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1

LONG-TERM RETURNS IN STOCHASTIC INTEREST RATE MODELS : APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model of the short interest rate by assuming a stochastic reversion level, which better reflects the time dependence caused by the cyclical nature of the economy or by expectations concerning the future impact of monetary politics. In this framework, we have studied the convergcncc of the long-term return by using the theory of generalized Besselsquare processes.

GRISELDA DEELSTBA

2

Long-term interest rates and inflation: a Fisherian approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

n recent years, Federal Reserve (Fed) policymakers have come to rely on long-term bond yields to measure the public'slong-term inflationary expectations. The long-term bond rate plays a central role in Goodfriend's (1993) narrative account of Fed behavior, 1979-1992, which links policy- related movements in the federal funds rate to changes in the yield on long-term U.S. Treasury bonds. According to

Peter N. Ireland

1996-01-01

3

Net national savings and the Japanese long-term interest rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses why the interest rate on Japanese government bonds is so low in comparison with other industrialized countries with a better credit rating, after correcting for inflation differences. We find that the net savings surplus has kept the long-term interest rate low. Japanese interest rate movements are much better explained by the current account balance in comparison with

P. W. Jansen

2011-01-01

4

Determinants of long-term interest rates in the Scandinavian countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial markets in a small open economy like the Scandinavian countries are influenced by international economic developments, especially in their major trading partners. This paper investigates to which degree nominal long-term interest rates in Norway, Sweden and Denmark are determined by fundamental domestic macroeconomic variables and by international economic conditions. Relating the level of interest rates to international macroeconomic

Suzan Hol

2006-01-01

5

Public Debt and Long-term Interest Rates: The Case of Germany, Italy and the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate on publicfinance sustainability is closely related to the analysis of the financial and macroeconomic consequences of government debt accumulation. Focusing on the USA, Germany and Italy, over the 1983 ? 2003 period, the central issue addressed in this paper is how the accumulation of government debt drives long-term interest rates both on national and international bond markets. Three

Paolo Paesani; Rolf Strauch; Manfred Kremer

2005-01-01

6

Optimal Monetary Policy and Long-term Interest Rate Dynamics: Taylor Rule Extensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many proposals are made to extend Taylor rule by including in the optimal reaction function other variables than those originally\\u000a introduced by Taylor (Discretion versus policy rules in practice, Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, 1993). The empirical studies point out the importance of long-term interest rates to explain and to forecast the behaviour\\u000a of the monetary policy control variable.

Simone Casellina; Mariacristina Uberti

2008-01-01

7

Fiscal shocks, public debt, and long-term interest rate dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public finances worldwide have been severely hit by the 2008-2009 Great Recession, stimulating the debate on the consequences of growing fiscal imbalances. Building on Paesani et al. (2006), this paper focuses on the USA, Germany and Italy over the 1983-2009 period and studies the effects of fiscal shocks and government debt accumulation on long-term interest rates, both nationally and across

L. Marattin; P. Paesani; S. Salotti

2011-01-01

8

Fiscal shocks, public debt, and long-term interest rate dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public Finances worldwide have been severely hit by the 2008-2009 Great Recession, stimulating the debate on the consequences of growing fiscal imbalances. Building on Paesani et al. (2006), this paper focuses on the USA, Germany and Italy over the 1983-2009 period and studies the effects of fiscal shocks and government debt accumulation on long-term interest rates, both nationally and across

Luigi Marattin; Paolo Paesani; Simone Salotti

2011-01-01

9

Recent and Prospective Trends in Real Long-Term Interest Rates: Fiscal Policy and other Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents some features of recent trends in bond yields and discusses the drivers of these trends. This includes a discussion of the relationship between fiscal balances and interest rates -- with a summary of key empirical results from the literature provided in the Appendix. The main points to emerge from this analysis are as follows. First, cyclical and

Anne-Marie Brook

2003-01-01

10

Short-Term Movements of Long-Term Real Interest Rates: Evidence from the U.K. Indexed Bond Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central goverment now issues both nominal and iflation indexed long-term bonds in the United Kingdom. The difference in their yields provides one measure of the long-term expevted rate of inflation. The evidence suggests that higher long-term, expected , real yields are associated with forecasts of higher income, with tigher monetary policy, and with positive aggregate supply shocks. Changes in

James A. Wilcox

1985-01-01

11

Monetary policy, trend inflation changes and volatility of interest rates relations: an analysis of long-term interest rate dynamics in the context of changes in czech national bank repo rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with theoretical and empirical aspects of the interactions between monetary policy and swap rates in the Czech Republic in 1999 through to 2005. In the theoretical part main sources of volatility of swap and forward rates on changes of repo rate are studied (actual stage of business cycle and changing level of monetary restriction, investor's misunderstanding of

Karel Br?na

2007-01-01

12

America's Long-Term Interest in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. interests in Hong Kong are extensive and have grown along with the territory's prosperity and role in the interna tional community. These interests will be maintained as sovereignty over Hong Kong shifts from Britain to China, providing that the conditions that have led to Hong Kong's dynamism continue. These include, but are not limited to, considerable autonomy, stability, and

Richard W. Mueller

1996-01-01

13

Interest in Long-Term Care Among Health Services Administration Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aging of the population has created increased opportunities for health administrators in long-term care. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of 68 undergraduate health services administration students to explore factors related to interest in a career in long-term care administration. One third expressed interest working in the field. Experience in long-term care settings, quality of contact with unrelated

April Temple; Jon M. Thompson

2011-01-01

14

Long-term creep-rate changes and their causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) We discuss measurements of the long-term creep rate from the San Juan Bautista section of the San Andreas fault. These observations of aseismic slip span a period of approximately half a century making it the longest creep record ever measured along an active fault zone. The records show systematic changes in creep rate over time scales of tens of

Göetz H. R. Bokelmann; Robert L. Kovach

2003-01-01

15

Interest in Long-Term Care among Health Services Administration Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aging of the population has created increased opportunities for health administrators in long-term care. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of 68 undergraduate health services administration students to explore factors related to interest in a career in long-term care administration. One third expressed interest working in the…

Temple, April; Thompson, Jon M.

2011-01-01

16

Dissolution rates of DWPF glasses from long-term PCT  

SciTech Connect

We have characterized the corrosion behavior of several Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference waste glasses by conducting static dissolution tests with crushed glasses. Glass dissolution rates were calculated from measured B concentrations in tests conducted for up to five years. The dissolution rates of all glasses increased significantly after certain alteration phases precipitated. Calculation of the dissolution rates was complicated by the decrease in the available surface area as the glass dissolves. We took the loss of surface area into account by modeling the particles to be spheres, then extracting from the short-term test results the dissolution rate corresponding to a linear decrease in the radius of spherical particles. The measured extent of dissolution in tests conducted for longer times was less than predicted with this linear dissolution model. This indicates that advanced stages of corrosion are affected by another process besides dissolution, which we believe to be associated with a decrease in the precipitation rate of the alteration phases. These results show that the dissolution rate measured soon after the formation of certain alteration phases provides an upper limit for the long-term dissolution rate, and can be used to determine a bounding value for the source term for radionuclide release from waste glasses. The long-term dissolution rates measured in tests at 20,000 per m at 90 {degrees}C in tuff groundwater at pH values near 12 for the Environmental Assessment glass and glasses made with SRL 131 and SRL 202 frits, respectively.

Ebert, W.L.; Tam, S.W.

1996-12-31

17

Long-term volumetric eruption rates and magma budgets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global compilation of 170 time-averaged volumetric volcanic output rates (Qe) is evaluated in terms of composition and petrotectonic setting to advance the understanding of long-term rates of magma generation and eruption on Earth. Repose periods between successive eruptions at a given site and intrusive:extrusive ratios were compiled for selected volcanic centers where long-term (>104 years) data were available. More silicic compositions, rhyolites and andesites, have a more limited range of eruption rates than basalts. Even when high Qe values contributed by flood basalts (9 ± 2 × 10-1 km3/yr) are removed, there is a trend in decreasing average Qe with lava composition from basaltic eruptions (2.6 ± 1.0 × 10-2 km3/yr) to andesites (2.3 ± 0.8 × 10-3 km3/yr) and rhyolites (4.0 ± 1.4 × 10-3 km3/yr). This trend is also seen in the difference between oceanic and continental settings, as eruptions on oceanic crust tend to be predominately basaltic. All of the volcanoes occurring in oceanic settings fail to have statistically different mean Qe and have an overall average of 2.8 ± 0.4 × 10-2 km3/yr, excluding flood basalts. Likewise, all of the volcanoes on continental crust also fail to have statistically different mean Qe and have an overall average of 4.4 ± 0.8 × 10-3 km3/yr. Flood basalts also form a distinctive class with an average Qe nearly two orders of magnitude higher than any other class. However, we have found no systematic evidence linking increased intrusive:extrusive ratios with lower volcanic rates. A simple heat balance analysis suggests that the preponderance of volcanic systems must be open magmatic systems with respect to heat and matter transport in order to maintain eruptible magma at shallow depth throughout the observed lifetime of the volcano. The empirical upper limit of ˜10-2 km3/yr for magma eruption rate in systems with relatively high intrusive:extrusive ratios may be a consequence of the fundamental parameters governing rates of melt generation (e.g., subsolidus isentropic decompression, hydration due to slab dehydration and heat transfer between underplated magma and the overlying crust) in the Earth.

White, Scott M.; Crisp, Joy A.; Spera, Frank J.

2006-03-01

18

Covered interest parity arbitrage and temporal long-term dependence between the US dollar and the Yen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a daily time series from 1983 to 2005 of currency prices in spot and forward USD/Yen markets and matching equivalent maturity short-term US and Japanese interest rates, we investigate the sensitivity of the difference between actual prices in forward markets to those calculated from differentials in short-term interest rates. According to a fundamental theorem in financial economics termed covered interest parity (CIP), the actual and estimated prices should be identical once transaction and other costs are accommodated. The paper presents three important findings: first, we find evidence of considerable variation in CIP deviations from equilibrium; second, these deviations have diminished significantly and by 2000 have been almost eliminated; third, an analysis of the CIP deviations using the local Hurst exponent finds episodes of time-varying dependence over the various sample periods, which appear to be linked to episodes of dollar decline/Yen appreciation, or vice versa. The finding of temporal long-term dependence in CIP deviations is consistent with recent evidence of temporal long-term dependence in the returns of currency, stock and commodity markets.

Batten, Jonathan A.; Szilagyi, Peter G.

2007-03-01

19

Dissolution rates of DWPF glasses from long-term PCT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have characterized the corrosion behavior of several Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference waste glasses by conducting static dissolution tests with crushed glasses. Glass dissolution rates were calculated from measured B concentrations in...

W. L. Ebert S. W. Tam

1996-01-01

20

Long-term measurement of heart rate in chicken eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking advantage of acoustocardiogram (ACG), we measured the heart rate (HR) of chick embryos continuously from day 12 until hatching and then investigated the development of HR irregularities (HRI), HR variability (HRV), and the existence of a circadian rhythm in mean HR (MHR). HRI comprised transient bradycardia and tachycardia, which first developed on day 14 and 16 in most embryos,

Ryuichi Akiyama; Akira Matsuhisa; James T Pearson; Hiroshi Tazawa

1999-01-01

21

Strong tectonic and weak climatic control of long-term chemical weathering rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among climate, physical erosion, and chemical weathering have remained uncertain, because long-term chemical weathering rates have been difficult to measure. Here we show that long-term chemical weathering rates can be measured by combining physical erosion rates, inferred from cosmogenic nuclides, with dissolution loss- es, inferred from the rock-to-soil enrichment of insoluble elements. We used this method to measure

Clifford S. Riebe; James W. Kirchner; Darryl E. Granger; Robert C. Finkel

2001-01-01

22

Decade fluctuations in the earth's rate of rotation and long-term librations in polar motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation into long series of astronomical lattude and time observations is presented in order to analyze their long-term variations. Decade fluctuations in the earth's rate of rotation and long-term librations in polar motion (secular drift and Markowitz wobble) are discussed. Available data show a good correlation between observed rotational acceleration of the earth and the motion of the mean pole over periods of about thirty years.

Poma, A.; Proverbio, E.; Uras, S.

1991-04-01

23

On the long-term effectiveness of exchange rate communication and interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exchange rate communication has come to play an increasingly important role as a policy tool for monetary authorities over the past decade. The paper assesses the strategies and the long-term effectiveness of communication as well as actual interventions. The empirical results for the G3 economies indicate that communication has not only exhibited a significant contemporaneous effect on exchange rates, but

Marcel Fratzscher

2006-01-01

24

Methylene Blue halves the long-term recurrence rate in acute pilonidal sinus disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To study the potential benefits of intraoperative methylene blue (MB) use in pilonidal sinus surgery, the correlation between\\u000a long-term recurrence rate and intraoperative MB use in pilonidal sinus surgery was investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background  Explicit investigations of MB effects in sinus surgery are scarce and inconclusive; an effect on long-term recurrence rate\\u000a has never been systematically investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  A random selection of

Dietrich Doll; Alexander Novotny; Ronny Rothe; Jette Elisabeth Kristiansen; Kai Wietelmann; Anne-Laure Boulesteix; Wolfgang Düsel; Sven Petersen

2008-01-01

25

Calibrating a long-term meteoric 10Be accumulation rate in soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 13 samples collected from a 4.1 meter profile in a well-dated and stable New Zealand fluvial terrace, we present the first long-term accumulation rate for meteoric 10Be in soil (1.68 to 1.72 × 106 at/(cm2·yr)) integrated over the past ˜18 ka. Site-specific accumulation data, such as these, are prerequisite to the application of meteoric 10Be in surface process studies. Our data begin the process of calibrating long-term meteoric 10Be delivery rates across latitude and precipitation gradients. Our integrated rate is lower than contemporary meteoric 10Be fluxes measured in New Zealand rainfall, suggesting that long-term average precipitation, dust flux, or both, at this site were less than modern values. With accurately calibrated long-term delivery rates, such as this, meteoric 10Be will be a powerful tool for studying rates of landscape change in environments where other cosmogenic nuclides, such as in situ 10Be, cannot be used.

Reusser, Lucas; Graly, Joseph; Bierman, Paul; Rood, Dylan

2010-10-01

26

Decreased long term variations of heart rate variability in subjects with higher self reporting stress scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate variability (HRV) has been well established to measure instantaneous levels of mental stress. Circadian patterns of HRV features have been reported but their relationships to mental stress were not studied explicitly for estimating stress levels. In this study, we investigated long term variations of HRV features to provide a reliable measure of chronic stress levels. Twenty three subjects

Desok Kim; Yunhwan Seo; Lizawati Salahuddin

2008-01-01

27

Advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Influence of preoperative radiation therapy on toxicity and long-term survival rates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The surgical treatment of gastric cancer has better long-term survival rates when performed in patients with early gastric cancer. Worse results are obtained in treatment of advanced gastric cancer. Most patients in west centers are treated in advanced st...

C. E. Malzoni

1996-01-01

28

Sharp decrease in long-term chemical weathering rates along an altitudinal transect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used cosmogenic nuclide and geochemical mass balance methods to measure long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion across a steep climatic gradient in the Santa Rosa Mountains, Nevada. Our study sites are distributed along a 2 km ridgeline transect that spans 2090 to 2750 m in altitude, and encompasses marked contrasts in both vegetative cover and snow depth,

Clifford S. Riebe; James W. Kirchner; Robert C. Finkel

2004-01-01

29

Interest rates mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study deals with the analysis and mapping of Swiss franc interest rates. Interest rates depend on time and maturity, defining term structure of the interest rate curves (IRC). In the present study IRC are considered in a two-dimensional feature space time and maturity. Exploratory data analysis includes a variety of tools widely used in econophysics and geostatistics. Geostatistical models and machine learning algorithms (multilayer perceptron and Support Vector Machines) were applied to produce interest rate maps. IR maps can be used for the visualisation and pattern perception purposes, to develop and to explore economical hypotheses, to produce dynamic asset-liability simulations and for financial risk assessments. The feasibility of an application of interest rates mapping approach for the IRC forecasting is considered as well.

Kanevski, M.; Maignan, M.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Timonin, V.

2008-06-01

30

Interest Rates and Inflation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relation between interest rates and inflation is presented using a two component economic model and a simple general principle. Preliminary results indicate a remarkable similarity to classical economic theories, in particular that of Wicksell.

Michael Coopersmith

2011-01-01

31

Long-Term Care Insurance: An Assessment of States' Capacity to Review and Regulate Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Issued by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Public Policy Institute, this report explores the inadequacies of the state government's review process of long-term care insurance premiums, and offers recommendations to remedy these problems. Authors Steven Lutzky, Lisa Maria B. Alecxih, and Ryan Foreman of the Lewin Group suggest that states require premium reviews by an actuary with training in long-term care insurance, review the process used to set the premiums, and offer consumers comparative rate guides as well as information regarding insurance companies' rate increase histories. The entire report can be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. This report is not easily readable online; therefore, printing the report is recommended.

Foreman, Ryan.; Alecxih, Lisa M.; Lutzky, Steven.

2002-01-01

32

Estimating long-term soil respiration rates from carbon isotopes occluded in gibbsite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon occluded in the soil gibbsite crystal structure at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia, U.S. is presumed to be in isotopic equilibrium with the CO2 respired from soil organics by microbes and plant roots. Fitting of the stable carbon isotopic data to a Fickian diffusion-based depth function results in an estimate of 47gCm?2y?1 for the long-term soil respiration rate.

Paul A. Schroeder; Jason C. Austin; John F. Dowd

2006-01-01

33

Anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy—long-term recurrence-free survival rates for localized prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radical prostatectomy remains the mainstay for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Long-term follow-up data showed excellent cancer control rates in several prostatectomy series. We report biochemical recurrence (BCR) outcomes after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in a European single center series of patients treated over a 13-year period. Between 1992 and 06\\/2005, 4,277 consecutive men underwent a RRP at the

Felix K.-H. Chun; Markus Graefen; Mario Zacharias; Alexander Haese; Thomas Steuber; Thorsten Schlomm; Jochen Walz; Pierre I. Karakiewicz; Hartwig Huland

2006-01-01

34

Long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion from cosmogenic nuclides and geochemical mass balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion is important for understanding the long-term evolution of soils, landscapes, and Earth's climate. Here we describe how long-term chemical weathering rates can be measured for actively eroding landscapes using cosmogenic nuclides together with a geochemical mass balance of weathered soil and parent rock. We tested this approach in the Rio Icacos

Clifford S. Riebe; James W. Kirchner; Robert C. Finkel

2003-01-01

35

Interest rates factor model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interdependence of the interest rates of the US, the UK, and Japan is analyzed in this work by means of spectral analysis and network methods. A predominant effective factor in the interest rate market is which country floats a bond issue, and a minor effective factor is time to maturity of bonds. Power-law cross-correlation among different countries is analyzed by the detrended cross-correlation analysis method. Long-range cross-correlation is found between the first factors of interest rate, while there is no cross-correlation between some of the second factors. The tail dependency is indicated by tail indices from Archimedean copulas, including an empirical copula. In contrast to other pairs, the US–UK first factor pair has tail dependencies in both the upper-tail and lower-tail. Dynamic properties of interest rate are modeled by a stochastic volatility model. The properties of mean reverting and volatility clustering are observed and reflected in this model. The proposed simulation method combines the dependence structures and the factor dynamics model; it simultaneously describes the interest rates of different countries.

Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Soo Yong

2011-07-01

36

Cold water corals - Converting short term scientific excitement into long term public interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vesteraalen area off the Northern Norwegian coast is of ecological importance as a spawning ground for several fish stocks and as a corridor for migrating mature fish and drifting fish larvae for other stocks. The area is also of great interest to oil exploration companies for its hitherto untapped energy supplies. In the midst of it all, there are a number of cold-water coral reefs. Researchers at the Institute of Marine Research in Norway have constructed a sophisticated system for monitoring habitats around the cold-water corals and their environment over time. Two so-called landers will be placed next to coral reefs, will be equipped with echo sounders, camera, hydrophone, acoustic current profiler, CTD-sensor and sediment traps in March 09. This will provide high quality data regarding both physical conditions and biological activity. The sensors will make it possible to observe how different species interact with each other, with particular focus on the activity of fish and how they use the reef habitat. The system will have the capacity to transmit data live from the ocean floor. Creating attention in national media regarding such a ground-breaking project is not all that difficult. Already, the Norwegian national TV channel NRK has confirmed participation on the cruise that will deploy the landers. However, this project also presents communication challenges. One of which is to find a way of making echogram images of the reef understandable ("readable") to people not familiar with interpreting echo sounder signals. This will be especially important if it is decided to make the data from the coral reef available live on the internet. Furthermore, the aim will be to create interest amongst specific audiences in following the life in and around the coral reef over time.

Maestad, K.

2009-04-01

37

A long-term forecast of shallow seismicity based on the Global Strain Rate Map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Strain Rate Map (GSRM) of Kreemer et al. [2003] was project II-8 of the International Lithosphere Program; it describes the spatial variations of horizontal strain rate tensor components, rotation rates and velocities for the whole Earth. The model consists of 25 rigid spherical plates and ~25,000 0.6 x 0.5-degree deformable grid areas within the diffuse plate boundary zones. We convert GSRM to a forecast of long-term shallow seismicity by applying the hypotheses and equations of Bird & Liu [2007], known as the Seismic Hazard Inferred From Tectonics (SHIFT) hypotheses: (1) The long-term seismic moment rate of any tectonic fault, or any large volume of permanently-deforming lithosphere, is approximately that computed using the coupled seismogenic thickness of the most comparable type of plate boundary; and (2) The long-term rate of earthquakes generated along any tectonic fault, or within any large volume of permanently-deforming lithosphere, is approximately that computed from its moment rate by using the frequency/magnitude distribution of the most comparable type of plate boundary. We faced 4 difficulties: First, the GSRM strain-rates are largely elastic and thus have smoother map patterns than long-term permanent strain-rates. However, on the scale of global maps and forecasts this is relatively insignificant. Second, GSRM treats plate interiors as rigid. Our solution is to forecast a uniform low seismicity rate in all plate interiors, based on their collective frequency/magnitude distribution. Third, the basic SHIFT hypotheses do not specify how to decide which is the “most comparable type of plate boundary” at each grid point. We use the global map of deformation regimes by Kreemer et al. [2002], and in some cases also use the tectonic style of the local strain-rate tensor. Finally, we found that our uncorrected forecast was underpredicting global shallow seismicity (by a factor of 2) and that this was primarily due to underpredictions of subduction seismicity (by a factor >3). We identified three sources of underprediction in subduction zones; compounding these corrections requires scaling-up the forecast seismicities of all subduction zones by about a factor of 3. We also apply smaller empirical correction factors to each of the other three deformation regimes. This yields an adjusted forecast that is reasonably consistent with the map-pattern and frequency/magnitude graph of the 32-year-old Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog. Specifically, when grid cells are sorted by forecast seismicity, and then cumulative actual earthquakes are plotted against cumulative forecast earthquakes, the relationship is close to linear, with a nondimensional Cramér/von Mises error measure of only 0.032.

Bird, P.; Kreemer, C. W.; Holt, W. E.

2009-12-01

38

Preliminary investigations of Spirulina effect on cancer cells: interest for long-term manned space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background In view of long haul space exploration missions the development of regenerative life support systems is of crucial importance to increase the crew autonomy and decrease the cost associated to the mass embarked Therefore in the late 80 s the European Space Agency initiated the MELiSSA project Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative MELiSSA has been conceived as a micro-organisms and higher plant process enabling high recycling efficiency The cyanobacteria Arthrospira sp is occupying one of the MELiSSA compartments Its genome is now being sequenced and this will help to better understand or improve its food value as well as to have a look at its putative toxic potential Aim In this study we were interested in studying the threshold of intrinsic cytotoxic effects of Spirulina dry extract from Sigma containing washed and lyophilized mixed Arthrospira strains on human cancer cells and its cell type dependency Method For that purpose we used flow cytometry to estimate cell death apoptosis and necrosis in three human leukaemic cell lines HELA cervix carcinoma IM-9 multiple myeloma K562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia Cells were cultured in the presence of an aqueous extract of Spirulina concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 mu g ml for 15 to 40 hours Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by annexin-V-PI staining cell size and granularity Early apoptosis was monitored by analysing the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential DioC 6 3 and the

Baatout, S.; Bekaert, S.; Hendrickx, L.; Derradji, H.; Mergeay, M.

39

Gas Generation Rates as an Indicator for the Long Term Stability of Radioactive Waste Products  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the 'Act on the Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards' (Atomic Energy Act) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS) is legally responsible for the construction and operation of federal facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. Within the scope of this responsibility, particular due to par. 74(1) Ordinance on Radiation Protection, BfS defines all safety-related requirements on waste packages envisaged for disposal, establishes guidelines for the conditioning of radioactive waste and approves the fulfillment of the waste acceptance requirements within the radioactive waste quality control system. BfS also provides criteria to enable the assessment of methods for the treatment and packaging of radioactive waste to produce waste packages suitable for disposal according to par. 74(2) Ordinance on Radiation Protection. Due to the present non-availability of a repository in Germany, quality control measures for all types of radioactive waste products are carried out prior to interim storage with respect to the future disposal. As a result BfS approves the demonstrated properties of the radioactive waste packages and confirms the fulfillment of the respective requirements. After several years of storage the properties of waste packages might have changed. By proving, that such changes have no significant impact on the quality of the waste product, the effort of requalification could be minimized. Therefore, data on the long-term behavior of radioactive waste products need to be acquired and indicators to prove the long-term stability have to be quantified. Preferably, such indicators can be determined easily with non-destructive methods, even for legacy waste packages. A promising parameter is the gas generation rate. The relationship between gas generation rate and long term stability is presented as first result of an ongoing study on behalf of BfS. Permissible gas generation rates that ensure adequate product stability with respect to future disposal are to be identified. (authors)

Steyer, S.; Brennecke, P. [Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Salzgitter (Germany); Bandt, G.; Kroger, H. [TUV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG, Hannover (Germany)

2007-07-01

40

Hyperpolarization induces a long-term increase in the spontaneous firing rate of cerebellar Golgi cells  

PubMed Central

Golgi cells (GoCs) are inhibitory interneurons that influence the cerebellar cortical response to sensory input by regulating the excitability of the granule cell layer. While GoC inhibition is essential for normal motor coordination, little is known about the circuit dynamics that govern the activity of these cells. In particular, while GoC spontaneous spiking influences the extent of inhibition and gain throughout the granule cell layer, it is not known whether this spontaneous activity can be modulated in a long-term manner. Here we describe a form of long-term plasticity that regulates the spontaneous firing rate of GoCs in the rat cerebellar cortex. We find that membrane hyperpolarization, either by mGluR2 activation of potassium channels, or by somatic current injection, induces a long-lasting increase in GoC spontaneous firing. This spike rate plasticity appears to result from a strong reduction in the spike afterhyperpolarization (AHP). Pharmacological manipulations suggest the involvement of calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and calcium-activated potassium channels in mediating these firing rate increases. As a consequence of this plasticity, GoC spontaneous spiking is selectively enhanced, but the gain of evoked spiking is unaffected. Hence this plasticity is well-suited for selectively regulating the tonic output of GoCs rather than their sensory-evoked responses.

Hull, Court; Chu, YunXiang; Thanawala, Monica; Regehr, Wade G.

2013-01-01

41

The impact of low interest rates on household financial behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the greater part of 2010, short-term and long-term interest rates in Belgium were at exceptionally low levels. Nominal interest rates reached historic lows ; in real terms, only the low point of 1974 remained unequalled. The yield curve was in turn relatively steep. In the first place, the question of whether these low interest rates have an impact on

P. Stinglhamber; Ch. Van Nieuwenhuyze; M.-D. Zachary

2011-01-01

42

Natural Selection Fails to Optimize Mutation Rates for Long-Term Adaptation on Rugged Fitness Landscapes  

PubMed Central

The rate of mutation is central to evolution. Mutations are required for adaptation, yet most mutations with phenotypic effects are deleterious. As a consequence, the mutation rate that maximizes adaptation will be some intermediate value. Here, we used digital organisms to investigate the ability of natural selection to adjust and optimize mutation rates. We assessed the optimal mutation rate by empirically determining what mutation rate produced the highest rate of adaptation. Then, we allowed mutation rates to evolve, and we evaluated the proximity to the optimum. Although we chose conditions favorable for mutation rate optimization, the evolved rates were invariably far below the optimum across a wide range of experimental parameter settings. We hypothesized that the reason that mutation rates evolved to be suboptimal was the ruggedness of fitness landscapes. To test this hypothesis, we created a simplified landscape without any fitness valleys and found that, in such conditions, populations evolved near-optimal mutation rates. In contrast, when fitness valleys were added to this simple landscape, the ability of evolving populations to find the optimal mutation rate was lost. We conclude that rugged fitness landscapes can prevent the evolution of mutation rates that are optimal for long-term adaptation. This finding has important implications for applied evolutionary research in both biological and computational realms.

Clune, Jeff; Misevic, Dusan; Ofria, Charles; Lenski, Richard E.; Elena, Santiago F.; Sanjuan, Rafael

2008-01-01

43

Effects of climate and mineral supply rates on long-term chemical weathering rates in granitic landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used cosmogenic nuclide and geochemical mass balance methods to measure long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion of granitic terrain. Our 43 study sites encompass widely varying climates and denudation rates; mean annual temperatures vary from 2 to 32\\\\deg C, average annual precipitation spans a 20-fold range (from 22 to 420 cm\\/yr), and denudation rates vary by 32-fold

C. S. Riebe; J. W. Kirchner; R. C. Finkel

2003-01-01

44

Long-term Quaternary uplift rates inferred from limestone caves in Sarawak, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of long-term (2 m.y.) base-level lowering estimated in an extensive sequence of limestone caves in Sarawak, Malaysia, from uranium series, electron spin resonance, and paleomagnetic dating is 0.19 +0.03/-0.04 m/ka. This rate has remained constant over at least the last 700 ka, as shown by comparison of the number and spacing of wall notches formed during phases of interstadial and interglacial aggradation with peaks in the deep-sea oxygen isotope curve. It is argued that base-level lowering occurs in response to epirogenic uplift of the more resistant limestones due to regional denudation of the softer shales, and to flexural isostacy associated with high rates of offshore sedimentation.

Farrant, Andrew R.; Smart, Peter L.; Whitaker, Fiona F.; Tarling, Donald H.

1995-04-01

45

Points of Interest: What Determines Interest Rates?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interest rates can significantly influence people's behavior. When rates decline, homeowners rush to buy new homes and refinance old mortgages; automobile buyers scramble to buy new cars; the stock market soars, and people tend to feel more optimistic about the future. But even though individuals respond to changes in rates, they may not fully…

Schilling, Tim

46

Update on a long-term, prospective study of capsulotomy and retinal detachment rates after cataract surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo evaluate the retinal detachment risks and neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) capsulotomy rates associated with different cataract approaches and intraocular lens (IOL) styles in a long-term, prospective clinical study.

Gerald Olsen; Randall J Olson

2000-01-01

47

Low slip rates and long-term preservation of geomorphic features in Central Asia.  

PubMed

In order to understand the dynamics of the India Asia collision zone, it is important to know the strain distribution in Central Asia, whose determination relies on the slip rates for active faults. Many previous slip-rate estimates of faults in Central Asia were based on the assumption that offset landforms are younger than the Last Glacial Maximum (approximately 20 kyr ago). In contrast, here we present surface exposure ages of 40 to 170 kyr, obtained using cosmogenic nuclide dating, for a series of terraces near a thrust at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Combined with the tectonic offset, the ages imply a long-term slip rate of only about 0.35 mm x yr(-1) for the active thrust, an order of magnitude lower than rates obtained from the assumption that the terraces formed after the Last Glacial Maximum. Our data demonstrate that the preservation potential of geomorphic features in Central Asia is higher than commonly assumed. PMID:12024210

Hetzel, Ralf; Niedermann, Samuel; Tao, Mingxin; Kubik, Peter W; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Gao, Bo; Strecker, Manfred R

2002-05-23

48

International Interest Rate Linkages and Monetary Policy: The Case of Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to answer a number of questions about the relationship between movements in Australian long-term interest rates and movements in long-term interest rates abroad. In particular, it looks at the question of whether the relationship between interest rates in Australia and abroad has altered since the floating of the Australian dollar. It concludes that the volatility of the

I. J. Macfarlane

1988-01-01

49

Radiometric ages of laterites and constraints on long-term denudation rates in West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In stable cratonic regions, most tropical weathering mantles evolve over long time scales and record long-term environmental change. They may therefore also reflect tectonism and its denudation-related signals detected through apatite fission-track thermochronology, cosmogenic radionuclide dating, and the age bracketing of laterites by 40Ar/39Ar dating of potassium- and manganese-rich oxides. Based on an existing Cenozoic pedimentation model for the West African craton, this study uses the three combined radiometric methods to define rates of Cenozoic denudation. Denudation rates of <2 m/m.y. on the lateritic plateaus, in comparison to rates of 7 13 m/m.y. adjacent to them, fit ages of 45 50 Ma for late stages of bauxite development and 24 25 Ma for one phase of lateritization. Together, they support the theory implicit in the landscape model that depths of denudation in cratonic interiors are equal to, or not significantly greater than, existing elevation differences between lateritic landforms.

Gunnell, Yanni

2003-02-01

50

Long-term effect of introducing an early warning score on respiratory rate charting on general wards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The respiratory rate is an early indicator of disease, yet many clinicians underestimate its importance and hospitals report a poor level of respiratory rate recording. We studied the short- and long-term effects of introducing a new patient vital signs chart and the modified early warning score (MEWS), which incorporates respiratory rate on the prevalence of respiratory rate recording in six

Jackie McBride; Debbie Knight; Jo Piper; Gary B Smith

2005-01-01

51

Effect of Long-term Smoking on Whole-mouth Salivary Flow Rate and Oral Health  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Change in the resting whole-mouth salivary flow rate (SFR) plays a significant role in patho-genesis of various oral conditions. Factors such as smoking may affect SFR as well as the oral and dental health. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of smoking on SFR, and oral and dental health. Materials and methods One-hundred smokers and 100 non-tobacco users were selected as case and control groups, respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data and smoking habits. A previously used questionnaire about dry mouth was also employed. Then, after a careful oral examination, subjects’ whole saliva was collected in the resting condition. Data was analyzed by chi-square test using SPSS 15. Results The mean (±SD) salivary flow rate were 0.38 (± 0.13) ml/min in smokers and 0.56 (± 0.16) ml/min in non-smokers. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.00001). Also, 39% of smokers and 12% of non-smokers reported experiencing at least one xerostomia symptom, with statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.0001). Oral lesions including cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus and halitosis were significantly higher in smokers. Conclusion Our findings indicated that long-term smoking would significantly reduce SFR and increase oral and dental disorders associated with dry mouth, especially cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus, and halitosis.

Rad, Maryam; Kakoie, Shahla; Niliye Brojeni, Fateme; Pourdamghan, Nasim

2010-01-01

52

Daily and Long Term Variations of Out-Door Gamma Dose Rate in Khorasan Province, Iran  

SciTech Connect

In Iran before 1996, only a few hot spots had been identified, no systematic study had been envisaged. Since then preparation of out-door environmental gamma radiation map of Iran was defined as a long term goal in our center, at the same time simultaneous monitoring of outdoor gamma level in Khorasan was also proposed. A Rados area monitoring system (AAM-90) including 10 intelligent RD-02 detector and all associated components were purchased. From 2003 gradually seven stations have been setup in Khorasan. For all seven stations monthly average and one hour daily average on four time intervals have been computed. Statistically no significant differences have been observed. This is also true for monthly averages. The overall average dose rate for present seven stations varies from 0.11 {mu}Sv{center_dot}h{sup -1} for Ferdows, to 0.04 {mu}Sv{center_dot}h{sup -1} for Dargaz. Based on our data, 50 minutes sample in any time interval is an accurate sample size to estimate out door Gamma dose rate.

Toossi, M. T. Bahreyni; Bayani, SH. [Environmental dosimetery laboratory, Medical Physics Research Center, Mashad University of Medical Sciences, Mashad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-08-07

53

The impact and implication of interest rate adjustment to risk management for Chinese commercial banks: Based on interest rate sensitivity model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the background of economic globalization, interest rate risk has become one of the most important risks for commercial banks in China. However, Chinese commercial banks are not sensitive to changes in interest rates because of the long-term control of interest rate. With the development of the process of marketization of interest rates, the interest rate risk of Chinese commercial

Yingying Xue; Zhirong Yang

2011-01-01

54

Coupling of realistic rate estimates with genomic for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Phone  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved dense nonaqueous-phase liquid plumes are persistent, widespread problems in the DOE complex. While perceived as being difficult to degrade, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) is disappearing from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) by natural attenuation, a finding that saves significant site restoration costs. Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation as a preferred treatment technology requires direct proof of the process and rate of the degradation. Our proposal aims to provide that proof for one such site by testing two hypotheses. First, we believe that realistic values for in situ rates of TCE cometabolism can be obtained by sustaining the putative microorganisms at the low catabolic activities consistent with aquifer conditions. Second, the patterns of functional gene expression evident in these communities under starvation conditions while carrying out TCE cometabolism can be used to diagnose the cometabolic activity in the aquifer itself. Using the cometabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained at this location and validate the long term stewardship of this plume. Realistic terms for cometabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE's ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics at other sites, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. Finally, this project will derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

2003-06-01

55

Measuring and modelling seasonal variation of gross nitrification rates in response to long-term fertilisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of nitrate (nitrification) in soils is an important process that influences N availability for plant uptake and potential N losses as well. Gross nitrification is an effective measure by which to test mechanistic ecosystem models for predictability because gross rates can widely differ between sites, even if net production is similar between these sites. A field experiment was designed to (i) determine gross nitrification rates in response to fertilisation and (ii) to verify the idea that seasonal variations of gross rates in soils can be readily predicted by soil moisture and soil temperature. Gross nitrification rates were measured by a Barometric Process Separation (BaPS). The BaPS measurements were validated with the commonly used 15N pool dilution technique measurements at six times. In general, the rates determined from both measurement approaches were in the same order of magnitude and showed a good correlation. The effects of 100 years of fertilisation (mineral fertiliser, manure and control) on gross nitrification rates were investigated. During 2004 soil samples from the long-term "static fertilisation experiment" at Bad Lauchstädt were sampled weekly and were measured in the laboratory under field conditions and subsequently under standardised conditions (16°C soil temperature and -30 kPa matrix potential) with the BaPS system. Gross nitrification rates determined under standardised conditions did not show any seasonal trend but did, however, reveal a high temporal variability. Gross nitrification rates determined by the BaPS-method under field conditions showed also a high temporal variability and ranged from 5 to 77 ?g N h-1 kg-1 dry mass, 2 to 74 ?g N h-1 kg-1 dry mass and 0 to 49 ?g N h-1 kg-1 dry mass with respect to manure, mineral fertiliser, and control. The annual average was 0.34, 0.27 and 0.19 g N a-1 kg-1 dry mass for the manure site, mineral fertiliser site and control site, respectively. On all sites gross nitrification revealed a strong seasonal dynamic. Three different models were applied for reproducing the measured results. Test models could explain 75% to 78% of variability at the manure site, 66% to 77% of variability at the mineral fertiliser site, and 39% to 63% of variability at the control site. The model parameterisation shows that the temperature sensitivity of gross nitrification differs between the three neighbouring sites. Hence, a temperature response function in an ecosystem model has to consider the site specificity in order to adequately predict the effects of future climate change on the soil N cycle.

