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1

Interest in Long-Term Care among Health Services Administration Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aging of the population has created increased opportunities for health administrators in long-term care. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of 68 undergraduate health services administration students to explore factors related to interest in a career in long-term care administration. One third expressed interest working in the…

Temple, April; Thompson, Jon M.

2011-01-01

2

Sharp decrease in long-term chemical weathering rates along an altitudinal transect  

E-print Network

Sharp decrease in long-term chemical weathering rates along an altitudinal transect§ Cli¡ord S long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion across a steep climatic gradient analyses indicate that, relative to the parent rock, soils are less intensively weathered with increasing

Kirchner, James W.

3

Lunar gravity - A long-term Keplerian rate method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearside tracking data from Apollo subsatellites and Lunar Orbiter 5 are used to construct a model of the farside lunar gravity field. An indirect method of calculating the average effect of all the gravity anomalies which affect spacecraft orbits is reduced to a linear estimation problem by eliminating the integration of spacecraft dynamics. Doppler frequency shifts between the lunar satellite and earth-based tracking station are used to measure the line of sight velocity component between the orbiter and the tracker; gravity determination is then performed in a weighted least squares estimator which employs the orbital rates as data and formulates the normal equations using the associated Keplerian state. Simulations performed demonstrate that farside gravity features can be economically determined by use of gravity estimates obtained from long-period models of nearside orbiting tracks.

Ferrari, A. J.; Ananda, M. P.

1977-01-01

4

Long-Term Erosion and Sedimentation Rates of the Ri Chagres Basin Based on Cosmogenic 10  

E-print Network

Long-Term Erosion and Sedimentation Rates of the Rió Chagres Basin Based on Cosmogenic 10 Be Kyle K on the first point bar upstream of Lake Alhajuela to determine the average basin-wide erosion rate range of nuclide activities and thus basin-wide erosion rates (54 to 134 mm ky-1 ; average = 92 ± 22 mm

Nichols, Kyle K.

5

Long-term Stability of Global Erosion Rates and1 Weathering during late Cenozoic Cooling2  

E-print Network

1 of 18 Long-term Stability of Global Erosion Rates and1 Weathering during late Cenozoic Cooling2 3 and is7 removed from the atmosphere by silicate rock weathering and organic carbon8 burial. This balance of continental11 rock weathering and erosion1,2 are superimposed on fluctuations in organic12 carbon burial3

Willenbring, Jeb F.

6

Do Minimum Wage Hikes Raise US Long Term Unemployment? Evidence Using State Minimum Wage Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

PARTRIDGE M. D. and PARTRIDGE J. S. (1999) Do minimum wage hikes raise US long term unemployment? Evidence using state minimum wage rates, Reg. Studies 33 , 713?726. Several recent studies have challenged the conventional notion that raising the minimum wage reduces employment. This study considers a related but relatively unexplored issue by examining the minimum wage's influence on long

Mark D. Partridge; Jamie S. Partridge

1999-01-01

7

Short-term and Long-term Variations of Dose Rate measured by MSL/RAD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), onboard Mars Science Laboratory’s (MSL) rover Curiosity, measures the spectra of both energetic charged and neutral particles along with radiation dose rate at the surface of Mars. Several effects have been observed for the first time to influence the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR)-driven particle radiation on the surface: [a] short-term diurnal variations of the Martian atmospheric pressure caused by daily thermal tides [Rafkin 2014]; [b] long-term seasonal pressure changes in the Martian atmosphere; and [c] the modulation of the primary GCR fluxes by the heliospheric magnetic field, which correlates with long-term solar activities and heliospheric rotation. These concurrent factors affect the dose rate variations measured by RAD on the Martian surface. RAD also recorded the dose rate during the 253-day cruise phase of MSL from the Earth to Mars. The variations of the GCR-induced dose rates during quiet time period without the direct detection of Solar Particle Events (SPE) were solely driven by the changes of heliospheric conditions (i.e. [c]). The RAD cruise and surface dose measurements, along with the surface pressure data and the solar modulation factor, are analysed in order to understand how the long-term influences ([b] and [c]) individually correlate with the measured dose rates.

Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Rafkin, Scot; Boettcher, Stephan; Reitz, Guenther; Koehler, Jan; Ehresmann, Bent; Martin, Cesar; Burmeister, Soenke; Posner, Arik; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Hassler, Donald M.; Brinza, David; Boehm, Henning Eckart; Lohf, Henning; Appel, Jan

8

Factors related to the high fall rate in long-term care residents with dementia.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Falls in long-term care residents with dementia represent a costly but unresolved safety issue. The aim of the present study was to (1) determine the incidence of falls, fall-related injuries and fall circumstances, and (2) identify the relationship between patient characteristics and fall rate in long-term care residents with dementia. Methods: Twenty long-term care residents with dementia (80 ± 11 years; 60% male) participated. Falls were recorded on a standardized form, concerning fall injuries, time and place of fall and if the fall was witnessed. Patient characteristics (66 variables) were extracted from medical records and classified into the domains: demographics, activities of daily living, mobility, cognition and behavior, vision and hearing, medical conditions and medication use. We used partial least squares (PLS) regression to determine the relationship between patient characteristics and fall rate. Results: A total of 115 falls (5.1 ± 6.7 falls/person/year) occurred over 19 months, with 85% of the residents experiencing a fall, 29% of falls had serious consequences and 28% was witnessed. A combination of impaired mobility, indicators of disinhibited behavior, diabetes, and use of analgesics, beta blockers and psycholeptics were associated with higher fall rates. In contrast, immobility, heart failure, and the inability to communicate were associated with lower fall rates. Conclusions: Falls are frequent and mostly unwitnessed events in long-term care residents with dementia, highlighting the need for more effective and individualized fall prevention. Our analytical approach determined the relationship between a high fall rate and cognitive impairment, related to disinhibited behavior, in combination with mobility disability and fall-risk-increasing-drugs (FRIDs). PMID:25465203

Kosse, Nienke M; de Groot, Maartje H; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J C

2014-12-01

9

Long-Term Care Insurance: An Assessment of States' Capacity to Review and Regulate Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Issued by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Public Policy Institute, this report explores the inadequacies of the state government's review process of long-term care insurance premiums, and offers recommendations to remedy these problems. Authors Steven Lutzky, Lisa Maria B. Alecxih, and Ryan Foreman of the Lewin Group suggest that states require premium reviews by an actuary with training in long-term care insurance, review the process used to set the premiums, and offer consumers comparative rate guides as well as information regarding insurance companies' rate increase histories. The entire report can be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. This report is not easily readable online; therefore, printing the report is recommended.

Alecxih, Lisa Maria B.

2002-01-01

10

Discrimination power of long-term heart rate variability measures for chronic heart failure detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the discrimination power of standard long-term heart rate variability (HRV) measures\\u000a for the diagnosis of chronic heart failure (CHF). The authors performed a retrospective analysis on four public Holter databases,\\u000a analyzing the data of 72 normal subjects and 44 patients suffering from CHF. To assess the discrimination power of HRV measures,\\u000a an

Paolo Melillo; Roberta Fusco; Mario Sansone; Marcello Bracale; Leandro Pecchia

2011-01-01

11

Long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion from cosmogenic nuclides and geochemical mass balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion is important for understanding the long-term evolution of soils, landscapes, and Earth's climate. Here we describe how long-term chemical weathering rates can be measured for actively eroding landscapes using cosmogenic nuclides together with a geochemical mass balance of weathered soil and parent rock. We tested this approach in the Rio Icacos

Clifford S. Riebe; James W. Kirchner; Robert C. Finkel

2003-01-01

12

Erosional and climatic effects on long-term chemical weathering rates in granitic landscapes spanning diverse climate regimes  

E-print Network

Erosional and climatic effects on long-term chemical weathering rates in granitic landscapes and geochemical mass balance methods to measure long-term rates of chemical weathering and total denudation-term chemical weathering rates range from 0 to 173 tÁkm� 2 year� 1 , in several cases exceeding the highest

Kirchner, James W.

13

Cold water corals - Converting short term scientific excitement into long term public interest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vesteraalen area off the Northern Norwegian coast is of ecological importance as a spawning ground for several fish stocks and as a corridor for migrating mature fish and drifting fish larvae for other stocks. The area is also of great interest to oil exploration companies for its hitherto untapped energy supplies. In the midst of it all, there are

K. Maestad

2009-01-01

14

Self-Rated Health and Long-Term Prognosis of Depression  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Indicators of prognosis should be considered to fully inform clinical decision making in the treatment of depression. This study examines whether self-rated health predicts long-term depression outcomes in primary care. METHODS Our analysis was based on the first 5 years of a prospective 10-year cohort study underway since January 2005 conducted in 30 randomly selected Australian primary care practices. Participants were 789 adult patients with a history of depressive symptoms. Main outcome measures include risks, risk differences, and risk ratios of major depressive syndrome (MDS) on the Patient Health Questionnaire. RESULTS Retention rates during the 5 years were 660 (84%), 586 (74%), 560 (71%), 533 (68%), and 517 (66%). At baseline, MDS was present in 27% (95% CI, 23%–30%). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data showed participants reporting poor or fair self-rated health had greater odds of chronic illness, MDS, and lower socioeconomic status than those reporting good to excellent self-rated health. For participants rating their health as poor to fair compared with those rating it good to excellent, risk ratios of MDS were 2.10 (95% CI, 1.60–2.76), 2.38 (95% CI, 1.77–3.20), 2.22 (95% CI, 1.70–2.89), 1.73 (95% CI, 1.30–2.28), and 2.15 (95% CI, 1.59–2.90) at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years, after accounting for missing data using multiple imputation. After adjusting for age, sex, multimorbidity, and depression status and severity, self-rated health remained a predictor of MDS up to 5 years. CONCLUSIONS Self-rated health offers family physicians an efficient and simple way to identify patients at risk of poor long-term depression outcomes and to inform therapeutic decision making. PMID:24445104

Ambresin, Gilles; Chondros, Patty; Dowrick, Christopher; Herrman, Helen; Gunn, Jane M.

2014-01-01

15

Predictors of Response Rates to a Long Term Follow-Up Mail out Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective Very little is known about predictors of response rates to long-term follow-up mail-out surveys, including whether the timing of an incentive affects response rates. We aimed to determine whether the timing of the incentive affects response rates and what baseline demographic and psychological factors predict response rates to a 12 year follow-up survey. Study design and setting: Participants were 450 randomly selected people from the Penrith population, Australia who had previously participated in a mail-out survey 12 years earlier. By random allocation, 150 people received no incentive, 150 received a lottery ticket inducement with the follow-up survey and 150 received a lottery ticket inducement on the return of a completed survey. Results The overall response rate for the study was 63%. There were no significant differences in terms of response rates between the no incentive (58.8%;95%CI 49.8%,67.3%), incentive with survey (65.1%;95%CI 56.2%,73.3%) and promised incentive (65.3%;95%CI 56.1%,73.7%) groups. Independent predictors of responding to the 12 year survey were being older (OR=1.02, 95%CI 1.01,1.05,P=0.001) and being less neurotic as reported on the first survey 12 years earlier (OR=0.92, 95%CI 0.86,0.98, P=0.010). Conclusions Psychological factors may play a role in determining who responds to long-term follow-up surveys although timing of incentives does not. PMID:24223902

Koloski, Natasha A.; Jones, Michael; Eslick, Guy; Talley, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

16

Preliminary investigations of Spirulina effect on cancer cells: interest for long-term manned space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background In view of long haul space exploration missions the development of regenerative life support systems is of crucial importance to increase the crew autonomy and decrease the cost associated to the mass embarked Therefore in the late 80 s the European Space Agency initiated the MELiSSA project Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative MELiSSA has been conceived as a micro-organisms and higher plant process enabling high recycling efficiency The cyanobacteria Arthrospira sp is occupying one of the MELiSSA compartments Its genome is now being sequenced and this will help to better understand or improve its food value as well as to have a look at its putative toxic potential Aim In this study we were interested in studying the threshold of intrinsic cytotoxic effects of Spirulina dry extract from Sigma containing washed and lyophilized mixed Arthrospira strains on human cancer cells and its cell type dependency Method For that purpose we used flow cytometry to estimate cell death apoptosis and necrosis in three human leukaemic cell lines HELA cervix carcinoma IM-9 multiple myeloma K562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia Cells were cultured in the presence of an aqueous extract of Spirulina concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 mu g ml for 15 to 40 hours Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by annexin-V-PI staining cell size and granularity Early apoptosis was monitored by analysing the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential DioC 6 3 and the

Baatout, S.; Bekaert, S.; Hendrickx, L.; Derradji, H.; Mergeay, M.

17

Recurrence rate after radial club hand surgery in long term follow up  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Radial club hand includes wide spectrum of malformations that involve radial side of forearm. Conservative treatments are recommended to the milder types and surgical interventions specially centralization for the severe forms. Recurrence after centralization is one of the challenging problems in this anomaly. In this study, we assessed the recurrence rate of centralization in radial club hand surgery in long term follow up. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the records and radiographies of 9 patients with radial club hand who underwent centralization to correct the deformity in the hand surgery department. Patients’ age, type of the thumb anomaly, associated anomalies in other systems, involved side, type of radial club hand, hand-forearm angle preoperative, post operative and in the last follow up visit, and centralized wrists motion range in the final follow up visit were all assessed and reported. RESULTS: Eleven cases of radial club hand in nine patients underwent centralization. Mean age at the time of the centralization was 17 (6-72) months and mean follow up was 90 (48-170) months. Preoperative hand-forearm angle was 75 (30-110) degrees, immediate postoperative angle was 25 (15-35) degrees and in the last follow up visit it was 52 (40-60) degrees. The amount of correction was 66% and loss of correction in long term was 54%. CONCLUSION: Centralization still can be a standard procedure in treatment of patients with radial club hand with acceptable results. PMID:21772880

Shariatzadeh, Hooman; Jafari, Dawood; Taheri, Hamid; Mazhar, Farid Najid

2009-01-01

18

Cell Tropism Predicts Long-term Nucleotide Substitution Rates of Mammalian RNA Viruses  

PubMed Central

The high rates of RNA virus evolution are generally attributed to replication with error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. However, these long-term nucleotide substitution rates span three orders of magnitude and do not correlate well with mutation rates or selection pressures. This substitution rate variation may be explained by differences in virus ecology or intrinsic genomic properties. We generated nucleotide substitution rate estimates for mammalian RNA viruses and compiled comparable published rates, yielding a dataset of 118 substitution rates of structural genes from 51 different species, as well as 40 rates of non-structural genes from 28 species. Through ANCOVA analyses, we evaluated the relationships between these rates and four ecological factors: target cell, transmission route, host range, infection duration; and three genomic properties: genome length, genome sense, genome segmentation. Of these seven factors, we found target cells to be the only significant predictors of viral substitution rates, with tropisms for epithelial cells or neurons (P<0.0001) as the most significant predictors. Further, one-tailed t-tests showed that viruses primarily infecting epithelial cells evolve significantly faster than neurotropic viruses (P<0.0001 and P<0.001 for the structural genes and non-structural genes, respectively). These results provide strong evidence that the fastest evolving mammalian RNA viruses infect cells with the highest turnover rates: the highly proliferative epithelial cells. Estimated viral generation times suggest that epithelial-infecting viruses replicate more quickly than viruses with different cell tropisms. Our results indicate that cell tropism is a key factor in viral evolvability. PMID:24415935

Hicks, Allison L.; Duffy, Siobain

2014-01-01

19

Long?term Cardiovascular Risks Associated With an Elevated Heart Rate: The Framingham Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background Higher heart rate has been associated with an adverse prognosis, but most prior studies focused on individuals with known cardiovascular disease or examined a limited number of outcomes. We sought to examine the association of baseline heart rate with both fatal and nonfatal outcomes during 2 decades of follow?up. Methods and Results Our study included 4058 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 55 years, 56% women). Cox models were performed with multivariable adjustment for clinical risk factors and physical activity. A total of 708 participants developed incident cardiovascular disease (303 heart failure, 343 coronary heart disease, and 216 stroke events), 48 received a permanent pacemaker, and 1186 died. Baseline heart rate was associated with incident cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15 per 1 SD [11 bpm] increase in heart rate, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.24, P=0.0002), particularly heart failure (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.48, P<0.0001). Higher heart rate was also associated with higher all?cause (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.24, P<0.0001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.33, P=0.01). Spline analyses did not suggest a lower threshold beyond which the benefit of a lower heart rate abated or increased. In contrast, individuals with a higher heart rate had a lower risk of requiring permanent pacemaker placement (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.79, P=0.001). Conclusions Individuals with a higher heart rate are at elevated long?term risk for cardiovascular events, in particular, heart failure, and all?cause death. On the other hand, a higher heart rate is associated with a lower risk of future permanent pacemaker implantation. PMID:24811610

Ho, Jennifer E.; Larson, Martin G.; Ghorbani, Anahita; Cheng, Susan; Coglianese, Erin E.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

20

Climate trends and variability of rain rate derived from long-term measurements in Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

systems are affected by rainfall, and the attenuation increases significantly with rain rate and frequency. Above about 10 GHz rainfall must generally be considered for estimating expected link availability with sufficient attenuation margin included. Rain rate is a key factor, and depending on climate, it will dictate the possible path length and other factors such as antenna size, for the planned performance of a system that operates at higher frequencies than about 10 GHz. This paper presents results from an analysis of Norwegian tipping bucket rain gauge data from 1967 to 2013. It is found that the rain rate currently used by the Radiocommunication Sector of the International Telecommunication Union recommendation for attenuation prediction, R0.01—the rate exceeded for 0.01% of an average year—has actually increased in all parts of the country from where long-term data exist. Moreover, the year to year variability is significant. The increase may well be seen as a consequence of climate change. Such a change may cause higher attenuation effects than expected when radio links are designed following "normal" dimensioning procedures.

Tjelta, Terje; Mamen, Jostein

2014-09-01

21

Interest rates factor model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interdependence of the interest rates of the US, the UK, and Japan is analyzed in this work by means of spectral analysis and network methods. A predominant effective factor in the interest rate market is which country floats a bond issue, and a minor effective factor is time to maturity of bonds. Power-law cross-correlation among different countries is analyzed by the detrended cross-correlation analysis method. Long-range cross-correlation is found between the first factors of interest rate, while there is no cross-correlation between some of the second factors. The tail dependency is indicated by tail indices from Archimedean copulas, including an empirical copula. In contrast to other pairs, the US-UK first factor pair has tail dependencies in both the upper-tail and lower-tail. Dynamic properties of interest rate are modeled by a stochastic volatility model. The properties of mean reverting and volatility clustering are observed and reflected in this model. The proposed simulation method combines the dependence structures and the factor dynamics model; it simultaneously describes the interest rates of different countries.

Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Soo Yong

2011-07-01

22

Long-term, repeated measurements of mouse cortical microflow at the same region of interest with high spatial resolution.  

PubMed

A method for long-term, repeated, semi-quantitative measurements of cerebral microflow at the same region of interest (ROI) with high spatial resolution was developed and applied to mice subjected to focal arterial occlusion. A closed cranial window was chronically implanted over the left parieto-occipital cortex. The anesthetized mouse was placed several times, e.g., weekly, under a dynamic confocal microscope, and Rhodamine B-isothiocyanate-dextran was each time intravenously injected as a bolus, while microflow images were video recorded. Left and right tail veins were sequentially catheterized in a mouse three times at maximum over a 1.5 months' observation period. Smearing of the input function resulting from the use of intravenous injection was shown to be sufficiently small. The distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) was thermocoagulated through the cranial window in six mice, and five sham-operated mice were studied in parallel. Dye injection and video recording were conducted four times in this series, i.e., before and at 10 min, 7 and 30 days after sham operation or MCA occlusion. Pixelar microflow values (1/MTT) in a matrix of approximately 50×50 pixels were displayed on a two-dimensional (2-D) map, and the frequency distribution of the flow values was also calculated. No significant changes in microflow values over time were detected in sham-operated mice, while the time course of flow changes in the ischemic penumbral area in operated mice was similar to those reported in the literature. This method provides a powerful tool to investigate long-term changes in mouse cortical microflow under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:21111717

Tomita, Yutaka; Pinard, Elisabeth; Tran-Dinh, Alexy; Schiszler, Istvan; Kubis, Nathalie; Tomita, Minoru; Suzuki, Norihiro; Seylaz, Jacques

2011-02-01

23

Short-term disruption rates and long-term outcomes of a professional parent program.  

PubMed

Both traditional and specialized foster care have disruption rates ranging from 36% to 70%. Connecting Children and Families was a professional parent program that provided permanent family placements for children and young adults with significant behavior problems and mental health issues. During the 15 years of the Connecting Children and Families program, the short-term disruption rate was 21%. Long-term positive outcomes (i.e., stability in the family, reunification with birth family, or adoption) occurred for 83% of the children and young adults. This article is a program description of Connecting Children and Families. There were five key elements of this program: (a) The primary treatment was the life itself provided by the professional parents; (b) The parents were paid a significant stipend and they were treated both as professionals and as the parents of the children placed in their home; (c) The program model was one based on continuity of clinical care rather than case management; (d) Treatment interventions were derived from the fields of behaviorism and applied behavior analysis; and (e) The core value of the program was rooted in Wolfensberger's concept of social role valorization. PMID:24205552

Redinger, Robyn

2012-01-01

24

Daily and Long Term Variations of Out-Door Gamma Dose Rate in Khorasan Province, Iran  

SciTech Connect

In Iran before 1996, only a few hot spots had been identified, no systematic study had been envisaged. Since then preparation of out-door environmental gamma radiation map of Iran was defined as a long term goal in our center, at the same time simultaneous monitoring of outdoor gamma level in Khorasan was also proposed. A Rados area monitoring system (AAM-90) including 10 intelligent RD-02 detector and all associated components were purchased. From 2003 gradually seven stations have been setup in Khorasan. For all seven stations monthly average and one hour daily average on four time intervals have been computed. Statistically no significant differences have been observed. This is also true for monthly averages. The overall average dose rate for present seven stations varies from 0.11 {mu}Sv{center_dot}h{sup -1} for Ferdows, to 0.04 {mu}Sv{center_dot}h{sup -1} for Dargaz. Based on our data, 50 minutes sample in any time interval is an accurate sample size to estimate out door Gamma dose rate.

Toossi, M. T. Bahreyni; Bayani, SH. [Environmental dosimetery laboratory, Medical Physics Research Center, Mashad University of Medical Sciences, Mashad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-08-07

25

Long-term dynamics of death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and improving air quality  

PubMed Central

Background The respiratory tract is a major target of exposure to air pollutants, and respiratory diseases are associated with both short- and long-term exposures. We hypothesized that improved air quality in North Carolina was associated with reduced rates of death from respiratory diseases in local populations. Materials and methods We analyzed the trends of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia mortality and changes of the levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using monthly data measurements from air-monitoring stations in North Carolina in 1993–2010. The log-linear model was used to evaluate associations between air-pollutant levels and age-adjusted death rates (per 100,000 of population) calculated for 5-year age-groups and for standard 2000 North Carolina population. The studied associations were adjusted by age group-specific smoking prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of disease-specific respiratory deaths. Results Decline in emphysema deaths was associated with decreasing levels of SO2 and CO in the air, decline in asthma deaths–with lower SO2, CO, and PM10 levels, and decline in pneumonia deaths–with lower levels of SO2. Sensitivity analyses were performed to study potential effects of the change from International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 to ICD-10 codes, the effects of air pollutants on mortality during summer and winter, the impact of approach when only the underlying causes of deaths were used, and when mortality and air-quality data were analyzed on the county level. In each case, the results of sensitivity analyses demonstrated stability. The importance of analysis of pneumonia as an underlying cause of death was also highlighted. Conclusion Significant associations were observed between decreasing death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and decreases in levels of ambient air pollutants in North Carolina. PMID:25018627

Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Abernethy, Amy P; Holman, Sheila; Ross, William G; Lyerly, H Kim

2014-01-01

26

Neotectonic Kinematic Analysis of Philippines Orogen: Regional Strain-Rates and a Forecast of Long-term Seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Philippines orogen accommodates oblique convergence of the Sunda and Philippine Sea plates which subduct at bounding trenches to the West and East respectively. Relative benchmark velocities from GPS campaigns, principal stress directions, and geologic slip-rates in the literature do not completely describe deformation in the region. I construct a 2-D finite element grid and use program Neokinema to fit internal observations by a weighted least squares method. The preferred model predicts long-term (104-106yr) neotectonic velocities, fault slip-rates, and long-term anelastic strain-rates (~9.5%/Ma). The preferred model results suggest SU-PS velocity transfer occurs primarily by changing rates of subduction at the Philippine Trench, (rates decrease to the North) and Manilla Trench (rates increase to the North). We also report especially high (30%/Ma) long-term anelastic strain-rates in the Luzon province where unmapped faults, related to active propagation of the Philippine Fault System, contribute to apparent anelastic strain. We further use model velocities and strain rates to compute a spatial forecast of long-term seismicity. Compared to 630 events of ?5.5 in the CMT catalog (1976-2005), our area integral of seismicity predicts 752 earthquakes of ?5.5 in a typical 30-year interval. Largest discrepancies between the CMT catalog and our spatial seismicity forecast occur in Mindanao province along the Siayan-Sindangan Suture Zone where we under-forecast seismicity, possibly due to especially sparse data coverage.

Rucker, W. K.

2008-12-01

27

doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00382-X Long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion from cosmogenic nuclides  

E-print Network

doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00382-X Long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion from weathering and physical erosion is important for under- standing the long-term evolution of soils, landscapes, and Earth's climate. Here we describe how long-term chemical weathering rates can be measured for actively

Kirchner, James W.

28

Scaling and wavelet-based analyses of the long-term heart rate variability of the Eastern Oyster  

E-print Network

Characterisations of the long--term behaviour of heart rate variability in humans have emerged in the last few years as promising candidates to became clinically significant tools. We present two different statistical analyses of long time recordings of the heart rate variation in the Eastern Oyster. The circulatory system of this marine mollusk has important anatomical and physiological dissimilitudes in comparison to that of humans and it is exposed to dramatically different environmental influences. Our results resemble those previously obtained in humans. This suggests that in spite of the discrepancies, the mechanisms of long--term cardiac control on both systems share a common underlying dynamic.

Ritto, P A; Alvarado-Gil, J J

2004-01-01

29

Impacts of long-term erosion rates on Portuguese wheat croplands under future climate scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean drylands of southern Portugal have experienced centuries of agricultural exploitation and associated erosion processes, leading in many cases to degraded soils with low agricultural productivity. These conditions have been associated with ongoing desertification processes. Future climate conditions could accelerate these processes, due to increased winter rainfall intensity associated with less favorable conditions for vegetation development. This work explored scenarios of long-term erosion rates, and associated consequences for soil fertility, for winter wheat croplands in southern Portugal in the Loures mountain range (sub-humid climate, with relatively deep Cambisols) and the southwestern Guadiana basin (semi-arid climate, with relatively shallow Leptosols). The impacts of climate change on hydrological processes, conditions for vegetation growth, and soil erosion rates were explored using the SWAT ecohydrological model. Eight synthetic climate change scenarios were created using a stochastic weather generator, creating an envelope which includes a large number of the climate change scenarios predicted for these regions for 2071-2100. The scenarios comprised temperature increases between 1.6 and 6.4 °C and rainfall decreases between -2.5% and -40%. The impacts of predicted erosion rates for soil fertility in wheat croplands was then estimated using an empirical approach based on wheat rooting depth and present-day soil depth. The results indicate that: 1) Wheat growth is expected to decrease by as much as 40% in the most extreme scenarios due solely to climate change. 2) Soil erosion in wheat croplands is expected to decrease in climate change scenarios with the lowest rainfall (-60%), increasing by as much as 150% in scenarios with the highest rainfall, although they are expected to remain relatively low (between 2 and 12 ton/ha.yr). 3) In the Loures study area, lower wheat productivity is expected to be caused mostly by climate change, with relatively few changes associated with erosion. 4) In the Guadiana study area, lower wheat productivity is expected to result from both climate change and soil erosion; soil erosion would dominate the impacts on productivity for low-magnitude climate changes, with the impact of climate becoming higher with the severity of the climate change scenario.

Nunes, J. P.

2012-04-01

30

Timing and rates of long-term landscape evolution in Southern Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. North of the Sierras Septentrionales the Salado basin is located. The Sierras Septentrionales and the Sierras Australes are also divided by a smaller intracratonic basin. Further in the South the Colorado basin is located. The Sierras Australes is a variscian fold belt originated by strong phases of metamorphosis, but till now it is unclear by how many tectonic phases the area was influenced (Tomezzoli & Vilas, 1999). It consists of Proterozoic to Paleozoic rocks. The Sierras Septentrionales consists mainly of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The Precambrian sequences are overlain by younger Sediments (Cingolani, 2010). The aim is to understand the long-term landscape evolution of the area by quantifiying erosion- and exhumation-rates and by dating ancient rock-uplift-events. Another goal is to find out how the opening of the south atlantic took effect on this region. To fulfill this goal, thermochronological techniques, such as fission-track dating and (U-Th-Sm)/He dating has been applied to samples from the region. Because there was no low- temperature thermochronology done in this area, both techniques were applied on apatites and zircons. Furthermore, numerical modeling of the cooling history has provided the data base for the quantification of the exhumation rates. The data-set show clusters of different ages which can be linked to tectonic activities during late Paleozoic times. Also the thermokinematic modeling is leading to new insights of the evolution of both mountain ranges and shows patterns of ongoing tectonic processes in this region. Calculated exhumation rates show also varying cooling histories and the influence of tectonics throughout the research area. References: Tomezzoli, R. N. and Vilas, J. F. (1999): Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of deformation of the Sierras Australes thrust and fold belt, Argentina. Geophys. J. Int. (1999) 138, 857-870. Cingolani, C. A. (2010): The Tandilia System of Argentina as a southern extension of the Rio de la Plata craton: an overview, Int. J. Earth. Sci. (Geol. Rundsch.) (2011) 100, 221-242

Kollenz, Sebastian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Rossello, Eduardo A.; Stoeckli, Danny F.

2014-05-01

31

Timing and rates of long-term landscape evolution in Southern Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. North of the Sierras Septentrionales the Salado basin is located. The Sierras Septentrionales and the Sierras Australes are also divided by a smaller intracratonic basin. Further in the South the Colorado basin is located. The Sierras Australes is a variscian fold belt originated by strong phases of metamorphosis, but till now it is unclear by how many tectonic phases the area was influenced (Tomezzoli & Vilas, 1999). It consists of Proterozoic to Paleozoic rocks. The Sierras Septentrionales consists mainly of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The Precambrian sequences are overlain by younger Sediments (Cingolani, 2010). The aim is to understand the long-term landscape evolution of the area by quantifiying erosion- and exhumation-rates and by dating ancient rock-uplift-events. Another goal is to find out how the opening of the south atlantic took effect on this region. To fulfill this goal, thermochronological techniques, such as fission-track dating and (U-Th-Sm)/He dating has been applied to samples from the region. Because there was no low- temperature thermochronology done in this area, both techniques were applied on apatites and zircons. Furthermore, numerical modeling of the cooling history has provided the data base for the quantification of the exhumation rates. The data-set shows clusters of different ages which can be linked to tectonic activities during late Paleozoic times. Also the thermokinematic modeling is leading to new insights of the evolution of both mountain ranges and shows patterns of ongoing tectonic processes in this region. Caltculated exhumation rates show also varying cooling historys and the influence of tectonics throughout the research area. References: Renata Nela Tomezzoli and Juan Francisco Vilas (1999): Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of deformation of the Sierras Australes thrust and fold belt, Argentina. Geophys. J. Int. (1999) 138, 857-870 Carlos A. Cingolani (2010): The Tandilia System of Argentina as a southern extension of the Rio de la Plata craton: an overview, Int. J. Earth. Sci. (Geol. Rundsch.) (2011) 100, 221-242

Kollenz, S.; Glasmacher, P. A.

2013-12-01

32

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LAND APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER, ROSWELL, NEW MEXICO, SLOW RATE IRRIGATION SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the findings of a study on the long-term effects of applying treated domestic wastewater to farmland at Roswell, New Mexico. On the test site, a slow rate irrigation method was used for 33 years. Water, soil, and crop samples from this test site were compared...

33

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LAND APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER: DICKINSON, NORTH DAKOTA, SLOW RATE IRRIGATION SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the findings of a study on the long-term effects of applying treated domestic wastewater to farmland at Dickinson, North Dakota. On the test site, slow rate irrigation, using the border-strip method, has been practiced since 1959. Water, soil, and crop sample...

34

[Variation characteristics of maize yield and fertilizer utilization rate on an upland yellow soil under long term fertilization].  

PubMed

An analysis was made on the 16-year experimental data from the long term fertilization, experiment of maize on a yellow soil in Guizhou of Southwest China. Four treatments, i. e. , no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (165 kg N x hm(-2), 82.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2), and 82.5 kg K2O x hm(-2), NPK), organic manure (30555 kg x hm(-2), M), and combined applicatioin of chemical fertilizers and organic manure (NPKM), were selected to analyze the variation trends of maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency on yellow soil under effects of different long term fertilization modes, aimed to provide references for evaluating and establishing long term fertilization mode and promote the sustainable development of crop production. Overall, the maize yield under long term fertilization had an increasing trend, with a large annual variation. Treatment NPKM had the best yield-increasing effect, with the maize yield increased by 4075.71 kg x hm(-2) and the increment being up to 139.2%. Long term fertilization increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of maize. In treatment M, the nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates were increased significantly by 35.4% and 18.8%, respectively. Treatment NPK had obvious effect in improving potassium utilization rate, with an increment of 20% and being far higher than that in treatments M (8.7%) and NPKM (9.2%). The results showed that long term fertilization, especially the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, was of great importance in increasing crop yield and fertilizer use efficiency. PMID:24483072

Luo, Long-Zao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wen-An; Xiao, Hou-Jun; Jiang, Tai-Ming

2013-10-01

35

Short-term vs. long-term heart rate variability in ischemic cardiomyopathy risk stratification  

PubMed Central

In industrialized countries with aging populations, heart failure affects 0.3–2% of the general population. The investigation of 24 h-ECG recordings revealed the potential of nonlinear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) for enhanced risk stratification in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF). However, long-term analyses are time-consuming, expensive, and delay the initial diagnosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether 30 min short-term HRV analysis is sufficient for comparable risk stratification in IHF in comparison to 24 h-HRV analysis. From 256 IHF patients [221 at low risk (IHFLR) and 35 at high risk (IHFHR)] (a) 24 h beat-to-beat time series (b) the first 30 min segment (c) the 30 min most stationary day segment and (d) the 30 min most stationary night segment were investigated. We calculated linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear HRV analysis indices. Optimal parameter sets for risk stratification in IHF were determined for 24 h and for each 30 min segment by applying discriminant analysis on significant clinical and non-clinical indices. Long- and short-term HRV indices from frequency domain and particularly from nonlinear dynamics revealed high univariate significances (p < 0.01) discriminating between IHFLR and IHFHR. For multivariate risk stratification, optimal mixed parameter sets consisting of 5 indices (clinical and nonlinear) achieved 80.4% AUC (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics) from 24 h HRV analysis, 84.3% AUC from first 30 min, 82.2 % AUC from daytime 30 min and 81.7% AUC from nighttime 30 min. The optimal parameter set obtained from the first 30 min showed nearly the same classification power when compared to the optimal 24 h-parameter set. As results from stationary daytime and nighttime, 30 min segments indicate that short-term analyses of 30 min may provide at least a comparable risk stratification power in IHF in comparison to a 24 h analysis period. PMID:24379785

Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Schulz, Steffen; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Vázquez, Rafael; Bayés de Luna, Antoni; Caminal, Pere

2013-01-01

36

Intervention of Neuroendocrine-Immune Axis and Postoperative Pneumonia Rate in Long-term Alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Postoperative pneumonia is three to four times more frequent in patients with alcohol use disorders followed by pro- longed intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Long-term alcohol use leads to an altered perioperative hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immunity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate HPA intervention with low-dose ethanol, morphine, or ketoconazole on the neuroen- docrine-immune axis

Claudia Spies; Verena Eggers; Gyongyi Szabo; Alexandra Lau; Vera von Dossow; Helge Schoenfeld; Hilke Althoff; Torsten Schroeder; Sebastian Pfeiffer; Sabine Ziemer; Christian Paschen; Martin Klein; Christian Marks; Peter Miller; Michael Sander; Evelin Achterberg; Udo Kaisers; Hans-Dieter Volk; Katrin Hegenscheid; Birgit Bohm

2006-01-01

37

A comparison of recent, short-, and long-term carbon accumulation rates for a vegetation gradient in central Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information regarding historical rates of carbon (C) accumulation will aid scientists in understanding how climate change may affect biogeochemical cycles in the future. We examined rates of C accumulation for the following three time periods: the last two thousand years (long-term rates), the last 30 years (short-term rates), and the last several years (recent rates). We compared C accumulation rates among these time periods for five different ecosystems found along a ~300-m transect within the Bonanza Creek Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) site. These sites were dominated by black spruce, low shrubs, tussock grass, Carex sp., or brown moss. The black spruce and shrub site are the only ecosystems currently underlain by permafrost. Three soil cores were taken at each site and analyzed for C content. In order to gain a robust understanding of C accumulation rates at each site, 14C measurements and 210Pb chronologies were also obtained, and flux measurements were taken at each site. 14C dates were acquired for the basal horizon of one profile for each ecosystem type, providing estimations of C accumulation rates since organic matter began to form. 210Pb chronologies for each soil profile allowed us to estimate C accumulation rates for the last several decades. Finally, CO2 flux measurements were taken at each site from May - September for five years (2007 - 2011), capturing recent C losses and gains. Although short-term C accumulation rates were lowest in the black spruce ecosystem, rates among ecosystems were not significantly different, due to large variability among soil profiles within each site (coefficient of variations of up to 50%). The long-term C accumulation rate at the black spruce site corresponds well to values measured in an adjacent black spruce forest using eddy covariance. The brown moss site had the highest long-term rates of C accumulation among the five ecosystems. Short-term C accumulation rates were always higher than long-term rates (40-100 gC/m2/yr and 3-30 gC/m2/yr, respectively). This information provides insights into the fate of C over different time scales for ecosystems which comprise important parts the boreal forest.

Manies, K.; Harden, J. W.; Turetsky, M.; Fuller, C.

2013-12-01

38

Changes in Long-Term No-Till Corn Growth and Yield under Different Rates of Stover Mulch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable.Weassessed theshort-term impactsofstovermanagement on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam (fine loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam

Humberto Blanco-Canqui; R. Lal; W. M. Post; L. B. Owens

2006-01-01

39

Changes in long-term no-till corn growth and yield under different rates of stover mulch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received for publication January 4, 2006. Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. We assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam

Humberto Blanco-Canqui; Rattan Lal; Wilfred M Post; Lloyd Owens

2006-01-01

40

Factors Associated With Nursing Assistant Quality-of-Life Ratings for Residents With Dementia in Long-Term Care Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We identify resident, nursing assistant, and facility factors associated with nursing assistant quality-of-life ratings for residents with dementia in long-term care. Design and Methods: We used a cross-sectional survey of 143 nursing assistants providing care to 335 residents in 38 residential care\\/assisted living (RC\\/AL) facilities and nursing homes in four states. We assessed resident quality of life by using

Gary S. Winzelberg; Christianna S. Williams; John S. Preisser; Sheryl Zimmerman; Philip D. Sloane

2005-01-01

41

Effects of long-term microgravity exposure in space on circadian rhythms of heart rate variability.  

