spreading events (four of which were associated with magmatic activity) were recorded on discrete JdFR segments, while 6 possible magmatic events were observed on the EPR, one on the GR, and one on the MAR. Empirical orthogonal functions will be used to elucidate the space-time patterns of seismicity and compare between the various spreading rates ridges, as well as to investigate the recurrence rate of seafloor spreading events present. In addition, single-link cluster analysis (SLC; Frolich and Davis, 1990) will be used to de-cluster the earthquake databases to reduce the effects of aftershock sequences and magmatic swarms, allowing us to evaluate how overall plate motion and changes in spreading rate effect levels of seismicity between ridge segments and different ridge systems. Preliminary results indicate the distribution of seismicity at the JdFR "super"-segments (between transforms) are positively skewed, indicating there are significant, yet brief periods of time (1-2 months) when seismic activity is well above the mean. Transforms along the JdFR, however, exhibit a random distribution.

Dziak, R. P.; Haxel, J. H.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Goslin, J.

2004-12-01

42

Reducing pressure ulcer prevalence rates in the long-term acute care setting.  

PubMed

Information about pressure ulcer prevalence, prevention, and optimal management strategies in the long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) setting is sparse. Although care processes in other patient care settings have been reported to affect pressure ulcer prevalence rates, the effect of such programs in the LTACH is unknown. To reduce perceived above-average pressure ulcer prevalence rates and improve care processes, a 108-bed LTACH used a failure mode and effects analysis to identify and address high-priority areas for improvement. Areas in need of improvement included a lack of 1) wound care professionals, 2) methods to consistently document prevention and wound data, and 3) an interdisciplinary wound care team approach, as well as a faulty electronic medical record. While prevalence data were collected, policies and procedures based on several published guidelines were developed and incorporated into the pressure ulcer plan of care by the newly established wound care team. Improved assessment and documentation methods, enhanced staff education, revised electronic records, wound care product reviews, and a facility-wide commitment to improved care resulted in a reduction of facility-acquired pressure ulcer prevalence from 41% at baseline to an average of 4.2% during the following 12 months as well as fewer missing electronic record data (<1% of charts had missing data). These study results suggest that staff education, better documentation, and a dedicated wound care team improves care practices and reduces pressure ulcer prevalence in the LTACH. Studies to increase knowledge about the LTACH patient population and their unique needs and risk profiles are needed. PMID:19387096

Milne, Catherine T; Trigilia, Donna; Houle, Tracy L; Delong, Sandra; Rosenblum, David

2009-04-01

43

Neotectonic Kinematic Analysis of Philippines Orogen: Regional Strain-Rates and a Forecast of Long-term Seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Philippines orogen accommodates oblique convergence of the Sunda and Philippine Sea plates which subduct at bounding trenches to the West and East respectively. Relative benchmark velocities from GPS campaigns, principal stress directions, and geologic slip-rates in the literature do not completely describe deformation in the region. I construct a 2-D finite element grid and use program Neokinema to fit internal observations by a weighted least squares method. The preferred model predicts long-term (104-106yr) neotectonic velocities, fault slip-rates, and long-term anelastic strain-rates (~9.5%/Ma). The preferred model results suggest SU-PS velocity transfer occurs primarily by changing rates of subduction at the Philippine Trench, (rates decrease to the North) and Manilla Trench (rates increase to the North). We also report especially high (30%/Ma) long-term anelastic strain-rates in the Luzon province where unmapped faults, related to active propagation of the Philippine Fault System, contribute to apparent anelastic strain. We further use model velocities and strain rates to compute a spatial forecast of long-term seismicity. Compared to 630 events of ?5.5 in the CMT catalog (1976-2005), our area integral of seismicity predicts 752 earthquakes of ?5.5 in a typical 30-year interval. Largest discrepancies between the CMT catalog and our spatial seismicity forecast occur in Mindanao province along the Siayan-Sindangan Suture Zone where we under-forecast seismicity, possibly due to especially sparse data coverage.

Rucker, W. K.

2008-12-01

44

Stability of renal allograft glomerular filtration rate associated with long-term use of cyclosporine A.  

PubMed

Renal allograft glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured at 4-month intervals for up to 1 year in 43 CsA-treated patients using x-ray fluorescence determination of plasma iohexol clearance. Study patients were divided into cohorts based on time (years) after transplantation at study entry (0-1; 1-2; 2-3; and > 3 years) and entry GFR levels (20-29; 30-39; 40-49; and > or = 50 ml/min/1.73 m2). GFR at study entry was 42 +/- 2 and was comparable in CAD (n = 31) versus LRD (n = 12) allografts (42 +/- 2 and 44 +/- 4 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively). Range of entry GFR levels was similar in each of the "time at entry" cohorts defined above. Serum creatinine concentrations of 1.5-2.5 mg% were associated with GFR levels of 20-60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Serial GFR levels obtained at 4-month intervals for 1 year (n = 34 patients) were not consistent with a pattern of progressively declining GFR occurring as a function of either time after transplantation or absolute GFR level at study entry (intraindividual coefficient of variation 10.3 +/- 1.0%). Patients in the lower quartile of "entry GFR" levels (< 34 ml/min/1.73 m2) were more likely than their counterparts to have had a history of acute rejection. Results are consistent with retrospective population studies of aggregate serum creatinine levels, indicating that long-term CsA use is not uniformly associated with accelerated loss of renal allograft function consequent to a progressive, toxic nephropathy. The data also suggest that neither absolute GFR level nor time after transplantation represent indications for routine dose reduction or conversion to AZA. PMID:8497874

Lewis, R; Podbielski, J; Sprayberry, S; Munsell, M; Katz, S; Rubin, M; Kimball, P; Van Buren, C T; Kerman, R; Kahan, B

1993-05-01

45

Foreign Currency for Long-Term Investors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional wisdom holds that conservative investors should avoid exposure to foreign currency risk. Even if they hold foreign equities, they should hedge the currency exposure of these positions and hold only domestic Treasury bills. This paper argues that the conventional wisdom may be wrong for long-term investors. Domestic bills are risky for long-term investors, because real interest rates vary over

John Y. Campbell; Luis M. Viceira; Joshua S. White

2003-01-01

46

Timing and rates of long-term landscape evolution in Southern Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. North of the Sierras Septentrionales the Salado basin is located. The Sierras Septentrionales and the Sierras Australes are also divided by a smaller intracratonic basin. Further in the South the Colorado basin is located. The Sierras Australes is a variscian fold belt originated by strong phases of metamorphosis, but till now it is unclear by how many tectonic phases the area was influenced (Tomezzoli & Vilas, 1999). It consists of Proterozoic to Paleozoic rocks. The Sierras Septentrionales consists mainly of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The Precambrian sequences are overlain by younger Sediments (Cingolani, 2010). The aim is to understand the long-term landscape evolution of the area by quantifiying erosion- and exhumation-rates and by dating ancient rock-uplift-events. Another goal is to find out how the opening of the south atlantic took effect on this region. To fulfill this goal, thermochronological techniques, such as fission-track dating and (U-Th-Sm)/He dating has been applied to samples from the region. Because there was no low- temperature thermochronology done in this area, both techniques were applied on apatites and zircons. Furthermore, numerical modeling of the cooling history has provided the data base for the quantification of the exhumation rates. The data-set show clusters of different ages which can be linked to tectonic activities during late Paleozoic times. Also the thermokinematic modeling is leading to new insights of the evolution of both mountain ranges and shows patterns of ongoing tectonic processes in this region. Calculated exhumation rates show also varying cooling histories and the influence of tectonics throughout the research area. References: Tomezzoli, R. N. and Vilas, J. F. (1999): Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of deformation of the Sierras Australes thrust and fold belt, Argentina. Geophys. J. Int. (1999) 138, 857-870. Cingolani, C. A. (2010): The Tandilia System of Argentina as a southern extension of the Rio de la Plata craton: an overview, Int. J. Earth. Sci. (Geol. Rundsch.) (2011) 100, 221-242

Kollenz, Sebastian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Rossello, Eduardo A.; Stoeckli, Danny F.

2014-05-01

47

Impacts of long-term erosion rates on Portuguese wheat croplands under future climate scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean drylands of southern Portugal have experienced centuries of agricultural exploitation and associated erosion processes, leading in many cases to degraded soils with low agricultural productivity. These conditions have been associated with ongoing desertification processes. Future climate conditions could accelerate these processes, due to increased winter rainfall intensity associated with less favorable conditions for vegetation development. This work explored scenarios of long-term erosion rates, and associated consequences for soil fertility, for winter wheat croplands in southern Portugal in the Loures mountain range (sub-humid climate, with relatively deep Cambisols) and the southwestern Guadiana basin (semi-arid climate, with relatively shallow Leptosols). The impacts of climate change on hydrological processes, conditions for vegetation growth, and soil erosion rates were explored using the SWAT ecohydrological model. Eight synthetic climate change scenarios were created using a stochastic weather generator, creating an envelope which includes a large number of the climate change scenarios predicted for these regions for 2071-2100. The scenarios comprised temperature increases between 1.6 and 6.4 °C and rainfall decreases between -2.5% and -40%. The impacts of predicted erosion rates for soil fertility in wheat croplands was then estimated using an empirical approach based on wheat rooting depth and present-day soil depth. The results indicate that: 1) Wheat growth is expected to decrease by as much as 40% in the most extreme scenarios due solely to climate change. 2) Soil erosion in wheat croplands is expected to decrease in climate change scenarios with the lowest rainfall (-60%), increasing by as much as 150% in scenarios with the highest rainfall, although they are expected to remain relatively low (between 2 and 12 ton/ha.yr). 3) In the Loures study area, lower wheat productivity is expected to be caused mostly by climate change, with relatively few changes associated with erosion. 4) In the Guadiana study area, lower wheat productivity is expected to result from both climate change and soil erosion; soil erosion would dominate the impacts on productivity for low-magnitude climate changes, with the impact of climate becoming higher with the severity of the climate change scenario.

Nunes, J. P.

2012-04-01

48

The phenomenology of bipolar disorder: what drives the high rate of medical burden and determines long-term prognosis?  

PubMed

Bipolar disorder (BD) has been classically described as one of episodic mood disturbances. New evidence suggests that a chronic course and multisystem involvement is the rule, rather than the exception, and that together with disturbances of circadian rhythms, mood instability, cognitive impairment, a high rate of medical burden is often observed. The current diagnostic approach for BD neither describes the multisystem involvement that the recent literature has highlighted nor points toward potential predictors of long- term outcome. In light of the new evidence that the long-term course of BD is associated with a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and an increased mortality from medical disease, we propose a multidimensional approach that includes several symptom domains, namely affective instability, circadian rhythm dysregulation, and cognitive and executive dysfunction, presenting in various combinations that give shape to each individual presentation, and offers potential indicators of overall long-term prognosis. PMID:18828143

Soreca, Isabella; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David J

2009-01-01

49

Short-term vs. long-term heart rate variability in ischemic cardiomyopathy risk stratification.  

PubMed

In industrialized countries with aging populations, heart failure affects 0.3-2% of the general population. The investigation of 24 h-ECG recordings revealed the potential of nonlinear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) for enhanced risk stratification in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF). However, long-term analyses are time-consuming, expensive, and delay the initial diagnosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether 30 min short-term HRV analysis is sufficient for comparable risk stratification in IHF in comparison to 24 h-HRV analysis. From 256 IHF patients [221 at low risk (IHFLR) and 35 at high risk (IHFHR)] (a) 24 h beat-to-beat time series (b) the first 30 min segment (c) the 30 min most stationary day segment and (d) the 30 min most stationary night segment were investigated. We calculated linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear HRV analysis indices. Optimal parameter sets for risk stratification in IHF were determined for 24 h and for each 30 min segment by applying discriminant analysis on significant clinical and non-clinical indices. Long- and short-term HRV indices from frequency domain and particularly from nonlinear dynamics revealed high univariate significances (p < 0.01) discriminating between IHFLR and IHFHR. For multivariate risk stratification, optimal mixed parameter sets consisting of 5 indices (clinical and nonlinear) achieved 80.4% AUC (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics) from 24 h HRV analysis, 84.3% AUC from first 30 min, 82.2 % AUC from daytime 30 min and 81.7% AUC from nighttime 30 min. The optimal parameter set obtained from the first 30 min showed nearly the same classification power when compared to the optimal 24 h-parameter set. As results from stationary daytime and nighttime, 30 min segments indicate that short-term analyses of 30 min may provide at least a comparable risk stratification power in IHF in comparison to a 24 h analysis period. PMID:24379785

Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Schulz, Steffen; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Vázquez, Rafael; Bayés de Luna, Antoni; Caminal, Pere

2013-01-01

50

Short-term vs. long-term heart rate variability in ischemic cardiomyopathy risk stratification  

PubMed Central

In industrialized countries with aging populations, heart failure affects 0.3–2% of the general population. The investigation of 24 h-ECG recordings revealed the potential of nonlinear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) for enhanced risk stratification in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF). However, long-term analyses are time-consuming, expensive, and delay the initial diagnosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether 30 min short-term HRV analysis is sufficient for comparable risk stratification in IHF in comparison to 24 h-HRV analysis. From 256 IHF patients [221 at low risk (IHFLR) and 35 at high risk (IHFHR)] (a) 24 h beat-to-beat time series (b) the first 30 min segment (c) the 30 min most stationary day segment and (d) the 30 min most stationary night segment were investigated. We calculated linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear HRV analysis indices. Optimal parameter sets for risk stratification in IHF were determined for 24 h and for each 30 min segment by applying discriminant analysis on significant clinical and non-clinical indices. Long- and short-term HRV indices from frequency domain and particularly from nonlinear dynamics revealed high univariate significances (p < 0.01) discriminating between IHFLR and IHFHR. For multivariate risk stratification, optimal mixed parameter sets consisting of 5 indices (clinical and nonlinear) achieved 80.4% AUC (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics) from 24 h HRV analysis, 84.3% AUC from first 30 min, 82.2 % AUC from daytime 30 min and 81.7% AUC from nighttime 30 min. The optimal parameter set obtained from the first 30 min showed nearly the same classification power when compared to the optimal 24 h-parameter set. As results from stationary daytime and nighttime, 30 min segments indicate that short-term analyses of 30 min may provide at least a comparable risk stratification power in IHF in comparison to a 24 h analysis period.

Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Vallverdu, Montserrat; Schulz, Steffen; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Vazquez, Rafael; Bayes de Luna, Antoni; Caminal, Pere

2013-01-01

51

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LAND APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER, ROSWELL, NEW MEXICO, SLOW RATE IRRIGATION SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the findings of a study on the long-term effects of applying treated domestic wastewater to farmland at Roswell, New Mexico. On the test site, a slow rate irrigation method was used for 33 years. Water, soil, and crop samples from this test site were compared...

52

Long-term outcome of high dose rate brachytherapy in radiotherapy of localised prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purposeHigh dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in prostate cancer (PC) is receiving increasing interest. The steep dose gradient gives a possibility to escalate the dose to the prostate. If the ?\\/? ratio is low for PC, hypofractionation will be of advantage. A retrospective analysis of outcome in patients (pts) consecutively treated with combined HDR-BT and conformal external beam radiotherapy

Lennart Åström; Dorte Pedersen; Claes Mercke; Sten Holmäng; Karl Axel Johansson

2005-01-01

53

A comparison of recent, short-, and long-term carbon accumulation rates for a vegetation gradient in central Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information regarding historical rates of carbon (C) accumulation will aid scientists in understanding how climate change may affect biogeochemical cycles in the future. We examined rates of C accumulation for the following three time periods: the last two thousand years (long-term rates), the last 30 years (short-term rates), and the last several years (recent rates). We compared C accumulation rates among these time periods for five different ecosystems found along a ~300-m transect within the Bonanza Creek Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) site. These sites were dominated by black spruce, low shrubs, tussock grass, Carex sp., or brown moss. The black spruce and shrub site are the only ecosystems currently underlain by permafrost. Three soil cores were taken at each site and analyzed for C content. In order to gain a robust understanding of C accumulation rates at each site, 14C measurements and 210Pb chronologies were also obtained, and flux measurements were taken at each site. 14C dates were acquired for the basal horizon of one profile for each ecosystem type, providing estimations of C accumulation rates since organic matter began to form. 210Pb chronologies for each soil profile allowed us to estimate C accumulation rates for the last several decades. Finally, CO2 flux measurements were taken at each site from May - September for five years (2007 - 2011), capturing recent C losses and gains. Although short-term C accumulation rates were lowest in the black spruce ecosystem, rates among ecosystems were not significantly different, due to large variability among soil profiles within each site (coefficient of variations of up to 50%). The long-term C accumulation rate at the black spruce site corresponds well to values measured in an adjacent black spruce forest using eddy covariance. The brown moss site had the highest long-term rates of C accumulation among the five ecosystems. Short-term C accumulation rates were always higher than long-term rates (40-100 gC/m2/yr and 3-30 gC/m2/yr, respectively). This information provides insights into the fate of C over different time scales for ecosystems which comprise important parts the boreal forest.

Manies, K.; Harden, J. W.; Turetsky, M.; Fuller, C.

2013-12-01

54

Erosional and climatic effects on long-term chemical weathering rates in granitic landscapes spanning diverse climate regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used cosmogenic nuclide and geochemical mass balance methods to measure long-term rates of chemical weathering and total denudation in granitic landscapes in diverse climatic regimes. Our 42 study sites encompass widely varying climatic and erosional regimes, with mean annual temperatures ranging from 2 to 25 °C, average precipitation ranging from 22 to 420 cm·year?1, and denudation rates ranging from

Clifford S. Riebe; James W. Kirchner; Robert C. Finkel

2004-01-01

55

Fed to Raise Interest Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As expected, the Federal Reserve voted to raise interest rates 0.25 percent, the fifth rate raise since June. The interest rate boost is expected to help keep inflation in check during this record period (108 months) of economic expansion. Technology companies have continued to signal healthy economic growth, and unemployment rates remain low. Despite drastic price hikes in gasoline and heating oil prices, consumers are still spending. This worries economists who watched consumers pay little heed to the last four interest rate increases. The quarter point interest rate increase will average out to an extra $1 a month on consumers's credit cards, which in this period of prosperity, will not curb consumers's spending.

Missner, Emily D.

56

Impact of road traffic injuries on disability rates and long-term care costs in Spain.  

PubMed

Road traffic injuries are one of the leading causes of increasing disability-adjusted life expectancy. We analyze long-term care needs associated with motor vehicle crash-related disability in Spain and conclude that needs attributable traffic injuries are most prevalent during victims' mid-life years, they create a significant burden for both families and society as a whole given that public welfare programmes supporting these victims need to be maintained over a long time frame. High socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents (in Spain 0.04% of the GDP in 2008) are clearly indicative of the need for governments and policymakers to strengthen road accident preventive measures. PMID:24036315

Alemany, Ramon; Ayuso, Mercedes; Guillén, Montserrat

2013-11-01

57

Short and long-term assessment of heart rate variability for risk stratification after acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depressed heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to be a powerful and independent risk factor in patients following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A detailed comparison of the predictive values between short- and long-term HRV has not been made. The predictive value of short-term HRV for 1-year total cardiac mortality was studied in 700 consecutive patients after AMI. All patients

Lü Fei; Xavier Copie; Marek Malik; A. John Camm

1996-01-01

58

Increased Rates of Long-Term Complications after MammoSite Brachytherapy Compared with Whole Breast Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Due to its short duration of therapy and low rates of local recurrence, women undergoing breast conservation are increasingly opting for partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite (Cytyc/Hologic) catheter. In early follow-up studies, few complications were reported. Few data, however, exist regarding longer-term complications. We compared the long-term local toxicities of MammoSite partial breast irradiation with those resulting from whole breast radiation. STUDY DESIGN This was a retrospective study performed in a single academic medical center. All patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery between 2003 and 2008, who met institutional criteria for brachytherapy, were included. We compared women treated with MammoSite with patients treated with whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT). Endpoints included incidence of palpable masses at the lumpectomy site, telangiectasias, and local recurrence. RESULTS Seventy-one MammoSite patients and 245 WBRT patients were well matched with regard to clinical characteristics. Median follow-up was 4 years. A palpable mass developed at the site of lumpectomy in 27% of the MammoSite patients compared with 7% of the WBRT patients (p < 0.0001). Telangiectasias developed more frequently in the MammoSite group than in the WBRT group (24% vs 4%, p < 0.001). Forty-two percent of patients treated with MammoSite developed a palpable mass, telangectasia, or both. CONCLUSIONS Palpable masses and telangiectasias are frequent long-term complications after MammoSite brachytherapy and occur at a significantly higher rate after MammoSite brachytherapy than after WBRT. This increased rate of long-term local toxicity should be considered when counseling women on options for adjuvant radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery.

Rosenkranz, Kari M; Tsui, Edmund; McCabe, Elizabeth B; Gui, Jiang; Underhill, Kelly; Barth, Richard J

2013-01-01

59

The Effect of Dose Rate on Composite Durability When Exposed to a Simulated Long-Term Lunar Radiation Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) requires a safe living and working environment for crew. Composite materials are one type of material being investigated by NASA as a multi-functional structural approach to habitats for long-term use in space or on planetary surfaces with limited magnetic fields and atmosphere. These materials provide high strength with the potential for decreased weight and increased radiation protection of crew and electronics when compared with conventional aluminum structures. However, these materials have not been evaluated in a harsh radiation environment, as would be experienced outside of LEO or on a planetary surface. Thus, NASA has been investigating the durability of select composite materials in a long-term radiation environment. Previously, NASA exposed composite samples to a simulated, accelerated 30-year radiation treatment and tensile stresses similar to those of a habitat pressure vessel. The results showed evidence of potential surface oxidation and enhanced cross-linking of the matrix. As a follow-on study, we performed the same accelerated exposure alongside an exposure with a decreased dose rate. The slower dose ]rate is comparable to a realistic scenario, although still accelerated. Strain measurements were collected during exposure and showed that with a fastdose rate, the strain decreased with time, but with a slow ]dose rate, the strain increased with time. After the radiation exposures, samples were characterized via tensile tests, flexure tests, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results of these tests will be discussed.

Rojdev, Kristina; O'Rourke, Mary Jane; Hill, Charles; Nutt, Steven; Atwell, William

2011-01-01

60

Who Should Buy Long-Term Bonds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to conventional wisdom, long-term bonds are appropriate for conservative long-term investors. This paper develops a model of optimal consumption and portfolio choice for infinite-lived investors with recursive utility who face stochastic interest rates, solves the model using an approximate analytical method, and evaluates conventional wisdom. As risk aversion increases, the myopic component of risky asset demand disappears but the

John Y. Campbell; Luis M. Viceira

2001-01-01

61

The long-term corrosion behavior of titanate ceramics for Pu disposition : rate-controlling processes.  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion behavior of a titanate ceramic was investigated with the aim of describing the rate-controlling process or processes. These titanate ceramics are similar to SYNROC and are proposed as immobilization materials for surplus Pu. The corrosion behavior was described with results from MCC-I and PCT-B static dissolution tests. Three important observations were made: (a) Ca is released at a constant rate [6x10{sup -5}g/(m{sup 2} day)] in PCT-B tests for up to two years, (b) all of the test leachates are oversaturated with respect to rutile and anatase, and (c) the release rates for Pu and Gd increase with time (up to two years) in PCT-B tests. The first observation suggests that the ceramics continue to corrode at a low rate for at least 2 years in PCT-B tests. The second observation shows that the rate of the corrosion reaction is not affected by the concentration of Ti in solution, suggesting that the approach to saturation with respect to either rutile or anatase is not a rate-limiting process. The third observation shows that the rate of Pu and Gd release increases with time in these tests. While this observation cannot be fully explained at this point, two possible explanations, alteration phase formation and grain boundary corrosion, are forwarded.

Bakel, A. J.; Mertz, C. J.; Hash, M. C.; Chamberlain, D. C.

1999-12-02

62

Low slip rates and long-term preservation of geomorphic features in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone, it is important to know the strain distribution in Central Asia, whose determination relies on the slip rates for active faults. Many previous slip-rate estimates of faults in Central Asia were based on the assumption that offset landforms are younger than the Last Glacial Maximum (~20kyr ago). In contrast,

Ralf Hetzel; Samuel Niedermann; Mingxin Tao; Peter W. Kubik; Susan Ivy-Ochs; Bo Gao; Manfred R. Strecker

2002-01-01

63

Long-Term Sediment Generation Rates for the Upper Río Chagres Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be was measured in 17 sediment samples to estimate the rate and distribution of sediment generation in the upper Río Chagres basin over the last 10 to 20 kyr. Results indicate that the upper Río Chagres basin is generating sediment uniformly. Nuclide activities suggest basin-wide sediment generation rates of 143 and 354 tons\\/km\\/yr (avg. = 234 ±

Kyle K. Nichols; Paul R. Bierman; Robert Finkel; Jennifer Larsen

64

Analysis of long term heart rate variability: methods, 1/f scaling and implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of spectral techniques to quantify short term heart rate fluctuations on the order of seconds to minutes has helped define the autonomic contributions to beat-to-beat control of heart rate. We used similar techniques to quantify the entire spectrum (0.00003-1.0 Hz) of heart rate variability during 24 hour ambulatory ECG monitoring. The ECG from standard Holter monitor recordings from normal subjects was sampled with the use of a phase locked loop, and a heart rate time series was constructed at 3 Hz. Frequency analysis of the heart rate signal was performed after a nonlinear filtering algorithm was used to eliminate artifacts. A power spectrum of the entire 24 hour record revealed power that was inversely proportional to frequency, 1/f, over 4 decades from 0.00003 to 0.1 Hz (period approximately 10 hours to 10 seconds). Displaying consecutive spectra calculated at 5 minute intervals revealed marked variability in the peaks at all frequencies throughout the 24 hours, probably accounting for the lack of distinct peaks in the spectra of the entire records.

Saul, J. P.; Albrecht, P.; Berger, R. D.; Cohen, R. J.

1988-01-01

65

Long-term pretreatment with proton pump inhibitor and Helicobacter pylori eradication rates  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether proton pump inhibitor (PPI) pretreatment influences Helicobacter pylori eradication rate. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed H. pylori-infected patients who were treated with a standard triple regimen (PPI, amoxicillin 1 g, and clarithromycin 500 mg, all twice daily for 7 d). The diagnosis of H. pylori infection and its eradication was assessed with the rapid urease test, histological examination by silver staining, or the 13C-urea breath test. We divided the patients into two groups: one received the standard eradication regimen without PPI pretreatment (Group A), and the other received PPI pretreatment (Group B). The patients in Group B were reclassified into three groups based on the duration of PPI pretreatment: Group B-I (3-14 d), Group B-II (15-55 d), and Group B-III (? 56 d). RESULTS: A total of 1090 patients were analyzed and the overall eradication rate was 80.9%. The cure rate in Group B (81.2%, 420/517) was not significantly different from that in Group A (79.2%, 454/573). The eradication rates in Group B-I, B-II and B-III were 80.1% (117/146), 81.8% (224/274) and 81.4% (79/97), respectively. CONCLUSION: PPI pretreatment did not affect H. pylori eradication rate, regardless of the medication period.

Yoon, Seung Bae; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, Jong-Yul; Baeg, Myong Ki; Lim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Jin Soo; Cho, Yu Kyung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

2014-01-01

66

Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil.  

PubMed

A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4-6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions. PMID:24593340

Mazur, J; Kozak, K

2014-02-01

67

Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4-6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions.

Mazur, J.; Kozak, K.

2014-02-01

68

Heart Rate Recovery and Impact of Myocardial Revascularization on Long-Term Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Although heart rate recovery (HRR) predicts mortality after exercise testing, its ability to identify patients likely to benefit after revascularization is unknown. We sought to determine whether HRR can identify patients likely to have improved survival after revascularization. Methods and Results—A total of 8861 patients undergoing treadmill nuclear or echocardiographic testing were divided into early revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or

Michael S. Chen; Eugene H. Blackstone; Claire E. Pothier; Michael S. Lauer

2010-01-01

69

The Greenville Fault: preliminary estimates of its long-term creep rate and seismic potential  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Once assumed locked, we show that the northern third of the Greenville fault (GF) creeps at 2 mm/yr, based on 47 yr of trilateration net data. This northern GF creep rate equals its 11-ka slip rate, suggesting a low strain accumulation rate. In 1980, the GF, easternmost strand of the San Andreas fault system east of San Francisco Bay, produced a Mw5.8 earthquake with a 6-km surface rupture and dextral slip growing to ?2 cm on cracks over a few weeks. Trilateration shows a 10-cm post-1980 transient slip ending in 1984. Analysis of 2000-2012 crustal velocities on continuous global positioning system stations, allows creep rates of ~2 mm/yr on the northern GF, 0-1 mm/yr on the central GF, and ~0 mm/yr on its southern third. Modeled depth ranges of creep along the GF allow 5-25% aseismic release. Greater locking in the southern two thirds of the GF is consistent with paleoseismic evidence there for large late Holocene ruptures. Because the GF lacks large (>1 km) discontinuities likely to arrest higher (~1 m) slip ruptures, we expect full-length (54-km) ruptures to occur that include the northern creeping zone. We estimate sufficient strain accumulation on the entire GF to produce Mw6.9 earthquakes with a mean recurrence of ~575 yr. While the creeping 16-km northern part has the potential to produce a Mw6.2 event in 240 yr, it may rupture in both moderate (1980) and large events. These two-dimensional-model estimates of creep rate along the southern GF need verification with small aperture surveys.

Lienkaemper, James J.;Barry, Robert G.;Smith, Forrest E.;Mello, Joseph D.;McFarland, Forrest S.

2013-01-01

70

Changing Chronic Disease Rates and Long-Term Declines in Functional Limitation among Older Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional limitation (difficulty walking, difficulty bending, paralysis, blindness in at least one eye, or deafness in at least one ear) in the United States fell at an average annual rate of 0.6% among men aged 50 to 74 from the early twentieth century to the early 1990s. Twenty-four percent of this decline is attributable to reductions in the debilitating effects

Dora L. Costa

2002-01-01

71

Long-term evolution of biodegradation and volatilization rates in a crude oil-contaminated aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rates of biodegradation and volatilization were documented twice 12 yr apart at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji. Minnesota. Model results indicated that the coupled pathway has resulted in significant hydrocarbon mass loss at the site, and it was estimated that ??? 10.52 kg/day were lost in 1985 and 1.99 kg/day in 1997. In 1985, 3% of total volatile hydrocarbons diffusing from the floating oil were biodegraded in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone and increased to 52% by 1997. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation above the center of the floating oil were relatively stable from 1985 to 1997, as the primary metabolic pathway shifted from aerobic to methanogenic biodegradation. Model results indicate that in 1997 biodegradation under methanogenic conditions represented ??? 50% of total hydrocarbon biodegradation in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone. Further downgradient, where substrate concentrations have greatly increased, total biodegradation rates increased by greater than an order of magnitude from 0.04 to 0.43 g/sq m-day.

Chaplin, B. P.; Delin, G. N.; Baker, R. J.; Lahvis, M. A.

2002-01-01

72

Fed Leaves Interest Rates Alone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News looks at the recent Federal Reserve Board decision to leave interest rates unchanged. The eight resources discussed provide background information on interest rates and inflation, Federal Reserve news, and current US economic data. With the stock market at record highs and global economic crises fading, the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) showed increased concern about the risk of inflation this month at a May 18, 1999 meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Although committee members ultimately decided not to raise the rate at which banks lend to each other, they cited a "tight" domestic labor market and "ongoing strength in demand in excess of productivity gains" as possible reasons for future rate hikes. Wall Street reacted to the Fed news with a 100 point Dow Jones Industrial Average fall on May 18 but recovered by the end of the day down just 16.52, and many market watchers expressed optimism over the FOMC action. Irwin Kellner, chief economist at CBS.MarketWatch.com, for example, deemed the decision "great" and praised the Fed for a flexible policy that is not locked into a particular course of action should the economy change unexpectedly.

Waters, Megan.

73

Long-Term Chronic Opioid Therapy Discontinuation Rates from the TROUP Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE  To report chronic opioid therapy discontinuation rates after five years and identify factors associated with discontinuation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a METHODS  Medical and pharmacy claims records from January 2000 through December 2005 from a national private health network (HealthCore),\\u000a and Arkansas (AR) Medicaid were used to identify ambulatory adult enrollees who had 90 days of opioids supplied. Recipients\\u000a were followed until they discontinued opioid prescription fills

Bradley C. Martin; Ming-Yu Fan; Mark J. Edlund; Andrea DeVries; Jennifer Brennan Braden; Mark D. Sullivan

74

LONG TERM EFFECTS OF LITHIUM ON GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE IN INDIAN SUBJECTS - A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was evaluated in thirty patients on lithium and in thirty healthy prospective kidney donors by single compartment, multiple sample plasma clearance method using 99mTechnetium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (99mTC-DTPA). Normality test revealed that dose and treatment duration were skewed and the coefficient of skewness were 0.067 (p< 0.0001) and 1.41 (p< 0.0001) respectively. Age was marginally skewed (p =0.04) for the control group. At 5% significance level, dose and creatinine were negatively correlated (r=-0.030), whereas age and duration were positively correlated (r =+ 0.53) (single tailed only). Duration and GFR seems to be negatively correlated (r = -0.23), however this correlation did not reach statistically significance level. In the present cross sectional study no significant difference in mean GFR was observed in lithium treated affective disorder patients when compared with the age matched normal subjects.

Singh, Baljinder; Mittal, Bhagwant R.; Sud, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sharan, Pratap; Jindal, Surinder K.; Deodhar, Shridhar D.

2000-01-01

75

Long Term Corrosion Potential and Corrosion Rate of Creviced Alloy 22 in Chloride Plus Nitrate Brines  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 22 is a nickel base alloy highly resistant to all forms of corrosion. In conditions where tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions and at anodic potentials, Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion, a form of localized attack. The occurrence (or not) of crevice corrosion in a given environment (e.g. salt concentration and temperature), is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) that the alloy may establish in the studied environment. If E{sub corr} is equal or higher than E{sub crit}, crevice corrosion may be expected. In addition, it is generally accepted that as Alloy 22 becomes passive in a certain environment, its E{sub corr} increases and its corrosion rate (CR) decreases. This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} and corrosion rate (CR) of creviced Alloy 22 specimens in six different mixtures of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium nitrate (KNO{sub 3}) at 100 C. The effect of immersion time on the value of E{sub crit} was also determined. Two types of specimens were used, polished as-welded (ASW) and as-welded plus solution heat-treated (ASW+SHT). The latter contained the black annealing oxide film on the surface. Results show that, as the immersion time increases, E{sub corr} increased and the CR decreased. Even for highly concentrated brine solutions at 100 C the CR was < 30 nm/year after more than 250 days immersion. Some of the exposed specimens (mainly the SHT specimens) suffered crevice corrosion at the open circuit potential in the naturally aerated brines. Immersion times of over 250 days did not reduce the resistance of Alloy 22 to localized corrosion.

Evans, K J; Stuart, M L; Etien, R A; Hust, G A; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

2005-11-05

76

Modeling Long-Term Government Bond Yields: An Efficient Market Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Movements in long-term Treasury bond (T-bond) rates directly influence interest rate sensitive sectors such as agriculture. More specifically, T-bond yields underpin private intermediate and long-term lending rates such as long-term agricultural mortgage ...