Stange, C. F.; Neue, H.-U.

2009-10-01

56

Reducing pressure ulcer prevalence rates in the long-term acute care setting.  

PubMed

Information about pressure ulcer prevalence, prevention, and optimal management strategies in the long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) setting is sparse. Although care processes in other patient care settings have been reported to affect pressure ulcer prevalence rates, the effect of such programs in the LTACH is unknown. To reduce perceived above-average pressure ulcer prevalence rates and improve care processes, a 108-bed LTACH used a failure mode and effects analysis to identify and address high-priority areas for improvement. Areas in need of improvement included a lack of 1) wound care professionals, 2) methods to consistently document prevention and wound data, and 3) an interdisciplinary wound care team approach, as well as a faulty electronic medical record. While prevalence data were collected, policies and procedures based on several published guidelines were developed and incorporated into the pressure ulcer plan of care by the newly established wound care team. Improved assessment and documentation methods, enhanced staff education, revised electronic records, wound care product reviews, and a facility-wide commitment to improved care resulted in a reduction of facility-acquired pressure ulcer prevalence from 41% at baseline to an average of 4.2% during the following 12 months as well as fewer missing electronic record data (<1% of charts had missing data). These study results suggest that staff education, better documentation, and a dedicated wound care team improves care practices and reduces pressure ulcer prevalence in the LTACH. Studies to increase knowledge about the LTACH patient population and their unique needs and risk profiles are needed. PMID:19387096

Milne, Catherine T; Trigilia, Donna; Houle, Tracy L; Delong, Sandra; Rosenblum, David

2009-04-01

57

Long-term caloric restriction reduces metabolic rate and heart rate under cool and thermoneutral conditions in FBNF1 rats.  

PubMed

The long-term metabolic and cardiovascular responses to caloric restriction (CR) are poorly understood. We examined the responses to one year of CR in FBNF1 rats housed in cool (COOL; T(a)=15 °C) or thermoneutral (TMN; T(a)=30 °C) conditions. Rats were acclimated to COOL or TMN for 2 months, instrumented for cardiovascular telemetry and studied in calorimeters. Baseline caloric intake, oxygen consumption (VO(2)), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were determined prior to assignment to ad lib (AL) or CR groups (30-40% CR) within each T(a) (n = 8). Groups of rats were studied after 10 weeks CR, one year CR, and after 4 days of re-feeding. Both 10 weeks and one year of CR reduced HR and VO(2) irrespective of T(a). Evaluation of the relationship between metabolic organ mass (liver, heart, brain, and kidney mass) and energy expenditure revealed a clear shift induced by CR to reduce expenditure per unit metabolic mass in both COOL and TMN groups. Re-feeding resulted in prompt elevations of HR and VO(2) to levels observed in control rats. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that long term CR produces sustained reductions in metabolic rate and heart rate in rats. PMID:21513729

Knight, W David; Witte, M M; Parsons, A D; Gierach, M; Overton, J Michael

2011-04-12

58

Long-term analysis of survival, fertility, and population growth rate of black bears in North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We estimated survival, fertility, and realized and asymptotic population growth rates from 1981 to 2002 for a protected population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We used Akaike's information criterion to assess the time interval for averaging observations that was best for estimating vital rates for our study, given our yearly sample sizes. The temporal symmetry approach allowed us to directly assess population growth and to address all losses and gains to the population by using only capture data, offering an alternative to the logistically intensive collection of reproductive data. Models that averaged survival and fertility across 5- and 7-year time intervals were best supported by our data. Studies of black bear populations with annual sample sizes similar to ours should be of at least 5 years in duration to estimate vital rates reliably, and at least 10 years in duration to evaluate changes in population growth rate (??). We also hypothesized that survival would not track changes in ?? because ?? is influenced by both survival and fertility. The 5-year model supported our hypothesis, but the 7-year model did not. Where long-term dynamics of large, relatively stable bear populations are of interest, monitoring survival is likely to be sufficient for evaluating trends in ??. For rapidly changing, small populations, however, failure to incorporate fertility into assessments of ?? could be misleading. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

Brongo, L. L.; Mitchell, M. S.; Grand, J. B.

2005-01-01

59

Impacts of long-term erosion rates on Portuguese wheat croplands under future climate scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean drylands of southern Portugal have experienced centuries of agricultural exploitation and associated erosion processes, leading in many cases to degraded soils with low agricultural productivity. These conditions have been associated with ongoing desertification processes. Future climate conditions could accelerate these processes, due to increased winter rainfall intensity associated with less favorable conditions for vegetation development. This work explored scenarios of long-term erosion rates, and associated consequences for soil fertility, for winter wheat croplands in southern Portugal in the Loures mountain range (sub-humid climate, with relatively deep Cambisols) and the southwestern Guadiana basin (semi-arid climate, with relatively shallow Leptosols). The impacts of climate change on hydrological processes, conditions for vegetation growth, and soil erosion rates were explored using the SWAT ecohydrological model. Eight synthetic climate change scenarios were created using a stochastic weather generator, creating an envelope which includes a large number of the climate change scenarios predicted for these regions for 2071-2100. The scenarios comprised temperature increases between 1.6 and 6.4 °C and rainfall decreases between -2.5% and -40%. The impacts of predicted erosion rates for soil fertility in wheat croplands was then estimated using an empirical approach based on wheat rooting depth and present-day soil depth. The results indicate that: 1) Wheat growth is expected to decrease by as much as 40% in the most extreme scenarios due solely to climate change. 2) Soil erosion in wheat croplands is expected to decrease in climate change scenarios with the lowest rainfall (-60%), increasing by as much as 150% in scenarios with the highest rainfall, although they are expected to remain relatively low (between 2 and 12 ton/ha.yr). 3) In the Loures study area, lower wheat productivity is expected to be caused mostly by climate change, with relatively few changes associated with erosion. 4) In the Guadiana study area, lower wheat productivity is expected to result from both climate change and soil erosion; soil erosion would dominate the impacts on productivity for low-magnitude climate changes, with the impact of climate becoming higher with the severity of the climate change scenario.

Nunes, J. P.

2012-04-01

60

F-LE Interesting Interest Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: City Bank pays a simple interest rate of 3% per year, meaning that each year the balance increases by 3% of the initial deposit. National Bank pays an ...

61

Effect of strain rate and stress corrosion on the long-term strength of crystalline rocks. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key factor in the storage of radioactive waste is the long-term stability of the repository. In order to model the rheological behavior of a site, it is necessary to know the time-dependent deformational characteristics of the rock as well as its fracture strength as a function of time or loading rate. In brittle crystalline rocks, the principal mode or

2008-01-01

62

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LAND APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER, ROSWELL, NEW MEXICO, SLOW RATE IRRIGATION SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the findings of a study on the long-term effects of applying treated domestic wastewater to farmland at Roswell, New Mexico. On the test site, a slow rate irrigation method was used for 33 years. Water, soil, and crop samples from this test site were compared...

63

Regional data set of infection rates for long-term care facilities: Description of a valuable benchmarking tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Surveillance for nosocomial infections has been clearly established as a key element of all infection control programs. Surveillance programs in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) have been described, but published infection rates vary widely depending on the type of facility studied, nature of resident population, definitions used for LTCF-acquired infections, and type of data analysis. The aim of this initial

Kurt B. Stevenson

1999-01-01

64

Are Alcohol Excise Taxes Good For Us? Short and Long-Term Effects on Mortality Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression results from a 30-year panel of the state-level data indicate that changes in alcohol-excise taxes cause a reduction in drinking and lower all-cause mortality in the short run. But those results do not fully capture the long-term mortality effects of a permanent change in drinking levels. In particular, since moderate drinking has a protective effect against heart disease in

Philip J. Cook; Jan Ostermann; Frank A. Sloan

2005-01-01

65

Dissolution rate of a basalt glass in silica-rich solutions: Implications for long-term alteration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the alteration rate of silicate glasses in natural hydrothermal conditions, experimental kinetic measurements were performed at 150, 200 and 300°C in both batch and mixed-flow reactors. A Li-spiked synthetic basalt glass was reacted with silica solutions of various concentrations. Initial dissolution rates were calculated from Li release rates and compared with those obtained from long-term dissolution experiments using

Gilles Berger; Catherine Claparols; Christophe Guy; Valérie Daux

1994-01-01

66

Long-term low latitude cosmogenic 3He production rate determined from a 126 ka basalt from Fogo, Cape Verdes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ankaramite lava from Fogo, Cape Verdes, has been used to determine the long-term cosmogenic 3He (3Hecos) production rate at low latitude (14.9°N). 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating yield an eruption age of 125.8±7 ka. Cosmogenic 3He abundances yield local production rates of 75.6±7.0 atoms/g/year in olivine (1?, n=10) and 70.1±2.9 atoms/g/yr in pyroxene (1?, n=11). The lower 3Hecos production rate in pyroxene is consistent with compositional control on production. When scaled to sea level high latitude using available algorithms, the olivine 3Hecos production rate ranges from 86-109 atoms/g/yr. These values overlap the long-term production rate determined at the Canary Islands (99 atoms/g/yr). They are, however, lower than previously reported long-term production rates from Hawaii and southern South America (129-152 atoms/g/yr), and the range of <20 ka calibration sites (110-130 atoms/g/yr). Erosion-burial and high atmospheric pressure appear to be of negligible importance. The likeliest explanation is that the geomagnetic field strength was higher in the past. The agreement between the Fogo geomagnetic field strength-corrected production rate scaled using various published scaling algorithms suggests that differences in incorporation of the non-dipole component of the Earth magnetic field in the scaling algorithms are negligible for long-term production rate determinations at low elevation and low latitude. Longitudinal variation in long-term cosmogenic nuclide production rates between the central Atlantic Ocean and the Americas (Hawaii and Patagonia) may exist. This has implications for exposure dating of old surfaces. It will require that locally determined production rates should be used where available, and that scaling schemes incorporating longitudinal variations should be used if nearby calibration sites are not available. Furthermore, if long-term longitudinal production rate variations exist, it implies that variation in the geomagnetic field may not average out after around 20 ka, but may require significantly longer periods (up to 100 ka).

Foeken, Jurgen P. T.; Stuart, Finlay M.; Mark, Darren F.

2012-12-01

67

Working together in placing the long term interests of the child at the heart of the DSD evaluation.  

PubMed

This paper articulates a number of important but often ignored questions that families have during and following the diagnosis of a child with a DSD. Recounting a personal birth experience, it illustrates the urgent need for more psychological and educational support during and following diagnosis and gender assignment. Finally, the paper describes some practical strategies for raising a child living with genital difference. It urges everyone involved in the care of children with a DSD to support parents in looking beyond initial anxiety and worry and always to place the child's long term wellbeing at the very heart of the clinical decision-making and care. PMID:22981141

Magritte, Ellie

2012-09-12

68

An implantable, externally powered radiotelemetric system for long-term ECG and heart-rate monitoring.  

PubMed

An externally inductive powered implantable ECG radiotelemetry unit has been developed for continuous long-term measurements of cardiophysiological changes following administration of cardiotoxic drugs. The power density distribution (320 kHz) inside the cage has been measured to be 3-11 mW/cm2. The implantable unit has a volume of 38 X 22 X 8 mm and a mass of 9 g, and has been tolerated by the animal (guinea pig) during a continuous registration period of 6 months. PMID:7183352

Hansen, B; Aabo, K; Bojsen, J

1982-01-01

69

Rates of nitrogen application required to achieve maximum energy efficiency for various crops: results of a long-term experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term experiment with four rates of mineral nitrogen (N) application (averaged across all the crops in a crop rotation: 0, 50, 100, 150kgha?1 per year) was conducted on a fertile loess-derived soil in central Germany. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the rates of mineral nitrogen N application required for maximum net energy output (energy output

K.-J. Hülsbergen; B. Feil; W. Diepenbrock

2002-01-01

70

Nominal interest rates and inflation in the Pacific-Basin countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector-autoregression (VAR), integration, and cointegration models are used to investigate the causal relations, dynamic interaction, and a common trend between interest rates and inflation in nine countries in the Pacific-Basin. This paper finds that for all countries, short- and long-term interest rates and the spread between the long-term interest rates and inflation are non-stationary I (1) processes. The nominal interest

Osamah Al-Khazali

1999-01-01

71

The interest-rate management and sterilization hypotheses for the UK: under fixed exchange rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses the vector autoregressive (VAR) technique and Granger's definition of causality to examine the interest rate management and sterilization hypotheses of UK for the period 1955.I to 1974.IV. Our findings show that neither the long-term government bond yield nor long-term treasury bill rate of UK can be considered as a policy-determined variable, since each is subject to feedback

Daniel Wai-Wah Cheung; Subhash C. Sharma; Paul B. Trescott

1991-01-01

72

Interest rate swaps under CIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider fixed-for-floating interest rate swaps under the assumption that interest rates are given by the mean-reverting Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model. By using a Green's function approach, we derive analytical expressions for the values of both a vanilla swap and an in-arrears swap.

Mallier, R.; Alobaidi, G.

2004-03-01

73

Fed to Raise Interest Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As expected, the Federal Reserve voted to raise interest rates 0.25 percent, the fifth rate raise since June. The interest rate boost is expected to help keep inflation in check during this record period (108 months) of economic expansion. Technology companies have continued to signal healthy economic growth, and unemployment rates remain low. Despite drastic price hikes in gasoline and heating oil prices, consumers are still spending. This worries economists who watched consumers pay little heed to the last four interest rate increases. The quarter point interest rate increase will average out to an extra $1 a month on consumers's credit cards, which in this period of prosperity, will not curb consumers's spending.

Missner, Emily D.

74

Impact of road traffic injuries on disability rates and long-term care costs in Spain.  

PubMed

Road traffic injuries are one of the leading causes of increasing disability-adjusted life expectancy. We analyze long-term care needs associated with motor vehicle crash-related disability in Spain and conclude that needs attributable traffic injuries are most prevalent during victims' mid-life years, they create a significant burden for both families and society as a whole given that public welfare programmes supporting these victims need to be maintained over a long time frame. High socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents (in Spain 0.04% of the GDP in 2008) are clearly indicative of the need for governments and policymakers to strengthen road accident preventive measures. PMID:24036315

Alemany, Ramon; Ayuso, Mercedes; Guillén, Montserrat

2013-08-29

75

Factors Associated With Nursing Assistant Quality-of-Life Ratings for Residents With Dementia in Long-Term Care Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We identify resident, nursing assistant, and facility factors associated with nursing assistant quality-of-life ratings for residents with dementia in long-term care. Design and Methods: We used a cross-sectional survey of 143 nursing assistants providing care to 335 residents in 38 residential care\\/assisted living (RC\\/AL) facilities and nursing homes in four states. We assessed resident quality of life by using

Gary S. Winzelberg; Christianna S. Williams; John S. Preisser; Sheryl Zimmerman; Philip D. Sloane

2005-01-01

76

An interest rates cluster analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An empirical analysis of interest rates in money and capital markets is performed. We investigate a set of 34 different weekly interest rate time series during a time period of 16 years between 1982 and 1997. Our study is focused on the collective behavior of the stochastic fluctuations of these time series which is investigated by using a clustering linkage procedure. Without any a priori assumption, we individuate a meaningful separation in 6 main clusters organized in a hierarchical structure.

di Matteo, T.; Aste, T.; Mantegna, R. N.

2004-08-01

77

Increased Rates of Long-Term Complications after MammoSite Brachytherapy Compared with Whole Breast Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Due to its short duration of therapy and low rates of local recurrence, women undergoing breast conservation are increasingly opting for partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite (Cytyc/Hologic) catheter. In early follow-up studies, few complications were reported. Few data, however, exist regarding longer-term complications. We compared the long-term local toxicities of MammoSite partial breast irradiation with those resulting from whole breast radiation. STUDY DESIGN This was a retrospective study performed in a single academic medical center. All patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery between 2003 and 2008, who met institutional criteria for brachytherapy, were included. We compared women treated with MammoSite with patients treated with whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT). Endpoints included incidence of palpable masses at the lumpectomy site, telangiectasias, and local recurrence. RESULTS Seventy-one MammoSite patients and 245 WBRT patients were well matched with regard to clinical characteristics. Median follow-up was 4 years. A palpable mass developed at the site of lumpectomy in 27% of the MammoSite patients compared with 7% of the WBRT patients (p < 0.0001). Telangiectasias developed more frequently in the MammoSite group than in the WBRT group (24% vs 4%, p < 0.001). Forty-two percent of patients treated with MammoSite developed a palpable mass, telangectasia, or both. CONCLUSIONS Palpable masses and telangiectasias are frequent long-term complications after MammoSite brachytherapy and occur at a significantly higher rate after MammoSite brachytherapy than after WBRT. This increased rate of long-term local toxicity should be considered when counseling women on options for adjuvant radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery.

Rosenkranz, Kari M; Tsui, Edmund; McCabe, Elizabeth B; Gui, Jiang; Underhill, Kelly; Barth, Richard J

2013-01-01

78

INTEREST RATE RISK QUANTIFICATION MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acceptance and management of financial risk is inherent to the business of banking and banks’ roles as financial intermediaries. To meet the demands of their customers and communities and to execute business strategies, banks make loans, purchase securities, and take deposits with different maturities and interest rates. These activities may leave a bank’s earnings and capital exposed to movements

Ana-Cornelia Puiu; Alina Nicoleta Radu

2008-01-01

79

The effect of long term combined yoga practice on the basal metabolic rate of healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Different procedures practiced in yoga have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the basal metabolic rate when studied acutely. In daily life however, these procedures are usually practiced in combination. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the net change in the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of individuals actively engaging in a combination of yoga practices (asana or

Chaya; AV Kurpad; HR Nagendra; R Nagarathna

2006-01-01

80

Long-term effect of yogic practices on diurnal metabolic rates of healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background: The metabolic rate is an indicator of autonomic activity. Reduced sympathetic arousal probably resulting in hypometabolic states has been reported in several yogic studies. Aim: The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga training on diurnal metabolic rates in yoga practitioners at two different times of the day (at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.). Materials and Methods: Eighty eight healthy volunteers were selected and their metabolic rates assessed at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. using an indirect calorimeter at a yoga school in Bangalore, India. Results and conclusions: The results show that the average metabolic rate of the yoga group was 12% lower than that of the non-yoga group (P < 0.001) measured at 9 p.m. and 16% lower at 6 a.m. (P < 0.001). The 9 p.m. metabolic rates of the yoga group were almost equal to their predicted basal metabolic rates (BMRs) whereas the metabolic rate was significantly higher than the predicted BMR for the non-yoga group. The 6 a.m. metabolic rate was comparable to their predicted BMR in the non-yoga group whereas it was much lower in the yoga group (P < 0.001). The lower metabolic rates in the yoga group at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. may be due to coping strategies for day-to-day stress, decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and probably, a stable autonomic nervous system response (to different stressors) achieved due to training in yoga.

Chaya, M S; Nagendra, H R

2008-01-01

81

Low slip rates and long-term preservation of geomorphic features in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone, it is important to know the strain distribution in Central Asia, whose determination relies on the slip rates for active faults. Many previous slip-rate estimates of faults in Central Asia were based on the assumption that offset landforms are younger than the Last Glacial Maximum (~20kyr ago). In contrast,

Ralf Hetzel; Samuel Niedermann; Mingxin Tao; Peter W. Kubik; Susan Ivy-Ochs; Bo Gao; Manfred R. Strecker

2002-01-01

82

Long-term Effects of Dieting on Resting Metabolic Rate in Obese Outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

1757-kJ\\/d (420-kcal\\/d) diet for 16 of the first 17 weeks and a conventional reducing diet for the remainder of treatment. All patients increased their physical activity, primarily by walking. During the first 5 weeks, the fall in metabolic rate was more than double the relative reduction in weight. By contrast, at week 48, the metabolic rate of patients in the

Thomas A. Wadden; Gary D. Foster; Kathleen A. Letizia; James L. Mullen

2010-01-01

83

FATE OF NITROGEN-15 IN A LONG-TERM NITROGEN RATE STUDY: II. NITROGEN UPTAKE EFFICIENCY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased fertilizer N-uptake efficiency (FNUE) will allow producers to grow corn (Zea mays L.) more economically while reducing the potential for groundwater contamination by NO3. Previous research has suggested that application of N fertilizer at excessive rates can affect subsequent crop respons...