PubMed

We evaluated their circadian rhythms using data from electrocardiographic records and examined the change in circadian period related to normal RR intervals for astronauts who completed a long-term (?6-month) mission in space. The examinees were seven astronauts, five men and two women, from 2009 to 2010. Their mean?±?SD age was 52.0?±?4.2 years (47-59?yr). Each stayed in space for more than 160 days; their average length of stay was 172.6?±?14.6 days (163-199 days). We conducted a 24-h Holter electrocardiography before launch (Pre), at one month after launch (DF1), at two months after launch (DF2), at two weeks before return (DF3), and at three months after landing (Post), comparing each index of frequency-domain analysis and 24-h biological rhythms of the NN intervals (normal RR intervals). Results show that the mean period of Normal Sinus (NN) intervals was within 24?±?4?h at each examination. Inter-individual variability differed among the stages, being significantly smaller at DF3 (Pre versus DF1 versus DF3 versus Post?=?22.36?±?2.50 versus 25.46?±?4.37 versus 22.46?±?1.75 versus 26.16?±?7.18?h, p?

Yamamoto, Naomune; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Kubo, Yutaka; Hayashi, Mitsutoshi; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki

2014-11-13

42

Who Should Buy Long-Term Bonds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to conventional wisdom, long-term bonds are appropriate for conservative long-term investors. This paper develops a model of optimal consumption and portfolio choice for infinite-lived investors with recursive utility who face stochastic interest rates, solves the model using an approximate analytical method, and evaluates conventional wisdom. As risk aversion increases, the myopic component of risky asset demand disappears but the

John Y. Campbell; Luis M. Viceira

2001-01-01

43

Long-term Rates of Mafic Magma Emplacement and Implications for Heat Advection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of magmatism (magma emplacement rate) including both volcanic products and intrusive bodies were obtained for terrestrial petrotectonic systems where reliable volumes can be estimated and geochronological data exist. Approximately 50 estimates of magma emplacement rates have been extracted from the literature published between 1982 and 2003 for persistent basaltic systems with durations from 1 ka to ~5 Ma. Although

S. M. White; F. J. Spera; J. A. Crisp

2003-01-01

44

Increased Rates of Long-Term Complications after MammoSite Brachytherapy Compared with Whole Breast Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Due to its short duration of therapy and low rates of local recurrence, women undergoing breast conservation are increasingly opting for partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite (Cytyc/Hologic) catheter. In early follow-up studies, few complications were reported. Few data, however, exist regarding longer-term complications. We compared the long-term local toxicities of MammoSite partial breast irradiation with those resulting from whole breast radiation. STUDY DESIGN This was a retrospective study performed in a single academic medical center. All patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery between 2003 and 2008, who met institutional criteria for brachytherapy, were included. We compared women treated with MammoSite with patients treated with whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT). Endpoints included incidence of palpable masses at the lumpectomy site, telangiectasias, and local recurrence. RESULTS Seventy-one MammoSite patients and 245 WBRT patients were well matched with regard to clinical characteristics. Median follow-up was 4 years. A palpable mass developed at the site of lumpectomy in 27% of the MammoSite patients compared with 7% of the WBRT patients (p < 0.0001). Telangiectasias developed more frequently in the MammoSite group than in the WBRT group (24% vs 4%, p < 0.001). Forty-two percent of patients treated with MammoSite developed a palpable mass, telangectasia, or both. CONCLUSIONS Palpable masses and telangiectasias are frequent long-term complications after MammoSite brachytherapy and occur at a significantly higher rate after MammoSite brachytherapy than after WBRT. This increased rate of long-term local toxicity should be considered when counseling women on options for adjuvant radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery. PMID:23830216

Rosenkranz, Kari M; Tsui, Edmund; McCabe, Elizabeth B; Gui, Jiang; Underhill, Kelly; Barth, Richard J

2013-01-01

45

The Effect of Dose Rate on Composite Durability When Exposed to a Simulated Long-Term Lunar Radiation Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) requires a safe living and working environment for crew. Composite materials are one type of material being investigated by NASA as a multi-functional structural approach to habitats for long-term use in space or on planetary surfaces with limited magnetic fields and atmosphere. These materials provide high strength with the potential for decreased weight and increased radiation protection of crew and electronics when compared with conventional aluminum structures. However, these materials have not been evaluated in a harsh radiation environment, as would be experienced outside of LEO or on a planetary surface. Thus, NASA has been investigating the durability of select composite materials in a long-term radiation environment. Previously, NASA exposed composite samples to a simulated, accelerated 30-year radiation treatment and tensile stresses similar to those of a habitat pressure vessel. The results showed evidence of potential surface oxidation and enhanced cross-linking of the matrix. As a follow-on study, we performed the same accelerated exposure alongside an exposure with a decreased dose rate. The slower dose ]rate is comparable to a realistic scenario, although still accelerated. Strain measurements were collected during exposure and showed that with a fastdose rate, the strain decreased with time, but with a slow ]dose rate, the strain increased with time. After the radiation exposures, samples were characterized via tensile tests, flexure tests, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results of these tests will be discussed.

Rojdev, Kristina; O'Rourke, Mary Jane; Hill, Charles; Nutt, Steven; Atwell, William

2011-01-01

46

The effect of long term combined yoga practice on the basal metabolic rate of healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Different procedures practiced in yoga have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the basal metabolic rate when studied acutely. In daily life however, these procedures are usually practiced in combination. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the net change in the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of individuals actively engaging in a combination of yoga practices (asana or

Chaya; AV Kurpad; HR Nagendra; R Nagarathna

2006-01-01

47

Bidirectional Scaling of Astrocytic Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Signaling following Long-Term Changes in Neuronal Firing Rates  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the ability of astrocytic receptors to exhibit plasticity as a result of changes in neuronal activity. Here we provide evidence for bidirectional scaling of astrocytic group I metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling in acute mouse hippocampal slices following long-term changes in neuronal firing rates. Plasticity of astrocytic mGluRs was measured by recording spontaneous and evoked Ca2+ elevations in both astrocytic somata and processes. An exogenous astrocytic Gq G protein-coupled receptor was resistant to scaling, suggesting that the alterations in astrocyte Ca2+ signaling result from changes in activity of the surface mGluRs rather than a change in intracellular G protein signaling molecules. These findings suggest that astrocytes actively detect shifts in neuronal firing rates and adjust their receptor signaling accordingly. This type of long-term plasticity in astrocytes resembles neuronal homeostatic plasticity and might be important to ensure an optimal or expected level of input from neurons. PMID:23166735

Xie, Alison X.; Sun, Min-Yu; Murphy, Thomas; Lauderdale, Kelli; Tiglao, Elizabeth; Fiacco, Todd A.

2012-01-01

48

Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil  

SciTech Connect

A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4–6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions.

Mazur, J.; Kozak, K., E-mail: Krzysztof.Kozak@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)

2014-02-15

49

Effects of Smoking Cessation on Heart Rate Variability Among Long-Term Male Smokers  

E-print Network

Cigarette smoking has been shown to adverse- ly affect heart rate variability (HRV), suggesting dysregula] and introduces a variety of adverse health consequences such as cardiovas- cular diseases (CVD) [2], respiratory diseases [3], and can- cer [4]. Smoking also increases the risk of ischemic heart disease and sudden

Meston, Cindy

50

New emission deterioration rates for gasoline cars - Results from long-term measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle emission control systems have been found to degrade with use resulting in increasing emission rates with vehicle age. Standard European data for deterioration factors have only been based on a sample of vehicles with limited high mileage ranges, with only few Euro 3 and Euro 4 vehicles, and on laboratory tests only. Here we present deterioration rates derived from more than 110?000 records collected over the past thirteen years from on-road emission remote sensing in Zurich/Switzerland. Deterioration rates for hot NOx and CO emissions of older gasoline vehicles are much lower than assumed so far, but significantly higher for Euro 3 and Euro 4 cars. There is no evidence of high emitters but equipment gradually degrades across the fleet. Deterioration rates do not seem to depend on engine load. Routine idle emission tests have not resulted in measurable emission reductions of the inspected vehicles. National emission inventories should be updated in the light of this new data.

Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Chen, Yuche

2015-01-01

51

Genetic alterations in patients with esophageal cancer with short- and long-term survival rates after curative esophagectomy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to ascertain the exact relation between specific oncogenes and long- and short-term survival rates in patients with esophageal cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Recent developments in molecular biology have shown that several oncogenes and suppressor genes are involved in the development of esophageal cancer. However, the role of these genes still is unknown. METHODS: The clinical outcome of 84 cases of R0-resected esophageal carcinomas (from 1986-1993) and the molecular and biologic characteristics of these tumors were studied. The patients studied were divided into three groups, which were designated as follows: shortest term survivors (up to 6 months), short-term survivors (7-12 months), and long-term survivors (>5 years). These groups included 23, 17, and 44 subjects, respectively. For the genomic analysis, CyclinD1, int-2, murine double minute 2 (MDM2), retinoblastoma, p53, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC), and human papillomavirus were studied in these patients. The regrowth capability of primary cultures and the clinicopathologic characteristics of these patients also were analyzed. RESULTS: The CyclinD1 and int-2 genes, which are located in the 11q13 chromosome, and the MDM2 gene were related to short survival. However, the p53 mutation and human papillomavirus infection were not related to short-term survival. The average ratio of genomic abnormalities to genes examined was higher in the shortest and short-term survival groups than in the long-term survival group. Regrowth capability in primary cultures also was related to short-term survival. Among the long-term survival patients, 7 (16%) of 44 cases suffered further cancer after esophagectomy. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the 11q13 amplicon and MDM2 may play an important role in the progression of esophageal cancer, and an accumulation of genomic abnormalities may result in poor prognosis. Careful follow-up testing for double cancer is needed in long-term survivors of esophageal cancer. PMID:9296509

Shimada, Y; Imamura, M; Shibagaki, I; Tanaka, H; Miyahara, T; Kato, M; Ishizaki, K

1997-01-01

52

Long-term measurements of 36Cl to investigate potential solar influence on the decay rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Jenkins et al. [6] reported on fluctuations in the detected decay events of 36Cl which were measured with a Geiger-Müller counter. Experimental data of 32Si measured by means of an end-window gas-flow proportional counter at the Brookhaven National Laboratory show similar periodicity, albeit a different amplitude. Jenkins et al. interpret the fluctuations as evidence of solar influence on the decay rates of beta-decaying radionuclides.

Kossert, Karsten; Nähle, Ole J.

2014-03-01

53

Factors controlling long-term rates and inter-annual variations of CO2 sequestration in a temperate forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon balance of a 60-year-old temperate deciduous forest (Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, USA) was measured by biometric methods and hourly eddy covariance over a seven-year period (1993-2000). Net uptake of CO2 determined from eddy-covariance data averaged 1.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, with ~ 50% inter-annual variations. Detailed biometry showed 60-70% of net uptake could be attributed to tree growth, with little inter-annual variation, and the balance to soils and coarse woody debris. Decadal mean uptake rates were controlled by stand age and composition, representing legacies of prior disturbance. Inter-annual fluctuations reflected ecosystem response to climate variations, through changes in litter decay rates and tree mortality. Year-to-year variations in C sequestration by the terrestrial biosphere are influenced by climatic factors quite different from the ecological factors regulating long-term sequestration.

Barford, C. C.; Wofsy, S. C.; Goulden, M. L.; Munger, J. W.; Pyle, E. H.; Urbanski, S. P.; Hutyra, L.; Fitzjarrald, D.; Moore, K.

2001-05-01

54

Styles and rates of long-term denudation in carbonate terrains under a Mediterranean to hyper-arid climatic gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate minerals, unlike silicates, have the potential to dissolve almost completely and with high efficiency. Thus, in carbonate terrains denudation rate and style (the governing process of denudation, mechanical or chemical) should be more sensitive to climatic forcing. Using 36Cl measurements in 39 carbonate bedrock and sediment samples, we calculate long-term denudation rates across a sharp climatic gradient from Mediterranean to hyper-arid conditions. Our samples were collected along the Arugot watershed, which drains the eastern flank of the Judea Range (central Israel) to the Dead Sea and is characterized by a pronounced rain shadow. Denudation rates of flat-lying bedrock outcrops sampled along interfluves differ by an order of magnitude from ?20 mm ka-1 in the Mediterranean zone to 1-3 mm ka-1 in the hyper-arid zone. These rates are strongly correlated with precipitation, and thus reflect the importance of carbonate mineral dissolution in the overall denudation process. In contrast, denudation rates of steep bedrock surfaces depend on the hillslope gradient, but only in the hyper-arid climate zone, indicating that mechanical processes dominate the overall hillslope denudation within this zone. The dominance of slope-dependent mechanical erosion in the hyper-arid zone is also reflected by an increase in spatially-average denudation rates from 17-19 mm ka-1 in the Mediterranean-semi-arid zones to 21-25 mm ka-1 in the hyper-arid zone. These higher rates are attributed to clast contribution from steep slopes under arid climate. This suggests an increased importance of mechanical processes to the overall denudation in the hyper-arid zone. We demonstrate that the transition between chemically-dominated denudation to mechanically-dominated denudation occurs between 100 and 200 mm of mean annual precipitation. Long-term denudation rates across the Judea Range indicate that between Mediterranean and hyper-arid climates, chemical weathering rates are limited by precipitation. Nevertheless, in more humid climates, chemical weathering rates are apparently limited by the rates of carbonate mineral dissolution. This study demonstrates that carbonate terrains have the capacity to shift between mechanically and chemically dominated denudation in response to changes in precipitation. Similar transitions in response to changes in temperature or the level of tectonic activity have been previously reported. We suggest that the abrupt nature of such transitions can be primarily attributed to the efficiency of carbonate dissolution processes and the competition between surface and subsurface drainage systems in carbonate terrains.

Ryb, U.; Matmon, A.; Erel, Y.; Haviv, I.; Benedetti, L.; Hidy, A. J.

2014-11-01

55

Long-Term Persistency of Abnormal Heart Rate Variability following Long NICU Stay and Surgery at Birth  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is associated with painful procedures during the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay. Full-term newborns can also experience pain, following surgery. These procedures can have long-lasting consequences. It has been shown that children born preterm show pain responses and cardiac alterations. This study aimed to explore the heart rate reactivity to pain in 107 subjects born either preterm or full-term who were between 7 and 25 years old at testing. We also evaluated the effect of pain experienced at birth, as represented by a longer NICU stay, time under ventilation, and surgery at birth. Participants were asked to immerse their right forearm in 10°C water for 2 minutes. Electrocardiograms were recorded at baseline and during the immersion procedure. Full-term subjects showed a stable increase in heart rate throughout the procedure, whereas preterm ones showed a strong increase at the beginning, which decreased over time. Also, preterm and full-term subjects who experienced pain at birth showed higher resting heart rate, stronger sympathetic activity, and lower cardiac vagal activity. Our study demonstrated a long-term impact of a long NICU stay and surgery at birth on cardiac autonomic activity. This could lead to impaired reactions to pain or stress in later life. PMID:24724021

Morin, Mélanie; Lafrenaye, Sylvie

2014-01-01

56

Effects of Long-Term Dharma-Chan Meditation on Cardiorespiratory Synchronization and Heart Rate Variability Behavior  

PubMed Central

Abstract Remarkable changes in cardiorespiratory interactions are frequently experienced by Chan meditation practitioners following years of practice. This study compares the results of our study on cardiorespiratory interactions for novice (control group) and experienced (experimental group) Chan meditation practitioners. The effectual co-action between the cardiac and respiratory systems was evaluated by the degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization (CRPS). In addition, an adaptive-frequency-range (AFR) scheme to reliably quantify heart rate variability (HRV) was developed for assessing the regulation of sympathetic–parasympathetic activity and the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange. The enhanced HRV method, named HRVAFR, can resolve the issue of overestimating HRV under the condition of slow respiration rates, which is frequently encountered in studies on Chan meditation practitioners. In the comparison of the three data sets collected from the two groups, our findings resulted in innovative hypotheses to interpret the extraordinary process of the rejuvenation of cardiorespiratory functions through long-term Dharma-Chan meditation practice. Particularly, advanced practitioners exhibit a continuously high degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization, even during rapid breathing. Based on our post-experimental interview with advanced practitioners, the activation of inner Chakra energy, during the course of Chan-detachment practice, frequently induces perceptible physiological-mental reformation, including an efficient mechanism for regulating cardiorespiratory interactions. PMID:23323597

Chang, Chih-Hao

2013-01-01

57

Dissolution rate of a basalt glass in silica-rich solutions: Implications for long-term alteration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the alteration rate of silicate glasses in natural hydrothermal conditions, experimental kinetic measurements were performed at 150, 200 and 300°C in both batch and mixed-flow reactors. A Li-spiked synthetic basalt glass was reacted with silica solutions of various concentrations. Initial dissolution rates were calculated from Li release rates and compared with those obtained from long-term dissolution experiments using silica-free solutions. Some experiments were conducted using Al or Na doped solutions. Under neutral pH and for all temperatures, the presence of silica in solution lowered the initial dissolution rate as much as a factor 20. Under acidic conditions (0.1 M and 0.01 M HCl) the dependence of the initial dissolution rate on the aqueous silica concentration changed with the temperature. A weak silica dependence was observed at 300°C, whereas at 150°C, the presence of silica in solution had no effect on the measured rates, which became dependent on the dissolved Al concentration. These data suggest that the glass dissolution is dominated by the speciation and charge density of the glass surface: ?SiOH at neutral pH and charged species (= AlOH 2+) at low pH. At 300°C and under acidic conditions, the initial dissolution rate does not reflect the bulk pH of the solution; the solution pH at the glass-water interface is buffered at nearly neutral values by the hydrolysis of Al and Fe oxides. Experiments conducted in silica-free solutions over long durations exhibit a decrease of dissolution rates with time. Eventually, these rates approach the initial rate measured at equilibrium with amorphous silica. This reflects the amorphous state of the residual leached layer which develops at the glass surface, which itself buffers the aqueous silica concentration near the reaction interface to values close to the amorphous silica solubility. Thus, although the hydrothermal alteration rate of basalt glasses is controlled by the diffusion of aqueous species (silica, protons) through the alteration products, the measurement of initial dissolution rates in solution saturated with amorphous silica can provide accurate data for "longterm" modelling. As an application, the timing of sealing of hydrothermal fractures, resulting from wallrock alteration, is calculated as a function of temperature and thickness of the fractures.

Berger, Gilles; Claparols, Catherine; Guy, Christophe; Daux, Valérie

1994-11-01

58

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

SciTech Connect

Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers.

Colwell, F.S.; Crawford, R.L.; Sorenson, K.

2005-09-01

59

Evaluation of Neural Response Telemetry (NRT™) with focus on long-term rate adaptation over a wide range of stimulation rates.  

PubMed

Custom Sound EP™ (CSEP) is an advanced flexible software tool dedicated to recording of electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) in Nucleus® recipients using Neural Response Telemetry™ (NRT™). European multi-centre studies of the Freedom™ cochlear implant system confirmed that CSEP offers tools to effectively record ECAP thresholds, amplitude growth functions, recovery functions, spread of excitation functions, and rate adaptation functions and an automated algorithm (AutoNRT™) to measure threshold profiles. This paper reports on rate adaptation measurements. Rate adaptation of ECAP amplitudes can successfully be measured up to rates of 495 pulses per second (pps) by repeating conventional ECAP measurements and over a wide range of rates up to 8000 pps using the masked response extraction technique. Rate adaptation did not show a predictable relationship with speech perception and coding strategy channel rate preference. The masked response extraction method offers opportunities to study long-term rate adaptation with well-defined and controlled stimulation paradigms. PMID:24559068

Huarte, Alicia; Ramos, Angel; Morera, Constantino; Garcia-Ibáñez, Luis; Battmer, Rolf; Dillier, Norbert; Wesarg, Thomas; Müller-Deile, Joachim; Hey, Mattias; Offeciers, Erwin; von Wallenberg, Ernst; Coudert, Chrystelle; Killian, Matthijs

2014-05-01

60

FEASIBILITY OF DOSE ADJUSTMENT BASED ON DIFFERENCE IN LONG-TERM CLEARANCE RATES OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Long-term pulmonary clearance rates were evaluated for several laboratory animal species, dogs, and humans to determine if differences among species exist, and if so, the adequacy of the data for dose adjustment. Within each species, large variations in clearance rates were seen,...

61

Fed Leaves Interest Rates Alone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News looks at the recent Federal Reserve Board decision to leave interest rates unchanged. The eight resources discussed provide background information on interest rates and inflation, Federal Reserve news, and current US economic data. With the stock market at record highs and global economic crises fading, the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) showed increased concern about the risk of inflation this month at a May 18, 1999 meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Although committee members ultimately decided not to raise the rate at which banks lend to each other, they cited a "tight" domestic labor market and "ongoing strength in demand in excess of productivity gains" as possible reasons for future rate hikes. Wall Street reacted to the Fed news with a 100 point Dow Jones Industrial Average fall on May 18 but recovered by the end of the day down just 16.52, and many market watchers expressed optimism over the FOMC action. Irwin Kellner, chief economist at CBS.MarketWatch.com, for example, deemed the decision "great" and praised the Fed for a flexible policy that is not locked into a particular course of action should the economy change unexpectedly.

Waters, Megan.

62

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

SciTech Connect

Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers. Third, we have systematically considered the aquifer contaminants at different locations in plumes at other DOE sites in order to determine whether MNA is a broadly applicable remediation strategy for chlorinated hydrocarbons (North Wind Inc.). Realistic terms for co-metabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE’s ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. This project also aims to derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

2005-09-01

63

Long-term response rates to infliximab therapy for Crohn’s disease in an outpatient cohort  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Infliximab’s efficacy in the induction and maintenance of remission in luminal Crohn’s disease has been confirmed by randomized, controlled trials. Less clearly described are long-term outcomes in the clinical practice setting since the establishment of regularly scheduled, every eight-week maintenance infliximab infusions. Existing reports describing clinical practice outcomes are limited by short durations of follow-up or by the use of episodic dosing, or focus on safety data rather than clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine induction and maintenance responses to infliximab in an outpatient inflammatory bowel disease clinic. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed. Clinical outcomes were infliximab induction and maintenance responses, defined as the ability to stop and remain off corticosteroids while not requiring additional therapy for active disease. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-three patients were identified with records sufficiently detailed to be analyzed. Of these, 117 patients (88%) demonstrated a clinical response to induction; 104 of 117 (89%) were on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy; 80 of 104 on azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine (77%); and 24 of 104 on methotrexate (23%). The mean duration of clinical response was 94 weeks (95% CI 78.8 to 109.2). The proportion of patients who maintained response at 30 weeks was 83.2%, at 54 weeks was 63.6% and at 108 weeks was 44.9%. Adverse events occurred for 15 of 117 patients (12.8%), consisting of nine infusion reactions, four serum sickness-like reactions, one rash and one infection. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with infliximab therapy for luminal Crohn’s disease in our outpatient clinic achieved excellent induction and maintenance of response rates, confirming the real-life efficacy of maintenance infliximab established in clinical trials. PMID:19440565

Teshima, Christopher W; Thompson, Adrienne; Dhanoa, LeRose; Dieleman, Levinus A; Fedorak, Richard N

2009-01-01

64

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LAND APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER: TOOELE, UTAH, SLOW RATE SITE. VOLUME 1: FIELD INVESTIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The general objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of employing secondary treated municipal wastewater as irrigation water. The study compared the quality of soils, crops, groundwater, and applied water to a site receiving normal irrigation water (control ...

65

Long-Term Slip Rate on the Southern San Andreas Fault Determined by Th-230/U Dating of Pedogenic Carbonate.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determinations of long-term slip rates are limited, in part, by our ability to accurately estimate the age of offset landforms. U-series dating on pedogenic carbonate provides a relatively novel way of dating landforms, with strengths that complement more widely applied cosmogenic (CRN) techniques. We present new Th-230/U dates for pedogenic carbonate coatings on pebbles of the Biskra Palms fan, near Indio, California, which is offset by the southern San Andreas fault. Small, carefully chosen samples of dense pedogenic carbonate analyzed by mass spectrometry, have 3-10 ppm uranium and low common thorium (Th-232), making them highly favorable for U-series dating. Only minor corrections for initial Th-230 are necessary, and are made using Th-232 as an index isotope with propagation of uncertainties. Samples of early-formed carbonate collected from depths of about 2 m in fan soils typically consist of dense coatings 200-500 microns thick. Such coatings from 6 pebbles from 3 different locations within the fan yield apparent ages between 30 ± 2 ka and 46 ± 2 ka (all errors 2 sigma), with a median age of 38.4 ka (n= 11). Each age averages over the sampled interval of coating growth, hence the spread of ages reflects clast-to-clast variation in coating accumulation rates. All ages are therefore minimum ages for the stabilization of the fan because the time lag between stabilization and carbonate pedogenesis at Biskra Palms is, as yet, unknown. Sub-samples of individual clast-coatings yield ages in good agreement-- e.g., 45.0 ± 0.8 ka, 46.0 ± 1.8 ka, 44.8 ± 1.0 ka, 45.7 ± 0.9 ka (MSWD = 0.88), demonstrating closed U-Th systems. Van der Woerd et al (2006) reported an average CRN age of 35.5 ± 2.5 ka for the fan surface and an offset of 565 ± 80 m, for a slip rate of 15.9 ± 3.4 mm/a. Using their offset, and our oldest mean age of 45.3 ± 0.5 Ma (n=4, ages above) as the minimum landform age, we estimate a maximum slip rate of 12.5 ± 1.8 mm/a. This maximum average slip rate for the past 45 ka is distinct from both modern rates for the southern San Andreas determined by geodesy (e.g. 23 ± 2 mm/a; Bennett et al., 2006), and the rate at Cajon Pass (24.5 ± 3.5 mm/a) determined for the past 15 ka (Weldon and Sieh, 1985). As noted by van der Woerd et al, such discrepancies suggest that: 1) large changes in slip-rate occurred prior to 15 ka, 2) the Biskra Palms site fails to record all of the slip on the southern San Andreas, or 3) that southward of Cajon Pass significant slip is transferred to other faults. More U-series dating is needed to understand the patterns of pedogenic carbonate accumulation on the scale of the fan, in selected soil profiles, and within individual coatings. In particular, sampling of the coatings at higher spatial resolution will better determine the age of onset of carbonate accumulation, thereby providing a closer estimate of the time of fan stabilization and abandonment.

Fletcher, K. E.; Johnson, G.; Kendrick, K. J.; Hudnut, K. W.; Sharp, W. D.

2006-12-01

66

Long-term erosion rate measurements in gypsum caves of Sorbas (SE Spain) by the Micro-Erosion Meter method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work deals with the results of long-term micro-erosion measurements in the most important gypsum cave of Spain, the Cueva del Agua (Sorbas, Almeria, SE Spain). Nineteen MEM stations were positioned in 1992 in a wide range of morphological and environmental settings (gypsum floors and walls, carbonate speleothems, dry conduits and vadose passages) inside and outside the cave, on gypsum and carbonate bedrocks and exposed to variable degree of humidity, different air flow and hydrodynamic conditions. Four different sets of stations have been investigated: (1) the main cave entrance (Las Viñicas spring); (2) the main river passage; (3) the abandoned Laboratory tunnel; and (4) the external gypsum surface. Data over a period of about 18 years are available. The average lowering rates vary from 0.014 to 0.016 mm yr- 1 near the main entrance and in the Laboratory tunnel, to 0.022 mm - 1 on gypsum floors and 0.028 mm yr- 1 on carbonate flowstones. The denudation data from the external gypsum stations are quite regular with a rate of 0.170 mm yr- 1. The observations allowed the collecting of important information concerning the feeding of the karst aquifer not only by infiltrating rainwater, but under present climate conditions also by water condensation of moist air flow. This contribution to the overall karst processes in the Cueva del Agua basin represents over 20% of the total chemical dissolution of the karst area and more than 50% of the speleogenetically removed gypsum in the cave system, thus representing all but a secondary role in speleogenesis. Condensation-corrosion is most active along the medium walls, being slower at the roof and almost absent close to the floor. This creates typical corrosion morphologies such as cupola, while gypsum flowers develop where evaporation dominates. This approach also shows quantitatively the morphological implications of condensation-corrosion processes in gypsum karst systems in arid zones, responsible for an average surface lowering of 0.047 mm yr- 1, while mechanical erosion produces a lowering of 0.123 mm yr- 1.

Sanna, Laura; De Waele, Jo; Calaforra, José Maria; Forti, Paolo

2015-01-01

67

Changes in long-term no-till corn growth and yield under different rates of stover mulch  

SciTech Connect

Received for publication January 4, 2006. Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. We assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam (fine loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston in Ohio, and predicted corn yield from soil properties using principal component analysis (PCA). The study was conducted in 2005 on the ongoing experiments started in May 2004 under 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200)% of stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal promoted early emergence and rapid seedling growth (P < 0.01). Early-emerging plants grew taller than late-emerging plants up to about 50 d, and then the heights reversed at Coshocton and were comparable at other two sites. Stover management affected corn yield only at the Coshocton site where average grain and stover yields in the T200, T100, T75, and T50 (10.8 and 10.3 Mg ha-1) were higher than those in the T0 and T25 treatments (8.5 and 6.5 Mg ha-1) (P < 0.01), showing that stover removal at rates as low as 50% (2.5 Mg ha-1) decreased crop yields. Soil properties explained 71% of the variability in grain yield and 33% of the variability in stover yield for the Coshocton site. Seventeen months after the start of the experiment, effects of stover management on corn yield and soil properties were site-specific.

Blanco-Canqui, Dr. Humberto [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Lal, Dr. Rattan [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Owens, Lloyd [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

2006-09-01

68

Long-term outcome of Graves' disease patients treated in a region with iodine deficiency: relapse rate increases in years with thionamides.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disease affecting the thyroid gland and eyes and is treated with three therapeutic modalities. This prospective study was designed to find out the outcome of patients with GD treated with thionamides, radioactive iodine (RAI) or surgery in an iodine deficient region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six nonsmoking patients (mean age 38.9 +/- 13.7 years) with GD were enrolled and followed for a mean period of four years. They were analyzed with respect to their treatment options and their outcome. Results: Remission rate by thionamides was 74.4% in the first year but decreased to 65.1% in the following four years (p=0.0001). Remission rate achieved in the second year did not predict long-term remission with thionamides. Long-term remission rates for RAI and surgery were 100% during about seven years of follow-up. These remission rates for RAI and surgery were reached in the first year and did not reveal a statistically significant change in the following years. Thyroidectomy, both subtotal and total, was carried out without any complication. Graves' ophthalmopathy emergence and progression were not found to be correlated with the preferred therapeutic modality of thyrotoxicosis. Conclusion: Long-term thionamide therapy offered a relatively low rate of long-term remission in a region with iodine deficiency. Two years of remission achieved by thionamides did not predict long-term remission in patients living in iodine-deficient areas. RAI and thyroidectomy in experienced hands proved to be better therapeutic alternatives that can be carried out safely. PMID:16775915

Tütüncü, Neslihan Basçil; Tütüncü, Tanju; Ozgen, Ali; Erbas, Tomris

2006-01-01

69

Trophic Position and Metabolic Rate Predict the Long-Term Decay Process of Radioactive Cesium in Fish: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (137Cs) can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term 137Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate) and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type) influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1) trophic position could predict the day of maximum 137Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2) the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of 137Cs activity concentration in fish. PMID:22279534

Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Tanaka, Kazuya

2012-01-01

70

Intervention at the level of the neuroendocrine-immune axis and postoperative pneumonia rate in long-term alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

RATIONALE: Postoperative pneumonia is three to four times more frequent in patients with alcohol use disorders followed by prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Long-term alcohol use leads to an altered perioperative hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immunity.\\u000aOBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate HPA intervention with low-dose ethanol, morphine, or ketoconazole on the neuroendocrine-immune axis and development

Claudia Spies; Verena Eggers; Gyongyi Szabo; Alexandra Lau; Vera von Dossow; Helge Schoenfeld; Hilke Althoff; Katrin Hegenscheid; Birgit Bohm; Torsten Schroeder; Sebastian Pfeiffer; Sabine Ziemer; Christian Paschen; Martin Klein; Christian Marks; Peter Miller; Michael Sander; Klaus-D. Wernecke; Evelin Achterberg; Udo Kaisers; Hans-Dieter Volk

2006-01-01

71

Rates, causes, and dynamic of long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic "passive continental margin", Brazil and Namibia, as revealed by thermo-kinematic numerical modeling.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the research is to quantify the long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in SE-Brazil and NW-Namibia. Excellent onshore outcrop conditions and complete rift to post-rift archives between Sao Paulo and Porto Alegre and in the transition from Namibia to Angola (onshore Walvis ridge) allow a high precision quantification of exhumation, and uplift rates, influencing physical parameters, long-term acting forces, and process-response systems. Research will integrate the published and partly published thermochronological data from Brazil and Namibia, and test lately published new concepts on causes of long-term landscape evolution at rifted margins. The climate-continental margin-mantle coupled process-response system is caused by the interaction between endogenous and exogenous forces, which are related to the mantle-process driven rift - drift - passive continental margin evolution of the South Atlantic, and the climate change since the Early/Late Cretaceous climate maximum. Special emphasis will be given to the influence of long-living transform faults such as the Florianopolis Fracture Zone (FFZ) on the long-term topography evolution of the SAPCM's. A long-term landscape evolution model with process rates will be achieved by thermo-kinematic 3-D modeling (software code PECUBE and FastCape). Testing model solutions obtained for a multidimensional parameter space against the real thermochronological and geomorphological data set, the most likely combinations of parameter rates, and values can be constrained. The data and models will allow separating the exogenous and endogenous forces and their process rates.

Christian, Stippich; Anton, Glasmacher Ulrich; Peter, Christian, Hackspacher

2014-05-01

72

A New Paradigm for Gamma Ray Bursts: Long Term Accretion Rate Modulation by an External Accretion Disk  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a new way of looking at the very long term evolution of GRBs in which the disk of material surrounding the putative black hole powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the efficacy of the process that extracts rotational energy from the black hole and inner accretion disk. The pre-Swift paradigm of achromatic, shallow-to-steep "breaks" in the long term GRB light curves has not been borne out by detailed Swift data amassed in the past several years. We argue that, given the initial existence of a fall-back disk near the progenitor, an unavoidable consequence will be the formation of an "external disk" whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. The mass reservoir at large radii moves outward with time and gives a natural power law decay to the GRB light curves. In this model, the different canonical power law decay segments in the GRB identified by Zhang et al. and Nousek et al. represent different physical states of the accretion disk. We identify a physical disk state with each power law segment.

Cannizzo, John; Gehrels, Neil

2009-01-01

73

Gray matter volume is associated with rate of subsequent skill learning after a long term training intervention  

PubMed Central

The ability to predict learning performance from brain imaging data has implications for selecting individuals for training or rehabilitation interventions. Here, we used structural MRI to test whether baseline variations in gray matter (GM) volume correlated with subsequent performance after a long-term training of a complex whole-body task. 44 naïve participants were scanned before undertaking daily juggling practice for 6 weeks, following either a high intensity or a low intensity training regime. To assess performance across the training period participants' practice sessions were filmed. Greater GM volume in medial occipito-parietal areas at baseline correlated with steeper learning slopes. We also tested whether practice time or performance outcomes modulated the degree of structural brain change detected between the baseline scan and additional scans performed immediately after training and following a further 4 weeks without training. Participants with better performance had higher increases in GM volume during the period following training (i.e., between scans 2 and 3) in dorsal parietal cortex and M1. When contrasting brain changes between the practice intensity groups, we did not find any straightforward effects of practice time though practice modulated the relationship between performance and GM volume change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that practice time and performance modulate the degree of structural brain change evoked by long-term training regimes. PMID:24680712

Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Scholz, Jan; Jenkinson, Mark; Thomas, Adam G.; Filippini, Nicola; Smit, Gabrielle; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

2014-01-01

74

Possible use of EPDM in radioactive waste disposal: Long term low dose rate and short term high dose rate irradiation in aquatic and atmospheric environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, changes in the properties of ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) irradiated with different dose rates in ambient atmosphere and aqueous environment were investigated. Irradiations were carried out both with low dose and high dose rate irradiation sources. EPDM samples which were differentiated from each other by peroxide type and 5-ethylidene 2-norbornene (ENB) contents were used. Long term low dose rate irradiations were carried out for the duration of up to 2.5 years (total dose of 1178 kGy) in two different irradiation environments. Dose rates (both high and low), irradiation environments (in aquatic and open to atmosphere), and peroxide types (aliphatic or aromatic) were the parameters studied. Characterization of irradiated EPDM samples were performed by hardness, compression, tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), TGA-FTIR, ATR-FTIR, XRD and SEM tests. It was observed that the irradiation in water environment led to a lower degree of degradation when compared to that of irradiation open to atmosphere for the same irradiation dose. In addition, irradiation environment, peroxide type and dose rate had effects on the extent of change in the properties of EPDM. It was observed that EPDM is relatively radiation resistant and a candidate polymer for usage in radioactive waste management.

Hac?o?lu, F?rat; Özdemir, Tonguç; Çavdar, Seda; Usanmaz, Ali

2013-02-01

75

Long-term slip rates of the Elsinore-Laguna Salada fault, southern California, by U-series Dating of Pedogenic Carbonate in Progressively Offset Alluvial fan Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Elsinore-Laguna Salada (ELS) fault is one of the principal strands of the San Andreas fault system in southern California, however its seismic potential is often de-emphasized due to previous estimates of a low slip rate. Nevertheless, the fault zone has produced two historic earthquakes over M6, with the 1892 event estimated at >M7; thus further investigation of the long-term

K. E. Fletcher; T. K. Rockwell; W. D. Sharp

2007-01-01

76

An arbitrage-free three-factor term structure model and the recent behavior of long-term yields and distant-horizon forward rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews a simple three-factor arbitrage-free term structure model estimated by Federal Reserve Board staff and reports results obtained from fitting this model to U.S. Treasury yields since 1990. The model ascribes a large portion of the decline in long-term yields and distant-horizon forward rates since the middle of 2004 to a fall in term premiums. A variant of

Don H. Kim; Jonathan H. Wright

2005-01-01

77

Responses of herbage and cattle tail switch hair ?N value to long-term stocking rates on a rough fescue grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of ?N in herbage and cattle tail switch hair to long-term grazing pressure on a rough fescue grassland (Festuca campestris Rydb.) near Stavely, Alberta, Canada. Cattle have grazed the paddocks from 15 May to 15 November annually since 1949. Stocking rates were 0, 2.4 and 4.8 animal unit months ha

Chunli Li; Xiying Hao; Walter D. Willms; Tim A. Mcallister

2012-01-01

78

Three-Year long-term outcome of 458 naturalistically treated inpatients with major depressive episode: severe relapse rates and risk factors.  