P. Sundell M. Denbaly

1992-01-01

77

Long-term periodicity in LS I +61°303 as beat frequency between orbital and precessional rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. In the binary system LS I +61°303 the peak flux density of the radio outburst, which is related to the orbital period of 26.4960 ± 0.0028d, exibits a modulation of 1667 ± 8 d. The radio emission at high spatial resolution appears structured in a precessing jet with a precessional period of 27-28 d. Aims: How close is the precessional period of the radio jet to the orbital period? Any periodicity in the radio emission should be revealed by timing analysis. The aim of this work is to establish the accurate value of the precessional period. Methods: We analyzed 6.7 years of the Green Bank Interferometer database at 2.2 GHz and 8.3 GHz with the Lomb-Scargle and phase dispersion minimization methods and performed simulations. Results: The periodograms show two periodicities, P1 = 26.49 ± 0.07d (?1 = 0.03775 d-1) and P2 = 26.92 ± 0.07d (?2 = 0.03715 d-1). Whereas radio outbursts have been known to have nearly orbital occurrence P1 with timing residuals exhibiting a puzzling sawtooth pattern, we probe in this paper that they are actually periodical outbursts and that their period is Paverage = 2/(?1 + ?2) = 26.70 ± 0.05 d. The period Paverage as well as the long-term modulation Pbeat = 1/(?1 - ?2) = 1667 ± 393 d result from the beat of the two close periods, the orbital P1 and the precessional P2 periods. Conclusions: The precessional period, indicated by the astrometry to be of 27-28 d, is P2 = 26.92 d. The system LS I +61°303 seems to be one more case in astronomy of beat, i.e., a phenomenon occurring when two physical processes create stable variations of nearly equal frequencies. The very small difference in frequency creates a long-term variation of period 1/(?1 - ?2). The long-term modulation of 1667 d results from the beat of the two close orbital and precessional rates.

Massi, M.; Jaron, F.

2013-06-01

78

Long-term influence of tillage and fertilization on net carbon dioxide exchange rate on two soils with different textures.  

PubMed

The importance of agricultural practices to greenhouse gas mitigation is examined worldwide. However, there is no consensus on soil organic carbon (SOC) content and CO emissions as affected by soil management practices and their relationships with soil texture. No-till (NT) agriculture often results in soil C gain, though, not always. Soil net CO exchange rate (NCER) and environmental factors (SOC, soil temperature [T], and water content [W]), as affected by soil type (loam and sandy loam), tillage (conventional, reduced, and NT), and fertilization, were quantified in long-term field experiments in Lithuania. Soil tillage and fertilization affected total CO flux (heterotrophic and autotrophic) through effect on soil SOC sequestration, water, and temperature regime. After 11 yr of different tillage and fertilization management, SOC content was 23% more in loam than in sandy loam. Long-term NT contributed to 7 to 27% more SOC sequestration on loam and to 29 to 33% more on sandy loam compared with reduced tillage (RT) or conventional tillage (CT). Soil water content in loam was 7% more than in sandy loam. Soil gravimetric water content, averaged across measurement dates and fertilization treatments, was significantly less in NT than CT and RT in both soils. Soil organic carbon content and water storage capacity of the loam and sandy loam soils exerted different influences on NCER. The NCER from the sandy loam soil was 13% greater than that from the loam. In addition, NCER was 4 to 9% less with NT than with CT and RT systems on both loam and sandy loam soils. Application of mineral NPK fertilizers promoted significantly greater NCER from loam but suppressed NCER by 15% from sandy loam. PMID:22031561

Feiziene, Dalia; Feiza, Virginijus; Slepetiene, Alvyra; Liaudanskiene, Inga; Kadziene, Grazina; Deveikyte, Irena; Vaideliene, Asta

2011-01-01

79

Forced Migration and Mortality in the Very Long Term: Did Perestroika Affect Death Rates Also in Finland?  

PubMed Central

In this article, we analyze mortality rates of Finns born in areas that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II and from which the entire population was evacuated. These internally displaced persons are observed during the period 1971–2004 and compared with people born in the same region but on the adjacent side of the new border. We find that in the 1970s and 1980s, the forced migrants had mortality rates that were on par with those of people in the comparison group. In the late 1980s, the mortality risk of internally displaced men increased by 20% in relation to the expected time trend. This deviation, which manifests particularly in cardiovascular mortality, coincides with perestroika and the demise of the Soviet Union, which were events that resulted in an intense debate in civil society about restitution of the ceded areas. Because state actors were reluctant to engage, the debate declined after some few years, and after the mid-1990s, the death risk again approached the long-term trend. Our findings indicate that when internally displaced persons must adjust to situations for which appropriate coping behaviors are unknown, psychosocial stress might arise several decades after their evacuation.

SAARELA, JAN; FINNAS, FJALAR

2009-01-01

80

27 CFR 70.93 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Interest § 70.93 Interest rate. (a) In general. The interest rate established under 26 U.S.C. 6621(a)(2) shall be: (1) On...

2013-04-01

81

Estimated Soil Respiration Rates Decreased with Long-Term Soil Microclimate Changes in Successional Forests in Southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of soil respiration to short-term environmental factors changes has been well studied, whereas the influences of long-term soil microclimate changes on soil respiration are still highly unclear, especially in tropical ecosystems. We hypothesized that soil carbon accumulation in southern China, especially in mature forest during recent years, partly resulted from reducing soil respiration rates. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the temporal trends and variations of air temperature, soil temperature and soil water content (hereafter referred to as SWC), and then estimated soil respiration rates in the 1980s and 2000s with soil temperature and SWC by regression model in three subtropical forests which are at early-, mid-, and advanced-successional stages, respectively, in Dinghushan Nature Reserve (hereafter referred to as DNR) in southern China. The annual mean ambient air temperature increased by 1.03 ± 0.15°C in the last 50 years (1954-2007) in DNR. Rainfall amount in the corresponding period did not change significantly, but rainfall pattern changed remarkably in the last three decades (1978-2007). Soil temperature is correlated with ambient air temperature. The average SWC was 36.8 ± 8.4%, 34.7 ± 8.1% and 29.6 ± 8.1% in the 1980s, and then dropped sharply to 23.6 ± 2.9%, 20.5 ± 4.2% and 17.6 ± 3.9% in the 2000s, for the advanced, mid- and early-successional forests, respectively. Concurrent changes of soil temperature and SWC may have a negative effect on soil respiration rates for all three forests, implicated that soil respiration may have a negative feedback to regional climate change and carbon could be sequestered in subtropical forests in southern China.

Huang, Yuhui; Zhou, Guoyi; Tang, Xuli; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhang, Qianmei

2011-12-01

82

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved dense nonaqueous-phase liquid plumes are persistent, widespread problems in the DOE complex. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) is disappearing from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) by natural attenuation, a finding that saves significant site restoration costs. Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation as a preferred treatment technology requires direct evidence of the processes and rates of the degradation. Our proposal aims to provide that evidence for one such site by testing two hypotheses. First, we believe that realistic values for in situ rates of TCE cometabolism can be obtained by sustaining the putative microorganisms at the low catabolic activities consistent with aquifer conditions. Second, the patterns of functional gene expression evident in these communities under starvation conditions while carrying out TCE cometabolism can be used to diagnose the cometabolic activity in the aquifer itself. Using the cometabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained at this location and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Realistic terms for cometabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE's ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics at other sites, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. Finally, this project aims to derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

2005-06-01

83

Evaluation of Neural Response Telemetry (NRT™) with focus on long-term rate adaptation over a wide range of stimulation rates.  

PubMed

Custom Sound EP™ (CSEP) is an advanced flexible software tool dedicated to recording of electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) in Nucleus® recipients using Neural Response Telemetry™ (NRT™). European multi-centre studies of the Freedom™ cochlear implant system confirmed that CSEP offers tools to effectively record ECAP thresholds, amplitude growth functions, recovery functions, spread of excitation functions, and rate adaptation functions and an automated algorithm (AutoNRT™) to measure threshold profiles. This paper reports on rate adaptation measurements. Rate adaptation of ECAP amplitudes can successfully be measured up to rates of 495 pulses per second (pps) by repeating conventional ECAP measurements and over a wide range of rates up to 8000 pps using the masked response extraction technique. Rate adaptation did not show a predictable relationship with speech perception and coding strategy channel rate preference. The masked response extraction method offers opportunities to study long-term rate adaptation with well-defined and controlled stimulation paradigms. PMID:24559068

Huarte, Alicia; Ramos, Angel; Morera, Constantino; Garcia-Ibáñez, Luis; Battmer, Rolf; Dillier, Norbert; Wesarg, Thomas; Müller-Deile, Joachim; Hey, Mattias; Offeciers, Erwin; von Wallenberg, Ernst; Coudert, Chrystelle; Killian, Matthijs

2014-05-01

84

The Interest Rate Is Rising  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the developmental stages of students' reading interests and maintains that the teacher has to discuss the student's life and values "through the intermediary of literature" in order to encourage him to continue to read; paper presented at annual convention of National Council of Teachers of English (59th, Washington, D.C., November 28,…

Carlsen, G. Robert

1970-01-01

85

Venous thromboembolism: annualised United States models for total, hospital-acquired and preventable costs utilising long-term attack rates.  

PubMed

Healthcare reform is upon the United States (US) healthcare system. Prioritisation of preventative efforts will guide necessary transitions within the US healthcare system. While annual deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) costs have recently been defined at the US national level, annual pulmonary embolism (PE) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) costs have not yet been defined. A decision tree and cost model were developed to estimate US health care costs for total PE, total hospital-acquired PE, and total hospital-acquired "preventable" PE. The previously published DVT cost model was modified, updated and combined with the PE cost model to elucidate the same three categories of costs for VTE. Direct and indirect costs were also delineated. For VTE in the base model, annual cost ranges in 2011 US dollars for total, hospital- acquired, and hospital-acquired "preventable" costs and were $13.5-$27.2, $9.0-$18.2, and $4.5-$14.2 billion, respectively. The first sensitivity analysis, with higher incidence rates and costs, demonstrated annual US total, hospital-acquired, and hospital-acquired "preventable" VTE costs ranging from $32.1-$69.3, $23.7-$51.5, and $11.9-$39.3 billion, respectively. The second sensitivity analysis with long-term attack rates (LTAR) for recurrent events and post-thrombotic syndrome and chronic pulmonary thromboembolic hypertension demonstrated annual US total, hospital-acquired, and hospital-acquired "preventable" VTE costs ranging from $15.4-$34.4, $10.3-$25.4, and $5.1-$19.1 billion, respectively. PE costs comprised a majority of the VTE costs. Prioritisation of effective VTE preventative strategies will reduce significant costs, morbidity and mortality within the US healthcare system. The cost models may be utilised to estimate other countries' costs or VTE-specific disease states. PMID:22739656

Mahan, Charles E; Borrego, Matthew E; Woersching, Alex L; Federici, Robert; Downey, Ross; Tiongson, Jay; Bieniarz, Mark C; Cavanaugh, Brendan J; Spyropoulos, Alex C

2012-08-01

86

Are Changes in the Mean or Variability of Climate Signals More Important for Long-Term Stochastic Growth Rate?  

PubMed Central

Population dynamics are affected by changes in both the mean and standard deviation of climate, e.g., changes in average temperature are likely to affect populations, but so are changes in the strength of year-to-year temperature variability. The impacts of increases in average temperature are extensively researched, while the impacts of changes in climate variability are less studied. Is the greater attention given to changes in mean environment justified? To help answer this question we developed a simple population model, explicitly linked to an environmental process. We used the model to compare the sensitivities of a population's long-term stochastic growth rate, a measure of fitness, to changes in the mean and standard deviation of the environment. Results are interpreted in light of a comparative analysis of the relative magnitudes of change in means and standard deviations of biologically relevant climate variables in the United States. Results show that changes in the variability of the environment can be more important for many populations. Changes in mean conditions are likely to have a greater impact than changes in variability on populations far from their ideal environment, for example, populations near species range boundaries and potentially of conservation concern. Populations near range centres and close to their ideal environment are more likely to be affected by changes in variability. Among pest and insect disease vectors, as well as species of commercial value, populations likely to be of greatest economic and public health significance are those near species range centers, living in a near-ideal environment for the species. Observed changes in the variability of climate variables may benefit these populations.

Garcia-Carreras, Bernardo; Reuman, Daniel C.

2013-01-01

87

Short and long term analysis of heart rate variations in spontaneously hypertensive rats: effects of DSP-4 administration.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not central noradrenergic neurons were involved in the time structure of circadian variation of heart rate (HR) in hypertension. We used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR(Izm)) and normotensive controls (Wistar Kyoto rats, WKY(Izm)). We selectively destroyed the noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) by administering noradrenergic neurotoxin, N-(2-chloroethy)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4). Frequency domain measures of variation of HR (VHR) were obtained using the maximum entropy method. The 24-h time frame in VHR is usually dominant in both SHR(Izm) and WKY(Izm). Fourteen days after the administering of DSP4, the mean 24-h systolic arterial pressure (SAP) remained higher in SHR(Izm) than in WKY(Izm). After chemical lesion, ultradian rhythms (12-, 8-, 6-, and 4-h periods) in VHR became more remarkable in both SHR(Izm) and WKY(Izm) than before chemical lesion. Before chemical lesion, an inverse relationship existed between frequency and power spectral density in VHR, demonstrating 1/f(beta) characteristics. The slope of 1/f(beta) in VHR did not differ between SHR(Izm) and WKY(Izm). After the chemical lesion it did not also differ from that of each strain in control period (before lesion). Therefore, the noradrenergic neurons may not affect the time structure of HR in SHR(Izm) and WKY(Izm) for short-term time analysis. However, the intact noradrenergic neurons in CNS may be important to keep normal cardiac autonomic function in SHR(Izm) for long-term analysis. PMID:16275495

Kawamura, H; Mitsubayashi, H; Miao, T; Shimizu, T

2005-10-01

88

Long-term operation of high rate algal ponds for the bioremediation of piggery wastewaters at high loading rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of two 464-L high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) treating 20- and 10-folds diluted swine manure at 10days of hydraulic residence time was evaluated under continental climatic conditions in Castilla y Leon (Spain) from January to October. Under optimum environmental conditions (from July to September), both HRAPs supported a stable and efficient carbon and nitrogen oxidation performance, with average

Ignacio de Godos; Saúl Blanco; Pedro A. García-Encina; Eloy Becares; Raúl Muñoz

2009-01-01

89

Breast Cancer Liver Metastases: US-guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation--Intermediate and Long-term Survival Rates  

PubMed Central

Purpose To retrospectively assess the local control and intermediate- and long-term survival of patients with liver metastases from breast cancer who have undergone percutaneous ultrasonography (US)-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the hospital ethics committee, and all patients provided written informed consent. RF ablation was used to treat 87 breast cancer liver metastases (mean diameter, 2.5 cm) in 52 female patients (median age, 55 years). Inclusion criteria were as follows: fewer than five tumors, maximum tumor diameter of 5 cm or smaller, and disease either confined to the liver or stable with medical therapy. Forty-five (90%) of 50 patients had previously undergone chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or both, and had no response or an incomplete response to the treatment. Contrast material–enhanced computed tomography and US were performed to evaluate complications and technical success and to assess for local tumor progression during follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess survival, and results were compared between groups with a log-rank test. Cox regression analysis was used to assess independent prognostic factors that affected survival. Results Complete tumor necrosis was achieved in 97% of tumors. Two (4%) minor complications occurred. Median time to follow-up from diagnosis of liver metastasis and from RF ablation was 37.2 and 19.1 months, respectively. Local tumor progression occurred in 25% of patients. New intrahepatic metastases developed in 53% of patients. From the time of first RF ablation, overall median survival time and 5-year survival rate were 29.9 months and 27%, respectively. From the time the first liver metastasis was diagnosed, overall median survival time was 42 months, and the 5-year survival rate was 32%. Patients with tumors 2.5 cm in diameter or larger had a worse prognosis (hazard ratio, 2.1) than did patients with tumors smaller than 2.5 cm in diameter. Conclusion Survival rates in selected patients with breast cancer liver metastases treated with RF ablation are comparable to those reported in the literature that were achieved with surgery or laser ablation.

Meloni, Maria Franca; Andreano, Anita; Laeseke, Paul F.; Livraghi, Tito; Sironi, Sandro; Lee, Fred T.

2014-01-01

90

Economic comparison of long-term nuclear fuel cycle management scenarios: The influence of the discount rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents some main economic results obtained by the CEA in the DERECO project, which aimed to evaluate the global cost of contrasted and long-term nuclear fuel cycle scenarios. The scenarios have been studied for the period 2000–2150 in the French context. They all assume a sustainable nuclear development. These scenarios must not be considered as forecasts and do

Aude Le Dars; Christine Loaec

2007-01-01

91

Effect of Dose Rate on Composite Durability When Exposed to a Simulated Long-Term Lunar Radiation Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) requires a safe living and working environment for crew. Composite materials are one type of material being investigated by NASA as a multi-functional structural approach to habitats for long-term us...

C. Hill K. Rojdev M. J. O'Rourke S. Nutt W. Atwell

2011-01-01

92

Pricing Interest-Rate-Derivative Securities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows that the one-state-variable interest-rate models of Vasicek (1977) and Cox, Ingersoll, and Ross (1985b) can be extended so that they are consistent with both the current term structure of interest rates and either the current volatilities of all spot interest rates or the current volatilities of all forward interest rates. The extended Vasicek model is shown to

John Hull; Alan White

1990-01-01

93

Long-Term Slip Rate on the Southern San Andreas Fault Determined by Th-230/U Dating of Pedogenic Carbonate.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determinations of long-term slip rates are limited, in part, by our ability to accurately estimate the age of offset landforms. U-series dating on pedogenic carbonate provides a relatively novel way of dating landforms, with strengths that complement more widely applied cosmogenic (CRN) techniques. We present new Th-230/U dates for pedogenic carbonate coatings on pebbles of the Biskra Palms fan, near Indio, California, which is offset by the southern San Andreas fault. Small, carefully chosen samples of dense pedogenic carbonate analyzed by mass spectrometry, have 3-10 ppm uranium and low common thorium (Th-232), making them highly favorable for U-series dating. Only minor corrections for initial Th-230 are necessary, and are made using Th-232 as an index isotope with propagation of uncertainties. Samples of early-formed carbonate collected from depths of about 2 m in fan soils typically consist of dense coatings 200-500 microns thick. Such coatings from 6 pebbles from 3 different locations within the fan yield apparent ages between 30 ± 2 ka and 46 ± 2 ka (all errors 2 sigma), with a median age of 38.4 ka (n= 11). Each age averages over the sampled interval of coating growth, hence the spread of ages reflects clast-to-clast variation in coating accumulation rates. All ages are therefore minimum ages for the stabilization of the fan because the time lag between stabilization and carbonate pedogenesis at Biskra Palms is, as yet, unknown. Sub-samples of individual clast-coatings yield ages in good agreement-- e.g., 45.0 ± 0.8 ka, 46.0 ± 1.8 ka, 44.8 ± 1.0 ka, 45.7 ± 0.9 ka (MSWD = 0.88), demonstrating closed U-Th systems. Van der Woerd et al (2006) reported an average CRN age of 35.5 ± 2.5 ka for the fan surface and an offset of 565 ± 80 m, for a slip rate of 15.9 ± 3.4 mm/a. Using their offset, and our oldest mean age of 45.3 ± 0.5 Ma (n=4, ages above) as the minimum landform age, we estimate a maximum slip rate of 12.5 ± 1.8 mm/a. This maximum average slip rate for the past 45 ka is distinct from both modern rates for the southern San Andreas determined by geodesy (e.g. 23 ± 2 mm/a; Bennett et al., 2006), and the rate at Cajon Pass (24.5 ± 3.5 mm/a) determined for the past 15 ka (Weldon and Sieh, 1985). As noted by van der Woerd et al, such discrepancies suggest that: 1) large changes in slip-rate occurred prior to 15 ka, 2) the Biskra Palms site fails to record all of the slip on the southern San Andreas, or 3) that southward of Cajon Pass significant slip is transferred to other faults. More U-series dating is needed to understand the patterns of pedogenic carbonate accumulation on the scale of the fan, in selected soil profiles, and within individual coatings. In particular, sampling of the coatings at higher spatial resolution will better determine the age of onset of carbonate accumulation, thereby providing a closer estimate of the time of fan stabilization and abandonment.

Fletcher, K. E.; Johnson, G.; Kendrick, K. J.; Hudnut, K. W.; Sharp, W. D.

2006-12-01

94

Long Term Care Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long-term care needs and facilities in Saginaw, Mich., and alternatives to institutionalization were investigated. The instrument for the study was designed by the East Central Michigan Health Systems Agency. Long-term care facilities in Saginaw were surv...

1978-01-01

95

Changes in long-term no-till corn growth and yield under different rates of stover mulch  

SciTech Connect

Received for publication January 4, 2006. Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. We assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam (fine loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston in Ohio, and predicted corn yield from soil properties using principal component analysis (PCA). The study was conducted in 2005 on the ongoing experiments started in May 2004 under 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200)% of stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal promoted early emergence and rapid seedling growth (P < 0.01). Early-emerging plants grew taller than late-emerging plants up to about 50 d, and then the heights reversed at Coshocton and were comparable at other two sites. Stover management affected corn yield only at the Coshocton site where average grain and stover yields in the T200, T100, T75, and T50 (10.8 and 10.3 Mg ha-1) were higher than those in the T0 and T25 treatments (8.5 and 6.5 Mg ha-1) (P < 0.01), showing that stover removal at rates as low as 50% (2.5 Mg ha-1) decreased crop yields. Soil properties explained 71% of the variability in grain yield and 33% of the variability in stover yield for the Coshocton site. Seventeen months after the start of the experiment, effects of stover management on corn yield and soil properties were site-specific.

Blanco-Canqui, Dr. Humberto [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Lal, Dr. Rattan [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Owens, Lloyd [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

2006-09-01

96

Consumer Durables and the Real Interest Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important channel through which real interest rates affect aggregate demand is consumer expenditure on durable goods. This paper examines empirically the link between interest rates and consumer durables. Solving for the decision rule relating income and interest rates to consumer demand is an intractable task. This paper avoids this problem by examining the first-order conditions necessary for maximization by

N. Gregory Mankiw

1985-01-01

97

Long-term effectiveness of high-dosed ornithine-aspartate on urea synthesis rate and portal hypertension in human liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of ammonia reducing amino acids on hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy is well known in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. Data concerning long-term therapy on hepatic function and urea synthesis rate (UNSR) are still lacking. According to Vilstrup\\/Poulsen it is a good standard for functioning liver mass. Therefore, 25 patients with histologically proven liver cirrhosis and distinct portal hypertension

D. Miiting; J.-F. Kalk; C.-P. Klein

1992-01-01

98

A new method for estimating bedrock surface exposure ages and long-term erosion rates using a single in situ-produced cosmogenic radionuclide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous ambiguities, limitations and uncertainties in geomorphic research have resulted from a historical inability to reliably and quantitatively estimate (1) the age of exposure of a geomorphic surface, and (2) spatial variability of long-term erosion rates. Radioactive and stable nuclides produced in situ by cosmic ray bombardment of rock materials exposed at the earth's surface may enable one to estimate

N. A. Lifton; A. J. T. Jull

1993-01-01

99

Women have increased risk of perioperative myocardial infarction and higher long-term mortality rates after lower extremity arterial bypass grafting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of gender on the immediate and long-term postoperative morbidity, mortality, and patency rates for infrainguinal autogenous vein bypass grafts. Methods: Data were abstracted for consecutive patients who were followed in a prospective surveillance protocol after undergoing infrainguinal autogenous vein bypass grafting during the years 1988 to 1994. There were

Bradley W. Mays; Jonathan B. Towne; Colleen M. Fitzpatrick; Steven C. Smart; Robert A. Cambria; Gary R. Seabrook; Julie A. Freischlag

1999-01-01

100

Signature of long-term class evolution in GRS 1915+105 at a high accretion rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find long-term evolution of the omega class from the study of X-ray timing and spectral analysis of the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 during two outburst activities, observed by the proportional counter array (PCA) and the High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment on-board Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. The class is characterized by unusual periodic-like variation in intensity. With the passage of

Mayukh Pahari; Sabyasachi Pal

2010-01-01

101

Long-term outcome of Graves' disease patients treated in a region with iodine deficiency: relapse rate increases in years with thionamides.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disease affecting the thyroid gland and eyes and is treated with three therapeutic modalities. This prospective study was designed to find out the outcome of patients with GD treated with thionamides, radioactive iodine (RAI) or surgery in an iodine deficient region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six nonsmoking patients (mean age 38.9 +/- 13.7 years) with GD were enrolled and followed for a mean period of four years. They were analyzed with respect to their treatment options and their outcome. Results: Remission rate by thionamides was 74.4% in the first year but decreased to 65.1% in the following four years (p=0.0001). Remission rate achieved in the second year did not predict long-term remission with thionamides. Long-term remission rates for RAI and surgery were 100% during about seven years of follow-up. These remission rates for RAI and surgery were reached in the first year and did not reveal a statistically significant change in the following years. Thyroidectomy, both subtotal and total, was carried out without any complication. Graves' ophthalmopathy emergence and progression were not found to be correlated with the preferred therapeutic modality of thyrotoxicosis. Conclusion: Long-term thionamide therapy offered a relatively low rate of long-term remission in a region with iodine deficiency. Two years of remission achieved by thionamides did not predict long-term remission in patients living in iodine-deficient areas. RAI and thyroidectomy in experienced hands proved to be better therapeutic alternatives that can be carried out safely.

Tutuncu, Neslihan Bascil; Tutuncu, Tanju; Ozgen, Ali; Erbas, Tomris

2006-01-01

102

Trophic position and metabolic rate predict the long-term decay process of radioactive cesium in fish: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (¹³?Cs) can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term ¹³?Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate) and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type) influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1) trophic position could predict the day of maximum ¹³?Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2) the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of ¹³?Cs activity concentration in fish. PMID:22279534

Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Tanaka, Kazuya

2012-01-01

103

Rates, causes, and dynamic of long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic "passive continental margin", Brazil and Namibia, as revealed by thermo-kinematic numerical modeling.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the research is to quantify the long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in SE-Brazil and NW-Namibia. Excellent onshore outcrop conditions and complete rift to post-rift archives between Sao Paulo and Porto Alegre and in the transition from Namibia to Angola (onshore Walvis ridge) allow a high precision quantification of exhumation, and uplift rates, influencing physical parameters, long-term acting forces, and process-response systems. Research will integrate the published and partly published thermochronological data from Brazil and Namibia, and test lately published new concepts on causes of long-term landscape evolution at rifted margins. The climate-continental margin-mantle coupled process-response system is caused by the interaction between endogenous and exogenous forces, which are related to the mantle-process driven rift - drift - passive continental margin evolution of the South Atlantic, and the climate change since the Early/Late Cretaceous climate maximum. Special emphasis will be given to the influence of long-living transform faults such as the Florianopolis Fracture Zone (FFZ) on the long-term topography evolution of the SAPCM's. A long-term landscape evolution model with process rates will be achieved by thermo-kinematic 3-D modeling (software code PECUBE and FastCape). Testing model solutions obtained for a multidimensional parameter space against the real thermochronological and geomorphological data set, the most likely combinations of parameter rates, and values can be constrained. The data and models will allow separating the exogenous and endogenous forces and their process rates.

Christian, Stippich; Anton, Glasmacher Ulrich; Peter, Christian, Hackspacher

2014-05-01

104

Long-term rates of denudation in the Dry Valleys, Transantarctic Mountains, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica based on in-situ-produced cosmogenic 21 Ne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of cosmogenic 21Ne(21Nec) measured in quartz have been used to estimate long-term rates of denudation for contrasting landscape components in the Dry Valleys area of the Transantarctic Mountains, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Samples of Beacon Supergroup sandstones and granitic basement were collected from two contrasting landscape elements—low-relief, high-elevation surfaces and rectilinear slopes—to assess variations in rates of denudation with

M. A. Summerfield; F. M. Stuart; H. A. P. Cockburn; D. E. Sugden; G. H. Denton; T. Dunai; D. R. Marchant

1999-01-01

105

Gray matter volume is associated with rate of subsequent skill learning after a long term training intervention.  

PubMed

The ability to predict learning performance from brain imaging data has implications for selecting individuals for training or rehabilitation interventions. Here, we used structural MRI to test whether baseline variations in gray matter (GM) volume correlated with subsequent performance after a long-term training of a complex whole-body task. 44 naïve participants were scanned before undertaking daily juggling practice for 6weeks, following either a high intensity or a low intensity training regime. To assess performance across the training period participants' practice sessions were filmed. Greater GM volume in medial occipito-parietal areas at baseline correlated with steeper learning slopes. We also tested whether practice time or performance outcomes modulated the degree of structural brain change detected between the baseline scan and additional scans performed immediately after training and following a further 4weeks without training. Participants with better performance had higher increases in GM volume during the period following training (i.e., between scans 2 and 3) in dorsal parietal cortex and M1. When contrasting brain changes between the practice intensity groups, we did not find any straightforward effects of practice time though practice modulated the relationship between performance and GM volume change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that practice time and performance modulate the degree of structural brain change evoked by long-term training regimes. PMID:24680712

Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Scholz, Jan; Jenkinson, Mark; Thomas, Adam G; Filippini, Nicola; Smit, Gabrielle; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

2014-08-01

106

Gray matter volume is associated with rate of subsequent skill learning after a long term training intervention  

PubMed Central

The ability to predict learning performance from brain imaging data has implications for selecting individuals for training or rehabilitation interventions. Here, we used structural MRI to test whether baseline variations in gray matter (GM) volume correlated with subsequent performance after a long-term training of a complex whole-body task. 44 naïve participants were scanned before undertaking daily juggling practice for 6 weeks, following either a high intensity or a low intensity training regime. To assess performance across the training period participants' practice sessions were filmed. Greater GM volume in medial occipito-parietal areas at baseline correlated with steeper learning slopes. We also tested whether practice time or performance outcomes modulated the degree of structural brain change detected between the baseline scan and additional scans performed immediately after training and following a further 4 weeks without training. Participants with better performance had higher increases in GM volume during the period following training (i.e., between scans 2 and 3) in dorsal parietal cortex and M1. When contrasting brain changes between the practice intensity groups, we did not find any straightforward effects of practice time though practice modulated the relationship between performance and GM volume change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that practice time and performance modulate the degree of structural brain change evoked by long-term training regimes.

Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Scholz, Jan; Jenkinson, Mark; Thomas, Adam G.; Filippini, Nicola; Smit, Gabrielle; Douaud, Gwenaelle; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

2014-01-01

107

Interest Rates, FICO Scores and Loan Payments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson helps students understand financial topics (interest rates, FICO scores and loan payments) in a mathematical context. Students will calculate monthly payments for a car or home based on the best interest rates available to them. Student materials, including a worksheet, are available on the site.

2011-01-04

108

Short and long term mortality rates associated with first pregnancy outcome: Population register based study for Denmark 1980-2004  

PubMed Central

Summary Background There is a growing interest in examining death rates associated with different pregnancy outcomes for time periods beyond one year. Previous population studies, however, have failed to control for complete reproductive histories. In this study we seek to eliminate the potential confounding effect of unknown prior pregnancy history by examining mortality rates associated specifically with first pregnancy outcome alone. We also examine differences in mortality rates associated with early abortion and late abortions (after 12 weeks). Material/Method Medical records for the entire population of women born in Denmark between 1962 and 1991 and were alive in 1980, were linked to death certificates. Mortality rates associated with first pregnancy outcomes (delivery, miscarriage, abortion, and late abortion) were calculated. Odds ratios examining death rates based on reproductive outcomes, adjusted for age at first pregnancy and year of women’s births, were also calculated. Results A total of 463,473 women had their first pregnancy between 1980 and 2004, of whom 2,238 died. In nearly all time periods examined, mortality rates associated with miscarriage or abortion of a first pregnancy were higher than those associated with birth. Compared to women who delivered, the age and birth year adjusted cumulative risk of death for women who had a first trimester abortion was significantly higher in all periods examined, from 180 days (OR=1.84; 1.11 <95% CI <3.71) through 10 years (1.39; 1.22 <95% CI <1.61), as was the risk for women who had abortions after 12 weeks from one year (OR=4.31; 2.18 <95% CI <8.54) through 10 years (OR=2.41; 1.56 <95% CI <2.41). For women who miscarried, the risk was significantly higher for cumulative deaths through 4 years (OR=1.75; 1.34 <95% CI <2.27) and at 10 years (OR=1.48; 1.18 <95% CI <1.85). Conclusions Compared to women who delivered, women who had an early or late abortion had significantly higher mortality rates within 1 through 10 years. A lesser effect may also be present relative to miscarriage. Recommendations for additional research are offered.

Reardon, David C.; Coleman, Priscilla K.

2012-01-01

109

Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of animal auditory cortex impairs short-term but not long-term memory formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of gerbil auditory cortex with a miniature coil device was used to study short-term and long-term effects on discrimination learning of frequency-modulated tones. We found previously that directional discrimination of frequency modulation (rising vs. falling) relies on auditory cortex processing and that formation of its memory depends on local protein synthesis. Here we show

Hong Wang; Xu Wang; Wolfram Wetzel; Henning Scheich

2006-01-01

110

The association between men’s ratings of women as desirable long-term mates and individual differences in women’s sexual attitudes and behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined whether individual differences in women’s sexual attitudes and behaviors are associated with men’s ratings of them as desirable long-term mates when men were exposed to only pictures of women’s faces. Links between sexual attitudes and behaviors with the presence of more masculine facial features were also assessed. Women completed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI; Simpson & Gangestad,

Lorne Campbell; Lee Cronk; Jeffry A. Simpson; Alison Milroy; Carol L. Wilson; Bria Dunham

2009-01-01

111

MOLECULAR DEMOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE ANNUAL SUNFLOWERS HELIANTHUS ANNUUS AND H. PETIOLARIS--LARGE EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZES AND RATES OF LONG-TERM GENE FLOW  

PubMed Central

Hybridization between distinct species may lead to introgression of genes across species boundaries, and this pattern can potentially persist for extended periods as long as selection at some loci or genomic regions prevents thorough mixing of gene pools. However, very few reliable estimates of long-term levels of effective migration are available between hybridizing species throughout their history. Accurate estimates of divergence dates and levels of gene flow require data from multiple unlinked loci as well as an analytical framework that can distinguish between lineage sorting and gene flow and incorporate the effects of demographic changes within each species. Here we use sequence data from 18 anonymous nuclear loci in two broadly sympatric sunflower species, Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris, analyzed within an “isolation with migration” framework to make genome-wide estimates of the ages of these two species, long-term rates of gene flow between them, and effective population sizes and historical patterns of population growth. Our results indicate that H. annuus and H. petiolaris are approximately one million years old and have exchanged genes at a surprisingly high rate (long-term Nef m estimates of approximately 0.5 in each direction), with somewhat higher rates of introgression from H. annuus into H. petiolaris than vice versa. In addition, each species has undergone dramatic population expansion since divergence, and both species have among the highest levels of genetic diversity reported for flowering plants. Our results provide the most comprehensive estimate to date of long-term patterns of gene flow and historical demography in a nonmodel plant system, and they indicate that species integrity can be maintained even in the face of extensive gene flow over a prolonged period.

Strasburg, Jared L.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

2008-01-01

112

7 CFR 4280.125 - Interest rates.  

...SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.125 Interest rates....

2014-01-01

113

Money, Interest Rate and Stock Prices: New Evidence from Singapore and The United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the long-term as well as short-term equilibrium relationships between the major stock indices and selected macroeconomic variables (such as money supply and interest rate) of Singapore and the United States by employing the advanced time series analysis techniques that include cointegration, Johansen multivariate cointegrated system, fractional cointegration and Granger causality. The cointegration results based on data covering

Wong Keung-Wing; Habibullah Khan; Jun Du

2006-01-01

114

US Interests Rates Take a Hike  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As speculated, on Tuesday, May 16, 2000, the Federal Reserve Board decided to raise US interest rates another 0.5 percent, to 6.5 percent. This interest rate hike follows five previous increases of a quarter-point each since June 1999. This is the first time in sixteen years that US interest rates have risen above 5 percent. The new rate will affect the borrowing costs for many Americans, including those with unpaid credit card balances and home equity loans, and also for small business that have taken out bank loans. Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan has long worried that the low unemployment rate coupled with booming economic growth will cause inflation to rise, which is why he has continued to advocate for these interest rate increases. Following Tuesday's announcement by the Fed, Wall Street remained stable; the Dow Jones ended the day up 127 points at 10,935. While President Clinton stands behind the Fed's decision to raise the rates, others, including NAM President Jerry Jasinowski, John Sweeney the president of AFL-CIO, and Democratic Senator Tom Harken of Iowa, have all spoken against the latest interest rate hike.