84

Long-term stability of global erosion rates and weathering during late-Cenozoic cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over geologic timescales, CO2 is emitted from the Earth's interior and is removed from the atmosphere by silicate rock weathering and organic carbon burial. This balance is thought to have stabilized greenhouse conditions within a range that ensured habitable conditions. Changes in this balance have been attributed to changes in topographic relief, where varying rates of continental rock weathering and

Jane K. Willenbring; Friedhelm von Blanckenburg

2010-01-01

85

Effects of Smoking Cessation on Heart Rate Variability Among Long-Term Male Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Cigarette smoking has been shown to adverse- ly affect heart rate variability (HRV), suggesting dysregula- tion of cardiac autonomic function. Conversely, smoking cessation is posited to improve cardiac regulation. Purpose The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of smoking cessation on HRV among a community sample of chronic smokers. Methods Sixty-two healthy male smokers enrolled

Christopher B. Harte; Cindy M. Meston

2013-01-01

86

Energy expenditure estimation from heart rate: validation by long-term energy balance measurement in cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of heart rate (HR) measurements to estimate energy expenditure (EE) was evaluated, by comparing HR method with energy balance measurements during the reproductive cycle of mature beef cows. Six beef cows, 7- to 10-years-old and 607±29 kg body weight (BW) were used. Intake was measured individually. Organic matter digestibility of the diets was measured, and metabolizable energy (ME)

A Brosh; Y Aharoni; Z Holzer

2002-01-01

87

Long-term performance of high-rate anaerobic reactors for the treatment of oily wastewater.  

PubMed

Complex oily wastewater from a food industry was treated in three different UASB reactors at different operating conditions. Although all three systems achieved fat, oil, and grease (FOG) and COD removal efficiencies above 80% at an organic loading of 3 kg COD/m3 x d, system performance deteriorated sharply at higher loading rates, and the presence of high FOG caused a severe sludge flotation resulting in failure. Initially, FOG accumulated onto the biomass which led to sludge flotation and washout of biomass. The loss of sludge in the bed increased the FOG loading to the biomass and failure ensued. Contrary to previous findings, accumulation of FOG rather than influent FOG concentrations or volumetric FOG loading rate was the most importantfactor governing the high-rate anaerobic reactor performance. The critical accumulated FOG loading was identified as 1.04 +/- 0.13 g FOG/g VSS for all three reactors. Furthermore, FOG accumulation onto the biomass was identified mainly as palmitic acid (>60%) whereas the feed LCFA contained only 30% of palmitic acid and 50% of oleic acid. PMID:17120582

Jeganathan, Jeganaesan; Nakhla, George; Bassi, Amarjeet

2006-10-15

88

Long-term evolution of biodegradation and volatilization rates in a crude oil-contaminated aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rates of biodegradation and volatilization were documented twice 12 yr apart at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji. Minnesota. Model results indicated that the coupled pathway has resulted in significant hydrocarbon mass loss at the site, and it was estimated that ??? 10.52 kg/day were lost in 1985 and 1.99 kg/day in 1997. In 1985, 3% of total volatile hydrocarbons diffusing from the floating oil were biodegraded in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone and increased to 52% by 1997. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation above the center of the floating oil were relatively stable from 1985 to 1997, as the primary metabolic pathway shifted from aerobic to methanogenic biodegradation. Model results indicate that in 1997 biodegradation under methanogenic conditions represented ??? 50% of total hydrocarbon biodegradation in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone. Further downgradient, where substrate concentrations have greatly increased, total biodegradation rates increased by greater than an order of magnitude from 0.04 to 0.43 g/sq m-day.

Chaplin, B. P.; Delin, G. N.; Baker, R. J.; Lahvis, M. A.

2002-01-01

89

Long-term results of breast cancer irradiation treatment with low-dose-rate external irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess beam therapy with low-dose-rate (LDR) external irradiation in a group of patients with breast cancer. Methods and Materials: This trial compared, from 1986 to 1989, patients with advanced breast cancer treated either by conventional fractionation or low-dose-rate (LDR) external radiotherapy (dose-rate 15 mGy/min, 5 sessions of 9 Gy delivered on 5 consecutive days). Results: A total of 21 patients were included in the fractionated therapy arm. At follow-up 15 years after treatment, 7 local recurrences had occurred, 3 patients had died of cancer, 18 patients were alive, 10 were without evidence of disease, and 6 had evidence of disease. A total of 22 patients had been included in the LDR arm of the study. Of these, 11 had received a dose of 45 Gy; thereafter, in view of severe local reactions, the dose was reduced to 35 Gy. There was no local recurrence in patients who had received 45 Gy, although there were 2 local recurrences among the 11 patients after 35 Gy. The sequelae were severe in patients who received 45 Gy but were comparable to those observed in patients treated by fractionated radiotherapy who received 35 Gy. The higher efficacy of tumor control in patients treated by LDR irradiation as well as the lower tolerance of normal tissue are probably related to the lack of repopulation. Conclusion: Although the patient numbers in this study are limited, based on our study results we conclude that the data for LDR irradiation are encouraging and that further investigation is warranted.

Pierquin, Bernard; Tubiana, Maurice [Centre Antoine Beclere, Faculte de Medecine, Paris (France)]. E-mail: maurice.tubiana@biomedicale.univ-paris5.fr; Pan, Camille [Hopital Henri Mondor, Service de Radiotherapie, Creteil (France); Lagrange, Jean-Leon [Hopital Henri Mondor, Service de Radiotherapie, Creteil (France); Calitchi, Elie [Hopital Henri Mondor, Service de Radiotherapie, Creteil (France); Otmezguine, Yves [Hopital Henri Mondor, Service de Radiotherapie, Creteil (France)

2007-01-01

90

Pool 13 drawdown: Predicting success rates and affected areas. Long term resource monitoring program -- technical report  

SciTech Connect

The likelihood of 1- or 2-foot drawdowns, and the area affected by such alternative drawdown, was estimated for Pool 13 on the Upper Mississippi River. Minimum water surface (elevation) requirements were compared to computed water surface profiles to determine a critical low flow that would allow a navigation channel 400 feet wide and 10.5 feet deep. An upper limit on flow was established based on the flow at which open river conditions would exist for a given drawdown. The range in flows that would allow for a drawdown was used to estimate success rates using historical daily discharge data. Success rates were determined for a variety of drawdown durations between two time periods, May 1--August 15 and June 15--August 15. Areas that would be affected by these two drawdown scenarios were predicted by overlaying maps of water surfaces with depth using a geographic information system. Although the drawdown effects on most physical and biotic components of Pool 13 are unknown, some general drawdown effects likely to occur because of the changes in water surface elevation are presented.

Rogala, J.T.; Wlosinski, J.H.; Landwehr, K.J.

1999-04-01

91

Groundwater Recharge in Juniper Woodlands: Insights from Long-Term Monitoring of Cave Drip Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Edwards Plateau in Central Texas covers some 230,000 square kilometers. It is underlain by limestone and dolomite, and these karst parent materials give the region its distinct hydrologic character. Although the climate is semiarid, springs are abundant and support many perennial rivers. In particular, the Edwards Plateau is the source area for the prolific and regionally important Edwards Aquifer, the main water source for much of central Texas. Compared with other semiarid regions, the Edwards Plateau has abundant water resources; but an expanding population is now taxing those resources, and ways are being sought to increase groundwater recharge. Over the past 150 years, the expansion of juniper and oak have turned the Plateau into a shrub-dominated semiarid rangeland-a legacy of the historical overgrazing that took place from around 1880 to 1950. Many believe that reducing this woodland cover would lead to higher groundwater recharge. We undertook our study to try to understand the influence of juniper on groundwater recharge. For six years, we monitored drip rates in caves underlying juniper forests (these rates are surrogate measurements for groundwater recharge). After four years of monitoring, we removed the juniper from the study site and continued monitoring. Surprisingly, our results indicate that removing the trees had a negative effect on recharge. Several mechanisms may contribute to the reduction in recharge: for example, surface runoff increased following removal of the trees; and it is possible that the trees assist recharge by funneling water to their roots, hastening its movement through the substrate.

Wilcox, B. P.; Sun, Z.; Munster, C.; Owens, K.

2011-12-01

92

Long-term predictive power of heart rate variability on all-cause mortality in the diabetic population.  

PubMed

To examine the long-term predictive power of heart rate variability (HRV) on all-cause mortality in randomly selected diabetic individuals. A total of 240 diabetic persons were randomly selected from the diabetic population. A 24-h ECG was obtained for each person included and analysed on the Pathfinder 700. In the RR Tools Program time (SDNN, SDANN, SDNN index, RMSSD, NN50, Triangular index) and frequency domain parameters (total power, VLF, LF, LFnorm, HF, HFnorm, HF/LF) were computed. After 15½ years vital statistics were obtained. The analysis included 165 persons with acceptable ECG recordings. 81 individuals (49%) died during follow-up. Correcting for age and gender we found that in time domain, only the SDNN index was a significant mortality predictor but in the frequency domain, all parameters were significantly associated with death. In multivariate analysis only the power in the low frequency band was an independent predictor. During the period following the first 5 years, the baseline LF continued to be a significant predictor of mortality. This long-term follow-up study indicates that the LF power is the strongest HRV predictor with regard to mortality. A reduced HRV at baseline still holds prognostic information after 5 years. PMID:20844904

May, Ole; Arildsen, Hanne

2010-09-16

93

Genomic Mapping of Direct and Correlated Responses to Long-Term Selection for Rapid Growth Rate in Mice  

PubMed Central

Understanding the genetic architecture of traits such as growth, body composition, and energy balance has become a primary focus for biomedical and agricultural research. The objective of this study was to map QTL in a large F2 (n = 1181) population resulting from an intercross between the M16 and ICR lines of mice. The M16 line, developed by long-term selection for 3- to 6-week weight gain, is larger, heavier, fatter, hyperphagic, and diabetic relative to its randomly selected control line of ICR origin. The F2 population was phenotyped for growth and energy intake at weekly intervals from 4 to 8 weeks of age and for body composition and plasma levels of insulin, leptin, TNF?, IL6, and glucose at 8 weeks and was genotyped for 80 microsatellite markers. Since the F2 was a cross between a selection line and its unselected control, the QTL identified likely represent genes that contributed to direct and correlated responses to long-term selection for rapid growth rate. Across all traits measured, 95 QTL were identified, likely representing 19 unique regions on 13 chromosomes. Four chromosomes (2, 6, 11, and 17) harbored loci contributing disproportionately to selection response. Several QTL demonstrating differential regulation of regional adipose deposition and age-dependent regulation of growth and energy consumption were identified.

Allan, Mark F.; Eisen, Eugene J.; Pomp, Daniel

2005-01-01

94

Fed Leaves Interest Rates Alone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News looks at the recent Federal Reserve Board decision to leave interest rates unchanged. The eight resources discussed provide background information on interest rates and inflation, Federal Reserve news, and current US economic data. With the stock market at record highs and global economic crises fading, the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) showed increased concern about the risk of inflation this month at a May 18, 1999 meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Although committee members ultimately decided not to raise the rate at which banks lend to each other, they cited a "tight" domestic labor market and "ongoing strength in demand in excess of productivity gains" as possible reasons for future rate hikes. Wall Street reacted to the Fed news with a 100 point Dow Jones Industrial Average fall on May 18 but recovered by the end of the day down just 16.52, and many market watchers expressed optimism over the FOMC action. Irwin Kellner, chief economist at CBS.MarketWatch.com, for example, deemed the decision "great" and praised the Fed for a flexible policy that is not locked into a particular course of action should the economy change unexpectedly.

Waters, Megan.

95

LONG TERM EFFECTS OF LITHIUM ON GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE IN INDIAN SUBJECTS - A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was evaluated in thirty patients on lithium and in thirty healthy prospective kidney donors by single compartment, multiple sample plasma clearance method using 99mTechnetium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (99mTC-DTPA). Normality test revealed that dose and treatment duration were skewed and the coefficient of skewness were 0.067 (p< 0.0001) and 1.41 (p< 0.0001) respectively. Age was marginally skewed (p =0.04) for the control group. At 5% significance level, dose and creatinine were negatively correlated (r=-0.030), whereas age and duration were positively correlated (r =+ 0.53) (single tailed only). Duration and GFR seems to be negatively correlated (r = -0.23), however this correlation did not reach statistically significance level. In the present cross sectional study no significant difference in mean GFR was observed in lithium treated affective disorder patients when compared with the age matched normal subjects.

Singh, Baljinder; Mittal, Bhagwant R.; Sud, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sharan, Pratap; Jindal, Surinder K.; Deodhar, Shridhar D.

2000-01-01

96

Long Term Corrosion Potential and Corrosion Rate of Creviced Alloy 22 in Chloride Plus Nitrate Brines  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 22 is a nickel base alloy highly resistant to all forms of corrosion. In conditions where tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions and at anodic potentials, Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion, a form of localized attack. The occurrence (or not) of crevice corrosion in a given environment (e.g. salt concentration and temperature), is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) that the alloy may establish in the studied environment. If E{sub corr} is equal or higher than E{sub crit}, crevice corrosion may be expected. In addition, it is generally accepted that as Alloy 22 becomes passive in a certain environment, its E{sub corr} increases and its corrosion rate (CR) decreases. This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} and corrosion rate (CR) of creviced Alloy 22 specimens in six different mixtures of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium nitrate (KNO{sub 3}) at 100 C. The effect of immersion time on the value of E{sub crit} was also determined. Two types of specimens were used, polished as-welded (ASW) and as-welded plus solution heat-treated (ASW+SHT). The latter contained the black annealing oxide film on the surface. Results show that, as the immersion time increases, E{sub corr} increased and the CR decreased. Even for highly concentrated brine solutions at 100 C the CR was < 30 nm/year after more than 250 days immersion. Some of the exposed specimens (mainly the SHT specimens) suffered crevice corrosion at the open circuit potential in the naturally aerated brines. Immersion times of over 250 days did not reduce the resistance of Alloy 22 to localized corrosion.

Evans, K J; Stuart, M L; Etien, R A; Hust, G A; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

2005-11-05

97

High failure rate in spinal ependymomas with long-term follow-up1  

PubMed Central

Data on spinal ependymomas are sparse, and prognostic factors remain controversial. The primary aim of this study is to review a historical cohort, with large patient numbers and long follow-up, and provide estimates of time to progression (TTP) and survival after progression. As a secondary aim, we assess the effects of potential prognostic variables. Thirty-seven patients with spinal cord ependymomas received postoperative radiation therapy from 1955 to 2001. The influences of radiation dose, extent of resection, Karnofsky performance score, tumor location, and multifocality were assessed in univariate analyses by using the Cox proportional hazards model. The median follow-up for patients who did not fail was 121 months (range, 8–312 months). Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-, 10-, and 15-year percentage progression free are 75% ± 7.4%, 50% ± 9.1%, and 46% ± 9.3%, respectively. Median TTP, for those who recurred, is 68 months (range, 2–324 months), with 12 of 21 failures occurring after five years. Of the prognostic factors examined, only greater extent of resection significantly correlated with longer TTP (P = 0.02). Local relapse rates for spinal ependymomas are higher than previously cited, with a large proportion of failures occurring more than five years after diagnosis. Extensive surgical resection correlates with longer time to recurrence, and we thus recommend maximal excision while avoiding surgical morbidity. The overall high rate of recurrence leads us to recommend radiation to doses of 45 to 54 Gy for all patients who do not have gross total resections, and long, close follow-up.

Gomez, Daniel R.; Missett, Brian T.; Wara, William M.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Prados, Michael D.; Chang, Susan; Berger, Mitchel S.; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.

2005-01-01

98

Impact of basal heart rate on long-term prognosis of heart transplant patients.  

PubMed

Previous studies in patients with heart failure have shown that an elevated basal heart rate (HR) is associated with a poor outcome. Our aim with this study was to investigate if this relationship is also present in heart transplantation (HTx) recipients. From 2003 until 2010, 256 HTx performed in our center were recruited. Patients who required pacemaker, heart-lung transplants, pediatrics, retransplants, and those patients with a survival of less than 1 year were excluded. The final number included in the analysis was 191. Using the HR obtained by EKG during elective admission at 1 year post-HTx and the survival rate, an ROC-curve was performed. The best point under the curve was achieved with 101 beats per minute (bpm), so patients were divided in two groups according to their HR. A comparison between survival curves of both groups was performed (Kaplan-Meier). Subsequently, a multivariate analysis considering HR and other variables with influence on survival according to the literature was carried out. A total of 136 patients were included in the group with HR ?100 bpm, and 55 in the one with HR >100 bpm. There were no basal differences in both groups except for primary graft failure, which was more frequent in the >100 bpm group (30.9 vs. 17%, P = 0.033). Patients with ?100 bpm had a better long prognosis (P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis proved that high HR was an independent predictor of mortality. Our study shows that HR should be considered as a prognosis factor in HTx patients. PMID:23489468

Melero-Ferrer, Josep L; Sánchez-Lázaro, Ignacio J; Almenar-Bonet, Luis; Martínez-Dolz, Luis; Buendía-Fuentes, Francisco; Portolés-Sanz, Manuel; Rivera-Otero, Miguel; Salvador-Sanz, Antonio

2013-03-15

99

Long-Term Effects of Wealth on Mortality and Self-rated Health Status  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies seldom include wealth as a component of socioeconomic status. The authors investigated the associations between wealth and 2 broad outcome measures: mortality and self-rated general health status. Data from the longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics, collected in a US population between 1984 and 2005, were used to fit marginal structural models and to estimate relative and absolute measures of effect. Wealth was specified as a 6-category variable: those with ?0 wealth and quintiles of positive wealth. There were a 16%–44% higher risk and 6–18 excess cases of poor/fair health (per 1,000 persons) among the less wealthy relative to the wealthiest quintile. Less wealthy men, women, and whites had higher risk of poor/fair health relative to their wealthy counterparts. The overall wealth–mortality association revealed a 62% increased risk and 4 excess deaths (per 1,000 persons) among the least wealthy. Less wealthy women had between a 24% and a 90% higher risk of death, and the least wealthy men had 6 excess deaths compared with the wealthiest quintile. Overall, there was a strong inverse association between wealth and poor health status and between wealth and mortality.

Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Jay S.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Thomas, James C.

2011-01-01

100

70 FR 24168 - Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals: Annual Payment Rate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the long-term care diagnosis-related group (LTC-DRG) classifications and relative...hospital inpatient diagnosis-related group system, and will continue to be effective...Long-Term Care Diagnosis-Related Group (LTC-DRG) Classifications and...

2005-05-06

101

Long-term influence of tillage and fertilization on net carbon dioxide exchange rate on two soils with different textures.  