PubMed

In randomized controlled trials, maintenance treatment for relapse prevention has been proven to be efficacious in patients responding in acute treatment, its efficacy in long-term outcome in "real-world patients" has yet to be proven. Three-year long-term data from a large naturalistic multisite follow-up were presented. Severe relapse was defined as suicide, severe suicide attempt, or rehospitalization. Next to relapse rates, possible risk factors including antidepressant medication were identified using univariate generalized log-rank tests and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model for time to severe relapse. Overall data of 458 patients were available for analysis. Of all patients, 155 (33.6%) experienced at least one severe relapse during the 3-year follow-up. The following variables were associated with a shorter time to a severe relapse in univariate and multivariate analyses: multiple hospitalizations, presence of avoidant personality disorder, continuing antipsychotic medication, and no further antidepressant treatment. In comparison with other studies, the observed rate of severe relapse during 3-year period is rather low. This is one of the first reports demonstrating a beneficial effect of long-term antidepressant medication on severe relapse rates in naturalistic patients. Concomitant antipsychotic medication may be a proxy marker for treatment resistant and psychotic depression. PMID:24590257

Seemüller, Florian; Meier, Sebastian; Obermeier, Michael; Musil, Richard; Bauer, Michael; Adli, Mazda; Kronmüller, Klaus; Holsboer, Florian; Brieger, Peter; Laux, Gerd; Bender, Wolfram; Heuser, Isabella; Zeiler, Joachim; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Riedel, Michael; Falkai, Peter; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

2014-10-01

79

MOLECULAR DEMOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE ANNUAL SUNFLOWERS HELIANTHUS ANNUUS AND H. PETIOLARIS—LARGE EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZES AND RATES OF LONG-TERM GENE FLOW  

PubMed Central

Hybridization between distinct species may lead to introgression of genes across species boundaries, and this pattern can potentially persist for extended periods as long as selection at some loci or genomic regions prevents thorough mixing of gene pools. However, very few reliable estimates of long-term levels of effective migration are available between hybridizing species throughout their history. Accurate estimates of divergence dates and levels of gene flow require data from multiple unlinked loci as well as an analytical framework that can distinguish between lineage sorting and gene flow and incorporate the effects of demographic changes within each species. Here we use sequence data from 18 anonymous nuclear loci in two broadly sympatric sunflower species, Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris, analyzed within an “isolation with migration” framework to make genome-wide estimates of the ages of these two species, long-term rates of gene flow between them, and effective population sizes and historical patterns of population growth. Our results indicate that H. annuus and H. petiolaris are approximately one million years old and have exchanged genes at a surprisingly high rate (long-term Nef m estimates of approximately 0.5 in each direction), with somewhat higher rates of introgression from H. annuus into H. petiolaris than vice versa. In addition, each species has undergone dramatic population expansion since divergence, and both species have among the highest levels of genetic diversity reported for flowering plants. Our results provide the most comprehensive estimate to date of long-term patterns of gene flow and historical demography in a nonmodel plant system, and they indicate that species integrity can be maintained even in the face of extensive gene flow over a prolonged period. PMID:18462213

Strasburg, Jared L.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

2008-01-01

80

The Association Between Rate of Initial Weight Loss and Long-Term Success in Obesity Treatment: Does Slow and Steady Win the Race?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Controversy exists regarding the optimal rate of weight loss for long-term weight management success.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  This study examined whether gradual initial weight loss was associated with greater long-term weight reduction than rapid\\u000a initial loss.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Groups were drawn from participants in the TOURS trial, which included a sample of middle-aged (mean?=?59.3 years) obese women\\u000a (mean BMI?=?36.8) who received a 6-month lifestyle intervention followed

Lisa M. Nackers; Kathryn M. Ross; Michael G. Perri

2010-01-01

81

Pricing Interest-Rate-Derivative Securities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows that the one-state-variable interest-rate models of Vasicek (1977) and Cox, Ingersoll, and Ross (1985b) can be extended so that they are consistent with both the current term structure of interest rates and either the current volatilities of all spot interest rates or the current volatilities of all forward interest rates. The extended Vasicek model is shown to

John Hull; Alan White

1990-01-01

82

Long Term Ecological Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze data on temperature and precipitation collected from 26 different Long Term Ecological Research sites and compare them with annual net primary productivity. The students then form an ecological rule to explain their results.

Cooper, Scott

83

Long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault from 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating of an offset alluvial fan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault in the southeastern Indio Hills using 10Be and 26Al isotopes to date an offset alluvial fan surface. Field mapping complemented with topographic data, air photos and satellite images allows precise determination of piercing points across the fault zone that are used to measure an offset of 565 ± 80 m. A total of 26 quartz-rich cobbles from three different fan surfaces were collected and dated. The tight cluster of nuclide concentrations from 19 samples out of 20 from the offset fan surface implies a simple exposure history, negligible prior exposure and erosion, and yields an age of 35.5 ± 2.5 ka. The long-term slip rate of the San Andreas Fault south of Biskra Palms is thus 15.9 ± 3.4 mm/yr. This rate is about 10 mm/yr slower than geological (0-14 ka) and short-term geodetic estimates for this part of the San Andreas Fault, implying changes in slip rate or in faulting behavior. This result puts new constraints on the slip rate of the San Jacinto and on the Eastern California Shear Zone for the last 35 kyr. Our study shows that more sites along the major faults of southern California need to be targeted to better constrain the slip rates over different timescales.

van der Woerd, JéRôMe; Klinger, Yann; Sieh, Kerry; Tapponnier, Paul; Ryerson, Frederick J.; MéRiaux, Anne-Sophie

2006-04-01

84

Long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault, from 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating of an offset alluvial fan  

SciTech Connect

We determine the long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault in the southeastern Indio Hills using {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al isotopes to date an offset alluvial fan surface. Field mapping complemented with topographic data, air photos and satellite images allow to precisely determine piercing points across the fault zone that are used to measure an offset of 565 {+-} 80 m. A total of twenty-six quartz-rich cobbles from three different fan surfaces were collected and dated. The tight cluster of nuclide concentrations from 19 samples out of 20 from the offset fan surface implies a simple exposure history, negligible prior exposure and erosion, and yield an age of 35.5 {+-} 2.5 ka. The long-term slip rate of the San Andreas Fault south of Biskra Palms is thus 15.9 {+-} 3.4 mm/yr. This rate is about 10 mm/yr slower than geological (0-14 ka) and short-term geodetic estimates for this part of the San Andreas Fault implying changes in slip rate or in faulting behavior. This result puts new constraints on the slip rate of the San Jacinto and on the Eastern California Shear Zone for the last 35 ka. Our study shows that more sites along the major faults of southern California need to be targeted to better constrain the slip-rates over different time scales.

der Woerd, J v; Klinger, Y; Sieh, K; Tapponnier, P; Ryerson, F; M?riaux, A

2006-01-13

85

Long-term and short-term erosion rates in river catchments of the Rhenish Massif and the Black Forest, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We constrained long-term erosion rates from the concentration of cosmogenic 10Be in stream sediments in order to quantify the Late Quaternary denudation history of mountain ranges in central Europe. Four different catchments in Germany, ranging in size from 8 to 379 km2 were investigated. Two of them, the Aabach and Möhne catchments drain predominantly low-grade Paleozoic metasediments. The other two, the Gutach and Acher catchments in the Black Forest are situated in Late Paleozoic granites. Erosion rates derived from the 10Be concentrations range from 29 to 86 mm/ka in the Rhenish Massif and from 26 to 91 mm/ka in the Black Forest. These spatially-averaged erosion rates integrate over the past 7 to 23 ka. Central to our investigation are questions concerning the relative importance of lithology and catchment relief on long-term erosion rates. Short-term erosion rates for all catchments were quantified by combining the amounts of suspended and dissolved loads in water samples with water discharge data and basin area. By analyzing the stable isotope signatures ?18O of river water and ?13C of dissolved anorganic carbon and by taking into account the precipitation and evaporation we corrected the dissolved load for organic, atmospheric and anthropogenic inputs. The preliminary short-term erosion rates vary between 9 and 33 mm/ka and are only about one third of the erosion rates derived from 10Be. The short-term erosion rates are complemented by erosion rates derived from the volume of sediment stored behind reservoirs of known age. These erosion rates range from 2 to 13 mm/ka and are lower than the erosion rates derived from river loads, as they do not take into account the dissolved load. Furthermore, we focused on dependence of lithology and land use on short-term erosion rates.

Meyer, H.; Hetzel, R.; Strauss, H.

2007-12-01

86

Long-term observations of SO2 gas emission rates from Nyiragongo volcano (RD Congo) during 2004-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Nyiragongo (3470 m a.s.l.) is an active stratovolcano of mafic composition located in the Virunga Mountains in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is considered as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world due to generation of voluminous and highly fluidized lava flows during historical eruptions and the proximity to densely inhabited areas. Nyiragongo volcano is also a source of prodigious gaseous emissions to the atmosphere during periods of both eruptive and non-eruptive activity. Documented records of the style, speciation, and magnitude of degassing from this volcano exist in the literature since three decades ago. These studies are mostly based on observations made during sporadic field campaigns or by satellite-borne sensors, owing to logistical constraints imposed by volcanic and political unrest. With the aim of strengthen the gas monitoring capabilities of Nyiragongo volcano, an automatic scanning spectroscopic (DOAS) system was installed in March 2004 in the Rusayo seismic station, 10 km from the volcano crater. This instrument is powered by solar panels and linked by radio telemetry to the Goma Volcanological Observatory. Combined with plume velocity data, this instrument provides near-to-real-time SO2 fluxes with a typical temporal resolution of 10 minutes during sunlight hours. In 2005 the instrument was upgraded and incorporated as part of the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC). Since 2005 three additional instruments has been installed, at 10 - 14 km distance W - SW of the crater, as part of the NOVAC project. We present the results of the measurements performed at Nyiragongo during the period March 2004-October 2009. Wind data has been obtained from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model based on data from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to account for the effect of local topography. A statistical analysis of the results and its relation with other volcanological observations is presented. This study emphasizes the importance of long-term and continuous gas monitoring to better understand the human and environmental effects of the persistent activity of this volcano.

Yalire, Matthiew; Galle, Bo; Arellano, Santiago; Norman, Patrik; Johansson, Mattias

2010-05-01

87

Long-term testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

88

Carbon accumulation in a permafrost polygon peatland: steady long-term rates in spite of shifts between dry and wet conditions.  

PubMed

Ice-wedge polygon peatlands contain a substantial part of the carbon stored in permafrost soils. However, little is known about their long-term carbon accumulation rates (CAR) in relation to shifts in vegetation and climate. We collected four peat profiles from one single polygon in NE Yakutia and cut them into contiguous 0.5 cm slices. Pollen density interpolation between AMS (14) C dated levels provided the time span contained in each of the sample slices, which - in combination with the volumetric carbon content - allowed for the reconstruction of CAR over decadal and centennial timescales. Vegetation representing dry palaeo-ridges and wet depressions was reconstructed with detailed micro- and macrofossil analysis. We found repeated shifts between wet and dry conditions during the past millennium. Dry ridges with associated permafrost growth originated during phases of (relatively) warm summer temperature and collapsed during relatively cold phases, illustrating the important role of vegetation and peat as intermediaries between ambient air temperature and the permafrost. The average long-term CAR across the four profiles was 10.6 ± 5.5 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) . Time-weighted mean CAR did not differ significantly between wet depression and dry ridge/hummock phases (10.6 ± 5.2 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) and 10.3 ± 5.7 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) , respectively). Although we observed increased CAR in relation to warm shifts, we also found changes in the opposite direction and the highest CAR actually occurred during the Little Ice Age. In fact, CAR rather seems to be governed by strong internal feedback mechanisms and has roughly remained stable on centennial time scales. The absence of significant differences in CAR between dry ridge and wet depression phases suggests that recent warming and associated expansion of shrubs will not affect long-term rates of carbon burial in ice-wedge polygon peatlands. PMID:25230297

Gao, Yang; Couwenberg, John

2014-09-17

89

Erosion Rates at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites and Long-Term Climate Change on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of approx.0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga).

Golombek, M. P.; Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L. S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Weitz, C. M.; Sullivan, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Soderblom, L. A.; Squyres, S. W.

2006-01-01

90

Using the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) to predict long term outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the predictive validity of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, Autism detection in early childhood: ADEC. Australian Council of Educational Research, Camberwell, VIC 2007) and a well-established screening tool, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler et al. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS). Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles 1988), for long term outcomes of children with ASD engaged in an early intervention program. Participants were 55 children (44 male, 11 female) aged 19–42 months (M = 33.5, SD = 5.6) at initial assessment who were followed up 2 and 6 years after their initial assessment. The ADEC and the CARS performed similarly when predicting long term outcomes such as clinical diagnostic outcome and overall adaptive functioning level. However, only the ADEC score was significantly correlated with ASD symptom severity at the 6-year follow up. Although these findings need to be replicated with additional and larger samples, this study extends our understanding of the psychometric properties of both the ADEC and the CARS. PMID:24658894

Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil

2014-09-01

91

The information content of the short end of the term structure of interest rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market determined interest rates are important indicators for monetary policy since they can give a measure of market expectations of future policy. Although previous work in the Bank has estimated yield curves from gilt prices and found that these give useful information about long-term expectations, the value of such yield curves at short horizons - below two years - is

Marco Rossi

1996-01-01

92

Interest rate risk management by life insurance companies and pension funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the specific features of the exposure to interest rate risk and the hedging strategies of life insurance companies and pension funds, stemming from the long-term nature of their commitments. In particular, the combination of guaranteed returns and numerous contingency clauses may complicate the liability management of life insurers and defined-benefit pension funds, especially given the uneven

V. Fleuriet; C. Lubochinsky

2005-01-01

93

High-efficiency short daily haemodialysis—morbidity and mortality rate in a long-term study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. In conventional haemodialysis (CHD), the morbidity and mortality rate is unacceptably high; consequently, variations in the length and frequency of the haemodialysis sessions have been studied to reduce the complications of dialysis treatment. In this sense, high-efficiency short daily haemodialysis (SDHD) has been proposed as an alternative for patients on renal replacement therapy. In this study, we have related

Manuel Carlos Martins Castro; Claudio Luders; Rosilene Motta Elias; Hugo Abensur; Joao Egidio; Romao Junior

2006-01-01

94

Erosion rates at the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites and long-term climate change on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks

M. P. Golombek; J. A. Grant; L. S. Crumpler; R. Greeley; R. E. Arvidson; J. F. Bell; C. M. Weitz; R. Sullivan; P. R. Christensen; L. A. Soderblom; S. W. Squyres

2006-01-01

95

Long-Term Rates of Undetectable PSA with Initial Observation and Delayed Salvage Radiotherapy after Radical Prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRandomized trials have shown an improvement in progression-free survival rates with adjuvant radiation therapy (ART) after radical prostatectomy for patients with a high risk of cancer recurrence. Less is known about the relative advantages and disadvantages of initial observation with delayed salvage radiation therapy (SRT).

Stacy Loeb; Kimberly A. Roehl; Davis P. Viprakasit; William J. Catalona

2008-01-01

96

7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates will be negotiated...

2010-01-01

97

Sources of variability in spotted owl population growth rate: testing predictions using long-term mark–recapture data  

Microsoft Academic Search

For long-lived iteroparous vertebrates that annually produce few young, life history theory predicts that reproductive output\\u000a (R) and juvenile survival should influence temporal variation in population growth rate (?) more than adult survival does. We\\u000a examined this general prediction using 15 years of mark–recapture data from a population of California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). We found that survival of individuals

Mark E. Seamans; R. J. Gutiérrez

2007-01-01

98

Real interest rates and Brazilian business cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a dynamic general equilibrium model to assess the quantitative relationship between real interest rates and output fluctuations in the Brazilian economy from 1980 to 2001. When firms are subject to working capital restrictions, the model is consistent with both the cyclical volatilities of national income components and the countercyclical character of real interest rates. Simulations indicate that output

Fabio Kanczuk

2004-01-01

99

Long-Term Data Reveal a Population Decline of the Tropical Lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a Negative Affect of El Nino Years on Population Growth Rate  

PubMed Central

Climate change threatens biodiversity worldwide, however predicting how particular species will respond is difficult because climate varies spatially, complex factors regulate population abundance, and species vary in their susceptibility to climate change. Studies need to incorporate these factors with long-term data in order to link climate change to population abundance. We used 40 years of lizard abundance data and local climate data from Barro Colorado Island to ask how climate, total lizard abundance and cohort-specific abundance have changed over time, and how total and cohort-specific abundance relate to climate variables including those predicted to make the species vulnerable to climate change (i.e. temperatures exceeding preferred body temperature). We documented a decrease in lizard abundance over the last 40 years, and changes in the local climate. Population growth rate was related to the previous years’ southern oscillation index; increasing following cooler-wetter, la niña years, decreasing following warmer-drier, el nino years. Within-year recruitment was negatively related to rainfall and minimum temperature. This study simultaneously identified climatic factors driving long-term population fluctuations and climate variables influencing short-term annual recruitment, both of which may be contributing to the population decline and influence the population’s future persistence. PMID:25671423

Stapley, Jessica; Garcia, Milton; Andrews, Robin M.

2015-01-01

100

Effects of long-term increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, precipitation, temperature and N deposition on gross N mineralization and nitrification rates in California annual grassland soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the effects of long-term increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, precipitation, temperature and N deposition on soil inorganic N content, and gross and net N transformation rates in Californian grassland. We sampled soil (0-10 cm) from the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment plots in February and April 2005, and determined the gross N mineralization and nitrification rates using the 15N isotope dilution methodology. Statistical analysis revealed significant interactions between multiple climate change factors, making mechanistic interpretations difficult. Consistent effects of N deposition and an interaction between atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature treatments on N cycling were observed. These results demonstrate the importance of studying interactions between multiple climate change factors in order to provide realistic predictions of C and N cycling under realistic future environmental conditions.

Hungate, B. A.; Gurwick, N. P.; Dijkstra, P.

2007-12-01

101

Heart rate reduction for 36 months with ivabradine reduces left ventricular mass in cardiac allograft recipients: a long-term follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Due to graft denervation, sinus tachycardia is a common problem after heart transplantation, underlining the importance of heart rate control without peripheral effects. However, long-term data regarding the effects of ivabradine, a novel If channel antagonist, are limited in patients after heart transplantation. Methods In this follow-up analysis, the resting heart rate, left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area (LVMI), tolerability, and safety of ivabradine therapy were evaluated at baseline and after 36 months in 30 heart transplant recipients with symptomatic sinus tachycardia versus a matched control group. Results During the study period, ivabradine medication was stopped in three patients (10% of total). Further analysis was based on 27 patients with 36 months of drug intake. The mean patient age was 53.3±11.3 years and mean time after heart transplantation was 5.0±4.8 years. After 36 months, the mean ivabradine dose was 12.0±3.4 mg/day. Resting heart rate was reduced from 91.0±10.7 beats per minute before initiation of ivabradine therapy (ie, baseline) to 81.2±9.8 beats per minute at follow-up (P=0.0006). After 36 months of ivabradine therapy, a statistically significant reduction of LVMI was observed (104.3±22.7 g at baseline versus 93.4±18.4 g at follow-up, P=0.002). Hematologic, renal, and liver function parameters remained stable during ivabradine therapy. Except for a lower mycophenolate mofetil dose at follow-up (P=0.02), no statistically significant changes in immunosuppressive drug dosage or blood levels were detected. No phosphenes were observed during 36 months of ivabradine intake despite active inquiry. Conclusion In line with previously published 12-month data, heart rate reduction with ivabradine remained effective and safe in chronic stable patients after heart transplantation, and also during 36-month long-term follow-up. Further, a significant reduction of LVMI was observed only during ivabradine therapy. Therefore, ivabradine may have a sustained long-term beneficial effect with regard to left ventricular remodeling in heart transplant patients. PMID:24235815

Doesch, Andreas O; Mueller, Susanne; Erbel, Christian; Gleissner, Christian A; Frankenstein, Lutz; Hardt, Stefan; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Ehlermann, Philipp; Dengler, Thomas; Katus, Hugo A

2013-01-01

102

Hierarchical vanadium pentoxide microflowers with excellent long-term cyclability at high rates for lithium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hierarchical V2O5 microflowers composed of thin nanosheets have been achieved by a solvothermal reaction first and then a low-temperature calcination. These micro-flowers are characterized by powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The nanoscale size and sheet-like structure of the building blocks in V2O5 microflowers make them a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries. After 1500 cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1, the reversible capacity of V2O5 microflowers is kept at 104 mAh g-1. Even at a rate of 2 A g-1, the reversible capacity is still above 80 mAh g-1 after 3000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical properties of V2O5 microflowers are associated with their unique structure and capacitive feature.

Chen, Liang; Gu, Xin; Jiang, Xiaolei; Wang, Nana; Yue, Jie; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

2014-12-01

103

In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives.  

PubMed

A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, ?c, and its geometric mean, ?per-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined ?c and ?per-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (?per-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (?per-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trillium's ?per-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (?per-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives' success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide. PMID:24616522

Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B; Horvitz, Carol C

2014-03-25

104

In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives  

PubMed Central

A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, ?c, and its geometric mean, ?per-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined ?c and ?per-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (?per-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (?per-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trillium’s ?per-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (?per-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives’ success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide. PMID:24616522

Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B.; Horvitz, Carol C.

2014-01-01

105

Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids.  

PubMed

Aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. The Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) runs a network of 12·2-m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. In 2014, the RIS celebrated its 50th anniversary. This paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatiotemporal analysis and the provision of the first British annotated checklist of aphids since 1964. Our main aim was to elucidate mechanisms that advance aphid phenology under climate change and explain these using life-history traits. We then highlight emerging pests using accumulation patterns. Linear and nonlinear mixed-effect models estimated the average rate of change per annum and effects of climate on annual counts, first and last flights and length of flight season since 1965. Two climate drivers were used: the accumulated day degrees above 16 °C (ADD16) indicated the potential for migration during the aphid season; the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signalled the severity of the winter before migration took place. All 55 species studied had earlier first flight trends at rate of ? = -0·611 ± SE 0·015 days year(-1) . Of these species, 49% had earlier last flights, but the average species effect appeared relatively stationary (? = -0·010 ± SE 0·022 days year(-1) ). Most species (85%) showed increasing duration of their flight season (? = 0·336 ± SE 0·026 days year(-1) ), even though only 54% increased their log annual count (? = 0·002 ± SE <0·001 year(-1) ). The ADD16 and NAO were shown to drive patterns in aphid phenology in a spatiotemporal context. Early in the year when the first aphids were migrating, the effect of the winter NAO was highly significant. Further into the year, ADD16 was a strong predictor. Latitude had a near linear effect on first flights, whereas longitude produced a generally less-clear effect on all responses. Aphids that are anholocyclic (permanently parthenogenetic) or are monoecious (non-host-alternating) were advancing their phenology faster than those that were not. Climate drives phenology and traits help explain how this takes place biologically. Phenology and trait ecology are critical to understanding the threat posed by emerging pests such as Myzus persicae nicotianae and Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis, as revealed by the species accumulation analysis. PMID:25123260

Bell, James R; Alderson, Lynda; Izera, Daniela; Kruger, Tracey; Parker, Sue; Pickup, Jon; Shortall, Chris R; Taylor, Mark S; Verrier, Paul; Harrington, Richard

2014-08-14

106

Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids  

PubMed Central

1. Aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. The Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) runs a network of 12·2-m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. In 2014, the RIS celebrated its 50th anniversary. This paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatiotemporal analysis and the provision of the first British annotated checklist of aphids since 1964. 2. Our main aim was to elucidate mechanisms that advance aphid phenology under climate change and explain these using life-history traits. We then highlight emerging pests using accumulation patterns. 3. Linear and nonlinear mixed-effect models estimated the average rate of change per annum and effects of climate on annual counts, first and last flights and length of flight season since 1965. Two climate drivers were used: the accumulated day degrees above 16 °C (ADD16) indicated the potential for migration during the aphid season; the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signalled the severity of the winter before migration took place. 4. All 55 species studied had earlier first flight trends at rate of ? = ?0·611 ± SE 0·015 days year?1. Of these species, 49% had earlier last flights, but the average species effect appeared relatively stationary (? = ?0·010 ± SE 0·022 days year?1). Most species (85%) showed increasing duration of their flight season (? = 0·336 ± SE 0·026 days year?1), even though only 54% increased their log annual count (? = 0·002 ± SE <0·001 year?1). 5. The ADD16 and NAO were shown to drive patterns in aphid phenology in a spatiotemporal context. Early in the year when the first aphids were migrating, the effect of the winter NAO was highly significant. Further into the year, ADD16 was a strong predictor. Latitude had a near linear effect on first flights, whereas longitude produced a generally less-clear effect on all responses. Aphids that are anholocyclic (permanently parthenogenetic) or are monoecious (non-host-alternating) were advancing their phenology faster than those that were not. 6. Climate drives phenology and traits help explain how this takes place biologically. Phenology and trait ecology are critical to understanding the threat posed by emerging pests such as Myzus persicae nicotianae and Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis, as revealed by the species accumulation analysis. PMID:25123260

Bell, James R; Alderson, Lynda; Izera, Daniela; Kruger, Tracey; Parker, Sue; Pickup, Jon; Shortall, Chris R; Taylor, Mark S; Verrier, Paul; Harrington, Richard

2015-01-01

107

How are pools influencing the long-term rate of peat accumulation at the ecosystem scale in northern peatlands?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of the global amount of carbon stored in peatlands are based on spatial extrapolations of peat carbon content values derived from peat core analysis. However, due to the labor-intensive nature and costs associated with peat core collection and analysis, most site-wide or region-wide peat carbon content or peat accumulation rate estimates are based on a very limited number of cores (often only one per site), ignoring the potential peat accumulation variations within a site. Variations in peat accumulation values between microforms, especially small open water features (pools) are therefore generally not quantified. Although poorly documented, the area occupied by pools in a given peatland can be quite significant, reaching up to 30% in peatlands of the Hudson's Bay Lowlands. As pools can be relatively deep (> 2 m), the carbon stored per unit area under pools is significantly lower than on the adjacent vegetated surfaces, where peat cores are typically collected. We present first order estimates of the potential impact of overlooking pools in regional peat carbon content inventories based on a review of the available data on pool coverage and depths, and on peat profiles generated by the Holocene Peat Model. We also present the implications of these results for future research.

Talbot, J.; Pelletier, L.; Sonnentag, O.; Frolking, S. E.

2013-12-01

108

Semiparametric Odds Rate Model for Modeling Short-Term and Long-Term Effects with Application to a Breast Cancer Genetic Study  

PubMed Central

The proportional odds model is commonly used in the analysis of failure time data. The assumption of constant odds ratios over time in the proportional odds model, however, can be violated in some applications. Motivated by a genetic study with breast cancer patients, we propose a novel semiparametric odds rate model for the analysis of right-censored survival data. The proposed model incorporates the short-term and long-term covariate effects on the failure time data and includes the proportional odds model as a nested model. We develop efficient likelihood-based inference procedures and establish the large sample properties of the proposed non-parametric maximum likelihood estimators. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well in practical settings. An application to the motivating example is provided. PMID:24815054

Yuan, Mengdie

2014-01-01

109

Hylamer vs conventional polyethylene in primary total hip arthroplasty: a long-term case-control study of wear rates and osteolysis.  

PubMed

The long-term results of Hylamer implants have not been reported previously. Clinical and radiographic results of a consecutive series of 43 patients (45 hips) who had primary total hip arthroplasty using Hylamer liners were compared with those of 37 patients (43 hips) who had conventional liners after 10-year follow-up. The linear wear rates for Hylamer and conventional polyethylene acetabular liners were 0.21 and 0.20 mm/y, respectively. The number of pelvic osteolytic lesions and their size detected on plain radiographs were significantly greater for Hylamer liners. Seven Hylamer hips were revised or are pending revision for osteolysis (16%) compared with 1 control hip. Close radiographic surveillance of patients who have Hylamer liners and evidence of osteolysis found on plain radiographs is warranted. PMID:19264443

Huddleston, James I; Harris, Alex H S; Atienza, Cesar A; Woolson, Steven T

2010-02-01

110

Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of (90)Sr in the skeleton.  

PubMed

The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of (90)Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of (90)Sr were conducted with a whole body counter (WBC) for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of (90)Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested (90)Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption. PMID:21871673

Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

2012-01-01

111

Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton  

SciTech Connect

The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

2012-06-01

112

Long-term data archiving  

SciTech Connect

Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web Consortium, an independent standards body) as a new data interchange tool is being investigated and implemented. In order to facilitate data archiving, Raman data needs calibration as well as some other kinds of data treatment. Figure 1 illustrates schematically the present situation for Raman data calibration in the world-wide Raman spectroscopy community, and presents some of the terminology used.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

113

Rate of Primary Refractory Disease in B and T-Cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Correlation with Long-Term Survival  

PubMed Central

Background Primary refractory disease is a main challenge in the management of non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL). This survey was performed to define the rate of refractory disease to first-line therapy in B and T-cell NHL subtypes and the long-term survival of primary refractory compared to primary responsive patients. Methods Medical records were reviewed of 3,106 patients who had undergone primary treatment for NHL between 1982 and 2012, at the Hematology Centers of Torino and Bergamo, Italy. Primary treatment included CHOP or CHOP-like regimens (63.2%), intensive therapy with autograft (16.9%), or other therapies (19.9%). Among B-cell NHL, 1,356 (47.8%) received first-line chemotherapy with rituximab. Refractory disease was defined as stable/progressive disease, or transient response with disease progression within six months. Results Overall, 690 (22.2%) patients showed primary refractory disease, with a higher incidence amongst T-cell compared to B-cell NHL (41.9% vs. 20.5%, respectively, p<0.001). Several other clinico-pathological factors at presentation were variably associated with refractory disease, including histological aggressive disease, unfavorable clinical presentation, Bone Marrow involvement, low lymphocyte/monocyte ration and male gender. Amongst B-cell NHL, the addition of rituximab was associated with a marked reduction of refractory disease (13.6% vs. 26.7% for non-supplemented chemotherapy, p<0.001). Overall, primary responsive patients had a median survival of 19.8 years, compared to 1.3 yr. for refractory patients. A prolonged survival was consistently observed in all primary responsive patients regardless of the histology. The long life expectancy of primary responsive patients was documented in both series managed before and after 2.000. Response to first line therapy resulted by far the most predictive factor for long-term outcome (HR for primary refractory disease: 16.52, p<0.001). Conclusion Chemosensitivity to primary treatment is crucial for the long-term survival in NHL. This supports the necessity of studies aimed to early identify refractory disease and to develop different treatment strategies for responsive and refractory patients. PMID:25255081

Tarella, Corrado; Gueli, Angela; Delaini, Federica; Rossi, Andrea; Barbui, Anna Maria; Gritti, Giuseppe; Boschini, Cristina; Caracciolo, Daniele; Bruna, Riccardo; Ruella, Marco; Gottardi, Daniela; Passera, Roberto; Rambaldi, Alessandro

2014-01-01

114

Who Becomes a Physics Major? A Long-term Longitudinal Study Examining the Roles of Pre-college Beliefs about Physics and Learning Physics, Interest, and Academic Achievement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper, we examine the correlation between studentsâ beliefs upon entering college and their likelihood of continuing on to become a physics major. Since 2004, we have collected CLASS survey and self-reported level-of-interest responses from students in the first-term, introductory calculus-based physics course (N>2500). Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis of studentsâ incoming CLASS scores and level of interest, comparing those students who go on to become physics majors with those who do not. We find the incoming CLASS scores and reported interest of these future physics majors to be substantially higher than the class average, indicating that these students enter their first college course already having quite expert-like beliefs. The comparative differences are much smaller for grades, SAT score, and university predicted-GPA.

Perkins, Katherine K.; Gratny, M.

2010-12-31

115

US Interests Rates Take a Hike  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As speculated, on Tuesday, May 16, 2000, the Federal Reserve Board decided to raise US interest rates another 0.5 percent, to 6.5 percent. This interest rate hike follows five previous increases of a quarter-point each since June 1999. This is the first time in sixteen years that US interest rates have risen above 5 percent. The new rate will affect the borrowing costs for many Americans, including those with unpaid credit card balances and home equity loans, and also for small business that have taken out bank loans. Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan has long worried that the low unemployment rate coupled with booming economic growth will cause inflation to rise, which is why he has continued to advocate for these interest rate increases. Following Tuesday's announcement by the Fed, Wall Street remained stable; the Dow Jones ended the day up 127 points at 10,935. While President Clinton stands behind the Fed's decision to raise the rates, others, including NAM President Jerry Jasinowski, John Sweeney the president of AFL-CIO, and Democratic Senator Tom Harken of Iowa, have all spoken against the latest interest rate hike.

Missner, Emily D.

116

Interest Rate Transmission to Commercial Credit Rates in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission process from policy-controlled interest rates to bank lending rates deserves reconsideration owing to the implementation of the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1999. Additional attention to the subject in Austria is due to several large banks which, in 2002, have been charged for not passing on interest rate decreases to their customers. I examine dynamic responses of commercial

Johann Burgstaller; Johannes Kepler

2003-01-01

117

Assessment of individual adaptation to microgravity during long term space flight based on stepwise discriminant analysis of heart rate variability parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimization of the cardiovascular system under conditions of long term space flight is provided by individual changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is an easy to use method under these extreme conditions. We tested the hypothesis that individual HRV analysis provides important information for crew health monitoring. HRV data from 14 Russian cosmonauts measured during long term space flights are presented (two times before and after flight, monthly in flight). HRV characteristics in the time and in the frequency domain were calculated. Predefined discriminant function equations obtained in reference groups (L1=-0.112*HR-1.006*SI-0.047*pNN50-0.086*HF; L2=0.140*HR-0.165*SI-1.293*pNN50+0.623*HF) were used to define four functional states. (1) Physiological normal, (2) prenosological, (3) premorbid and (4) pathological. Geometric mean values for the ISS cosmonauts based on L1 and L2 remained within normal ranges. A shift from the physiological normal state to the prenosological functional state during space flight was detected. The functional state assessed by HRV improved during space flight if compared to pre-flight and early post-flight functional states. Analysis of individual cosmonauts showed distinct patterns depending on the pre-flight functional state. Using the developed classification a transition process from the state of physiological normal into a prenosological state or premorbid state during different stages of space flight can be detected for individual Russian cosmonauts. Our approach to an estimation of HR regulatory pattern can be useful for prognostic purposes.

Baevsky, Roman M.; Chernikova, Anna G.; Funtova, Irina I.; Tank, Jens

2011-12-01

118

Reconstructing shifts in vital rates driven by long-term environmental change: a new demographic method based on readily available data.  

PubMed

Frequently, vital rates are driven by directional, long-term environmental changes. Many of these are of great importance, such as land degradation, climate change, and succession. Traditional demographic methods assume a constant or stationary environment, and thus are inappropriate to analyze populations subject to these changes. They also require repeat surveys of the individuals as change unfolds. Methods for reconstructing such lengthy processes are needed. We present a model that, based on a time series of population size structures and densities, reconstructs the impact of directional environmental changes on vital rates. The model uses integral projection models and maximum likelihood to identify the rates that best reconstructs the time series. The procedure was validated with artificial and real data. The former involved simulated species with widely different demographic behaviors. The latter used a chronosequence of populations of an endangered cactus subject to increasing anthropogenic disturbance. In our simulations, the vital rates and their change were always reconstructed accurately. Nevertheless, the model frequently produced alternative results. The use of coarse knowledge of the species' biology (whether vital rates increase or decrease with size or their plausible values) allowed the correct rates to be identified with a 90% success rate. With real data, the model correctly reconstructed the effects of disturbance on vital rates. These effects were previously known from two populations for which demographic data were available. Our procedure seems robust, as the data violated several of the model's assumptions. Thus, time series of size structures and densities contain the necessary information to reconstruct changing vital rates. However, additional biological knowledge may be required to provide reliable results. Because time series of size structures and densities are available for many species or can be rapidly generated, our model can contribute to understand populations that face highly pressing environmental problems. PMID:23919169

González, Edgar J; Martorell, Carlos

2013-07-01

119

Assessment of application-rate dependent effects of a long-term fire retardant chemical (Fire Trol 934) on Typha domingensis germination.  

PubMed

Although long-term fire retardants (LTR) gain increasingly acceptance as effective tools for wildfire management, recent studies indicate their potential harmfulness in the environment, especially in aquatic ecosystems. This study comprises a first laboratory impact assessment of LTR action in temporal Mediterranean wetlands, using seed germination of Typha domingensis as indicator of impact. Our aim was to identify application rates upon which seed germination could be significantly affected. We tested for low (1 l m(-2)) and high (3 l m(-2)) application rates of Fire Trol 934 which are recommended by the manufacturers as a function of fuel characteristics. In addition, we simulated the impact of a higher application rate of 5 l m(-2) because inhomogeneous dispersal of the LTR during fire control and prevention operations can result in locally elevated applications. Results of a microcosm experiment indicate that application rates of 1 or 3 l m(-2) can impact Typha germination rates in the short-term via indirect LTR-mediated effects on water quality, which suppressed necessary cues for germination. However, a subsequent experiment with Petri dishes, using seeds isolated from the LTR treated sediments did not show significantly different germination rates between the control and the treatments with application rates of 1 or 3 l m(-2). This suggests that retardant pre-application germination success could be recovered in nature once the retardant is eliminated. By contrast, seeds almost completely failed to germinate in the microcosm experiment and the subsequent Petri dish essay when an application rate of 5 l m(-2) was used. This suggests a critical level upon which Typha seed germination may be perpetually limited. Research should be extended to other plant species to provide fire managers with guidelines for environmentally safe use of LTR in the Mediterranean region. PMID:14987869

Angeler, David G; Rodríguez, Marta; Martín, Silvia; Moreno, José M

2004-05-01

120

Evidence of a Change in the Long Term Spin-down Rate of the X-ray Pulsar 4U 1907+09  

E-print Network

We analyzed RXTE archival observations of 4U 1907+09 between 17 February 1996 and 6 March 2002. The pulse timing analysis showed that the source stayed at almost {\\bf{constant}} period around August 1998 and then started to spin-down at a rate of $(-1.887\\mp 0.042)\\times 10^{-14}$ Hz s$^-1$ which is $\\sim$ 0.60 times lower than the long term ($\\sim 15$ years) spin-down rate (Baykal et al. 2001). Our pulse frequency measurements for the first time resolved significant spin-down rate variations since the discovery of the source. We also presented orbital phase resolved X-ray spectra during two stable spin down episodes during November 1996 - December 1997 and March 2001 - March 2002. The source has been known to have two orbitally locked flares. We found that X-ray flux and spectral parameters except Hydrogen column density agreed with each other during the flares.We interpreted the similar values of X-ray fluxes as an indication of the fact that the source accretes not only via transient retrograde accretion disc (in't Zand et al. 1998) but also via the stellar wind of the companion (Roberts et al. 2001), so that the variation of the accretion rate from the disc does not cause significant variation in the observed X-ray flux. Lack of significant change in spectral parameters except Hydrogen column density was interpreted as a sign of the fact that the change in the spin-down rate of the source was not accompanied by a significant variation in the accretion geometry.

A. Baykal; S. C. Inam; E. Beklen

2005-12-07

121

Single-Fraction High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Hypofractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer - Long Term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We present the long-term results of a cohort of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) treated with single-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (HypoRT). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated exclusively with HDRB and HypoRT. HDRB delivered a dose of 10 Gy to the prostate surface and HypoRT consisted of 50 Gy delivered in 20 daily fractions. The first 121 consecutive patients with a minimum of 2 years posttreatment follow-up were assessed for toxicity and disease control. Results: The median follow-up was 65.2 months. No acute Grade III or higher toxicity was seen. Late Grade II gastrointestinal toxicity was seen in 9 patients (7.4%) and Grade III in 2 (1.6%). Late Grade III genitourinary toxicity was seen in 2 patients (1.6%). After a 24-month follow-up, a rebiopsy was offered to the first 58 consecutively treated patients, and 44 patients agreed with the procedure. Negative biopsies were found in 40 patients (91%). The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival rate was 90.7% (95% CI, 84.5-96.9%), with 13 patients presenting biochemical failure. Among them, 9 were diagnosed with distant metastasis. Prostate cancer-specific and overall survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 98.8% (95% CI, 96.4-100%), respectively. Conclusion: The combination of HDRB and HypoRT is well tolerated, with acceptable toxicity rates. Furthermore, results from rebiopsies revealed an encouraging rate of local control. These results confirm that the use of conformal RT techniques, adapted to specific biological tumor characteristics, have the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in intermediate-risk PC patients.

Cury, Fabio L., E-mail: fabio.cury@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Duclos, Marie [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Aprikian, Armen [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Patrocinio, Horacio [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Shenouda, George; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc; Souhami, Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)

2012-03-15

122

A Potential Reconciliation of Short-Term Geodetic and Long-Term Geological Strain-Rate Estimates Across the Owens Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodetic data show a distinctive pattern of modern strain-rate across the southwestern Great Basin (between 36° and 38° N). Strain rates are low in the interior of the Basin and in the Sierra Nevada block, whereas they are large immediately east of the Sierra Nevada. A compilation of GPS velocities indicates an average displacement rate of the Sierra Nevada block relative to the White/Inyo Mountain block of 4.1±0.8 mm yr-1 directed 305°±6°. This value constitutes approximately 25 percent of the total strain between the North American craton and the Sierra Nevada. A value this large is in apparent conflict with the results of paleoseismic studies that indicate slip rates on the Owens Valley Fault Zone (OVFZ), and associated dip-slip faults, are too low to accommodate this rate of divergence. It also conflicts with mechanical models of faulting that show that sufficient slip on high-angle normal faults to permit this rate of displacement would produce a much greater depth to bedrock than is actually observed in the Owens Valley. We have investigated the long-term slip rate on the OVFZ by using ground-penetrating radar to determine the margin of a lava flow at Crater Mountain that is dextrally offset by the fault, and hence the total displacement of the flow. We have used cosmogenic 36Cl to determine an eruption age of 68±12 ka, yielding a slip rate over this time that averages between 2.8 and 4.5 mm yr-1. In contrast to previous studies over much shorter time scales, this rate is in general agreement with that from geodetic measurements. We further propose that displacement on both strike-slip and normal, valley-bounding faults is integrated into relatively uniform regional transtensional strain by means of extensive low-angle faults underlying the Owens Valley. Displacement on listric valley-bounding faults permits significant extension without requiring vertical displacements in excess of observations. These new data and observations support the inference, based on short-term geodetic measurements, that much of the total strain between the Colorado Plateau and the southern Sierra Nevada is, and has been, accommodated in a relatively narrow band east of the Sierra Nevada.