Missner, Emily D.

115

Long Term Ecological Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze data on temperature and precipitation collected from 26 different Long Term Ecological Research sites and compare them with annual net primary productivity. The students then form an ecological rule to explain their results.

Cooper, Scott

116

Sociosexual orientation and 2D:4D ratios in women: Relationship to men's desirability ratings as a long-term pair bond.  

PubMed

The current study examined whether men's ratings of women's desirability as a long-term pairbond, based on static photographs, were related to the women's second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio and their sexual attitudes and behavior. The 2D:4D ratio was measured in 164 women and facial photographs were taken of 55 of these women. All women completed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI). Male participants (n = 89), masked to this information, rated the 55 female participants on their desirability as a long-term sexual partner, specifically along dimensions of faithfulness, youthfulness, and attractiveness. Ten independent judges rated women's photographed faces on masculinity. Results indicated a significant negative relationship between women's SOI scores and men's faithfulness ratings (more unrestricted sociosexuality was associated with lower faithfulness ratings). There was also a significant positive relationship between right (but not left) 2D:4D ratio and faithfulness ratings (women with female-like ratios were rated as being more faithful). The SOI scores of the women were not related to 2D:4D ratios. These results suggest that the potential for sexual infidelity can be gleaned from static facial cues. PMID:24356948

DeLecce, Tara L; Polheber, John P; Matchock, Robert L

2014-02-01

117

Long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault from 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating of an offset alluvial fan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault in the southeastern Indio Hills using 10Be and 26Al isotopes to date an offset alluvial fan surface. Field mapping complemented with topographic data, air photos and satellite images allows precise determination of piercing points across the fault zone that are used to measure an offset of 565 ± 80 m. A total of 26 quartz-rich cobbles from three different fan surfaces were collected and dated. The tight cluster of nuclide concentrations from 19 samples out of 20 from the offset fan surface implies a simple exposure history, negligible prior exposure and erosion, and yields an age of 35.5 ± 2.5 ka. The long-term slip rate of the San Andreas Fault south of Biskra Palms is thus 15.9 ± 3.4 mm/yr. This rate is about 10 mm/yr slower than geological (0-14 ka) and short-term geodetic estimates for this part of the San Andreas Fault, implying changes in slip rate or in faulting behavior. This result puts new constraints on the slip rate of the San Jacinto and on the Eastern California Shear Zone for the last 35 kyr. Our study shows that more sites along the major faults of southern California need to be targeted to better constrain the slip rates over different timescales.

van der Woerd, JéRôMe; Klinger, Yann; Sieh, Kerry; Tapponnier, Paul; Ryerson, Frederick J.; MéRiaux, Anne-Sophie

2006-04-01

118

Long-term testing  

SciTech Connect

Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000--10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

Ferber, M.; Graves, G.A. Jr.

1994-12-31

119

Long-term n-3 fatty acid deficiency induces no substantial change in the rate of protein synthesis in rat brain and liver.  

PubMed

The influence of long-term n-3 fatty acid deficiency on the rate of protein synthesis in rat brain and liver was investigated in relation to learning behavior or a presumed survival time-shortening factor (SSF) in rapeseed oil, using a large-dose [3H]phenylalanine (Phe) injection method. When Wistar rats were made n-3 fatty acid-deficient by feeding a safflower oil (alpha-linolenate-deficient) diet for 2 generations, conditions under which the safflower oil group had been shown to exhibit altered learning behaviors, compared with the perilla oil group, no significant changes in the rate of protein synthesis were observed compared with the perilla oil (alpha-linolenate-sufficient) or rapeseed oil (alpha-linolenate-sufficient but SSF-containing) groups. However, the rapeseed oil group had a reduced specific radioactivity of free Phe in the cerebral cortex, compared with the safflower oil group. In contrast to the reported observation of very long-term n-3 fatty acid deficiency inducing an almost 2-fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis in the brain, our results indicate that altered learning behavior resulting from n-3 fatty acid deficiency in rats is not associated with any substantial changes in the rate of protein synthesis in the brain. PMID:10480312

Sato, A; Osakabe, T; Ikemoto, A; Watanabe, S; Kobayashi, T; Okuyama, H

1999-08-01

120

Long-term monitoring of creep rate along the Hayward fault and evidence for a lasting creep response to 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present results from over 30 yr of precise surveys of creep along the Hayward fault. Along most of the fault, spatial variability in long-term creep rates is well determined by these data and can help constrain 3D-models of the depth of the creeping zone. However, creep at the south end of the fault stopped completely for more than 6 years after the M7 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPEQ), perhaps delayed by stress drop imposed by this event. With a decade of detailed data before LPEQ and a decade after it, we report that creep response to that event does indeed indicate the expected deficit in creep.

Lienkaemper, J. J.; Galehouse, J. S.; Simpson, R. W.

2001-01-01

121

Who Becomes a Physics Major? A Long-term Longitudinal Study Examining the Roles of Pre-college Beliefs about Physics and Learning Physics, Interest, and Academic Achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we examine the correlation between students' beliefs upon entering college and their likelihood of continuing on to become a physics major. Since 2004, we have collected CLASS survey and self-reported level-of-interest responses from students in the first-term, introductory calculus-based physics course (N>2500). Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis of students' incoming CLASS scores and level of interest, comparing those students who go on to become physics majors with those who do not. We find the incoming CLASS scores and reported interest of these future physics majors to be substantially higher than the class average, indicating that these students enter their first college course already having quite expert-like beliefs. The comparative differences are much smaller for grades, SAT score, and university predicted-GPA.

Perkins, Katherine K.; Gratny, Mindy

2010-10-01

122

Who Becomes a Physics Major? A Long-term Longitudinal Study Examining the Roles of Pre-college Beliefs about Physics and Learning Physics, Interest, and Academic Achievement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper, we examine the correlation between studentsâ beliefs upon entering college and their likelihood of continuing on to become a physics major. Since 2004, we have collected CLASS survey and self-reported level-of-interest responses from students in the first-term, introductory calculus-based physics course (N>2500). Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis of studentsâ incoming CLASS scores and level of interest, comparing those students who go on to become physics majors with those who do not. We find the incoming CLASS scores and reported interest of these future physics majors to be substantially higher than the class average, indicating that these students enter their first college course already having quite expert-like beliefs. The comparative differences are much smaller for grades, SAT score, and university predicted-GPA.

Perkins, Katherine K.; Gratny, M.

2010-12-31

123

Short-term and long-term effects of low total pressure on gas exchange rates of spinach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, spinach plants were grown under atmospheric and low pressure conditions with constant O2 and CO2 partial pressures, and the effects of low total pressure on gas exchange rates were investigated. CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates of spinach grown under atmospheric pressure increased after short-term exposure to low total pressure due to the enhancement of leaf conductance. However, gas exchange rates of plants grown at 25 kPa total pressure were not greater than those grown at atmospheric pressure. Stomatal pore length and width were significantly smaller in leaves grown at low total pressure. This result suggested that gas exchange rates of plants grown under low total pressure were not stimulated even with the enhancement of gas diffusion because the stomatal size and stomatal aperture decreased.

Iwabuchi, K.; Kurata, K.

124

Long-Term Sediment Generation Rates for the Upper Rio Chagres Basin: Implications for Panama Canal Watershed Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be in 17 sand-sized sediment samples (0.25 to 0.85 mm) to estimate the rate and distribution of sediment generation in the upper Chagres watershed over the last 10 to 20 kyr. Results indicate that the upper Chagres watershed is generating sediment uniformly. Nuclide activities suggest basin-wide sediment generation rates of 143 and 354 tons km-2

Kyle K. Nichols; Paul R. Bierman; Robert Finkel; Jennifer Larsen

125

Erosion rates at the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites and long-term climate change on Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of ???0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga). Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Golombek, M. P.; Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L. S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, III, J. F.; Weitz, C. M.; Sullivan, R. J.; Christensen, P. R.; Soderblom, L. A.; Squyres, S. W.

2006-01-01

126

Interest Rates, Inflation, and the National Debt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Government must act more fiscally responsible. The government must put the brakes on an economy it has allowed to run free, and citizens must be willing to support a government that will act tough in the domestic market in order to lower interest rates, reduce inflationary pressure, and increase employment. (Author/RM)

Haseltine, Robert W.

1985-01-01

127

Short and long-term reproducibility of time and frequency domain heart rate variability measurements in normal subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To obtain data relating to the reproducibility of the time and frequency domain measurements obtained from IO-mm ECG recordings. Methods: Eighteen normal volunteers underwent evaluations of time and frequency domain heart rate variability 2 weeks and 7 months after baseline analysis. The time domain parameters were mean NN, the standard deviation of NN intervals, the percentage of successive NN

Maria Vittoria Pitzalis ay; Filippo Mastropasqua; Francesco Mask; Cinzia Forleo; Marinella Di Maggio; Andrea Passantino; Roberto Colombo; Paolo Rizzon

1996-01-01

128

High rate of long-term survival for high-risk lymphoma patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as consolidation or salvage therapy.  

PubMed

Patients with high-relapse-risk lymphomas or those relapsing after initial therapy have a limited probability of cure with conventional treatment. There is recent inconclusive evidence that, in such cases, intensification or salvage treatment with high-dose chemotherapy followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) increases the response rate and may improve survival. Nevertheless, published data on long-term follow-up of high-risk lymphoma patients treated with HSCT are scarce. We analyzed 101 consecutive patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by HSCT after induction with standard chemotherapy. The median age was 38 years (range, 12-63 years). The diagnoses were Hodgkin's disease (n = 32), follicular lymphoma (n = 33), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n = 12), mantle cell lymphoma (n = 7), T-cell lymphoma (n = 14), and others (n = 3). Patients received either an autologous graft (n = 72) in first complete remission (1CR; n = 23) or in advanced stages (AS; n = 49), or an allogeneic graft (n = 29) in 1CR (n = 7) or in AS (n = 22). We concluded that transplant-related mortality was 2.7% for patients receiving an autologous HSCT and 27% for patients receiving an allogeneic HSCT. The main etiologies were graft-versus-host disease and infection in the allogeneic setting, and infection in the autologous setting. The probability of long-term (12-year) overall survival was 71%, higher than that described for high-relapse-risk lymphoma patients treated without HSCT and significantly better (P < .05) for patients who received the transplant in 1CR (89%) than in AS (65%). Finally, the probability of long-term survival was significantly better for patients treated with HSCT during the period from 2000-2007 (85%) compared with the period from 1989-1999 (72%). PMID:19010208

Espigado, I; Ríos, E; Marín-Niebla, A; Carmona, M; Parody, R; Pérez-Hurtado, J M; Márquez, F J; Urbano-Ispizua, A

2008-11-01

129

The polyurethane nasolacrimal duct stent for lower tear duct obstruction: long-term success rate and complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The polyurethane nasolacrimal duct stent is used as an alternative to conventional techniques for treatment of lower tear\\u000a duct obstruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical success rate after a follow-up of 2 years. Methods: Nasolacrimal duct stent implantation was attempted in 19 patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction proven by digital substraction\\u000a dacryocystography. The median

Ulrich Schaudig; Rainer Maas

2000-01-01

130

A long-term rock uplift rate for eastern Crete and geodynamic implications for the Hellenic subduction zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Crete in the forearc of the Hellenic subduction zone has a rugged topography with local relief exceeding 2 km. Based on the elevation of marine shorelines, rates of rock uplift during the Late Holocene were previously estimated to range between 1 and 4 mm/a in different parts of the island. These rates may, however, not be representative for longer timescales, because subduction earthquakes with up to 9 m of vertical coseismic displacement have affected Crete in the Late Holocene. Here we use a well preserved sequence of marine terraces near Kato Zakros in eastern Crete to determine the rate of rock uplift over the last ?600 ka. Field investigations and topographic profiles document a flight of more than 13 marine bedrock terraces that were carved into limestones of the Tripolitza unit. Preliminary age constraints for the terraces were obtained by 10Be exposure dating of rare quartz-bearing sandstone clasts, which are present on some terraces. The 10Be ages of these samples, which have been corrected for an inherited nuclide component, yielded exposure ages between ?100 ka and zero. Combined with geomorphologic evidence the two oldest 10Be ages suggest that the terraces T4 and T5, with shoreline angles at an elevation of ?68 and ?76 m above sea level, respectively, formed during the marine isotope stage 5e about 120 ka ago. The correlation of the higher terraces (T6 to T13) with regional sea-level highstands indicates sustained rock uplift at a rate of ?0.5 m/ka since at least ?600 ka. As normal faulting has dominated the tectonics of Crete during the last several million years, upper crustal shortening can be ruled out as a cause for rock uplift. We argue that the sustained uplift of the island results from the continuous underplating of sediments, which are transferred from the subducting African plate to the base of the crust beneath Crete.

Strobl, M.; Hetzel, R.; Fassoulas, C.; Kubik, P. W.

2014-08-01

131

Sources of variability in spotted owl population growth rate: testing predictions using long-term mark–recapture data  

Microsoft Academic Search

For long-lived iteroparous vertebrates that annually produce few young, life history theory predicts that reproductive output\\u000a (R) and juvenile survival should influence temporal variation in population growth rate (?) more than adult survival does. We\\u000a examined this general prediction using 15 years of mark–recapture data from a population of California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). We found that survival of individuals

Mark E. Seamans; R. J. Gutiérrez

2007-01-01

132

Outcomes of High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Long-term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and toxicity of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between March 1996 and May 2009, 116 patients with cervical cancer were treated. Of these, 106 (91%) patients had advanced disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA). Ten patients had stage IB, 48 had stage II, 51 had stage III, and 7 had stage IVA disease. All patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the pelvis (5040 cGy) and 2 applications of HDR-ISBT to a dose of 3600 cGy to the implanted volume. Sixty-one percent of patients also received interstitial hyperthermia, and 94 (81%) patients received chemotherapy. Results: Clinical LRC was achieved in 99 (85.3%) patients. Three-year DFS rates were 59%, 67%, 71%, and 57% for patients with stage IB, II, III, and IVA disease, respectively. The 5-year DFS and overall survival rates for the entire group were 60% and 44%, respectively. Acute and late toxicities were within acceptable limits. Conclusions: Locally advanced cervical cancer patients for whom intracavitary BT is unsuitable can achieve excellent LRC and OS with a combination of EBRT and HDR-ISBT.

Pinn-Bingham, Melva [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States); Puthawala, Ajmel A., E-mail: aputhawla@memorialcare.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, California (United States); Syed, A.M. Nisar; Sharma, Anil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, California (United States); DiSaia, Philip; Berman, Michael; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Randall-Whitis, Leslie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecology and Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecology and Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States); Mahmood, Usama [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ramsinghani, Nilam; Kuo, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States); Chen, Wen-Pin [Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States); McLaren, Christine E. [Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)

2013-03-01

133

Outcomes of High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Long-term Results  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and toxicity of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials Between March 1996 and May 2009, 116 patients with cervical cancer were treated. Of these, 106 (91%) patients had advanced disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA). Ten patients had stage IB, 48 had stage II, 51 had stage III, and 7 had stage IVA disease. All patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the pelvis (5040 cGy) and 2 applications of HDR-ISBT to a dose of 3600 cGy to the implanted volume. Sixty-one percent of patients also received interstitial hyperthermia, and 94 (81%) patients received chemotherapy. Results Clinical LRC was achieved in 99 (85.3%) patients. Three-year DFS rates were 59%, 67%, 71%, and 57% for patients with stage IB, II, III, and IVA disease, respectively. The 5-year DFS and overall survival rates for the entire group were 60% and 44%, respectively. Acute and late toxicities were within acceptable limits. Conclusions Locally advanced cervical cancer patients for whom intracavitary BT is unsuitable can achieve excellent LRC and OS with a combination of EBRT and HDR-ISBT.

Pinn-Bingham, Melva; Puthawala, Ajmel A.; Syed, A.M. Nisar; Sharma, Anil; DiSaia, Philip; Berman, Michael; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Randall-Whitis, Leslie; Mahmood, Usama; Ramsinghani, Nilam; Kuo, Jeffrey; Chen, Wen-Pin; McLaren, Christine E.

2013-01-01

134

Feasibility of dose adjustment based on difference in long-term clearance rates of inhaled particulate matter in humans and laboratory animals  

SciTech Connect

Long-term pulmonary clearance rates were evaluated for several laboratory animal species, dogs, and humans to determine if differences among species exist, and if so, the adequacy of the data for dose adjustment. Within each species, large variations in clearance rates were seen, probably as a result of differences in solubility of the aerosol particles, differences in measurement techniques, possible lung damage, transport to lung-associated lymph nodes, and binding of dissolved chemicals to cellular macromolecules in the lung. While few direct comparisons among species using the same aerosol were available, mechanical clearance of particles from the alveolar regions of dogs and humans was generally slower than in most laboratory species, with t1/2 values several-fold longer. Particle clearance rate-variations of the magnitude were shown to induce potentially large differences in bioavailability. This can result in large errors in assessing human risk from animal studies unless a dose adjustment is made.

Pepelko, W.E.

1987-01-01

135

In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives.  

PubMed

A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, ?c, and its geometric mean, ?per-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined ?c and ?per-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (?per-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (?per-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trillium's ?per-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (?per-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives' success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide. PMID:24616522

Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B; Horvitz, Carol C

2014-03-25

136

In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives  

PubMed Central

A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, ?c, and its geometric mean, ?per-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined ?c and ?per-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (?per-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (?per-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trillium’s ?per-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (?per-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives’ success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide.

Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B.; Horvitz, Carol C.

2014-01-01

137

Lateral variations in the long-term slip rate of the Chelungpu fault, Central Taiwan, from the analysis of deformed fluvial terraces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chelungpu fault ruptured during the September 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, in Central Taiwan. This event was characterized by coseismic displacements increasing along strike and updip, from south to north. Previous studies suggested that such lateral variations also existed in the long-term fault slip rate, but this has not yet been clearly documented. To address this, we investigate deformed fluvial terraces along the Choushui and Tatu-Wu rivers, in the southern and central segments of the thrust fault. Optical ages of ~13 ka to ~38 ka obtained for these terraces enable estimation of fault slip rates of 5.8 ± 2.0 and 10.3 ± 1.6/-3.0 mm/yr for the southern and central segments, respectively. We combine these findings with the fault slip rate determined by other authors for the northern segment. Statistical analysis of the data suggests lateral variations in the long-term fault slip rate, with values increasing toward the north. This pattern in the slip rate, averaged over approximately tens of thousand years, is similar to that observed for coseismic displacements during the Chi-Chi earthquake. The similarities in the deformation pattern observed for one earthquake or cumulated over several events suggest that the Chi-Chi earthquake could be characteristic of the earthquakes breaking the Chelungpu fault, with respect to slip distribution. Our results also allow for discussing the plausible evolution of major rivers draining the foothills of central Taiwan over the last ~40-60 kyr.

Simoes, M.; Chen, Y.-G.; Shinde, D. P.; Singhvi, A. K.

2014-04-01

138

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

SciTech Connect

Natural attenuation of TCE under aerobic conditions at the INEEL Test Area North site was demonstrated largely on the basis of preferential loss of TCE relative to conservative solutes (PCE and H-3) along groundwater flow paths. First order degradation half-lives were calculated from the rate of preferential TCE loss. We are utilizing the same approach at other DOE sites that have aerobic TCE plumes to determine if aerobic natural attenuation of TCE is rapid enough at these sites to be environmentally significant, i.e. if natural attenuation can reduce concentrations to acceptable levels before groundwater reaches potential receptors. The first step in this process was to identify TCE plumes at DOE sites that have the appropriate site conditions and data needed to perform this analysis. The site conditions include the presence of TCE in groundwater at appreciable concentrations in an aerobic aquifer, a co-mingled contaminant that can be used as a conservative tracer (e.g. PCE, H-3, Tc-99), a flow path that represents at least a decade of travel time, and several monitoring wells located along this flow path. Candidate sites were identified through interviews with knowledgeable individuals in the DOE system and by screening the U.S. Dept. of Energy Groundwater Database using the keywords ''TCE'' and ''groundwater''. The initial screening yielded 25 plumes for consideration. These sites had anywhere from one to 37 individual plumes containing TCE. Of the 25 sites, 13 sites were further evaluated because they met the screening criteria or were promising. After contacting DOE personnel from the respective sites, they were divided into three groups: (1) sites that meet all the project criteria, (2) sites that could potentially be used for the project, and (3) DOE sites that did not meet the criteria. The five sites with plumes that met the criteria were: Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and the Savannah River Site. Detailed characterization data from the promising plumes is being entered into our database as it is received. The next step is to calculate natural attenuation half-life values for all of these plumes. We will next identify the plumes in which natural attenuation via aerobic degradation of TCE is fast enough that it may be relevant as a component of a remedy. We will then select at least one of these sites and either modify an existing groundwater transport model or, if necessary, create a new model, for this plume. This model will initially include first order decay of TCE, and degradation will be parameterized using the half-live values determined from the field data. The models will be used to simulate the evolution of the TCE plume and to predict concentrations as a function of time at property lines or other artificial boundaries, and where potential receptors are located. Ultimately rate data from th e laboratory studies being performed at INEEL will be incorporated into this model, as well as the model of the TAN site to provide a realistic prediction of degradation rates and plume longevity. Although identifying suitable TCE plumes and obtaining characterization data has taken longer than expected, this process has successfully identified the plumes needed for the detailed modeling activity without adversely impacting the project budget.

Sorenson, Kent S. Jr.

2003-06-01

139

Caregiver Ratings of Long-term Executive Dysfunction and Attention Problems After Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: Family Functioning Is Important  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the relationship of family and parenting factors to long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that the magnitude of executive dysfunction and attention problems would be moderated by family and parenting factors. Design A multicenter, prospective cohort study that included an orthopedic injury (OI) reference group. Setting Three tertiary academic children’s hospital medical centers and one general medical center. Participants Children, ages 3–7 years, hospitalized for OI, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. Methods and Outcome Measurements Parental ratings of family functioning and parenting styles were obtained 18 months after the injury occurred. The main outcome measurements, which were parental ratings of children’s executive function and attention, were performed at least 24 months after the injury occurred (mean, 39 months; range, 25–63 months). Analysis Group comparisons were conducted with use of t-tests, ?2 analysis, analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlations. Regression analysis was used to examine associations of the outcomes with family functioning and parenting styles and to test moderating effects of these factors on group differences. Results Participants with severe TBI demonstrated increased executive dysfunction and attention problems compared with those who sustained moderate TBI or OI. Lower levels of family dysfunction were associated with better executive function and attention across groups but did not moderate group differences. However, attention deficits after severe TBI were exacerbated under conditions of more permissive parenting relative to attention deficits after OIs. Conclusions Executive function and attention problems persisted on a long-term basis (>24 months) after early childhood TBI, and positive global family functioning and nonpermissive parenting were associated with better outcomes. Better characterization of the optimal family environment for recovery from early childhood TBI could help target future interventions.

Kurowski, Brad G.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay C.; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.

2013-01-01

140

Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton  

SciTech Connect

The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

2012-06-01

141

The Effects of the Bank of Japan's Zero Interest Rate Commitment and Quantitative Monetary Easing on the Yield Curve: A Macro-Finance Approach (subsequently published in \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an empirical investigation of monetary policy in Japan in the zero interest rate environment that has held sway since 1999. In particular, we focus on the effects of the zero interest rate commitment and of quantitative monetary easing on mediumto long-term interest rates in Japan. In the study we apply a version of the macro-finance approach, involving

Nobuyuki Oda; Kazuo Ueda

2005-01-01

142

Assessment of individual adaptation to microgravity during long term space flight based on stepwise discriminant analysis of heart rate variability parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimization of the cardiovascular system under conditions of long term space flight is provided by individual changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is an easy to use method under these extreme conditions. We tested the hypothesis that individual HRV analysis provides important information for crew health monitoring. HRV data from 14 Russian cosmonauts measured during long term space flights are presented (two times before and after flight, monthly in flight). HRV characteristics in the time and in the frequency domain were calculated. Predefined discriminant function equations obtained in reference groups (L1=-0.112*HR-1.006*SI-0.047*pNN50-0.086*HF; L2=0.140*HR-0.165*SI-1.293*pNN50+0.623*HF) were used to define four functional states. (1) Physiological normal, (2) prenosological, (3) premorbid and (4) pathological. Geometric mean values for the ISS cosmonauts based on L1 and L2 remained within normal ranges. A shift from the physiological normal state to the prenosological functional state during space flight was detected. The functional state assessed by HRV improved during space flight if compared to pre-flight and early post-flight functional states. Analysis of individual cosmonauts showed distinct patterns depending on the pre-flight functional state. Using the developed classification a transition process from the state of physiological normal into a prenosological state or premorbid state during different stages of space flight can be detected for individual Russian cosmonauts. Our approach to an estimation of HR regulatory pattern can be useful for prognostic purposes.

Baevsky, Roman M.; Chernikova, Anna G.; Funtova, Irina I.; Tank, Jens

2011-12-01

143

Long-term results of the amplatzer cribriform occluder for patent foramen ovale with associated atrial septal aneurysm: impact on occlusion rate and left atrial functional remodelling  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of patients with concomitant patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) poses a number of challenges; while some authors have suggested the off-label use of the Amplatzer Cribriform Occluder in such anatomy, the long-term outcomes of this strategy is unknown. Our study aimed to assess the long-term impact on closure rate, left atrial functional remodelling, and clinical outcomes of off-label implantation of Amplatzer ASD Cribriform Occluder in patients with PFO and ASA. Methods We prospectively enrolled 160 consecutive patients with previous stroke (mean age 36 ± 9.5 years, 109 females), significant PFO and ASA. All patients were treated with Amplatzer Cribriform Occluder to ensure the most complete possible coverage of the ASA. Residual shunt and LA passive and active emptying, LA conduit function, and LA ejection fraction were computed before and after 6 months from the procedure and then yearly. All patients underwent successful transcatheter closure (mean ratio device/diameter of interatrial septum = 0.74). Results Incomplete ASA coverage during intraprocedural intracardiac echocardiography was observed in 71 patients. During mean follow-up of 3.6 ± 1.8 years, when compared to patients with complete coverage, there were no differences in LA functional parameters and complete occlusion achieved in 150/160 patients (93.7%). No new cerebral ischemic events, aortic erosions or device thrombosis were recorded during the follow-up. Conclusions The use of the Amplatzer ASD Cribriform to treat PFO and associated ASA seems safe and effective: relatively small Occluder devices are probably effective enough to promote left atrial functional remodelling.

Rigatelli, Gianluca; Dell'Avvocata, Fabio; Cardaioli, Paolo; Braggion, Gabriele; Giordan, Massimo; Mazza, Alberto; Fraccaro, Chiara; Chinaglia, Mauro; Chen, Jack P

2012-01-01

144

Long-term erosion rates of Neogene to Quaternary volcanoes of the Altiplano-Puna plateau, Central Andes: an SRTM DEM study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neogene to Quaternary volcanism of the Central Andes offers a unique opportunity to study long-term erosion of stratovolcanoes. On the basis of SRTM DEM data, we invesigated 35 stratovolcanoes of the 3,800-4,000 m high, arid-hyperarid Altiplano-Puna plateau (from 14oS, 64oW to 27oS, 74oW). The volcanoes have been selected on geomorphological criteria such as (1) a single, "mature" cone-shape with considerable size, (2) location on a relatively flat basement, (3) no overlap with other volcanic centres, and (4) lack of calderas or sector collapse scars. Volcanoes of various age (Mid-Miocene to Quaternary based on sporadic radiometric dates) and various degradation stage have been included in order to infer long-term erosion rates. The method we follow is to quantitatively compare the existing topography with the present-day active volcanoes, e.g. Parinacota (Northern Chile). By applying an advanced computational method, we fit the relief of the undissected, almost perfect reference cone over the degraded volcanic edifice. This way, we can precisely calculate (a) the degree of denudation by difference between the computed initial volume from the fit and the observed volume, and (b) for volcanoes with radiometric age constraint the erosion rate (m/Ma) as the areal mean of denudation divided by age. Our results show that (a) the studied volcanoes are degraded to various extent up to ~40% (denudation ratio) of the paleo-volume. In accordance, their relative height which is progressively lower shows a moderately good correlation with denudation (r2 = 0.70). Using the available age constraints, we obtained a stronger correlation between age and denudation (r2 = 0.82 for all volcanoes, and r2 = 0.95 without the southernmost hyperarid and northernmost semihumid volcanoes). (b) Therefore, calculating erosion rates gives highly reliable results. The youngest volcanoes (e.g. Ollagüe, Tacora) shows 50-100 m/Ma erosion rates which fits well to the initially rapid degradation of active volcanic edifices without vegetation cover. Long-term erosion rates of the Pliocene to Miocene volcanoes, in constrast, are much lower and more uniform (7-17 m/Ma), in agreement with other, similarly low erosion rates obtained by other methods (e.g. cosmogenic nuclides) for the Altiplano-Puna highland. Our rates show the smallest values for the hyperarid Puna and the southern Altiplano (e.g. Maricunga volcano), and the greatest values for the semihumid Southern Peru (e.g. Ccarhuaraso, Jatunpuco volcanoes). Moreover, using the very good age vs denudation correlation as a geomorphological dating tool, we are able to estimate ages for undated volcanoes of the Central Andes or for other regions under similar climate conditions.

Karátson, Dávid; Telbisz, Tamás.; Wörner, Gerhard

2010-05-01

145

Reconstructing shifts in vital rates driven by long-term environmental change: a new demographic method based on readily available data  

PubMed Central

Frequently, vital rates are driven by directional, long-term environmental changes. Many of these are of great importance, such as land degradation, climate change, and succession. Traditional demographic methods assume a constant or stationary environment, and thus are inappropriate to analyze populations subject to these changes. They also require repeat surveys of the individuals as change unfolds. Methods for reconstructing such lengthy processes are needed. We present a model that, based on a time series of population size structures and densities, reconstructs the impact of directional environmental changes on vital rates. The model uses integral projection models and maximum likelihood to identify the rates that best reconstructs the time series. The procedure was validated with artificial and real data. The former involved simulated species with widely different demographic behaviors. The latter used a chronosequence of populations of an endangered cactus subject to increasing anthropogenic disturbance. In our simulations, the vital rates and their change were always reconstructed accurately. Nevertheless, the model frequently produced alternative results. The use of coarse knowledge of the species' biology (whether vital rates increase or decrease with size or their plausible values) allowed the correct rates to be identified with a 90% success rate. With real data, the model correctly reconstructed the effects of disturbance on vital rates. These effects were previously known from two populations for which demographic data were available. Our procedure seems robust, as the data violated several of the model's assumptions. Thus, time series of size structures and densities contain the necessary information to reconstruct changing vital rates. However, additional biological knowledge may be required to provide reliable results. Because time series of size structures and densities are available for many species or can be rapidly generated, our model can contribute to understand populations that face highly pressing environmental problems.

Gonzalez, Edgar J; Martorell, Carlos

2013-01-01

146

Assessment of application-rate dependent effects of a long-term fire retardant chemical (Fire Trol 934) on Typha domingensis germination.  

PubMed

Although long-term fire retardants (LTR) gain increasingly acceptance as effective tools for wildfire management, recent studies indicate their potential harmfulness in the environment, especially in aquatic ecosystems. This study comprises a first laboratory impact assessment of LTR action in temporal Mediterranean wetlands, using seed germination of Typha domingensis as indicator of impact. Our aim was to identify application rates upon which seed germination could be significantly affected. We tested for low (1 l m(-2)) and high (3 l m(-2)) application rates of Fire Trol 934 which are recommended by the manufacturers as a function of fuel characteristics. In addition, we simulated the impact of a higher application rate of 5 l m(-2) because inhomogeneous dispersal of the LTR during fire control and prevention operations can result in locally elevated applications. Results of a microcosm experiment indicate that application rates of 1 or 3 l m(-2) can impact Typha germination rates in the short-term via indirect LTR-mediated effects on water quality, which suppressed necessary cues for germination. However, a subsequent experiment with Petri dishes, using seeds isolated from the LTR treated sediments did not show significantly different germination rates between the control and the treatments with application rates of 1 or 3 l m(-2). This suggests that retardant pre-application germination success could be recovered in nature once the retardant is eliminated. By contrast, seeds almost completely failed to germinate in the microcosm experiment and the subsequent Petri dish essay when an application rate of 5 l m(-2) was used. This suggests a critical level upon which Typha seed germination may be perpetually limited. Research should be extended to other plant species to provide fire managers with guidelines for environmentally safe use of LTR in the Mediterranean region. PMID:14987869

Angeler, David G; Rodríguez, Marta; Martín, Silvia; Moreno, José M

2004-05-01

147

Feasibility of dose adjustment based on differences in long-term clearance rates of inhaled particulate matter in humans and laboratory animals  

SciTech Connect

Long-term pulmonary clearance rates were evaluated for several laboratory animal species, dogs, and humans to determine if differences among species exist, and if so, the adequacy of the data for dose adjustment. Within each species, large variations in clearance rates were seen, probably as a result of differences in solubility of the aerosol particles, differences in measurement techniques, possible lung damage, transport to lung-associated lymph nodes, and binding of dissolved chemicals to cellular macromolecules in the lung. While few direct comparisons among species using the same aerosol were available, mechanical clearance of particles from the alveolar regions of dogs and humans was generally slower than in most laboratory species, with t1/2 values several-fold longer. Particle clearance rate variations of this magnitude were shown to induce potentially large differences in bioavailability. This can result in large errors in assessing human risk from animal studies unless a dose adjustment is made. It is suggested that despite limitations on available data, a two- to threefold adjustment of dose when extrapolating from small laboratory animals to humans, for quantitative risk assessment, should be considered, unless solubility half-times are very short. 67 references.

Pepelko, W.E.

1987-09-01

148

26 CFR 301.6621-1 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Interest Interest on Underpayments § 301.6621-1 Interest rate. (a) In general. The interest rate established under section 6621 shall beâ (1) On...

2013-04-01

149

38 CFR 36.4212 - Interest rates and late charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Interest rates and late charges. ...Including Site Preparation General Provisions § 36.4212 Interest rates and late charges. ...that such loans either bear interest at a rate that is agreed...

2013-07-01

150

38 CFR 36.4223 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing...Including Site Preparation General Provisions § 36.4223 Interest rate reduction refinancing...guaranteed loan to reduce the interest rate payable on the...

2013-07-01

151

Interest Rates and Coupon Bonds in Quantum Finance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Synopsis; 2. Interest rates and coupon bonds; 3. Options and option theory; 4. Interest rate and coupon bond options; 5. Quantum field theory of bond forward interest rates; 6. Libor Market Model of interest rates; 7. Empirical analysis of forward interest rates; 8. Libor Market Model of interest rate options; 9. Numeraires for bond forward interest rates; 10. Empirical analysis of interest rate caps; 11. Coupon bond European and Asian options; 12. Empirical analysis of interest rate swaptions; 13. Correlation of coupon bond options; 14. Hedging interest rate options; 15. Interest rate Hamiltonian and option theory; 16. American options for coupon bonds and interest rates; 17. Hamiltonian derivation of coupon bond options; Appendixes; Glossaries; List of symbols; Reference; Index.

Baaquie, Belal E.

2009-09-01

152

41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? 301-11.14 Section 301-11.14 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2013-07-01

153

Outcomes of a ventilator-associated pneumonia bundle on rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia and other health care-associated infections in a long-term acute care hospital setting.  

PubMed

Long-term trends in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates, and other health care-associated infections, were examined prior to, during, and after introduction of a VAP bundle in a long-term acute care hospital setting. VAP incidence rate declined in a step-wise fashion and reached a null value. Incidence rates of bacteremia from any cause declined in a similar fashion. The incidence rates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization or infection rates also decreased, but that of Clostridium difficile infection did not. VAP in the long-term acute care hospital setting can be controlled over time with implementation of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based VAP bundle. This outcome also may decrease certain other health care-associated infections. PMID:24773791

Sulis, Carol A; Walkey, Allan J; Abadi, Yafet; Campbell Reardon, Christine; Joyce-Brady, Martin

2014-05-01

154

Health, cultural and socioeconomic factors related to self-rated health of long-term jewish residents, immigrants, and arab women in midlife in Israel.  