PubMed

The importance of agricultural practices to greenhouse gas mitigation is examined worldwide. However, there is no consensus on soil organic carbon (SOC) content and CO emissions as affected by soil management practices and their relationships with soil texture. No-till (NT) agriculture often results in soil C gain, though, not always. Soil net CO exchange rate (NCER) and environmental factors (SOC, soil temperature [T], and water content [W]), as affected by soil type (loam and sandy loam), tillage (conventional, reduced, and NT), and fertilization, were quantified in long-term field experiments in Lithuania. Soil tillage and fertilization affected total CO flux (heterotrophic and autotrophic) through effect on soil SOC sequestration, water, and temperature regime. After 11 yr of different tillage and fertilization management, SOC content was 23% more in loam than in sandy loam. Long-term NT contributed to 7 to 27% more SOC sequestration on loam and to 29 to 33% more on sandy loam compared with reduced tillage (RT) or conventional tillage (CT). Soil water content in loam was 7% more than in sandy loam. Soil gravimetric water content, averaged across measurement dates and fertilization treatments, was significantly less in NT than CT and RT in both soils. Soil organic carbon content and water storage capacity of the loam and sandy loam soils exerted different influences on NCER. The NCER from the sandy loam soil was 13% greater than that from the loam. In addition, NCER was 4 to 9% less with NT than with CT and RT systems on both loam and sandy loam soils. Application of mineral NPK fertilizers promoted significantly greater NCER from loam but suppressed NCER by 15% from sandy loam. PMID:22031561

Feiziene, Dalia; Feiza, Virginijus; Slepetiene, Alvyra; Liaudanskiene, Inga; Kadziene, Grazina; Deveikyte, Irena; Vaideliene, Asta

102

Long term response stability of a well-type ionization chamber used in calibration of high dose rate brachytherapy sources.  

PubMed

Well-type ionization chamber is often used to measure strength of brachytherapy sources. This study aims to check long term response stability of High Dose Rate (HDR)-1000 Plus well-type ionization chamber in terms of reference air kerma rate (RAKR) of a reference (137)Cs brachytherapy source and recommend an optimum frequency of recalibration. An HDR-1000 Plus well-type ionization chamber, a reference (137)Cs brachytherapy source (CDCSJ5), and a MAX-4000 electrometer were used in this study. The HDR-1000 Plus well-type chamber was calibrated in terms of reference air kerma rate by the Standards Laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna. The response of the chamber was verified at regular intervals over a period of eight years using the reference (137)Cs source. All required correction factors were applied in the calculation of the RAKR of the (137)Cs source. This study reveals that the response of the HDR-1000 Plus well-type chamber was well within +/-0.5% for about three years after calibration/recalibration. However, it shows deviations larger than +/-0.5% after three years of calibration/recalibration and the maximum variation in response of the chamber during an eight year period was 1.71%. The optimum frequency of recalibration of a high dose rate well-type chamber should be three years. PMID:20589119

Vandana, S; Sharma, S D

2010-04-01

103

Heart rate variability monitored by the implanted device predicts response to CRT and long-term clinical outcome in patients with advanced heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few data exist on the long-term changes and the prognostic value of heart rate variability (HRV) assessed by implanted devices in heart failure (HF) patients treated with resynchronization therapy (CRT). Aims: To analyze the long-term changes in the standard deviation of 5-minute median atrial-atrial sensed intervals (SDANN), and assess its role in predicting CRT efficacy and major cardiovascular events.

Maurizio Landolina; Maurizio Gasparini; Maurizio Lunati; Massimo Santini; Roberto Rordorf; Antonio Vincenti; Paolo Diotallevi; Annibale S. Montenero

2008-01-01

104

A study of the long term impact of an inquiry-based science program on student's attitudes towards science and interest in science careers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One reason science enrichment programs were created was to address the underrepresentation of women and minorities in science. These programs were designed to increase underrepresented groups' interest in science and science careers. One attempt to increase students' interest in science was the Summer Science Exploration Program (SSEP). The SSEP was a two week, inquiry-based summer science camp offered by Hampshire College for students entering grades seven and eight. Students who participated were from three neighboring school districts in Western Massachusetts. The goal of the program was to stimulate greater interest in science and scientific careers among middle school students, in particular among females and students of color. A review of the literature of inquiry-based science programs revealed that the effect of inquiry-based programs on students' attitudes towards science is typically investigated shortly after the end of the treatment period. The findings from this study contribute to our understanding of the long-term impact of inquiry-based science enrichment programs on students' attitude towards science and their interest in science careers. The data collected consisted of quantitative survey data as well as qualitative data through case studies of selected participants from the sample population. This study was guided by the following questions: (1) What was the nature and extent of the impact of the Summer Science Exploration Program (SSEP) on students' attitudes towards science and interest in science careers, in particular among females and students of color? (2) What factors, if any, other than participation in SSEP impacted students' attitude towards science and interest in scientific careers? (3) In what other ways, if any, did the participants benefit from the program? Conclusions drawn from the data indicate that SSEP helped participants maintain a high level of interest in science. In contrast, students who applied but were not accepted showed a decrease in their attitude towards science and their interest in science careers over time, compared to the participants. The interviews suggested that students enjoyed the inquiry-based approach that was used at camp. In addition, students said they found the hands-on inquiry-based approach used at camp more interesting than traditional methods of instruction (lectures and note taking) used at school. Recommendations for future research are presented.

Gibson, Helen Lussier

105

Forced Migration and Mortality in the Very Long Term: Did Perestroika Affect Death Rates Also in Finland?  

PubMed Central

In this article, we analyze mortality rates of Finns born in areas that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II and from which the entire population was evacuated. These internally displaced persons are observed during the period 1971–2004 and compared with people born in the same region but on the adjacent side of the new border. We find that in the 1970s and 1980s, the forced migrants had mortality rates that were on par with those of people in the comparison group. In the late 1980s, the mortality risk of internally displaced men increased by 20% in relation to the expected time trend. This deviation, which manifests particularly in cardiovascular mortality, coincides with perestroika and the demise of the Soviet Union, which were events that resulted in an intense debate in civil society about restitution of the ceded areas. Because state actors were reluctant to engage, the debate declined after some few years, and after the mid-1990s, the death risk again approached the long-term trend. Our findings indicate that when internally displaced persons must adjust to situations for which appropriate coping behaviors are unknown, psychosocial stress might arise several decades after their evacuation.

SAARELA, JAN; FINNAS, FJALAR

2009-01-01

106

Regression Method for Estimating Long-Term Mean Annual Ground-Water Recharge Rates from Base Flow in Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method was developed for making estimates of long-term, mean annual ground-water recharge from streamflow data at 80 streamflow-gaging stations in Pennsylvania. The method relates mean annual base-flow yield derived from the streamflow data (as a proxy for recharge) to the climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and physiographic characteristics of the basins (basin characteristics) by use of a regression equation. Base-flow yield is the base flow of a stream divided by the drainage area of the basin, expressed in inches of water basinwide. Mean annual base-flow yield was computed for the period of available streamflow record at continuous streamflow-gaging stations by use of the computer program PART, which separates base flow from direct runoff on the streamflow hydrograph. Base flow provides a reasonable estimate of recharge for basins where streamflow is mostly unaffected by upstream regulation, diversion, or mining. Twenty-eight basin characteristics were included in the exploratory regression analysis as possible predictors of base-flow yield. Basin characteristics found to be statistically significant predictors of mean annual base-flow yield during 1971-2000 at the 95-percent confidence level were (1) mean annual precipitation, (2) average maximum daily temperature, (3) percentage of sand in the soil, (4) percentage of carbonate bedrock in the basin, and (5) stream channel slope. The equation for predicting recharge was developed using ordinary least-squares regression. The standard error of prediction for the equation on log-transformed data was 9.7 percent, and the coefficient of determination was 0.80. The equation can be used to predict long-term, mean annual recharge rates for ungaged basins, providing that the explanatory basin characteristics can be determined and that the underlying assumption is accepted that base-flow yield derived from PART is a reasonable estimate of ground-water recharge rates. For example, application of the equation for 370 hydrologic units in Pennsylvania predicted a range of ground-water recharge from about 6.0 to 22 inches per year. A map of the predicted recharge illustrates the general magnitude and variability of recharge throughout Pennsylvania.

Risser, Dennis W.; Thompson, Ronald E.; Stuckey, Marla H.

2008-01-01

107

CANCER PROGRESSION AND SURVIVAL RATES FOLLOWING ANATOMICAL RADICAL RETROPUBIC PROSTATECTOMY IN 3,478 CONSECUTIVE PATIENTS: LONG-TERM RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:We updated a long-term cancer control outcome in a large anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) series. We also evaluated the perioperative parameters that predict cancer specific outcomes following surgery.

KIMBERLY A. ROEHL; MISOP HAN; CHRISTIAN G. RAMOS; JO ANN V. ANTENOR; WILLIAM J. CATALONA

2004-01-01

108

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

SciTech Connect

Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers.

Colwell, F.S.; Crawford, R.L.; Sorenson, K.

2005-09-01

109

Re-evaluating the use of beached bird oiling rates to assess long-term trends in chronic oil pollution.  

PubMed

The oiling rate (oiled birds/total birds) has become the international standard to analyze beached bird survey data. However, this index may not reliably track long-term changes in marine oil pollution in regions where other activities that kill seabirds vulnerable to oil, such as hunting and gill-netting, are also changing. We compare the oiling rate from beached bird surveys conducted in southeastern Newfoundland between 1984 and 2006 to an alternative approach, namely trends derived from a model examining the linear density of oiled birds (birds/km). In winter, there was no change in the oiling rate since 1984, while in summer oiling rates significantly increased. In contrast, the number of oiled birds/km showed a significant decline in both winter and summer. The discrepancy in these trends was attributed to steep declines in the number of unoiled birds found in both seasons. In winter, the decline in unoiled birds/km was related to a reduction in the legal murre hunt and less onshore winds, while in summer a reduced cod fishery resulting in fewer murres drowning in nets and warming summers may have lead to the decline. The significant declines in oiled birds/km over the past three decades are hopefully an indication of less oil being present in the marine environment. Although oiled bird densities since 2000 have remained relatively low for the region (winter: 0.58 birds/km, summer: 0.27 birds/km), they still exceed densities reported elsewhere in the world. PMID:18995871

Wilhelm, Sabina I; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre C; Tobin, Stan F; Elliot, Richard D

2008-11-07

110

24 CFR 206.21 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Interest rate. 206.21 Section 206.21 Housing and...Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.21 Interest rate. (a) Fixed interest rate. A fixed interest rate is agreed upon...

2009-04-01

111

24 CFR 206.21 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 206.21 Section 206.21 Housing and...Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.21 Interest rate. (a) Fixed interest rate. A fixed interest rate is agreed upon...

2010-04-01

112

LIFE INSURANCE WITH STOCHASTIC INTEREST RATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pricing of insurance product is usually evaluated on a basis where interest rate is assumed to be fixed over time. To obtain a more realistic assessment of the pricing of its product it would be benefit if the interest rates are fluctuating. This paper compares actuarial quantities which calculated based on fixed interest rate to stochastic interest rate using the

L. Noviyanti; M. Syamsuddin

113

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved dense nonaqueous-phase liquid plumes are persistent, widespread problems in the DOE complex. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) is disappearing from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) by natural attenuation, a finding that saves significant site restoration costs. Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation as a preferred treatment technology requires direct evidence of the processes and rates of the degradation. Our proposal aims to provide that evidence for one such site by testing two hypotheses. First, we believe that realistic values for in situ rates of TCE cometabolism can be obtained by sustaining the putative microorganisms at the low catabolic activities consistent with aquifer conditions. Second, the patterns of functional gene expression evident in these communities under starvation conditions while carrying out TCE cometabolism can be used to diagnose the cometabolic activity in the aquifer itself. Using the cometabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained at this location and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Realistic terms for cometabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE's ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics at other sites, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. Finally, this project aims to derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

2005-06-01

114

Estimated Soil Respiration Rates Decreased with Long-Term Soil Microclimate Changes in Successional Forests in Southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of soil respiration to short-term environmental factors changes has been well studied, whereas the influences of long-term soil microclimate changes on soil respiration are still highly unclear, especially in tropical ecosystems. We hypothesized that soil carbon accumulation in southern China, especially in mature forest during recent years, partly resulted from reducing soil respiration rates. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the temporal trends and variations of air temperature, soil temperature and soil water content (hereafter referred to as SWC), and then estimated soil respiration rates in the 1980s and 2000s with soil temperature and SWC by regression model in three subtropical forests which are at early-, mid-, and advanced-successional stages, respectively, in Dinghushan Nature Reserve (hereafter referred to as DNR) in southern China. The annual mean ambient air temperature increased by 1.03 ± 0.15°C in the last 50 years (1954-2007) in DNR. Rainfall amount in the corresponding period did not change significantly, but rainfall pattern changed remarkably in the last three decades (1978-2007). Soil temperature is correlated with ambient air temperature. The average SWC was 36.8 ± 8.4%, 34.7 ± 8.1% and 29.6 ± 8.1% in the 1980s, and then dropped sharply to 23.6 ± 2.9%, 20.5 ± 4.2% and 17.6 ± 3.9% in the 2000s, for the advanced, mid- and early-successional forests, respectively. Concurrent changes of soil temperature and SWC may have a negative effect on soil respiration rates for all three forests, implicated that soil respiration may have a negative feedback to regional climate change and carbon could be sequestered in subtropical forests in southern China.

Huang, Yuhui; Zhou, Guoyi; Tang, Xuli; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhang, Qianmei

2011-12-01

115

Sensitivity of Decomposition Rates and Long-term Carbon Sequestration to Modeled Disturbance Scenarios: Implications for National Monitoring Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil systems are central to carbon, water, and nutrient cycles and play a key role in regulating CO{2} exchange in terrestrial systems. While recent advances have been made for measuring plant production, the mechanisms that control the loss of carbon from land are masked by difficulties in detecting and scaling belowground processes. National and international reporting requirements have placed increased emphasis on the development of spatially explicit soil carbon inventories based on monitoring changes in major soil reservoirs. Although this inventory approach provides critical baseline information, the ecological significance of this soil carbon ultimately depends upon the level of chemical and physical protection, the response of the soil system to disturbance, and the temporal and spatial scales of interest. In this paper, we model the sensitivity of carbon storage estimates to differing assumptions of decomposition and disturbance response using data from the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program. The FIA soil indicator program represents the only nationally consistent source of forest soil monitoring data in the United States and forms the basis for national reporting on the Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Management. A mass-balance model of long term soil carbon dynamics is used to address the following questions: (1) how sensitive are soil carbon inventories to current assumptions of inputs, turnover, and disturbance response; (2) which soil processes have the greatest influence on C storage over the time scales relevant to land use policies and how can we best monitor these processes; (3) what are the critical data gaps limiting the use of inventory data in regional and global carbon models.

O'Neill, K. P.; Harden, J. W.

2002-12-01

116

Venous thromboembolism: annualised United States models for total, hospital-acquired and preventable costs utilising long-term attack rates.  

PubMed

Healthcare reform is upon the United States (US) healthcare system. Prioritisation of preventative efforts will guide necessary transitions within the US healthcare system. While annual deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) costs have recently been defined at the US national level, annual pulmonary embolism (PE) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) costs have not yet been defined. A decision tree and cost model were developed to estimate US health care costs for total PE, total hospital-acquired PE, and total hospital-acquired "preventable" PE. The previously published DVT cost model was modified, updated and combined with the PE cost model to elucidate the same three categories of costs for VTE. Direct and indirect costs were also delineated. For VTE in the base model, annual cost ranges in 2011 US dollars for total, hospital- acquired, and hospital-acquired "preventable" costs and were $13.5-$27.2, $9.0-$18.2, and $4.5-$14.2 billion, respectively. The first sensitivity analysis, with higher incidence rates and costs, demonstrated annual US total, hospital-acquired, and hospital-acquired "preventable" VTE costs ranging from $32.1-$69.3, $23.7-$51.5, and $11.9-$39.3 billion, respectively. The second sensitivity analysis with long-term attack rates (LTAR) for recurrent events and post-thrombotic syndrome and chronic pulmonary thromboembolic hypertension demonstrated annual US total, hospital-acquired, and hospital-acquired "preventable" VTE costs ranging from $15.4-$34.4, $10.3-$25.4, and $5.1-$19.1 billion, respectively. PE costs comprised a majority of the VTE costs. Prioritisation of effective VTE preventative strategies will reduce significant costs, morbidity and mortality within the US healthcare system. The cost models may be utilised to estimate other countries' costs or VTE-specific disease states. PMID:22739656

Mahan, Charles E; Borrego, Matthew E; Woersching, Alex L; Federici, Robert; Downey, Ross; Tiongson, Jay; Bieniarz, Mark C; Cavanaugh, Brendan J; Spyropoulos, Alex C

2012-06-28

117

Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos De B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

2007-07-01

118

Which Interest Rate Option Model?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares Black?s model with three types of HJM models specified with different implied volatility functions. Empirical performance in terms of their predicting option prices is investigated using Eurodollar futures and options prices across strike prices and maturities for the period 1 Jan 2000 and 31 Dec 2002. These models are potential candidates for measuring, controlling, and supervising interest

I-Doun Kuo; You-Chien Chang

119

Interest Rates, Growth, and Public Debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in nominal interest rates have a larger impact on the distribution of income in the corporate sector than changes in wages. If the interest rate rises from, say, 5 percent to 8 percent, then interest payments on loans (taken up at variable interest rates) will go up by 60 percent (other things being equal), thereby weakening the corporate revenue

Stephan Schulmeister

1995-01-01

120

Short and long term analysis of heart rate variations in spontaneously hypertensive rats: effects of DSP-4 administration.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not central noradrenergic neurons were involved in the time structure of circadian variation of heart rate (HR) in hypertension. We used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR(Izm)) and normotensive controls (Wistar Kyoto rats, WKY(Izm)). We selectively destroyed the noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) by administering noradrenergic neurotoxin, N-(2-chloroethy)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4). Frequency domain measures of variation of HR (VHR) were obtained using the maximum entropy method. The 24-h time frame in VHR is usually dominant in both SHR(Izm) and WKY(Izm). Fourteen days after the administering of DSP4, the mean 24-h systolic arterial pressure (SAP) remained higher in SHR(Izm) than in WKY(Izm). After chemical lesion, ultradian rhythms (12-, 8-, 6-, and 4-h periods) in VHR became more remarkable in both SHR(Izm) and WKY(Izm) than before chemical lesion. Before chemical lesion, an inverse relationship existed between frequency and power spectral density in VHR, demonstrating 1/f(beta) characteristics. The slope of 1/f(beta) in VHR did not differ between SHR(Izm) and WKY(Izm). After the chemical lesion it did not also differ from that of each strain in control period (before lesion). Therefore, the noradrenergic neurons may not affect the time structure of HR in SHR(Izm) and WKY(Izm) for short-term time analysis. However, the intact noradrenergic neurons in CNS may be important to keep normal cardiac autonomic function in SHR(Izm) for long-term analysis. PMID:16275495

Kawamura, H; Mitsubayashi, H; Miao, T; Shimizu, T

2005-10-01

121

The impairment of true glomerular filtration rate in long-term cyclosporine-treated pediatric allograft recipients  

SciTech Connect

We performed indium-111-DTPA plasma clearance studies in 61 pediatric kidney and liver recipients treated with cyclosporine to compare true glomerular filtration rate with calculated GFR (cGFR). The mean true GFR of 61.9 +/- 36.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 indicated renal impairment. The mean cGFR of 85.2 +/- 22.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 was significantly higher (P less than 0.001), and overestimated GFR by 38%. cGFR alone did not accurately reflect the degree of renal dysfunction. A group of 48 pediatric orthotopic liver transplant recipients was studied in more detail: 73% of these patients had a true GFR less than 70 ml/min/1.73 m2, while 85% had a true GFR below 90 ml/min/1.73 m2, the lower limit for normal GFR in children. The mean true GFR for patients treated more than 24 months with CsA was lower (P = 0.02) than patients treated with CsA for 12 to 24 months. OLT patients with normal true GFR (greater than 90 ml/min/1.73 m2) had significantly lower plasma CsA levels, and 50% of patients with a true GFR less than or equal to 50 ml/min/1.73 m2 had hypertension. There was no effect on true GFR of age, liver function, azathioprine use, or peritransplant treatment with other nephrotoxic drugs. We conclude that true GFR is significantly impaired in long-term CsA-treated allograft pediatric recipients. Calculations of GFR underestimate the degree of renal dysfunction. As patients treated greater than 24 months had the lowest true GFRs, the fall in GFR may be progressive.