Phillips, F. M.; Kirby, E.; Anadakrishnan, S.; Marrero, S. M.

2007-12-01

123

Money, Income, Prices, and Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Including data from the 1980s sharply weakens the postwar time-series evidence indicating significant relationships between money (however defined) and nominal income or between money and either real income or prices separately. Focusing on data from 1970 onward destroys this evidence altogether. Evidence indicating cointegration of real income and real money balances, with due allowance for the effect of interest rates,

Benjamin M. Friedman; Kenneth N. Kuttner

1992-01-01

124

Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. Part II: Solute profiles, gradients and the comparisons of contemporary and long-term weathering rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and pore water elemental and 87Sr/86Sr compositions are used to determine contemporary weathering rates in a 65- to 226-kyr-old soil chronosequence formed from granitic sediments deposited on marine terraces along coastal California. Soil moisture, tension and saturation exhibit large seasonal variations in shallow soils in response to a Mediterranean climate. These climate effects are dampened in underlying argillic horizons that progressively developed in older soils, and reached steady-state conditions in unsaturated horizons extending to depths in excess of 15 m. Hydraulic fluxes (qh), based on Cl mass balances, vary from 0.06 to 0.22 m yr-1, resulting in fluid residence times in the terraces of 10-24 yrs. As expected for a coastal environment, the order of cation abundances in soil pore waters is comparable to sea water, i.e., Na > Mg > Ca > K > Sr, while the anion sequence Cl > NO3 > HCO3 > SO4 reflects modifying effects of nutrient cycling in the grassland vegetation. Net Cl-corrected solute Na, K and Si increase with depth, denoting inputs from feldspar weathering. Solute 87Sr/86Sr ratios exhibit progressive mixing of sea water-dominated precipitation with inputs from less radiogenic plagioclase. While net Sr and Ca concentrations are anomalously high in shallow soils due to biological cycling, they decline with depth to low and/or negative net concentrations. Ca/Mg, Sr/Mg and 87Sr/86Sr solute and exchange ratios are similar in all the terraces, denoting active exchange equilibration with selectivities close to unity for both detrital smectite and secondary kaolinite. Large differences in the magnitudes of the pore waters and exchange reservoirs result in short-term buffering of the solute Ca, Sr, and Mg. Such buffering over geologic time scales can not be sustained due to declining inputs from residual plagioclase and smectite, implying periodic resetting of the exchange reservoir such as by past vegetational changes and/or climate. Pore waters approach thermodynamic saturation with respect to albite at depth in the younger terraces, indicating that weathering rates ultimately become transport-limited and dependent on hydrologic flux. Contemporary rates Rsolute are estimated from linear Na and Si pore weathering gradients bsolute such that Rsolute = frac(qh, bsolute ?? Sv) where Sv is the volumetric surface area and ?? is the stoichiometric coefficient. Plagioclase weathering rates (0.38-2.8 ?? 10-15 mol m-2 s-1) are comparable to those based on 87Sr/86Sr mass balances and solid-state Na and Ca gradients using analogous gradient approximations. In addition, contemporary solute gradients, under transport-limited conditions, approximate long-term solid-state gradients when normalized against the mass of protolith plagioclase and its corresponding aqueous solubility. The multi-faceted weathering analysis presented in this paper is perhaps the most comprehensive yet applied to a single field study. Within uncertainties of the methods used, present day weathering rates, based on solute characterizations, are comparable to average long-term past rates as evidenced by soil profiles.

White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Vivit, D.V.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Bullen, T.D.; Maher, K.; Blum, A.E.

2009-01-01

125

Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 ?g SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

2014-11-01

126

Long-term cosmogenic 3He production rates (152 ka-1.35 Ma) from 40Ar/ 39Ar dated basalt flows at 29°N latitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of time integrated cosmogenic 3He production rates in olivines for the last 1.35 Ma are presented. We investigated three basaltic lava flow tops from Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain. The 40Ar/ 39Ar ages determined for those basalt flows by incremental laser heating of leached groundmass samples are 152±26 ka, 281±19 ka and 1.35±0.01 Ma (±2?). Three or four different olivine phenocryst samples have been analyzed from each flow for their cosmogenic 3He abundances. The resulting 3He production rates in olivine at sea level at 29° latitude are 82±14 and 82±8 atoms g -1 a -1, as obtained from the 152 ka and 281 ka old flows, respectively. Considering effects of erosion on the 1.35 Ma old flow we find that the production rate of 82±8 atoms g -1 a -1 is consistent with the cosmogenic 3He production during the last 1.35 Ma. There appears to be a 14% discrepancy between previously published production rates derived at higher latitudes and altitudes if the scaling factors of Lal are used to compare results. This discrepancy is greatly reduced, however, if the revised scaling factors of Dunai (this issue) are applied. Using the new scaling factors we derive a production rate for cosmogenic 3He in olivine at sea level and high latitudes (>60°) of 118±11 atoms g -1 a -1 (±2?). The correspondingly revised value of Cerling and Craig, and Ackert et al.) is 123±6 atoms g -1 a -1 (±2?). The mean value of these two calibrations is 121±6 atoms g -1 a -1 (±2?). We suggest that the production rate of 121±6 atoms g -1 a -1 at sea level and high latitudes may be applied to the complete time range where paleomagnetic data indicate that there was no long-term averaged intensity variation in the Earth's magnetic field, i.e. over the last 10 Ma.

Dunai, Tibor J.; Wijbrans, Jan R.

2000-02-01

127

Accelerated partial breast irradiation: An analysis of variables associated with late toxicity and long-term cosmetic outcome after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To perform a detailed analysis of variables associated with late tissue effects of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in a large cohort of patients with prolonged follow-up. Methods and Materials: Beginning in 1995, 75 women with Stage I/II breast cancer were enrolled in identical institutional trials evaluating APBI as monotherapy after lumpectomy. Patients eligible included those with T1-2, N0-1 ({<=}3 nodes positive), M0 tumors of nonlobular histology with negative surgical margins, no extracapsular nodal extension, and negative results on postexcision mammogram. All patients underwent surgical excision and postoperative irradiation with HDR interstitial brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the excision cavity plus a 2-cm margin. Treatment was delivered with a high-activity Ir-192 source at 3.4 Gy per fraction twice daily for 5 days to a total dose of 34 Gy. Dosimetric analyses were performed with three-dimensional postimplant dose and volume reconstructions. All patients were evaluated at 3-6-month intervals and assessed with a standardized cosmetic rating scale and according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late normal tissue toxicity scoring criteria. Clinical and therapy-related features were analyzed for their relationship to cosmetic outcome and toxicity rating. Clinical features analyzed included age, volume of resection, history of diabetes or hypertension, extent of axillary surgery, and systemic therapies. Therapy-related features analyzed included volume of tissue encompassed by the 100%, 150%, and 200% isodose lines (V100, V150, and V200, respectively), the dose homogeneity index (DHI), number of source dwell positions, and planar separation. Results: The median follow-up of all patients was 73 months (range, 43-118 months). The cosmetic outcome at last follow-up was rated as excellent, good, and fair/poor in 67%, 24%, and 9% of patients, respectively. Suboptimal cosmetic outcome was significantly associated with the number of source dwell positions, V150, and V200 and inversely associated with DHI (0.77 vs. 0.73; p = 0.05). Late skin toxicity was rated as Grade 0, 1, or 2 in 77%, 19%, and 4% of patients, respectively. The risk of Grade 1/2 skin toxicity was significantly associated with V150 and V200 and inversely associated with DHI (0.77 vs. 0.71; p = 0.009). Late subcutaneous toxicity was rated as Grade 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 in 55%, 15%, 12%, 5%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The risk of Grade 0/1 vs. Grade 2-4 subcutaneous toxicity was significantly associated only with a lower value of DHI (0.77 vs. 0.73; p = 0.02). To further explore factors that might contribute to the risk of fat necrosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic), a separate analysis showed that only dose hotspots as reflected in V150 and V200 were significantly associated with elevated risk. The use of adriamycin-based chemotherapy after APBI was found to be associated with a significant increase in the incidence of higher-grade skin toxicity and a higher risk of fat necrosis and suboptimal cosmetic outcome. Patient age, volume of resection, extent of axillary surgery, a history of diabetes or hypertension, and the use of tamoxifen were not found to be significantly associated with cosmetic outcome or late normal tissue complications. Conclusions: Long-term cosmetic results and the risk of late skin and subcutaneous toxicity after APBI with interstitial HDR brachytherapy can be correlated with specific treatment-related variables. These data provide dosimetric parameters that might be used to minimize the risk of normal tissue injury after APBI interstitial brachytherapy.

Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)]. E-mail: dwazer@tufts-nemc.org; Kaufman, Seth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States); Cuttino, Laurie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Di Petrillo, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States); Arthur, Douglas W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

2006-02-01

128

Long-term environmental stewardship.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

Nagy, Michael David

2010-08-01

129

12 CFR 614.4160 - Differential interest rate programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...combinations of factors. Differential interest rate programs should achieve...In the adoption of differential interest rate programs, institutions may consider, among other things, the effect that such interest rate structures will have...

2013-01-01

130

12 CFR 614.4160 - Differential interest rate programs.  

...combinations of factors. Differential interest rate programs should achieve...In the adoption of differential interest rate programs, institutions may consider, among other things, the effect that such interest rate structures will have...

2014-01-01

131

12 CFR 614.4160 - Differential interest rate programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...combinations of factors. Differential interest rate programs should achieve...In the adoption of differential interest rate programs, institutions may consider, among other things, the effect that such interest rate structures will have...

2012-01-01

132

12 CFR 614.4160 - Differential interest rate programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...combinations of factors. Differential interest rate programs should achieve...In the adoption of differential interest rate programs, institutions may consider, among other things, the effect that such interest rate structures will have...

2011-01-01

133

12 CFR 614.4160 - Differential interest rate programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...combinations of factors. Differential interest rate programs should achieve...In the adoption of differential interest rate programs, institutions may consider, among other things, the effect that such interest rate structures will have...

2010-01-01

134

Interest Rates and Coupon Bonds in Quantum Finance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Synopsis; 2. Interest rates and coupon bonds; 3. Options and option theory; 4. Interest rate and coupon bond options; 5. Quantum field theory of bond forward interest rates; 6. Libor Market Model of interest rates; 7. Empirical analysis of forward interest rates; 8. Libor Market Model of interest rate options; 9. Numeraires for bond forward interest rates; 10. Empirical analysis of interest rate caps; 11. Coupon bond European and Asian options; 12. Empirical analysis of interest rate swaptions; 13. Correlation of coupon bond options; 14. Hedging interest rate options; 15. Interest rate Hamiltonian and option theory; 16. American options for coupon bonds and interest rates; 17. Hamiltonian derivation of coupon bond options; Appendixes; Glossaries; List of symbols; Reference; Index.

Baaquie, Belal E.

2009-09-01

135

Serum prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume predict long-term changes in symptoms and flow rate: results of a four-year, randomized trial comparing finasteride versus placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine whether baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA), in addition to prostate volume, is associated with long-term changes in symptoms and urinary flow rate.Methods. Three thousand forty men with benign prostatic hyperplasia enrolled in the PLESS trial were randomly assigned to finasteride 5 mg or placebo for 4 years. Symptoms and flow rate were assessed every 4 months, and data

Claus G. Roehrborn; Peter Boyle; Donald Bergner; Todd Gray; Marc Gittelman; Thomas Shown; Arnold Melman; R. Bruce Bracken; Ralph deVere White; Alice Taylor; Daniel Wang; Joanne Waldstreicher

1999-01-01

136

Paleo-seismic, Cumulative Offsets and Long-term Slip-rate Along the Karakax Fault, Western Segment of the Altyn Tagh Fault, Northwest Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the northern Tibet, the Altyn Tagh fault (ATF) system over 2000-km-long is the longest left-lateral strike-slip fault in the Asia, which accommodates sinistral motion between the Tibetan Plateau and the Tarim block within the India-Eurasia collision zone. The Karakax fault, extending over a length of 600km, is located on in northwestern Tibet as the western segment of the ATF. On the base of analyses of high-resolution IKONOS satellite remote sensing images, in combination of field investigation and structural geo-morphological measurements, the tectonic activities, the paleo-earthquakes and the cumulative offsets along the Karakax fault since late Quaternary are recognized as follows. (1) The typical tectono-geomorphic features such as the systematically displaced streams, alluvial fans, push-up ridges, strike-slip pull-apart basins etc. developed along the Karakax fault show that this fault is one late Quaternary sinistral strike-slip active fault; (2) Field work in the karakax valley gave us the opportunity to confirm and complement observations and measurements made on IKONOS images along the western segment of the ATF. Besides, we found well preserved surface ruptures for a length of about 100km, which indicate a large seismic event probably not older than 100yr. there is however no historical report of such an earthquake which may be due to the fact that, in this remote area, the historical is too short or not continuous. The recent large earthquake (M>7) led to about 100km-long surface seismic rupture zone at the Karakax valley, whose surface co-seismic offset is about 3-8m, and the seismic moment intensity causing the earthquake rupture zone reaches Mw7.3-7.5. The repetitious horizontal sinistral displacement offsets of about 3-8m, about 6-14m and 18-22m probably represent the co-seismic offset caused by the last or the second to last or the third to last large earthquake (M>7), the cumulative co-seismic offset of two large earthquakes and that of three large earthquakes respectively; (3)The average sinistral strike- slip rate of the Karakax fault since late Quaternary is about 17-18 mm/yr with a vertical component of ~2mm/yr, close to the long-term sinistral strike-slip average of the middle and the eastern sections of the ATF; (4) The left-lateral strike-slip along the Karakax fault is caused by horizontal partitioning to accommodate the north-south shortening of the west Tibetan plateau due to ongoing northward penetration of India plate into Eurasia plate in the northwestern margin of the Tibetan plateau.

Li, H.; van der Woerd, J.; Tapponnier, P.; Ryerson, F.; Yang, J.

2006-12-01

137

12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth in subpart G of this...directors shall adopt an interest rate risk management section of an asset/liability management policy which establishes interest...

2011-01-01

138

The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.  

PubMed

Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment. PMID:18752014

Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

2008-12-01

139

Long-term outcomes after severe shock.  

PubMed

Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ?1 ?g/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below US population norms (P < 0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety, and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full-time. Early survivors of severe shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely critically ill patients have similar outcomes to general intensive care unit survivor populations. PMID:25394248

Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

2015-02-01

140

7 CFR 4280.124 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.124 Interest...

2010-01-01

141

12 CFR 7.4001 - Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate...  

... § 7.4001 Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate borrowers...Definition. The term “interest” as used in 12 U...includes, among other things, the...

2014-01-01

142

12 CFR 7.4001 - Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 7.4001 Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate borrowers...Definition. The term “interest” as used in 12 U...includes, among other things, the...

2010-01-01

143

12 CFR 7.4001 - Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... § 7.4001 Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate borrowers...Definition. The term “interest” as used in 12 U...includes, among other things, the...

2013-01-01

144

12 CFR 7.4001 - Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... § 7.4001 Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate borrowers...Definition. The term “interest” as used in 12 U...includes, among other things, the...

2012-01-01

145

12 CFR 7.4001 - Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... § 7.4001 Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate borrowers...Definition. The term “interest” as used in 12 U...includes, among other things, the...

2011-01-01

146

Long term consistency of handwriting grip kinetics in adults.  

PubMed

While there is growing interest in clinical applications of handwriting grip kinetics, the consistency of these forces over time is not well-understood at present. In this study, we investigated the short- and long-term intra-participant consistency and inter-participant differences in grip kinetics associated with adult signature writing. Grip data were collected from 20 adult participants using a digitizing tablet and an instrumented pen. The first phase of data collection occurred over 10 separate days within a three week period. To ascertain long-term consistency, a second phase of data collection followed, one day per month over several months. In both phases, data were collected three times a day. After pre-processing and feature extraction, nonparametric statistical tests were used to compare the within-participant grip force variation between the two phases. Participant classification based on grip force features was used to determine the relative magnitude of inter-participant versus intra-participant differences. The misclassification rate for the longitudinal data were used as an indication of long term kinetic consistency. Intra-participant analysis revealed significant changes in grip kinetic features between the two phases for many participants. However, the misclassification rate, on average, remained stable, despite different demarcations of training, and testing data. This finding suggests that while signature writing grip forces may evolve over time, inter-participant kinetic differences consistently exceeds within-participant force changes in the long-term. These results bear implications on the collection, modeling and interpretation of grip kinetics in clinical applications. PMID:24510237

Ghali, Bassma; Mamun, Khondaker A; Chau, Tom

2014-04-01

147

Long-Term Opioid Therapy Reconsidered  

PubMed Central

In the past 20 years, primary care physicians have greatly increased prescribing of long-term opioid therapy. However, the rise in opioid prescribing has outpaced the evidence regarding this practice. Increased opioid availability has been accompanied by an epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose. The rate of opioid addiction among patients receiving long-term opioid therapy remains unclear, but research suggests that opioid misuse is not rare. Recent studies report increased risks for serious adverse events, including fractures, cardiovascular events, and bowel obstruction, although further research on medical risks is needed. New data indicate that opioid-related risks may increase with dose. From a societal perspective, higher-dose regimens account for the majority of opioids dispensed, so cautious dosing may reduce both diversion potential and patient risks for adverse effects. Limiting long-term opioid therapy to patients for whom it provides decisive benefits could also reduce risks. Given the warning signs and knowledge gaps, greater caution and selectivity are needed in prescribing long-term opioid therapy. Until stronger evidence becomes available, clinicians should err on the side of caution when considering this treatment. PMID:21893626

Von Korff, Michael; Kolodny, Andrew; Deyo, Richard A.; Chou, Roger

2012-01-01

148

Estimating Long-Term Mating Systems Using DNA Sequences  

PubMed Central

Plant mating systems often involve a mixture of self fertilizations and outcross fertilizations. The degree of selfing has a large impact on the genetic composition of natural populations and on the evolution of the mating system itself in response to such factors as inbreeding depression. This paper describes a means of estimating the long-term rate of self-fertilization from samples of alleles taken from individuals in a population. Use is made of the genealogy of pairs of alleles at a locus within individuals and pairs between individuals. The degree of selfing is closely related to the extent to which the number of nucleotide sites differing within an individual is reduced relative to the number differing between individuals. Importantly, the estimate of long-term selfing is largely independent of population size and is not affected by historical fluctuations in population size; instead it responds directly to the mating system itself. The approach outlined here is most appropriate to evolutionary problems in which the long-term nature of the mating system is of interest, such as to determine the relationship between prior inbreeding and inbreeding depression. PMID:8852858

Milligan, B. G.

1996-01-01

149

5 CFR 842.605 - Election of insurable interest rate.  

...beneficiary of an insurable interest rate is void unless the spouse consents to the election...election of the insurable interest rate is void. (iii) An election under § 842...interest rate to benefit that former spouse is void. (d) To elect an insurable...

2014-01-01

150

5 CFR 842.605 - Election of insurable interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...beneficiary of an insurable interest rate is void unless the spouse consents to the election...election of the insurable interest rate is void. (iii) An election under § 842...interest rate to benefit that former spouse is void. (d) To elect an insurable...

2013-01-01

151

5 CFR 842.605 - Election of insurable interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...beneficiary of an insurable interest rate is void unless the spouse consents to the election...election of the insurable interest rate is void. (iii) An election under § 842...interest rate to benefit that former spouse is void. (d) To elect an insurable...

2010-01-01

152

5 CFR 842.605 - Election of insurable interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...beneficiary of an insurable interest rate is void unless the spouse consents to the election...election of the insurable interest rate is void. (iii) An election under § 842...interest rate to benefit that former spouse is void. (d) To elect an insurable...

2011-01-01

153

5 CFR 842.605 - Election of insurable interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...beneficiary of an insurable interest rate is void unless the spouse consents to the election...election of the insurable interest rate is void. (iii) An election under § 842...interest rate to benefit that former spouse is void. (d) To elect an insurable...

2012-01-01

154

20 CFR 606.30 - Interest rates on advances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Interest rates on advances. 606.30 ...TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE...Advances § 606.30 Interest rates on advances. Advances...606.31. 1 The interest rate for each calendar year...

2010-04-01

155

Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect

The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

2011-03-22

156

31 CFR 351.12 - What do I need to know about the long-term savings bond rate, to understand redemption value...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...savings bond rate, to understand redemption value calculations in this subpart? 351...BONDS, SERIES EE Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings...savings bond rate, to understand redemption value calculations in this subpart? We...

2010-07-01

157

PUBLISHED IN GEOLOGY, VOL. 41, 2013, DOI:10.1130/G33723.1 Ductile strain rate measurements document long-term strain  

E-print Network

PUBLISHED IN GEOLOGY, VOL. 41, 2013, DOI:10.1130/G33723.1 Ductile strain rate measurements document. Quartz-strain- rate-metry (QSR) is a convenient tool for performing such measurements once calibrated. We., 2000; Sassier et al., 2009). There is therefore a need to validate a method of measuring strain rates

Kaus, Boris

158

On the determinants of bank interest margins under credit and interest rate risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the determinants of optimal bank interest margins based on a simple firm-theoretical model under multiple sources of uncertainty and risk aversion. The model demonstrates how cost, regulation, credit risk and interest rate risk conditions jointly determine the optimal bank interest margin decision. We find that the bank interest margin is positively related to the bank's market power,

Kit Pong Wong

1997-01-01

159

Electrodes for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.  

PubMed

The emerging application of long-term and high-quality ECG recording requires alternative electrodes to improve the signal quality and recording capability of surface skin electrodes. The esophageal ECG has the potential to overcome these limitations but necessitates novel recorder and lead designs. The electrode material is of particular interest, since the material has to ensure conflicting requirements like excellent biopotential recording properties and inertness. To this end, novel electrode materials like PEDOT and silver-PDMS as well as established electrode materials such as stainless steel, platinum, gold, iridium oxide, titanium nitride, and glassy carbon were investigated by long-term electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and model-based signal analysis using the derived in vitro interfacial properties in conjunction with a dedicated ECG amplifier. The results of this novel approach show that titanium nitride and iridium oxide featuring microstructured surfaces did not degrade when exposed to artificial acidic saliva. These materials provide low electrode potential drifts and insignificant signal distortion superior to surface skin electrodes making them compatible with accepted standards for ambulatory ECG. They are superior to the noble and polarizable metals such as platinum, silver, and gold that induced more signal distortions and are superior to esophageal stainless steel electrodes that corrode in artificial saliva. The study provides rigorous criteria for the selection of electrode materials for prolonged ECG recording by combining long-term in vitro electrode material properties with ECG signal quality assessment. PMID:23649132

Niederhauser, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Jungo, Michael; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Abacherli, Roger; Vogel, Rolf

2013-09-01

160

Yield Spreads and Interest Rate Movements: A Bird's Eye View  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expectations theory of the term structure implies that the spread between a longer-term interest rate and a shorter-term interest rate forecasts two subsequent interest rate changes: the change in yield of the longer-term bond over the life of the shorter-term bond, and a weighted average of the changes in shorter-term rates over the life of the longer-term bond. For

John Y. Campbell; Robert J. Shiller

1991-01-01

161

Using the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) to Predict Long Term Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the predictive validity of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, Autism detection in early childhood: ADEC. Australian Council of Educational Research, Camberwell, VIC 2007) and a well-established screening tool, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler et al. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS).…

Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L.; Brewer, Neil

2014-01-01

162

Long term thermoelectric module testing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period.

D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy

2009-10-01

163

Constraining the long-term evolution of the slip rate for a major extensional fault system in the central Aegean, Greece, using thermochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brittle\\/ductile transition is a major rheologic boundary in the crust yet little is known about how or if rates of tectonic processes are influenced by this boundary. In this study we examine the slip history of the large-scale Naxos\\/Paros extensional fault system (NPEFS), Cyclades, Greece, by comparing published slip rates for the ductile crust with new thermochronological constraints on

Stephanie Brichau; Uwe Ring; Richard A. Ketcham; Andrew Carter; Daniel Stockli; Maurice Brunel

2006-01-01

164

Long-term recovery of PCB-contaminated sediments at the Lake Hartwell superfund site: PCB dechlorination. 2. Rates and extent.  

PubMed

This paper reports on extensive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination measured in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) sediments. Vertical sediment cores were collected from 18 locations in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) and analyzed in 5-cm increments for PCB congeners. The preferential loss of meta and para chlorines with sediment depth demonstrated that PCBs in the sediments underwent reductive dechlorination after burial. Notably, ortho chlorines were highly conserved for more than 5 decades; since the first appearance of PCBs, ca. 1950-1955. These dechlorination characteristics resulted in the accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners dominated by ortho chlorine substituents. Dechlorination rates were determined by plotting the numbers of meta plus para chlorines per biphenyl molecule (mol of chlorine/mol of PCB) with sediment age. Regression analyses showed linear correlations between meta plus para chlorine concentrations with time. The average dechlorination rate was 0.094 +/- 0.063 mol of Cl/mol of PCB/yr. The rates measured using the 2001 cores were approximately twice those measured using the 2000 cores, most likely because the 2001 cores were collected only at transects O, L, and I, which had the highest rates measured in 2000. An inverse of the dechlorination rates indicated that 16.4 +/- 11.6 yr was required per meta plus para chlorine removal (ranging from 4.3 to 43.5 yr per chlorine removal). The rates determined from this study were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than rates reported from laboratory microcosm studies using Hudson River and St. Lawrence River sediments, suggesting that dechlorination rates reported for laboratory experiments are much higher than those occurring in situ. PMID:15952357

Magar, Victor S; Brenner, Richard C; Johnson, Glenn W; Quensen, John F

2005-05-15

165

Effects of Wyoming big sagebrush seeding rate and grass competition on the long-term density and canopy volume of the big sagebrush and wildlife habitat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research was initiated in 1997 to evaluate the effects of seeding rates of grass and Wyoming big sagebrush on the establishment of big sagebrush. The research was accomplished at the Belle Ayr West mine, south of Gillette, WY using a randomized complete block experimental design with three big ...

166

Effect of diabetes mellitus on short- and long-term mortality rates of patients with acute myocardial infarction: A statewide study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on mortality rate in 42,595 patients in the statewide Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System (MIDAS), which included patients with myocardial infarction from 90 nonfederal hospitals in New Jersey during the years 1986 and 1987. Of these patients 9695 (22.8%) had DM. DM was more prevalent among female, black, and older patients. DM

Ziad A. Abbud; Daniel M. Shindler; Alan C. Wilson; John B. Kostis

1995-01-01

167

Isoenzyme frequencies in long-term selection lines of Drosophila melanogaster : IV. Isoenzyme frequencies of the leucine aminopeptidases (LAP) in lines selected for short and long developmental rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

1)Selection lines derived from a reference line, the continuation of an initial population which were founded by a double cross of four laboratory stocks, were selected for short (line KS and K) and long (line LS and L) developmental rate for up to 183 generations.2)Frequencies of the linkage groups, AODF , AFDF and ASDS , of two closely linked loci,

Hans-J. Muhs

1975-01-01

168

Tolerance of the vaginal vault to high-dose rate brachytherapy and concomitant chemo-pelvic irradiation: Long-term perspective?  

PubMed Central

Aim/background We sought to determine the tolerance level and complication rates of the vaginal vault to combined high-dose-rate intra-cavitary brachytherapy with concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. Patients and methods A retrospective review of medical records of all the patients who received definitive chemo-radiotherapy for cervical cancer between 1998 and 2002 was undertaken. The records were reviewed for doses and for radiation-associated early and late sequelae of the vagina, rectum and bladder. Cumulative biological effective dose was calculated for two reference vaginal surface points. Results Fifty patients were included. Average age at diagnosis was 54 years. Median follow-up was 59 months. There were no recorded instances of acute grade IV toxicity. Maximal high-dose-rate vaginal surface dose (upper central point) was 103 Gy, and maximal brachytherapy lateral surface dose was 70 Gy. Maximal cumulative biological effective dose for the lateral surface reference point was 465.5 Gy3, and the maximal cumulative biological effective dose for the superior reference point was 878.6 Gy3. There were no cases of vaginal necrosis or fistulas, and no cases of grade IV late vaginal, rectal or bladder toxicity. No correlation was found between the maximal vaginal surface dose and vaginal, rectal or bladder toxicity. Conclusions The maximal surface HDR brachytherapy dose of 103 Gy and the maximal cBED of 878.6 Gy3 were not associated with fistula or necrosis or other grade 3–4 vaginal complications. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy, including pelvic radiotherapy and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy, is relatively safe for cervical cancer patients. PMID:24936320

Kaidar-Person, Orit; Abdah-Bortnyak, Roxolyana; Amit, Amnon; Nevelsky, Alexander; Berniger, Alison; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Ben-Yosef, Rahamim; Kuten, Abraham

2013-01-01

169

A comparison of methods for deriving solute flux rates using long-term data from streams in the mirror lake watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Calculation of chemical flux rates for streams requires integration of continuous measurements of discharge with discrete measurements of solute concentrations. We compared two commonly used methods for interpolating chemistry data (time-averaging and flow-weighting) to determine whether discrepancies between the two methods were large relative to other sources of error in estimating flux rates. Flux rates of dissolved Si and SO42- were calculated from 10 years of data (1981-1990) for the NW inlet and Outlet of Mirror Lake and for a 40-day period (March 22 to April 30, 1993) during which we augmented our routine (weekly) chemical monitoring with collection of daily samples. The time-averaging method yielded higher estimates of solute flux during high-flow periods if no chemistry samples were collected corresponding to peak discharge. Concentration-discharge relationships should be used to interpolate stream chemistry during changing flow conditions if chemical changes are large. Caution should be used in choosing the appropriate time-scale over which data are pooled to derive the concentration-discharge regressions because the model parameters (slope and intercept) were found to be sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual variation. Both methods approximated solute flux to within 2-10% for a range of solutes that were monitored during the intensive sampling period. Our results suggest that errors arising from interpolation of stream chemistry data are small compared with other sources of error in developing watershed mass balances.

Bukaveckas, P.A.; Likens, G.E.; Winter, T.C.; Buso, D.C.

1998-01-01

170

[Long term electrocardiography (Holter monitoring)].  

PubMed

During the past almost 50 years Holter monitoring has become an established non-invasive diagnostic tool in clinical electrophysiology. It allows ECG recording independent of stationary monitoring facilities during daily life and, therefore, contains much information. In the beginning the main interest was directed towards quantitative and qualitative assessment of arrhythmias, their circadian behaviour, and the circadian behaviour of the heart rate. With advances in technology the analysis spectrum of Holter monitoring expanded, and it was used also for detection of silent myocardial ischaemia. New digital recorders and computers with large capacities made it possible to measure every single heart beat very accurately, which was a prerequisite for heart rate variability and QT-interval analysis, which provided new knowledge about the autonomic modulation of the heart rate and the circadian dynamicity of the QT interval, respectively. Beyond arrhythmia analysis Holter monitoring was increasingly used to assess prognosis in different cardiac conditions. It can also be valuable in assessing transient symptoms possibly related to arrhythmias or device dysfunction, which will not necessarily be revealed by simple device control. PMID:18956158

Brandes, Axel; Bethge, Klaus-Peter

2008-09-01

171

Long-Term Prognostic Performance of Ki67 Rate in Early Stage, pT1-pT2, pN0, Invasive Breast Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular signatures may become of use in clinical practice to assess the prognosis of breast cancers. However, although international consensus conferences sustain the use of these new markers in the near future, concerns remain about their degree of discordance and cost-effectiveness in different international settings. The present study aims to validate Ki67 as prognostic factor in a large cohort of early-stage (pT1–pT2, pN0) breast cancer patients. Methods 456 patients treated in 1995–1996 were identified in the Institut Curie database. Ki67 (MIB1) was retrospectively assessed by immunohistochemistry for all cases. The prognostic value of this index was compared to that of histological grade (HG), Estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 status. Distant disease free interval, loco-regional recurrence, time-lapse from first metastatic diagnosis to death were analyzed. Results All 456 patients were treated by lumpectomy plus axillary dissection and radiotherapy. 27 patients (5.9%) received systemic treatment. Tumors were classified as HG1 in 35%, HG2 in 42% and HG3 in 23% of cases. ER was expressed in 86% of the tumors, HER2 in 5% and 14% were triple negative. The median follow-up was 151 [5–191] months. Distant and loco-regional disease recurrences were observed in 16% and 18%, respectively. High (>20%) Ki67 rate [HR?=?3 (1.8–4.8), p<10e?06] and HG3 [HR?=?4.4 (2.2–8.6), p?=?0.00002] were associated with an increased rate of distant relapse. In multivariate analysis, the Ki67 remained the only significant prognostic factor in the subgroups of ER positive HER2 negative [HR?=?2.6 (1.5–4.6), p?=?0.0006] and ER positive HER2 negative HG2 tumors [HR?=?2.2 (1.01–4.8), p?=?0.04]. Conclusions We validate the prognosis value of the Ki67 rate in small size node negative breast cancer. We conclude that Ki67 is a potential cost-effective decision marker for adjuvant therapy in early-stage HG2, pT1–pT2, pN0, breast cancers. PMID:23526930

Savignoni, Alexia; Feron, Jean-Guillaume; Bollet, Marc Andrew; Kirova, Youlia; Fourquet, Alain; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Cottu, Paul; Dieras, Veronique; Fourchotte, Virginie; Laki, Fatima; Alran, Severine; Asselain, Bernard; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Sastre-Garau, Xavier

2013-01-01

172

Long-term results of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the primary treatment of medically inoperable stage I-II endometrial carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Total-abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAHBSO) is the gold-standard therapy for patients with endometrial carcinoma. However, patients with high operative risks are usually treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone. The goal of this study was to update our experience of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB), with or without external-beam irradiation (EBRT), for such patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1984 and 2003, 38 patients with Stage I and Stage II adenocarcinoma of the endometrium considered high operative risk received RT as the primary treatment. The median age was 74.1 years. Before 1996, the local extent of the disease was assessed by an examination under anesthesia (EUA) and by EUA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thereafter. Eight patients (21%) were treated with combined HDRB and EBRT, and 30 patients (79%) were treated with with HDRB alone. The median HDRB dose was 23.9 Gy, typically delivered in 3 fractions in a weekly schedule. The median EBRT dose was 42 Gy. Results: At a median follow-up of 57.5 months for patients at risk, 11 patients (29%) have failed: 6 patients (16%) locally, 4 patients (10.5%) distantly, and 1 patient (3%) locally and distantly. Local failure was established by biopsy, and 4 patients were salvaged by TAHBSO. Higher stage and higher grade were both associated with increased failure rate. The 15-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 78% for all stages, 90% for Stage I, and 42% for Stage II (p < 0.0001). The 15-year DSS was 91% for Grade I and 67% for Grade II and III combined (p = 0.0254). Patients with Stage I disease established by MRI (11 patients) and who received a total HDRB dose of 30 Gy had a DSS rate of 100% at 10 years. Four patients experienced late toxicities: 1 Grade II and 3 Grade III or IV. Conclusion: Medically inoperable Stage I endometrial carcinoma may be safely and effectively treated with HDRB as the primary therapy. In selected Stage I patients, our results are equivalent to that of surgery. We believe that the alternative option of HDRB as the primary therapy for selected Stage I endometrial carcinoma, even in patients with low operative risks, needs further evaluation.

Niazi, Tamim M. [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Portelance, Lorraine [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bahoric, Boris [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gilbert, Lucy [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Stanimir, Gerald [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2005-11-15

173

Long-term oxygen therapy.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the status of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). In the United States, payment cutbacks are occurring as a result of congressionally mandated competitive bidding and capped rental programs. These Medicare programs are discussed. These legislative and regulatory changes may result in reduced patient access to appropriate oxygen-delivery systems that meet medical needs, including optimal ambulation. Prescribing LTOT is addressed in this article, as is the need for adequate patient education. The importance of appropriate monitoring and reassessment is presented. The use of an LTOT collaborative care model is discussed. Although the new intermittent flow oxygen-delivery systems have potential benefits, there is consensus that each patient should be tested on the specific device because of variability in delivery and patient response. Feasible locations for patient education and monitoring are identified. PMID:21285057

Christopher, Kent L; Porte, Phillip

2011-02-01

174

The Market Value and Dynamic Interest Rate Risk of Swaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the time of initiation, interest rate swaps are of zero market value to the counterparties involved. However, as time passes, the market value of the swap position of each counterpart may become positive or negative. These value changes are stochastic in nature and are primarily driven by stochastic variations of the term structure of interest rates. In this paper,

Andrew H. Chen; Mohammed M. Chaudhury

1996-01-01

175

Thailand's Student Loans Fund: Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Burdens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Government student loan schemes typically have implicit interest rate subsidies which, while these are a cost to taxpayers, they have the benefit of diminishing repayment burdens for graduates. Our goal is to illustrate the extent of both interest rate subsidies and repayment burdens with respect to Thailand's Student Loans Fund (SLF), using…

Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha; Polsiri, Piruna; Sarachitti, Rangsit; Sitthipongpanich, Thitima

2010-01-01

176

Insurance Cycles: Interest Rates and the Capacity Constraint Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insurance profits exhibit cyclical behavior that has been attributed to capital market constraints. The authors show that changes in interest rates simultaneously affect the insurer's capital structure and the equilibrium underwriting profit. Depending upon asset and liability maturity structure, capital market access, and reinsurance availability, insurers will be differently affected by changing interest rates. The authors find that the average

Neil A. Doherty; James R. Garven

1995-01-01

177

Rutile TiO2 Mesocrystals/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Rate and Long-Term Performance for Lithium-Ion Batteries.  