PubMed

Self-rated health (SRH) has been found to predict future health, yet its importance is unique in the information it captures, beyond more objective measures. This information can include psychosocial and cultural factors that can be important in understanding women's health. Our goal was to test whether long-term Jewish residents (LTJR), immigrant, and Arab women differed in their SRH, whether these differences were maintained after controlling for indicators of health status, and, if so, whether the differences among the three groups reflected psychosocial or socioeconomic factors. A nationally representative sample of 814 women in Israel aged 45-64 years was interviewed (between June 2004 and March 2006) regarding socio-demographics, physical health, health behaviors, and psychosocial aspects. Both immigrant and Arab women reported poorer SRH, physical and mental health, and socioeconomic status. Differences between Arab women and LTJR were mostly explained by differences in health measures (e.g., medications and symptoms) and psychosocial measures (e.g., caregiving load and depressive symptoms) and were eliminated when socioeconomic measures were added to the multiple regression models. Differences in SRH between immigrants and LTJR remained after multiple adjustments, suggesting that they reflected unmeasured cultural factors. Even with universal healthcare coverage in a small country (i.e., with minimal financial and geographical barriers to healthcare) minority groups' health suffers in relation to their socioeconomic and life circumstances. PMID:24791665

Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Blumstein, Tzvia; Lerner-Geva, Liat

2014-07-01

155

Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. Part II: Solute profiles, gradients and the comparisons of contemporary and long-term weathering rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and pore water elemental and 87Sr/86Sr compositions are used to determine contemporary weathering rates in a 65- to 226-kyr-old soil chronosequence formed from granitic sediments deposited on marine terraces along coastal California. Soil moisture, tension and saturation exhibit large seasonal variations in shallow soils in response to a Mediterranean climate. These climate effects are dampened in underlying argillic horizons that progressively developed in older soils, and reached steady-state conditions in unsaturated horizons extending to depths in excess of 15 m. Hydraulic fluxes (qh), based on Cl mass balances, vary from 0.06 to 0.22 m yr-1, resulting in fluid residence times in the terraces of 10-24 yrs. As expected for a coastal environment, the order of cation abundances in soil pore waters is comparable to sea water, i.e., Na > Mg > Ca > K > Sr, while the anion sequence Cl > NO3 > HCO3 > SO4 reflects modifying effects of nutrient cycling in the grassland vegetation. Net Cl-corrected solute Na, K and Si increase with depth, denoting inputs from feldspar weathering. Solute 87Sr/86Sr ratios exhibit progressive mixing of sea water-dominated precipitation with inputs from less radiogenic plagioclase. While net Sr and Ca concentrations are anomalously high in shallow soils due to biological cycling, they decline with depth to low and/or negative net concentrations. Ca/Mg, Sr/Mg and 87Sr/86Sr solute and exchange ratios are similar in all the terraces, denoting active exchange equilibration with selectivities close to unity for both detrital smectite and secondary kaolinite. Large differences in the magnitudes of the pore waters and exchange reservoirs result in short-term buffering of the solute Ca, Sr, and Mg. Such buffering over geologic time scales can not be sustained due to declining inputs from residual plagioclase and smectite, implying periodic resetting of the exchange reservoir such as by past vegetational changes and/or climate. Pore waters approach thermodynamic saturation with respect to albite at depth in the younger terraces, indicating that weathering rates ultimately become transport-limited and dependent on hydrologic flux. Contemporary rates Rsolute are estimated from linear Na and Si pore weathering gradients bsolute such that Rsolute = frac(qh, bsolute ?? Sv) where Sv is the volumetric surface area and ?? is the stoichiometric coefficient. Plagioclase weathering rates (0.38-2.8 ?? 10-15 mol m-2 s-1) are comparable to those based on 87Sr/86Sr mass balances and solid-state Na and Ca gradients using analogous gradient approximations. In addition, contemporary solute gradients, under transport-limited conditions, approximate long-term solid-state gradients when normalized against the mass of protolith plagioclase and its corresponding aqueous solubility. The multi-faceted weathering analysis presented in this paper is perhaps the most comprehensive yet applied to a single field study. Within uncertainties of the methods used, present day weathering rates, based on solute characterizations, are comparable to average long-term past rates as evidenced by soil profiles.

White, A. F.; Schulz, M. S.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Vivit, D. V.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Bullen, T. D.; Maher, K.; Blum, A. E.

2009-01-01

156

Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. Part II: Solute profiles, gradients and the comparisons of contemporary and long-term weathering rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and pore water elemental and 87Sr/ 86Sr compositions are used to determine contemporary weathering rates in a 65- to 226-kyr-old soil chronosequence formed from granitic sediments deposited on marine terraces along coastal California. Soil moisture, tension and saturation exhibit large seasonal variations in shallow soils in response to a Mediterranean climate. These climate effects are dampened in underlying argillic horizons that progressively developed in older soils, and reached steady-state conditions in unsaturated horizons extending to depths in excess of 15 m. Hydraulic fluxes ( q h), based on Cl mass balances, vary from 0.06 to 0.22 m yr -1, resulting in fluid residence times in the terraces of 10-24 yrs. As expected for a coastal environment, the order of cation abundances in soil pore waters is comparable to sea water, i.e., Na > Mg > Ca > K > Sr, while the anion sequence Cl > NO 3 > HCO 3 > SO 4 reflects modifying effects of nutrient cycling in the grassland vegetation. Net Cl-corrected solute Na, K and Si increase with depth, denoting inputs from feldspar weathering. Solute 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios exhibit progressive mixing of sea water-dominated precipitation with inputs from less radiogenic plagioclase. While net Sr and Ca concentrations are anomalously high in shallow soils due to biological cycling, they decline with depth to low and/or negative net concentrations. Ca/Mg, Sr/Mg and 87Sr/ 86Sr solute and exchange ratios are similar in all the terraces, denoting active exchange equilibration with selectivities close to unity for both detrital smectite and secondary kaolinite. Large differences in the magnitudes of the pore waters and exchange reservoirs result in short-term buffering of the solute Ca, Sr, and Mg. Such buffering over geologic time scales can not be sustained due to declining inputs from residual plagioclase and smectite, implying periodic resetting of the exchange reservoir such as by past vegetational changes and/or climate. Pore waters approach thermodynamic saturation with respect to albite at depth in the younger terraces, indicating that weathering rates ultimately become transport-limited and dependent on hydrologic flux. Contemporary rates R solute are estimated from linear Na and Si pore weathering gradients b solute such that Rsolute={qh}/{bsolute?Sv} where S v is the volumetric surface area and ? is the stoichiometric coefficient. Plagioclase weathering rates (0.38-2.8 × 10 -15 mol m -2 s -1) are comparable to those based on 87Sr/ 86Sr mass balances and solid-state Na and Ca gradients using analogous gradient approximations. In addition, contemporary solute gradients, under transport-limited conditions, approximate long-term solid-state gradients when normalized against the mass of protolith plagioclase and its corresponding aqueous solubility. The multi-faceted weathering analysis presented in this paper is perhaps the most comprehensive yet applied to a single field study. Within uncertainties of the methods used, present day weathering rates, based on solute characterizations, are comparable to average long-term past rates as evidenced by soil profiles.

White, Art F.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Stonestrom, David A.; Vivit, Davison V.; Fitzpatrick, John; Bullen, Tom D.; Maher, Kate; Blum, Alex E.

2009-05-01

157

Long-term erosion rates from focused fluvial incision into extensive surface remnants preserved in the hyper-arid Atacama desert, northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Desert is among the driest regions on Earth, and as such, it is host to exceptionally long-lived landforms. The 3-4 km relief western slope of the Puna-Altiplano Plateau forms the eastern edge of the Atacama Desert. Other studies have shown that the onset of hyperaridity in the middle Miocene led to the cessation of sediment supply and the abandonment of depositional surfaces. The result is the creation of a regionally extensive reference surface against which subsequent erosion can be measured. An age of latest middle Miocene to early late Miocene is based on dated tuffs interbedded or capping basin fill deposits. Recent cosmogenic nuclide dating efforts in the Atacama have shown that, over much of the area, the upper few meters of this surface have been eroded or remobilized, and that many of the small spatial scale details of the surface cannot be older than Pliocene. Nevertheless, the major features of the earliest late Miocene landforms have not changed in form. This study reports long-term basin-wide erosion rates for 28 individual catchments, derived from a reconstruction of the late Miocene depositional surface in two parts of northern Chile. Such constraints provide an independent means of evaluating cosmogenic nuclide estimates of erosion rates. The first area, in northernmost Chile, is situated in an area with a strong altitudinal gradient in rainfall and 3 km of mountain front relief. There erosion rates vary among catchments between 5 m/Ma - 30 m/Ma. The high variation in erosion rates does not appear to be a function of basin hypsometry, nor total drainage area. Despite the high variability in erosion rates, average hillslope angles of the eroded areas fall within a narrow range around ~12 degrees. The second area is just south of the core of the Atacama, where relief is 4 km and mean annual precipitation increases by nearly two orders of magnitude from N to S. Here, total catchment area and average slope both show the expected

Hoke, G. D.; Jordan, T. E.

2010-12-01

158

7 CFR 4280.124 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GRANTS Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed...The variable rate must be based on published indices, such as money market indices. In no case, however, shall the rate...

2010-01-01

159

7 CFR 4280.124 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GRANTS Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed...The variable rate must be based on published indices, such as money market indices. In no case, however, shall the rate...

2009-01-01

160

Promising Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To explore the long-term general and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) >5 years after combined radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer, including a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost and hormonal deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: Of 196 eligible patients with localized prostate cancer (Stage T1-T3a) consecutively treated with curative radiotherapy at our institution between June 1998 and August 2000, 182 (93%) completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25, including specific questions on fecal incontinence >5 years after treatment in September 2005. A comparison with age-matched normative data was done, as well as a longitudinal analysis using HRQOL data from a previous study. Results: The analysis included 158 nonrecurrent patients. Comparisons made with normative data showed that physical and role functioning were significantly better statistically and social functioning was significantly worse. Diarrhea and sleep disturbances were more pronounced and pain less pronounced than in a normal male population. The longitudinal analysis of disease-specific HRQOL showed that urinary urgency and erectile problems persisted 5 years after treatment, and nocturia and hormonally dependent symptoms had declined significantly, with a statistically significant difference. Fecal incontinence was recognized by 25% of patients, of whom 80% considered it a minor problem. Conclusion: More than 5 years after combined radiotherapy, irritative urinary problems and erectile dysfunction remain concerns, although severe bowel disturbance and fecal incontinence seem to be minor problems. Longitudinally, a decline mainly in hormonally dependent symptoms was seen. Minor differences in general HRQOL compared with normative data were observed, possibly including 'response shift' effects.

Wahlgren, Thomas [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: thomas.wahlgren@karolinska.se; Nilsson, Sten [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Lennernaes, Bo [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Hospital and Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Brandberg, Yvonne [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-11-01

161

Wicksell’s Classical Dichotomy: Is the natural rate of interest independent of the money rate of interest?  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Wicksell’s Classical Dichotomy the money rate of interest depends on the natural rate of interest, but the latter does not depend on the former. If this Classical Dichotomy is false monetary policy may induce hysteresis because the natural rate of interest would depend upon the money rate of interest. We use data for Israel to test Wicksell’s Classical

Michael Beenstock; Alex Ilek

2010-01-01

162

The Term Structure of Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper consolidates and interprets the literature on the term structure, as it stands today. Definitions of rates of return, forward rates and holding returns for all time intervals are treated here in a uniform manner and their interrelations, exact or approximate, delineated. The concept of duration is used throughout to simplify mathematical expressions. Continuous compounding is used where possible,

Robert J. Shiller; J. Huston McCulloch

1987-01-01

163

Long-term rates and the depth extent of fault creep along the San Andreas Fault system in northern California from alinement arrays and GPS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dextral San Andreas Fault system (SAFS) in northern California comprises five branches that exhibit considerable variation in the amount and spatial extent of aseismic release or creep. We estimate the depth extent of creep with a forward elastic model using the algorithms of Okada (1992) and boundary value dislocation solutions for creep rate and depth of creeping patches. For purposes of analysis we label branches, from west to east: A (San Gregorio), B (San Andreas), C (Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama), D (Northern Calaveras-Green Valley-Bartlett Springs) and E (Greenville. Since the 1960s alinement arrays have provided one of the most accurate means to estimate the long-term creep rate and these rates have been reasonably well determined for much of the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) southward. Over the past decade we have been installing alinement arrays along the more remote faults, especially northward of the SFBA, to monitor the extent of creep on branches C and D. We currently monitor about 80 such arrays throughout the northern SAFS. To analyze the depth extent of creep over the entire system, we model 30 fault sections on these five branches, delineated either by geometric discontinuities between them or by distinctly different creeping behaviors. We have removed any significant transient rate changes imposed by large regional earthquakes. We use crustal velocities determined for global-positioning station pairs of survey mode and continuous (SGPS, CGPS or mixed pairs) that are located near each fault to provide additional constraint on average creep rates. We estimate the mean depth of creep from the mean observed surface creep rate for each section and the rate uncertainty allows estimation of a depth uncertainty. Uncertainties are generally much higher where only five years or less of alinement array data are available, but in some cases the addition of CGPS or multiple SGPS station pairs has been essential for a more complete evaluation of the extent of creep. For example near-fault CGPS data clearly indicate that significant dextral creep occurs on both branches C and D north of the Mendocino triple junction. However, creep depth on some remote sections of branches C and D remains poorly constrained and will require a few more years of data to adequately evaluate the impact of creep on their seismic hazard. On the two urban fault sections in the northern SFBA, the Rodgers Creek and southern Green Valley faults, our denser creep measurements made over the past decade now allow us to characterize the along-strike and depth extent of their creep with much greater certainty for seismic hazard purposes. Two other urban faults, the Northern Calaveras and the Greenville faults, located in the eastern SFBA, we have also monitored more densely for creep over the past decade, and hence we now can more accurately characterize their seismic hazard.

Lienkaemper, J. J.; McFarland, F. S.; Simpson, R. W.; Caskey, J.

2013-12-01

164

Estimated one-yr glomerular filtration rate is an excellent predictor of long-term graft survival in pediatric first kidney transplants.  

PubMed

Acute rejection episodes following pediatric renal transplantation have been progressively reduced by recent immunosuppressive regimens. Nevertheless, grafts continue to fail over time and surrogate parameters for long-term RGS are lacking. We investigated post-transplant renal function within the first yr as an independent predictor of long-term RGS in 104 pediatric first kidney transplant recipients (mean age 11.1 +/- 3.9 yr; mean follow-up 8.3 +/- 3.5 yr) transplanted between January 1989 and December 2000. GFR was assessed by use of the Schwartz formula at 30 days and six and 12 months after transplantation, respectively. Patients were further stratified at all times according to GFR: (i) GFR<45 mL/min/1.73 m(2), (ii) GFR 45-80 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and (iii) GFR>80 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Cox regression analysis including factors potentially influencing long-term RGS, e.g., age, gender, transplant yr, HLA-mismatch, underlying renal disease, clinical acute rejection, absolute GFR as well as the change in GFR within the first yr was performed. Graft failure occurred in 24 out of 104 patients (23%) 6.2 yr (mean) after transplantation corresponding to a cumulative five-yr graft survival of 87.5%. GFRs at 30 days and six and 12 months were significantly associated with long-term RGS in the univariate cox regression analysis (GFR at 30 days, p = 0.045; GFR at six months, p = 0.004; GFR at 12 months, p < 0.001). None of the other variables were significant parameters of correlation. Multivariate cox analysis revealed a GFR below 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 12 months after transplantation as the only independent predictor of long-term RGS (hazard ratio 55.9, 95% CI 5.29-591, p = 0.001). GFR at 12 months post-transplant is an excellent surrogate parameter for long-term RGS in children. This parameter might be useful as a primary end-point in short-term pediatric clinical trials. PMID:18537896

Muscheites, Jutta; Wigger, Marianne; Drueckler, Erdmute; Klaassen, Ilka; John, Ulrike; Wygoda, Simone; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Kundt, Guenther; Misselwitz, Joachim; Müller-Wiefel, Dirk-E; Haffner, Dieter

2009-05-01

165

Presynaptic long-term plasticity  

PubMed Central

Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity.

Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

2013-01-01

166

Long-term tillage, straw and N rate effects on some chemical properties in two contrasting soil types in Western Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term use of soil, crop residue and fertilizer management practices may affect some soil properties, but the magnitude\\u000a of change depends on soil type and climatic conditions. Two field experiments with barley, wheat, or canola in a rotation\\u000a on Gray Luvisol (Typic Cryoboralf) loam at Breton and Black Chernozem (Albic Argicryoll) loam at Ellerslie, Alberta, Canada,\\u000a were conducted to determine

S. S. Malhi; M. Nyborg; T. Goddard; D. Puurveen

2011-01-01

167

Long-term tillage, straw and N rate effects on quantity and quality of organic C and N in a Gray Luvisol soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term use of soil, crop and fertilizer management practices alters some soil properties, but the magnitude of change depends\\u000a on soil type and climatic conditions. A field experiment with a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–canola (Brassica napus L.) rotation was conducted on a Gray Luvisol (Typic Cryoboralf) loam soil at Breton, Alberta, Canada. Effects of 19 or 27 years

S. S. Malhi; M. Nyborg; T. Goddard; D. Puurveen

2011-01-01

168

Macroeconomic Factors Behind the Fall in Farm Interest Rates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interest rates on agricultural loans are determined by factors primarily outside of the agriculture sector in national and international credit markets. This report discusses the macroeconomic factors behind the fall in agricultural interest rates in 2001...

P. Sundell

2002-01-01

169

Credit Cards, Economization of Money, and Interest Rates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the effect of interest rates on the increased use of credit cards, a popular method of financing households. Uses three models to demonstrate that interest rates must rise, resulting in increased consumption expenditures. (CMK)

Steindl, Frank G.

2000-01-01

170

Long-term synthesis rates of skeletal muscle DNA and protein are higher during aerobic training in older humans than in sedentary young subjects but are not altered by protein supplementation  

PubMed Central

Consuming protein following exercise has been shown to stimulate protein synthesis acutely in skeletal muscle and has been recommended to prevent sarcopenia. It is not known, however, whether acute stimulation persists long term or includes muscle cell division. We asked here whether consuming protein following exercise during aerobic training increases long-term protein and DNA synthesis rates in skeletal muscle of adult humans. Sixteen previously untrained participants (50±8 yr) consumed either a carbohydrate or carbohydrate and protein drink following each session during 6 wk of treadmill training. A younger untrained group provided a nonexercising comparison. Participants were administered heavy water (2H2O; deuterium oxide) continuously for 6 wk to isotopically label newly synthesized skeletal muscle proteins and DNA. Muscle biopsies were performed after 6 wk of training. Contrary to acute studies, consuming protein after exercise did not increase skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates. In contrast, muscle protein synthesis, DNA, and phospholipid synthesis were significantly higher in the older exercise groups than the younger sedentary group. The higher DNA replication rate could not be attributed to mitochondrial DNA and may be due to satellite cell activation. We conclude that postexercise protein supplementation does not increase rates of mixed protein synthesis over 6 wk and that aerobic exercise may stimulate long-term cell division (DNA synthesis) in skeletal muscle of humans. Measurements of long-term synthesis rates provide important insights into aging and exercise adaptations.—Robinson, M. M., Turner, S. M., Hellerstein, M. K., Hamilton, K. L., Miller, B. F. Long-term synthesis rates of skeletal muscle DNA and protein are higher during aerobic training in older humans than in sedentary young subjects but are not altered by protein supplementation.

Robinson, Matthew M.; Turner, Scott M.; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Hamilton, Karyn L.; Miller, Benjamin F.

2011-01-01

171

Pricing Options under Stochastic Interest Rates: A New Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will generalize the Black-Scholes option pricing formula by incorporating stochastic interest rates. Although the existing\\u000a literature has obtained some formulae for stock options under stochastic interest rates, the closed-form solutions have been\\u000a known only under the Gaussian (Merton type) interest rate processes. We will show that an explicit solution, which is an extended\\u000a Black-Scholes formula under stochastic interest rates

Yong-Jin Kim; Naoto Kunitomo

1999-01-01

172

The effect of real rates of interest on housing prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the late 1970s, U.S. house prices were appreciating rapidly even though mortgage interest rates were climbing. Recently, interest rates have eased but prices have moderated. This study examines the role of appreciation expectations in overcoming the negative effects of nominal mortgage interest rates on house prices. Expectations of future appreciation are important determinants of house sales prices, remaining influential

Jack C. Harris

1989-01-01

173

Long-Term Recidivism of Child Molesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the long-term recidivism rates of 197 child molesters released from prison between 1958 and 1974. Overall, 42% of the total sample were reconvicted for sexual crimes, violent crimes, or both, with 10% of the total sample reconvicted 10–31 years after being released. Incest offenders were reconvicted at a slower rate than were offenders who selected only boys, with

R. Karl Hanson; Richard A. Steffy; Rene Gauthier

1993-01-01

174

Basics (Long-Term Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers ... on Alzheimer's Disease Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community Home About Us Accessibility Disclaimer Privacy Contact ...

175

BHT, Long-Term Toxicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) recently received preliminary results of a long-term toxicity study on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in rats. The study was conducted by the Institute of Toxicology, National Food Institute of Denmark. Prelimi...

1983-01-01

176

Serum prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume predict long-term changes in symptoms and flow rate: results of a four-year, randomized trial comparing finasteride versus placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine whether baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA), in addition to prostate volume, is associated with long-term changes in symptoms and urinary flow rate.Methods. Three thousand forty men with benign prostatic hyperplasia enrolled in the PLESS trial were randomly assigned to finasteride 5 mg or placebo for 4 years. Symptoms and flow rate were assessed every 4 months, and data

Claus G. Roehrborn; Peter Boyle; Donald Bergner; Todd Gray; Marc Gittelman; Thomas Shown; Arnold Melman; R. Bruce Bracken; Ralph deVere White; Alice Taylor; Daniel Wang; Joanne Waldstreicher

1999-01-01

177

First Long-Term slip-Rate Along the San Andreas Fault Based on 10Be26Al Surface Exposure Dating : The Biskra Palms Site, 23 mm\\/yr for the last 30,000 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slip-rate along the San Andreas fault is known precisely at only two locations : at Wallace Creek, 34 +\\/- 3 mm\\/yr for the past 13,500 yrs and at Cajon Creek, 24.5+\\/- 3 mm\\/yr for the past 14,500 yrs. When compared to the long-term and far-field plate motion, these rates provide important constraint on how and where strain is accommodated across

J. van der Woerd; Y. Klinger; K. Sieh; P. Tapponnier; F. Ryerson

2001-01-01

178

Rate of long term bleaching in FK 51 optical glass darkened by Co60 ionizing radiation at dose rates of 10 krad/hr and 7 rad/hr  

SciTech Connect

A previous paper presented long term bleaching data on various glasses exposed to 10.6 krad of ionizing radiation. All the glasses reported except FK 51 have readily available `G` glass equivalents that are stabilized to the natural space environment. Yet, FK 51, because of its location on the Abbe diagram is extremely useful in certain lens design applications. To more fully explore the bleaching of FK 51, after the initial dose of 10.6 krad at 11.8 krad/hour, we irradiated three more samples at a similar dose rate but to different total doses. Since the dose rate for this study was significantly higher than the dose rate anticipated for glasses in as shielded space-based lens system (tilde 3 rad/day), additional data were obtained at a lower rate of 7 rad/hour. While this dose rate is still higher than the anticipated operational rate, it is more than 1000 times lower than the dose 011 011 011 rate used for our initial studies. The bleaching rate for the samples exposed at the lower dose rate is considerably less than for the samples exposed at the higher rate.

Wirtenson, G.R.; White, R.H.

1997-07-01

179

Yield Spreads and Interest Rate Movements: A Bird's Eye View  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expectations theory of the term structure implies that the spread between a longer-term interest rate and a shorter-term interest rate forecasts two subsequent interest rate changes: the change in yield of the longer-term bond over the life of the shorter-term bond, and a weighted average of the changes in shorter-term rates over the life of the longer-term bond. For

John Y. Campbell; Robert J. Shiller

1991-01-01

180

LONG-TERM MONITORING OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SILICA-BASED NANOPARTICLES ON THE RATE OF ENDOCYTOSIS AND EXOCYTOSIS AND CONSEQUENCES OF CELL DIVISION  

PubMed Central

Nanomaterials are diverse in size, shape and charge and these differences likely alter their physicochemical properties in biological systems. We have investigated how these properties alter the initial and long-term dynamics of endocytosis, cell viability, cell division, exocytosis, and interaction with a collagen extracellular matrix using silica-based fluorescent nanoparticles and the murine pre-osteoblast cell line, MC3T3-E1. Three surface modified nanoparticles were analyzed: positively charged (PTMA), negatively charged (OH), and neutrally charged polyethylene glycol (PEG). Positively charged PTMA-modified nanoparticles demonstrated the most rapid uptake, within 2 hours, while PEG modified and negatively charged OH nanoparticles demonstrated slower uptake. Cell viability was >80% irrespective of nanoparticle surface charge suggesting a general lack of toxicity. Long-term monitoring of fluorescent intensity revealed that nanoparticles were passed to daughter cells during mitotic cell division with a corresponding decrease in fluorescent intensity. These data suggest that irrespective of surface charge silica nanoparticles have the potential to internalize into osteoblasts, albeit with different kinetics. Furthermore, long lived nanoparticles have the potential to be transferred to daughter cells during mitosis and can be maintained for weeks intracellularly or within a collagen matrix without toxicity and limited exocytosis.

Ha, Shin-Woo; Camalier, Corinne E.; Weitzmann, M. Neale; Beck, George R.; Lee, Jin-Kyu

2013-01-01

181

A long-term frequency stabilized deep ultraviolet laser for Mg+ ions trapping experiments.  

PubMed

As many precision laser spectroscopy experiments require frequency stabilized lasers, development of long-term stabilized lasers is of great interest. In this work, we report long-term frequency stabilization of a 280 nm deep ultraviolet laser to a high precision wavemeter with digital servo control such that the long-term drift of the laser frequency was greatly reduced. Long-term laser frequency drift was measured with a fiber frequency comb system over 8 h. After locking, the maximum drift rate of the 280 nm laser was lowered from 576 MHz/h to 6.4 MHz/h. With proper environment control of the wavemeter, the maximum drift rate of the 280 nm laser was further lowered to less than 480 kHz/h. The locked laser system was successfully used in a Mg(+) ions trapping experiment, which was also discussed in this work. PMID:24387422

Zhang, J; Yuan, W H; Deng, K; Deng, A; Xu, Z T; Qin, C B; Lu, Z H; Luo, J

2013-12-01

182

A long-term frequency stabilized deep ultraviolet laser for Mg+ ions trapping experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As many precision laser spectroscopy experiments require frequency stabilized lasers, development of long-term stabilized lasers is of great interest. In this work, we report long-term frequency stabilization of a 280 nm deep ultraviolet laser to a high precision wavemeter with digital servo control such that the long-term drift of the laser frequency was greatly reduced. Long-term laser frequency drift was measured with a fiber frequency comb system over 8 h. After locking, the maximum drift rate of the 280 nm laser was lowered from 576 MHz/h to 6.4 MHz/h. With proper environment control of the wavemeter, the maximum drift rate of the 280 nm laser was further lowered to less than 480 kHz/h. The locked laser system was successfully used in a Mg+ ions trapping experiment, which was also discussed in this work.

Zhang, J.; Yuan, W. H.; Deng, K.; Deng, A.; Xu, Z. T.; Qin, C. B.; Lu, Z. H.; Luo, J.

2013-12-01

183

How Do Short-Term Rates of Femorotibial Cartilage Change Compare to Long-term Changes? Four Year Follow-up Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare unbiased estimates of short- vs. long-term cartilage loss in osteoarthritic knees. Method 441 knees (216 Kellgren Lawrence [KL] grade 2, 225 KL grade 3) from participants of the Osteoarthritis Initiative were studied over a four year period. Femorotibial cartilage thickness was determined using 3Tesla double echo steady state magnetic resonance imaging, the readers being blinded to time points. Because common measurement time points bias correlations, short-term change (year-one to year-two: Y1?Y2) was compared with long-term change (baseline to year-four: BL?Y4), and initial (BL?Y1) with subsequent (Y2?Y4) observation periods. Results The mean femorotibial cartilage thickness change [standardized response mean] was ?1.2%/?0.8% [?0.42/?0.28] over one (BL?Y1/Y1?Y2), ?2.1%/?2.5% [?0.56/?0.55] over two (BL?Y2/Y2?Y4), ?3.3% [?0.63] over three (Y1?Y4), and ?4.5% [?0.78] over four years. Spearman correlations were 0.33 for Y1?Y2 vs. BL?Y4, and 0.17 for BL?Y1 vs. Y2?Y4 change. Percent agreement between knees showing progression during Y1?Y2 vs. BL?Y4 was 59%, and 64% for BL?Y1 vs. Y2?Y4. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.66 for using Y1?Y2 to predict BL?Y4, and 0.59 for using BL?Y1 to predict Y2?Y4 change. Conclusion Weak to moderate correlations and agreement were observed between individual short- vs. long-term cartilage loss, and between initial and subsequent observation periods. Hence, longer observation periods are recommended to achieve robust results on cartilage loss in individual knees. At cohort and subcohort level (e.g. KLG3 vs. KLG2 knees), the mean cartilage loss increased almost linearly with the length of the observation period and was constant throughout the study.

Eckstein, Felix; Mc Culloch, Charles E.; Lynch, John A.; Nevitt, Michael; Kwoh, C. Kent; Maschek, Susanne; Hudelmaier, Martin; Sharma, Leena; Wirth, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

184

Long-term Observations of Electric Field, Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, Wind Speed, Wind Direction, Rainfall Rate and Solar Insolation at a Remote Meteorological Observing Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For nearly two years we observed the electric field at the surface continually and simultaneously with observations of temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall rate and solar insolation at a remote automated meteorological observing station in Norman, OK. The electric-field observations were made with electric-field mills that were cycled on every few minutes for a period of about 20 seconds, 24 hours a day, seven days a week for the entire period of time. We observed a number of interesting patterns in the observations, some familiar and some not. For example, monthly averages of the observations often yield Carnegie curves, but not always. We noted what appears to be a sunrise effect on some days. We present a representative sample of the observations.

Gallagher, F. W.; Beasley, W. H.; Bansemer, A. R.; Grimsley, D. L.; Byerley, L. G.

2001-12-01

185

Long-Term Results of Lamivudine Monotherapy in Korean Patients with HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B: Response and Relapse Rates, and Factors Related to Durability of HBeAg Seroconversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the long-term effects of lamivudine in 461 Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B who were treated for more than 12 months. Methods: The annual rates of virological response and breakthrough were examined and the predictive factors for post-treatment relapse in 114 patients who achieved hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) loss

Seung Kew Yoon; Jeong Won Jang; Chang Wook Kim; Si Hyun Bae; Jong Young Choi; Sang Wook Choi; Young Sok Lee; Chang Don Lee; Kyu Won Chung; Hee Sik Sun; Boo Sung Kim

2005-01-01

186

Thailand's Student Loans Fund: Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Burdens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Government student loan schemes typically have implicit interest rate subsidies which, while these are a cost to taxpayers, they have the benefit of diminishing repayment burdens for graduates. Our goal is to illustrate the extent of both interest rate subsidies and repayment burdens with respect to Thailand's Student Loans Fund (SLF), using…

Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha; Polsiri, Piruna; Sarachitti, Rangsit; Sitthipongpanich, Thitima

2010-01-01

187

When Are Farm Interest Rate Subsidy Programs Most Effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides subsidized credit to high-risk farm borrowers unable to obtain credit from commercial sources. To boost incomes and to relieve financial stress, Farm Service Agency programs can provide additional interest rate subsidies to borrowers. However, when market interest rates are low as in recent years, these additional subsidies are less effective in improving borrower income

Steven R. Koenig; Charles B. Dodson

1998-01-01

188

Capital account liberalization and commercial bank interest rate margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of literature exists on the potential impact that capital account liberalization has had on uncovered interest rate parity. However, it can also have important effects on domestic bank spreads by providing economies of scale and scope and increasing competitive pressures. This article provides an investigation of how capital account liberalization has affected the interest rate margins of

Winston Ricardo Moore

2010-01-01

189

What is the Real Story for Interest Rate Volatility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

What is the source of interest rate volatility. Why do low interest rates proceed business cycle booms. Most observers tend to assume that monetary policy is largely responsible for it. Indeed, a standard real business cycle model delivers rather small fl...

A. Hornstein H. Uhlig

1999-01-01

190

Monetary Policy and the Term Structure of Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how well a New Keynesian business cycle model can explain the observed behavior of nominal interest rates. We focus on two puzzles raised in previous literature. First, Donaldson, Johnsen, and Mehra (1990) show that while in the U.S. nominal term structure the interest rates are pro-cyclical and term spreads counter-cyclical the stochastic growth model predicts that the interest

Federico Ravenna; Juha Seppala

2006-01-01

191

Long-term results after pancreas transplantation.  

PubMed

With the advances in technique and immunosupression, not only the short- but the long-term outcomes of pancreas transplantation have improved significantly. This retrospective study describes the long-term outcomes of simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplants, pancreas after kidney (PAK), and pancreas transplants alone (PTA). An overall analysis was performed for all deceased donor (DD) primary pancreas transplants performed in the United States between 1988 and 1999. In addition, the long-term outcome for pancreas transplants performed at the University of Minnesota (UM) was analyzed. For SPK transplants performed in the United States between 1998 and 1999, the half-life of the pancreas was almost 12 years, and was 12.5 years for kidneys. For SPK cases where the pancreas was functioning at 1 year, the half-lives of both the pancreas and the kidney grafts extended more than 14 years. The half-lives of solitary pancreas transplants were between 7 years for PAK and 9 years for PTA cases. For US solitary transplants with at least 1 year of graft function, the half-lives extended to almost 9 years. Pancreas transplants performed at the UM showed the same significant improvements over time. Of special interest is the excellent long-term graft function of pancreas transplants from a living donor, which in the early years clearly surpassed that of solitary DD pancreas transplants. A multivariate analysis showed that the factor with the highest impact on long-term graft function in all three transplant categories was the use of a young donor. In SPK cases, the most frequent reason for late graft loss was death with a functioning graft. In solitary pancreas transplants, most late graft losses were still due to immunological reasons. PMID:17889177

Sutherland, D E R; Gruessner, A C

2007-09-01

192

Modeling of Long Term Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long-term care (LTC) refers to services for those who are chronically ill with physical or mental disabilities. This monograph focuses on those people who require government assistance in obtaining such care. It explores the use of modeling and simulation...

M. Katzper

1981-01-01

193

Long Term Illness and Wages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.

2005-01-01

194

Long-term opioid therapy reconsidered.  