McDiarmid, S.V.; Ettenger, R.B.; Hawkins, R.A.; Senguttvan, P.; Busuttil, R.W.; Vargas, J.; Berquist, W.E.; Ament, M.E.

1990-01-01

122

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

SciTech Connect

Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers. Third, we have systematically considered the aquifer contaminants at different locations in plumes at other DOE sites in order to determine whether MNA is a broadly applicable remediation strategy for chlorinated hydrocarbons (North Wind Inc.). Realistic terms for co-metabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE’s ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. This project also aims to derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

2005-09-01

123

CANCER PROGRESSION AND SURVIVAL RATES FOLLOWING ANATOMICAL RADICAL RETROPUBIC PROSTATECTOMY IN 3,478 CONSECUTIVE PATIENTS: LONG-TERM RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We updated a long-term cancer control outcome in a large anatomical radical retro- pubic prostatectomy (RRP) series. We also evaluated the perioperative parameters that predict cancer specific outcomes following surgery. Materials and Methods: From May 1983 to February 2003, 1 surgeon (WJC) performed RRP in 3,478 consecutive men. Patients were followed with semiannual serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests

KIMBERLY A. ROEHL; MISOP HAN; CHRISTIAN G. RAMOS; JO ANN V. ANTENOR; WILLIAM J. CATALONA

2004-01-01

124

The dual effect of Mg on the long-term alteration rate of AVM nuclear waste glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inactive Mg-containing nuclear waste glasses simulating actual HLW glasses produced at the AVM facility since 1995 (Marcoule, France), were leached in aqueous solution in order to assess their long term behaviour. The focus was on the effect of Mg. Our findings show that the distribution of Mg between the gel and the secondary crystalline phases strongly influences the glass dissolution rate.The glasses were leached in initially pure water (T = 50 °C, surface/volume ratio (S/V) = 55 cm-1) with and without addition of Mg2+ in the solution. "Mg-free" AVM glasses were also leached in initially pure water (50 °C, 200 cm-1) with and without addition of Mg2+ in the solution. Accurate identification of Mg-smectite secondary phases and gel composition calculations enable us to explain the different observed behaviours.Glass AVM 10 was the less altered glass in pure water. Its gel is more protective than the other probably because it is mainly balanced by Mg2+. The addition of Mg2+ in the solution triggers the precipitation of smectite (not observed in pure water experiments), which consumes silicon from the gel, leading finally to a significant increase of the glass alteration.We also focused on the AVM 6 glass which was the most altered glass in pure water of available AVM glasses. Contrary to AVM 10, the gel of AVM 6 is mainly balanced by Na+. The addition of Mg2+ in the solution allows the replacement of Na by Mg within the gel. This reaction clearly improves the gel properties and allows the rate to decrease more rapidly, in spite of the precipitation of smectite (also observed in pure water experiments).Finally, the two glasses were altered in synthetic groundwater (SGW) with a high Mg-Ca content. As expected from the previous observations, AVM 10 was insensitive to the presence of alkaline earths in the leaching solution whereas AVM 6 glass exhibited a lower rate than in pure water thanks to the incorporation of Mg and Ca within the gel.

Thien, Bruno M. J.; Godon, Nicole; Ballestero, Anthony; Gin, Stéphane; Ayral, André

2012-08-01

125

Long-term follow-up of kidney transplant recipients: comparison of hospitalization rates to the general population  

PubMed Central

Background Kidney transplant recipients are recognized as a vulnerable population that is at increased risk of adverse health outcomes. However, there have been few studies that have compared hospital-related morbidity of these patients to the general population, and how this differs with respect to time since transplantation. Such analyses are useful in estimating the health burden in this patient population. Methods We assembled a population-based Canadian cohort (excluding Quebec) of 6,116 kidney transplant recipients who underwent transplantation between 1 April 2001 and 31 December 2008. Record linkage was used to identify hospital discharge records of these patients from 1 April 2001 through 31 March 2009. Hospital discharges were tabulated across the main disease chapters of the ICD10, and person-years of follow-up were calculated across age and sex strata. Comparisons of hospital-related morbidity to the general population were made by using a standardized hospitalization ratio (SHR). For those who underwent transplantation in 2004, stratified analyses were performed to explore differences in hospital discharge rates both before and after transplantation. Results After excluding hospitalizations due to complications from transplantation, when compared to the general population, transplant recipients were approximately 6.4 (95% CI: 6.3, 6.5) times more likely to be hospitalized during follow-up. The SHRs were highest during the time periods proximate to transplantation, and then decreased to approximately a five-fold increase from 3 years post transplantation onwards. The largest disease-specific excesses were observed with infectious diseases and diseases of the endocrine system. Among those who underwent transplantation in 2004, the SHR decreased from 11.2 to 5.0 in the periods before and after surgery, respectively. Conclusions Our results indicate that, even more than 5-years post transplantation, there remains a more than six-fold difference in hospitalization rates relative to the general population. Additional work is needed to confirm these findings, and to develop strategies to reduce long-term morbidity in this patient population.

2013-01-01

126

Changes in long-term no-till corn growth and yield under different rates of stover mulch  

SciTech Connect

Received for publication January 4, 2006. Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. We assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam (fine loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston in Ohio, and predicted corn yield from soil properties using principal component analysis (PCA). The study was conducted in 2005 on the ongoing experiments started in May 2004 under 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200)% of stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal promoted early emergence and rapid seedling growth (P < 0.01). Early-emerging plants grew taller than late-emerging plants up to about 50 d, and then the heights reversed at Coshocton and were comparable at other two sites. Stover management affected corn yield only at the Coshocton site where average grain and stover yields in the T200, T100, T75, and T50 (10.8 and 10.3 Mg ha-1) were higher than those in the T0 and T25 treatments (8.5 and 6.5 Mg ha-1) (P < 0.01), showing that stover removal at rates as low as 50% (2.5 Mg ha-1) decreased crop yields. Soil properties explained 71% of the variability in grain yield and 33% of the variability in stover yield for the Coshocton site. Seventeen months after the start of the experiment, effects of stover management on corn yield and soil properties were site-specific.

Blanco-Canqui, Dr. Humberto [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Lal, Dr. Rattan [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Owens, Lloyd [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

2006-09-01

127

76 FR 37030 - Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate Risk; Investment and Deposit Activities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...swap,'' for example, may be tied to short-term ``LIBOR rates'', which are variable, and long-term ``swap...at the end of each period in which a referenced rate, like LIBOR, exceeds the agreed ceiling rate. The interest...

2011-06-24

128

Long-term outcome by risk factors using conformal high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) boost with or without neoadjuvant androgen suppression for localized prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe aim of this study is to analyze, during the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era, the long-term outcome of patients treated with conformal high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost to the prostate with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) when patients are stratified by risk factors for failure.

Razvan M Galalae; Alvaro Martinez; Tim Mate; Christina Mitchell; Gregory Edmundson; Nils Nuernberg; Stephen Eulau; Gary Gustafson; Michael Gribble; Gyoergy Kovács

2004-01-01

129

An acute fall in estimated glomerular filtration rate during treatment with losartan predicts a slower decrease in long-term renal function.  

PubMed

Intervention in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) is associated with slowing the progressive loss of renal function. During initiation of therapy, however, there may be an acute fall in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We tested whether this initial fall in GFR reflects a renal hemodynamic effect and whether this might result in a slower decline in long-term renal function. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Reduction of Endpoints in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial. Patients assigned to losartan had a significantly greater acute fall in estimated (eGFR) during the first 3 months compared to patients assigned to placebo, but a significantly slower long-term mean decline of eGFR thereafter. A large interindividual difference, however, was noticed in the acute eGFR change. When patients were divided into tertiles of initial fall in eGFR, the long-term eGFR slope calculated from baseline was significantly higher in patients with an initial fall compared to those with an initial rise. When eGFR decline was calculated from 3 months to the final visit, excluding the initial effect, patients with a large initial fall in eGFR had a significant lower long-term eGFR slope compared to those with a moderate fall or rise. This relationship was independent of other risk markers or change in risk markers for progression of renal disease such as blood pressure and albuminuria. Thus, the greater the acute fall in eGFR, during losartan treatment, the slower the rate of long-term eGFR decline. Hence, interpretation of trial results relying on slope-based GFR outcomes should separate the initial drug-induced GFR change from the subsequent long-term effect on GFR. PMID:21451458

Holtkamp, Frank A; de Zeeuw, Dick; Thomas, Merlin C; Cooper, Mark E; de Graeff, Pieter A; Hillege, Hans J L; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Brenner, Barry M; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J

2011-03-30

130

Signature of long-term class evolution in GRS 1915+105 at a high accretion rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We find long-term evolution of the ? class from the study of X-ray timing and spectral analysis of the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 during two outburst activities, observed by the proportional counter array (PCA) and the High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment on-board Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. The class is characterized by unusual periodic-like variation in intensity. With the passage of time, the variability gradually disappears and the class stabilizes at higher intensity. Low-frequency (0.1-10 Hz) power density spectral evolution and energy spectral evolution show that the class initially occurs as an unstable and oscillatory stage between the high-soft state and the low-soft/hard-intermediate state and finally settles in the high-soft state. This modulation process gives a clear signature of the adjustment of the accretion disc during an increasing accretion rate. Spectral analysis of this class at different stages shows a distinct feature of a single thermal Comptonization component along with a strong hard X-ray tail. We try to fit different observational characteristics found during the timing and spectral evolution with different disc accretion models and we find that the presence of an extended, optically thin corona coupled with an accretion disc can explain our results adequately. The thermal electron cloud covers a large fraction of the inner disc region, and it is powered by the accretion energy of the accretion disc. The change in the coronal temperature and optical depth between dip and non-dip regions of the light curve shows the change in the underneath disc emissivity at nearly constant disc temperature. When a high state is achieved, the corona becomes cool and optically thick and emission is dominated by a disc blackbody component. The strong support for the presence of an accretion-powered Comptonizing medium is the detection of delay in arriving time between soft and hard photons during this class. Both All-Sky Monitor and PCA flaring intensity and the nature of evolution are found to be the same for both X-ray outbursts at different time. This indicates that this process has fundamental contribution to the overall disc accretion mechanism during the outburst and is hence important in understanding the possible ways for utilizing the total accretion energy budget.

Pahari, Mayukh; Pal, Sabyasachi

2010-12-01

131

Reduction of HIV Infection that Includes a Delay with Cure Rate During Long Term Treatment: A Mathematical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Progress towards antiviral treatment of HIV infected individual has largely been improved in recent years. From amassed literature\\u000a it has been observed that antiviral treatment during disease progression can develop CTL and these CTL has an immense importance\\u000a to control the disease progression. During long term treatment, CD4 and CD8 mediated immune response take part in an effective\\u000a role against

Priti Kumar Roy; Amar Nath Chatterjee

132

Trophic Position and Metabolic Rate Predict the Long-Term Decay Process of Radioactive Cesium in Fish: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (137Cs) can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term 137Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate) and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type) influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1) trophic position could predict the day of maximum 137Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2) the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of 137Cs activity concentration in fish.

Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Tanaka, Kazuya

2012-01-01

133

Rising interest rates, bank loans, and deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors show how the relationships between interest rate changes, deposit growth rates, and loan growth rates have changed in the last ten years, discuss some possible reasons, and assess the likely impact of rising interest rates on loans and deposits going forward.

Hesna Genay; Darrin R. Halcomb

2004-01-01

134

Modeling interest rate cycles in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tries to examine the behaviour of various Indian interest rates such as call money rate, and yields on secondary market securities with maturity periods of 15–91 days, 1-year, 5-years and 10-years. In the first stage, the study investigates the determinants of interest rates and finds that although the interest rates depend on some domestic macroeconomic variables such

B. B. Bhattacharya; N. R. Bhanumurthy; Hrushikesh Mallick

2008-01-01

135

7 CFR 1980.423 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dated September 25, 1974, the interest rate on loans made by the Bank for Cooperatives, Federal Land...Associations may be a variable rate based on their administrative...costs. (3) Any change in the interest rate between the date of...

2013-01-01

136

Interest - Rate Price Nexus in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the long-run relationship between nominal interest rate and expected inflation in India by using three interest rates and inflation rates, based on both CPI and WPI, with the help of monthly data from April 1990 to December 2001. By using the autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing procedure by Peasaran, Shin and Smith (2001), the study finds

N R Bhanumurthy; Shashi Agarwal

2003-01-01

137

Prediction of long-term tritium retention in the divertor of ITER: influence of modelling assumptions on retention rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ERO modelling of long-term tritium (T) retention has been done for the divertor of ITER with graphite target plates assuming a certain beryllium influx into the divertor, eroded from the main chamber. The divertor beryllium (Be) influx relative to the deuterium ion flux has been fixed at 0.1% for the outer divertor and 1.0% for the inner divertor. In addition to the original B2-Eirene plasma background, the influence of variations of temperature and density in the divertor has been studied. Moreover, assumptions for enhanced erosion of redeposited carbon and effective sticking for hydrocarbons have been analysed. With graphite target plates, long-term tritium retention is dominated by T co-deposition in deposits. Within the studied parameter range, the modelling yields 200-500 possible ITER discharges without cleaning before reaching the safety limit of 700 g of in-vessel retained tritium. Surface temperature-dependent tritium amounts in carbon and beryllium deposits have been taken into account.

Kirschner, A.; Ohya, K.; Borodin, D.; Ding, R.; Matveev, D.; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.

2009-12-01

138

A NEW PARADIGM FOR GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: LONG-TERM ACCRETION RATE MODULATION BY AN EXTERNAL ACCRETION DISK  

SciTech Connect

We present a new way of looking at the very long-term evolution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in which the disk of material surrounding the putative black hole powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the efficacy of the process that extracts rotational energy from the black hole and inner accretion disk. The pre-Swift paradigm of achromatic, shallow-to-steep 'breaks' in the long-term GRB light curves has not been borne out by detailed Swift data amassed in the past several years. We argue that, given the initial existence of a fall-back disk near the progenitor, an unavoidable consequence will be the formation of an 'external disk' whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. The mass reservoir at large radii moves outward with time and gives a natural power-law decay to the GRB light curves. In this model, the different canonical power-law decay segments in the GRB identified by Zhang et al. and Nousek et al. represent different physical states of the accretion disk. We identify a physical disk state with each power-law segment.

Cannizzo, J. K. [CRESST/Joint Center for Astrophysics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Gehrels, N. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)], E-mail: John.K.Cannizzo@nasa.gov, E-mail: gehrels@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov

2009-08-01

139

Possible use of EPDM in radioactive waste disposal: Long term low dose rate and short term high dose rate irradiation in aquatic and atmospheric environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, changes in the properties of ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) irradiated with different dose rates in ambient atmosphere and aqueous environment were investigated. Irradiations were carried out both with low dose and high dose rate irradiation sources. EPDM samples which were differentiated from each other by peroxide type and 5-ethylidene 2-norbornene (ENB) contents were used. Long term low dose rate irradiations were carried out for the duration of up to 2.5 years (total dose of 1178 kGy) in two different irradiation environments. Dose rates (both high and low), irradiation environments (in aquatic and open to atmosphere), and peroxide types (aliphatic or aromatic) were the parameters studied. Characterization of irradiated EPDM samples were performed by hardness, compression, tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), TGA-FTIR, ATR-FTIR, XRD and SEM tests. It was observed that the irradiation in water environment led to a lower degree of degradation when compared to that of irradiation open to atmosphere for the same irradiation dose. In addition, irradiation environment, peroxide type and dose rate had effects on the extent of change in the properties of EPDM. It was observed that EPDM is relatively radiation resistant and a candidate polymer for usage in radioactive waste management.

Hac?o?lu, F?rat; Özdemir, Tonguç; Çavdar, Seda; Usanmaz, Ali

2013-02-01

140

Interest rates close to zero, post-crisis restructuring and natural interest rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central banks seem not to account for the influence of interest rates close to zero on the natural interest rate after the bursting of the asset bubble which triggered financial crisis. We claim that this omission may have deleterious consequences. Should interest rates close to zero persistently decrease natural interest rates, that would mean fall in TFP growth and more

Piotr Cizkowicz; Andrzej Rzonca

2011-01-01

141

Interest Rate, Transaction Costs and Financial Innovations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fragmentation of the capital market, that is, the phenomena of different markets for different products, as it occurs in the LDCs is generally attributed to high interest rates. The crucial variable in determining these rates is transaction costs (both ad...

V. V. Bhatt

1979-01-01

142

Short and long term mortality rates associated with first pregnancy outcome: Population register based study for Denmark 1980-2004  

PubMed Central

Summary Background There is a growing interest in examining death rates associated with different pregnancy outcomes for time periods beyond one year. Previous population studies, however, have failed to control for complete reproductive histories. In this study we seek to eliminate the potential confounding effect of unknown prior pregnancy history by examining mortality rates associated specifically with first pregnancy outcome alone. We also examine differences in mortality rates associated with early abortion and late abortions (after 12 weeks). Material/Method Medical records for the entire population of women born in Denmark between 1962 and 1991 and were alive in 1980, were linked to death certificates. Mortality rates associated with first pregnancy outcomes (delivery, miscarriage, abortion, and late abortion) were calculated. Odds ratios examining death rates based on reproductive outcomes, adjusted for age at first pregnancy and year of women’s births, were also calculated. Results A total of 463,473 women had their first pregnancy between 1980 and 2004, of whom 2,238 died. In nearly all time periods examined, mortality rates associated with miscarriage or abortion of a first pregnancy were higher than those associated with birth. Compared to women who delivered, the age and birth year adjusted cumulative risk of death for women who had a first trimester abortion was significantly higher in all periods examined, from 180 days (OR=1.84; 1.11 <95% CI <3.71) through 10 years (1.39; 1.22 <95% CI <1.61), as was the risk for women who had abortions after 12 weeks from one year (OR=4.31; 2.18 <95% CI <8.54) through 10 years (OR=2.41; 1.56 <95% CI <2.41). For women who miscarried, the risk was significantly higher for cumulative deaths through 4 years (OR=1.75; 1.34 <95% CI <2.27) and at 10 years (OR=1.48; 1.18 <95% CI <1.85). Conclusions Compared to women who delivered, women who had an early or late abortion had significantly higher mortality rates within 1 through 10 years. A lesser effect may also be present relative to miscarriage. Recommendations for additional research are offered.

Reardon, David C.; Coleman, Priscilla K.