PubMed

An in situ hydrothermal route is developed for fabricating rutile TiO2 mesocrystals/reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (TGR) hybrids in the presence of dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (ADBS). These rutile TiO2 mesocrystals with a Wulff shape are composed of ultra-tiny rod-like subunits with the same oriented direction and closely wrapped by the nanosheets of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). It is found that ADBS played a key role for the formation of mesocrystals during the self-assembly process, which pillared the graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and involved the aggregation of the mesocrystal subunits. Furthermore, the TGR hybrids are used as an anode material and exhibited a large capacity over 150?mA h g(-1) at 20 C after 1000 cycles, and high rate capability up to 40 C. These high performance characteristics may be due to the intrinsic characteristics of rutile TiO2 mesocrystals constructed from ultra-tiny subunits and hybridized with super conductive RGO nanosheets. PMID:25688035

Lan, Tongbin; Qiu, Heyuan; Xie, Fengyan; Yang, Jie; Wei, Mingdeng

2015-01-01

178

The evaluation of long-term effects of ionizing radiation through measurement of current sister chromatid exchange (SCE) rates in radiology technologists, compared with previous SCE values.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is a strong physical mutagen, causing breakage of phosphodiester bonds in DNA at any stage of the mitotic cycle. Analysis of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) has come into use as a sensitive DNA-damage indicator. We investigated the SCE rates in radiology technologists who are occupationally and chronically exposed to ionizing radiation. The study included 39 radiology technologists and 35 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. There was a statistically significant difference in the SCE frequency between radiology technologists and controls (p<0.0001). Additionally, previous SCE data of 10 radiology technologists were compared with current results regarding radiation exposure time. There was statistically significant difference between previous and current SCE values (p=0.005). The significant increase in the frequency of SCE in radiology technologists emphasizes the importance of radiation-protection procedures in order to minimize radiation exposure and avoid possible genotoxic effects. Comparison of two studies that measured SCE values of radiology technologists after 8 years also suggests that the genotoxic effect is reversible. In conclusion, radiation is still an important mutagenic agent despite improvements in daily working hours and conditions. PMID:23867852

Tug, E; Kayhan, G; Kan, D; Guntekin, S; Ergun, M A

2013-09-18

179

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment - Task 4: Modeling - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Trichloroethene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, can be degraded under certain conditions by microorganisms that occur naturally in the subsurface. TCE can be degraded under anaerobic conditions to less chlorinated compounds and ultimately into the non-chlorinated, non-hazardous end product, ethene, via anaerobic reductive dechlorination (ARD). ARD is widely recognized as a TCE degradation mechanism, and occurs in active groundwater remediation and can occur during monitored natural attenuation (MNA). MNA relies on natural processes, such as dispersion and degradation, to reduce contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels without active human intervention other than monitoring. TCE can also be biodegraded under aerobic conditions via cometabolism, in which microbial enzymes produced for other purposes fortuitously also react with TCE. In cometabolism, TCE is oxidized directly to non-hazardous products. Cometabolism as a TCE-degrading process under aerobic conditions is less well known than ARD. Natural attenuation is often discounted as a TCE remedial alternative in aerobic conditions based on the paradigm that TCE is biodegradable only under anaerobic conditions. In contrast to this paradigm, TCE was shown to degrade relative to conservative co-contaminants at an environmentally significant rate in a large (approximately 3 km long) TCE plume in aerobic groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the degradation mechanism was shown to be cometabolism. MNA was selected as the remedy for most of this plume, resulting in a considerable cost savings relative to conventional remedial methods. To determine if cometabolism might be a viable remedy at other sites with TCE-contaminated aerobic groundwater, TCE plumes at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities were screened to evaluate whether TCE commonly degrades in aerobic groundwater, and if degradation rates are fast enough that natural attenuation could be a viable remedy. One hundred and twenty seven plumes at 24 DOE facilities were screened, and 14 plumes were selected for detailed examination. In the plumes selected for further study, spatial changes in the concentration of a conservative co-contaminant were used to compensate for the effects of mixing and temporal changes in TCE release from the contaminant source. Decline in TCE concentration along a flow path in excess of the co contaminant concentration decline was attributed to cometabolic degradation. This study indicated that TCE was degraded in 9 of the 14 plumes examined, with first order degradation half-lives ranging from about 1 to 12 years. TCE degradation in about two-thirds of the plumes examined suggests that cometabolism of TCE in aerobic groundwater is a common occurrence, in contrast to the conventional wisdom that TCE is recalcitrant in aerobic groundwater. The degradation half-life values calculated in this study are short enough that natural attenuation may be a viable remedy in many aerobic plumes. Computer modeling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport and degradation is frequently used to predict the evolution of groundwater plumes, and for evaluating natural attenuation and other remedial alternatives. An important aspect of a computer model is the mathematical approach for describing degradation kinetics. A common approach is to assume that degradation occurs as a first-order process. First order kinetics are easily incorporated into transport models and require only a single value (a degradation half-life) to describe reaction kinetics. The use of first order kinetics is justified in many cases because more elaborate kinetic equations often closely approximate first order kinetics under typical field conditions. A previous modeling study successfully simulated the INL TCE plume using first order degradation kinetics. TCE cometabolism is the result of TCE reacting with microbial enzymes that were produced for other purposes, such as oxidizing a growth substrate to obtain energy. Both TCE and the growth substrate compete for enzyme reactive sites, and the presence of

Robert C. Starr

2005-10-31

180

Critical mechanical structure of superconducting high current coils for fast ramped accelerator magnets with high repetition rates in long term operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heavy ion synchrotron SIS100 is the core component of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) currently under construction at GSI in Darmstadt. It is rapidly cycled with a ramp rate of 4 T/s up to 2 T maximum field and a repetition frequency of 1 Hz. The superconducting coils of the Nuclotron-type magnets utilise a hollow cable cooled with a forced two phase helium flow. These coils must operate reliably over a period of at least 20 years and thus survive 2 · 10 load cycles. Intensive R&D is necessary to find the optimal solution preventing any possible damage of the coils by the fast pulsing loads over the life time taking into account the complex fine structure of the cable and coil designs as well as its sensitive influence on the field quality, AC loss generation and quench protection. We used FEM codes to analyse critical aspects of various design options and had manufactured coils for detailed mechanical tests. These tests on samples extracted from the coil are: thermal expansion measurements in all three directions on the cable package itself and its composite elements, compression tests and investigation of the Inter Laminar Shear Stress (ILSS). The stress strain behaviour of the cable package was measured along the transversal direction; the most important one to sustain the cycling load by Lorentz forces. A second sample was fatigue tested. Successful integral operation test results for the coil mechanics have been obtained within our first experimental runs on the prototype dipole magnets already started at GSI in the end of 2008.

Fischer, E.; Schnizer, P.; Weiss, K.; Nyilas, A.; Mierau, A.; Sikler, G.

2010-06-01

181

Association between resting heart rate, chronotropic index, and long-term outcomes in patients with heart failure receiving ?-blocker therapy: data from the HF-ACTION trial  

PubMed Central

Aims The aim of this study was to assess the association between resting heart rate (HR), chronotropic index (CI), and clinical outcomes in optimally treated chronic heart failure (HF) patients on ?-blocker therapy. Methods and results We performed a sub-study in 1118 patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (EF < 35%) included in the HF-ACTION trial. Patients in sinus rhythm who received a ?-blocker and who performed with maximal effort on the exercise test were included. Chronotropic index was calculated as an index of HR reserve achieved, by using the equation (220-age) for estimating maximum HR. A sensitivity analysis using an equation developed for HF patients on ?-blockers was also performed. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to assess the association between CI and clinical outcomes. Median (25th, 75th percentiles) follow-up was 32 (21, 44) months. In a multivariable model including resting HR and CI as continuous variables, neither was associated with the primary outcome of all-cause mortality or hospitalization. However, each 0.1 unit decrease in CI <0.6 was associated with 17% increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.36; P = 0.036), and 13% increased risk of cardiovascular mortality or HF hospitalization (hazard ratio 1.13, 1.02–1.26; P = 0.025). Overall, 666 of 1118 (60%) patients had a CI <0.6. Chronotropic index did not retain statistical significance when dichotomized at a value of ?0.62. Conclusion In HF patients receiving optimal medical therapy, a decrease in CI <0.6 was associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Obtaining an optimal HR response to exercise, even in patients receiving optimal ?-blocker therapy, may be a therapeutic target in the HF population. PMID:23315907

Dobre, Daniela; Zannad, Faiez; Keteyian, Steven J.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Rossignol, Patrick; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Landzberg, Joel; Howlett, Jonathan; Kraus, William E.; Ellis, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

182

Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1992 by the Kentucky General Assembly, the Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center is dedicated to helping the Bluegrass State "act as a catalyst to change the way decisions are made in government." Their research has proved seminal to the state's advancement, and interested parties can learn about their publications, conferences, and other work on this site. First-time visitors should start by looking over some of their work in the "Publications" area. Here they will find full-length reports, their "Policy Notes" series, and PowerPoint presentations created by staff members. There are several hundred publications here, which can be viewed by topics, which range from "aging population" to "workforce development". The "Videos" section is quite good as well, and it features talks with 43 persons of interest from across the state, including journalist Betty Winston Baye and the mayor of Madisonville, Karen Cunningham.

183

Glomerular filtration rate after alpha-radioimmunotherapy with 211At-MX35-F(ab')2: a long-term study of renal function in nude mice.  

PubMed

Besides bone marrow, the kidneys are often dose-limiting organs in internal radiotherapy. The effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the kidneys after alpha-radioimmunotherapy (alpha-RIT) with the alpha-particle emitter, (211)At, were studied in nude mice by serial measurements of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The renal toxicity was evaluated at levels close to the dose limit for the bone marrow and well within the range for therapeutic efficacy on tumors. Astatinated MX35-F(ab')(2) monoclonal antibodies were administered intravenously to nude mice. Both non-tumor-bearing animals and animals bearing subcutaneous xenografts of the human ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-3, were used. The animals received approximately 0.4, 0.8, or 1.2 MBq in one, two, or three fractions. The mean absorbed doses to the kidneys ranged from 1.5 to 15 Gy. The renal function was studied by serial GFR measurements, using plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA, up to 67 weeks after the first astatine injection. A dose-dependent effect on GFR was found and at the time interval 8-30 weeks after the first administration of astatine, the absorbed doses causing a 50% decrease in GFR were 16.4 +/- 3.3 and 14.0 +/- 4.1 Gy (mean +/- SEM), tumor- and non-tumor-bearing animals, respectively. The reduction in GFR progressed with time, and at the later time interval, (31-67 weeks) the corresponding absorbed doses were 7.5 +/- 2.4 and 11.3 +/- 2.3 Gy, respectively, suggesting that the effects of radiation on the kidneys were manifested late. Examination of the kidney sections showed histologic changes that were overall subdued. Following alpha-RIT with (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2) at levels close to the dose limit of severe myelotoxicity, the effects found on renal function were relatively small, with only minor to moderate reductions in GFR. These results suggest that a mean absorbed dose to the kidneys of approximately 10 Gy is acceptable, and that the kidneys would not be the primary dose-limiting organ in systemic alpha-RIT when using (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2). PMID:20025544

Bäck, Tom; Haraldsson, Börje; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Johansson, Martin E; Lindegren, Sture; Jacobsson, Lars

2009-12-01

184

High-dose-rate brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy combined with long-term hormonal therapy for high-risk and very high-risk prostate cancer: outcomes after 5-year follow-up  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria-defined high-risk (HR) and very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer. Data from 178 HR (n = 96, 54%) and VHR (n = 82, 46%) prostate cancer patients who underwent 192Ir-HDR brachytherapy and hypofractionated EBRT with long-term ADT between 2003 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After five fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent ?6 months of neoadjuvant ADT, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months after EBRT. The median follow-up was 61 months (range, 25–94 months) from the start of radiotherapy. The 5-year biochemical non-evidence of disease, freedom from clinical failure and overall survival rates were 90.6% (HR, 97.8%; VHR, 81.9%), 95.2% (HR, 97.7%; VHR, 92.1%), and 96.9% (HR, 100%; VHR, 93.3%), respectively. The highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late genitourinary toxicities were Grade 2 in 7.3% of patients and Grade 3 in 9.6%. The highest late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 2 in 2.8% of patients and Grade 3 in 0%. Although the 5-year outcome of this tri-modality approach seems favorable, further follow-up is necessary to validate clinical and survival advantages of this intensive approach compared with the standard EBRT approach. PMID:24222312

Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Kitano, Masashi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Komori, Shouko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Soda, Itaru; Kurosaka, Shinji; Sekiguchi, Akane; Kimura, Masaki; Kawakami, Shogo; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

2014-01-01

185

Long-term results of the standard Wagner cup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cementless acetabular components gained popularity because of the increased rate of loosening associated with cemented cups\\u000a after intermediate and long-term follow-up. There are few long-term follow-up studies of cementless acetabular components.\\u000a This study aims to evaluate the clinical and radiological long-term results of the press-fit standard Wagner Cup. Between\\u000a January 1, 1994 and June 30, 1994, 118 implantations of a

Uwe Demmelmeyer; Annemarie Schraml; Wolfgang Hönle; Alexander Schuh

2010-01-01

186

Long-range dependence in interest rates and monetary policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter studies the dynamics of Brazilian interest rates for short-term maturities. The Letter employs developed techniques in the econophysics literature and tests for long-range dependence in the term structure of these interest rates for the last decade. Empirical results suggest that the degree of long-range dependence has changed over time due to changes in monetary policy, specially in the short-end of the term structure of interest rates. Therefore, we show that it is possible to identify monetary arrangements using these techniques from econophysics.

Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

2008-01-01

187

Solutions of two-factor models with variable interest rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this work is on numerical solutions to two-factor option pricing partial differential equations with variable interest rates. Two interest rate models, the Vasicek model and the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model (CIR), are considered. Emphasis is placed on the definition and implementation of boundary conditions for different portfolio models, and on appropriate truncation of the computational domain. An exact solution to the Vasicek model and an exact solution for the price of bonds convertible to stock at expiration under a stochastic interest rate are derived. The exact solutions are used to evaluate the accuracy of the numerical simulation schemes. For the numerical simulations the pricing solution is analyzed as the market completeness decreases from the ideal complete level to one with higher volatility of the interest rate and a slower mean-reverting environment. Simulations indicate that the CIR model yields more reasonable results than the Vasicek model in a less complete market.

Li, Jinglu; Clemons, C. B.; Young, G. W.; Zhu, J.

2008-12-01

188

12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section of an asset/liability management policy which establishes...minimum, the interest rate risk management section shall establish policies...to obtain its desired risk management objectives; (d) Document the objectives that the...

2010-01-01

189

A YIELD-FACTOR MODEL OF INTEREST RATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a consistent and arbitrage-free multifactor model of the term structure of interest rates in which yields at selected fixed maturities follow a parametric muitivariate Markov diffusion process with \\

Darrell Duffie; Rui Kan

1996-01-01

190

12 CFR 652.30 - Interest rate risk management.  

...Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL...by conducting interest rate stress tests and simulations of multiple...scenarios at least quarterly. Your stress tests must gauge how interest...level of consistency with the stress-test scenarios...

2014-01-01

191

American option pricing in Gauss-Markov interest rate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of Gaussian non-homogeneous interest-rate models, we study the problem of American bond option pricing. In particular, we show how to efficiently compute the exercise boundary in these models in order to decompose the price as a sum of a European option and an American premium. Generalizations to coupon-bearing bonds and jump-diffusion processes for the interest rates are also discussed.

Galluccio, Stefano

1999-07-01

192

Long Term Evolution of Magnetic Turbulence in Relativistic Collisionless Shocks  

E-print Network

We study the long term evolution of magnetic fields generated by an initially unmagnetized collisionless relativistic $e^+e^-$ shock. Our 2D particle-in-cell numerical simulations show that downstream of such a Weibel-mediated shock, particle distributions are approximately isotropic, relativistic Maxwellians, and the magnetic turbulence is highly intermittent spatially, nonpropagating, and decaying. Using linear kinetic theory, we find a simple analytic form for these damping rates. Our theory predicts that overall magnetic energy decays like $(\\omega_p t)^{-q}$ with $q \\sim 1$, which compares favorably with simulations, but predicts overly rapid damping of short wavelength modes. Magnetic trapping of particles within the magnetic structures may be the origin of this discrepancy. We conclude that initially unmagnetized relativistic shocks in electron-positron plasmas are unable to form persistent downstream magnetic fields. These results put interesting constraints on synchrotron models for the prompt and afterglow emission from GRBs.

Philip Chang; Anatoly Spitkovsky; Jonathan Arons

2008-01-29

193

The Long-Term Influence of Body Mass Index on the Success Rate of Mid-Urethral Sling Surgery among Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence or Stress-Predominant Mixed Incontinence: Comparisons between Retropubic and Transobturator Approaches  

PubMed Central

Objectives Mid-urethral sling (MUS) surgery for the treatment of urinary incontinence has been widespread since the introduction of tension-free vaginal tape in the mid-1990s. The majority of studies with short-term follow-up <2 years found no differences in the surgical outcomes according to body mass index (BMI). However, considering the chronic influence of obesity on pelvic floor musculature, it is cautiously speculated that higher BMI could increase stress on pelvic floor and sub-urethral tape, possibly decreasing the long-term success rate in the obese population. We aimed to compare the long-term effects of BMI on the outcomes of MUS between women with retropubic and transobturator approaches. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis on 243 consecutive women who received MUS and were followed up for ?36 months. The influence of BMI on the success rates was separately estimated and the factors for treatment failure were examined using logistic regression in either approach. Results The mean follow-up was 58.4 months, and 30.5% were normal weight, 51.0% overweight, and 18.5% obese. Patients received either the retropubic (30.5%) or transobturator (69.5%) approach. The success rates (%) under the transobturator approach differed according to the BMI groups (94.3, 88.6, and 78.6, respectively; P?=?0.037) while those under the retropubic approach were not different according to the BMI groups. However, in multivariate models, only the presence of preoperative mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) was proven to be the risk factor for treatment failure in the transobturator approach (OR 6.39, P?=?0.003). The percent of subjects with MUI was higher in obese women than in non-obese women with the transobturator approach. Conclusions BMI was not independently associated with failures in either approach. Higher success rates in women with lower BMI in the transobturator approach were attributed to the lower percent of preoperative MUI in those with lower BMI. PMID:25415490

Jeong, Seong Jin; Lee, Han Sol; Lee, Jeong Keun; Jeong, Jin Woo; Lee, Sang Cheol; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

2014-01-01

194

ARE HIGHER GLOBAL INTEREST RATES A THING OF THE PAST?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of late, interest rates globally have been at historic lows in many countries. The USA, UK, Europe have experienced rates of under 5% for approaching a decade, however there may be some small rises in the future. This article sets out to explore why this may be the case and whether it is likely to continue in the future. The

David Floyd

2006-01-01

195

Empirical analysis of quantum finance interest rates models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical forward interest rates drive the debt markets. Libor and Euribor futures data is used to calibrate and test models of interest rates based on the formulation of quantum finance. In particular, all the model parameters, including interest rate volatilities, are obtained from market data. The random noise driving the forward interest rates is taken to be a Euclidean two dimension quantum field. We analyze two models, namely the bond forward interest rates, which is a linear theory and the Libor Market Model, which is a nonlinear theory. Both the models are analyzed using Libor and Euribor data, with various approximations to match the linear and nonlinear models. The results are quite good, with the linear model having an accuracy of about 99% and the nonlinear model being slightly less accurate. We extend our analysis by directly using the Zero Coupon Yield Curve (ZCYC) data for Libor and for bonds; but due to some technical difficulties we could not derive the models parameters directly from the ZCYC data.

Baaquie, Belal E.; Yang, Cao

2009-07-01

196

Long-term solar-terrestrial observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

1988-01-01

197

12 CFR 944.5 - Restrictions on access to long-term advances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Restrictions on access to long-term advances. ...member's access to long-term advances if the...rating in a CRA evaluation of “outstanding...member's access to long-term advances was restricted...subsequent CRA evaluation is “needs to...

2010-01-01

198

Phase II Trial of Radiation Dose Escalation With Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy and High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Suppression in Unfavorable Prostate Cancer: Feasibility Report  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist-based androgen suppressive therapy (AST) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for high-risk (HRPC) or very-high-risk prostate cancer (VHRPC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and October 2006, 134 patients (median age, 70 years) with either National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria-defined HRPC (n = 47, 35.1%) or VHRPC (n = 87, 64.9%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of 14.6 ng/mL, a median clinical stage of T2c, and a median Gleason score of 7. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (54 Gy in 30 fractions) was followed by HDR brachytherapy (19 Gy in 4 b.i.d. treatments). Androgen suppressive therapy started 0-3 months before three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and continued for 2 years. Results: One implant was repositioned with a new procedure (0.7%). Five patients (3.7%) discontinued AST at a median of 13 months (range, 6-18 months) because of disease progression (n = 1), hot flashes (n = 2), fatigue (n = 1), and impotence (n = 1). After a median follow-up of 37.4 months (range, 24-90 months), the highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late urinary toxicities were Grade 0 in 47.8%, Grade 1 in 38.1%, Grade 2 in 7.5%, and Grade 3 in 6.7% of patients. Maximal late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 0 in 73.1%, Grade 1 in 16.4%, Grade 2 in 7.5%, and Grade 3 in 2.9% of patients. There were no Grade 4 or 5 events. Conclusions: Intermediate-term results show that dose escalation with HDR brachytherapy combined with long-term AST is feasible and has a toxicity profile similar to that reported by previous HDR brachytherapy studies.

Valero, Jeanette; Cambeiro, Mauricio [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Galan, Carlos [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Rioja, Logrono (Spain); Teijeira, Mercedes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Divino Valles, Burgos (Spain); Romero, Pilar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Zudaire, Javier [Department of Urology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Aristu, Jose Javier [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Martinez-Monge, Rafael, E-mail: rmartinezm@unav.e [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain)

2010-02-01

199

Virtual Models of Long-Term Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

2012-01-01

200

Long Term TOA - M Data and Information  

A Long-Term TOA and Constrained Surface Radiation Budget Project ... (TOA) and surface is a fundamental quantity governing climate variability and, for that reason, NASA has been making concerted ... utilizes knowledge gained in the last 10 years through CERES data analyses and apply the knowledge to existing data to develop long-term ...

2014-08-06

201

Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  

MedlinePLUS

Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program (OAA, Title VII, Chapter 2, Sections 711/712) The Purpose of the Program and How it ... Services Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2013 indicate that ...

202

Money, Prices, Interest Rates and the Business Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms governing the relationship of money, prices and interest rates to the business cycle are the most studied and most disputed topics in macroeconomics. In this paper, we first document key empirical aspects of this relationship. We then ask how well three benchmark rational expectations macroeconomic models--real business cycle model, a sticky price model and a liquidity effect model--account

Robert G. King; Mark W. Watson

1996-01-01

203

Interest rates in quantum finance: Caps, swaptions and bond options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prices of the main interest rate options in the financial markets, derived from the Libor (London Interbank Overnight Rate), are studied in the quantum finance model of interest rates. The option prices show new features for the Libor Market Model arising from the fact that, in the quantum finance formulation, all the different Libor payments are coupled and (imperfectly) correlated. Black’s caplet formula for quantum finance is given an exact path integral derivation. The coupon and zero coupon bond options as well as the Libor European and Asian swaptions are derived in the framework of quantum finance. The approximate Libor option prices are derived using the volatility expansion. The BGM-Jamshidian (Gatarek et al. (1996) [1], Jamshidian (1997) [2]) result for the Libor swaption prices is obtained as the limiting case when all the Libors are exactly correlated. A path integral derivation is given of the approximate BGM-Jamshidian approximate price.

Baaquie, Belal E.

2010-01-01

204

F-BF Compounding with a 5% Interest Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A man invests \\$1000 in an account with a 5% annual interest rate. He knows that money in an account where interest is compounded semi-annually will ea...

205

Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

2014-05-01

206

Long-term care in North Carolina.  

PubMed

Much of long-term care is not considered health care, as it is custodial, social, and supportive. But excellent long-term care is also preventive, timely, and accessible, and it provides space for long-term care recipients to find joy and meaning in their lives. This issue of the NCMJ provides abroad overview of long-term care, practical information about programs in our state, and tips for how to make use of these programs. Commentaries and sidebars in this issue also highlight new ideas, innovation, and transformation. This issue brief sets the stage by describing major events that have shaped the current framework of long-term care services and supports. It also discusses current trends that are influencing long-term care, including the emphasis on quality improvement methods, culture change, health care reform, the influence of geriatrics in primary care, and the desire for home-based care. Although we are not yet where we want to be in North Carolina, we are moving toward a long-term care system that will serve all North Carolinians well. PMID:25237870

White, Heidi K

2014-01-01

207

Lessons from Long-term Studies  

E-print Network

Lessons from Long-term Studies Gordon Reeves U.S. Forest Service PNW Research Station Corvallis #12 for a watershed and reaches to produce fish depends on inherent features #12;#12;Elk River Chinook Salmon Numbers

208

State Medicaid Programs (Long-Term Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... your family by thinking ahead and making your decisions known. Costs & How to Pay Long-term care is expensive, but there are several ways ... is a joint federal and state government program that helps people with low income and ...

209

Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

210

External-Beam Radiation Therapy and High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy in High and Very High Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Data on Clinical Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 200 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (32.5%) or very high-risk prostate cancer (67.5%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen of 15.2 ng/mL, a clinical stage of T2c, and a Gleason score of 7. Treatment consisted of 54 Gy of external irradiation (three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [3DCRT]) followed by 19 Gy of HDR brachytherapy in four twice-daily treatments. ADT started 0-3 months before 3DCRT and continued for 2 years. Results: One hundred and ninety patients (95%) received 2 years of ADT. After a median follow-up of 3.7 years (range, 2-9), late Grade {>=}2 urinary toxicity was observed in 18% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 was observed in 5%. Prior transurethral resection of the prostate (p = 0.013) and bladder D{sub 50} {>=}1.19 Gy (p = 0.014) were associated with increased Grade {>=}2 urinary complications; age {>=}70 (p = 0.05) was associated with Grade {>=}3 urinary complications. Late Grade {>=}2 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 9% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 in 1.5%. CTV size {>=}35.8 cc (p = 0.007) and D{sub 100} {>=}3.05 Gy (p = 0.01) were significant for increased Grade {>=}2 complications. The 5-year and 9-year biochemical relapse-free survival (nadir + 2) rates were 85.1% and 75.7%, respectively. Patients with Gleason score of 7-10 had a decreased biochemical relapse-free survival (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Intermediate-term results at the 5-year time point indicate a favorable outcome without an increase in the rate of late complications.

Martinez-Monge, Rafael, E-mail: rmartinezm@unav.es [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Cambeiro, Mauricio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio [Department of Medical Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Gaztanaga, Miren; Arbea, Leire [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Pascual, Ignacio [Department of Urology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Aristu, Javier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain)

2012-03-01

211

Long-term solar activity predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for long term solar activity predictions is addressed. The spatial organization of solar activity is described including applications for predictions, and ancient evidence for solar variability. Methods of predicting sunspot numbers are discussed. The inherent accuracy of the methods varies considerably, but a typical error bar 20%. The accuracy of sunspot cycle predictions is considered along with long term predictions of great solar events.

Mcintosh, P. S.; Brown, G. M.; Buhmann, R.; Clark, T.; Fougere, P. F.; Hunter, H.; Lincoln, J. V.; Sargent, H. H., III; Timothy, J. G.; Lin, Y. Z.

1979-01-01

212

Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516

2013-01-01

213

Equivalence of interest rate models and lattice gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the class of short rate interest rate models for which the short rate is proportional to the exponential of a Gaussian Markov process x(t) in the terminal measure r(t)=a(t)exp[x(t)]. These models include the Black-Derman-Toy and Black-Karasinski models in the terminal measure. We show that such interest rate models are equivalent to lattice gases with attractive two-body interaction, V(t1,t2)=-Cov[x(t1),x(t2)]. We consider in some detail the Black-Karasinski model with x(t) as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and show that it is similar to a lattice gas model considered by Kac and Helfand, with attractive long-range two-body interactions, V(x,y)=-?(e-?|x-y|-e-?(x+y)). An explicit solution for the model is given as a sum over the states of the lattice gas, which is used to show that the model has a phase transition similar to that found previously in the Black-Derman-Toy model in the terminal measure.

Pirjol, Dan

2012-04-01

214

Long-term assessment of cryopreserved vein bypass grafting success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: When autogenous vein is unavailable, cryopreserved veins have been used in patients as a means of attempted limb salvage. We evaluated the long-term patency and limb salvage rates for patients undergoing bypass grafting with cryopreserved veins. Methods: Medical records were reviewed for patients undergoing cryovein bypass grafting at two hospitals from 1992 to 1997. Follow-up data were obtained from

Linda Harris; Monica O'Brien-Irr; John J. Ricotta

2001-01-01

215

Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

MacFall, Janet

2012-01-01

216

First Long-Term slip-Rate Along the San Andreas Fault Based on 10Be-26Al Surface Exposure Dating : The Biskra Palms Site, 23 mm/yr for the last 30,000 years.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slip-rate along the San Andreas fault is known precisely at only two locations : at Wallace Creek, 34 +/- 3 mm/yr for the past 13,500 yrs and at Cajon Creek, 24.5+/- 3 mm/yr for the past 14,500 yrs. When compared to the long-term and far-field plate motion, these rates provide important constraint on how and where strain is accommodated across the plate boundary. Here we present a new determination of the slip-rate along the San Andreas Fault at Biskra Palms, based on 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating. The studied area is located southeast of the San Gorgonio restraining bend, a complex section of the fault which has not produced a large earthquake in historical time. At Biskra Palms, the San Andreas Fault offsets an alluvial fan (T2) about 700 m. Keller et al. (1982) recognized the importance of this site and estimated the age of the offset fan surfaces based on degree of soil development between 20 and 70 kyrs, providing a very loosely constraint slip-rate between 10 and 35 mm/yr. We have analyzed 21 quartz rich cobbles from the surface of the fan, upstream, downstream and within the fault zone. 10Be and 26Al measurements yield consistent results implying simple exposure at the surface. 7 samples collected on the T2 fan surface downstream yield an average exposure age of 30.7 +/- 2.1 kyrs. The tight cluster of these ages indicate no or minor pre-exposition during transport in the small catchment upstream. 7 samples from T2 upstream from the fault yield an average exposure age of 29.5 +/- 2.8 kyrs. One additional sample of this surface (38.4+/-3.6 kyrs) is older than the others and may have been pre-exposed before deposition on the fan. 2 samples from a T2 remnant within the fault zone yield an average age of 29.6 +/- 2.6 kyrs. 4 additional samples were collected from two smaller alluvial surfaces (T3 and T4) remnant found only upstream from the fault zone and yield average ages of 33.3 and 27.3 kyrs that are similar to the age of T2. This suggest that these surfaces were emplaced rapidly in a few thousands years or so ~30,000 years ago. Taking the 700 m offset and dividing it by the average age of T2 (30.1 +/-2.4 kyrs) yields a slip-rate of 23.3+/-3.5 mm/yrs. The different fault strands of the San Gorgonio step-over converge southeastward toward the Biskra Palms site, so that this rate applies to the the entire San Andreas fault zone. The 23 mm/yr rate is undistinguishable from the rate derived at Cajon Creek, 120 km to the northwest, and places an important new constraint on the behavior of the San Andreas Fault across the San Gorgonio Pass restraining bend. Keller et al. (1982), Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 93, 46-56.

van der Woerd, J.; Klinger, Y.; Sieh, K.; Tapponnier, P.; Ryerson, F.

2001-12-01

217

First Long-term Slip-rate Along The San Andreas Fault Based On 10be-26al Surface Exposure Dating : The Biskra Palms Site, 23 Mm/yr For The Last 30000 Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slip-rate along the San Andreas fault is known precisely at only two locations : at Wallace Creek, 34 +- 3 mm/yr for the past 13,500 yrs and at Cajon Creek, 24.5 +- 3 mm/yr for the past 14,500 yrs. When compared to the long-term and far-field plate motion, these rates provide important constraint on how and where strain is accommo- dated across the plate boundary. Here we present a new determination of the slip-rate along the San Andreas Fault at Biskra Palms, based on 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating. The studied area is located southeast of the San Gorgonio restraining bend, a complex section of the fault which has not produced a large earthquake in historical time. At Biskra Palms, the San Andreas Fault offsets an alluvial fan (T2) about 700 m. Keller et al. (1982) recognized the importance of this site and estimated the age of the offset fan surfaces based on degree of soil development between 20 and 70 kyrs, providing a very loosely constraint slip-rate between 10 and 35 mm/yr. We have an- alyzed 21 quartz rich cobbles from the surface of the fan, upstream, downstream and within the fault zone. 10Be and 26Al measurements yield consistent results implying simple exposure at the surface. 7 samples collected on the T2 fan surface downstream yield an average exposure age of 30.7 +- 2.1 kyrs. The tight cluster of these ages in- dicate no or minor pre-exposition during transport in the small catchment upstream. 7 samples from T2 upstream from the fault yield an average exposure age of 29.5 +- 2.8 kyrs. One additional sample of this surface (38.4s3.6 kyrs) is older than the others ´ and may have been pre-exposed before deposition on the fan. 2 samples from a T2 remnant within the fault zone yield an average age of 29.6 +- 2.6 kyrs. 4 additional samples were collected from two smaller alluvial surfaces (T3 and T4) remnant found only upstream from the fault zone and yield average ages of 33.3 and 27.3 kyrs that are similar to the age of T2. This suggest that these surfaces were emplaced rapidly in a few thousands years or so ~30,000 years ago. Taking the 700 m offset and dividing it by the average age of T2 (30.1 +- 2.4 kyrs) yields a slip-rate of 23.3 +- 3.5 mm/yrs. The different fault strands of the San Gorgonio step-over converge southeastward to- ward the Biskra Palms site, so that this rate applies to the the entire San Andreas fault zone. The 23 mm/yr rate is undistinguishable from the rate derived at Cajon Creek, 1 120 km to the northwest, and places an important new constraint on the behavior of the San Andreas Fault across the San Gorgonio Pass restraining bend. Keller et al. (1982), Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 93, 46-56. 2

Klinger, Y.; van der Woerd, J.; Sieh, K.; Tapponnier, P.; Ryerson, F. J.

218

[Long term adherence to HAART in Senegal].  

PubMed

Adherence is one of the main predictors of antiretroviral treatment success. A governmental initiative was launched in 1998 for HIV-infected patients in Senegal to provide access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Adherence measurements, defined as pills taken/pills prescribed, were assessed between November 1999 and June 2010 using a pill count along with a questionnaire for 330 patients. Predictors of adherence and identification of adherence trajectories were explored through latent class mixed model. We also performed a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard model. Three adherence behaviours were revealed as well as a better adherence for women. A third of patients had a high adherence trajectory over time and a third had an intermediate one. Male gender and low adherence behaviour over time were independently associated with a higher mortality rate. This study shows that an overall good adherence can be obtained in the long term in Senegal, suggests a better adherence for women and points out a large subsample of patients with intermediate level of adherence behaviour who are at risk for developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:24615434

Bastard, M; Fall, M Basty Koita

2014-10-01

219

Private Long-Term Care Insurance: Value to Claimants and Implications for Long-Term Care Financing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain a profile of individuals with private long-term care (LTC) insurance as they begin using paid LTC services and track their patterns of service use, satisfaction with services and insurance, claims denial rates, and transitions over a 28-month period. Design and Methods: Ten LTC insurance companies…

Doty, Pamela; Cohen, Marc A.; Miller, Jessica; Shi, Xiaomei

2010-01-01

220

E1-forbidden transition rates in ions of astrophysical interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transition rates in atomic systems may appear to be of little importance in steady-state plasmas that are observed at great distances from Earth. However, some of the transition rates compete with collision rates, and in these cases certain line intensity ratios are affected and can serve as remote indicators of density. In the low-density environments of stellar coronae and planetary nebulae, the transition rates of interest are mostly spin-forbidden E1 decays, higher-multipole order transitions (M1, E2, M2, M3), and hyperfine-induced transitions. On Earth, measurements of the long upper level lifetimes of these atomic systems require the use of ion traps. A fair number of test cases with lifetimes in the range from nanoseconds to many seconds have been treated successfully, and the evolution of calculations along with the experimental progress is notable. A new generation of cold ion traps is expected to extend the atomic lifetime measurements on multiply charged ions into the range of many minutes.

Träbert, E.

2014-11-01

221

Critical issues for long-term climate monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even after extensive re-working of past data, in many instances we are incapable of resolving important aspects concerning climate change and variability. Virtually every monitoring system and data set requires better data quality, continuity, and homogeneity if we expect to conclusively answer questions of interest to both scientists and policy-makers. This is a result of the fact that long-term meteorological

Thomas R. Karl; Vernon E. Derr; David R. Easterling; Chris K. Folland; David J. Hofmann; Sydney Levitus; Neville Nicholls; David E. Parker; Gregory W. Withee

1995-01-01

222

The US Long Term Ecological Research Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience describes Long Term Ecological Research program in the US. The 24 projects of the National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research Network, whose sites range from the poles to the Tropics, from rain forests to tundras and deserts, and from offshore marine to estuarine and freshwater habitats, address fundamental and applied ecological issues that can be understood only through a long-term approach. Each project addresses different ecological questions; even the scale of research differs across sites. Projects in the network are linked by the requirement for some research at each site on five core areas, including primary production, decomposition, and trophic dynamics, and by cross-site comparisons, which are aided by the universally available databases. Many species and environmental variables are studied, and a wide range of synthetic results have been generated.

JOHN E. HOBBIE, STEPHEN R. CARPENTER, NANCY B. GRIMM, JAMES R. GOSZ, and TIMOTHY R. SEASTEDT (;)

2003-01-01

223

Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

NONE

1996-01-01

224

12 CFR 652.15 - Interest rate risk management and requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Interest rate risk management and requirements. 652.15...Management § 652.15 Interest rate risk management and requirements. (a...and supervision) to the interest rate risk management program and must be...

2011-01-01

225

Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.  

PubMed

Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones. PMID:14722779

Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

2004-05-01

226

Estimation of Long-Term Climate Information at Locations with Short-Term Data Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate mapping of climate has widespread interest and benefit and depends on the availability of long-term data. Accuracy increases with the amount of data, but, often, insufficient data exist for the desired accuracy. To produce accurate maps within a short time frame, a scheme for estimating long-term climate statistics at locations with only short records is required. A general

John Sansom; Andrew Tait

2004-01-01

227

Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine,

J. Gosz

2001-01-01

228

Evaluating Long-Term Disability Insurance Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report analyzes the factors involved in reviewing benefits and services of employer-sponsored group long-term disability plans for higher education institutions. Opening sections describe the evolution of disability insurance and its shape today. Further sections looks at the complex nature of "value" within a plan, relationship between plan…

Powell, Jan

1992-01-01

229

Long-Term Impacts of Educational Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school accountability movement has led to a marked increase in the use of standardized test scores to measure school and teacher productivity, yet little is known about the correlation between test score gains and improvements in long-term outcomes. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I study the impact of a school choice policy in…

Deming, David James

2010-01-01

230

Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

Lubinski, Rosemary

2006-01-01

231

Process synchronization without long-term interlock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented for replacing long-term interlocking of shared data by the possible repetition of unprivileged code in case a version number (associated with the shared data) has been changed by another process. Four principles of operating system architecture (which have desirable effects on the intrinsic reliability of a system) are presented; implementation of a system adhering to these

William B. Easton

1972-01-01

232

Process synchronization without long-term interlock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented for replacing long-term interlocking of shared data by the possible repetition of unprivileged code in case a version number (associated with the shared data) has been changed by another process. Four principles of operating system architecture (which have desirable effects on the intrinsic reliability of a system) are presented; implementation of a system adhering to these

William B. Easton

1971-01-01

233

Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected

Dominique Robert; Laurent Argaud

2007-01-01

234

Cigarette smoking in long-term schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. – Cigarette smoking is a great health problem and prevalent among subjects with schizophrenia. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and associations of cigarette smoking in patients with long-term schizophrenia.Methods. – Seven hundred and sixty schizophrenia patients were interviewed and their cigarette smoking was recorded.Results. – Smoking was more prevalent men than in women patients. In logistic regression

R. K. R. Salokangas; T. Honkonen; E. Stengård; A.-M. Koivisto; J. Hietala

2006-01-01

235

NATIONAL LONG TERM CARE SURVEY (NLTCS)  

EPA Science Inventory

National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...

236

Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of

Sarkis Shahin; Celso Duran

2002-01-01

237

Long-Term Stability of Social Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

2008-01-01

238

Long-term complications of chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with cancer are living longer and, therefore, are not only at risk for recurrence of the disease but also for long-term side effects of treatment. For patients treated with chemotherapy, secondary malignancies are a special concern, with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia being the most common. Although typically associated with alkylating agents, this complication is now being seen with use of

Mark A. Morgan; Stephen C. Rubin

1998-01-01

239

Long-term risks of bisphosphonate therapy.  