PubMed

In the past 20 years, primary care physicians have greatly increased prescribing of long-term opioid therapy. However, the rise in opioid prescribing has outpaced the evidence regarding this practice. Increased opioid availability has been accompanied by an epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose. The rate of opioid addiction among patients receiving long-term opioid therapy remains unclear, but research suggests that opioid misuse is not rare. Recent studies report increased risks for serious adverse events, including fractures, cardiovascular events, and bowel obstruction, although further research on medical risks is needed. New data indicate that opioid-related risks may increase with dose. From a societal perspective, higher-dose regimens account for the majority of opioids dispensed, so cautious dosing may reduce both diversion potential and patient risks for adverse effects. Limiting long-term opioid therapy to patients for whom it provides decisive benefits could also reduce risks. Given the warning signs and knowledge gaps, greater caution and selectivity are needed in prescribing long-term opioid therapy. Until stronger evidence becomes available, clinicians should err on the side of caution when considering this treatment. PMID:21893626

Von Korff, Michael; Kolodny, Andrew; Deyo, Richard A; Chou, Roger

2011-09-01

195

Individuals and Environments: Linking Ability and Skill Ratings With Interests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holland’s (1997) theory of corresponding person and work environment structures was evaluated by comparing the integration of individual and occupational ratings of interests, abilities, and skills. Occupational ratings were obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor’s O*NET database (U.S. Department of Labor, 2007). College students (494 women, 526 men) provided self-ratings of their interests, abilities, and skills. Property vector fitting

Sarah Fetter Anthoney; Patrick Ian Armstrong

2010-01-01

196

Prediction of interest rate using CKLS model with stochastic parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff and Sanders (CKLS) model is a popular one-factor model for describing the spot interest rates. In this paper, the four parameters in the CKLS model are regarded as stochastic. The parameter vector ?(j) of four parameters at the (J+n)-th time point is estimated by the j-th window which is defined as the set consisting of the observed interest rates at the j'-th time point where j?j'?j+n. To model the variation of ?(j), we assume that ?(j) depends on ?(j-m), ?(j-m+1),…, ?(j-1) and the interest rate rj+n at the (j+n)-th time point via a four-dimensional conditional distribution which is derived from a [4(m+1)+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. Treating the (j+n)-th time point as the present time point, we find a prediction interval for the future value rj+n+1 of the interest rate at the next time point when the value rj+n of the interest rate is given. From the above four-dimensional conditional distribution, we also find a prediction interval for the future interest rate rj+n+d at the next d-th (d?2) time point. The prediction intervals based on the CKLS model with stochastic parameters are found to have better ability of covering the observed future interest rates when compared with those based on the model with fixed parameters.

Ying, Khor Chia; Hin, Pooi Ah

2014-06-01

197

Long-range dependence in interest rates and monetary policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter studies the dynamics of Brazilian interest rates for short-term maturities. The Letter employs developed techniques in the econophysics literature and tests for long-range dependence in the term structure of these interest rates for the last decade. Empirical results suggest that the degree of long-range dependence has changed over time due to changes in monetary policy, specially in the short-end of the term structure of interest rates. Therefore, we show that it is possible to identify monetary arrangements using these techniques from econophysics.

Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

2008-01-01

198

Long term stability in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

This study of long term stability in RHIC appears to indicate that the dynamic aperture depends on the number of turns the particles are required to survive. The dynamic aperture will decrease as the number of turns is increased. This effect is a non-linear orbit effect, and is present in the absence of synchrotron oscillations or tune ripples, although the presence of synchrotron oscillations or tune ripple may make the effect worse. The effect appears to depend on the choice of {beta}*. It is an appreciable effect for {beta}* = 2 and barely noticeable for {beta}* = 6 in RHIC. Thus, the long term stability effects can be reduced by increasing {beta}*, and accepting the associated loss in luminosity. So far, this study does not include synchrotron oscillations, which may change the results reported here. 2 refs., 16 figs.

Parzen, G.

1991-03-01

199

Issues in long term care.  

PubMed

Chaplaincy in a long term care facility requires attention to specialized concerns related to the extended length of stay. This article argues the need to (1) retain or restore resident's home church tie; (2) be sensitive to resident/family communications; (3) participate in an interdisciplinary team; (4) understand when to maintain confidentiality and when to speak; (5) know who needs spiritual nourishment. PMID:10312727

Kratz, D G

1988-01-01

200

High Interest Rates, Spreads, and the Costs of Intermediation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: High real interest rates and spreads: An introduction (Spreads and explicit taxes, spreads and implicit taxes on financial intermediation, spreads, operating costs and profits, conclusions and an Agenda for reducing spreads). The costs of interm...

J. A. Hanson R. R. Rocha

1986-01-01

201

Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect

The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

2011-03-22

202

Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

2013-07-01

203

Individuals and Environments: Linking Ability and Skill Ratings with Interests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holland's (1997) theory of corresponding person and work environment structures was evaluated by comparing the integration of individual and occupational ratings of interests, abilities, and skills. Occupational ratings were obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database (U.S. Department of Labor, 2007). College students (494 women,…

Anthoney, Sarah Fetter; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

2010-01-01

204

Long-term recovery of PCB-contaminated sediments at the Lake Hartwell superfund site: PCB dechlorination. 2. Rates and extent.  

PubMed

This paper reports on extensive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination measured in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) sediments. Vertical sediment cores were collected from 18 locations in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) and analyzed in 5-cm increments for PCB congeners. The preferential loss of meta and para chlorines with sediment depth demonstrated that PCBs in the sediments underwent reductive dechlorination after burial. Notably, ortho chlorines were highly conserved for more than 5 decades; since the first appearance of PCBs, ca. 1950-1955. These dechlorination characteristics resulted in the accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners dominated by ortho chlorine substituents. Dechlorination rates were determined by plotting the numbers of meta plus para chlorines per biphenyl molecule (mol of chlorine/mol of PCB) with sediment age. Regression analyses showed linear correlations between meta plus para chlorine concentrations with time. The average dechlorination rate was 0.094 +/- 0.063 mol of Cl/mol of PCB/yr. The rates measured using the 2001 cores were approximately twice those measured using the 2000 cores, most likely because the 2001 cores were collected only at transects O, L, and I, which had the highest rates measured in 2000. An inverse of the dechlorination rates indicated that 16.4 +/- 11.6 yr was required per meta plus para chlorine removal (ranging from 4.3 to 43.5 yr per chlorine removal). The rates determined from this study were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than rates reported from laboratory microcosm studies using Hudson River and St. Lawrence River sediments, suggesting that dechlorination rates reported for laboratory experiments are much higher than those occurring in situ. PMID:15952357

Magar, Victor S; Brenner, Richard C; Johnson, Glenn W; Quensen, John F

2005-05-15

205

Late Cenozoic reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the comparison of short-term and long-term deformation rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabia-Eurasia collision deforms an area of ?3,000,000 km2 of continental crust, making it one of the largest regions of convergent deformation on Earth. There are now estimates for the active slip rates, total convergence and timing of collision-related deformation of regions from western Turkey to eastern Iran. This paper shows that extrapolating the present day slip rates of many

Mark Allen; James Jackson; Richard Walker

2004-01-01

206

Chapter10 Long-Term (10 to 20 kyr) Sediment Generation Rates for the Upper Rió Chagres Basin Based on Cosmogenic 10 Be  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured in situ-produced cosmogenic 10 Be in 17 sand-sized sediment samples (0.25 to 0.85 mm) to estimate the rate and distribution of sediment generation in the upper Chagres watershed over the last 10 to 20 kyr. Results indicate that the upper Chagres watershed is generating sediment uniformly. Nuclide activities suggest basin-wide sediment generation rates of 143 and 354 tons

Kyle K. Nichols; Paul R. Bierman; Robert Finkel; Jennifer Larsen

207

Long-Term Changes in Biodegradation and Volatilization Rates in the Capillary Fringe at the Bemidji, Minnesota Crude-Oil Research Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodegradation and volatilization near the water table make up a coupled natural attenuation pathway that results in significant mass loss of hydrocarbons. Rates of biodegradation and volatilization were documented twice 12-years apart at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Biodegradation rates were determined by calibrating a gas transport model to O2, CO2, and CH4 gas-concentration data in the unsaturated zone. Reaction stoichiometry was assumed in converting O2 and CO2 gas-flux estimates to rates of aerobic biodegradation and CH4 gas-flux estimates to rates of methanogenesis. Model results indicate that rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation associated with methanogenesis in 1997 represented approximately one-half of total hydrocarbon biodegradation near the water table. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation above the center of the floating oil were relatively stable from 1985 to 1997, as the primary metabolic pathway has shifted from aerobic to methanogenic biodegradation. Further downgradient, where substrate concentrations have greatly increased, biodegradation rates increased by greater than an order of magnitude from 0.04 to 0.43 g/m2-day. The coupled pathway has resulted in significant hydrocarbon mass loss at the site, and it was estimated that approximately 0.60 kg/day were lost in both 1985 and 1997. Volatilization rates represented 87 percent of hydrocarbon mass loss in 1985 and decreased to 17 percent by 1997. It appears that volatilization is the primary mechanism for attenuation in the early stages of plume development while biodegradation dominates in later stages.

Delin, G. N.; Chaplin, B. P.; Lahvis, M. A.

2001-12-01

208

Long term thermoelectric module testing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period.

D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy

2009-10-01

209

Bank Mergers and the Dynamics of Deposit Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite extensive research interest in the last decade, the banking literature has not reached a consensus on the impact of\\u000a bank mergers on deposit rates. In particular, results on the dynamics of deposit rates surrounding bank mergers vary substantially\\u000a across studies. In this paper, we aim for a comprehensive empirical analysis of a bank merger’s impact on deposit rate dynamics.

Ben R. Craig; Valeriya Dinger

2009-01-01

210

Links between short and long term tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the quest for understanding the rheology of the lithosphere a central question that can be addressed is the existence of a parameterisation of the rheology, which could reflect both the response of the lithosphere over the large time scale (10's Myr) and the time scale of earthquakes and faulting. The gap existing between these observational time scales is mainly due to modelling approximations which in each separate fields permit to fit the data but which rely on simplification of the physics, the rheology and set of boundary conditions which are not always compatible one with each other. The long-term community, i.e. the geodynamics community, tend to use Mohr-Coulomb non-associated plasticity to model self-consistent shear zone localisation. This type of rheology corresponds, in the limit of a discrete fault plan, to a slip weakening/hardening formulation in which weakening rate depends on fault plan orientation. The short term community, i.e. the earthquake community, has stopped using this kind of formulation and rather uses the rate and state formulation to model the activity of faults. Rate and State is limited because it cannot self-consistently generate an earthquake, the triggering, i.e. the initial slip acceleration must be imposed. This contribution is a synthesis of several geological case studies at different length-scale, in which we suspects a strong link between long term geodynamic processes and current seismological and geodetic observations. We make use of these case studies together with quantitative numerical models to understand how the seismic and inter-seismic behaviour reflects the rather long-term geodynamic setting than the internal rheological properties of faults. After briefly revisiting the different modelling approaches from geodynamic seismologic and geodetic communities, we show how modelling results obtained with the long term modelling approach brings new insights and alternative models for both the seismological and geodetic behaviour of active faults. The first example will concern the seismic activity on low angle normal faults focussing on the case of the Gulf of Corinth. Then focusing on strike slip tectonic, I will compare data from active and exhumed strike slip faults and discuss how a single model can explain their behaviour. The last example will focus on the creeping segment of the San Andreas Fault to discuss how heterogeneities in the long-term tectonic loading (in that instance flexure of the lithosphere) may influence the seismic behaviour of strike slip fault.

Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Traoré, Nafissatou; Lecomte, Emmanuel; Saleeby, Jason

2013-04-01

211

Long-term outcomes of stapled hemorrhoidopexy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hemorrhoidal disease is one of the commonest anorectal disorders worldwide. Stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH) is a treatment modality associated with low postoperative pain and early mobilization. Aim To assess long-term outcomes after SH. Material and methods All 326 patients who underwent SH in 1999–2003 were invited by mail to participate. For each patient we analyzed their medical records, and conducted a questionnaire survey and a digital rectal examination. Results Only 91 patients attended the final examination and the mean ± SD follow-up time was 8.7 ±1.2 years. Recurrences were diagnosed in one third of the 91 subjects. There were correlations between recurrences and: the duration of disease (p = 0.047); female gender (p = 0.037); and childbirth (vaginal delivery) (p = 0.026). Sixty-seven patients (73.6%) were satisfied with the outcomes. In the group of dissatisfied patients symptoms such as pain (p = 0.0001), burning (p = 0.0002) and itching (p = 0.014) were most common. Long-term outcomes were good with 75% and 88% reductions in pain sensation and severe and moderate hemorrhoidal bleeding. Pruritus, burning and discomfort resolved in more than 50% of patients. Flatus incontinence, fecal incontinence, or soiling occurred in 21%, 11%, and 32% of patients. Conclusions Long-term results of stapled hemorrhoidopexy are satisfactory in most patients. The 36% recurrence rate correlates with the degree of hemorrhoidal prolapse before the operation, duration of the disease, female gender, and previous vaginal delivery.

Michalik, Maciej; Bobowicz, Maciej; Witzling, Mieczyslaw

2013-01-01

212

75 FR 20373 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

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2010-04-19

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2013-01-08

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2010-01-05

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2013-10-23

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2013-04-04

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2011-01-13

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2012-01-17

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2012-09-27

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2011-10-19

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2011-07-13

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2011-04-13

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2010-06-30

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2012-03-27

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2013-06-24

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2012-06-26

227

Effects of phosphorus and potassium fertilization rate and placement method on soybean (Glycine max L.) seed quality and long-term storability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fertilization rate and placement methods of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers can positively affect soybean [Glycine max L. (Merr.)] seed composition and yield in some environments, but not in others. Soybean seed production costs and chemically-treated seed disposal costs have increased, coinciding with farmers' adoption of planting chemically-treated soybean seeds. Seeds are treated with fungicides and sometimes with insecticides to

Keaton Krueger

2011-01-01

228

Long-term cosmogenic 3He production rates from 40Ar/ 39Ar and K-Ar dated Patagonian lava flows at 47°S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exceptionally well-preserved basaltic lava flows on the cool, arid, eastern side of the southern Andes near Lago Buenos Aires (LBA) at Lat. 47°S provide ideal sites for calibration of in situ produced cosmogenic 3He. We report new 3He measurements and independent age determinations using unspiked K-Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar incremental heating measurements from two basalt flows. Both age techniques give concordant ages, with analytical uncertainties of <5% demonstrating their utility for dating surfaces older than ˜35 ka (the limit of 14C dating). The weighted mean age of the Cerro Volcán flow is 109±3 ka and of the Rio Pinturas flow is 68±3 ka. Scaled to sea level and high latitude [D. Lal, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 424-439] and standard atmospheric pressure [J.O. Stone, J. Geophys. Res. 105 (2000) 23?753-23?759], 3He production rates on the Cerro Volcán flow are 130±4 atoms g -1 a -1 in clinopyroxene and 139±4 atoms g -1 a -1 in olivine (±2?), consistent with a small compositional dependence of the production rate. The 3He production rate in olivine from the younger Rio Pinturas flow is 129±6 atoms g -1 a -1, which is indistinguishable from that obtained on Cerro Volcán. The 3He production rate is at least 11% higher than previous determinations from low-mid latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Corrections for magnetic field strength variability lower the scaled LBA production rates by only ˜1%, and do not account for the discrepancy. We infer that the enhanced production rates are caused by lower atmospheric pressure in Patagonia during glacial periods. The Southern Westerlies, which are associated with the steep circumpolar atmospheric pressure gradient, are presently centered on Lat. 50°S, but based on independent marine and terrestrial evidence are thought to have migrated north at least 5° during glacial periods. The inferred paleobarometry provides independent evidence for northward shifts in the patterns of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation.

Ackert, Robert P.; Singer, Brad S.; Guillou, Hervé; Kaplan, Mike R.; Kurz, Mark D.

2003-05-01

229

A comparison of methods for deriving solute flux rates using long-term data from streams in the mirror lake watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Calculation of chemical flux rates for streams requires integration of continuous measurements of discharge with discrete measurements of solute concentrations. We compared two commonly used methods for interpolating chemistry data (time-averaging and flow-weighting) to determine whether discrepancies between the two methods were large relative to other sources of error in estimating flux rates. Flux rates of dissolved Si and SO42- were calculated from 10 years of data (1981-1990) for the NW inlet and Outlet of Mirror Lake and for a 40-day period (March 22 to April 30, 1993) during which we augmented our routine (weekly) chemical monitoring with collection of daily samples. The time-averaging method yielded higher estimates of solute flux during high-flow periods if no chemistry samples were collected corresponding to peak discharge. Concentration-discharge relationships should be used to interpolate stream chemistry during changing flow conditions if chemical changes are large. Caution should be used in choosing the appropriate time-scale over which data are pooled to derive the concentration-discharge regressions because the model parameters (slope and intercept) were found to be sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual variation. Both methods approximated solute flux to within 2-10% for a range of solutes that were monitored during the intensive sampling period. Our results suggest that errors arising from interpolation of stream chemistry data are small compared with other sources of error in developing watershed mass balances.

Bukaveckas, P. A.; Likens, G. E.; Winter, T. C.; Buso, D. C.

1998-01-01

230

A long-term comparison of carbon sequestration rates in impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the lower Waccamaw River, South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon storage was compared between impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the Lower Waccamaw River in South Carolina, USA. Soil cores were collected in (1) naturally tidal, (2) moist soil (impounded, seasonally drained since ~1970), and (3) deeply flooded “treatments” (impounded, flooded to ~90 cm since ~2002). Cores were analyzed for % organic carbon, % total carbon, bulk density, and 210Pb and 137Cs for dating purposes. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 25 to 200 g C m?2 yr?1 (moist soil), 80–435 g C m?2 yr?1 (naturally tidal), and 100–250 g C m?2 yr?1 (deeply flooded). The moist soil and naturally tidal treatments were compared over a period of 40 years. The naturally tidal treatment had significantly higher carbon storage (mean?=?219 g C m?2 yr?1 vs. mean?=?91 g C m?2 yr?1) and four times the vertical accretion rate (mean?=?0.84 cm yr?1 vs. mean?=?0.21 cm yr?1) of the moist soil treatment. The results strongly suggest that the long drainage period in moist soil management limits carbon storage over time. Managers across the National Wildlife Refuge system have an opportunity to increase carbon storage by minimizing drainage in impoundments as much as practicable.

Drexler, Judith Z; Krauss, Ken W.; Sasser, M. Craig; Fuller, Christopher C.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Powell, Amber; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Orlando, James

2013-01-01

231

Long term observations of halogenated greenhouse gases in a European continental background station for assessing atmospheric trends, annual growth rates and emission sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate altering halocarbons are continuously monitored at the atmospheric research station "O. Vittori" located on the top of Monte Cimone, Northern Apennines, Italy ( 2165 m asl), in the frame of the SOGE (System for Observation of halogenated Greenhouse gases in Europe) network, an integrated system based on a combination of observations and models aimed at assessing atmospheric trends, annual growth rates and at estimating European halocarbon emissions. The use of such a top-down approach is useful to ascertain compliance to International Protocols regulating production/emission of halogenated greenhouse gases. Establishing the baseline is essential both for estimating annual growth rates and because back attribution techniques are based on the clear identification of "above the background" data. That is particularly challenging in a Station like Monte Cimone characterised by a complex meteorological and source field. The approach proposed is based on the identification of the lowest concentration values in a given temporal range to which a ?c representing variation due to instrumental error is added. Trends are evaluated by using a non-linear regression function, able to take into account both annual and seasonal variation. In order to identify source, regions baseline data are subtracted from the full data set and an inversion modelling cascade, which makes use of MM5 model to reproduce meteorological fields and of FLEXPART to simulate tracer dispersion, is used to find the best emissions map that fits the observations.

Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Uguccioni, F.; Giostra, U.; Furlani, F.; Belfiore, L.; Cava, D.

2009-04-01

232

Long-term results of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the primary treatment of medically inoperable stage I-II endometrial carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Total-abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAHBSO) is the gold-standard therapy for patients with endometrial carcinoma. However, patients with high operative risks are usually treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone. The goal of this study was to update our experience of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB), with or without external-beam irradiation (EBRT), for such patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1984 and 2003, 38 patients with Stage I and Stage II adenocarcinoma of the endometrium considered high operative risk received RT as the primary treatment. The median age was 74.1 years. Before 1996, the local extent of the disease was assessed by an examination under anesthesia (EUA) and by EUA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thereafter. Eight patients (21%) were treated with combined HDRB and EBRT, and 30 patients (79%) were treated with with HDRB alone. The median HDRB dose was 23.9 Gy, typically delivered in 3 fractions in a weekly schedule. The median EBRT dose was 42 Gy. Results: At a median follow-up of 57.5 months for patients at risk, 11 patients (29%) have failed: 6 patients (16%) locally, 4 patients (10.5%) distantly, and 1 patient (3%) locally and distantly. Local failure was established by biopsy, and 4 patients were salvaged by TAHBSO. Higher stage and higher grade were both associated with increased failure rate. The 15-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 78% for all stages, 90% for Stage I, and 42% for Stage II (p < 0.0001). The 15-year DSS was 91% for Grade I and 67% for Grade II and III combined (p = 0.0254). Patients with Stage I disease established by MRI (11 patients) and who received a total HDRB dose of 30 Gy had a DSS rate of 100% at 10 years. Four patients experienced late toxicities: 1 Grade II and 3 Grade III or IV. Conclusion: Medically inoperable Stage I endometrial carcinoma may be safely and effectively treated with HDRB as the primary therapy. In selected Stage I patients, our results are equivalent to that of surgery. We believe that the alternative option of HDRB as the primary therapy for selected Stage I endometrial carcinoma, even in patients with low operative risks, needs further evaluation.

Niazi, Tamim M. [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Portelance, Lorraine [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bahoric, Boris [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gilbert, Lucy [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Stanimir, Gerald [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2005-11-15

233

Long-Term Prognostic Performance of Ki67 Rate in Early Stage, pT1-pT2, pN0, Invasive Breast Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular signatures may become of use in clinical practice to assess the prognosis of breast cancers. However, although international consensus conferences sustain the use of these new markers in the near future, concerns remain about their degree of discordance and cost-effectiveness in different international settings. The present study aims to validate Ki67 as prognostic factor in a large cohort of early-stage (pT1–pT2, pN0) breast cancer patients. Methods 456 patients treated in 1995–1996 were identified in the Institut Curie database. Ki67 (MIB1) was retrospectively assessed by immunohistochemistry for all cases. The prognostic value of this index was compared to that of histological grade (HG), Estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 status. Distant disease free interval, loco-regional recurrence, time-lapse from first metastatic diagnosis to death were analyzed. Results All 456 patients were treated by lumpectomy plus axillary dissection and radiotherapy. 27 patients (5.9%) received systemic treatment. Tumors were classified as HG1 in 35%, HG2 in 42% and HG3 in 23% of cases. ER was expressed in 86% of the tumors, HER2 in 5% and 14% were triple negative. The median follow-up was 151 [5–191] months. Distant and loco-regional disease recurrences were observed in 16% and 18%, respectively. High (>20%) Ki67 rate [HR?=?3 (1.8–4.8), p<10e?06] and HG3 [HR?=?4.4 (2.2–8.6), p?=?0.00002] were associated with an increased rate of distant relapse. In multivariate analysis, the Ki67 remained the only significant prognostic factor in the subgroups of ER positive HER2 negative [HR?=?2.6 (1.5–4.6), p?=?0.0006] and ER positive HER2 negative HG2 tumors [HR?=?2.2 (1.01–4.8), p?=?0.04]. Conclusions We validate the prognosis value of the Ki67 rate in small size node negative breast cancer. We conclude that Ki67 is a potential cost-effective decision marker for adjuvant therapy in early-stage HG2, pT1–pT2, pN0, breast cancers.

Savignoni, Alexia; Feron, Jean-Guillaume; Bollet, Marc Andrew; Kirova, Youlia; Fourquet, Alain; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Cottu, Paul; Dieras, Veronique; Fourchotte, Virginie; Laki, Fatima; Alran, Severine; Asselain, Bernard; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Sastre-Garau, Xavier

2013-01-01

234

Increased pathological complete response rate after a long-term neoadjuvant letrozole treatment in postmenopausal oestrogen and/or progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this study was to determine the optimal scheduling of 2.5?mg daily letrozole in neoadjuvant breast cancer patients to obtain pathological complete response (pathCR) and assess Ki-67 expression as an early predictor of response. Patients and methods: This single institution study comprised 120 oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer (clinical stage ?T2, N0–1), from three sequential cohorts (cohort A of 40, cohort B of 40 and cohort C of 40 patients, respectively) based on different duration of the neoadjuvant letrozole. Biological markers such as ER, progesterone receptor, HER2 and Ki-67 expression were tested at diagnosis and at definitive surgery. Results: A total of 89 patients (75.4%) achieved an objective response with 44 (37.3%) clinical CRs and 45 (38.1%) partial responses. The clinical CRs were significantly observed in cohort C (23 out of 40 patients, 57.5%) and B (16 out of 38 patients, 42.1%) compared with cohort A (5 out of 40 patients, 12.5%) (P-value for trend <0.001). Letrozole induced a similar significant reduction in Ki-67 index after treatment in all cohorts. The pathCR rate was significantly more frequent in cohort C (7 out of 40 patients, 17.5%) than in cohort A (1 out of 40 patients, 2.5%) and B (2 out of 40 patients, 5.0%) (P-value for trend <0.04). Conclusion: One-year neoadjuvant letrozole therapy leads to a higher pathCR rate and may be the optimal length of drug exposure.

Allevi, G; Strina, C; Andreis, D; Zanoni, V; Bazzola, L; Bonardi, S; Foroni, C; Milani, M; Cappelletti, M R; Gussago, F; Aguggini, S; Giardini, R; Martinotti, M; Fox, S B; Harris, A L; Bottini, A; Berruti, A; Generali, D

2013-01-01

235

No improvement in long-term wear and revision rates with the second-generation Biomet cup (RingLoc) in young patients  

PubMed Central

Background A number of excellent results with the cementless titanium femoral component of the Mallory Head Total Hip Replacement have been published. Unfortunately, these excellent results have been counteracted by the poor performance of the cementless titanium acetabular components. In 1994, the HexLoc acetabular component was replaced with a second-generation design, the RingLoc. We hypothesized that the new generation would have improved the results. Methods We retrospectively studied 111 consecutive patients (150 hips) younger than 55 years. Median follow-up time was 14 (6–18) years for the HexLoc and 10 (1–14) years for the RingLoc. 7 patients were lost to follow-up and 7 patients died. The 10-year survival rate, radiographic liner wear, and radiographic signs of prosthesis failure were compared between the 2 acetabular components. Results The Kaplan-Meier survival estimate with revision for any reason as the endpoint showed a 10-year survival of 89% (95% CI: 81–97) for the HexLoc and 92% (CI: 85–98) for the RingLoc. The mean annual wear rate for the HexLoc was 0.16 (SD 0.16) mm and it was 0.15 (0.1) mm for the RingLoc (p = 0.3). The radiographic signs of failure were equally distributed between the 2 groups. Interpretation Compared to the HexLoc type, the RingLoc system did not improve the mean percentage survival at 10 years; nor did it reduce the liner wear. Despite correction of the known design flaws in the HexLoc design, the RingLoc system did not show a clinically relevant improvement compared to its predecessor.

2011-01-01

236

Future of Containment: America's Options for Defending Its Interests on the Soviet Periphery. Report by the Offense-Defense Working Group, Submitted to the Commission on Integrated Long-Term Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report addresses the U.S. strategy for defending its interests in the security of countries on the periphery of the Soviet Union. Since World War II, the protection of those U.S. interests have been the primary motivation for this country's national s...

F. S. Hoffman H. S. Rowen

1988-01-01

237

77 FR 76624 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ending on June 30, 2013, the prompt payment interest rate is 1-3/8 per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments or inquiries...beginning January 1, 2013, and ending on June 30, 2013, is 1-3/8 per centum per annum. Richard L. Gregg, Fiscal...

2012-12-28

238

77 FR 38888 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...December 31, 2012, the prompt payment interest rate is 1\\3/4\\ per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments or inquiries...beginning July 1, 2012, and ending on December 31, 2012, is 1\\3/4\\ per centum per annum. Richard L. Gregg, Fiscal...

2012-06-29

239

78 FR 39063 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...December 31, 2013, the prompt payment interest rate is 1\\3/4\\ per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments or inquiries...beginning July 1, 2013, and ending on December 31, 2013, is 1\\3/4\\ per centum per annum. Richard L. Gregg, Fiscal...

2013-06-28

240

Selected Interest Rates (H-15), Quarterly (for Microcomputers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The H-15 Selected Interest Rates includes daily, weekly, and monthly yields on federal funds, commercial paper (1, 3, and 6-month), finance paper (1, 3, and 6-month), bankers acceptances (3 and 6-month), CD's (1, 3, and 6-month), eurodollar deposits (1, 3...

1991-01-01

241

Exploring Fiscal Policy at Zero Interest Rates in Intermediate Macroeconomics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the financial meltdown of 2007, advanced macroeconomic theory has delved more deeply into the question of the appropriate fiscal policy when the nominal interest rate is close to or at zero percent. Such analysis is typically conducted with the aid of New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium models. The policy implications are,…

Ramamurthy, Srikanth; Sedgley, Norman

2013-01-01

242

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment - Task 4: Modeling - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Trichloroethene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, can be degraded under certain conditions by microorganisms that occur naturally in the subsurface. TCE can be degraded under anaerobic conditions to less chlorinated compounds and ultimately into the non-chlorinated, non-hazardous end product, ethene, via anaerobic reductive dechlorination (ARD). ARD is widely recognized as a TCE degradation mechanism, and occurs in active groundwater remediation and can occur during monitored natural attenuation (MNA). MNA relies on natural processes, such as dispersion and degradation, to reduce contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels without active human intervention other than monitoring. TCE can also be biodegraded under aerobic conditions via cometabolism, in which microbial enzymes produced for other purposes fortuitously also react with TCE. In cometabolism, TCE is oxidized directly to non-hazardous products. Cometabolism as a TCE-degrading process under aerobic conditions is less well known than ARD. Natural attenuation is often discounted as a TCE remedial alternative in aerobic conditions based on the paradigm that TCE is biodegradable only under anaerobic conditions. In contrast to this paradigm, TCE was shown to degrade relative to conservative co-contaminants at an environmentally significant rate in a large (approximately 3 km long) TCE plume in aerobic groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the degradation mechanism was shown to be cometabolism. MNA was selected as the remedy for most of this plume, resulting in a considerable cost savings relative to conventional remedial methods. To determine if cometabolism might be a viable remedy at other sites with TCE-contaminated aerobic groundwater, TCE plumes at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities were screened to evaluate whether TCE commonly degrades in aerobic groundwater, and if degradation rates are fast enough that natural attenuation could be a viable remedy. One hundred and twenty seven plumes at 24 DOE facilities were screened, and 14 plumes were selected for detailed examination. In the plumes selected for further study, spatial changes in the concentration of a conservative co-contaminant were used to compensate for the effects of mixing and temporal changes in TCE release from the contaminant source. Decline in TCE concentration along a flow path in excess of the co contaminant concentration decline was attributed to cometabolic degradation. This study indicated that TCE was degraded in 9 of the 14 plumes examined, with first order degradation half-lives ranging from about 1 to 12 years. TCE degradation in about two-thirds of the plumes examined suggests that cometabolism of TCE in aerobic groundwater is a common occurrence, in contrast to the conventional wisdom that TCE is recalcitrant in aerobic groundwater. The degradation half-life values calculated in this study are short enough that natural attenuation may be a viable remedy in many aerobic plumes. Computer modeling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport and degradation is frequently used to predict the evolution of groundwater plumes, and for evaluating natural attenuation and other remedial alternatives. An important aspect of a computer model is the mathematical approach for describing degradation kinetics. A common approach is to assume that degradation occurs as a first-order process. First order kinetics are easily incorporated into transport models and require only a single value (a degradation half-life) to describe reaction kinetics. The use of first order kinetics is justified in many cases because more elaborate kinetic equations often closely approximate first order kinetics under typical field conditions. A previous modeling study successfully simulated the INL TCE plume using first order degradation kinetics. TCE cometabolism is the result of TCE reacting with microbial enzymes that were produced for other purposes, such as oxidizing a growth substrate to obtain energy. Both TCE and the growth substrate compete for enzyme reactive sites, and the presence of

Robert C. Starr

2005-10-31

243

Simple vs. generalized interest rate and purchasing power parity models of exchange rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a model in which the real exchange rate is affected by the real interest rate and price differentials as well as real factors that cause shocks to the expected flexible-price equilibrium value of the real exchange rate. The model is then employed to test for the “generalized” uncovered interest rate parity and purchasing power parity relations using the

Su Zhou; Saeid Mahdavi

1996-01-01

244

Long-term accelerated weathering of outdoor silicone rubber insulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multistress aging\\/weathering of outdoor composite polymeric insulators has been a topic of interest for power transmission research community in the last few decades. This paper deals with the long-term accelerated weathering of full-scale distribution class silicone rubber composite insulators. To evaluate the long-term synergistic effect of electric stress, temperature and UV radiation on insulators, they were subjected to accelerated weathering

B. Venkatesulu; M. Joy Thomas

2011-01-01

245

Does a Long-Term Relationship Kill Romantic Love?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the possibility that romantic love (with intensity, engagement, and sexual interest) can exist in long-term relationships. A review of taxonomies, theory, and research suggests that romantic love, without the obsession component typical of early stage romantic love, can and does exist in long-term marriages, and is associated with marital satisfaction, well-being, and high self-esteem. Supporting the separate

Bianca P. Acevedo; Arthur Aron

2009-01-01

246

F-BF Compounding with a 5% Interest Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A man invests \\$1000 in an account with a 5% annual interest rate. He knows that money in an account where interest is compounded semi-annually will ea...

247

Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  

MedlinePLUS

... shortly. Unable to Share This Page Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program (OAA, Title VII, Chapter 2, Sections ... Services Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2011 indicate that ...

248

Pricing and hedging long-term options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do long-term and short-term options contain differential information? If so, can long-term options better differentiate among alternative models? To answer these questions, we first demonstrate analytically that differences among alternative models usually may not surface when applied to short-term options, but do so when applied to long-term contracts. Using S&P 500 options and LEAPS, we find that short- and long-term

Gurdip Bakshi; Charles Cao; Zhiwu Chen

2000-01-01

249

Long-Term Planning in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the concepts and issues discussed at a Regional Symposium on Long-term Planning in Higher Education held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, September 21-30, 1986. Chapter 1 explores some fundamental issues about the rationale for the objectives of long-term planning. It defines long-term planning in higher education, considers its…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

250

Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

2005-01-01

251

Long-term competence restoration.  

PubMed

While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed. PMID:24618523

Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

2014-01-01

252

Long-term stellar variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stars with significant subsurface convection zones develop magnetic loop structures that, arising from the surface upward to the external atmospheres, cause flux variability detectable throughout the whole electromagnetic spectrum. In fact, diagnostics of magnetic activity are in radio wavelengths, where gyrosincrotron radiation arises from the quiescent and flaring corona; in the optical region, where important signatures are the Balmer lines, the Ca ii IRT and H&K lines; in the UV and X ray domains, the latter mainly due to coronal thermal plasma. The zoo of different magnetic features observed for the Sun - spots, faculae, flares, CMEs - are characterized by different temporal evolution and energetics, both in quantity and quality. As a consequence, the time scale of variability, the amount of involved energy and the quality of the involved photons are used as fingerprints in interpreting the observed stellar variability in the framework of the solar-stellar analogy. Here I review main results from long-term multiwavelength observations of cool star atmospheres, with emphasis to similarities and differences with the solar case.

Pagano, Isabella

2010-02-01

253

High-dose-rate brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy combined with long-term hormonal therapy for high-risk and very high-risk prostate cancer: outcomes after 5-year follow-up  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria-defined high-risk (HR) and very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer. Data from 178 HR (n = 96, 54%) and VHR (n = 82, 46%) prostate cancer patients who underwent 192Ir-HDR brachytherapy and hypofractionated EBRT with long-term ADT between 2003 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After five fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent ?6 months of neoadjuvant ADT, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months after EBRT. The median follow-up was 61 months (range, 25–94 months) from the start of radiotherapy. The 5-year biochemical non-evidence of disease, freedom from clinical failure and overall survival rates were 90.6% (HR, 97.8%; VHR, 81.9%), 95.2% (HR, 97.7%; VHR, 92.1%), and 96.9% (HR, 100%; VHR, 93.3%), respectively. The highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late genitourinary toxicities were Grade 2 in 7.3% of patients and Grade 3 in 9.6%. The highest late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 2 in 2.8% of patients and Grade 3 in 0%. Although the 5-year outcome of this tri-modality approach seems favorable, further follow-up is necessary to validate clinical and survival advantages of this intensive approach compared with the standard EBRT approach.

Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Kitano, Masashi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Komori, Shouko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Soda, Itaru; Kurosaka, Shinji; Sekiguchi, Akane; Kimura, Masaki; Kawakami, Shogo; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

2014-01-01

254

High-dose-rate brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy combined with long-term hormonal therapy for high-risk and very high-risk prostate cancer: outcomes after 5-year follow-up.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria-defined high-risk (HR) and very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer. Data from 178 HR (n = 96, 54%) and VHR (n = 82, 46%) prostate cancer patients who underwent (192)Ir-HDR brachytherapy and hypofractionated EBRT with long-term ADT between 2003 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After five fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent ? 6 months of neoadjuvant ADT, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months after EBRT. The median follow-up was 61 months (range, 25-94 months) from the start of radiotherapy. The 5-year biochemical non-evidence of disease, freedom from clinical failure and overall survival rates were 90.6% (HR, 97.8%; VHR, 81.9%), 95.2% (HR, 97.7%; VHR, 92.1%), and 96.9% (HR, 100%; VHR, 93.3%), respectively. The highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late genitourinary toxicities were Grade 2 in 7.3% of patients and Grade 3 in 9.6%. The highest late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 2 in 2.8% of patients and Grade 3 in 0%. Although the 5-year outcome of this tri-modality approach seems favorable, further follow-up is necessary to validate clinical and survival advantages of this intensive approach compared with the standard EBRT approach. PMID:24222312

Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Kitano, Masashi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Komori, Shouko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Soda, Itaru; Kurosaka, Shinji; Sekiguchi, Akane; Kimura, Masaki; Kawakami, Shogo; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

2014-05-01

255

Stochastic modeling of the long-term dynamics of liberalized electricity markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, long-term prices and long-term supply reliability are topics of considerable interest for both, firms investing in generation capacity and regulatory authorities. In order to gain insight into the long-term behavior of liberalized power markets, a simulation model based on system dynamics (SD) is proposed. It is shown that the long-term market dynamics can be represented by a balancing feedback

Fernando Olsina; Francisco F. Garcés

2008-01-01

256

Long-term prognosis in community-acquired pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Pneumonia is considered the leading infectious diseases cause of death and the seventh leading cause of death overall in the US. There is significant interest in understanding the relationship between community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and mortality. Recent findings Most clinical studies examining patients with CAP have used an arbitrary in-hospital or 30-day mortality as a short-term mortality clinical end point. However, long-term mortality (arbitrary >3 months) factors, incidence, prediction, and implications on patient care are important issues that require further evaluation in patients with CAP. This review focuses on the most recent literature assessing the importance and the frequency of long-term associated outcomes in patients with CAP, the risk factors, and possible implications for future strategies. Multiple risk factors that include age, sex, comorbid conditions, type of pneumonia, and severity of illness are associated with higher long-term mortality. In addition, several biomarkers were demonstrated to be independently associated with long-term mortality. Summary Despite advances in the understanding of long-term mortality among CAP patients, there is still a high unacceptable long-term mortality. Public health programs should address this important gap, considering the high level of complexity factors in patients with CAP.

Restrepo, Marcos I.; Faverio, Paola; Anzueto, Antonio

2014-01-01

257

Long-term solar-terrestrial observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

1988-01-01

258

Financing Reform for Long-Term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way the nation provides for the financing and delivery of long-term care is badly in need of reform. The principal options for change are private insurance, altering Medicaid, and 110 FROM NURSJNG HOMES TO HOME CARE public long-term care insurance. This article uses the Brookings-ICE Long-Term Care Financing Model to evaluate each of these options in terms of affordability,

Joshua M. Wiener

1996-01-01

259

Long-term correlations in earth sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we review the occurrence and consequences of long-term memory in geophysical records like climate and seismic records, and describe similarities with financial data sets. We review several methods to detect linear and nonlinear long-term correlations, also in the presence of external trends, and show how external trends can be detected in data with long-term memory. We show as well that long-term correlations lead to a natural clustering of extreme events and discuss the implications for several geophysical data sets.

Bunde, Armin; Lennartz, Sabine

2012-06-01

260

Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment.  

PubMed Central

Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels over the next two to four weeks. Other features of the withdrawal included disturbance of sleep and appetite and noticeable weight loss. Electroencephalography showed appreciable reduction in fast-wave activity as the drugs were withdrawn, and an improvement in psychological performance was recorded by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Because of the risk of dependence on benzodiazepines these agents should probably not be given as regular daily treatment for chronic anxiety.

Petursson, H; Lader, M H

1981-01-01

261

Buying Long-Term Care Insurance  

MedlinePLUS

... you can afford the long-term care insurance policy over time, as your monthly income may change Research and consider different options and talk with a professional before finalizing your decision Don’t feel pressured into making a decision LTC PathFinder Long-term care is ...

262

Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

Lorie, Raymond A.

263

Conditions for Gaussian long term manufacturing processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacturing community defines capability indices for manufacturing processes applicable time-wise for both long term and short term processes. The long term process distribution can be constructed from the consolidation of the data sets that was used to estimate the multiple short term distributions. There is a tendency for Gaussian distributed short-term processes to exhibit time sensitive random variation in

R. J. Pieper; Nikhil T. Satyala

2009-01-01

264

Dynamics of long-term genomic selection  

PubMed Central

Background Simulation and empirical studies of genomic selection (GS) show accuracies sufficient to generate rapid gains in early selection cycles. Beyond those cycles, allele frequency changes, recombination, and inbreeding make analytical prediction of gain impossible. The impacts of GS on long-term gain should be studied prior to its implementation. Methods A simulation case-study of this issue was done for barley, an inbred crop. On the basis of marker data on 192 breeding lines from an elite six-row spring barley program, stochastic simulation was used to explore the effects of large or small initial training populations with heritabilities of 0.2 or 0.5, applying GS before or after phenotyping, and applying additional weight on low-frequency favorable marker alleles. Genomic predictions were from ridge regression or a Bayesian analysis. Results Assuming that applying GS prior to phenotyping shortened breeding cycle time by 50%, this practice strongly increased early selection gains but also caused the loss of many favorable QTL alleles, leading to loss of genetic variance, loss of GS accuracy, and a low selection plateau. Placing additional weight on low-frequency favorable marker alleles, however, allowed GS to increase their frequency earlier on, causing an initial increase in genetic variance. This dynamic led to higher long-term gain while mitigating losses in short-term gain. Weighted GS also increased the maintenance of marker polymorphism, ensuring that QTL-marker linkage disequilibrium was higher than in unweighted GS. Conclusions Losing favorable alleles that are in weak linkage disequilibrium with markers is perhaps inevitable when using GS. Placing additional weight on low-frequency favorable alleles, however, may reduce the rate of loss of such alleles to below that of phenotypic selection. Applying such weights at the beginning of GS implementation is important.

2010-01-01

265

[Primary hyperparathyroidism: postoperative long-term evolution].  

PubMed

The long-term postoperative outcome of 87 patients with primary hyperparathyrodism is here presented. Of the total 78 were females and 9 males, ratio: 8.7:1. Mean age 55.3 ± 10.2 years. Before surgery, 44% had kidney stones, 70% had osteopenia or osteoporosis and 71.2% had hypercalciuria. Decrease renal glomerular filtration was found in 12.6%. Of the total, 72 patients had a single adenoma, two double adenoma, two hyperplasia, four had normal histology and seven could not dispose of the result. Serum calcium, ionized calcium, phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone were normalized in all post surgery patients. Bone mineral density increased by 6.9% in lumbar spine and 3% in femoral neck. Markers of bone remodeling were normalized and persisted normal 23 months of follow-up, coinciding with the normal intact parathyroid hormone. Same thing happened with the values of 25 OH D. When patients whith initial hypercalciuria were compared with those with normocalciuria, no differences were found in the basal values and postsurgery in both groups. In 11 patients with previous renal glomerular filtration < 60 ml ÷ min, we found a higher intact parathyroid hormone and lower bone mineral density than the rest. The glomerular filtration rate did not change significantly after surgery. In conclusion, the surgical primary hyperparathyroidism, operated by specialized surgeons has an excellent long-term outcome, with normalization of all parameters of phosphocalcic metabolism and bone remodeling and significant improvement in bone mineral density. Adverse effects were scarce and had spontaneous resolution. PMID:20920956

Spivacow, Francisco R; Martínez, Carolina; Polonsky, Ana

2010-01-01

266

77 FR 5416 - Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate Risk; Investment and Deposit Activities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate Risk; Investment and Deposit Activities AGENCY...the purpose of offsetting interest rate risk (IRR).\\1\\ This ANPR follows an earlier...1\\ Interest rate risk refers to the vulnerability of a...

2012-02-03

267

12 CFR 652.15 - Interest rate risk management and requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Interest rate risk management and requirements. 652.15... § 652.15 Interest rate risk management and requirements. (a...supervision) to the interest rate risk management program and must be...

2010-01-01

268

12 CFR 652.15 - Interest rate risk management and requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Interest rate risk management and requirements. 652.15... § 652.15 Interest rate risk management and requirements. (a...supervision) to the interest rate risk management program and must be...

2009-01-01

269

12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615.5181 Section...615.5181 Bank interest rate risk management program. (a) The board...oversight to the interest rate risk management program and must be...

2010-01-01

270

12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by banks-general. 615... § 615.5180 Interest rate risk management by banksâgeneral. The...and implement an interest rate risk management program tailored to the...

2010-01-01

271

12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615.5181 Section...615.5181 Bank interest rate risk management program. (a) The board...oversight to the interest rate risk management program and must be...

2009-01-01

272

The expectation hypothesis of interest rates and network theory: The case of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the topological properties of the Brazilian term structure of interest rates network. We build the minimum spanning tree (MST), which is based on the concept of ultrametricity, using the correlation matrix for interest rates of different maturities. We show that the short-term interest rate is the most important within the interest rates network, which is in line with the Expectation Hypothesis of interest rates. Furthermore, we find that the Brazilian interest rates network forms clusters by maturity.

Tabak, Benjamin M.; Serra, Thiago R.; Cajueiro, Daniel O.

2009-04-01

273

Money, Interest Rates, and Exchange Rates with Endogenously Segmented Asset Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We analyze the effects of money injections on interest rates and exchange rates when agents must pay a Baumol-Tobin style fixed cost to exchange bonds and money. Asset markets are endogenously segmented because this fixed cost leads agents to trade bonds ...

F. Alvarez A. Atkeson P. J. Kehoe

2001-01-01

274

Oil Prices and Interest Rates: Do They Determine the Exchange Rate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the relationship between the British pound sterling, interest rates, and oil prices has been overemphasized by economic commentators because they ignored a basic economic theory about the determination of the exchange rate. Provides an example and suggestions for follow up instruction. (Author/JDH)

Law, I. A.; Old, J. L.

1986-01-01

275

Long-term acute care hospital utilization after critical illness  

PubMed Central

Context Long-term acute care hospitals have emerged as a novel approach for the care of patients recovering from severe acute illness, but the extent and growth of their activity at the national level is unknown. Objective To examine temporal trends in long-term acute care hospital utilization after an episode of critical illness among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries ? 65 years of age. Design, Setting and Patients Retrospective cohort study using the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review files from 1997 to 2006. We included all Medicare hospitalizations involving admission to an intensive care unit of an acute-care, non-federal hospital within the continental United States. Main outcome measures Overall long-term acute care utilization, associated costs, and survival following transfer. Results The number of long-term acute care hospitals in the United States increased at a mean rate of 8.8% per year, from 192 in 1997 to 408 in 2006. During that time, the annual number of long-term acute care admissions after critical illness increased from 13,732 to 40,353, with annual costs increasing from $484 million to $1.325 billion. The age-standardized population incidence of long-term acute care utilization after critical illness increased from 38.1/100,000 in 1997 to 99.7/100,000 in 2006, with greater use among male individuals and black individuals in all time periods. Over time, transferred patients had higher numbers of comorbidities (5.0 in 1997–2000 versus 5.8 in 2004–2006, p<0.001), and were more likely to receive mechanical ventilation at the long-term acute care hospital (16.4% in 1997–2000 versus 29.8% in 2004–2006, p<0.001). One-year mortality after long-term acute care hospital admission was high throughout the study period: 50.7% in 1997–2000 and 52.2% in 2004–2006. Conclusions Long-term acute care hospital utilization after critical illness is common and increasing. Survival among Medicare beneficiaries transferred to long-term acute care after critical illness is poor.

Kahn, Jeremy M.; Benson, Nicole M.; Appleby, Dina; Carson, Shannon S.; Iwashyna, Theodore J.

2011-01-01

276

Analysis of Solar Irradiation Anomalies in Long Term Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of global hemispheric irradiation measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of solar irradiation in India using anomalies techniques and trends in ten places over India. Most of the places have exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, M.; Polo, J.; Martin, L.; Navarro, A.; Serra, I.

2012-04-01

277

Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

2014-05-01

278

Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.  

PubMed Central

Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1

Sykes, L R

1996-01-01

279

The determinants of bank interest rate margins: an international study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the determinants of bank net interest margins (NIMs) in six selected European countries and the US during the period 1988–1995 for a sample of 614 banks. We apply the Ho and Saunders model (Ho, T., Saunders, A., 1981. The determinants of bank interest margins: theory and empirical evidence. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analyses 16, 581–600) to

Anthony Saunders; Liliana Schumacher

2000-01-01

280

What Is Long-Term Care?  

MedlinePLUS

... Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers ... on Alzheimer's Disease Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community Home About Us Accessibility Disclaimer Privacy Contact ...

281

Who Needs Care? (Long-Term Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers ... on Alzheimer's Disease Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community Home About Us Accessibility Disclaimer Privacy Contact ...

282

Long-term treatment of venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed

Long term treatment of venous thromboembolism is essential to complete therapy of the index episode and to reduce recurrences. Vitamin K antagonists are the mainstay for the long term treatment of venous thromboembolism for the majority of the patients as they allow oral administration. Low-molecular weight heparins are recommended for the long term treatment of cancer patients. The duration of long term anticoagulation depends on the features of the index venous thromboembolism and on the presence of associated risk factors. Patients at high risk for recurrence - mainly those who suffered unprovoked venous thromboembolism and those with cancer - should be evaluated for extended anticoagulation. The risk for major bleeding complications and the inconvenience for monitoring, dose adjustment and drug-food interactions are the main constraints for indefinite anticoagulant treatment. New anticoagulants with more favourable efficacy- safety profile and reduced need for monitoring could improve the feasibility of extended anticoagulation. PMID:24846227

Becattini, Cecilia; Manina, Giorgia

2014-05-01

283

Administration in Long Term Care Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings of a seminar on strategies for improving long-term care facilities through better management are reported. Forms for use in the identification of goals, problem areas, and management practices are included. An intersystem approach to long-...

1976-01-01

284

Long Term Cryopreservation of Dog Granulocytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Granulocytes isolated by counterflow centrifugation eluriation (CCE) from leukapheresed dog blood, frozen in liquid nitrogen at -196 C, were studied. The effects of long term cryopreservation on cell recovery and in vitro function were determined. In eigh...

F. J. Lionetti F. W. Luscinskas C. R. Valeri A. J. Melaragno

1981-01-01

285

Long-Term Use of Benzodiazepines  

PubMed Central

Problems associated with physical dependence and abuse of benzodiazepines by a small percentage of patients have reduced their popularity from the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in the 1970s to being prescribed for mainly short periods. Patients who benefit from long-term benzodiazepine use are nearly ignored by the medical community as a whole. This article details what patient population can improve from long-term benzodiazepine therapy, the risks and benefits of treatment, and how to select appropriate candidates.

Potts, Nicholas L.S.; Krishnan, K. Ranga R.

1992-01-01

286

Evidence-based long term care design.  

PubMed

Research on the impact of the built environment in long-term care settings continues to grow. This article focuses on work conducted and published since 2000, when an earlier review on research on dementia and design was published. The vast majority of research that addressed neurological conditions in residents in long-term care settings (assisted living and nursing homes) relates to Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. PMID:19893184

Calkins, Margaret P

2009-01-01

287

Preceptors in long-term care  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preceptor is an experienced and competent staff member who serves as a clinical role model and resource person to newly employed nursing personnel. Although this concept has been prominent since the late 1970s in acute health care settings, preceptors rarely are used in long-term care facilities. This article describes the overall effectiveness of the first long-term care preceptor program

Cindy A Shemansky

1998-01-01

288

Classification of Long-Term EEG Recordings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Computer assisted processing of long-term EEG recordings is gaining a growing importance. To simplify the work of a physician,\\u000a that must visually evaluate long recordings, we present a method for automatic processing of EEG based on learning classifier.\\u000a This method supports the automatic search of long-term EEG recording and detection of graphoelements – signal parts with characteristic\\u000a shape and defined

Karel Kosar; Lenka Lhotská; Vladimir Krajca

2004-01-01

289

Long-Term Property Insurance 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes long-term insurance (LTI) as an alternative to the standard annual property insurance policy. LTI offers significant benefits to many stakeholders by reducing insurers' administrative costs, lowering search costs, providing stability to consumers and incentivizing property owners to invest in risk-reducing measures. A simple two-period model illustrates situations that would make a long-term contract attractive to both insurers

Dwight Jaffee; Howard Kunreuther; Erwann Michel-Kerjan

290

F-BF Compounding with a 100% Interest Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A man knows that money in an account where interest is compounded semi-annually will earn interest faster than money in an account where interest is co...

291

The Significance of Introducing Permanent Assignments for Nursing Assistants at a Long-Term Care Setting on the Incidence Rate of Facility-Acquired Pressure Ulcers Among Elderly Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure ulcer prevalence remains a major health concern in long-term care facilities. The treatment of these pressure ulcers causes a financial drain on health care resources and adds potential costs for the family of the institutionalized elderly, according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The prevention of pressure ulcer development continues to be an essential objective of caregivers

Erlynda Mangaco-Borja

2011-01-01

292

Long-term Behavior of DNAPL Residuals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding and being able to predict the long-term behavior of DNAPL (i.e., TCE) residuals in the source zone are significant in the evaluation of plume spreading. We apply both theoretical analysis and pore-scale simulations to investigate the mass transfer and the effect of reductive dechlorination, in which the contaminant behaves as electron acceptor. At the upfront of the source zone, where the boundary layer has not fully developed, the mass transfer increases as a power-law function of the Peclet number, and is enhanced by biodegradation. These results are consistent with past findings. Under certain conditions, further downstream inside the source zone, the rate of dissolution is slower due to the diluted mass from upstream. Widely applied first-order biodegradation implicitly assumes that the reaction solely depends on the concentration of the contaminant. However, in the slow dilution region, the limitation of electron donor on biodegradation is not negligible. For the reaction between an electron donor and an electron acceptor with intrinsic second-order kinetics, the late-time bio-reaction demonstrates a first-order decay macroscopically with respect to the mass of electron donor, not with respect to that of the contaminant. The late-time decay rate only depends on the intrinsic rate and the solubility of the contaminant. During the intermediate time, affecting by both the concentrations of electron donor and electron acceptor, the first-order decay is not valid. We show that the electron donor decays as exp(-t^2), instead of exp(-t). Moreover, the intermediate-time decay rate is a function of the spatial distribution of DNAPL residuals and the initial conditions.he relationship of the Sherwood number and Peclet number (Comparison of pore-scale simulations and best-fitting curve) he decay of electron donor as a function of t^2

Liu, Y.; Illangasekare, T.; Kitanidis, P. K.

2012-12-01

293

49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal. The rate levels will be determined as...Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the date the statement is...Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the day when the...

2013-10-01

294

Long-term climate change signature in polar wander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar wander represents long-term variations of the north-pole position (or polar motion), and is generally believed to be driven by long-term mass change in the mantle and core of the solid Earth. Modern space geodetic observations show that since around mid or late 90's, the polar wander rate appears to depart from its normal trend in the past several decades. Using satellite gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and estimates from advanced climate models, we demonstrate that polar wander is also closely connected to long-term variability (i.e., air, water, and ice mass change) in the climate system, and the 'abnormal' polar wander variability in the past decade or so is mainly driven by accelerated polar ice sheet melting, global sea level change, and terrestrial water storage change in the recent decade. Furthermore, polar motion time series shows significant decadal variability during the past 50 years (1962 - 2011), which is also likely connected to unquantified climate change events in the past, based on the remarkable agreement between GRACE data and polar motion measurements in the recent decade. This study has demonstrated that accurately measured polar motion time series provides observational constraints on long-term large-scale climate change events in the Earth climate system, and offers a possible means for studying long-term climate change variability in the past (when adequate spaceborne observations were not available).

Chen, J.

2011-12-01

295

Long-term climate change signatures in polar wander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar wander represents long-term variations of the north-pole position (or polar motion), and is generally believed to be driven by long-term mass change in the mantle and core of the solid Earth. Modern space geodetic observations show that since around mid or late 90's, the polar wander rate appears to depart from its normal trend in the past several decades. Using satellite gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and estimates from advanced climate models, we demonstrate that polar wander is also closely connected to long-term variability (i.e., air, water, and ice mass change) in the climate system, and the 'abnormal' polar wander variability in the past decade or so is mainly driven by accelerated polar ice sheet melting, global sea level change, and terrestrial water storage change in the recent decade. Furthermore, polar motion time series shows significant decadal variability during the past 50 years (1962 - 2011), which is also likely connected to unquantified climate change events in the past, based on the remarkable agreement between GRACE data and polar motion measurements in the recent decade. This study has demonstrated that accurately measured polar motion time series provides observational constraints on long-term large-scale climate change events in the Earth climate system, and offers a possible means for studying long-term climate change variability in the past (when adequate spaceborne observations were not available).

Chen, J.

2012-04-01

296

First Long-Term slip-Rate Along the San Andreas Fault Based on 10Be-26Al Surface Exposure Dating : The Biskra Palms Site, 23 mm/yr for the last 30,000 years.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slip-rate along the San Andreas fault is known precisely at only two locations : at Wallace Creek, 34 +/- 3 mm/yr for the past 13,500 yrs and at Cajon Creek, 24.5+/- 3 mm/yr for the past 14,500 yrs. When compared to the long-term and far-field plate motion, these rates provide important constraint on how and where strain is accommodated across the plate boundary. Here we present a new determination of the slip-rate along the San Andreas Fault at Biskra Palms, based on 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating. The studied area is located southeast of the San Gorgonio restraining bend, a complex section of the fault which has not produced a large earthquake in historical time. At Biskra Palms, the San Andreas Fault offsets an alluvial fan (T2) about 700 m. Keller et al. (1982) recognized the importance of this site and estimated the age of the offset fan surfaces based on degree of soil development between 20 and 70 kyrs, providing a very loosely constraint slip-rate between 10 and 35 mm/yr. We have analyzed 21 quartz rich cobbles from the surface of the fan, upstream, downstream and within the fault zone. 10Be and 26Al measurements yield consistent results implying simple exposure at the surface. 7 samples collected on the T2 fan surface downstream yield an average exposure age of 30.7 +/- 2.1 kyrs. The tight cluster of these ages indicate no or minor pre-exposition during transport in the small catchment upstream. 7 samples from T2 upstream from the fault yield an average exposure age of 29.5 +/- 2.8 kyrs. One additional sample of this surface (38.4+/-3.6 kyrs) is older than the others and may have been pre-exposed before deposition on the fan. 2 samples from a T2 remnant within the fault zone yield an average age of 29.6 +/- 2.6 kyrs. 4 additional samples were collected from two smaller alluvial surfaces (T3 and T4) remnant found only upstream from the fault zone and yield average ages of 33.3 and 27.3 kyrs that are similar to the age of T2. This suggest that these surfaces were emplaced rapidly in a few thousands years or so ~30,000 years ago. Taking the 700 m offset and dividing it by the average age of T2 (30.1 +/-2.4 kyrs) yields a slip-rate of 23.3+/-3.5 mm/yrs. The different fault strands of the San Gorgonio step-over converge southeastward toward the Biskra Palms site, so that this rate applies to the the entire San Andreas fault zone. The 23 mm/yr rate is undistinguishable from the rate derived at Cajon Creek, 120 km to the northwest, and places an important new constraint on the behavior of the San Andreas Fault across the San Gorgonio Pass restraining bend. Keller et al. (1982), Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 93, 46-56.

van der Woerd, J.; Klinger, Y.; Sieh, K.; Tapponnier, P.; Ryerson, F.

2001-12-01

297

First Long-term Slip-rate Along The San Andreas Fault Based On 10be-26al Surface Exposure Dating : The Biskra Palms Site, 23 Mm/yr For The Last 30000 Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slip-rate along the San Andreas fault is known precisely at only two locations : at Wallace Creek, 34 +- 3 mm/yr for the past 13,500 yrs and at Cajon Creek, 24.5 +- 3 mm/yr for the past 14,500 yrs. When compared to the long-term and far-field plate motion, these rates provide important constraint on how and where strain is accommo- dated across the plate boundary. Here we present a new determination of the slip-rate along the San Andreas Fault at Biskra Palms, based on 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating. The studied area is located southeast of the San Gorgonio restraining bend, a complex section of the fault which has not produced a large earthquake in historical time. At Biskra Palms, the San Andreas Fault offsets an alluvial fan (T2) about 700 m. Keller et al. (1982) recognized the importance of this site and estimated the age of the offset fan surfaces based on degree of soil development between 20 and 70 kyrs, providing a very loosely constraint slip-rate between 10 and 35 mm/yr. We have an- alyzed 21 quartz rich cobbles from the surface of the fan, upstream, downstream and within the fault zone. 10Be and 26Al measurements yield consistent results implying simple exposure at the surface. 7 samples collected on the T2 fan surface downstream yield an average exposure age of 30.7 +- 2.1 kyrs. The tight cluster of these ages in- dicate no or minor pre-exposition during transport in the small catchment upstream. 7 samples from T2 upstream from the fault yield an average exposure age of 29.5 +- 2.8 kyrs. One additional sample of this surface (38.4s3.6 kyrs) is older than the others ´ and may have been pre-exposed before deposition on the fan. 2 samples from a T2 remnant within the fault zone yield an average age of 29.6 +- 2.6 kyrs. 4 additional samples were collected from two smaller alluvial surfaces (T3 and T4) remnant found only upstream from the fault zone and yield average ages of 33.3 and 27.3 kyrs that are similar to the age of T2. This suggest that these surfaces were emplaced rapidly in a few thousands years or so ~30,000 years ago. Taking the 700 m offset and dividing it by the average age of T2 (30.1 +- 2.4 kyrs) yields a slip-rate of 23.3 +- 3.5 mm/yrs. The different fault strands of the San Gorgonio step-over converge southeastward to- ward the Biskra Palms site, so that this rate applies to the the entire San Andreas fault zone. The 23 mm/yr rate is undistinguishable from the rate derived at Cajon Creek, 1 120 km to the northwest, and places an important new constraint on the behavior of the San Andreas Fault across the San Gorgonio Pass restraining bend. Keller et al. (1982), Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 93, 46-56. 2

Klinger, Y.; van der Woerd, J.; Sieh, K.; Tapponnier, P.; Ryerson, F. J.

298

Genetic Testing For Alzheimer's And Long-Term Care Insurance  

PubMed Central

A genetic marker known as apolipoprotein E provides a clear signal of a person’s risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and thus that person’s future need for long-term care. People who find that they have the variant of the trait that increases Alzheimer’s disease risk are more likely to purchase long-term care insurance after receiving this information. If the information is widely introduced into the insurance market, coverage rates could be affected in different ways, depending on who possesses that information. Policymakers will eventually need to confront the issue of the use of this and other markers in the pricing of long-term care insurance.

Taylor, Donald H.; Cook-Deegan, Robert M.; Hiraki, Susan; Roberts, J. Scott; Blazer, Dan G.; Green, Robert C.

2010-01-01

299

Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

MacFall, Janet

2012-01-01

300

78 FR 13999 - Maximum Interest Rates on Guaranteed Farm Loans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) or the 5-year Treasury note rate, unless the lender...interim rule uses the 3-month LIBOR and the 5-year Treasury note rate as the indices. The...points (5.5 percentage points) above 5-year Treasury for loans fixed for five...

2013-03-04

301

Long-term outcome after angiographically proven coronary stent thrombosis.  

PubMed

The long-term outcomes of patients with angiographically proved stent thrombosis (ST) are insufficiently known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presentation and in-hospital and long-term outcomes of patients with angiographically proved ST as well as predictors of unfavorable clinical outcomes. One hundred six consecutive patients (mean age 69 ± 12 years, 85 men) presenting from 2003 to 2011 with 117 angiographically proved STs were included in the analysis. The time interval from initial stent implantation to ST, antiplatelet therapy at presentation, and the frequency and predictors of adverse events (death, myocardial infarction, and recurrent ST) during long-term follow-up (mean 65 ± 30 months) were evaluated. Eighty-six patients (80.9%) had early ST, 7 patients (6.6%) had late ST, and 13 patients (12.2%) had very late ST. Eighty-three patients (78.3%) were receiving dual-antiplatelet therapy at the time of ST. Eighty-three patients (78.3%) presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions, and 23 patients (21.6%) presented with other forms of acute coronary syndromes. Death rates during hospitalization, at 1 year, and at long-term follow-up were 17.9%, 23.8%, and 35.6%, respectively. The rates of recurrent definite ST during hospitalization, at 1 year, and at long-term follow-up were 7.5%, 9.9%, and 10.9%, respectively. Univariate predictors of the combined end point of death rate and definite recurrent ST were presentation with cardiogenic shock, left ventricular ejection fraction <30% at presentation, renal failure, discontinuation of clopidogrel administration at presentation, maximal creatine phosphokinase after ST, and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade after intervention. Independent predictors of the primary end point at long-term follow-up remained cardiogenic shock (odds ratio [OR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08 to 1.63, p = 0.0069), renal failure (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.57, p = 0.0425), and TIMI flow grade after intervention (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.98, p = 0.0315). Current cigarette smoking was an independent predictor of repeat definite ST at long-term follow-up (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.27, p = 0.0321). In conclusion, ST was associated with detrimental outcomes in the acute phase as well as the long-term phase. Recurrent ST was not infrequent. PMID:23415513

Almalla, Mohammad; Schröder, Jörg; Hennings, Vera; Marx, Nikolaus; Hoffmann, Rainer

2013-05-01

302

A probabilistic clustering method for US interest rate analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite mixture distributions provide a flexible method for high-dimensional data modeling. They are widely used in many disciplines such as astronomy and genetics. One reason for their popularity is their flexibility and straightforward implementation. The interest increase in multivariate mixtures and their applicability when they are combined with clustering methods motivated us to opt for these methods to analyse financial

Foued Saâdaoui

2010-01-01

303

Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love.  

PubMed

The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding. PMID:21208991

Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L

2012-02-01

304

The long-term ecological research program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major developments have emerged in the field of ecology as a result of taking a long-term approach to both basic and applied research [Strayer, 1986]. In recognition of both the advantages of long-term research programs and the historical difficulty of sustaining such research efforts, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted its Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program in 1980 [Callahan, 1984]. The LTER Program has a number of important links with the geosciences and is likely to play a significant role in work on terrestrial, freshwater, and estuarine ecosystems within the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IBGP); it is thus a good time for us to begin communicating with geoscientists who are helping to shape IGBP.

Swanson, Frederick J.; Franklin, J. F.

305

The US Long Term Ecological Research Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience describes Long Term Ecological Research program in the US. The 24 projects of the National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research Network, whose sites range from the poles to the Tropics, from rain forests to tundras and deserts, and from offshore marine to estuarine and freshwater habitats, address fundamental and applied ecological issues that can be understood only through a long-term approach. Each project addresses different ecological questions; even the scale of research differs across sites. Projects in the network are linked by the requirement for some research at each site on five core areas, including primary production, decomposition, and trophic dynamics, and by cross-site comparisons, which are aided by the universally available databases. Many species and environmental variables are studied, and a wide range of synthetic results have been generated.

JOHN E. HOBBIE, STEPHEN R. CARPENTER, NANCY B. GRIMM, JAMES R. GOSZ, and TIMOTHY R. SEASTEDT (;)

2003-01-01

306

Long-term Experience with Chiari's Osteotomy  

PubMed Central

Fifty-six years after the introduction of Chiari’s pelvic osteotomy, we report the long-term function scores and radiographic grade of osteoarthritis in 66 patients with 80 pelvic osteotomies with a minimum followup time of 27 years (average, 32 years; range, 27–48 years). These 66 patients were those who could be contacted and who returned for a followup visit from among 450 patients operated between 1961 and 1981. Thirty-two hips (40%) in 28 patients had undergone a total joint arthroplasty after an average 26 years (range, 13–41 years). Forty-eight hips in 41 patients (60%) were not replaced, their Harris hip score being a median of 82 points (range, 37–100 points). For the 22 patients for whom we had complete radiographs the average preoperative CE angle was 11.6°, 48.6° (range, 31°–82.8°) immediately postoperatively, and 41.6° (range, 13.7°–90°) at last followup . Despite a functional hip score in most patients retaining their native hip, the degree of osteoarthritis progressed at last followup. We observed a similar mean age at the time of osteotomy in patients converted to total hip arthroplasty and those retaining their native hip. Age at time of surgery was inversely correlated (r = ?0.78) with the interval between the osteotomy and THA. In this select patient group we found good functional outcome in patients who underwent Chiari pelvic osteotomy, with a conversion rate of 40% to total hip arthroplasty a mean of 32 years after the procedure. Level of Evidence: Level IV, case series. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Chiari, Catharina; Hofstaetter, Jochen G.; Lunzer, Andreas; Peloschek, Philipp

2009-01-01

307

Long-term experience with Chiari's osteotomy.  

PubMed

Fifty-six years after the introduction of Chiari's pelvic osteotomy, we report the long-term function scores and radiographic grade of osteoarthritis in 66 patients with 80 pelvic osteotomies with a minimum followup time of 27 years (average, 32 years; range, 27-48 years). These 66 patients were those who could be contacted and who returned for a followup visit from among 450 patients operated between 1961 and 1981. Thirty-two hips (40%) in 28 patients had undergone a total joint arthroplasty after an average 26 years (range, 13-41 years). Forty-eight hips in 41 patients (60%) were not replaced, their Harris hip score being a median of 82 points (range, 37-100 points). For the 22 patients for whom we had complete radiographs the average preoperative CE angle was 11.6 degrees, 48.6 degrees (range, 31 degrees-82.8 degrees) immediately postoperatively, and 41.6 degrees (range, 13.7 degrees-90 degrees) at last followup . Despite a functional hip score in most patients retaining their native hip, the degree of osteoarthritis progressed at last followup. We observed a similar mean age at the time of osteotomy in patients converted to total hip arthroplasty and those retaining their native hip. Age at time of surgery was inversely correlated (r = -0.78) with the interval between the osteotomy and THA. In this select patient group we found good functional outcome in patients who underwent Chiari pelvic osteotomy, with a conversion rate of 40% to total hip arthroplasty a mean of 32 years after the procedure. Level of Evidence: Level IV, case series. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19521741

Kotz, Rainer; Chiari, Catharina; Hofstaetter, Jochen G; Lunzer, Andreas; Peloschek, Philipp

2009-09-01

308

31 CFR 535.440 - Commercially reasonable interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...be the rate agreed upon by the bank and Iran. However, where a deposit has in...account. Furthermore, in the event that the Iran-U.S Claims Tribunal (the âTribunal...to that agreed upon between the bank and Iran, or compensation or damages in lieu...

2013-07-01

309

Pricing and Hedging Long-Term Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent empirical studies find that once an option pricing model has incorporated stochastic volatility, allowing interest rates to be stochastic does not improve pricing or hedging any further while adding random jumps to the modeling framework only helps the pricing of extremely short-term options but not the hedging performance. Given that only options of relatively short terms are used in

Charles Quanwei Cao; Gurdip S. Bakshi; Zhiwu Chen

1998-01-01

310

Bidding for Long-Term Care Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document outlines options for a long-term care system in which competitive bidding is used to establish the price of care. The design of the competitive bidding mechanism is examined along with the interaction and cross-impact of competitive bidding ...