2012-01-01

143

The association between men’s ratings of women as desirable long-term mates and individual differences in women’s sexual attitudes and behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined whether individual differences in women’s sexual attitudes and behaviors are associated with men’s ratings of them as desirable long-term mates when men were exposed to only pictures of women’s faces. Links between sexual attitudes and behaviors with the presence of more masculine facial features were also assessed. Women completed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI; Simpson & Gangestad,

Lorne Campbell; Lee Cronk; Jeffry A. Simpson; Alison Milroy; Carol L. Wilson; Bria Dunham

2009-01-01

144

Long-term slip rates of the Elsinore-Laguna Salada fault, southern California, by U-series Dating of Pedogenic Carbonate in Progressively Offset Alluvial fan Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Elsinore-Laguna Salada (ELS) fault is one of the principal strands of the San Andreas fault system in southern California, however its seismic potential is often de-emphasized due to previous estimates of a low slip rate. Nevertheless, the fault zone has produced two historic earthquakes over M6, with the 1892 event estimated at >M7; thus further investigation of the long-term

K. E. Fletcher; T. K. Rockwell; W. D. Sharp

2007-01-01

145

Short and long-term effects of site factors on net N-mineralization and nitrification rates along an urban-rural gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long- and short-term effects of urban site factors on net N-mineralization and nitrification rates were investigated in oak stands along an urban-rural land-use transect in the New York City metropolitan area. We used reciprocal transplants of undisturbed soil cores between urban and rural forests to determine the relative importance of long-term effects (mor vs. mull soils, quality of soil organic

RICHARD V. POUYAT; WILLIAM W. TURECHEK

2003-01-01

146

Short and long-term effects of site factors on net N-mineralization and nitrification rates along an urban-rural gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long- and short-term effects of urban site factors on net N-mineralization and nitrification rates were investigated in oak stands along an urban-rural land-use transect in the New York City metropolitan area. We used reciprocal transplants of undisturbed soil cores between urban and rural forests to determine the relative importance of long-term effects (mor vs. mull soils, quality of soil organic

Richard V. Pouyat; William W. Turechek

2001-01-01

147

Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of animal auditory cortex impairs short-term but not long-term memory formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of gerbil auditory cortex with a miniature coil device was used to study short-term and long-term effects on discrimination learning of frequency-modulated tones. We found previously that directional discrimination of frequency modulation (rising vs. falling) relies on auditory cortex processing and that formation of its memory depends on local protein synthesis. Here we show

Hong Wang; Xu Wang; Wolfram Wetzel; Henning Scheich

2006-01-01

148

Bacterial community and decomposition rate in long term fed-batch composting using woodchip and Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as bulking agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long term fed-batch composting experiments were conducted for 200 days using two types of bulking agents; woodchip and PET\\u000a flake, with periodic compost withdrawal through a washing process. The bacterial communities of composting materials in the\\u000a two different bulking agents were also investigated by 16S rRNA gene clone analysis. The decomposition rate in both composting\\u000a reactors was 86.1% and 88.2% of

Norio Nagao; Keiko Watanabe; Shinichiro Osa; Tatsushi Matsuyama; Norio Kurosawa; Tatsuki Toda

2008-01-01

149

Interest-rate exposure and bank mergers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how interest rates and interest-rate exposures affect the level of acquisition activity, the identities of targets and acquirers, and the pricing of acquisitions in the banking industry. Using a sample of 477 large mergers from 1980 to 1994, we find that the level of acquisition activity is more positively correlated with equity indices and more negatively correlated

Benjamin Esty; Bhanu Narasimhan; Peter Tufano

1999-01-01

150

The influence of sediment cover variability on long-term river incision rates: An example from the Peikang River, central Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the hypothesis that the relative frequency of rock exposure in the bed of an incising channel can have a first-order impact on the long-term average erosion rate. The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan generated thousands of landslides along the middle reach of the Peikang River. Sediment from these landslides produced widespread aggradation, such that much of the river's bed remains shielded from active bedrock incision. We present data that constrain the spatial and temporal variability of sediment cover for the Peikang River. Because the river is undergoing spatially variable Holocene bedrock incision (1-10 mm/yr), it offers a unique natural experiment to test the influence of intermittent sedimentation on long-term incision rates. Published electrical resistivity surveys at seven locations along the river reveal median sediment depth values ranging from 1.9 to 11.5 m. The sediment depth correlates inversely with long-term incision rate and sediment transport capacity. We interpret this as an indication that the frequency of bedrock exposure exerts a major influence on incision along the Peikang River.

Yanites, Brian J.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Hsu, Han-Lun; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Yue-Gau; Mueller, Karl J.

2011-09-01

151

The Association Between Rate of Initial Weight Loss and Long-Term Success in Obesity Treatment: Does Slow and Steady Win the Race?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Controversy exists regarding the optimal rate of weight loss for long-term weight management success.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  This study examined whether gradual initial weight loss was associated with greater long-term weight reduction than rapid\\u000a initial loss.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Groups were drawn from participants in the TOURS trial, which included a sample of middle-aged (mean?=?59.3 years) obese women\\u000a (mean BMI?=?36.8) who received a 6-month lifestyle intervention followed

Lisa M. Nackers; Kathryn M. Ross; Michael G. Perri

2010-01-01

152

The Term Structure of Interest Rates and Monetary Policy During a Zero-Interest-Rate Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically evaluates the validity of the term structure of interest rates in a low-interest-rate environment. Applying a time-series method to high-frequency Japanese data, the term-structure model is found to be useful for economic analysis only when interest rates are high. When interest rates are low, the usefulness of the model declines, since the interest spread contains little information

Jun Nagayasu

2003-01-01

153

Assessing Interest-Rate Risk from the Rate's Constituent Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any increase in interest rates will have implications for the Irish economy, and more specifically for the stability and soundness of the Irish financial system. The overall impact of an interest-rate rise will depend on the factors behind the increase. This paper examines some of the likely causes and consequences of an interest-rate hike. In order to understand how the

Frank Browne; Mary Everett

2005-01-01

154

The Association Between Rate of Initial Weight Loss and Long-Term Success in Obesity Treatment: Does Slow and Steady Win the Race?  

PubMed Central

Background Controversy exists regarding the optimal rate of weight loss for long-term weight management success. Purpose This study examined whether gradual initial weight loss was associated with greater long-term weight reduction than rapid initial loss. Methods Groups were drawn from participants in the TOURS trial, which included a sample of middle-aged (mean =59.3 years) obese women (mean BMI =36.8) who received a 6-month lifestyle intervention followed by a 1-year extended care program. Participants were encouraged to reduce caloric intake to achieve weight losses of 0.45 kg/ week. Groups were categorized as “FAST” (?0.68 kg/week, n=69), “MODERATE” (?0.23 and <0.68 kg/week, n= 104), and “SLOW” (<0.23 kg/week, n=89) based on rate of weight loss during first month of treatment. Results The FAST, MODERATE, and SLOW groups differed significantly in mean weight changes at 6 months (?13.5, ?8.9, and ?5.1 kg, respectively, ps <0.001), and the FAST and SLOW groups differed significantly at 18 months (?10.9, ?7.1, and ?3.7 kg, respectively, ps <0.001). No significant group differences were found in weight regain between 6 and 18 months (2.6, 1.8, and 1.3 kg, respectively, ps < 0.9). The FAST and MODERATE groups were 5.1 and 2.7 times more likely to achieve 10% weight losses at 18 months than the SLOW group. Conclusion Collectively, findings indicate both short- and long-term advantages to fast initial weight loss. Fast weight losers obtained greater weight reduction and long-term maintenance, and were not more susceptible to weight regain than gradual weight losers.

Ross, Kathryn M.; Perri, Michael G.

2013-01-01

155

The information content of the short end of the term structure of interest rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market determined interest rates are important indicators for monetary policy since they can give a measure of market expectations of future policy. Although previous work in the Bank has estimated yield curves from gilt prices and found that these give useful information about long-term expectations, the value of such yield curves at short horizons - below two years - is

Marco Rossi

1996-01-01

156

Money, Interest Rate and Stock Prices: New Evidence from Singapore and The United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the long-term as well as short-term equilibrium relationships between the major stock indices and selected macroeconomic variables (such as money supply and interest rate) of Singapore and the United States by employing the advanced time series analysis techniques that include cointegration, Johansen multivariate cointegrated system, fractional cointegration and Granger causality. The cointegration results based on data covering

Wong Keung-Wing; Habibullah Khan; Jun Du

2006-01-01

157

DO MONEY AND INTEREST RATES MATTER FOR STOCK PRICES? AN ECONOMETRIC STUDY OF SINGAPORE AND USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the long-term as well as short-term equilibrium relationships between the major stock indices and selected macroeconomic variables (such as money supply and interest rate) of Singapore and the United States by employing the advanced time series analysis techniques that include cointegration, Johansen multivariate cointegrated system, fractional cointegration and Granger causality. The cointegration results based on data covering

WING-KEUNG WONG; HABIBULLAH KHAN; JUN DU

2006-01-01

158

Housing Construction Cycles and Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Housing investment is one of the most cyclical components of GDP. Much of that cyclicality stems from the sector's sensitivity to interest rates, but it is also possible that construction lags generate intrinsic cyclicality in this sector. Although the housing sector is generally considered to be more interest-sensitive than the economy as a whole, the degree of this sensitivity seems

Laura Berger-Thomson

2004-01-01

159

Simulation of interest rate options using ARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) estimation procedure provides a specification of the error terms as well as estimates of the coefficients. A simple interest rate equation is estimated using least squares and also using ARCH. Then the stochastic simulation methodology is extended to the ARCH process and Treasury Bond call options are evaluated. Interestingly when ARCH is compared to least

Carlo Bianchi; Giorgio Calzolari; Frederic P. Sterbenz

1991-01-01

160

Interest rates and bank risk-taking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent line of research the low interest-rate environment of the early to mid 2000s is viewed as an element that triggered increased risk-taking appetite of banks in search for yield. This paper uses approximately 18,000 annual observations on euro area banks over the period 2001-2008 and presents strong empirical evidence that low interest rates indeed increase bank risk-taking

Manthos D Delis; Georgios Kouretas

2010-01-01

161

Interest rates and bank risk-taking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent line of research views the low interest-rate environment of the early to mid 2000s as an element that triggered increased risk-taking appetite of banks in search for yield. This paper uses approximately 18000 annual observations on euro area banks over the period 2001–2008 and presents strong empirical evidence that low-interest rates indeed increase bank risk-taking substantially. This result

Manthos D. Delis; Georgios P. Kouretas

2011-01-01

162

US Interests Rates Take a Hike  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As speculated, on Tuesday, May 16, 2000, the Federal Reserve Board decided to raise US interest rates another 0.5 percent, to 6.5 percent. This interest rate hike follows five previous increases of a quarter-point each since June 1999. This is the first time in sixteen years that US interest rates have risen above 5 percent. The new rate will affect the borrowing costs for many Americans, including those with unpaid credit card balances and home equity loans, and also for small business that have taken out bank loans. Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan has long worried that the low unemployment rate coupled with booming economic growth will cause inflation to rise, which is why he has continued to advocate for these interest rate increases. Following Tuesday's announcement by the Fed, Wall Street remained stable; the Dow Jones ended the day up 127 points at 10,935. While President Clinton stands behind the Fed's decision to raise the rates, others, including NAM President Jerry Jasinowski, John Sweeney the president of AFL-CIO, and Democratic Senator Tom Harken of Iowa, have all spoken against the latest interest rate hike.

Missner, Emily D.

163

Changes in heart rate variability are associated with expression of short-term and long-term contextual and cued fear memories.  

PubMed

Heart physiology is a highly useful indicator for measuring not only physical states, but also emotional changes in animals. Yet changes of heart rate variability during fear conditioning have not been systematically studied in mice. Here, we investigated changes in heart rate and heart rate variability in both short-term and long-term contextual and cued fear conditioning. We found that while fear conditioning could increase heart rate, the most significant change was the reduction in heart rate variability which could be further divided into two distinct stages: a highly rhythmic phase (stage-I) and a more variable phase (stage-II). We showed that the time duration of the stage-I rhythmic phase were sensitive enough to reflect the transition from short-term to long-term fear memories. Moreover, it could also detect fear extinction effect during the repeated tone recall. These results suggest that heart rate variability is a valuable physiological indicator for sensitively measuring the consolidation and expression of fear memories in mice. PMID:23667644

Liu, Jun; Wei, Wei; Kuang, Hui; Zhao, Fang; Tsien, Joe Z

2013-05-07

164

Changes in Heart Rate Variability Are Associated with Expression of Short-Term and Long-Term Contextual and Cued Fear Memories  

PubMed Central

Heart physiology is a highly useful indicator for measuring not only physical states, but also emotional changes in animals. Yet changes of heart rate variability during fear conditioning have not been systematically studied in mice. Here, we investigated changes in heart rate and heart rate variability in both short-term and long-term contextual and cued fear conditioning. We found that while fear conditioning could increase heart rate, the most significant change was the reduction in heart rate variability which could be further divided into two distinct stages: a highly rhythmic phase (stage-I) and a more variable phase (stage-II). We showed that the time duration of the stage-I rhythmic phase were sensitive enough to reflect the transition from short-term to long-term fear memories. Moreover, it could also detect fear extinction effect during the repeated tone recall. These results suggest that heart rate variability is a valuable physiological indicator for sensitively measuring the consolidation and expression of fear memories in mice.

Kuang, Hui; Zhao, Fang; Tsien, Joe Z.

2013-01-01

165

Long-term observations of SO2 gas emission rates from Nyiragongo volcano (RD Congo) during 2004-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Nyiragongo (3470 m a.s.l.) is an active stratovolcano of mafic composition located in the Virunga Mountains in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is considered as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world due to generation of voluminous and highly fluidized lava flows during historical eruptions and the proximity to densely inhabited areas. Nyiragongo volcano is also a source of prodigious gaseous emissions to the atmosphere during periods of both eruptive and non-eruptive activity. Documented records of the style, speciation, and magnitude of degassing from this volcano exist in the literature since three decades ago. These studies are mostly based on observations made during sporadic field campaigns or by satellite-borne sensors, owing to logistical constraints imposed by volcanic and political unrest. With the aim of strengthen the gas monitoring capabilities of Nyiragongo volcano, an automatic scanning spectroscopic (DOAS) system was installed in March 2004 in the Rusayo seismic station, 10 km from the volcano crater. This instrument is powered by solar panels and linked by radio telemetry to the Goma Volcanological Observatory. Combined with plume velocity data, this instrument provides near-to-real-time SO2 fluxes with a typical temporal resolution of 10 minutes during sunlight hours. In 2005 the instrument was upgraded and incorporated as part of the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC). Since 2005 three additional instruments has been installed, at 10 - 14 km distance W - SW of the crater, as part of the NOVAC project. We present the results of the measurements performed at Nyiragongo during the period March 2004-October 2009. Wind data has been obtained from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model based on data from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to account for the effect of local topography. A statistical analysis of the results and its relation with other volcanological observations is presented. This study emphasizes the importance of long-term and continuous gas monitoring to better understand the human and environmental effects of the persistent activity of this volcano.

Yalire, Matthiew; Galle, Bo; Arellano, Santiago; Norman, Patrik; Johansson, Mattias

2010-05-01

166

Are interest rate options important for the assessment of interest rate risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixed income options contain substantial information on the price of interest rate volatility risk. In this paper, we ask if those options will also provide information related to other moments of the objective distribution of interest rates. Based on dynamic term structure models within the class of affine models, we find that interest rate options are useful for the identification

Caio Almeida; José Vicente

2009-01-01

167

Interest Rate Stepping, Interest Rate Smoothing and Uncertainty: Some Views from the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report analyses some of the reasons mentioned in the literature as to why central banks change interest rates at discrete intervals in the face of a continuously changing environment (interest rate stepping) and why they seem to prefer to implement changes in a series of small steps (interest rate smoothing). Despite the fact that both seem difficult to explain

W. H. Verhagen

2002-01-01

168

Demographics and The Behaviour of Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we relate the very persistent component of interest rates to a specific demographic variable, MYt, the proportion of middle-aged to young population. We first reconsider the results in Fama (2006) to document how MYt captures the long run component identified by Fama in his analysis of the one-year spot rate. Using MYt to model this low frequency

Carlo A. Favero; Arie E. Gozluklu; Haoxi Yang

2011-01-01

169

Uncertainties in Long-Term Geologic Offset Rates of Faults: General Principles Illustrated With Data From California and Other Western States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the slip rates of seismic faults are highly variable, a better target for statistical estimation is the long- term offset rate, which can be defined as the rate of one component of the slip which would be measured between any two times when fault-plane shear tractions are equal. The probability density function for the sum of elastic offset plus fault slip offset since a particular geologic event includes uncertainties associated with changes in elastic strain between that event and the present, which are estimated from the sizes of historic earthquake offsets on other faults of similar type. The probability density function for the age of a particular geologic event may be non-Gaussian, especially if it is determined from cross-cutting relations, or from radiocarbon or cosmogenic-nuclide ages containing inheritance. Two alternate convolution formulas relating the distributions for offset and age give the probability density function for long-term offset rate; these are computed for most published cases of dated offset features along active faults in California and other western states. After defining a probabilistic measure of disagreement between two long-term offset rate distributions measured on the same fault section, I investigate how disagreement varies with geologic time (difference in age of the offset features) and with publication type (primary, secondary, or tertiary). Patterns of disagreement suggest that at least 4.3% of offset rates in primary literature are incorrect (due to failure to span the whole fault, undetected complex initial shapes of offset features, or faulty correlation in space or in geologic time) or unrepresentative (due to variations in offset rate along the trace). Tertiary (third-hand) literature sources have a higher error rate of 14.5%. In the western United States, it appears that rates from offset features as old as 3 Ma can be averaged without introducing age-dependent bias. Offsets of older features can and should be used as well, but it is necessary to make allowance for the increased risk, rising to rapidly to 48%, that they are inapplicable to neotectonics. Based on these results, best-estimate combined probability density functions are computed for the long-term offset rates of all active faults in California and other conterminous western states, and described in tables using several scalar measures. Of 849 active and potentially-active faults in the conterminous western United States, only 48 are "well-constrained" (having combined probability density functions for long-term offset rate in which the width of the 95%-confidence range is smaller than the median). It appears to require about 4 offset features to give an even chance of achieving a well-constrained combined rate, and at least 7 offset features to guarantee it.

Bird, P.

2006-12-01

170

Effects of urinary bladder retroflexion and surgical technique on postoperative complication rates and long-term outcome in dogs with perineal hernia: 41 cases (2002-2009).  

PubMed

Objective-To evaluate the effects of urinary bladder retroflexion (UBR) and surgical technique on postoperative complication rates and long-term outcome in dogs with perineal hernia. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-41 client-owned dogs with perineal hernia that underwent surgery between November 2002 and November 2009. Procedures-Medical records were reviewed for information on dog signalment, history, physical examination findings, ultrasonographic findings, surgical techniques, intraoperative complications, duration of hospital stay, postoperative complications, and long-term outcome. Results-31 dogs had no UBR, and 10 dogs had UBR. Internal obturator muscle transposition (IOMT) was performed in 20 dogs, and a cystopexy or colopexy was performed before the IOMT (LapIOMT) in 21. Postoperative complications included tenesmus (n = 8) and urinary incontinence (1). Rates of postoperative complications were not significantly different between the no-UBR and UBR groups or between the IOMT and LapIOMT groups. Thirty-two dogs were free of clinical signs at the time of the study. The median disease-free interval did not differ significantly between dogs in the no-UBR and UBR groups, but it was significantly lower in the LapIOMT group than in the IOMT group. None of the 7 dogs with UBR that were treated without cystopexy developed recurrence of UBR. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-UBR was not associated with an increased rate of postoperative complications relative to no UBR and had no effect on the long-term outcome in dogs with perineal hernia. The use of IOMT alone may be recommended for clinical use because LapIOMT offered no clear advantage. PMID:24171374

Grand, Jean-Guillaume; Bureau, Stéphane; Monnet, Eric

2013-11-15

171

Long-term testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

172

Short-term and long-term effects of low total pressure on gas exchange rates of spinach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, spinach plants were grown under atmospheric and low pressure conditions with constant O2 and CO2 partial pressures, and the effects of low total pressure on gas exchange rates were investigated. CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates of spinach grown under atmospheric pressure increased after short-term exposure to low total pressure due to the enhancement of leaf conductance. However, gas exchange rates of plants grown at 25 kPa total pressure were not greater than those grown at atmospheric pressure. Stomatal pore length and width were significantly smaller in leaves grown at low total pressure. This result suggested that gas exchange rates of plants grown under low total pressure were not stimulated even with the enhancement of gas diffusion because the stomatal size and stomatal aperture decreased.

Iwabuchi, K.; Kurata, K.

173

Comparison of heart rate biofeedback, false biofeedback, and systematic desensitization in reducing speech anxiety: Short and long-term effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessed the comparative effectiveness of heart rate biofeedback (HRB) training, false HRB training, and systematic desensitization (SD) in reducing speech anxiety for 27 students chosen for their high scores on the item \\

Robert J Gatchel

1979-01-01

174

The impact of long-term water stress on relative growth rate and morphology of needles and shoots of Metasequoia glyptostroboides seedlings: research toward identifying mechanistic models.  