PubMed

The objective this study was to summarize long-term risks associated with bisphosphonate therapy. Search of relevant medical publications for data from clinical trials, trial extensions, observational studies and post-marketing reports. Trial extensions and modifications did not reveal significant long-term safety issues. Observational data suggest at least as many benefits as risks. Post-marketing reports of musculoskeletal pain, osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures have been widely circulated in the lay press. Most focus on long-terms risks has been on osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures which occur in patients who have not received bisphosphonate therapy but may be more frequent (though still uncommon) in patients who have been on treatment for 5 years or longer. Lower-risk patients may be able to stop treatment after 3-5 years for a "drug holiday," which mitigates these long-term risks; for higher risk patients, therapy through 6-10 years appears to be advisable and offers more benefits than risks. PMID:25166043

Watts, Nelson B

2014-07-01

240

Long-Term Sequelae of Stroke  

PubMed Central

Scant attention has been paid to the long-term consequences and complications resulting from a stroke. Many stroke survivors go on to develop a variety of medical, musculoskeletal, and psychosocial complications, years after the acute stroke. The family physician is regularly called upon to deal with these problems, but is often hampered by a lack of resources. PMID:21221264

Teasell, Robert W.

1992-01-01

241

Long Term Corrosion/Degradation Test Six Year Results  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains neutron-activated metals from non-fuel, nuclear reactor core components. The Long-Term Corrosion/Degradation (LTCD) Test is designed to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements to the environment. The test is using two proven, industry-standard methods—direct corrosion testing using metal coupons, and monitored corrosion testing using electrical/resistance probes—to determine corrosion rates for various metal alloys generally representing the metals of interest buried at the SDA, including Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, Beryllium S200F, Aluminum 6061, Zircaloy-4, low-carbon steel, and Ferralium 255. In the direct testing, metal coupons are retrieved for corrosion evaluation after having been buried in SDA backfill soil and exposed to natural SDA environmental conditions for times ranging from one year to as many as 32 years, depending on research needs and funding availability. In the monitored testing, electrical/resistance probes buried in SDA backfill soil will provide corrosion data for the duration of the test or until the probes fail. This report provides an update describing the current status of the test and documents results to date. Data from the one-year and three-year results are also included, for comparison and evaluation of trends. In the six-year results, most metals being tested showed extremely low measurable rates of general corrosion. For Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, and Ferralium 255, corrosion rates fell in the range of “no reportable” to 0.0002 mils per year (MPY). Corrosion rates for Zircaloy-4 ranged from no measurable corrosion to 0.0001 MPY. These rates are two orders of magnitude lower than those specified in the performance assessment for the SDA. The corrosion on the carbon steel, beryllium, and aluminum were more evident with a clear difference in corrosion performance between the 4-ft and 10-ft levels. Notable surface corrosion products were evident as well as numerous pit initiation sites. Since the corrosion of the beryllium and aluminum is characterized by pitting, the geometrical character of the corrosion becomes more significant than the general corrosion rate. Both pitting factor and weight loss data should be used together. For six-year exposure, the maximum carbon steel corrosion rate was 0.3643 MPY while the maximum beryllium corrosion rate was 0.3282 MPY and the maximum aluminum corrosion rate was 0.0030 MPY.

M. K. Adler Flitton; C. W. Bishop; M. E. Delwiche; T. S. Yoder

2004-09-01

242

Commodity Prices, Interest Rate Spreads and the Exchange Rate: Useful Monetary Policy Indicators or Redundant Information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ actual data from both private and public sector forecasters to conduct a simple, yet stringent test of the potential usefulness of indicator variables for the conduct of monetary policy. That is, we examine whether commodity prices, interest rate spreads and exchange rates can explain incipient errors in the economic forecasts developed by the Fed's staff and the ASA-NBER

Susanne M. Polley; Raymond E. Lombra

1999-01-01

243

Oil Prices and Interest Rates: Do They Determine the Exchange Rate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the relationship between the British pound sterling, interest rates, and oil prices has been overemphasized by economic commentators because they ignored a basic economic theory about the determination of the exchange rate. Provides an example and suggestions for follow up instruction. (Author/JDH)

Law, I. A.; Old, J. L.

1986-01-01

244

Long-term biological investigations in space.  

PubMed

Missions in space within the next two decades will be of longer duration than those carried out up to the present time, and the effects of such long-term flights on biological organisms are unknown. Results of biological experiments that have been performed to date cannot be extrapolated to results in future flights because of the unknown influence of adaptation over a long period of time. Prior experiments with Axolotl, fishes, and vertebrates by our research team (in part with sounding rockets) showed that these specimens did not appear to be suitable for long-term missions on which minimization of expense, technique, and energy is required. Subsequent investigations have shown the suitability of the leech (Hirudo medicinalis), which consumes blood of mammals up to ten times its own weight (1 g) and can live more than 2 years without further food supply. Emphasis in the experiments with Hirudo medicinalis is placed on metabolic rhythm and motility. Resorption and diffusion in tissue, development, and growth under long-term effects of cosmic proton radiation and zero-gravity are other focal points. The constancy of cellular life in the mature animals is a point in favor of these specimens. We have also taken into account the synergistic effects of the space environment on the problems just mentioned. The life-support system constructed for the leech has been tested successfully in four sounding rocket flights and, on that basis, has been prepared for a long-term mission. Long-term investigations out of the terrestrial biosphere will provide us with information concerning the degree of adaptation of certain physiological and biochemical functions and as to what extent biological readjustment or repair processes can occur under the specific stress conditions of space flight. PMID:11841093

Lotz, R G; Fuchs, H; Bertsche, U

1975-01-01

245

Long term investigations of silver cathodes for alkaline fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkaline fuel cells (AFC) are an interesting alternative to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). In AFC no expensive platinum metal is necessary; silver can be used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) (cathode catalyst). For technical use of AFC the long term behavior of AFC components is important, especially that of the electrodes. The investigated cathodes for AFC consist of a mixture of silver catalyst and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) as organic binder rolled onto a metal web. The electrodes were electrochemically investigated through measuring V- i curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical characterization and the long term tests were performed in half-cells at 70 °C using pure oxygen (1 bar) under galvanostatic conditions. The cathodes were electrochemically investigated in half-cells using reference electrodes (Hg/HgO) by periodically recording V- i curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the cathodes were physically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

Wagner, N.; Schulze, M.; Gülzow, E.

246

Prokaryotic community structure and respiration during long-term incubations  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of incubation assays for studies in microbial ecology that frequently require long confinement times, few reports are available in which changes in the assemblage structure of aquatic prokaryotes were monitored during long-term incubations. We measured rates of dissolved organic carbon degradation and microbial respiration by consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO) in four experiments with Lake Kinneret near-surface water and, concomitantly, we analyzed the variability in prokaryotic community structure during long-term dark bottle incubations. During the first 24 h, there were only minor changes in bacterial community composition. Thereafter there were marked changes in the prokaryotic community structure during the incubations. In contrast, oxygen consumption rates (a proxy for both respiration and dissolved organic carbon degradation rates) remained stable for up to 10–23 days. This study is one of the first to examine closely the phylo-genetic changes that occur in the microbial community of untreated freshwater during long-term (days) incubations in dark, sealed containers. Novel information on the diversity of the main bacterial phylotypes that may be involved in dissolved organic matter degradation in lake Kinneret is also provided. Our results suggest that, under certain ecological settings, constant community metabolic rates can be maintained as a result of shifts in community composition. PMID:22950026

Baltar, Federico; Lindh, Markus V; Parparov, Arkadi; Berman, Tom; Pinhassi, Jarone

2012-01-01

247

Long-term potentiation in the hippocampus.  

PubMed

Long-term potentiation of field and single neuronal responses recorded in various hippocampal fields is described on the basis of author's and literary data. Most of intrahippocampal and extrinsic connections in both in vivo and in vitro hippocampal preparations show this phenomenon after one or several conditioning trains of comparatively short duration (20 s or less) at various frequencies (from 10 to 400 Hz). Properties of hippocampal potentiation are described. The properties include long term persistence (hours and days) of the potentiated response, its low frequency depression, self-restoration after the depression, specificity of the potentiation for the tetanized pathway, necessity of activation of a sufficient number of neuronal elements ('cooperativity') to produce the potentiation, possible involvement of 'reinforcing' brain structures during conditioning tetanization. These properties are distinct from those of 'usual' short-term post-tetanic potentiation and lead to the suggestion that the neuronal mechanisms underlying long-term post-tetanic are similar to those underlying memory and behavioral-conditioned reflex. Neurophysiological mechanisms of long-term potentiation are discussed. The main mechanism consists in an increase in efficacy of excitatory synapses as shown by various methods including intracellular recording and quantal analysis. The latter favours presynaptic localization of changes of synaptic efficacy showing increase in the number of transmitter quanta released per presynaptic impulse. However, changes in the number of subsynaptic receptors or localized changes in dendritic postsynaptic membrane are not excluded. Biochemical studies indicate the increase in transmitter release and calcium-dependent phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase after tetanization. Instances of persistent response facilitations at other levels of the vertebrate central nervous system (especially at neocortical level) are considered and compared with hippocampal long-term potentiation. It is suggested that modifiable excitatory synapses necessary for learning have been identified in studies of long-term potentiation. These synapses are presumably modified as a result of close sequential activation of the following three structures: excitatory presynaptic fibers, the postsynaptic neuron and a 'reinforcing' brain system. PMID:6141538

Voronin, L L

1983-12-01

248

Successful Long-Term Cryopreservation of Highly Purified Canine Islets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the ability of cryopreservation to store large quantities of canine islets for transplantation studies. Islets were isolated by automated screen methods and purified by Euro-Ficoll gradients. After overnight 37 °C incubation, islets were equilibrated with 2 M dimethylsulfoxide, cryopre-served at a cooling rate of 0.25°C\\/min and subjected to long-term storage in liquid nitrogen. Six months later, some

H. T. Chern; D. W. Scharp

1995-01-01

249

Long-term recovery from alcoholism.  

PubMed

AA has demonstrated success in steadily increasing membership, with no loss of the proportion of those with over 5 years of sobriety. It has been recognized as effective long-term treatment for alcoholism by psychiatrists and psychoanalysts experienced in treatment of the addictions. The triennial membership surveys of AA have shown stability in 1. A 50% dropout rate within the first 3 months of starting AA. Only 41% of those in the first year will remain in the Fellowship for another year. 2. Roughly equal numbers of those with less than 1 year, 1 to 5 years, and over 5 years of sobriety, with an average length of sobriety of about 4 years. 3. Members having a sponsor (85%) and belonging to a home group (88%). 4. Attendance by members of about three meetings a week, regardless of duration of sobriety. 5. Members telling their doctor that they are in AA, but not helping him or her learn about the program. The survey data also indicate that AA is changing in the following ways: 1. The number of women members has increased to more than one third the total membership. 2. An increasing number of young people, under 30 years of age, to more than one fifth the total. 3. A decreasing number of older people, over 50 years of age, to just under one fourth the total. 4. An increasing number of members who were also addicted to other drugs (46%). Psychiatrists can use these data and knowledge of AA to 1. Increase the effectiveness of referrals of alcoholic patients to AA regardless of age, sex, race, or other characteristics. All are welcome and can benefit. 2. Deal with resistance, which occurs when patients begin to make contact with AA. 3. Help alcoholic patients through the difficult first year of sobriety. 4. Encourage their alcoholic patients to use AA as a program for personal growth and development. 5. Helping dually addicted patients use AA's singleness of purpose to facilitate their recovery. 6. Cooperate with alcohol and drug treatment programs in helping patients transfer to AA and work on an effective program of recovery. 7. Work with members of the local AA Treatment Facilities and Cooperation with the Professional Community Committees in helping alcoholic patients enter and use AA. 8. Provide psychiatric treatment for AA members in ways that support and sustain their program of recovery, especially by avoiding dependence-producing medications. PMID:8456043

Chappel, J N

1993-03-01

250

Breakthroughs in long term care design.  

PubMed

In summary, here is what design is trying to accomplish in long term care facilities: Functional access; Privacy as entitlement; Sensory optimization to improve vision and hearing; Reduced walking and wheeling distances that still allow people to be mobile; Effective or functional placement of space and equipment; The option of smaller scale, so neither residents nor staff feel like they are hanging out with a unit full of, perhaps 68, people all the time; Flexibility and adaptability PMID:10130697

Hiatt, L

1991-01-01

251

Long-Term Morbidity of PCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome, economic burden, healthcare cost, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, metabolic\\u000a syndrome, endometrial cancer The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results in a number of immediate and long-term morbidities\\u000a that are associated with a significant impact on quality of life and on economic costs. Immediate morbidities include menstrual\\u000a dysfunction and abnormal uterine bleeding, subfertility and infertility, and androgen excess-related

Ricardo Azziz

252

Emotional behavior in long-term marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction.

Laura L. Carstensen; John M. Gottman; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

253

Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated stimulation of hippocampal neurons can induce an immediate and prolonged increase in synaptic strength that is called long-term potentiation (LTP)-the primary cellular model of memory in the mammalian brain1. An early phase of LTP (lasting less than three hours) can be dissociated from late-phase LTP by using inhibitors of transcription and translation2-8. Because protein synthesis occurs mainly in the

Uwe Frey; Richard G. M. Morris

1997-01-01

254

Long term results of lumbar sequestrectomy versus aggressive microdiscectomy.  

PubMed

It remains unknown whether aggressive microdiscectomy (AD) provides a better outcome than simple sequestrectomy (S) with little disc disruption for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy. We compared the long term results for patients with lumbar disc herniation who underwent either AD or S. The patients were split into two groups: 85 patients who underwent AD in Group A and 40 patients who underwent S in Group B. The patients were chosen from a cohort operated on by the same surgeon using either of the two techniques between 2003 and 2008. The demographic characteristics were similar. The difference in complication rates between the two groups was not statistically significant. During the first 10 days post-operatively, the Visual Analog Scale score for back pain was 4.1 in Group A and 2.1 in Group B, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.005). The Oswestry Disability Index score was 11% in Group A and 19% in Group B at the last examination. The reherniation rate was 1.5% in Group A and 4.1% in Group B (p<0.005). We argue that reherniation rates are much lower over the long term when AD is used with microdiscectomy. AD increases back pain for a short time but does not change the long term quality of life. To our knowledge this is the first study with a very long term follow-up showing that reherniation is three times less likely after AD than S. PMID:24890447

Kotil, Kadir; Köksal, Neslihan Sutpideler; Kayaci, Selim

2014-10-01

255

Genomic Fossils Calibrate the Long-Term Evolution of Hepadnaviruses  

PubMed Central

Because most extant viruses mutate rapidly and lack a true fossil record, their deep evolution and long-term substitution rates remain poorly understood. In addition to retroviruses, which rely on chromosomal integration for their replication, many other viruses replicate in the nucleus of their host's cells and are therefore prone to endogenization, a process that involves integration of viral DNA into the host's germline genome followed by long-term vertical inheritance. Such endogenous viruses are highly valuable as they provide a molecular fossil record of past viral invasions, which may be used to decipher the origins and long-term evolutionary characteristics of modern pathogenic viruses. Hepadnaviruses (Hepadnaviridae) are a family of small, partially double-stranded DNA viruses that include hepatitis B viruses. Here we report the discovery of endogenous hepadnaviruses in the genome of the zebra finch. We used a combination of cross-species analysis of orthologous insertions, molecular dating, and phylogenetic analyses to demonstrate that hepadnaviruses infiltrated repeatedly the germline genome of passerine birds. We provide evidence that some of the avian hepadnavirus integration events are at least 19 My old, which reveals a much deeper ancestry of Hepadnaviridae than could be inferred based on the coalescence times of modern hepadnaviruses. Furthermore, the remarkable sequence similarity between endogenous and extant avian hepadnaviruses (up to 75% identity) suggests that long-term substitution rates for these viruses are on the order of 10?8 substitutions per site per year, which is a 1,000-fold slower than short-term rates estimated based on the sequences of circulating hepadnaviruses. Together, these results imply a drastic shift in our understanding of the time scale of hepadnavirus evolution, and suggest that the rapid evolutionary dynamics characterizing modern avian hepadnaviruses do not reflect their mode of evolution on a deep time scale. PMID:20927357

Gilbert, Clément; Feschotte, Cédric

2010-01-01

256

Long-term mexiletine for ventricular arrhythmia.  

PubMed

Use of mexiletine was evaluated in 313 patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias refractory to conventional antiarrhythmic drugs. Therapy with mexiletine was continued long term in 107 patients who responded to the drug and were free of side effects during a short-term evaluation in hospital. During an average follow-up of 22.8 months (0.1 to 70 months), 19 patients died (17.8%). Eleven patients had sudden death (3.6% per year), while six patients died of progressive congestive heart failure and two of noncardiac causes. Nonfatal ventricular arrhythmia recurred in 14 patients (4.9% per year). Overall, 25 patients had recurrent arrhythmia (incidence of 5.5% per year). Side effects occurred in 13 patients after an average of 5.1 months and were primarily gastrointestinal and neurologic. Sixty-one patients (57%) have continued on mexiletine therapy for an average of 32.2 months (1 to 70 months). Outcome during long-term therapy was not related to drug dose, blood level, or presenting arrhythmia. We conclude that if therapy with mexiletine is carefully evaluated and individualized, the drug is effective and well tolerated during long-term use. PMID:6720534

Stein, J; Podrid, P J; Lampert, S; Hirsowitz, G; Lown, B

1984-05-01

257

Optimized Sedation Improves Colonoscopy Quality Long-Term  

PubMed Central

Background. Quality monitoring and improvement is prerequisite for efficient colonoscopy. Aim. To assess the effects of increased sedation administration on colonoscopy performance. Materials and Methods. During Era 1 we prospectively measured four colonoscopy quality indicators: sedation administration, colonoscopy completion rate, adenoma detection rate, and early complications rate in three cohorts: cohort A: intention for total colonoscopy cases; cohort B: cohort A excluding bowel obstruction cases; cohort C: CRC screening-surveillance cases within cohort B. We identified deficiencies and implemented our plan to optimize sedation. We prospectively evaluated its effects in both short- (Era 2) and long-term period (Era 3). Results. We identified that sedation administration and colonoscopy completion rates were below recommended standards. After sedation optimization its use rate increased significantly (38.1% to 55.8% to 69.5%) and colonoscopy completion rate increased from 88.3% to 90.6% to 96.4% in cohort B and from 93.2% to 95.3% to 98.3% in cohort C, in Eras 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Adenoma detection rate increased in cohort C (25.9% to 30.6% to 35%) and early complications rate decreased from 3.4% to 1.9% to 0.3%. Most endoscopists increased significantly their completion rate and this was preserved long-term. Conclusion. Increased sedation administration results in long-lasting improvement of colonoscopy quality indicators. PMID:25648556

Sioulas, Athanasios D.; Kalli, Theodora; Misailidis, Nikolaos; Polymeros, Dimitrios; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S.; Karamanolis, George; Ladas, Spiros D.

2015-01-01

258

Long Term Operation and Performance of Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators  

E-print Network

Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators (CSO) developed at UWA have now been in operation around the world continuously for many years. Such oscillators, due to their excellent spectral purity are essential for interrogating atomic frequency standards at the limit of quantum projection noise; otherwise aliasing effects will dominate the frequency stability due to the periodic sampling between successive interrogations of the atomic transition. For this reason, UWA oscillators are now operational at NMI (Sydney), LNE-SYRTE (Paris), the French Space Agency (CNES, Toulouse) and at UWA (Perth). Other applications, which have attracted attention in recent years, include tests on fundamental principles of physics, such as tests of Lorentz invariance. This paper reports on the long-term operation and performance of such oscillators. We compare the long-term drift of some different CSOs. The drift rates turn out to be linear over many years and in the same direction. However, the magnitude seems to vary by more than one order...

Tobar, M E; Clairon, A; Fisk, P T H; Guillemot, P; Hartnett, J G; Ivanov, E N; Lawn, M A; Locke, C R; Luiten, A N; Santarelli, G; Stanwix, P L; Warrington, R B; Wolf, P; Wouters, M J

2006-01-01

259

Pyrophoricity of uranium in long-term storage environments  

SciTech Connect

A corrosion cycle for uranium is postulated which can be used to assess whether a given storage situation might produce fire hazards and/or continual uranium corrosion. A significant reaction rate of uranium and moisture occurs at room temperature which produces uranium oxide and hydrogen. If the hydrogen cannot escape, it will react slowly with uranium to form uranium hydride. The hydride is pyrophoric at room temperature when exposed to air. Either the hydrogen or the hydride can produce a dangerous situation as demonstrated by two different incidents described here. Long-term corrosion will occur even if the normal precautions are taken as is demonstrated by the long-term storage of stainless steel clad uranium fuel plates. The major initiator of these problems is attributed to any moisture condensed on the metal or any brought in by the cover gas. The postulated corrosion cycle is used to suggest ways to circumvent these problems.

Solbrig, C W; Krsul, J R; Olsen, D N

1994-01-01

260

Long-term cholinesterase inhibitor therapy for Alzheimer's disease: Implications for long-term care  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the population ages and Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes more prevalent, nursing facilities will be faced with managing more AD patients than in previous decades. Managing this population will pose a significant challenge for the resources of long-term care facilities. In short-and long-term studies, cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor treatment has been shown to benefit the symptoms of mild to moderate AD.

Sharon A. Brangman

2003-01-01

261

26 CFR 19.3-1 - Interest on certain deferred payments; interest rate for use in determining whether there is...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the sale or exchange, by discounting such payment at the rate, and in the...of such sale or exchange, and under which, using a rate provided by regulations...contract of sale or exchange under which the...some interest, a rate of 4 percent...

2010-04-01

262

49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.  

...Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal. The rate levels will be determined...Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the date the...Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the day...

2014-10-01

263

49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal. The rate levels will be determined...Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the date the...Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the day...

2013-10-01

264

Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat Disposal Site, Mexican Hat, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSP (based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program), documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

NONE

1996-02-01

265

F-BF Compounding with a 100% Interest Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A man knows that money in an account where interest is compounded semi-annually will earn interest faster than money in an account where interest is co...

266

Long-Term Wind Power Variability  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

Wan, Y. H.

2012-01-01

267

Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

Akins, F. R.

1979-01-01

268

Long-term space flights - personal impressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a final 4-month stage of a 1-year space flight of cosmonauts Titov and Manarov, a physician, Valery Polyakov was included on a crew for the purpose of evaluating their health, correcting physical status to prepare for the spacecraft reentry and landing operations. The complex program of scientific investigations and experiments performed by the physician included an evaluation of adaptation reactions of the human body at different stages of space mission using clinicophysiological and biochemical methods; testing of alternative regimes of exercise and new countermeasures to prevent an unfavourable effect of long-term weightlessness.

Polyakov, V. V.

269

A long-term climatology of medicanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medicanes, intense and destructive mesoscale cyclones exhibiting several similarities with tropical hurricanes, are known to struck occasionally the Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to a high-resolution dynamical downscaling effort, we are able to study for the first time the long-term climatology of those rare storms in a systematic way. The distribution of medicanes frequency in space and time is discussed, and the environmental factors responsible for their formation are investigated. We find that medicanes develop in those areas of the Mediterranean region where intrusions of cold air in the upper troposphere can produce configurations of thermodynamical disequilibrium of the atmosphere similar to those associated with the formation of tropical cyclones.

Cavicchia, Leone; von Storch, Hans; Gualdi, Silvio

2014-09-01

270

[Long term prognosis after circulatory arrest].  

PubMed

24 PATIENTS HAVING SURVIVED MORE THAN 18 MONTHS AFTER AN EPISODE OF CIRCULATORY ARREST WERE EXAMINED WITH THE AIM OF ASSESSING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS TO SUCH AN INCIDENT. The results obtained were encouraging, since immediately after the circulatory arrest there were only monor troubles reflecting the simple bringing into action of defence mechanisms. Long term adaptation was deemed excellent in 80 p.cent of cases which should, nevertheless, lead to any underestimation of those sequelae which, though happily rare, are highly incapacitating. PMID:1153308

Nicolas, G; Besancon, G; Bouhour, J B; Godin, J F; Vincent, J P

1975-05-10

271

Spent filter packaging for long term storage and disposal  

SciTech Connect

This paper will discuss filter packaging experience using spent filter transfer casks, a filter shear and the NUKEM macro-encapsulation process. Marco-encapsulation of spent filters in cement has provided sufficient shielding to enable filter containers to be shipped in less expensive IP-2 casks. The lower dose rate and higher density also off-sets disposal rates at Barnwell based on mass. No re-dewatering of encapsulated filter containers is required after a period of long term storage and encapsulation eliminates the possibility of gas generation from filters during storage. Encapsulation can be performed on filters loaded into poly HICs or carbon steel liners. (authors)

Duberville, T.M. [NUKEM Corporation, Columbia, SC (United States); Miller, C. [Pacific Gas and Electric, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Avila Bach, CA (United States)

2007-07-01

272

Long-term anticoagulation. Indications and management.  

PubMed Central

Each year half a million persons in the United States receive long-term anticoagulant therapy to prevent venous and arterial thromboembolism. Unfortunately, the relative benefits and risks of anticoagulant therapy have not been adequately quantified for many thromboembolic disorders, and the decisions as to whether, for how long, and how intensely to administer anticoagulation are often complex and controversial. Several expert panels have published recommendations for anticoagulant therapy for different thromboembolic disorders; the primary area of disagreement among these panels concerns the optimal intensity of anticoagulation. Recent research and analytic reviews have helped to clarify both the risk factors for and the appropriate diagnostic evaluation of anticoagulant-induced hemorrhage. Clinicians must be aware of the nonhemorrhagic complications of anticoagulant therapy, particularly during pregnancy. The administration of anticoagulants is difficult both in relation to dosing and long-term monitoring. Knowledge of the pharmacology of the anticoagulants, an organized approach to ongoing monitoring, and thorough patient education may facilitate the safe and effective use of these drugs. PMID:2686173

Stults, B M; Dere, W H; Caine, T H

1989-01-01

273

Long-term evolution of transposable elements  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements are often considered parasitic DNA sequences, able to invade the genome of their host thanks to their self-replicating ability. This colonization process has been extensively studied, both theoretically and experimentally, but their long-term coevolution with the genomes is still poorly understood. In this work, we aim to challenge previous population genetics models by considering features of transposable elements as quantitative, rather than discrete, variables. We also describe more realistic transposable element dynamics by accounting for the variability of the insertion effect, from deleterious to adaptive, as well as mutations leading to a loss of transposition activity and to nonautonomous copies. Individual-based simulations of the behavior of a transposable-element family over several thousand generations show different ways in which active or inactive copies can be maintained for a very long time. Results reveal an unexpected impact of genetic drift on the “junk DNA” content of the genome and strongly question the likelihood of the sustainable long-term stable transposition-selection equilibrium on which numerous previous works were based. PMID:18040048

Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Boutin, Thibaud S.; Capy, Pierre

2007-01-01

274

76 FR 37030 - Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate Risk; Investment and Deposit Activities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 703 Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate...in the purchase and sale of financial derivatives for the purpose of offsetting interest...Comments on Part 703 ANPR, Financial Derivatives Transactions to Offset Interest...

2011-06-24

275

77 FR 20890 - Proposed Information Collection (Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet) Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...technology. Title: Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet, VA Form 26-8923. OMB Control Number: 2900-0386....

2012-04-06

276

77 FR 38397 - Agency Information Collection (Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet) Activities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...INFORMATION: Title: Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet, VA Form 26-8923. OMB Control Number: 2900-0386....

2012-06-27

277

12 CFR 615.5180 - Bank interest rate risk management program.  

...2014-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615.5180 Section...AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5180 Bank interest rate risk management program. (a) The...

2014-01-01

278

12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by banks-general. 615.5180...AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5180 Interest rate risk management by banks—general....

2012-01-01

279

12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by banks-general. 615.5180...AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5180 Interest rate risk management by banks—general....

2013-01-01

280

12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615.5181 Section...AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5181 Bank interest rate risk management program. (a) The...

2012-01-01

281

12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by banks-general. 615.5180...AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5180 Interest rate risk management by banks—general....

2011-01-01

282

12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615.5181 Section...AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5181 Bank interest rate risk management program. (a) The...

2013-01-01

283

12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615.5181 Section...AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5181 Bank interest rate risk management program. (a) The...

2011-01-01

284

Interest rate sensitivity of US property\\/liability insurer stock returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate interest rate sensitivity of the US property\\/liability (P\\/L) insurers stock returns using various return generating process models incorporating different interest rate changes such as actual interest rate changes, unexpected interest rate changes and orthogonalized market returns. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study follows the 1974 two-index model by Stone. In the two-index

Jin Park; B. Paul Choi

2011-01-01

285

Automated patient-specific classification of long-term Electroencephalography.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel systematic approach for patient-specific classification of long-term Electroencephalography (EEG). The goal is to extract the seizure sections with a high accuracy to ease the Neurologist's burden of inspecting such long-term EEG data. We aim to achieve this using the minimum feedback from the Neurologist. To accomplish this, we use the majority of the state-of-the-art features proposed in this domain for evolving a collective network of binary classifiers (CNBC) using multi-dimensional particle swarm optimization (MD PSO). Multiple CNBCs are then used to form a CNBC ensemble (CNBC-E), which aggregates epileptic seizure frames from the classification map of each CNBC in order to maximize the sensitivity rate. Finally, a morphological filter forms the final epileptic segments while filtering out the outliers in the form of classification noise. The proposed system is fully generic, which does not require any a priori information about the patient such as the list of relevant EEG channels. The results of the classification experiments, which are performed over the benchmark CHB-MIT scalp long-term EEG database show that the proposed system can achieve all the aforementioned objectives and exhibits a significantly superior performance compared to several other state-of-the-art methods. Using a limited training dataset that is formed by less than 2 min of seizure and 24 min of non-seizure data on the average taken from the early 25% section of the EEG record of each patient, the proposed system establishes an average sensitivity rate above 89% along with an average specificity rate above 93% over the test set. PMID:24566194

Kiranyaz, Serkan; Ince, Turker; Zabihi, Morteza; Ince, Dilek

2014-06-01

286

Continuous and Long-Term Volume Measurements with a Commercial Coulter Counter  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a method to enhance the time resolution of a commercial Coulter counter and enable continuous and long-term cell size measurements for growth rate analyses essential to understanding basic cellular processes, ...

Bryan, Andrea Kristine

287

[Enteral nutrition through long-term jejunostomy].  

PubMed

We present the case of a female patient suffering a peritonitis episode after subtotal gastrectomy due to gastric neoplasm in relation to lesser curvature necrosis extending to the anterior esophageal wall. This an uncommon andsevere complication that made mandatory further aggressive surgery: transection of the abdominal esophagus, transection of the gastric stump, and cervical esophagostomy with creation of a jejunostomy with a needle catheter for feeding. This digestive tube access technique is generally used during major abdominal post-surgery until oral intake is reestablished. Our patient has been 187 days with this therapy since reconstruction of the GI tract was ruled out due to tumoral infiltration of the colon and tumor recurrence at the gastrohepatic omentum. To date, there has been no complication from permanence and/or long-term use of this technique. PMID:18372950

Fernández, T; Neira, P; Enríquez, C

2008-01-01

288

Long-term control of root growth  

SciTech Connect

A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin. 7 figs.

Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

1992-05-26

289

Long-term sequelae to foodborne disease.  

PubMed

Most of the concern about foodborne disease has been focused on the immediate effects of acute infection. Recent information has shown that many of these foodborne infections also have long-term sequelae with serious health effects and a significant economic impact. To increase the awareness of animal health professionals to these sequelae, the authors discuss two groups of sequelae which are strongly associated with preceding infection (reactive arthritides, including Reiter's syndrome, and the Guillain-Barré syndrome) as well as the possible association between Crohn's disease and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. The discussion includes a description of the disease syndromes along with epidemiological and economic information. More reliable epidemiologial and economic data on chronic sequelae to foodborne disease will be needed for future evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies to reduce the occurrence of foodborne pathogens. PMID:9501346

McDowell, R M; McElvaine, M D

1997-08-01

290

Long-term control of root growth  

DOEpatents

A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

Burton, Frederick G. (West Richland, WA); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Richland, WA)

1992-05-26

291

Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy Management will keep records management as a high priority. (authors)

Montgomery, John V. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Gueretta, Jeanie [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

2012-07-01

292

Mercury in arctic air: the long-term trend.  

PubMed

The long-term (1974-2000) time trend of total filterable mercury (TFM) in the air in the Canadian Arctic is reported. The concentration of TFM had declined by (3.0+/-0.8) % and (3.1+/-0.9) % per year in the summer and fall, respectively, over the 27 years, which coincided with the calculated reduction rate of world-wide mercury emission (~3.3% per year) from human activities between 1983 and 1995. The time trend for winter and early spring was not statistically significant as the variability of TFM was very large, partly due to Arctic Mercury Depletion Events and partly due to Arctic haze. PMID:19144390

Li, Chunsheng; Cornett, Jack; Willie, Scott; Lam, Joseph

2009-04-01

293

Onset of tuberculosis disease: New converters in long-term care settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elders living in communal settings, such as nursing homes or other types of long-term care facilities have a tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate of 39.2 per 1,000, nearly four times the rate of TB in the general population. This fact mandates routine screening, reporting, and strict follow-up of TB in long-term care facilities as well as recognizing and addressing barriers to

Marilyn Schultz; José M. Hernández; Norma E. Hernández; Rebecca O. Sanchez

2001-01-01

294

Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Term Control Medications Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases Long-term control medications are taken daily to control and prevent lung disease symptoms. These medicines should be taken every ...

295

Using Life Insurance to Pay for Long-Term Care  

MedlinePLUS

... options: Combination (Life/ Long-Term Care ) Products Accelerated Death Benefits (ADBs) Life settlements Viatical settlements Combination Products Many consumers are reluctant to buy long-term care insurance because they fear that their investment will be wasted if they ...

296

Where Can You Receive Care? (Long-Term Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... may need. Share page: Where Can You Receive Care? Most long-term care is provided at home. ... in long-term care facilities. Examples of home care services include: An unpaid caregiver who may be ...

297

Alterations of cognitive function and 5-HT system in rats after long term microwave exposure.  

PubMed

The increased use of microwaves raises concerns about its impact on health including cognitive function in which neurotransmitter system plays an important role. In this study, we focused on the serotonin system and evaluated the long term effects of chronic microwave radiation on cognition and correlated items. Wistar rats were exposed or sham exposed to 2.856GHz microwaves with the average power density of 5, 10, 20 or 30mW/cm(2) respectively for 6min three times a week up to 6weeks. At different time points after the last exposure, spatial learning and memory function, morphology structure of the hippocampus, electroencephalogram (EEG) and neurotransmitter content (amino acid and monoamine) of rats were tested. Above results raised our interest in serotonin system. Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) and monoamine oxidase (MAO), two important rate-limiting enzymes in serotonin synthesis and metabolic process respectively, were detected. Expressions of serotonin receptors including 5-HT1A, 2A, 2C receptors were measured. We demonstrated that chronic exposure to microwave (2.856GHz, with the average power density of 5, 10, 20 and 30mW/cm(2)) could induce dose-dependent deficit of spatial learning and memory in rats accompanied with inhibition of brain electrical activity, the degeneration of hippocampus neurons, and the disturbance of neurotransmitters, among which the increase of 5-HT occurred as the main long-term change that the decrease of its metabolism partly contributed to. Besides, the variations of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT2CR expressions were also indicated. The results suggested that in the long-term way, chronic microwave exposure could induce cognitive deficit and 5-HT system may be involved in it. PMID:25542888

Li, Hai-Juan; Peng, Rui-Yun; Wang, Chang-Zhen; Qiao, Si-Mo; Yong, Zou; Gao, Ya-Bing; Xu, Xin-Ping; Wang, Shao-Xia; Dong, Ji; Zuo, Hong-Yan; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Hong-Mei; Wang, Li-Feng; Hu, Xiang-Jun

2015-03-01

298

Modeling long-term carbon dynamics in colluvial soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant part of the soil organic carbon that is eroded in uplands is deposited and buried in colluvial settings. Understanding the fate of this deposited SOC is of key importance for the understanding of the role of (accelerated) erosion in the global C cycle: the residence time of the deposited carbon will determine if, and for how long, accelerated erosion due to human disturbance will induce sequestration of SOC from the atmosphere to the soil. Experimental studies may provide useful information, but, given the time scale under consideration, the response of the colluvial SOC can only be simulated using numerical models. In this study, we present a depth explicit SOC model including soil profile evolution due to sedimentation (ICBM-SE) to simulate the long-term C dynamics in colluvial soils. The SOC profile predicted by our model is in good agreement with field observation. Simulations show that the C storage within a given soil depth in colluvial soils is determined by the sedimentation rate with higher colluvial SOC storages associated with higher deposition rates. It takes centuries for the SOC in the deposited sediments to reach its equilibrium C burial efficiency (the ratio of current C content of the buried sediments to the original C content at the time of sedimentation). Also, the equilibrium C burial efficiency is positively correlated with the sedimentation rate. With increasing sedimentation rate, the contribution from originally associated SOC at the time sedimentation to the bulk SOC (including originally associated SOC and assimilated SOC from input after sedimentation) increases, while that from C input increases with decreasing sedimentation rate. The reason why sedimentation rate is crucial in the long-term dynamics of the deposited SOC is due to the fact that sedimentation rate determines the duration of the sediments at a given depth while the C input and decomposition rate decrease with depth due to the vertical variation of root distribution and soil environmental factors such as humidity, temperature and aeration condition. A better understanding of the long-term C dynamics in colluvial soils is a necessity in order to evaluate the role of soil erosion in global C cycles.

Wang, Z.; van oost, K.; Govers, G.

2013-12-01

299

Long-Term Consequences of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an acute inflammatory systemic condition that involves injury not just to the skin. Historically, it has been associated with a high mortality but few long-term consequences among survivors. With improved survival, long-term consequences may be becoming more appar- ent. The objective of this study was to define these long- term consequences and their frequency.

Robert L. Sheridan; John T. Schulz; Colleen M. Ryan; Jay J. Schnitzer; David Lawlor; Daniel N. Driscoll; Matthias B. Donelan; Ronald G. Tompkins

300

78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1327 RIN 0985-AA08 State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program AGENCY: Administration...Older Americans Act, the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman program. This proposed rule...compliance in carrying out the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program functions. This...

2013-06-18

301

17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity...UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

2010-04-01

302

3 CFR - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan Presidential Documents...June 30, 2010 Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan Memorandum for the Heads...long-term economic and environmental restoration of the Gulf Coast region, in...

2011-01-01

303

Assessing Dysfunctional Behaviors in Long-term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The Geriatric Level of Dysfunction Scale (GLDS) was developed to assess the intensity, fre- quency, and duration of 19 behavioral disturbance categories that can potentially interfere with long- term care. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from res- idents in long-term care facilities. Participants: Participants were 399 adults aged 60 and older residing in one of 16 long-term care

P. Andrew Clifford; Daisha J. Cipher; Kristi D. Roper

2005-01-01

304

LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK  

SciTech Connect

Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart sensors housed in anti-fouling sensor chambers. The monitoring network is highly versatile and can be applied to a variety of subsurface sensing scenarios in different media. However, the current project focused on monitoring water quality parameters of pH, oxidation-reduction potential, conductivity, and temperature in groundwater.

Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

2003-10-16

305

Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh-environment surveyor (RHES) is a robotic platform with SCADA capabilities equipped with a sonar-imaging scanner, a high-resolution color CCD camera, and various combinations of sensors. The RHES is controlled remotely via a PC. This paper will discuss the development and application of this system. (authors)

Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso [Florida International University, Miami, Florida (United States)

2002-07-01

306

Very Long Term Oxidation of Titanium Aluminides Investigated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium aluminides (TiAl) are of great interest for intermediate-temperature (600 to 850 C) aerospace and power-generation applications because they offer significant weight savings over today's nickel alloys. TiAl alloys are being investigated for low-pressure turbine blade applications, exhaust nozzle components, and compressor cases in advanced subsonic and supersonic engines. Significant progress has been made in understanding the fundamental aspects of the oxidation behavior of binary TiAl alloys. However, most of this work has concentrated on short term (<1000 hr), high-temperature (900 to 1000 C) exposures. Also, there is not much data available in the literature regarding the oxidation behavior of the quaternary and higher order engineering alloys. This is especially true for the very long term, low-temperature conditions likely to be experienced during aerospace applications. An investigation at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field was undertaken to characterize the long-term oxidation behavior of various model and advanced titanium aluminides for periods up to 7000 hr at 704 C in air using a high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscope. Also, a unique surface treatment technique developed to improve the oxidation resistance of TiAl was evaluated. The alloys included in this investigation are listed in the table. The table also shows typical alloy compositions and the specific weight changes and scale thickness measured for each alloy after exposure to 700 C for 7000 hr in air.