A. J. Hogan C. V. Getts

1982-01-01

311

LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

312

Long-Term Monitoring of Polars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present long-term observations of magnetic cataclysmic variables AM Her, AN UMa, AR UMa, DP Leo, and V1309 Ori obtained with the ROTSEIIId telescope. All data have been analysed and preliminary results indicate periods of 170 days, 217 days, and 180 days for AM Her, AN UMa, and AR UMa, respectively.

Kalomeni, B.

2012-04-01

313

Long-Term Stability of Social Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

2008-01-01

314

Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

Lubinski, Rosemary

2006-01-01

315

Long-Term Care Research and Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a framework for understanding how long-term care (LTC) research contributes to policy, develops a typology of research contributions to policy with examples of each type, and suggests ways to ensure that contributions continue in the future. The article draws on in-depth interviews with LTC experts working at the interface…

Kemper, Peter

2003-01-01

316

Long-Term Impacts of Educational Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school accountability movement has led to a marked increase in the use of standardized test scores to measure school and teacher productivity, yet little is known about the correlation between test score gains and improvements in long-term outcomes. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I study the impact of a school choice policy in…

Deming, David James

2010-01-01

317

Long-term studies of dopamine agonists.  

PubMed

Dopamine agonists have long been used as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In more recent years these drugs have also been proved safe and effective as initial therapy in lieu of levodopa in the treatment of PD. Long-term levodopa therapy is associated with motor complications, including fluctuating response patterns and dyskinesia. By initially introducing a dopamine agonist as symptomatic drug therapy, it may be possible to postpone the use of levodopa and delay or prevent the development of motor complications. Recently, four clinical trials have explored this hypothesis by comparing the long-term response and side effects of levodopa with dopamine agonist therapy. The drugs studied have included ropinirole, pramipexole, cabergoline, and pergolide. In each of these projects, the occurrence of motor complications, such as wearing off and dyskinesia, was significantly less in the subjects assigned to initiation of therapy with a dopamine agonist. The addition of levodopa could be postponed by many months or even several years. Therefore, these long-term studies of dopamine agonists support the initiation of a dopamine agonist instead of levodopa in an effort to postpone levodopa-related motor complications. This therapeutic approach may be particularly appropriate in PD patients with a long treatment horizon on the basis of age and general good health. The extension phase of the long-term study comparing pramipexole with levodopa is ongoing, and follow-up information may help to establish the value of this treatment strategy. PMID:11909984

Hubble, Jean P

2002-02-26

318

TOXIC MODELING SYSTEM LONG-TERM (TOXLT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Toxic Modeling System Long-Term (TOXLT) is a personal-computer- based model that has been developed in conjunction with the release of the new version of the EPAs Industrial Source Complex (ISC2) Dispersion Models (EPA, 1992) and the promulgation of the EPAs A Tiered Modeling...

319

Long-Term Sequelae of Stroke  

PubMed Central

Scant attention has been paid to the long-term consequences and complications resulting from a stroke. Many stroke survivors go on to develop a variety of medical, musculoskeletal, and psychosocial complications, years after the acute stroke. The family physician is regularly called upon to deal with these problems, but is often hampered by a lack of resources.

Teasell, Robert W.

1992-01-01

320

Foundation work in long-term care.  

PubMed

Health foundations have invested in services, research, and advocacy to improve the financing and delivery of long-term services and supports. This article describes some of the broad array of approaches they have taken--in such areas as aging in place, assisted living, "culture change" in nursing homes, quality improvement, augmenting the workforce, and paying for care. PMID:20048379

LeRoy, Lauren; Treanor, Katherine; Art, Emily

2010-01-01

321

LONG-TERM PERITONEAL DIALYSIS IN INFANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the numbers of infants requiring dialysis are small, management of these patients presents many chal- lenges. Mortality is high in infants with comorbidities, com- plications of dialysis are common, and most of these infants need enteral feeding. However, the long-term outcome for otherwise healthy infants is comparable to that for older children.

Lesley Rees

322

Long Term Capability Requirements as derived from the Long Term Requirements Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the 38 Long Term Capability Requirements indentified by NATO in the 2009 Long Term Requirements Study, at least four can be directly applied to waterside security research and technology. First, Area Access Control, the capability of controlling access to designated unattended areas and borders, denying or allowing access to appropriate personnel and equipment. It must be capable of monitoring

J. Brownlee

2010-01-01

323

Long Term Care. Survey and Plan for Long Term Care in East Central Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A plan for development of facilities for long-term care in East Central Michigan is presented by East Central Michigan Comprehensive Health Planning Council (ECMCHPC) which is based on the findings of a survey of long-term care facilities. General plannin...

1975-01-01

324

Long-term consequences of severe infections.  

PubMed

There are convincing data to show that the consequences of a severe infection extend well beyond the first month following it. During the first year after severe sepsis or infection, the survival of sepsis patients is guarded compared with matched control groups. Their quality of life is impaired, and they suffer from rapid degradation in cognition and functional capacity. We could postulate three explanations for the long-term bad outcomes of severe infections and sepsis (or a combination of the three): (i) sepsis usually happens in the elderly and sick, and it causes deterioration in life expectancy and functional status as an acute, non-specific event; (ii) an interaction between specific mechanisms of sepsis and underlying disorders; or (iii) long-term complications directly related to infection. If the second or third explanations are true, then management of the original infection/sepsis might have an influence on long-term outcomes. Elderly survivors of severe infections should be carefully assessed for whether they need intermediate care for recuperation and re-conditioning when leaving hospital. We need prospective, observational studies to define which are the factors that most influence long-term outcomes, and especially management of the acute infection. The investigation of long-term outcomes in trials of treatment modalities for sepsis or severe infections should be encouraged. The true answer for whether one treatment is better than another in severe infections or sepsis lies in the people trajectory in the year following the infection, and not only on 4-6 weeks outcome. PMID:23397980

Leibovici, L

2013-06-01

325

Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.  

PubMed Central

This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximately 10% and remained at approximately that level throughout follow-up. The proportion meeting criteria for remission (Hamilton Depression score of 7 or less) rose gradually to approximately 45%. Long-term prognosis (i.e. probability of remission at 6 months and beyond) was strongly related to remission status at 3 months (odds ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.81-4.76) and only modestly related to various clinical characteristics assessed at baseline (e.g. prior history of recurrent depression, medical comorbidity, comorbid anxiety symptoms). The findings indicate that potentially modifiable risk factors influence the long-term prognosis of depression. This suggests that more systematic and effective depression treatment programmes might have an important effect on long-term course and reduce the overall burden of chronic and recurrent depression.

Simon, G. E.

2000-01-01

326

Finite hedging in field theory models of interest rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use path integrals to calculate hedge parameters and efficacy of hedging in a quantum field theory generalization of the Heath, Jarrow, and Morton [Robert Jarrow, David Heath, and Andrew Morton, Econometrica 60, 77 (1992)] term structure model, which parsimoniously describes the evolution of imperfectly correlated forward rates. We calculate, within the model specification, the effectiveness of hedging over finite periods of time, and obtain the limiting case of instantaneous hedging. We use empirical estimates for the parameters of the model to show that a low-dimensional hedge portfolio is quite effective.

Baaquie, Belal E.; Srikant, Marakani

2004-03-01

327

Long Term Corrosion/Degradation Test Six Year Results  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains neutron-activated metals from non-fuel, nuclear reactor core components. The Long-Term Corrosion/Degradation (LTCD) Test is designed to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements to the environment. The test is using two proven, industry-standard methods—direct corrosion testing using metal coupons, and monitored corrosion testing using electrical/resistance probes—to determine corrosion rates for various metal alloys generally representing the metals of interest buried at the SDA, including Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, Beryllium S200F, Aluminum 6061, Zircaloy-4, low-carbon steel, and Ferralium 255. In the direct testing, metal coupons are retrieved for corrosion evaluation after having been buried in SDA backfill soil and exposed to natural SDA environmental conditions for times ranging from one year to as many as 32 years, depending on research needs and funding availability. In the monitored testing, electrical/resistance probes buried in SDA backfill soil will provide corrosion data for the duration of the test or until the probes fail. This report provides an update describing the current status of the test and documents results to date. Data from the one-year and three-year results are also included, for comparison and evaluation of trends. In the six-year results, most metals being tested showed extremely low measurable rates of general corrosion. For Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, and Ferralium 255, corrosion rates fell in the range of “no reportable” to 0.0002 mils per year (MPY). Corrosion rates for Zircaloy-4 ranged from no measurable corrosion to 0.0001 MPY. These rates are two orders of magnitude lower than those specified in the performance assessment for the SDA. The corrosion on the carbon steel, beryllium, and aluminum were more evident with a clear difference in corrosion performance between the 4-ft and 10-ft levels. Notable surface corrosion products were evident as well as numerous pit initiation sites. Since the corrosion of the beryllium and aluminum is characterized by pitting, the geometrical character of the corrosion becomes more significant than the general corrosion rate. Both pitting factor and weight loss data should be used together. For six-year exposure, the maximum carbon steel corrosion rate was 0.3643 MPY while the maximum beryllium corrosion rate was 0.3282 MPY and the maximum aluminum corrosion rate was 0.0030 MPY.

M. K. Adler Flitton; C. W. Bishop; M. E. Delwiche; T. S. Yoder

2004-09-01

328

LONG-TERM NITROGEN FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON CORN YIELDS AND SOIL PROPERTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long -term experiment (1958-2002) provides information about the sustainability of long-term nitrogen (N) fertilizer use and continuous corn production in the northern Corn Belt. The experiment includes three N rates (none, medium, and high) applied annually in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Nitrogen rates in the medium and high categories increased over time and are currently

Larry G. Bundy

329

Endogenous term premia and anomalies in the term structure of interest rates: Explaining the predictability smile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have documented a `predictability smile’ in the post-war term structure of interest rates: spreads between long rates and short rates predict subsequent movements in short rates provided the long horizon is less than three months or greater than two years, but not for intermediate maturities. Proposed explanations of the smile involve interest rate smoothing by the Fed, time-varying

William Roberds; Charles H. Whiteman

1999-01-01

330

CLOSED FORM SOLUTIONS FOR TERM STRUCTURE DERIVATIVES WITH LOG-NORMAL INTEREST RATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive a unied term structure of interest rates model which gives closed form solutions for caps and floors written on interest rates as well as puts and calls written on zero-coupon bonds. The crucial assumption is that the simple interest rate over a xed nite period that matches the contract, which we want to price, is log-normally distributed. Moreover,

KRISTIAN R. MILTERSEN; KLAUS SANDMANN; DIETER SONDERMANN

1995-01-01

331

Analysis of Effects of Foreign Bank Entry on Credit Interest Rate Behavior in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following foreign bank entry, credit interest rates have been extremely high in Serbia compared with a reference group of countries: Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. This is connected with monetary authorities poor predictions regarding the behavior of those banks in setting interest rates, creating an illusion that competition, per se, would rapidly result in decreasing interest rates; as well as undertaking

?or?e ?uki?

2007-01-01

332

Chronic depression. Issues in long-term management.  

PubMed

Patients with protracted depression respond well to long-term maintenance antidepressant therapy. A precise diagnosis is a prerequisite to therapeutic decisions. Diagnosis may be missed and treatment inadequate if symptoms are attributed solely to aging or to life's circumstances. Proper dosage is determined by the patient's age and metabolic capabilities, and patient education increases compliance. Although the patient may deny the need for psychotherapy, continued support and a life review help the patient acquire insights and adjust to changes. The patient can sustain progress by keeping active, pursuing interests, and socializing. The aim of long-term antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to reduce morbidity, restore productive and optimal functioning, and enhance the quality of life. The attainment of previous levels of function is the gauge of success. PMID:2492660

Bacani-Oropilla, T; Lippmann, S B

1989-02-01

333

Long-term effects of gypsiferous coal combustion ash applied at disposal levels on soil chemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there is renewed interest in the agricultural utilization of coal combustion byproducts. Field sites where high rates (112 Mg ha-1) of high gypsum coal combustion spent bed ashes were surface applied in 1980 within fruit tree orchard rows were identified and sampled with depth. The objective of this study was to examine the effects on long-term exposure\\/leaching of these

R. F. Korcak; W. Doral Kemper

1993-01-01

334

[Taiwan long-term care insurance and the evolution of long-term care in Japan].  

PubMed

The proportion of elderly (65 years of age and older) in Taiwan has exceeded 10% since 2008. With more elderly, the number of patients suffering from dementia and disabilities has also been rapidly increasing. Japan also has been facing increasing demand for long-term care due to an aging society. Prior to 2000, social welfare programs in Japan, working to cope with changing needs, typically provided insufficient services, and geriatric patients were hospitalized unnecessarily, wasting medical resources and causing undue patient hardship. In response, Japan launched its long-term care insurance program in April 2000. Under the program, city, town and village-based organizations should take responsibility for providing care to the elderly in their place of residence. The program significantly improved previous financial shortfalls and long-term care supply and demand has been met by existing social welfare organization resources. In Taiwan, the provision of long-term care by county / city authorities has proven inconsistent, with performance deemed poor after its first decade of long-term care operations. Service was found to be affected by differences in available resources and insufficient long-term care administration. The cultures of Taiwan and Japan are similar. The authors visited the Japan Long-Term Care Insurance Institute in August 2009. Main issues involved in the implementation and evolution of the Japan long-term Care Insurance are reported on in this paper. We hope such may be useful information to those working to develop long-term care programs in Taiwan. PMID:20661859

Huang, Hui-Wen; Liu, Shu-Hui; Pai, Yu-Chu

2010-08-01

335

[Long-term results in pediatric orthopedics].  

PubMed

Whether to treat deformities in childhood or even to operate on them is a difficult decision which may affect a patient's whole life. Most important is a sound knowledge of the natural course. Many 'deformities' are just normal variants, and others improve during the growth period, but some get worse and may cause damage in later life. However the outcome of operations is not always certain. Recurrence may occur as well as overcorrection; therefore, the long-term prognosis, with or without treatment, must be the guideline for indications. If an operation is considered, timing and extent of a correction are decisive. On the grounds of long-term outcome studies, guidelines can be established for the treatment of different diseases and deformities: upper extremities [dysmelia, elbow], spine [scoliosis, Scheuermann's disease, spondylolisthesis], hip (congenital dysplasia, Perthes' disease, slipped epiphysis), knee and feet (flatfoot, pes equinovarus). PMID:7631274

Engelhardt, P

1995-07-01

336

Modeling long-term collider performance  

SciTech Connect

A model for the SSC arcs is described with multipole lattice field errors agglomerated into 32 lattice points, and with first order lattice errors and modulation provided by discrete transfer elements. Numerical solutions for long term dynamic aperture studies are obtained by multipole kick-drift tracking. The CPU time required to track through one turn is minimal, and comparable to that required to implement a one-turn fifth-order Taylor series map. Comparisons with tracking results using a fine grained representation of the lattice are made, and found to be satisfactory. The effects of tune modulation are studied and can substantially degrade long-term dynamic aperture. The effects of small relativistic momentum corrections, usually neglected for the large momenta at the SSC, are shown to have negligible influence on tracking results. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Ritson, D. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States) Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States))

1991-07-01

337

Long-term sequelae of electrical injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event.

Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

2013-01-01

338

Long term therapy of generalized anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common (lifetime prevalence: 5.1%), recurrent condition, which often heralds other psychiatric disorders, notably depression. As by definition it is a disorder progressing over months, treatment should be designed on a long term basis. And yet, few studies have been conducted beyond the classical 6–8 weeks characterizing the acute treatment phase. This is especially true of

Frédéric Rouillon

2004-01-01

339

Pupil motility in long-term diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Employing infrared TV-videopupillography and the open loop stimulatory technique the ability of the pupil of the eye to react to rhythmic light stimuli of increasing frequencies was studied in 15 control subjects and 14 long-term juvenile diabetics. The degree of retinopathy varied from nil to proliferative changes. The visual acuity of all subjects studied was at least 6\\/9 and there

Á. B. Hreidarsson

1979-01-01

340

LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a

2003-01-01

341

Long-Term Morbidity of PCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome, economic burden, healthcare cost, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, metabolic\\u000a syndrome, endometrial cancer The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results in a number of immediate and long-term morbidities\\u000a that are associated with a significant impact on quality of life and on economic costs. Immediate morbidities include menstrual\\u000a dysfunction and abnormal uterine bleeding, subfertility and infertility, and androgen excess-related

Ricardo Azziz

342

Long-Term Metabolic Complications Posttransplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 4,500 transplants are performed each year in the United States. Advances in organ preservation and surgical\\u000a technique and in the management of immunosuppression have significantly improved survival. Short-term survival is excellent.\\u000a As long-term survival increases, cardiovascular complications are emerging as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hypertension,\\u000a dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus all are increased in liver transplant recipients

Lisa M. Forman

343

Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated stimulation of hippocampal neurons can induce an immediate and prolonged increase in synaptic strength that is called long-term potentiation (LTP)-the primary cellular model of memory in the mammalian brain1. An early phase of LTP (lasting less than three hours) can be dissociated from late-phase LTP by using inhibitors of transcription and translation2-8. Because protein synthesis occurs mainly in the

Uwe Frey; Richard G. M. Morris

1997-01-01

344

Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects--instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought shocks are used to identify differences in pre-school nutritional status across siblings. Improvements in height-for-age in pre-schoolers are associated with increased height as

Harold Alderman; John Hoddinott; Bill Kinsey

2006-01-01

345

Consequences of long-term hyperparathyroidism.  

PubMed

We describe a young woman with long-term untreated hyperparathyroidism with a superimposed vitamin D deficiency and an extremely decreased bone mineral density that was complicated by a vertebral fracture. Despite pretreatment with intravenous pamidronate and short-term vitamin D supplementation, severe and long-standing hypocalcaemia ('hungry bone syndrome') developed after parathyroidectomy. We discuss the consequences of hyperparathyroidism, especially the effects on bone, the complications of parathyroidectomy and the possibilities of preoperative treatment with bisphosphonates. PMID:9718941

Graal, M B; Wolffenbuttel, B H

1998-07-01

346

Emotional behavior in long-term marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction.

Laura L. Carstensen; John M. Gottman; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

347

Long-Term Trajectories of Adolescent Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A growing literature has emerged examining long-term patterns of substance use among teens who exhibit casual and more severe\\u000a use. This work evaluates treatment outcomes for teens who have substance abuse problems and identifies important developmental\\u000a correlates of those outcomes as teens age into young adulthood. This research informs the development of valuable addiction\\u000a recovery management models and identifies some

Sandra A. Brown; Danielle E. Ramo; Kristen G. Anderson

348

Long-term predictive capability of erosion models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief overview of long-term cavitation and liquid impingement erosion and modeling methods proposed by different investigators, including the curve-fit approach is presented. A table was prepared to highlight the number of variables necessary for each model in order to compute the erosion-versus-time curves. A power law relation based on the average erosion rate is suggested which may solve several modeling problems.

Veerabhadra, P.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

349

Anthracycline cardiotoxicity in long-term survivors of childhood cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthracycline chemotherapy is a widely-used and effective treatment for a wide spectrum of childhood cancers. Its use is limited\\u000a by associated progressive and clinically significant cardiotoxic effects. Onset can be acute, early, or late. While acute\\u000a onset is rare, long-term survivors have significantly elevated rates of cardiac morbidity and mortality. Major complications\\u000a include cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, and atherosclerosis. Means

Rebecca E. Scully; Steven E. Lipshultz

2007-01-01

350

Evolution and Resolution of Long-term Cardiac Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Cardiac memory (CM) refers to T-wave changes induced by ventricular pacing or arrhythmia that accumulate in magnitude and duration with repeated episodes of abnormal activation. We report herein the kinetics of long-term CM and its association with the ventricular action potential. Methods and Results—Dogs were paced from the ventricles at rates of 110 to 120 bpm for '3 weeks. CM

Alexei Shvilkin; Peter Danilo; Jie Wang; Daniel Burkhoff; Evgeny P. Anyukhovsky; Eugene A. Sosunov; Motoki Hara; Michael R. Rosen

2010-01-01

351

Long-term ozone and UV variations at Thessaloniki, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total columnar ozone has been decreasing over middle latitudes (20°–60°) between 1979 and December 2000 at rates of about 4% in winter\\/spring and about 2% per decade in the summer. Total ozone trends through 1997 and through 2000 differ only over the middle and high latitudes of the northern hemisphere. This long-term trend was interrupted by periods of enhanced volcanic

C. S. Zerefos

2002-01-01

352

Titanium for long-term tritium storage  

SciTech Connect

Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

Heung, L.K.

1994-12-01

353

Infective endocarditis: determinants of long term outcome  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate predictors of long term prognosis in infective endocarditis. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary care centre. Patients: 212 consecutive patients with infective endocarditis between 1980 and 1995 Main outcome measures: Overall and cardiac mortality; event-free survival; and the following events: recurrence, need for late valve surgery, bleeding and embolic complications, cerebral dysfunction, congestive heart failure. Results: During a mean follow up period of 89 months (range 1–244 months), 56% of patients died. In 180 hospital survivors, overall and cardiac mortality amounted to 45% and 24%, respectively. By multivariate analysis, early surgical treatment, infection by streptococci, age < 55 years, absence of congestive heart failure, and > 6 symptoms or signs of endocarditis during active infection were predictive of improved overall long term survival. Independent determinants of event-free survival were infection by streptococci and age < 55 years. Event-free survival was 17% at the end of follow up both in medically–surgically treated patients and in medically treated patients. Conclusions: Long term survival following infective endocarditis is 50% after 10 years and is predicted by early surgical treatment, age < 55 years, lack of congestive heart failure, and the initial presence of more symptoms of endocarditis.

Netzer, R O M; Altwegg, S C; Zollinger, E; Tauber, M; Carrel, T; Seiler, C

2002-01-01

354

Adjustment of Commercial Bank's Interest Rates and the Effectiveness of Monetary Policy in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study uses the asymmetric error correction model as in Scholnick (1996) and two wholesale bank interest rates (prime interbank lending and the negotiable certificate of deposit rates), to examine how market interest rates adjust to changes in the SARB official rate under different policy regimes in South Africa. The study covered the period between 1973 and 2004, which was

Meshach Aziakpono; Magdalene Kasyoka Wilson; Jason Manuel

2007-01-01

355

Estimating long-term exposures from short-term measurements.  

PubMed

Many health problems are related to chronic exposure of individuals to pollutants in the environment. The level of exposure of a specified population is typically represented by the mean level of exposure of the population, the variation in exposure between individuals within the population, and levels of exposure for selected percentiles of the population, such as the 50th and 98th percentiles. However, the day-to-day level of exposure for individuals varies, and direct measurement of total exposure for long periods of time is impractical. The problem is to estimate the quantities listed above using incomplete sampling of the time period of interest. This paper looks at the effect of using estimates of long-term exposure for individuals on estimating the exposure distribution of the population. A simple and apparently robust estimate for the upper percentiles of the exposure distribution is proposed. Problems related to estimating an individual's long-term exposure, including sample size, are also discussed. The length of time defined as long-term in this paper is one year; however, the results are generalizable to any period of time desired. PMID:8814776

Buck, R J; Hammerstrom, K A; Ryan, P B

1995-01-01

356

Long-term hearing result using Kurz titanium ossicular implants.  

PubMed

Titanium implants in middle ear surgery were introduced in the late 90s and are now frequently used in middle ear surgery. However, long-term studies of patient outcome are few and have only been published in subgroups of patients. We report the long-term effect of titanium middle ear implants for ossicular reconstruction in chronic ear disease investigated in a Norwegian tertiary otological referral centre. Retrospective chart reviews were performed for procedures involving 76 titanium implants between 2000 and 2007. All patients who underwent surgery using the Kurz Vario titanium implant were included in the study. Audiological parameters using four frequencies, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 kHz, according to AAO-HNS guidelines, was assessed pre and postoperatively. Otosurgical procedures, complications, revisions, and extrusion rates were analyzed. The study had no dropouts. The partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP) was used in 44 procedures and the total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP) in 32 procedures, respectively. Mean follow-up was 5.2 years (62 months). The ossiculoplasties were performed as staging procedures or in combination with other chronic ear surgery. The same surgeon performed all the procedures. A postoperative air-bone gap of ? 20 dB was obtained in 74 % of the patients, 82 % for the Bell (PORP) prosthesis, and 63 % for the Arial (TORP) prosthesis. The extrusion rate was 5 %. We conclude that titanium ossicular implants give stable and excellent long-term hearing results. PMID:23081670

Hess-Erga, Jeanette; Møller, Per; Vassbotn, Flemming Slinning

2013-05-01

357

Integration of Research with Long-Term Monitoring: Breeding Wood Ducks on the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

In 1981, long-term monitoring of breeding wood ducks was initiated. Females were marked and recaptured for 15 years and annual population parameters were developed. Precise parameter estimates were possible due to high capture rates. The results contribute to the long-term understanding of wood duck populations.

Kennamer, R.A.; Hepp, G.R.

2000-10-01

358

Long-term fate of organics in waste deposits and its effect on metal release  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term chemical evolution in waste deposits and the release of toxic metals was investigated. The degradation of organic matter and hence the potential efflux of heavy metals in a long-term perspective was studied by defining some scenarios for waste deposits containing organic compounds, different longevity and functions of covers and different water and air intrusion rates. The scenarios were

S. Bozkurt; L. Moreno; I. Neretnieks

1999-01-01

359

Monetary Policy and the Term Structure of Interest Rates When Short-Term Rates Are Close to Zero  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zero lower bound on nominal interest rates can affect the effectiveness of monetary policy potentially in two ways. First, it limits the size of a change in the policy interest rate when trying to loosen money. For example, when the nominal rate is 0.5 percent, it obviously cannot be cut by more than 0.5 percent. Second, it may alter

Shigeru Iwata

2010-01-01

360

Elderly and long-term care trends and policy in Taiwan: challenges and opportunities for health care professionals.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to address the trends and policy of elderly and long-term care in Taiwan. In response to the increasing demand of an aging society, healthcare professionals play crucial roles in elderly and long-term care and quality assurance of services. This article focuses on the current situation of elderly health care, demands of long-term care, long-term care policy in Taiwan, draft of the Long-term Care Services Act, and draft of the Long-term Care Insurance Act. After the 10-year long-term care project was proposed by the Taiwan government, the supply of health care services and demand for long-term care have created many challenges and opportunities for innovative health professional development. Challenges consist of low old dependency ratio caused by low birth rate, lack of elderly and long-term care related manpower, services and education reform related to long-term care for the future society, and interprofessional collaboration and team work of long-term care. Opportunities include expanding the roles and the career pathways of healthcare professionals, promoting the concepts of active aging and good quality of life, and developing industrial cooperation related to long-term care services. Under these circumstances, healthcare professonals are actively involved in practice, education and research of long-term care services that ensure elderly and disabled people can live a healthier and better life. PMID:22974664

Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Tsay, Shwn-Feng

2012-09-01

361

Long-term space flights - personal impressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a final 4-month stage of a 1-year space flight of cosmonauts Titov and Manarov, a physician, Valery Polyakov was included on a crew for the purpose of evaluating their health, correcting physical status to prepare for the spacecraft reentry and landing operations. The complex program of scientific investigations and experiments performed by the physician included an evaluation of adaptation reactions of the human body at different stages of space mission using clinicophysiological and biochemical methods; testing of alternative regimes of exercise and new countermeasures to prevent an unfavourable effect of long-term weightlessness.

Polyakov, V. V.

362

Dacryocystostenting: technical and long-term results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose.  We describe our experience in treating epiphora caused by chronic inflammation and obstruction of the nasolacrimal system\\u000a by endonasal placement of a polyurethane stent in the nasolacrimal duct, with long-term assessment of patency (4 years).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and methods.  Between July 1998 and May 2001, 57 stents were inserted using Song’s technique. All procedures were carried out in the radiology\\u000a suite following

P. Falappa; M. Ortenzi; F. Passarelli; M. Micozzi

2006-01-01

363

Long-Term Wind Power Variability  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

Wan, Y. H.

2012-01-01

364

[Long term prognosis after circulatory arrest].  

PubMed

24 PATIENTS HAVING SURVIVED MORE THAN 18 MONTHS AFTER AN EPISODE OF CIRCULATORY ARREST WERE EXAMINED WITH THE AIM OF ASSESSING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS TO SUCH AN INCIDENT. The results obtained were encouraging, since immediately after the circulatory arrest there were only monor troubles reflecting the simple bringing into action of defence mechanisms. Long term adaptation was deemed excellent in 80 p.cent of cases which should, nevertheless, lead to any underestimation of those sequelae which, though happily rare, are highly incapacitating. PMID:1153308

Nicolas, G; Besancon, G; Bouhour, J B; Godin, J F; Vincent, J P

1975-05-10

365

Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

Akins, F. R.

1979-01-01

366

Hedging LIBOR derivatives in a field theory model of interest rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate LIBOR-based derivatives using a parsimonious field theory interest rate model capable of instilling imperfect correlation between different maturities. Delta and Gamma hedge parameters are derived for LIBOR caps against fluctuations in underlying forward rates. An empirical illustration of our methodology is conducted to demonstrate the influence of correlation on the hedging of interest rate risk.

Baaquie, Belal E.; Liang, Cui; Warachka, Mitch C.

2007-02-01

367

Bond Pricing and the Term Structure of Interest Rates: A New Methodology for Contingent Claims Valuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a unifying theory for valuing contingent claims under a stochastic term structure of interest rates. The methodology, based on the equivalent martingale measure technique, takes as given an initial forward rate curve and a family of potential stochastic processes for its subsequent movements. A no-arbitrage condition restricts this family of processes, yielding valuation formula for interest rate

David Heath; Robert Jarrow; Andrew Morton

1992-01-01

368

The Association between Changes in Interest Rates, Earnings, and Equity Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have documented that stock returns are negatively related to changes in interest rates, but there has been little corroborating research on the information in interest- rate changes about the fundamentals that the stock market prices. The negative correlation is often attributed to changes in the discount rate, a denominator effect in a valuation model. However, there may also

Doron Nissim; Stephen H. Penman

2003-01-01

369

Long-term stability in proton storage rings  

SciTech Connect

The stability of Hamiltonian systems has been one of the fascinating concerns of physics over the centuries. Since protons circulating in high energy storage rings probably satisfy Hamiltonian requirements better than any other system that can be subjected to experimentation (the quality factor Q of their betatron oscillations is of order 10[sup 9]), the study of their stability is of natural interest. Of course, motivation is also provided by the desire to assure the long-term stability of protons in accelerators such as the SSC and the LHC. That is the subject of this report.

Talman, R.

1992-08-01

370

Long-term stability in proton storage rings  

SciTech Connect

The stability of Hamiltonian systems has been one of the fascinating concerns of physics over the centuries. Since protons circulating in high energy storage rings probably satisfy Hamiltonian requirements better than any other system that can be subjected to experimentation (the quality factor Q of their betatron oscillations is of order 10{sup 9}), the study of their stability is of natural interest. Of course, motivation is also provided by the desire to assure the long-term stability of protons in accelerators such as the SSC and the LHC. That is the subject of this report.

Talman, R.

1992-08-01

371

The role of interest and inflation rates in life-cycle cost analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of projected interest and inflation rates on life cycle cost calculations is discussed and a method is proposed for making such calculations which replaces these rates by a single parameter. Besides simplifying the analysis, the method clarifies the roles of these rates. An analysis of historical interest and inflation rates from 1950 to 1976 shows that the proposed method can be expected to yield very good projections of life cycle cost even if the rates themselves fluctuate considerably.

Eisenberger, I.; Remer, D. S.; Lorden, G.

1978-01-01

372

Monetary Policy Transmission under Zero Interest Rates: An Extended Time-Varying Parameter Vector Autoregression Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to explore monetary policy transmission under zero interest rates by explicitly incorporating the zero lower bound (ZLB) of nominal interest rates into the time-varying parameter structural vector autoregression model with stochastic volatility (TVP-VAR-ZLB). Nominal interest rates are modeled as censored variables with Tobit-type non-linearity and are incorporated into the TVP-VAR framework. For estimation, an efficient Markov chain

Jouchi Nakajima

2011-01-01

373

Monetary Policy Transmission under Zero Interest Rates: An Extended Time-Varying Parameter Vector Autoregression Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to explore monetary policy transmission under zero interest rates by explicitly incorporating the zero lower bound (ZLB) of nominal interest rates into the time-varying parameter structural vector autoregression model with stochastic volatility (TVP- VAR-ZLB). Nominal interest rates are modeled as a censored variable with Tobit-type non-linearity and incorporated into the TVP-VAR framework. For estimation, an efficient Markov

Jouchi Nakajima

2011-01-01

374

Short- and long-term outcome for living pancreas donors.  

PubMed

The advantages of living donor pancreas transplants for the recipient include good HLA matching, lower immunologic risk, less immunosuppression, lower risk of infection and of posttransplant malignancies, and shorter pancreas graft preservation time. In 2008, a total of 155 segmental pancreas transplants using living donors were reported to the International Pancreas Transplant Registry from six countries. Pancreas living donors need to undergo a thorough pretransplant endocrinologic workup in order to minimize the risk of metabolic complications. The pretransplant workup has evolved over time, after initial reports showed that up to 25% of living donors had elevated hemoglobin A(1c) levels after donation. Avoiding obesity after donation diminishes the risk of long-term metabolic complications. The risk of surgical complications for the donor (such as pancreatitis, pancreatic leak or fistula, pancreatic abscess, and pancreatic pseudocyst) is less than 5%. If both the donor and recipient operations are technically successful, the long-term graft survival rate is significantly higher for living (versus deceased) donor pancreas transplant recipients. Future long-term studies of metabolic function in living donors are warranted to determine whether living donor pancreas transplants can safely be applied more widely and whether living donors can be used for islet transplants. PMID:19652901

Reynoso, Jason F; Gruessner, Christine E; Sutherland, David E R; Gruessner, Rainer W G

2010-03-01

375

Long-term pituitary downregulation before frozen embryo transfer could improve pregnancy outcomes in women with adenomyosis.  

PubMed

Some studies have shown that long-term gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist administration before in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm in infertile women with endometriosis or adenomyosis significantly increases the chances of pregnancy. We were interested in whether long-term GnRH agonist pretreatment could improve pregnancy outcomes in adenomyosis patients undergoing frozen embryo transfer (FET) after preparation of the endometrium with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Totally, 339 patients with adenomyosis were included in this retrospective study, 194 received long-term GnRH agonist plus HRT (down-regulation?+?HRT) and 145 received HRT. There were no differences between the groups in characteristic such as age, body mass index, duration or cause of infertility, serum CA-125 level and basal hormone levels. On the day of progesterone administration, mean endometrial thickness and serum progesterone level were significantly greater in HRT patients. Mean score and number of embryos transferred showed no differences. In down regulation?+?HRT group, clinical pregnancy, implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates were 51.35%, 32.56% and 48.91%, respectively, significantly higher than that of HRT group (24.83%, 16.07% and 21.38%, respectively). So, we concluded that in FET, long-term GnRH agonist pretreatment significantly improved pregnancy outcomes in patients with adenomyosis. PMID:24006906

Niu, Zhihong; Chen, Qian; Sun, Yijuan; Feng, Yun

2013-12-01

376

Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected to improve patient outcomes, reduce ICU admission, enhance patient comfort, and increase the efficiency of health care resource utilization. Current literature indicates that noninvasive ventilation improves and stabilizes the clinical course of many patients with chronic ventilatory failure. Noninvasive ventilation also permits long-term mechanical ventilation to be an acceptable option for patients who otherwise would not have been treated if tracheostomy were the only alternative. Nevertheless, these results appear to be better in patients with neuromuscular/-parietal disorders than in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This clinical review will address the use of noninvasive ventilation (not including continuous positive airway pressure) mainly in diseases responsible for chronic hypoventilation (that is, restrictive disorders, including neuromuscular disease and lung disease) and incidentally in others such as obstructive sleep apnea or problems of central drive.