Locci, Ivan E.; Brady, Michael P.; Smialek, James L.; Retallick, William B.

2000-01-01

307

A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model`s parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

Ross, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Hwang, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1992-02-01

308

A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model's parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

Ross, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.); Hwang, R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-02-01

309

Management and long-term outcome of aortic dissection.  

PubMed Central

All 163 patients admitted to one institution between 1975 and 1988 with aortic dissection were reviewed. Type I and type II patients received grafting of the ascending aorta, with an intraoperative mortality rate of 11%. For type III dissection, management was medical in 53 patients, while 19 required surgery for aortic rupture or expansion, with an intraoperative mortality rate of 11%. The 9- or 10-year survival rates were 29%, 46%, and 29% for types I, II, and III respectively. Of 135 patients with primary aortic dissection, 17 (13%) required subsequent aortic surgery. Cause of late death was other cardiovascular disease in 38%, rupture of another aortic segment in 18%, sudden death in 24%, and other medical conditions in 21%. Although operative therapy for types I and II dissections and reserving operation for selected type III dissections provides acceptable long-term survival, careful follow-up is necessary due to concurrent cardiovascular disease and residual aortic disease. Images Fig. 3. PMID:2064469

Glower, D D; Speier, R H; White, W D; Smith, L R; Rankin, J S; Wolfe, W G

1991-01-01

310

Transuranic waste: long-term planning  

SciTech Connect

Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Young, K.C.

1985-07-01

311

Long-term corrosion testing pan.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

2008-08-01

312

Long-term corrosion testing plan.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

2009-02-01

313

Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

Nestroy, O.

2009-04-01

314

[Long-term stability of orthodontic treatment].  

PubMed

Aim of this study was to assess long-term stability of orthodontic treatment in a sample of 1016 patients until 10 years postretention. Treatment outcome was measured with the PAR-index at 6 different stages. The mean age of the patients was 12.0 +/- 3.1 year at the start of treatment to 26.3 +/- 2.9 year 10 years postretention. The results show that 67% of the orthodontic treatment result, as measured with the PAR-index, was maintained 10 years postretention. The PAR-scores for the midline and the open bite remained about the same over the years. However, the scores for the lateral occlusion, overjet, reversed overjet, overbite, and contact point displacement of the upper and lower front teeth increased gradually over time. Nearly 50% of the total relapse took place the first two years after retention. The largest change was found for the position of the lower incisors. Ten years postretention their position was even worse than at the start of treatment. PMID:11382976

Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Al Yami, E A; van 't Hof, M A

2000-04-01

315

Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.  

PubMed Central

Forty commercial saturation divers, mean age 34.9 (range 24-49) years, were examined one to seven years after their last deep dive (190-500 metres of seawater). Four had by then lost their divers' licence because of neurological problems. Twenty seven (68%) had been selected by neurological examination and electroencephalography before the deep dives. The control group consisted of 100 men, mean age 34.0 (range 22-48) years. The divers reported significantly more symptoms from the nervous system. Concentration difficulties and paraesthesia in feet and hands were common. They had more abnormal neurological findings by neurological examination compatible with dysfunction in the lumbar spinal cord or roots. They also had a larger proportion of abnormal electroencephalograms than the controls. The neurological symptoms and findings were highly significantly correlated with exposure to deep diving (depth included), but even more significantly correlated to air and saturation diving and prevalence of decompression sickness. Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show more abnormal findings in the divers. Four (10%) divers had had episodes of cerebral dysfunction during or after the dives; two had had seizures, one had had transitory cerebral ischaemia and one had had transitory global amnesia. It is concluded that deep diving may have a long term effect on the nervous system of the divers. PMID:2025592

Todnem, K; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Svihus, R; Rinck, P; Kambestad, B K; Riise, T; Aarli, J A

1991-01-01

316

Long-term potentiation: peeling the onion  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP), thousands of papers have been published on this phenomenon. With this massive amount of information, it is often difficult, especially for someone not directly involved in the field, not to be overwhelmed. The goal of this review is to peel away as many layers as possible, and probe the core properties of LTP. We would argue that the many dozens of proteins that have been implicated in the phenomenon are not essential, but rather modulate, often in indirect ways, the threshold and/or magnitude of LTP. What is required is NMDA receptor activation followed by CaMKII activation. The consequence of CaMKII activation is the rapid recruitment of AMPA receptors to the synapse. This recruitment is independent of AMPA receptor subunit type, but absolutely requires an adequate pool of surface receptors. An important unresolved issue is how exactly CaMKII activation leads to modifications in the PSD to allow rapid enrichment. PMID:23439383

Nicoll, Roger A.; Roche, Katherine W.

2013-01-01

317

Interactions between assembly order and temperature can alter both short- and long-term community composition  

PubMed Central

Both the order in which species arrive in a community, and environmental conditions, such as temperature, are known to affect community structure. Little is known, however, about the potential for, and occurrence of, interactions between assembly history and the environment. Of particular, interest may be the interaction between temperature and community assembly dynamics, especially in the light of predicted global climatic change and the fundamental processes that are governed, through metabolic rate, by an individual's environmental temperature. We present, to our knowledge, the first experimental exploration of how the influence of assembly history, temperature, and the interaction between the two alters the structure of communities of competitors, using small-scale protist microcosm communities where temperature and assembly order were manipulated factorially. In our experiment, the most important driver of long-term abundance was temperature but long-lasting assembly order effects influenced the relationship between temperature and abundance. Any advantage of early colonization proved to be short-lived, and there was rarely any long-term advantage to colonizing a habitat before other species. The results presented here suggest that environmental conditions shape community composition, but that occasionally temperature could interact with the stochastic nature of community assembly to significantly alter future community composition, especially where temperature change has been large. This could have important implications for the dynamics of both rare and invasive species. PMID:24455149

Clements, Christopher F; Warren, Philip H; Collen, Ben; Blackburn, Tim; Worsfold, Nicholas; Petchey, Owen

2013-01-01

318

Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

NONE

1995-08-01

319

Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock Disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

Not Available

1994-09-01

320

Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

Not Available

1994-08-01

321

Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

Not Available

1994-08-01

322

Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

Not Available

1993-12-01

323

Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site  

SciTech Connect

The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

NONE

1997-06-01

324

Realising long-term data sets of land surfaceRealising long-term data sets of land surface temperature  

E-print Network

Realising long-term data sets of land surfaceRealising long-term data sets of land surface Long-term dataset, independent of buoys, for global climate change studies;Outline of the talk Space observations increasingly perform a key role in climate dataSpace observations

325

The neuronal response at extended timescales: long-term correlations without long-term memory  

PubMed Central

Long term temporal correlations frequently appear at many levels of neural activity. We show that when such correlations appear in isolated neurons, they indicate the existence of slow underlying processes and lead to explicit conditions on the dynamics of these processes. Moreover, although these slow processes can potentially store information for long times, we demonstrate that this does not imply that the neuron possesses a long memory of its input, even if these processes are bidirectionally coupled with neuronal response. We derive these results for a broad class of biophysical neuron models, and then fit a specific model to recent experiments. The model reproduces the experimental results, exhibiting long term (days-long) correlations due to the interaction between slow variables and internal fluctuations. However, its memory of the input decays on a timescale of minutes. We suggest experiments to test these predictions directly. PMID:24744724

Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron

2014-01-01

326

Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage estuaries below by removing all incoming freshwater. At Toolik Lake, long-term experiments of removing top predators from the good web of lakes showed dramatic alterations of lake populations of small fish and zooplankton. In New Mexico, LTER research on small mammal populations is successfully predicting rodent increases and the potential for increased zoonotic diseases such as Hantavirus and bubonic plague. This ability to forecast based on El Nino prediction is being used to increase scientific awareness and public health awareness through media based communication with the public. In Oregon, the Andrews Forest LTER program has had long, strong links with natural resource policy and management. Basic understanding of forest-stream interactions, characteristics of old-growth forests, roles of woody debris in temperate forest ecosystems, invertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function have been incorporated in management guidelines, plans and regulations for public and private lands throughout the Pacific Northwest. Other examples of the values of long-term research and monitoring will be presented.

Gosz, J.

2001-12-01

327

Hydrosolidarity intergenerational challenges: long-term commitment for long-term issues.  

PubMed

The year 2000 Young Professionals Seminar focused on long-term intergenerational challenges. Water related problems are symptoms of complex and ultimately societal problems linked to human behaviour, political support and managerial and institutional structures. Although integrated water resources management is presented as a solution, it is not always well understood, and can create a sense of hopelessness among professionals. To make it operational requires long-term commitments among various professionals and the involvement of new actors. A number of key topics crystallised as needing further attention, including ethical dimensions in policy making, the development of a framework for a "Future Generation Impact Assessment" (FGIA), and efforts to achieve true dialogue among stakeholders. Young water professionals must become more involved in political processes and take active part in institutional changes. Such engagement will require changes in the working environment facing many young professionals that causes frustration due to inefficient and conservative hierarchical structures and the lack of transparency. PMID:11379221

Kuylenstierna, J; Rockström, J

2001-01-01

328

Long-Term Incarceration Impacts and Characteristics of Long-Term OffendersAn Empirical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses long-and short-term inmates make to incarceration and differences in the responses made by distinct subgroups were examined. Prison inmates in three large maximum security institutions reported their levels of stress (anxiety, depression, psychosomatic illnesses, fear), adjustment (prisonization), criminal history, self-esteem, and demographic characteristics. Inmates new to prison who anticipated serving long terms in prison were found to report

DORIS LAYTON MacKENZIE; LYNNE GOODSTEIN

1985-01-01

329

Depression, anxiety, and obsessionality in long-term recovered patients with adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is frequently associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive behavior which also develop secondary to semistarvation. It is less certain if these symptoms persist after recovery. A few studies have already reported on high prevalence rates of anxious, depressive, and obsessive features in long-term recovered patients with AN, but several of these so called “long-term” recovered

K. Holtkamp; B. Müller; N. Heussen; H. Remschmidt; B. Herpertz-Dahlmann

2005-01-01

330

Influence of long-term climatic changes on the stratification of a subtropical, warm monomictic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of long-term records of temperature profiles in subtropical Lake Kinneret revealed changes in thermal stratification during the period 1969-1991. Thermocline depth and rate of seasonal thermocline deepening have decreased and the period of stable stratification has increased. These changes appear related to a long-term decline in mean winter air temperatures, which has produced cooler hypolimnetic waters and increased density

K. DAVID HAMBRIGHT; MOSHE GOPHEN; SALVADOR SERRUYA

1994-01-01

331

Long-term outcome in Susac syndrome.  

PubMed

Susac syndrome is characterized by the clinical triad of encephalopathy, hearing loss, and retinal artery branch occlusions, mostly in young women. To our knowledge, long-term outcome and impact of pregnancy have not been specifically addressed. We report a series of 9 patients (7 female, 2 male) followed at the same institution, with special emphasis on clinical outcome including pregnancy and long-term sequelae. Clinical, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), funduscopy, retinal angiography, and audiogram data were recorded every 3-12 months. We also analyzed the 92 previously reported cases of Susac syndrome. Mean follow-up was 6.4 years. Age at onset was 30.4 years. The first symptom occurred between April and September in 7 of 9 patients in the current study, and in 68% of all patients. The complete triad at onset was clinically obvious in only 1 of 9 patients. Brain involvement was heralded by headache and symptoms of encephalopathy. Cerebrospinal fluid was abnormal in 5 patients showing pleocytosis (mean, 24.6; range, 6-85 cells/mL) and elevated protein level (mean, 210; range, 113-365 mg/dL). Over time, quantitative brain MRI analysis showed that the number of lesions diminished and did not parallel clinical flares, and MRI never normalized. At the end of follow-up, no patient had severe impairment, and all but 1 returned to work. Inner ear involvement was present at onset in 2 patients and occurred in others with a mean delay of 11 months. Initially unilateral in 3, it became bilateral in all. Mean hearing loss was 34 dB (range, 15-70 dB). Hearing loss never improved, either spontaneously or under treatment. The eye was involved at onset in 8 patients, and after 3 years in 1. All had multiple bilateral retinal artery branch occlusions and/or dye leakage with hyperfluorescence of the arterial wall on fluorescein angiography. Over time, angiography normalized in 3 patients. In others, it was still abnormal at the end of follow-up (range, 1.5-10 yr). On late findings, fluorescein leakage was more frequent than true arterial occlusion. Eye involvement was mostly asymptomatic, unilateral, peripheral, and resumed spontaneously to remit in other sites over time. Corticosteroids were efficient to treat encephalopathy, with relapses occurring when the dosage was tapered. Steroid treatment did not improve hearing loss or prevent new retinal arteriolar occlusions. Anticoagulation had a role in treating encephalopathy and retinal arteriolar occlusions. Three patients had 4 pregnancies. Two pregnancies needed induced abortion. One pregnancy was uneventful. One pregnancy was complicated with Susac disease flare in the early postpartum period. In conclusion, at the end of follow-up, most patients had returned to work and none had severe impairment. Pregnancy may affect the course of Susac syndrome, with relapse of encephalopathy postpartum. Our main finding was that the course of Susac syndrome is not self-limited as previously thought, since isolated retinal arteriolar involvement may occur as a very late manifestation. PMID:17435589

Aubart-Cohen, Fleur; Klein, Isabelle; Alexandra, Jean-François; Bodaghi, Bahram; Doan, Serge; Fardeau, Christine; Lavallée, Philippa; Piette, Jean-Charles; Hoang, Phuc Le; Papo, Thomas

2007-03-01

332

Long-term periods in cataclysmic variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent interest in long periods which may be present in cataclysmic variables has been motivated principally by the idea that solar-like magnetic cycles might be important. For the brighter members of the class, light curves compiled from amateur visual observations are an ideal resource for testing the presence of such periods. Because of the sheer immensity of the data, and the relative constancy of the average human eye over decades, the detection limits are more sensitive than could be achieved by any feasible photographic or photoelectric means. Here we present results for four well-studied stars, and evaluate the case for periods in other CVs. The conclusion from all of this is that none of the stars studied to date exhibits a good case for strictly periodic variability, and it is not even clear whether there is a preferred time scale. Nevertheless, the observed amplitudes (0.2 mag) and apparent time scales (5-40 yr) of variability are plausible consequences from solar-like magnetic cycles. We propose that the observed light variations on decade time scales are produced by the same mechanism which underlies the decade-time-scale orbital period changes seen in eclipsing binaries. In particular, we extend a theory of Porb changes to the case of accretion-powered binaries, and show that it predicts accretion-rate variations of amplitude Delta M-dot/M-dot approximately equal to 0.1, consistent with observation. The proximate cause of the Porb and M-dot variations is the cyclic transfer of angular momentum to and from the outer layers of the contact star. The underlying cause of these phenomena is solar-type cycles of the contact star.

Richman, Hayley R.; Applegate, James H.; Patterson, Joseph

1994-10-01

333

The Effects of Long Term Cure on Offgassed Products of Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Environmental Chemistry and Compatability Team at The Marshall Space Flight Center conducts toxic offgassing analysis on materials and flight hardware for use in habitable environments aboard the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. As part of Research and Development, the Toxic Offgassing Laboratory conducted a long term cure study on four polyurethane coatings which are slated for potential use on Space Station. This study demonstrates the effects of cure time and temperature on the total tox value (sum T) and the maximum usage weight for each coating. All analysis was conducted according to test procedures outlined specifically for Space Station environments. Therefore, the ratings and weight limits generated for these materials are most applicable to space environments. However, this test does give some indication of time frames for solvent removal and is therefore of interest to, the environmental community as a whole.

Engle, Ginger; Whitfield, Steve

1997-01-01

334

Interest-Rate Reforms and Financial Deepening in Botswana: An Empirical Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the impact of interest-rate reforms on financial deepening in Botswana, one of Africa's economic development success stories. We employ three proxies of financial deepening against deposit rate, a proxy for interest-rate reforms. The financial deepening in this study is defined as the increase in the relative size and role of the financial system in an

Nicholas M. Odhiambo; Oludele A. Akinboade

2009-01-01

335

Bond Pricing and the Term Structure of Interest Rates: A New Methodology for Contingent Claims Valuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a unifying theory for valuing contingent claims under a stochastic term structure of interest rates. The methodology, based on the equivalent martingale measure technique, takes as given an initial forward rate curve and a family of potential stochastic processes for its subsequent movements. A no-arbitrage condition restricts this family of processes, yielding valuation formula for interest rate

David Heath; Robert Jarrow; Andrew Morton

1992-01-01

336

LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are also presented.

ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

2003-07-23

337

Interim storage is not long-term disposal  

SciTech Connect

Starting in June 30, 1994 South Carolina enforced an embargo on regular shipments of low-level radioactive waste to the Barnwell repository. The failure of 31 states and their respective compacts to provide access to a long-term disposal facility as stipulated by the low-level radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 promotes waste disposal gridlock and anticipates another waste disposal crisis. This article discusses the problem using the following topics: Appalachian Compact Users of Radioactive Isotopes (ACURI) Association`s interest; the problem of denial of access to Barnwell; pro and contra interim storage; vital services and benefits at risk; issues at the ACURI meeting; nobel Prize winners use radioactive materials; if perception is reality, politics is prevalent.

Vincenti, J.R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1994-10-01

338

Long-Term Lunar Radiation Degradation Effects on Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is focused on developing technologies for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit. These technologies are to advance the state-of-the-art and provide for longer duration missions outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere. One technology of great interest for large structures is advanced composite materials, due to their weight and cost savings, enhanced radiation protection for the crew, and potential for performance improvements when compared with existing metals. However, these materials have not been characterized for the interplanetary space environment, and particularly the effects of high energy radiation, which is known to cause damage to polymeric materials. Therefore, a study focusing on a lunar habitation element was undertaken to investigate the integrity of potential structural composite materials after exposure to a long-term lunar radiation environment. An overview of the study results are presented, along with a discussion of recommended future work.

Rojdev, Kristina; ORourke, Mary Jane; Koontz, Steve; Alred, John; Hill, Charles; Devivar, Rodrigo; Morera-Felix, Shakira; Atwell, William; Nutt, Steve; Sabbann, Leslie

2010-01-01

339

Long Term Operation and Performance of Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators  

E-print Network

Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators (CSO) developed at UWA have now been in operation around the world continuously for many years. Such oscillators, due to their excellent spectral purity are essential for interrogating atomic frequency standards at the limit of quantum projection noise; otherwise aliasing effects will dominate the frequency stability due to the periodic sampling between successive interrogations of the atomic transition. For this reason, UWA oscillators are now operational at NMI (Sydney), LNE-SYRTE (Paris), the French Space Agency (CNES, Toulouse) and at UWA (Perth). Other applications, which have attracted attention in recent years, include tests on fundamental principles of physics, such as tests of Lorentz invariance. This paper reports on the long-term operation and performance of such oscillators. We compare the long-term drift of some different CSOs. The drift rates turn out to be linear over many years and in the same direction. However, the magnitude seems to vary by more than one order of magnitude between the oscillators, ranging from 10^14 per day to a few parts in 10^13 per day.

M. E. Tobar; E. N. Ivanov; C. R. Locke; P. L. Stanwix; J. G. Hartnett; A. N. Luiten; R. B. Warrington; P. T. H. Fisk; M. A. Lawn; M. J. Wouters; S. Bize; G. Santarelli; P. Wolf; A. Clairon; P. Guillemot

2006-08-19

340

The perfused swine uterus model: long-term perfusion  

PubMed Central

Background It has previously been shown that the viability of swine uteri can be maintained within the physiological range in an open perfusion model for up to 8 hours. The aim of this study was to assess medium- to long-term perfusion of swine uteri using a modified Krebs–Ringer bicarbonate buffer solution (KRBB) in the established open perfusion model. Methods In an experimental study at an infertility institute, 30 swine uteri were perfused: group 1: n?=?11, KRBB; group 2: n?=?8, modified KRBB with drainage of perfusate supernatant; group 3: n?=?11, modified KRBB with drainage of perfusate every 2 h and substitution with fresh medium. Modified and conventional KRBB were compared with regard to survival and contraction parameters: intrauterine pressure (IUP), area under the curve (AUC), and frequency of contractions (F). Results Modified KRBB showed significantly higher IUP, AUC, and F values than perfusion with conventional KRBB. In group 3, the organ survival time of up to 17 h, with a 98% rate of effective contraction time, differed significantly from group 1 (P?long-term perfusion of swine uteri, allowing further metabolic ex vivo studies in a cost-effective way and with little logistic effort. PMID:23241226

2012-01-01

341

Long Term Gait Deviations in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Females  

PubMed Central

Purpose Little is known of the potential long term gait alterations that occur after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In particular, variables such as impact loading which have been previously associated with joint deterioration have not been studied in walking and running after an ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to define the alterations in impact forces, loading rates, and the accompanying sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic mechanics at the time of impact between the ACL reconstructed group and a healthy control group. Methods 40 females (20 ACL reconstruction, 20 controls) participated in the study. An instrumented gait analysis was performed on all subjects. Between group and limb comparisons were made for initial vertical impact force, loading rate, sagittal plane knee and hip angles as well as moments. Results During walking and running the ACL cohort had significantly greater initial vertical impact force (p=0.002 and p= 0.001), and loading rates (p=0.03 and p= 0.01), as well as a smaller knee extensor moment and hip angle during walking (p=0.000 and p=0.01). There was a trend towards a smaller knee moment and hip angle during running (p=0.08 and p=0.06) as well as a larger hip extensor moment during walking (p=0.06) in the ACL group. No differences were found for hip extensor moment during running, knee angles between groups during walking or running. Lastly, no between limb differences were found for any variable. Conclusion Gait deviations such as elevated impact loading and loading rates do not resolve long term after the individual has resumed previous activity levels and may contribute to the greater risk of early joint degeneration in this population. PMID:23568090

Noehren, Brian; Wilson, Hilary; Miller, Casey; Lattermann, Christian

2015-01-01

342

[Long-term results after excision of a popliteal cyst].  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate long term results after removal of a popliteal cyst with special focus on recurrence rate and associated intraarticular pathology. Between 1982 and 1995 71 patients (23 women and 48 men between 21 and 75 years of age) underwent removal of a popliteal cyst. An additional arthroscopy of the knee joint was carried out in 51 consecutive patients starting in 1988. The mean follow up was 6.5 years (2 to 15 years), 66 patients (93%) were available. The subjective satisfaction with the outcome was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) graded from 1 (highly satisfied) to 10 (highly dissatisfied). The popliteal region was evaluated by ultrasonography for recurrence of a cyst. During arthroscopy the predominant associated intraarticular pathologic finding was the lesion of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (75%) and the lesion of the hyaline cartilage (90%). The cyst recurrence rate was 71%. In this subgroup grade III and grade IV chondral lesions were significantly more frequent (p < 0.001). Patients with a recurrence of the popliteal cyst rated the result significantly worse (7.6 +/- 2.3 vs. 3.4 +/- 2.3; p < 0.001). The recurrence rate was relatively high in the long term follow up. It depends strongly on the type of associated intraarticular pathology. Especially grade III and grade IV chondral lesions correlated significantly with recurrence of a popliteal cyst after removal. Therefore, the main goal of surgery should be the successful treatment of associated intraarticular pathologies. PMID:11572127

Rupp, S; Seil, R; Jochum, P

2001-09-01

343

Long-term outcome of abusive head trauma.  

PubMed

Abusive head trauma is a severe inflicted traumatic brain injury, occurring under the age of 2 years, defined by an acute brain injury (mostly subdural or subarachnoidal haemorrhage), where no history or no compatible history with the clinical presentation is given. The mortality rate is estimated at 20-25% and outcome is extremely poor. High rates of impairments are reported in a number of domains, such as delayed psychomotor development; motor deficits (spastic hemiplegia or quadriplegia in 15-64%); epilepsy, often intractable (11-32%); microcephaly with corticosubcortical atrophy (61-100%); visual impairment (18-48%); language disorders (37-64%), and cognitive, behavioral and sleep disorders, including intellectual deficits, agitation, aggression, tantrums, attention deficits, memory, inhibition or initiation deficits (23-59%). Those combined deficits have obvious consequences on academic achievement, with high rates of special education in the long term. Factors associated with worse outcome include demographic factors (lower parental socioeconomic status), initial severe presentation (e.g., presence of a coma, seizures, extent of retinal hemorrhages, presence of an associated cranial fracture, extent of brain lesions, cerebral oedema and atrophy). Given the high risk of severe outcome, long-term comprehensive follow-up should be systematically performed to monitor development, detect any problem and implement timely adequate rehabilitation interventions, special education and/or support when necessary. Interventions should focus on children as well as families, providing help in dealing with the child's impairment and support with psychosocial issues. Unfortunately, follow-up of children with abusive head trauma has repeatedly been reported to be challenging, with very high attrition rates. PMID:25501726

Chevignard, Mathilde P; Lind, Katia

2014-12-01

344

Induced neural stem cells achieve long-term survival and functional integration in the adult mouse brain.  

PubMed

Differentiated cells can be converted directly into multipotent neural stem cells (i.e., induced neural stem cells [iNSCs]). iNSCs offer an attractive alternative to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology with regard to regenerative therapies. Here, we show an in vivo long-term analysis of transplanted iNSCs in the adult mouse brain. iNSCs showed sound in vivo long-term survival rates without graft overgrowths. The cells displayed a neural multilineage potential with a clear bias toward astrocytes and a permanent downregulation of progenitor and cell-cycle markers, indicating that iNSCs are not predisposed to tumor formation. Furthermore, the formation of synaptic connections as well as neuronal and glial electrophysiological properties demonstrated that differentiated iNSCs migrated, functionally integrated, and interacted with the existing neuronal circuitry. We conclude that iNSC long-term transplantation is a safe procedure; moreover, it might represent an interesting tool for future personalized regenerative applications. PMID:25241741

Hemmer, Kathrin; Zhang, Mingyue; van Wüllen, Thea; Sakalem, Marna; Tapia, Natalia; Baumuratov, Aidos; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Schöler, Hans R; Zhang, Weiqi; Schwamborn, Jens C

2014-09-01

345

Coping with PH over the Long Term  

MedlinePLUS

... review Conflict of Interest Disclosures for PHA's medical leadership, visit: Disclosures Last reviewed: April 2012 Patients Newly ... Rare Disorders (NORD) awarded PHA the Abbey S. Meyers Leadership Award in 2012 for outstanding service to PHA ...

346

Long term property prediction of polyethylene nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amorphous fraction of semicrystalline polymers has long been thought to be a significant contributor to creep deformation. In polyethylene (PE) nanocomposites, the semicrystalline nature of the maleated PE compatibilizer leads to a limited ability to separate the role of the PE in the nanocomposite properties. This dissertation investigates blown films of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and its nanocomposites with montmorillonite-layered silicate (MLS). Addition of an amorphous ethylene propylene copolymer grafted maleic anhydride (amEP) was utilized to enhance the interaction between the PE and the MLS. The amorphous nature of the compatibilizer was used to differentiate the effect of the different components of the nanocomposites; namely the matrix, the filler, and the compatibilizer on the overall properties. Tensile test results of the nanocomposites indicate that the addition of amEP and MLS separately and together produces a synergistic effect on the mechanical properties of the neat PE. Thermal transitions were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine if the observed improvement in mechanical properties is related to changes in crystallinity. The effect of dispersion of the MLS in the matrix was investigated by using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical measurements were correlated to the dispersion of the layered silicate particles in the matrix. The nonlinear time dependent creep of the material was analyzed by examining creep and recovery of the films with a Burger model and the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) relation. The effect of stress on the nonlinear behavior of the nanocomposites was investigated by analyzing creep-recovery at different stress levels. Stress-related creep constants and shift factors were determined for the material by using the Schapery nonlinear viscoelastic equation at room temperature. The effect of temperature on the tensile and creep properties of the nanocomposites was analyzed by examining tensile and creep-recovery behavior of the films at temperatures in the range of 25 to -100°C. Within the measured temperature range, the materials showed a nonlinear temperature dependent response. The time-temperature superposition principle was successfully used to predict the long term behavior of LLDPE nanocomposites.

Shaito, Ali Al-Abed

347

Time preferences for the very long term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many important decisions concern outcomes delayed by decades or centuries. Whereas some economists have argued that inter-generational discount rates should be lower than intra-generational rates, three experiments found that inter- and intra-generational discount rates were quite similar. Experiment 1 found that discount rates for long delays (30–900 years) were lower than those for shorter delays (1–30 years) but that, holding

Gretchen B Chapman

2001-01-01

348

An Empirical Comparison of Alternative Models of the Short-Term Interest Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors estimate and compare a variety of continuous-time models of the short-term riskless rate using the Generalized Method of Moments. The authors find that the most successful models in capturing the dynamics of the short-term interest rate are those that allow the volatility of interest rate changes to be highly sensitive to the level of the riskless rate. A

G. A. Karolyi; F. A. Longsta; A. B. Saunders

1992-01-01

349

Peer Mentoring in Long-Term Care: Rational, Design, and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes two successful peer-mentoring programs designed to improve the quality of care in nursing homes and retention rates among direct care staff. The first program, "Growing Strong Roots," examined CNA retention rates and the second program, "Peer Mentoring for Long Term Charge Nurses," examined RN and LPN retention rates. These…

Hegeman, Carol; Hoskinson, Debi; Munro, Heather; Maiden, Patricia; Pillemer, Karl

2007-01-01

350

PKMf Maintains Spatial, Instrumental, and Classically Conditioned Long-Term  

Microsoft Academic Search

How long-term memories are stored is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The first molecular mechanism for long-term memory storage in the brain was recently identified as the persistent action of protein kinase Mzeta (PKMf), an autonomously active atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform critical for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP). PKMf maintains aversively conditioned associations, but what general form

Eugenia L. Friedman; Jana Kenney; Stephen M. Taubenfeld; Joshua M. Zimmerman; John Hanna; Cristina Alberini; Ann E. Kelley; Stephen Maren; Jerry W. Rudy; Jerry C. P. Yin; Todd C. Sacktor; Andre A. Fenton

351

Long-term operation of manure-microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is applied to produce electricity using dairy manure as a fuel. Since the way MFC utilizes manure as a fuel and the long-term operation stability of manure-MFC remains unclear, this study examined the evolution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in anodic chamber and power generation by MFC in a 171days test. The tested MFC can produce electricity over the entire testing period by single feed of manure, with stable power output and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal rate in the period of day 30-140. The hydrophobic acid (HPO-A) and hydrophilic (HPI) fractions of manure were the principal components of anolyte DOM, with the concentrations of both being reduced over MFC operation. The degradable organic matters were converted to compounds with high aromaticity. PMID:25603729

Zhang, Guodong; Zhao, Qingliang; Jiao, Yan; Lee, Duu-Jong

2015-03-01

352

Long-term leaching behaviour of glasses containing zirconium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five borosilicate glasses containing up to 20% zirconium oxide and 10% non-radioactive fission products or lanthanum oxide (which simulates the behaviour of the actinides) were leached in stagnant distilled water at 20 ° C for 2 years. The leaching rates of Na, La, Mn, Cs and Mo varied with time and the chemical composition of the glass from 0.7 to 12, 0.006 to 0.14, 0.8 to 1.2, 0.4 to 0.8 and 8 to 25 mg/m 2/d respectively. The glasses which showed the beast short-term resistance do not have the best long-term resistance.

St.-Pierre, Jean; Zikovsky, L.

1984-08-01

353

Long-term effects of embryo freezing in mice.  

PubMed Central

Embryo cryopreservation does not induce clear-cut anomalies at detectable rates, but several mechanisms exist for nonlethal damage during the freeze-thaw process, and the risk of moderate or delayed consequences has not been extensively investigated. In a long-term study including senescence, we compared cryopreserved and control mice for several quantitative traits. Significant differences were seen in morphophysiological and behavioral features, some of them appearing in elderly subjects. Thus, apart from its immediate toxicity, embryo cryopreservation, without being severely detrimental, may have delayed effects. These results, consistent with other findings, question the neutrality of artificial reproductive technologies and draw attention to the preimplantation stages in developmental toxicology. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7831335

Dulioust, E; Toyama, K; Busnel, M C; Moutier, R; Carlier, M; Marchaland, C; Ducot, B; Roubertoux, P; Auroux, M

1995-01-01

354

North Temperate Lakes Long-Term Ecological Research (NTL-LTER)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin's world-renown Center for Limnology operates the North Temperate Lakes Long-Term Ecological Research program, emphasizing long-term ecological phenomena in urban, agricultural, and forested watersheds. This information-rich site offers general and detailed information on the North Temperate Lakes LTER's impressive array of projects. Research projects encompass several themes, including long-term trends in physical, chemical, and biological properties of lake ecosystems; the dynamics of internal and external processes affecting lake ecosystems; the temporal responses of lake ecosystems to disturbance and stress; the interaction between spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability of lake ecosystems; and lake-ecosystem properties in a broad regional context. Also of interest are descriptions of lake properties, a searchable bibliography, biodiversity and species lists, and more than a dozen online datasets ranging from Aquatic Macrophytes through Zooplankton. A query-able climate data section and Links to Other Sites of Interest round out the site.

1998-01-01

355

Long-term metapopulation study of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia): survey methods, data management, and long-term population trends  

PubMed Central

Long-term observational studies conducted at large (regional) spatial scales contribute to better understanding of landscape effects on population and evolutionary dynamics, including the conditions that affect long-term viability of species, but large-scale studies are expensive and logistically challenging to keep running for a long time. Here, we describe the long-term metapopulation study of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) that has been conducted since 1991 in a large network of 4000 habitat patches (dry meadows) within a study area of 50 by 70 km in the Åland Islands in Finland. We explain how the landscape structure has been described, including definition, delimitation, and mapping of the habitat patches; methods of field survey, including the logistics, cost, and reliability of the survey; and data management using the EarthCape biodiversity platform. We describe the long-term metapopulation dynamics of the Glanville fritillary based on the survey. There has been no long-term change in the overall size of the metapopulation, but the level of spatial synchrony and hence the amplitude of fluctuations in year-to-year metapopulation dynamics have increased over the years, possibly due to increasing frequency of exceptional weather conditions. We discuss the added value of large-scale and long-term population studies, but also emphasize the need to integrate more targeted experimental studies in the context of long-term observational studies. For instance, in the case of the Glanville fritillary project, the long-term study has produced an opportunity to sample individuals for experiments from local populations with a known demographic history. These studies have demonstrated striking differences in dispersal rate and other life-history traits of individuals from newly established local populations (the offspring of colonizers) versus individuals from old, established local populations. The long-term observational study has stimulated the development of metapopulation models and provided an opportunity to test model predictions. This combination of empirical studies and modeling has facilitated the study of key phenomena in spatial dynamics, such as extinction threshold and extinction debt. PMID:24198935

Ojanen, Sami P; Nieminen, Marko; Meyke, Evgeniy; Pöyry, Juha; Hanski, Ilkka

2013-01-01

356

Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

Hansen, J. (editor); Rossow, W. (editor); Fung, I. (editor)

1993-01-01

357

Tax Clientele Effects in the Term Structure of UK Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests for tax clientele effects in the term structure of UK interest rates. Five empirical models of the term structure of interest rates, incorporating tax effects, are estimated with daily data covering the period 31 March, 1995 to 3 August, 1995. In May 1995, the British government announced its intention to eliminate the tax exemption on capital gains

Eric J. Levin; Robert E. Wright

2001-01-01

358

Impact of bank competition on the interest rate pass-through in the euro area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the impact of loan market competition on the interest rates applied by euro area banks to loans during the period 1994–2004, using a novel measure of competition called the Boone indicator. We find evidence that stronger competition implies significantly lower spreads between bank and market interest rates for most loan market products, in line with expectations. This

Michiel van Leuvensteijn; Christoffer Kok Sørensen; Jacob A. Bikker; Adrian A. R. J. M. van Rixtel

2013-01-01

359

Halving Student Loan Interest Rates Is Unaffordable and Ineffective. WebMemo No. 1308  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The House of Representatives will likely vote this week on a proposal to halve the 6.8 percent interest rate on subsidized student loans as part of the new congressional majority's 100-Hour agenda. This document presents six problems with halving student loan interest rates and argues that, rather than providing billions in new federal subsidies,…

Riedl, Brian M.

2007-01-01

360

Long-Term Evolution of Meandering Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural rivers are self-formed features whose shapes are the result of interaction between erosion, deposition and transport of sediments. The study of their morphodynamics and the characterization of related sedimentary processes are of great interest not only to environmental engineers but also to hydrology and historical geology, contributing to the interpretation of stratigraphic records. In the present contribution we focus

A. Frascati; S. Lanzoni

2007-01-01

361

Long-Term Follow-up Results of Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the long-term follow-up results of laparoscopic pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Materials and Methods Sixty-five patients (mean age, 43.8 years) who underwent standard laparoscopic pyeloplasty by transperitoneal approaches were enrolled in this study. The chief complaint was flank pain (n=57 patients); the remaining cases were detected incidentally. Twenty-three patients had undergone previous abdominal surgeries, including open pyeloplasty and endopyelotomy. Mean stricture length was 1.06 cm. Grade 3/4 and 4/4 hydronephrosis was detected in 36 and 14 patients, respectively. An obstructive pattern was present on the renal scan in 53 patients (81.5%). Results Fifty-seven patients were treated with dismembered Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty and eight patients with Fenger pyeloplasty. During the operation, crossing vessels were found in 27 patients (41.5%). Mean operating time was 159.42 minutes. Although there were no cases of open conversion, two patients with colon and spleen injuries were detected postoperatively. The mean starting time of postoperative ambulation and diet was 1.54 days and 1.86 days, respectively. Mean hospital stay was 8.09 days. Mean follow-up period was 36.5 months. Follow-up intravenous pyelography and renal scan showed improvements in 59 patients, and the radiologic success rate was 90.8%. Eight patients showed failure on radiologic or symptomatic evaluation, and the overall success rate was 87.7%. In the comparative analysis between the success and failure groups, drained amount was the only risk factor related to failure (554.41 mL. vs. 947.70 mL, p=0.024). Conclusions Long-term follow-up results support laparoscopic pyeloplasty as the standard treatment for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Drained amount is a risk factor for failure of the operation. PMID:25324948

Oh, Tae Hoon; Lee, Jae Whan

2014-01-01

362

Time preferences for the very long term.  

PubMed

Many important decisions concern outcomes delayed by decades or centuries. Whereas some economists have argued that inter-generational discount rates should be lower than intra-generational rates, three experiments found that inter- and intra-generational discount rates were quite similar. Experiment 1 found that discount rates for long delays (30-900 years) were lower than those for shorter delays (1-30 years) but that, holding delay constant, discount rates for outcomes occurring to future generations were similar to those for outcomes occurring to the present generation. Experiment 2 compared inter-generational discount rates for three different types of outcomes and found similar discount rates for saving lives, improving health, and financial benefits. Experiment 3 found similar inter-generational discounting of life-saving programs that benefit people close to or distant from the decision maker. These studies indicate that the discount rate applied to outcomes occurring to future generations depends on the length of the time delay but not on other factors. PMID:11569764

Chapman, G B

2001-09-01

363

Biological Aortic Valve Replacement. Long-Term Follow-Up and Predictors of Mortality, Rehospitalization and Reintervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Aortic valve replacement is the conventional procedure in aortic valve disease; neverthe- less, choosing the most suitable model of prosthesis is a complex decision. The use of novel biological models specially treated to reduce long-term structural deterioration has been encouraged, even in young populations. Objective To assess long-term survival of biological valve replacement, quality of life, rates of re-

FERNANDO PICCININI; JUAN M. VRANCIC; GUILLERMO VACCARINO; HERNÁN D. RAICH; JORGE THIERER; DANIEL O. NAVIA; Blanco Encalada

364

Exploratory models of long-term crustal flow and resulting seismicity across the Alpine-Aegean orogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term crustal flow is computed with a kinematic finite element model based on iterated weighted least squares fits to data and prior constraints. Data include 773 fault traces, 106 fault offset rates, 510 geodetic velocities, 2566 principal stress azimuths, and velocity boundary conditions representing the rigid parts of the Eurasia, Africa, and Anatolia plates. Model predictions include long-term velocities, fault

Tracy M. Howe; Peter Bird

2010-01-01

365

Summary for working group B on long-term stability  

SciTech Connect

A total of 36 workshop participants attended at least one session of the Long-Term Stability working group. We avoided turning these sessions into a specialized seminar series by meeting in two subgroups, loosely labeled Analysis and Diffusion & Tracking, so that working discussions among a reasonably small number of people were possible. Nonetheless, no attempt is made to categorize the 13 group B papers according to original subgroup. A similar workshop, the Workshop on Accelerator Orbit and Particle Tracking Problems, was held almost exactly 10 years ago at Brookhaven. It is interesting to see how many of the participants in the photograph of that workshop appear again in the photograph at the front of these proceedings. Fortunately, it is not correct to infer that little progress has been made in the last decade, nor that the average age of the participants has increased significantly. Rather, the recent photograph has many more, younger, faces than its predecessor. This attests to the ongoing interest and vigorous activity in an area of central importance to accelerator physics.