Robert, Dominique; Argaud, Laurent

2007-01-01

377

The Long-Term Hemispheric Sunspot Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sunspot activity is usually represented by either sunspot numbers (SN) or sunspot areas (SA). The smoothed monthly mean SA and SN in the northern and southern hemispheres from 1945 January to 2008 March are used to investigate the characteristics of long-term hemispheric sunspot activity. Although sunspot activity (SA and SN) is found to begin one month earlier in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere on the average of the considered time interval, the shift is so small that no long-term systematic phase shift is statistically acceptable as a first-order effect, as suggested by White & Trotter. Sunspot activity never peaks at the same time in the two hemispheres. Although the Schwabe cycle appears in hemispheric sunspot activity, its period length slightly varies during the considered time interval and seems to be longer in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere on the average. Sunspot activity is asymmetrically distributed in the hemispheres, but the largest hemispheric diversity usually does not appear around the maximum time of a cycle. The diversity of SA, respectively, in the northern and southern hemispheres runs on the Sun similarly and synchronously as the diversity of SN does. Sunspot activity is slightly asynchronous in the hemispheres.

Li, K. J.; Gao, P. X.; Zhan, L. S.; Shi, X. J.

2009-01-01

378

Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy  

PubMed Central

Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source.

Gray, N; Henningfield, J; Benowitz, N; Connolly, G; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M; Boyle, P

2005-01-01

379

Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3?±?1.3, 131.7 days?±?78.6 and 45.7?L?±?8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by <15% decrease in DMY and <30 days until return to normal (n?=?5), and 'long inflammation', characterized by >15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n?=?19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200?L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1500?L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands. PMID:24906501

Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

2014-07-01

380

Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.  

PubMed

Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

2013-10-22

381

Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation  

PubMed Central

Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as ‘storage’. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation—which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes—with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

2013-01-01

382

Long-term intracranial pressure monitoring.  

PubMed

Continuous or intermittent measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is important in patients at risk for raised ICP. Indications exist for short- and long-term measurements. The various methods used for short-term monitoring are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages. For long-term measurements of ICP use of a completely implantable telemetric epidural pressure transducer is indicated. No such device is commercially available. We have developed an inexpensive passive telemetric transducer for this purpose. Results obtained up till now have demonstrated its reliability for measurements of two to three months duration. The life span of the device is limited by degrading of the epoxy utilized for sealing of the titanium pressure sensing part to the radiolucent ceramic cap of the transducer, causing leakage of water into the transducer and false low measurements. Because of these problems new hermetic sealing techniques were tested. Both active metal brazing and glass bonding yielded good results and hermetic sealing could be obtained. The metal to ceramic bonding presented is generally applicable within the design of implants. Besides the technical progress reported, the experience with clinical use in 12 patients is presented. PMID:6674738

de Jong, D A; Maas, A I; den Ouden, A H; de Lange, S A

383

Spent filter packaging for long term storage and disposal  

SciTech Connect

This paper will discuss filter packaging experience using spent filter transfer casks, a filter shear and the NUKEM macro-encapsulation process. Marco-encapsulation of spent filters in cement has provided sufficient shielding to enable filter containers to be shipped in less expensive IP-2 casks. The lower dose rate and higher density also off-sets disposal rates at Barnwell based on mass. No re-dewatering of encapsulated filter containers is required after a period of long term storage and encapsulation eliminates the possibility of gas generation from filters during storage. Encapsulation can be performed on filters loaded into poly HICs or carbon steel liners. (authors)

Duberville, T.M. [NUKEM Corporation, Columbia, SC (United States); Miller, C. [Pacific Gas and Electric, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Avila Bach, CA (United States)

2007-07-01

384

Long-Term Statin Use and Psychological Well-Being  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES We sought to study the effect of long-term statin use on psychometric measures in an adult population with underlying coronary artery disease (CAD). BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested associations between cholesterol lowering and psychological well-being. METHODS Study subjects were recruited from an outpatient cardiology clinic. Psychological well-being was assessed at baseline and annually during follow-up. The exposure of interest was long-term statin use and the outcomes of interest were depression, anxiety, and hostility. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) that represented the strength of association between statin use (vs. no use of any cholesterol-lowering drug) and the risk of having abnormal depression, anxiety, and hostility scores. RESULTS Study subjects had an average follow-up of four years and maximum of seven years. Comparing the 140 patients who had continuous use of statins with the 231 patients who did not use any cholesterol-lowering drugs, statin use was associated with lower risk of abnormal depression scores (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.93), anxiety (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.99), and hostility (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.93) after adjustment for the propensity for statin use and potential confounders. The beneficial psychological effects of the statins appeared to be independent of the drugs’ cholesterol-lowering effects. CONCLUSIONS Long-term use of statins among patients with CAD appeared to be associated with reduced risk of anxiety, depression, and hostility.

Young-Xu, Yinong; Chan, K. Arnold; Liao, James K.; Ravid, Shmuel; Blatt, Charles M.

2009-01-01

385

An Empirical Comparison of Alternative Models of the Short-Term Interest Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors estimate and compare a variety of continuous-time models of the short-term riskless rate using the Generalized Method of Moments. The authors find that the most successful models in capturing the dynamics of the short-term interest rate are those that allow the volatility of interest rate changes to be highly sensitive to the level of the riskless rate. A

G. A. Karolyi; F. A. Longsta; A. B. Saunders

1992-01-01

386

Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

Brown, Norman S.

1987-01-01

387

Long term cryogenic storage facility systems study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Long Term Cryogenic Storage Facility Systems Study (LTCSFSS) is a Phase A study of a large capacity propellant depot for the space based, cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle. The study is being performed for Marshall Space Flight Center by General Dynamics Space Systems Division and has five principal objectives: (1) Definition of preliminary concept designs for four storage facility concepts; (2) Selection of preferred concepts through the application of trade studies to candidate propellant management system components; (3) Preparation of a conceptual design for an orbital storage facility; (4) Development of supporting research and technology requirements; and (5) Development of a test program to demonstrate facility performance. The initial study has been completed, and continuation activities are just getting under way to provide greater detail in key areas and accommodate changes in study guidelines and assumptions.

Schuster, John R.

1987-01-01

388

Safety of long-term PPI therapy.  

PubMed

Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been published in the past decade and are critically reviewed in this article and the existing evidence is evaluated and translated into possible clinical consequences. Based on the existing evidence the benefits of PPI treatment seem to outweigh potential risks in the large majority of patients especially if PPI use is based on a relevant indication. The concern for complications should primarily be directed at elderly, malnourished with significant co-morbidity. In this population an increased risk for enteric infections, fractures and nutritional deficiencies might have clinical consequences and should lead to a careful evaluation of the indication for PPI treatment. PMID:23998981

Reimer, Christina

2013-06-01

389

Long-term U. S. energy outlook  

SciTech Connect

Each year Chase Econometrics offers its clients a brief summary of the assumptions underlying the long-term energy forecast for the U.S. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they choose to compare forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Particular emphasis is placed on Scenario B, which is the mid-range reference case. As the introduction to the supplement emphasizes, the NEPP projections should not be considered a statement of the policy goals of the Reagan Administration. They represent an analysis of the possible evolution of U.S. energy markets, given current information and existing policies. The purpose of providing Scenario B as a reference case as well as Scenarios A and C as alternate cases is to show the sensitivity of oil price projections to small swings in energy demand.

Friesen, G.

1984-01-01

390

Reducing long-term reservoir performance uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir performance is one of the key issues that have to be addressed before going ahead with the development of a geothermal field. In order to select the type and size of the power plant and design other surface installations, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the production wells and of the produced fluids, and to predict the changes over a 10--30 year period. This is not a straightforward task, as in most cases the calculations have to be made on the basis of data collected before significant fluid volumes have been extracted from the reservoir. The paper describes the methodology used in predicting the long-term performance of hydrothermal systems, as well as DOE/GTD-sponsored research aimed at reducing the uncertainties associated with these predictions. 27 refs., 1 fig.

Lippmann, M.J.

1988-04-01

391

Gazprom outlines long term Soviet gas plan  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the U.S.S.R.'s Gazprom Konstern has drawn up a comprehensive, long term plan for the Soviet natural gas industry, Eastern Bloc Energy (EBE) reports. EBE is a publication of Eastern Bloc Research Ltd., Newton Kyme, England. Gazprom, responsible for more than 90% of Soviet gas production, predicts Soviet gas production will continue to increase beyond 2030 and expects the resource base ultimately will total more than 330 trillion cu m, EBE the. Soviet Central Asia will begin to decline as a major source of gas during the early years of the next century, but western Siberian production will continue to grow after 2030. The continental shelf, mainly the Barents Sea, will eventually become a very large supplier of gas, EBE reported. Gazprom the development potential of the Soviet gas industry is not constrained by geological factors, only by economic and technical problems.

Not Available

1991-09-30

392

Long-term thalidomide for actinic prurigo.  

PubMed

A 35-year-old man presented at the age of 8 years with recurrent pruritic papulovesicular lesions on his face and body appearing within minutes of light exposure. A recent positive finding of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR4 with the rare DRB1*0407 subtype confirmed a diagnosis of actinic prurigo. Thalidomide (100 mg/day) was commenced at the age of 11 years after an unsuccessful trial of other treatments and his lesions resolved within 2 months. Attempts to withdraw thalidomide have resulted in recurrence of photosensitivity and the patient has remained on a virtually continuous maintenance dose of thalidomide (50 mg/ day) for 23 years. His cumulative dose is estimated to be over 400 g. To date, he has not experienced any adverse effects and investigations have shown no evidence of neuropathy. This case illustrates the safe long-term use of thalidomide. PMID:11903163

Yong-Gee, S A; Muir, J B

2001-11-01

393

Posterior urethral valves: long-term outcome.  

PubMed

Posterior urethral valves represent the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infancy that impairs renal and bladder function. Long-term outcome of patients with previous PUV is evaluated. Patients over 18 years of age, treated from 1982 to 1995 before the age of 3 years were considered. Previous surgery, renal function, bladder activity, urinary incontinence, and fertility/sexual activity were evaluated. Clinical interview, creatinine clearance, uroflowmetry with ultrasound post-void urine residue, and self-administered questionnaire were recorded. Out of 45 identified records, 24 patients (53.3%) accepted to be enrolled (age 18-34 years, mean 23 years). The mean follow-up was 19.5 years (16-30 years). Out of the 21 excluded patients, 20 did not reply to the clinical interview and 1 died at age of 6 years. All the 24 patients had early endoscopic section of PUV; nine also received transient ureterocutaneostomy or vesicostomy. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed in five patients and ureterocystoplasty with unilateral nephrectomy in two. At follow-up chronic renal failure was detected in 13 patients (54.1%) and 9 (37.5%) had arterial hypertension. End-stage renal disease developed in five patients (20.8%): three had successful renal transplantation and two were in dialysis. Lower urinary tract symptoms were present in seven patients (29.1%). No significant fertility deficit and sexual dysfunction were observed in 23 patients, while 1 patient was azoospermic. No paternity was reported so far. Long-term outcome of patients with previously treated PUV is mandatory. Kidney, bladder, and sexual functions should be monitored till adulthood to verify any modified behaviour. PMID:21748651

Caione, Paolo; Nappo, Simona Gerocarni

2011-10-01

394

[Long-term results of tricuspid prostheses].  

PubMed

The results of a series of 38 patients with a tricuspid valve prostheses (:76% Starr-Edwards ball valves) associated with correction of one or two left heart valvular lesions are presented. 24 patients underwent clinical and haemodynamic assessment on average 4,2 years after surgery. The conclusions were that signs of systemic venous hypertension were mainly related to residual right ventricular failure despite normal valve function and secondarily to the poor hemodynamic profile of these prostheses and their paradoxical motion. Using these results: 18% early mortality; 24% late mortality; 24% late thrombosis amongst survivors and 52% residual right ventricular failure; and 47,5% of excellent results. The clinical and haemodynamic profiles of the patients were analysed to determine the surgical indications. Apart from the correction of associated left heart valve lesions, it seems that the prognosis in tricuspid valve repair depends on the duration of tricuspid regurgitation and the severity of right ventricular myocardial disease. In elderly patients with chronic tricuspid regurgitation and severe right ventricular failure, long-term analysis showed 87,5% poor results, whilst in younger patients with a shorter history of tricuspid regurgitation and less severe right ventricular failure, there was 77,7% excellent long-term results. Semi circular annuloplasty is widely indicated in mild or severe functional tricuspid regurgitation. Tricuspid valve replacement, a much more serious operation, remains essential in chronic organic lesions and in some cases of massive functional tricuspid regurgitation. A regards the choice of prosthesis, the authors suggest the Hancock bioprosthesis as a logical choice in cases of severe right ventricular failure as they are less prone to thrombosis than mechanical prostheses and have good haemodynamic profiles. The evolution of the right ventricular failure even after correction of tricuspid regurgitation underlines the importance of preventative therapy by early correction of left heart lesions. PMID:6794514

Ben-Ismail, M; Curran, Y; Bousnina, A

1981-09-01

395

7 CFR 1610.10 - Determination of interest rate on Bank loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. 1610.10 Section 1610.10...Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. (a) All loan fund advances made on or after December 22, 1987 under Bank loans approved on or after October...

2010-01-01

396

7 CFR 1610.10 - Determination of interest rate on Bank loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. 1610.10 Section 1610.10...Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. (a) All loan fund advances made on or after December 22, 1987 under Bank loans approved on or after October...

2009-01-01

397

The premium and the risk of a life policy in the presence of interest rate fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we consider the premium setting and the associated risk with regard to a life insurance policy when the interest rate process is a diffusion. Explicit formulas and numerical examples are given for the premiums determined by the equivalence principle under some well-known interest rate models such as the Vasicek model and the CIR model. Two types of

Nan Wang; Russell Gerrard; Steven Haberman

2004-01-01

398

Assessment of China's macroeconomic situation: relevance of the zero interest rate and quantitative easing polices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the data available until mid-February, 2009, the article examines China's macroeconomic situation and looks at the prospect of China's economy. It analyzes the zero interest rate and quantitative easing policies in terms of relevant empirical evidences in Japan and the prospect of using this kind of policy in the US. It argues that a zero interest rate and quantitative

Yi Gang

2010-01-01

399

Optimal monetary policy under discretion with a zero bound on nominal interest rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine optimal discretionary monetary policy in a New-Keynesian model when nominal interest rates are bounded below by zero. Nominal interest rates should be lowered faster in response to adverse shocks than in the case without bound. Such ‘preemptive easing’ is optimal because expectations of a possibly binding bound in the future amplify the effects of adverse shocks. Calibrating the

Klaus Adam; Roberto M. Billi

2004-01-01

400

Optimal Monetary Policy Under Discretion with a Zero Bound on Nominal Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine optimal discretionary monetary policy in a New Keynesian model when nominal interest rates are bounded below by zero. Nominal interest rates should be lowered faster in response to adverse shocks than in the case without bound. Such ‘pre-emptive easing’ is optimal because expectations of a possibly binding bound in the future amplify the effects of adverse shocks. Calibrating

Klaus Adam; Roberto M Billi

2004-01-01

401

Real short-term interest rates and expected inflation: Measurement and interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares different measures of real short-term interest rates for Canada over the period from 1956 to 1995. A new measure for the expected real interest rate is constructed using a proxy for inflation expectations that is based on the properties of past inflation. The history of inflation in Canada suggests that the characteristics of inflation have changed considerably

Nicholas Ricketts

1996-01-01

402

Productivity and Interest Rates in Economies with Financial Frictions: Facts and a Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document and account for two facts regarding the relation between international interest rates and total factor productivity (TFP) in a sample of developing countries. First, there is a negative correlation between both variables at quarterly frequency. Second, the share of agricultural labor and interest rates are positively correlated, whereas the share of agricultural labor and TFP are negatively correlated.

David M. Benjamin; Felipe Meza

403

Do Budget Deficits Raise Interest Rates? A Survey of the Empirical Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do government budget deficits raise interest rates and thus “crowd out” private investment? This question has been the topic of a multitude of empirical studies, which proposed to evaluate the impact of financing government activity. We survey the theory and some empirical results. Traditional theories either support deficits having a positive or a neutral effect on interest rates. Various tests

Leanne Ussher

1998-01-01

404

Automated patient-specific classification of long-term Electroencephalography.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel systematic approach for patient-specific classification of long-term Electroencephalography (EEG). The goal is to extract the seizure sections with a high accuracy to ease the Neurologist's burden of inspecting such long-term EEG data. We aim to achieve this using the minimum feedback from the Neurologist. To accomplish this, we use the majority of the state-of-the-art features proposed in this domain for evolving a collective network of binary classifiers (CNBC) using multi-dimensional particle swarm optimization (MD PSO). Multiple CNBCs are then used to form a CNBC ensemble (CNBC-E), which aggregates epileptic seizure frames from the classification map of each CNBC in order to maximize the sensitivity rate. Finally, a morphological filter forms the final epileptic segments while filtering out the outliers in the form of classification noise. The proposed system is fully generic, which does not require any a priori information about the patient such as the list of relevant EEG channels. The results of the classification experiments, which are performed over the benchmark CHB-MIT scalp long-term EEG database show that the proposed system can achieve all the aforementioned objectives and exhibits a significantly superior performance compared to several other state-of-the-art methods. Using a limited training dataset that is formed by less than 2min of seizure and 24min of non-seizure data on the average taken from the early 25% section of the EEG record of each patient, the proposed system establishes an average sensitivity rate above 89% along with an average specificity rate above 93% over the test set. PMID:24566194

Kiranyaz, Serkan; Ince, Turker; Zabihi, Morteza; Ince, Dilek

2014-06-01

405

Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective  

PubMed Central

Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

Bliss, Timothy V.P.; Cooke, Sam F

2011-01-01

406

Long Term Power System Dynamics. Volume II. Long-Term Power System Dynamics Simulation Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the Long-Term Dynamic Simulation program (LOTDYS) as it was developed for this project. It is both a programmer's guide and a user's guide for LOTDYS. It contains a list and description of the program variables, the program itself and...

1974-01-01

407

Quantitative study of long-term solar and climatic changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long term variations in the diameter and the shape of the Sun were studied. Daily observations of the Sun's diameter made at the Greenwich Observatory between 1836 and 1953 were analysed and interpreted. The data was converted into digital form and then screened and processed. It was found that the horizontal diameter of the Sun measured at Greenwich appears to have decreased systematically between 1880 and 1953 at a rate of 1.2 plus or minus 0.6 minutes of arc per century.

Eddy, J. A.

1982-01-01

408

Internal bleaching: long-term outcomes and complications.  

PubMed

Internal bleaching with a 30 percent hydrogen peroxide solution is aesthetically very successful in the short term; however, in the long term, the success rate falls below 50 percent. This procedure is associated with a risk of external root resorption, documented both clinically and experimentally. The etiology of resorption and the effects of 30 percent hydrogen peroxide on dental tissues suggest that this chemical should be avoided. Internal bleaching is possible using sodium perborate mixed with water. The aesthetic outcome is still acceptable and the potential for resorption may be minimized. PMID:9120147

Friedman, S

1997-04-01

409

Mercury in arctic air: the long-term trend.  

PubMed

The long-term (1974-2000) time trend of total filterable mercury (TFM) in the air in the Canadian Arctic is reported. The concentration of TFM had declined by (3.0+/-0.8) % and (3.1+/-0.9) % per year in the summer and fall, respectively, over the 27 years, which coincided with the calculated reduction rate of world-wide mercury emission (~3.3% per year) from human activities between 1983 and 1995. The time trend for winter and early spring was not statistically significant as the variability of TFM was very large, partly due to Arctic Mercury Depletion Events and partly due to Arctic haze. PMID:19144390

Li, Chunsheng; Cornett, Jack; Willie, Scott; Lam, Joseph

2009-04-01

410

Beyond cue reactivity: Blunted brain responses to pleasant stimuli predict long-term smoking abstinence  

PubMed Central

Identifying addicts with higher risk of relapse would provide the opportunity to implement individualized interventions and increase cessation success rates. Unfortunately, the ability to predict the long-term success of drug-cessation treatments continues to elude researchers. We tested whether brain responses to emotional and cigarette-related pictures were predictive of the ability to abstain from smoking. Smokers interested in quitting (n=180) participated in a smoking cessation clinical trial. Before the initiation of any treatment we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by emotional (both pleasant and unpleasant), neutral, and cigarette-related images. Cluster analysis was used to assign smokers to two groups based on the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) to the experimental stimuli. While both groups showed enhanced responses to cigarette-related cues, one group (n=81) also showed blunted brain responses to intrinsically pleasant stimuli. Smokers in the latter group were significantly less likely to be abstinent at 10, 12, and 24 weeks after their quit date. In conclusion, using event-related potentials, a direct measure of brain activity, we found that smokers with blunted brain responses to intrinsically pleasant stimuli had lower rates of long-term smoking abstinence. This response offers a new biomarker for identifying smokers at higher risk of relapse and for testing the efficacy of new interventions aimed at normalizing brain reward systems’ responses to intrinsically pleasant stimuli.

Versace, Francesco; Lam, Cho Y.; Engelmann, Jeffrey M.; Robinson, Jason D.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Brown, Victoria L.; Cinciripini, Paul M.

2011-01-01

411

7 CFR 1810.2 - Adjustment of interest rates for certain loans involving use of or construction on prime or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Adjustment of interest rates for certain loans involving...AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS INTEREST RATES, TERMS, CONDITIONS, AND APPROVAL AUTHORITY Interest Rates, Amortization,...

2010-01-01

412

7 CFR 1810.2 - Adjustment of interest rates for certain loans involving use of or construction on prime or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Adjustment of interest rates for certain loans involving...AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS INTEREST RATES, TERMS, CONDITIONS, AND APPROVAL AUTHORITY Interest Rates, Amortization,...

2009-01-01

413

Where Can You Receive Care? (Long-Term Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... may need. Share page: Where Can You Receive Care? Most long-term care is provided at home. ... in long-term care facilities. Examples of home care services include: An unpaid caregiver who may be ...

414

Long Term Care Resident Assessment Instrument Training Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Enclosed are 10 copies of the Long Term Care Resident Assessment Instrument Training Manual for long term care facilities. The manual describes the federally designed resident assessment instrument (RAI) consisting of the minimum data set (MDS) and reside...

1990-01-01

415

BANKS, FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION AND THE 'INTEREST RATE PREMIUM PUZZLE' IN EAST ASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a simple theoretical framework to explorethe role of banks, bank inefficiencies and financial liberalization inexplaining the sustained interest rate premium offered in a number ofemerging economies in East Asia despite evidence of fairly credibleex-ante fixed exchange rates (Thailand in particular).Key words: banks, currency crisis, East Asia, financial liberalization,interest rates, ThailandJEL Classification: F30, F32, F4121. Background and Introduction...

Ramkishen S. Rajan

1999-01-01

416

On the Equality of Real Interest Rates Across Borders in Integrated Capital Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose in this note is first to review briefly the empirical results on the relationship between real interest rates\\u000a and real exchange rates; this empirical literature provides little support for the hypothesis of Roll that expected real interest\\u000a rates are equal in general. Our second aim is to discuss the theoretical conditions that have to be met for his

Patrick Minford; David Peel

2007-01-01

417

Long term outcome following surgical treatment for distal gastric cancer.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. At the current time, the belief that total gastrectomy (TG) offers a better survival benefit compared with distal gastrectomy (DG) in distal gastric cancer still persists among many surgeons. The aim of the study was to determine whether TG in patients with distal stomach cancer offers a benefit in long term survival compared with DG. METHODS. Data on 180 consecutive patients with adenocarcinoma of the distal stomach that underwent surgery during the period 2000-2003 were analyzed. Distal gastrectomy was performed on 91 patients (50.5%), and 89 patients (49.5%) underwent TG. RESULTS. The postoperative morbidity (anastomotic leakage, intraperitoneal hemorrhage and pulmonary complications) was significantly higher in the TG group than in the DG group. The TG group had a significantly higher rate of 30-day postoperative mortality than DG group, and a longer mean postoperative hospital stay. The 5-year survival rate was significantly higher for the DG group than for the TG group. The number of lymph node metastases and TNM stages are significant predictors of poor survival. CONCLUSIONS. Compared with patients undergoing TG, a better long-term survival time, lower postoperative morbidity and mortality rates and a lower hospitalization stay was obtained in patients that underwent DG for distal gastric cancer. This observation justifies the use of this procedure for the surgical therapy of the cancer of distal stomach. PMID:23539391

Mocan, Lucian; Tomus, Claudiu; Bartos, Dana; Zaharie, Florin; Ioana, Ilie; Bartos, Adrian; Puia, Cosmin; Necula, Alexandru; Mocan, Teodora; Iancu, Cornel

2013-03-01

418

Long-Term Maintenance of Weight Loss: Current Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intervention strategies for promoting long-term weight loss are examined empirically and conceptually. Weight control research over the last 20 years has dramatically improved short-term treatment efficacy but has been less successful in improving long-term success. Interventions in preadolescent children show greater long-term efficacy than in adults. Extending treatment length and putting more emphasis on energy expenditure have modestly improved long-term

Robert W. Jeffery; Adam Drewnowski; Leonard H. Epstein; Albert J. Stunkard; G. Terence Wilson; Rena R. Wing; Dana Robin Hill

2000-01-01

419

LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK  

SciTech Connect

Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart sensors housed in anti-fouling sensor chambers. The monitoring network is highly versatile and can be applied to a variety of subsurface sensing scenarios in different media. However, the current project focused on monitoring water quality parameters of pH, oxidation-reduction potential, conductivity, and temperature in groundwater.

Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

2003-10-16

420

Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh-environment surveyor (RHES) is a robotic platform with SCADA capabilities equipped with a sonar-imaging scanner, a high-resolution color CCD camera, and various combinations of sensors. The RHES is controlled remotely via a PC. This paper will discuss the development and application of this system. (authors)

Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso [Florida International University, Miami, Florida (United States)

2002-07-01

421

Modulation of long-term memory for object recognition via HDAC inhibition  

PubMed Central

Histone acetylation is a chromatin modification critically involved in gene regulation during many neural processes. The enzymes that regulate levels of histone acetylation are histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which activate gene expression and histone deacetylases (HDACs), that repress gene expression. Acetylation together with other histone and DNA modifications regulate transcription profiles for specific cellular functions. Our previous research has demonstrated a pivotal role for cyclicAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP), a histone acetyltransferase, in long-term memory for novel object recognition (NOR). In fact, every genetically modifiedCbp mutant mouse characterized thus far exhibits impaired long-term memory for NOR. These results suggest that long-term memory for NOR is especially sensitive to alterations in CBP activity. Thus, in the current study, we examined the role of HDACs in memory for NOR. We found that inducing a histone hyperacetylated state via HDAC inhibition transforms a learning event that would not normally result in long-term memory into an event that is now remembered long-term. We have also found that HDAC inhibition generates a type of long-term memory that persists beyond a point at which normal memory for NOR fails. This result is particularly interesting because one alluring aspect of examining the role of chromatin modifications in modulating transcription required for long-term memory processes is that these modifications may provide potentially stable epigenetic markers in the service of activating and/or maintaining transcriptional processes.

Stefanko, Daniel P.; Barrett, Ruth M.; Ly, Alexandra R.; Reolon, Gustavo K.; Wood, Marcelo A.

2009-01-01

422

The use of interest rate swaps by nonprofit organizations: evidence from nonprofit health care providers.  

PubMed

Although the use of derivatives, particularly interest rate swaps, has grown explosively over the past decade, derivative financial instrument use by nonprofits has received only limited attention in the research literature. Because little is known about the risk management activities of nonprofits, the impact of these instruments on the ability of nonprofits to raise capital may have significant public policy implications. The primary motivation of this study is to determine the types of derivatives used by nonprofits and estimate the frequency of their use among these organizations. Our study also extends contemporary finance theory by an empirical examination of the motivation for interest rate swap usage among nonprofits. Our empirical data came from 193 large nonprofit health care providers that issued debt to the public between 2000 and 2003. We used a univariate analysis and a multivariate analysis relying on logistic regression models to test alternative explanations of interest rate swaps usage by nonprofits, finding that more than 45 percent of our sample, 88 organizations, used interest rate swaps with an aggregate notional value in excess of $8.3 billion. Our empirical tests indicate the primary motive for nonprofits to use interest rate derivatives is to hedge their exposure to interest rate risk. Although these derivatives are a useful risk management tool, under conditions of falling bond market interest rates these derivatives may also expose a nonprofit swap user to the risk of a material unscheduled termination payment. Finally, we found considerable diversity in the informativeness of footnote disclosure among sample organizations that used interest rate swaps. Many nonprofits did not disclose these risks in their financial statements. In conclusion, we find financial managers in large nonprofits commonly use derivative financial instruments as risk management tools, but the use of interest rate swaps by nonprofits may expose them to other risks that are not adequately disclosed in their financial statements. PMID:19175237

Stewart, Louis J; Trussel, John

2006-01-01

423

78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1327 RIN 0985-AA08 State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program AGENCY: Administration...Older Americans Act, the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman program. This proposed rule...compliance in carrying out the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program functions. This...

2013-06-18

424

Long term domiciliary oxygen treatment for chronic respiratory failure reviewed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of long term domiciliary oxygen therapy in the Sheffield area from June to August 1987 has been surveyed. Of the 74 patients prescribed long term domiciliary oxygen therapy, 64 were visited at home. These had arterial blood gas tensions or oxygen saturation measured (while breathing oxygen and air), and the indications for long term domiciliary oxygen therapy were

S V Baudouin; J C Waterhouse; T Tahtamouni; J A Smith; J Baxter; P Howard

1990-01-01

425

Optimization approach for water resources long term planning and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integration of short-term operation and long-term planning is one of the challenges of development and management of water resources systems. This research is interested in an optimization algorithm consisting of a short-term time step dynamic programming (DP) formulation, coupled with a long-term time step expectation of the future benefit function of flows scenarios. The method takes into account the short-term variability or seasonality of the flow regime as well as long-term uncertainty of flows, which is actuated by either climate change or global climate variability associated with phases of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena. The DP is used to determine an optimum operating policy of flows scenarios for the short-term time step. The use of flows scenarios in optimization problem represents the stochastic aspect of flows, and transition between scenarios is done at long-term time step. This method could be used for water resources planning in the context of future hydrologic regime uncertainties or to evaluate climate change impacts on existing water resources systems. The algorithm was tested for optimum hydropower production of Manicouagan water resources system, Québec, Canada, with two hydropower plants with reservoir and three run-of-river plants, for a period of 90 years, from 2010 to 2099. Future climate weekly time step operating policy was produced with two time steps: annual time step for management of water resources in non-stational climate and a weekly time step for flow seasonality. Annual flows have been used to compute transition probabilities between flow scenarios. Results show that there will be an increase of hydropower production in the future climate thanks to the increase of seasonal and annual flows. However, climate change will reduce the efficiency of the existing hydropower system, with more unproductive spills. The algorithm permitted to evaluate the impact of climate change on water resources without taking any assumptions other than the climate change scenarios and it was able to adapt the operating policy to the climate seasonality and climate change uncertainties in the optimization problem. Key words: water resources, optimization, non-stational climate, flow regime, dynamic programming

Haguma, D.; Leconte, R.; Krau, S.; Côté, P.

2012-04-01

426

Very Long Term Oxidation of Titanium Aluminides Investigated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium aluminides (TiAl) are of great interest for intermediate-temperature (600 to 850 C) aerospace and power-generation applications because they offer significant weight savings over today's nickel alloys. TiAl alloys are being investigated for low-pressure turbine blade applications, exhaust nozzle components, and compressor cases in advanced subsonic and supersonic engines. Significant progress has been made in understanding the fundamental aspects of the oxidation behavior of binary TiAl alloys. However, most of this work has concentrated on short term (<1000 hr), high-temperature (900 to 1000 C) exposures. Also, there is not much data available in the literature regarding the oxidation behavior of the quaternary and higher order engineering alloys. This is especially true for the very long term, low-temperature conditions likely to be experienced during aerospace applications. An investigation at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field was undertaken to characterize the long-term oxidation behavior of various model and advanced titanium aluminides for periods up to 7000 hr at 704 C in air using a high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscope. Also, a unique surface treatment technique developed to improve the oxidation resistance of TiAl was evaluated. The alloys included in this investigation are listed in the table. The table also shows typical alloy compositions and the specific weight changes and scale thickness measured for each alloy after exposure to 700 C for 7000 hr in air.

Locci, Ivan E.; Brady, Michael P.; Smialek, James L.; Retallick, William B.

2000-01-01

427

Long-term observations of siamang behaviour.  

PubMed

Long-term observations are presented on the behaviour of the siamang ape, Symphalangus syndactylus, in the lowland forest of central Malaya. The data were collected during two dry and three fruiting seasons between 1969 and 1973 inclusive on two groups with adjacent ranges; comparisons are made within and between sample periods, and between groups. The influence of weather on daily activities is considered. Food intake is analysed in terms of number of food trees, number of visits to these trees, and the cumulative time spent feeding on various food categories. Ranging behaviour is investigated in terms of distance travelled, area covered, and distribution of time and of food trees about the range. The occurrence of calling is described and compared with that of the white-handed gibbon in the same area. A discussion ensues on each of these aspects of behaviour in turn. Emphasis is laid on the similarity of behaviour of the two groups at any one time, and on the degree of their response to the fluctuations of environment variables. Finally, the application to siamang of ranging concepts currently used in animal behaviour is considered briefly. PMID:1140747

Chivers, D J; Raemaekers, J J; Aldrich-Blake, F P

1975-01-01

428

Bacterial Cellulose: Long-Term Biocompatibility Studies.  

PubMed

The bacterial cellulose (BC) secreted by Gluconacetobacter xylinus is a network of pure cellulose nanofibres which has high crystallinity, wettability and mechanical strength. These characteristics make BC an excellent material for tissue-engineering constructs, noteworthy for artificial vascular grafts. In this work, the in vivo biocompatibility of BC membranes produced by two G. xylinus strains was analyzed through histological analysis of long-term subcutaneous implants in the mice. The BC implants caused a mild and benign inflammatory reaction that decreased along time and did not elicit a foreign body reaction. A tendency to calcify over time, which may be related to the porosity of the BC implants, was observed, especially among the less porous BC-1 implants. In addition, the potential toxicity of BC nanofibres - obtained by chemical-mechanical treatment of BC membranes - subcutaneously implanted in mice was analysed through bone marrow flow cytometryand histological analyses. At 2 and 4 months post-implantation, the nanofibres implants were found to accumulate intracellularly, in subcutaneous foamy macrophages aggregates. Moreover, no differences were observed between the controls and implanted animals in thymocyte populations and in B lymphocyte precursors and myeloid cells in the bone marrow. PMID:21722421

Pértile, Renata A N; Moreira, Susana; Costa, Rui M Gil da; Correia, Alexandra; Guardão, Luisa; Gartner, Fátima; Vilanova, Manuel; Gama, Miguel

2011-06-28

429

Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts  

SciTech Connect

An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs.

Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Guenther, C.D. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

1994-08-01

430

Long-term corrosion testing pan.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

2008-08-01

431

Long-term corrosion testing plan.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

2009-02-01

432

Long-term potentiation and learning.  

PubMed

Long-term potentiation (LTP), a relatively long-lived increase in synaptic strength, remains the mot popular model for the cellular process that may underlie information storage within neural systems. The strongest arguments for a role of LTP in memory are theoretical and involve Hebb's Postulate, Marr's theory of hippocampal function, and neural network theory. Considering LTP research as a whole, few studies have addressed the essential question: Is LTP a process involved in learning and memory? The present manuscript reviews research that attempts to link LTP with learning and memory, focusing on studies utilizing electrophysiological, pharmacological, and molecular biological methodologies. Most evidence firmly supports a role for LTP in learning memory. However, an unequivocal experimental demonstration of a contribution of LTP to memory is hampered by our lack of knowledge of the biological basis of memory and of the ways in which memories are represented in ensembles of neurons, the existence of a variety of cellular forms of LTP, and the likely resistance of distributed memory stores to degradation by treatments that incompletely disrupt LTP. PMID:8624136

Martinez, J L; Derrick, B E

1996-01-01