Peggs, S.G.

1992-12-31

366

Impact of long term flooding on hydrogeochemistry and dissolved organic matter quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands store significant amounts of carbon but also contribute to global methane emissions. Large areas in the boreal and temperate zones are predicted to undergo changes in climate and concomitant changes in hydrology, according to climate change scenarios. Thus, it is crucial to understand the response of peatlands to altered climatic and hydrological boundary conditions. Here we investigated the response of a peatland to long term wetting, as especially in winter for large areas wetter conditions have been predicted. We hypothesized that long term wetting will change hydrological fluxes, probably nutrient inputs from the adjacent water body, and thereby result in changes in vegetation and concomitant changes in peat decomposability. The Luther Marsh site in Ontario, Canada, that has been partly flooded since the 1950s due to the construction of a reservoir. Water management in the reservoir flooded a large part of the peatland and also causes seasonal flooding especially in winter and spring, but also draining in summer. This leads to shifting hydrological flow patterns and vegetation gradients. Therefore, this site may serve as a model system to understand the effect of long term wetting. Hydrology was monitored by means of piezometers and pressure transducers over one growing season over a transect of 7 sites from the reservoir to the inner, pristine part of the bog. At the same sites, we obtained pore water chemistry data and dissolved gases. Surprisingly, partial flooding only partly affected the general hydrological regime of the peatland and the general flow direction of groundwater was still out of the peatland into the adjacent lake. On the other hand, wetting resulted in obvious changes in vegetation, increased nutrient availability, and thus increased decomposition activity in the wetted part. This was reflected more narrow CH4 to CO2 ratios in the pore water and higher concentrations and calculated turnover rates. Advective transport removed decomposition end products and introduced nutrient enriched reservoir water, as indicated by elevated pH and increased concentrations in Ca and Mg. Interestingly, DOC quality as assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy also gradually approached quality indices observed in the reservoir and the effect of wetting obviously reached far into the seemingly intact peatland. This study demonstrated that partial flooding of a peatland significantly changes vegetation and the nutritional status, resulting in a shift towards more CH4 production and higher turnover rates.

Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian; Frei, Sven; Kasparbauer, Klaus; Durejka, Stefan; Schaper, Jonas

2014-05-01

367

Mathematics & NSA: A Long Term Partnership  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Security Agency (NSA) is said to be "the largest employer of mathematicians in the United States and perhaps the world." Therefore, it works to foster education and interest in mathematics for students at an early age. This page of the NSA Web site has several learning units for elementary, middle, and high school students. The learning units should probably be printed out for students to follow, since many of the exercises are accompanied by graphs or charts that need to be completed. Instructor guidance is not required, but could be useful to introduce each activity.

368

Barrier and long term creep properties of polymer nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The barrier properties and long term strength retention of polymers are of significant importance in a number of applications. Enhanced lifetime food packaging, substrates for OLED based flexible displays and long duration scientific balloons are among them. Higher material requirements in these applications drive the need for an accurate measurement system. Therefore, a new system was engineered with enhanced sensitivity and accuracy. Permeability of polymers is affected by permeant solubility and diffusion. One effort to decrease diffusion rates is via increasing the transport path length. We explore this through dispersion of layered silicates into polymers. Layered silicates with effective aspect ratio of 1000:1 have shown promise in improving the barrier and mechanical properties of polymers. The surface of these inorganic silicates was modified with surfactants to improve the interaction with organic polymers. The micro and nanoscale dispersion of the layered silicates was probed using optical and transmission microscopy as well as x-ray diffraction. Thermal transitions were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry. Mechanical and permeability measurements were correlated to the dispersion and increased density. The essential structure-property relationships were established by comparing semicrystalline and amorphous polymers. Semicrystalline polymers selected were nylon-6 and polyethylene terephthalate. The amorphous polymer was polyethylene terphthalate-glycol. Densification due to the layered silicate in both semicrystalline and amorphous polymers was associated with significant impact on barrier and long term creep behavior. The inferences were confirmed by investigating a semi-crystalline polymer---polyethylene---above and below the glass transition. The results show that the layered silicate influences the amorphous segments in polymers and barrier properties are affected by synergistic influences of densification and uniform dispersion of the layered silicates.

Ranade, Ajit

369

Long-term experience with methylmethacrylate cranioplasty in craniofacial surgery.  

PubMed

Cranioplasty is a procedure commonly performed by plastic surgeons involved in craniofacial surgery, in which it is generally accepted that the ideal reconstructive material is autogenous bone. When this is not available or when its use is inappropriate, alloplastic materials are the next best option. A retrospective analysis was carried out to review the senior author's experience of 98 cranioplasties with methylmethacrylate (MM) from 1980 to 2001. The site and size of the implant and complications thereof were recorded and an assessment of the quality of the final result made. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1: Methylmethacrylate as a full thickness inlay. Group 2: Methylmethacrylate as an onlay only. In group 1 there were 32 patients for whom the average follow up was 8.2 years (range 2-16 years). In group 2 there were 66 patients with an average follow up of 7.1 years (range 2-20 years). After a minimum follow up of 2 years, 89 out of 98 of the patients retained their implants. Nine implants in total were removed. Of the 89 patients retaining their implants, 85 had excellent or good results at long-term follow up. The infection and implant removal rate was very high if nasal or frontal sinus tissue was in direct contact with the implant during the operative procedure. The keys to the successful use of methylmethacrylate are discussed and representative case examples are presented. There is increasing evidence that the long term results of newer alternatives to methylmethacrylate for cranioplasty such as hydroxyapatite cement are disappointing and do not justify their expense. Methylmethacrylate is cheap, readily available and easy to use and it remains the alloplastic material of choice for cranioplasty in our hands. PMID:18474454

Marchac, D; Greensmith, A

2008-07-01

370

Long-term outcomes five years after selective dorsal rhizotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a well accepted neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity interfering with motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The goal is to improve function, but long-term outcome studies are rare. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term functional outcomes, safety and side effects during five postoperative years in

Eva Nordmark; Annika Lundkvist Josenby; Jan Lagergren; Gert Andersson; Lars-Göran Strömblad; Lena Westbom

2008-01-01

371

Pediatric Facial Fractures and Potential Long-Term Growth Disturbances  

PubMed Central

Fractures of the pediatric craniofacial skeleton can be challenging to manage. The initial injury and subsequent treatment can cause long-term growth disturbances yielding problematic secondary deformities. This review considers the normal growth of the craniofacial skeleton and typical facial fracture presentations in children and discusses the potential long-term sequelae from these injuries and their management. PMID:22379506

Wheeler, Jonathan; Phillips, John

2011-01-01

372

LONG-TERM CADMIUM STRESS IN THE CUNNER, TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS  

E-print Network

LONG-TERM CADMIUM STRESS IN THE CUNNER, TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS J. R. MAcINNES, F. P. THURBERG, R; Dawson et al. in press; Gould in press; Thurberg et al. in press). Such long-term physiological stress chemistry, and immune response (National Oceanic and At- mospheric Administration 1974). In the present

373

Long-term climate monitoring and extreme events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems with long-term monitoring of various extreme meteorological events (including tropical and extratropical cyclones, extreme winds, temperatures and precipitation, and mesoscale events) are examined. For many types of extreme events, the maintenance of long-term homogeneity of observations is more difficult than is the case for means of variables. In some cases, however, a strategy of using more than a single

Neville Nicholls

1995-01-01

374

Reuse Requirements for Generating Long Term Climate Data Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating long term climate data sets from remotely sensed data requires a specialized form of code reuse. To detect long term trends in a geophysical parameter, such as global ozone amount or mean sea surface temperature, it is essential to be able to differentiate between real changes in the measurement and artifacts related to changes in processing algorithms or instrument

A. J. Fleig

2007-01-01

375

Long-term changes in the invertebrate communities of SUDS  

E-print Network

Long-term changes in the invertebrate communities of SUDS ponds Rob Briers Edinburgh Napier Current study · Long term monitoring of development of invertebrate communities across 4 SUDS sites. (2006) Methods: invertebrates · Two phases of study: ­ 1999-2003: 5 x 30s pond net sampling annually

Heal, Kate

376

Mexican American Elders with Dementia in Long Term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicates the older Hispanic population is one of the fastest growing groups in the United States, and this increase presents unique problems in long-term care delivery for the dementia patient. Late interface with long-term care services results in delayed diagnosis, significant impairments, and prolonged caregiver burden. Understanding the unique cultural influences in this population will assist the gerontologist

David V. Espino; Charles P. Mouton; David Del Aguila; Robert W. Parker; Richard M. Lewis; Toni P. Miles

2001-01-01

377

Long-term field experiments of the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term field experiments are indispensable sources of knowledge. They are vitally important in monitoring, understanding and proving the changes in soil fertility occurring as a result of long-term agrotechnical operations, first of all that of fertilization. Because of longevity, it is fairly costly to maintain them. Their scientific and practical value is, however, immeasurable and keeps growing with their age.

Katalin Debreczeni; Martin Körschens

2003-01-01

378

Long-term Ecological Monitoring in Schools and Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value and difficulties of long-term ecological monitoring studies undertaken in schools and colleges are reviewed. Rookeries, stream ecology, sand dune succession, fish population, and seed production and survival are presented as examples of successful studies. This is followed by a discussion of points to consider when setting up a long-term…

Doberski, Julian; Brodie, Iain D. S.

1991-01-01

379

Morphodynamic length scale and long term river meandering dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fully nonlinear simulation of the lateral migration of meandering channels, combined with an analytical description of the linearized flow field, gives a powerful and yet computationally accessible tool to investigate short and long term evolution of alluvial rivers. In the present contribution we focus on the long term behavior of meandering rivers. This class of dynamical systems is driven

S. Lanzoni; A. Frascati

2009-01-01

380

Efficiency in California-Type Community-Based Long-Term Care Waiver Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in the development of community-based long-term care (CBLTC) programs as a substitute for institutional-based care has been steadily growing. The estimated benefits from the Multipurpose Senior Services Program (MSSP), California's intensive CBLTC system, were measured by the expected increase in community residency days for clients for a…

Miller, Leonard S.

381

A Survey of Current Literature on Sampling, Sample Handling, and Long Term Storage for Environmental Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of an extensive literature survey undertaken to establish optimum sampling, sample handling and long-term storage techniques for a wide variety of environmental samples to retain sample integrity. The components of interest are trace elements, organics, pesticides, radionuclides and microbiologicals. A bibliography…

Maienthal, E. J.; Becker, D. A.

382

Economic efficiency of short-term versus long-term water rights buyouts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because of the decline of the Ogallala Aquifer, water districts, regional water managers, and state water officers are becoming increasingly interested in conservation policies. This study evaluates both short-term and long-term water rights buyout policies. This research develops dynamic production...

383

An European framework for the long term preservation of EO data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for accessing historical Earth Observation (EO) data series strongly increased in the last ten years, mainly for long term science and environmental monitoring applications. This trend is likely to increase even more in the future in particular for the growing interest on global change monitoring that requires data time-series spanning 20 years and more, and for the need

E. Forcada; M. Albani; V. Beruti

2009-01-01

384

Effects of long-term and chronic radiation on hemopoiesis. [. gamma. rays; rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionizing radiation is one of the adverse factors of space flights. The possibility of exposure to solar and galactic radiation makes it necessary to develop methods for assessing the radiation hazard and substantiating maximum permissible levels of long-term and chronic irradiation. Evaluation of the sequelae of such factors affecting repair capabilities of hemopoiesis is of definite interest, in view of

Zukhbaya

1978-01-01

385

Sexuality Training for Caretakers of Geriatric Residents in Long Term Care Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A training program on sexuality of geriatric residents for caretakers and administrators in a long term care facility was quite effective in eliciting interest and participation. The workshop's training focused on (1) Attitudes toward sexuality and the elderly; (2) Terminology and communication; (3) Residents' rights and abilities to make decisions about their sexuality; (4) Information sharing and handouts: information to

Kathleen S. Mayers; Dennis McBride

1998-01-01

386

The use of interest rate swaps by nonprofit organizations: evidence from nonprofit health care providers.  

PubMed

Although the use of derivatives, particularly interest rate swaps, has grown explosively over the past decade, derivative financial instrument use by nonprofits has received only limited attention in the research literature. Because little is known about the risk management activities of nonprofits, the impact of these instruments on the ability of nonprofits to raise capital may have significant public policy implications. The primary motivation of this study is to determine the types of derivatives used by nonprofits and estimate the frequency of their use among these organizations. Our study also extends contemporary finance theory by an empirical examination of the motivation for interest rate swap usage among nonprofits. Our empirical data came from 193 large nonprofit health care providers that issued debt to the public between 2000 and 2003. We used a univariate analysis and a multivariate analysis relying on logistic regression models to test alternative explanations of interest rate swaps usage by nonprofits, finding that more than 45 percent of our sample, 88 organizations, used interest rate swaps with an aggregate notional value in excess of $8.3 billion. Our empirical tests indicate the primary motive for nonprofits to use interest rate derivatives is to hedge their exposure to interest rate risk. Although these derivatives are a useful risk management tool, under conditions of falling bond market interest rates these derivatives may also expose a nonprofit swap user to the risk of a material unscheduled termination payment. Finally, we found considerable diversity in the informativeness of footnote disclosure among sample organizations that used interest rate swaps. Many nonprofits did not disclose these risks in their financial statements. In conclusion, we find financial managers in large nonprofits commonly use derivative financial instruments as risk management tools, but the use of interest rate swaps by nonprofits may expose them to other risks that are not adequately disclosed in their financial statements. PMID:19175237

Stewart, Louis J; Trussel, John

2006-01-01

387

Long Term Storage of Mojave Seed Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The increased occurrence of wildfires throughout the west is an extremely serious challenge for resource managers and researchers. In recent years the invasion of the exotic annual grass, red brome (Bromus rubens), has increased the ignition as well as the rate, spread and frequency of wildfires th...

388

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LAND APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER: MILTON, WISCONSIN, RAPID INFILTRATION SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the findings of a research study on the long-term effects of applying treated domestic wastewater to an infiltration site at Milton, Wisconsin. On the test site a high-rate rapid infiltration method, applying effluent at an estimated rate of 244 m (800 ft) pe...

389

Long term respiratory sequelae of whooping cough in a nationally representative sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term respiratory consequences of whooping cough in childhood were sought among members of the National Survey of Health and Development. Peak expiratory flow rate was measured when the survey members were 36 years old and seven respiratory symptoms were reported at the same time. Peak expiratory flow rate was slightly reduced in those who had had whooping cough

N Britten; J Wadsworth

1986-01-01

390

Price of coupon bond options in a quantum field theory of forward interest rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European options on coupon bonds are studied in a quantum field theory model of forward interest rates. A approximation scheme for finding the option price is developed based on the fact that the volatility of the forward interest rate is a small quantity. The field theory for the forward interest rates is in effect Gaussian, and when the payoff function for the coupon bonds option is included it makes the field theory exponentially nonlinear. A Feynman perturbation expansion gives a result for the price of Libor swaption that agrees quite well with the market price.

Baaquie, Belal E.

2006-10-01

391

Adapting Collaborative Depression Care for Public Community Long-Term Care: Using Research-Practice Partnerships  

PubMed Central

Description This manuscript details potential benefits for using a research-practice partnership to adapt collaborative depression care for public community long-term care agencies serving older adults. We used sequential, multi-phase, and mixed methods approaches for documenting the process of adaptation within a case study. Systematic adaptation strategies are described, such as leveraging long-term research-practice collaborations, consulting with multiple stakeholders across all levels and disciplines, and balancing demands to monitor treatment fidelity, clinical outcomes, and implementation results. These examples demonstrate that researchers interested in implementation science need skills to negotiate the competing demands that arise from both the research and practice settings. PMID:24072560

Lenze, Shannon; Brown, Teresa; Lawrence, Lisa; Nickel, Mike; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola K.

2014-01-01

392

Long-Term Nuclear Industry Outlook - 2004  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear industry has become increasingly efficient and global in nature, but may now be poised at a crossroads between graceful decline and profound growth as a viable provider of electrical energy. Predicted population and energy-demand growth, an increased interest in global climate change, the desire to reduce the international dependence on oil as an energy source, the potential for hydrogen co-generation using nuclear power reactors, and the improved performance in the nuclear power industry have raised the prospect of a “nuclear renaissance” in which nuclear power would play an increasingly more important role in both domestic and international energy market. This report provides an assessment of the role nuclear-generated power will plan in the global energy future and explores the impact of that role on export controls.

Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.

2004-09-30

393

Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas: What Happens Long Term?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the clinical outcomes for acoustic neuroma treated with low-dose linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) >10 years earlier at the Royal Adelaide Hospital using data collected prospectively at a dedicated SRS clinic. Methods and Materials: Between November 1993 and December 2000, 51 patients underwent SRS for acoustic neuroma. For the 44 patients with primary SRS for sporadic (unilateral) lesions, the median age was 63 years, the median of the maximal tumor diameter was 21 mm (range, 11-34), and the marginal dose was 14 Gy for the first 4 patients and 12 Gy for the other 40. Results: The crude tumor control rate was 97.7% (1 patient required salvage surgery for progression at 9.75 years). Only 8 (29%) of 28 patients ultimately retained useful hearing (interaural pure tone average {<=}50 dB). Also, although the Kaplan-Meier estimated rate of hearing preservation at 5 years was 57% (95% confidence interval, 38-74%), this decreased to 24% (95% confidence interval, 11-44%) at 10 years. New or worsened V and VII cranial neuropathy occurred in 11% and 2% of patients, respectively; all cases were transient. No case of radiation oncogenesis developed. Conclusions: The long-term follow-up data of low-dose (12-14 Gy) linear accelerator SRS for acoustic neuroma have confirmed excellent tumor control and acceptable cranial neuropathy rates but a continual decrease in hearing preservation out to {>=}10 years.

Roos, Daniel E., E-mail: daniel.roos@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); University of Adelaide School of Medicine, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Potter, Andrew E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Brophy, Brian P. [Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); University of Adelaide School of Medicine, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)

2012-03-15

394

Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out.

NONE

1998-07-01

395

Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. This Shiprock, New Mexico, LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the US or an Indian tribe and describes in detail the long-term care program through the UMTRA Project Office.

Not Available

1993-12-01

396

Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, Disposal site. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal site, which will be referred to as the Lowman site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. The radioactive sands at the Lowman site were stabilized on the site. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or a state, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992).

Not Available

1994-04-01

397

Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, disposal site  

SciTech Connect

The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This preliminary final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992).

Not Available

1993-09-01

398

High Temperature Steam Electrolysis: Demonstration of Improved Long-Term Performance  

SciTech Connect

Long-term performance is an ongoing issue for hydrogen production based on high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE). For commercial deployment, solid-oxide electrolysis stacks must achieve high performance with long-term degradation rates of {approx}0.5%/1000 hours or lower. Significant progress has been achieved toward this goal over the past few years. This paper will provide details of progress achieved under the Idaho National Laboratory high temperature electrolysis research program. Recent long-term stack tests have achieved high initial performance with degradation rates less than 5%/khr. These tests utilize internally manifolded stacks with electrode-supported cells. The cell material sets are optimized for the electrolysis mode of operation. Details of the cells and stacks will be provided along with details of the test apparatus, procedures, and results.

J. E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; R. C. O'Brien; G. Tao

2011-11-01

399

Long-term habituation to food in obese and nonobese women123  

PubMed Central

Background: Habituation is a form of learning in which repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to a decrease in responding. Eating involves repeated presentation of the same food stimulus in a meal, and habituation is reliably observed within a meal such that faster rates of habituation are associated with less energy intake. It is possible that repeated presentation of the same food over days will lead to long-term habituation, such that subjects habituate to foods repeated over meals. However, no research on long-term habituation to food in humans has been conducted. Objective: The current study was designed to assess long-term habituation in 16 obese and 16 nonobese premenopausal women. Design: Obese and nonobese women (aged 20–50 y) were randomly assigned to receive a macaroni and cheese meal presented 5 times, either daily for 1 wk or once per week for 5 wk. Results: In both obese and nonobese women, daily presentation of food resulted in faster habituation and less energy intake than did once-weekly presentation of food. Conclusions: Long-term habituation was observed when the same food was presented at daily meals but not when presented once weekly for 5 wk. These results provide the first evidence of long-term habituation to food in women and show that memory of food over daily meals can increase the rate of habituation and reduce energy intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01208870. PMID:21593492

Carr, Katelyn A; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A; Bouton, Mark E

2011-01-01

400

77 FR 46550 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2012 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the...

2012-08-03

401

78 FR 5555 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2013 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the...

2013-01-25

402

78 FR 65416 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2014 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the...

2013-10-31

403

78 FR 26680 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2013 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the...

2013-05-07

404

78 FR 45283 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2013 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the...

2013-07-26

405

77 FR 4854 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2012 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the...

2012-01-31

406

76 FR 66769 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2012 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the...

2011-10-27

407

77 FR 71668 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2013 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the...

2012-12-03

408

76 FR 44976 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2011 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the...

2011-07-27

409

77 FR 25010 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2012 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the...

2012-04-26

410

77 FR 5416 - Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate Risk; Investment and Deposit Activities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 703 Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate...unions (FCUs) to engage in certain derivatives transactions for the purpose of offsetting...of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR I) on derivatives transactions issued for comment...

2012-02-03

411

7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Notice of Change in Interest Rate  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

): Your promissory note dated ___, for the original amount of ___ dollars ($___) provides for a change in interest rate for a limited resource loan in accordance with the Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

2010-01-01

412

7 CFR 771.9 - Interest rates, terms, security requirements, and repayment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.9 Interest rates, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a)...

2011-01-01

413

7 CFR 771.9 - Interest rates, terms, security requirements, and repayment.  

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.9 Interest rates, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a)...

2014-01-01

414

7 CFR 771.9 - Interest rates, terms, security requirements, and repayment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.9 Interest rates, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a)...

2012-01-01

415

7 CFR 771.9 - Interest rates, terms, security requirements, and repayment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.9 Interest rates, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a)...

2013-01-01

416

12 CFR 652.15 - Interest rate risk management and requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...interest rate risk management; (2) Identify...Mac's desired risk management objectives; (5) Document the objectives that...Mac to evaluate and document, at least quarterly...Farmer Mac's management must report to...

2010-01-01

417

29 CFR Appendix B to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for PBGC Payments  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Pt. 4022, App. B Appendix B to Part 4022—Lump Sum Interest Rates for PBGC Payments [In using this table: (1) For benefits...

2011-07-01

418

Area Scales of the Navy Vocational Interest Inventory as Predictors of School Performance and Rating Assignment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the area (homogeneous) scales of the Navy Vocational Interest Inventory (NVII) as predictors of Class "A" school achievement and as measures of rating differentiation by comparing specific occupational scales with more general interest measures--the NVII area scales. The NVII was…

Lau, Alan W.; Abrahams, Norman M.

419

Long term trend of selected halogenated hydrocarbons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The so-called 'Library of Background Air' at the Oregon Graduate Institute was used to determine the trend in volume mixing ratios of selected halogenated hydrocarbons in the time period 1977-1989. This library consists of background air samples most of them taken at Cape Meares (Oregon). For storage stainless steel containers are used. Tests have shown the gases under consideration to be stable in these containers. Analyses using a GC/MS-system were performed for the CFCs 11, 12, 12B1 (HALON 1211, CBrClF2), 22, 113, 114 and CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3CCl3, CCl4. The advantage of this unique investigation: different aged air samples are analyzed at the same time with the same instrument. No calibrations or intercalibrations are needed. All data are presented in normalized mixing ratios versus time. We discuss the results, derive rate constants and present a formula to describe the nonlinear increases.

Borchers, R.; Gunawardena, R.; Rasmussen, R. A.

1994-01-01

420

Professional Forecasts of Interest Rates and Exchange Rates: Evidence from the Wall Street Journal's Panel of Economists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on expectations suggests that professional forecasters may have incentives that lead them to make more extreme forecasts than they would make were accuracy the only criterion. We use the interest rate and exchange rate forecasts from the Wall Street Journal?s panel of economists to investigate this issue. We examine the unbiasedness and forecast accuracy of individual forecasters, finding

Karlyn Mitchell; Douglas K. Pearce

2004-01-01

421

Long-term evolution of denudational escarpments in southeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic relief in southeastern Brazil consists of a sequence of stepped surfaces that formed after the fragmentation of Gondwana during the Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary tectonic pulses. This region is drained by four major rivers within four major river basins, with interfluves that contain denudational escarpments, fault escarpments and mountain ranges. This study presents an analysis of the long-term evolution of two denudational escarpments, the Cristiano Otoni and the São Geraldo steps, which divide the river basins of the São Francisco, Doce and Paraíba do Sul rivers in southeastern Brazil. Denudation rates were obtained through the measurement of mean concentrations of in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in sand-sized fluvial quartz sediments collected from granitic terrains. The rates were calculated and compared with one another and correlated to the basin-scale mean relief, slope, area, and stream power. The mean denudation rates of the Cristiano Otoni and São Geraldo highlands are 8.77 (± 2.78) m My- 1 and 15.68 (± 4.53) m My- 1, respectively. The mean denudation rates of the Cristiano Otoni and São Geraldo escarpments are 17.50 (± 2.71) m My- 1 and 21.22 (± 4.24) m My- 1, respectively. The denudation rates of the catchments of highlands that drain toward the escarpments are similar to those of their respective highlands. The results demonstrate that relief and slope have similar positive control on the denudation rates for all of the samples despite their different geomorphic context and history of landscape evolution. The São Francisco River Basin is losing area to the Doce River Basin, which, in turn, is losing area to the Paraíba do Sul River Basin.

Cherem, Luis Felipe Soares; Varajão, Cesar Augusto C.; Braucher, Regis; Bourlés, Didier; Salgado, André Augusto R.; Varajão, Angélica C.

2012-11-01

422

Fracture risk assessment in long-term care: a survey of long-term care physicians  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of frail elderly who live in long-term care (LTC) are not treated for osteoporosis despite their high risk for fragility fractures. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis provide guidance for the management of individuals 50 years and older at risk for fractures, however, they cannot benefit LTC residents if physicians perceive barriers to their application. Our objectives are to explore current practices to fracture risk assessment by LTC physicians and describe barriers to applying the recently published Osteoporosis Canada practice guidelines for fracture assessment and prevention in LTC. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with the Ontario Long-Term Care Physicians Association using an online questionnaire. The survey included questions that addressed members’ attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour with respect to fracture risk assessment in LTC. Closed-ended responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic framework analysis for open-ended responses. Results We contacted 347 LTC physicians; 25% submitted completed surveys (81% men, mean age 60 (Standard Deviation [SD] 11) years, average 32 [SD 11] years in practice). Of the surveyed physicians, 87% considered prevention of fragility fractures to be important, but a minority (34%) reported using validated fracture risk assessment tools, while 33% did not use any. Clinical risk factors recommended by the OC guidelines for assessing fracture risk considered applicable included; glucocorticoid use (99%), fall history (93%), age (92%), and fracture history (91%). Recommended clinical measurements considered applicable included: weight (84%), thyroid-stimulating hormone (78%) and creatinine (73%) measurements, height (61%), and Get-Up-and-Go test (60%). Perceived barriers to assessing fracture risk included difficulty acquiring necessary information, lack of access to tests (bone mineral density, x-rays) or obtaining medical history; resource constraints, and a sentiment that assessing fracture risk is futile in this population because of short life expectancy and polypharmacy. Conclusion Perceived barriers to fracture risk assessment and osteoporosis management in LTC have not changed recently, contributing in part to the ongoing care gap in osteoporosis management. Our findings highlight the importance to adapt guidelines to be applicable to the LTC environment, and to develop partnerships with stakeholders to facilitate their use in clinical practice. PMID:24138565

2013-01-01

423

Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance  

SciTech Connect

Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

Kristofferson, Keith

2001-11-01

424

Long-term outcomes of emergency liver transplantation for acute liver failure.  

PubMed

Acute liver failure continues to be associated with a high mortality rate, and emergency liver transplantation is often the only life-saving treatment. The short-term outcomes are decidedly worse in comparison with those for nonurgent cases, whereas the long-term results have not been reported as extensively. We report our center's experience with urgent liver transplantation, long-term survival, and major complications. From 1994 to 2007, 60 patients had emergency liver transplantation for acute liver failure. The waiting list mortality rate was 6%. The mean waiting time was 2.7 days. Post-transplantation, the perioperative mortality rate was 15%, and complications included neurological problems (13%), biliary problems (10%), and hepatic artery thrombosis (5%). The 5- and 10-year patient survival rates were 76% and 69%, respectively, and the graft survival rates were 65% and 59%. Recipients of blood group-incompatible grafts had an 83% retransplantation rate. Univariate analysis by Cox regression analysis found that cerebral edema and extended criteria donor grafts were associated with worse long-term survival. Severe cerebral edema on a computed tomography scan pre-transplant was associated with either early mortality or permanent neurological deficits. The keys to long-term success and continued progress in urgent liver transplantation are the use of good-quality whole grafts and a short waiting list time, both of which depend on access to a sufficient pool of organ donors. Severe preoperative cerebral edema should be a relative contraindication to transplantation. PMID:19938124

Chan, Gabriel; Taqi, Ali; Marotta, Paul; Levstik, Mark; McAlister, Vivian; Wall, William; Quan, Douglas

2009-12-01

425

Space ventures and society long-term perspectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

Brown, W. M.

1985-01-01

426

Long-term correlations in the surface behavior of dolphins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we study the sequences of surface behavioral patterns of dolphins (Tursiops sp.) and find long-term correlations. We show that the long-term correlations are not of a trivial nature, i.e. they cannot be explained by the repetition of the same surface behavior many times in a row. Our findings suggest that dolphins have a long collective memory extending back at least to the 7-th past behavior. As far as we know, this is the first evidence of long-term correlations in the behavior of a non-human species.

Cancho, R. Ferrer i.; Lusseau, D.

2006-06-01

427

Combating computer crimes: A long term strategy  

SciTech Connect

Computer crimes are a new kind of crime less than twenty years old, but in these twenty years or so the computer crime rate has risen alarmingly, costing society billions of dollars annually. In software alone this figure is in billions; software piracy in USA resulted in a loss of 2.9 billion dollars in 1989 and 2.4 billion dollars in 1990. The problem is growing rapidly with a steadily increasing use of computers by the public. The number of people using computers in the USA in the last 10 years either at work or at home has jumped from almost zero to about 40 per cent of the population. In the next decade this number may approach 80 percent. With such widespread use of computers at work and home together with the ever increasing number of local, national, and international networks, computer crimes are expected to sky rocket, and if no adequate means are devised to combat these crimes now, the future promises to be no less frightening than the present.

Kizza, J.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

1994-12-31

428

Predicting long-term response to selection.  

PubMed

Lande's equation for predicting the response of trait means to a shift in optimal trait values is tested using a stochastic simulation model. The simulated population is finite, and each individual has a finite number of loci. Therefore, selection may cause allele frequencies and distributions to change over time. Since the equation assumes constant genetic parameters, the degree to which such allelic changes affect predictions can be examined. Predictions are based only on information available at generation zero of directional selection. The quality of the predictions depends on the nature of allelic distributions in the original population. If allelic effects are approximately normally distributed, as assumed in Lande's Gaussian approximation to the continuum-of-alleles model, the predictions are very accurate, despite small changes in the G matrix. If allelic effects have a leptokurtic distribution, as is likely in Turelli's 'house-of-cards' approximation, the equation underestimates the rate of response and correlated response, and overestimates the time required for the trait means to reach their equilibrium values. Models with biallelic loci have limits as to the amount of trait divergence possible, since only two allelic values are available at each of a finite set of loci. If the new optimal trait values lie within these limits, predictions are good, if not, singularity in the G matrix results in suboptimal equilibria, despite the presence of genetic variance for each individual trait. PMID:10740924

Reeve, J P

2000-02-01

429

Mitigating the Long term Operating Extreme Load through Active Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parameters influencing the long term extreme operating design loads are identified through the implementation of a Design of Experiment (DOE) method. A function between the identified critical factors and the ultimate out-of-plane loads on the blade is determined. Variations in the initial blade azimuth location are shown to affect the extreme blade load magnitude during operation in normal turbulence wind input. The simultaneously controlled operation of generator torque variation and pitch variation at low blade pitch angles is detected to be responsible for very high loads acting on the blades. Through gain scheduling of the controller (modifications of the proportional Kp and the integral K gains) the extreme loads are mitigated, ensuring minimum instantaneous variations in the power production for operation above rated wind speed. The response of the blade load is examined for different values of the integral gain as resulting in rotor speed error and the rate of change of rotor speed. Based on the results a new load case for the simulation of extreme loads during normal operation is also presented.

Koukoura, Christina; Natarajan, Anand

2014-12-01

430

Assessment of long-term verbal memory in children.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the use of a Paired Associate Learning Test (PALT) and a Story Recall test with children aged from 8 to 12 years. 46 normal control children and 19 children of low ability were given the PALT from the Wechsler Memory Scale, and a story recall task, based on Wechsler's Logical Memory subtest, but using stories designed to be suitable for children. Performance on PALT approached ceiling levels for the control children. Both PALT and story recall were more strongly correlated with measures of verbal ability than with digit span. Reliable measures of immediate story recall can be obtained using two or three stories. Many children who are unable to recall a story after a 45 minute delay show dramatic improvement when given a single cue, and it is argued that cued delayed recall gives a better index of long-term memory than uncued recall. Correlations between immediate recall and cued delayed recall are high, and the data presented here may be used to compute a forgetting score which takes into account the level of immediate recall. In the sample seen here, rate of forgetting was remarkably constant across individuals, in both normal and low ability individuals. It is concluded that memory deficits affecting rate of forgetting are rare, but that the test materials described here could be useful for identifying such disorders in children with neurological impairments. PMID:7584288

Beardsworth, E; Bishop, D

1994-06-01

431

Benefits from Long-Term Treatment in Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

It is known that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disease of cyclic nature characterized by recurrent symptoms. IBS patients should receive, as initial therapeutic approach a short course of treatment which, if effective, has the additional value of confirming the diagnosis. Long-term treatment should be reserved to diagnosed IBS patients with recurrent symptoms. Clinical trials with stabilized therapies and new active treatments showed an improvement of the symptoms over placebo that is often time-dependent but with high relapse rates (around 40%–50% when stopping treatment). Relapse is not always immediate after stopping treatment and the recent data from OBIS trial with otilonium bromide or with psychotherapy, showed that due to different chemico-physical characteristics of the drugs or the psychosomatic impact to the disease not all treatment gave the same relapsing rate if compared to placebo. Results of IBS clinical trials with different therapies tailored to the patient needs indicate that a cyclic treatment therapy is advisable to counteract the nature of the disease. PMID:22272195

Evangelista, Stefano

2012-01-01

432

Long-term outcome of autogenous rib graft nasal reconstruction.  

PubMed

Whereas reconstruction of the hypoplastic nose with rib grafting is common, the long-term outcomes of nasal growth and aesthetics are unknown. This study assessed nasal morphometrics, patient satisfaction, and the perception of nasal appearance by others up to 15 years after nasal reconstruction using cantilevered autogenous chondro-osseous rib grafting with rigid internal fixation in children. Records of all patients who received nasal rib grafts between 1983 and 1998 by one senior surgeon were reviewed. Patients in this study were operated on before their late teens and had greater than 1-year follow-up including serial photographic documentation. Nasal growth was determined by comparing anthropometric measurements preoperatively, perioperatively, and postoperatively. Patient satisfaction was determined through a questionnaire that addressed memory, donor-site morbidity, and nasal perception. Independent, blinded skilled observers who reviewed frontal and lateral photographs of the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative intervals assessed nasal aesthetics. Thirty-two patients who underwent 38 rib graft reconstructions of the nasal dorsum and tip at an average age of 8.8 years constitute the study population. Six patients underwent secondary augmentation. The average interval between initial nasal reconstruction and evaluation for this study was 7.9 years. Comparative anthropometric measurements before and after surgery documented increases in both tip projection (2.3 percent) and nasal length (3.0 percent) and a decrease in nasolabial angle (1.9 percent). Patient satisfaction interview response rate was 100 percent of those whom we were able to contact (28 of 32). The average age at interview was 17.2 years. Most patients recalled the operation and denied recollection of pain. Donor-site long-term morbidity was not an issue for 86 percent of patients. Sixty-four percent of patients remembered their preoperative nasal appearance and 89 percent of these preferred the postoperative change and were not concerned with nasal scars or texture. Almost two-thirds of the patients had fixation screws removed from the nasal dorsum because of skin erosion, easy palpability, or visibility. Although several patients expressed a desire to make minor additional changes to their nose, only one of these elected offered presurgical consultation and none have had such surgery. The postoperative nasal appearance compared with that preoperatively was rated as improved for 66.3 percent of responses, 26.5 percent as unchanged, and 7.2 percent as deteriorated. Cantilevered autogenous chondro-osseous rib graft reconstruction of the nasal dorsum is an effective means of reconstruction for the hypoplastic nose in childhood with respect to morphometric measurements, patient self-perception, and the assessment of nasal appearance by others. PMID:11743373

Gurley, J M; Pilgram, T; Perlyn, C A; Marsh, J L

2001-12-01

433

42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients...building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite of the...

2012-10-01

434

42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients...building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite of the...

2010-10-01

435

42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients...building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite of the...

2011-10-01

436

42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients...building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite of the...

2013-10-01

437

Chaos recognition and fractal analysis in the term structure of Shanghai Interbank Offered Rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the Shanghai Interbank Offered Rate (SHIBOR) employing the chaos recognition and fractal analysis. We find that all interest rates of SHIBOR are chaotic systems with multifractal nature. The volatilities of the short-term interest rates are larger than the medium- and long-term interest rates and the magnitudes of these fluctuations decrease with the term increases. The smaller fluctuations of all interest rates have long-term memory property. The larger fluctuations of medium- or long-term interest rates have also long-term memory property but not for those of short-term rates. Moreover, there is long-term memory property between the two interest rates of SHIBOR with one medium- or long-term, but not for both short-term interest rates. Especially, there is also long-term memory between SHIBOR and USD LIBOR. These findings are beneficial not only to understand well the SHIBOR's running but also to price accurately financial products.

Gu, Rongbao; Chen, Xi; Li, Xinjie

2014-10-01

438

The Effects of Inflation and Interest Rates on Delay Discounting in Human Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest and inflation rates may be major determinants of delay discounting, but these variables have not been controlled in past experiments because they depend on macroeconomic conditions. This study uses a computer game-like task to investigate the effects of inflation rates on people's subjective valuation of delayed rewards. During the task,…

Kawashima, Kentaro

2006-01-01

439

Acquisition of Long-Term Visual Representations: Psychological and Neural  

E-print Network

Acquisition of Long-Term Visual Representations: Psychological and Neural Mechanisms Marlene rapidly achieve an organized, coherent visual percept of our superficially chaotic world? One way human and monkey studies, which show how statistical contingencies of the visual environ- ment

Behrmann, Marlene