PubMed

Leaf morphology in the upper canopy of trees tends to be different from that lower down. The effect of long-term water stress on leaf growth and morphology was studied in seedlings of Metasequoia glyptostroboides to understand how tree height might affect leaf morphology in larger trees. Tree height increases water stress on growing leaves through increased hydraulic resistance to water flow and increased gravitational potential, hence we assume that water stress imposed by soil dehydration will have an effect equivalent to stress induced by height. Seedlings were subjected to well-watered and two constant levels of long-term water stress treatments. Drought treatment significantly reduced final needle count, area and mass per area (leaf mass area, LMA) and increased needle density. Needles from water-stressed plants had lower maximum volumetric elastic modulus (?(max)), osmotic potential at full turgor (?¹??(?)) (and at zero turgor (??(?)) (than those from well-watered plants. Palisade and spongy mesophyll cell size and upper epidermal cell size decreased significantly in drought treatments. Needle relative growth rate, needle length and cell sizes were linear functions of the daily average water potential at the time of leaf growth (r² 0.88-0.999). We conclude that water stress alone does mimic the direction and magnitude of changes in leaf morphology observed in tall trees. The results are discussed in terms of various models for leaf growth rate. PMID:21534977

Zhang, Yanxiang; Equiza, Maria Alejandra; Zheng, Quanshui; Tyree, Melvin T

2011-06-15

175

Average long-term sediment discharge investigations based on reservoir resurvey data and sediment yield rate factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a summary of investigation s, based on resurveys of existing reservoirs, developed in the state of Minas Gérais in the neighbourhood of Juiz de Fora and Belo Horizonte, the State Capital. Comparisons and adjustments are made based on sediment yield rate factors such as rainfall, soil type, topography, land use and drainage area size. The result was

E. P. GARCIA; O. VIGNOLI

1988-01-01

176

Effects of acute alcohol consumption on ratings of attractiveness of facial stimuli: evidence of long-term encoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: A strongly held popular belief is that alcohol increases the perceived attractiveness of members of the opposite sex. Despite this, there are no experimental data that investigate this possibility. We therefore explored the relationship between acute alcohol consumption and ratings of attractiveness of facial stimuli. Methods: We investigated male and female participants (n = 84), using male and female

Lycia L. C. Parker; Ian S. Penton-Voak; Angela S. Attwood; Marcus R. Munafo

2008-01-01

177

Monetary Policy Committees and Interest Rate Smoothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend the New Keynesian Monetary Policy literature relaxing the assumption that the decisions are taken by a single policymaker, considering instead that monetary policy decisions are taken collectively in a committee. We introduce a Monetary Policy Committee (MPC), whose members have different preferences between output and inflation variability and have to vote on the level of the interest rate.

Carlos Montoro

2007-01-01

178

The Smoothing of Official Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast, the central argument of this paper is that some degree of interest-rate smoothing represents optimal behaviour on the part of central banks. The lags between a change in monetary policy and its effect on economic activity, and the fact that the economy is subject to shocks from many sources, mean that frequent changes in the level and direction

Philip Lowe; Luci Ellis

179

Interest rate risk and bank equity valuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because they engage in maturity transformation, a steepening of the yield curve should, all else equal, boost bank profitability. We re-examine this conventional wisdom by estimating the reaction of bank intraday stock returns to exogenous fluctuations in interest rates induced by monetary policy announcements. We construct a new measure of the mismatch between the repricing time or maturity of bank

William B. English; Skander J. Van den Heuvel; Egon Zakrajsek

2012-01-01

180

Estimation of pump flow rate and abnormal condition of implantable rotary blood pumps during long-term in vivo study.  

PubMed

The control system for an implantable rotary blood pump is not clearly defined. A detection system is considered to be necessary for pump flow monitoring and abnormal conditions such as back flow or a sucking phenomenon where the septum or left ventricle wall is sucked into the cannula, etc. The ultrasound flowmeter is durable and reliable but the control system should not be totally dependent on the flowmeter. If the flowmeter breaks, the rotary blood pumps have no control mechanism. Therefore, the authors suggest controlling the pumps by an intrinsic parameter. One left ventricular assist device (LVAD) calf model was studied where the flow rate and waveform of the pump flow proved to identify the sucking phenomenon. Thus, the pump flow rate was calculated from the required power, motor speed, and heart rate. The value of the coefficient of determination (R2) between the measured and estimated pump flow rate was 0.796. To estimate this abnormal phenomenon, 2 methods were evaluated. One method was the total pressure head in which the pump flow rate and motor speed were estimated. During normal conditions the total pressure head is 79.5 +/- 7.0 mm Hg whereas in the abnormal condition, it is 180.0 +/- 2.8 mm Hg. There was a statistical difference (p < 0.01). Another method is using a current waveform. There is an association between the current and pump flow waves. The current was differentiated and squared to calculate the power of the differentiated current. The normal range of this value was 0.025 +/- 0.029; the abnormal condition was 11.25 +/- 15.13. There was a statistical difference (p < 0.01). The predicted flow estimation method and a sucking detection method were available from intrinsic parameters of the pump and need no sensors. These 2 methods are simple, yet effective and reliable control methods for a rotary blood pump. PMID:10816208

Nakata, K; Yoshikawa, M; Takano, T; Sankai, Y; Ohtsuka, G; Glueck, J; Fujisawa, A; Makinouchi, K; Yokokawa, M; Nosé, Y

2000-04-01

181

Long Term Quadrotor Stabilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work of this thesis focuses on the IMU and getting the best performance possible out of the IMU to achieve better long term stability and a better navigation solution. This is done in two ways. First, the IMU accelerometer output is examined to determ...

N. Hamilton

2011-01-01

182

Who Becomes a Physics Major? A Long-term Longitudinal Study Examining the Roles of Pre-college Beliefs about Physics and Learning Physics, Interest, and Academic Achievement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper, we examine the correlation between studentsâ beliefs upon entering college and their likelihood of continuing on to become a physics major. Since 2004, we have collected CLASS survey and self-reported level-of-interest responses from students in the first-term, introductory calculus-based physics course (N>2500). Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis of studentsâ incoming CLASS scores and level of interest, comparing those students who go on to become physics majors with those who do not. We find the incoming CLASS scores and reported interest of these future physics majors to be substantially higher than the class average, indicating that these students enter their first college course already having quite expert-like beliefs. The comparative differences are much smaller for grades, SAT score, and university predicted-GPA.

Perkins, Katherine K.; Gratny, M.

2010-12-31

183

The Long-Term Effect of Antibiotic-Impregnated Catheters on Bloodstream Infection Rate in a PICU  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections are the most common reported healthcare-associated infections in pediatric facilities. To measure the effect, we compare catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI) rates for antibiotic-impregnated (rifampin\\/minocycline) catheters (AIC) to non-impregnated catheters (NAIC) in a PICU. Interventions such as the use of maximum barrier precautions (1998), handwashing compliance campaign (2000\\/2001), and chlorohexidine prep (2003) prior to catheter insertion also occurred.METHODS:

M. Honeycutt; G. Schutze; A. Bhutta

2004-01-01

184

Are prediction equations for glomerular filtration rate useful for the long-term monitoring of type 2 diabetic patients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of prediction equations (modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), simplified MDRD, Cockcroft-Gault (CG), reciprocal of creatinine and creatinine clearance) in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A total of 525 glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) using 125I-iothalamate were carried out over 10 years in 87 type

Nestor Fontsere; Isabel Salinas; Jordi Bonal; Beatriz Bayes; Joaquim Riba; Ferran Torres; Jose Rios; Ana Sanmarti; Ramon Romero

2006-01-01

185

A comparative clinical trial in multibacillary leprosy with long-term relapse rates of four different multidrug regimens.  

PubMed

As a participant in a multicenter trial, we evaluated the relapse rate in 189 multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients treated with four different regimens and followed-up for as many as 12 years after the initiation of treatment. Treatment regimens included 1 year of WHO MDT (a regimen including dapsone, clofazimine, and rifampin), 2 years of WHO MDT, 1 month of daily rifampin and daily ofloxacin, and 1 year of WHO MDT plus an initial 1 month of daily rifampin and daily ofloxacin. Relapse rates after 9 and 12 years from the initiation of therapy in the three regimens that included WHO MDT were 0-3%, whereas relapses occurred in those treated with the 1-month regimen alone at a significantly greater rate (P < 0.05): 11% at 9 years and 25% at 12 years. Relapses occurred late, beginning at 5 years after the initiation of therapy, and were confined to those patients histopathologically borderline lepromatous and polar lepromatous having a high bacterial burden. Prospects for an alternative effective short-course therapy of leprosy are presented. PMID:19635893

Fajardo, Tranquilino T; Villahermosa, Laarni; Pardillo, Fe Eleanor F; Abalos, Rodolfo M; Burgos, Jasmin; Dela Cruz, Eduardo; Gelber, Robert H

2009-08-01

186

Backward-Looking Interest-Rate Rules, Interest-Rate Smoothing, and Macroeconomic Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing literature on the stabilizing properties of interest-rate feedback rules has stressed the perils of linking interest rates to forecasts of future inflation. Such rules have been found to give rise to aggregate fluctuations due to self-fulfilling expectations. In response to this concern, a growing literature has focused on the stabilizing properties of interest-rate rules whereby the central bank

Jess Benhabib; Stephanie Schitt-Grohe; Martin Uribe

2002-01-01

187

Backward-Looking Interest-Rate Rules, Interest-Rate Smoothing, and Macroeconomic Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing literature on the stabilizing properties of interest-rate feedback rules has stressed the perils of linking interest rates to forecasts of future inflation. Such rules have been found to give rise to aggregate fluctuations due to self-fulfilling expectations. In response to this concern literature has focused on the stabilizing properties of interest-rate rules whereby the central bank responds to

Jess Benhabib; Stephanie Schmitt-Grohe; Martin Uribe

2003-01-01

188

Activity Preferences and Satisfaction Among Older Adults in a Veterans Administration Long-Term Care Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities can be a nonpharmacological intervention for depression in long-term care. To address the activity needs of men, 183 residents of a VA long-term care facility were surveyed about activity interests, past and present, and activity satisfaction. With a 30% return rate, residents reported 85% overall satisfaction with activities and identified television as the most preferred activity, past and present.

Jacqueline Kracker; Kelly Kearns; Frederick J. Kier; Kimberly A. Christensen

2011-01-01

189

Monetary policy and the term structure of nominal interest rates: Evidence and theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how exogenous impulses to monetary policy affect the yield curve for nominally risk-free bonds. Three distinct identification strategies imply similar patterns: a contractionary pol- icy shock induces a pronounced positive but short-lived response of short-term interest rates. The response declines monotonically with maturity; long-term rates are virtually unaffected. These responses are unambiguously liquidity effects rather than expected

Charles L. Evans; David A. Marshall

1998-01-01

190

Comparison of two systems for long-term heart rate variability monitoring in free-living conditions - a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective A number of small portable systems that can measure HRV are available to address questions related to autonomic regulation in free-living subjects. However, ambulatory HRV measurements obtained through use of these systems have not previously been validated against standard clinical measurements such as Holter recordings. The objective of this study was to validate HRV obtained using a commonly used system, Actiheart, during occupational and leisure-time activities. Method Full-day ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) signals were recorded from 8 females simultaneously using Actiheart and Holter recorders, and signals were processed to RR-interval time series. Segments of 5-minute duration were sampled every 30 minutes, and spectral components of the heart rate variability were calculated. Actiheart and Holter values were compared using Deming regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots. Results In total, 489 segments were available with an HRV value from both Actiheart and Holter recordings after filtering out segments with >10% interpolated beats. No systematic differences between Actiheart and Holter HRV were found. The random deviations between Actiheart and Holter were comparable to the repeatability standard deviation between consecutive Holter measurements. Discussion The results show that Actiheart is suited as a stand-alone ambulatory method for heart rate variability monitoring during occupational and leisure-time activities.

2011-01-01

191

A low resting heart rate at diagnosis predicts favourable long-term outcome in pulmonary arterial and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. A prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Background A low resting heart rate (HR) is prognostically favourable in healthy individuals and in patients with left heart disease. In this study we investigated the impact of HR at diagnosis on long-term outcome in patients with differently classified precapillary pulmonary hypertension (pPH). Methods pPH patients diagnosed as pulmonary arterial (PAH) or inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) were registered and regularly followed at our centre Baseline characteristics and events defined as either death or lung transplantation were noted. The prognostic value of HR was analysed using Kaplan Meier estimates, live tables and Cox regression. Results 206 patients with PAH (148) and inoperable CTEPH (58) were included. The median HR was 82 bpm. pPH with a HR below 82 bpm had a significantly longer overall event-free survival (2409 vs.1332 days, p = .000). This advantage was similarly found if PAH and CTEPH were analysed separately. Although a lower HR was associated with a better hemodynamic and functional class, HR was a strong and independent prognostic marker for transplant free survival even if corrected for age, sex, hemodynamics and functional status. Conclusion We show that resting HR at diagnosis is a strong and independent long-term prognostic marker in PAH and CTEPH. Whether reducing HR by pharmacological agents would improve outcome in pPH has to be assessed by future trials with high attention to safety.

2012-01-01

192

Seismic cycle, long-term faulting behavior and slip rate variations along the Dead Sea Fault (Jordan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recurrence of large and destructive earthquakes along major fault systems is key to understanding the seismic cycle, the driving mechanism and forecast future behavior. We study the ~ 110-km-long Jordan Valley Fault segment (JVF) of the North-South trending Dead Sea Transform Fault and plate boundary by means of two independent approaches: i) the build-up of a paleoseismic catalogue of surface-rupturing events for the last 14 kyr, and ii) the construction of a history of slip rate over the last 48.5 kyr from different generations of left-lateral offset streams of the late Pleistocene and Holocene Lissan lacustrine deposits. Firstly, we combine published historical data, re-appraised archaeological data and paleoseismic trenching to produce and unprecedentedly complete catalogue of large (Mw > 7) earthquakes with at least 13 events in the last 14 kyr. The average ~1000 yrs recurrence interval presents large variations from 300 to more than 1500 yrs, with the various datasets intersecting and completing each other. Secondly, we present a detailed map of the active fault trace that intersects a set of 20 gullies. Stream incisions are classified as a function of their depth and relative age and characterized in terms of cumulative offsets. Absolute ages are obtained from paleoclimatic analysis of lacustrine deposits. Using the numerous isotopic dating of lacustrine deposits, lake-level fluctuations and extreme rainfall episodes, we obtain an average 4.9 mm/yr slip rate with extreme values of 3.5 and 11 mm/yr. Our results indicate slip rate variations and provide evidence for episodic faulting behavior. Both approaches indicate that the JVF encounters periods of increased seismic activity which suggests episodicity or mode-switching. Reduced recurrence intervals and/or larger co-seismic slip (and magnitudes) are required to account for observations as suggested by GPS observations (4.5 mm/yr) and seismic moment summation. The JVF has accumulated 3.5 m to 5 m of slip deficit after the AD 1033 earthquake and may be the site for a large earthquake in the near future.

Ferry, M.; Meghraoui, M.; Abou Karaki, N.

2009-12-01

193

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

SciTech Connect

Natural attenuation of TCE under aerobic conditions at the INEEL Test Area North site was demonstrated largely on the basis of preferential loss of TCE relative to conservative solutes (PCE and H-3) along groundwater flow paths. First order degradation half-lives were calculated from the rate of preferential TCE loss. We are utilizing the same approach at other DOE sites that have aerobic TCE plumes to determine if aerobic natural attenuation of TCE is rapid enough at these sites to be environmentally significant, i.e. if natural attenuation can reduce concentrations to acceptable levels before groundwater reaches potential receptors. The first step in this process was to identify TCE plumes at DOE sites that have the appropriate site conditions and data needed to perform this analysis. The site conditions include the presence of TCE in groundwater at appreciable concentrations in an aerobic aquifer, a co-mingled contaminant that can be used as a conservative tracer (e.g. PCE, H-3, Tc-99), a flow path that represents at least a decade of travel time, and several monitoring wells located along this flow path. Candidate sites were identified through interviews with knowledgeable individuals in the DOE system and by screening the U.S. Dept. of Energy Groundwater Database using the keywords ''TCE'' and ''groundwater''. The initial screening yielded 25 plumes for consideration. These sites had anywhere from one to 37 individual plumes containing TCE. Of the 25 sites, 13 sites were further evaluated because they met the screening criteria or were promising. After contacting DOE personnel from the respective sites, they were divided into three groups: (1) sites that meet all the project criteria, (2) sites that could potentially be used for the project, and (3) DOE sites that did not meet the criteria. The five sites with plumes that met the criteria were: Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and the Savannah River Site. Detailed characterization data from the promising plumes is being entered into our database as it is received. The next step is to calculate natural attenuation half-life values for all of these plumes. We will next identify the plumes in which natural attenuation via aerobic degradation of TCE is fast enough that it may be relevant as a component of a remedy. We will then select at least one of these sites and either modify an existing groundwater transport model or, if necessary, create a new model, for this plume. This model will initially include first order decay of TCE, and degradation will be parameterized using the half-live values determined from the field data. The models will be used to simulate the evolution of the TCE plume and to predict concentrations as a function of time at property lines or other artificial boundaries, and where potential receptors are located. Ultimately rate data from th e laboratory studies being performed at INEEL will be incorporated into this model, as well as the model of the TAN site to provide a realistic prediction of degradation rates and plume longevity. Although identifying suitable TCE plumes and obtaining characterization data has taken longer than expected, this process has successfully identified the plumes needed for the detailed modeling activity without adversely impacting the project budget.

Sorenson, Kent S. Jr.

2003-06-01

194

Effects of short- and long-term exposure to ozone on heart rate and blood pressure of emphysematous rats  

SciTech Connect

Electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure of elastase-treated emphysematous rats (E rats) and saline-treated control rats (S rats) were recorded continuously during exposure to either 1 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/) for 3 hr or 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ for 6 hr. The heart rates (HRs) of both groups decreased to about 50 and 65% of the initial levels at the end of 1 ppm and 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ exposure, respectively. Mean arterial blood pressures (MAPs) also decreased to about 76 and 82%, respectively. There was no significant difference in these responses between E and S rats, although the levels of HRs and MAPs of the E rats were always a little lower than those of the S rats. Another group of E and S rats was continuously exposed to 0.2 ppm O/sub 3/ for 4 weeks. The HRs of both E and S groups decreased to about 81 and 88% of the initial levels on the first day, respectively, although they recovered completely by the third day. No significant difference in the variation of HRs during exposure was noted between E and S rats. However, the HR responses of these rats to a challenge exposure of 0.8 ppm O/sub 3/ for 1.5 hr appeared to be different. That is, S rats were more tolerant of the challenge exposure to O/sub 3/ for 1.5 hr than the E rats.

Uchiyama, I.; Yokoyama, E.

1989-02-01

195

Long-term effects of ad libitum whole milk prior to weaning and prepubertal protein supplementation on skeletal growth rate and first-lactation milk production.  

PubMed

Our objectives were to determine the effects of rapid growth rate during the preweaning period and prepubertal protein supplementation on long-term growth pattern and milk production during the first lactation. Forty-six Israeli Holstein heifer calves were fed either milk replacer (MR) or whole milk (WM) from 4 to 60 d age. Calves had free access to WM or MR for 30 min twice daily and free-choice water and starter mix for the entire day. From weaning until 150 d of age, all heifers were fed the same ration. At 150 d of age the heifers were divided into 2 subgroups, with one subgroup supplemented with an additional 2% protein until 320 d of age. Thereafter, all heifers were housed and fed together until calving. Another cluster of 20 heifers was raised on MR and WM treatments and 3 animals from each nursery treatment were slaughtered at 60 d and 10 mo age to determine effects of nursery treatment on organ and adipose tissue mass. Prior to weaning, the MR heifers consumed 0.12 kg/d more DM than the WM heifers, but metabolizable energy intake was not different. Body weight at weaning and average daily gain during the preweaning period were 3.1 kg and 0.074 kg/d higher, respectively, in the WM treatment than in the MR treatment, with no differences in other measurements. Nursery feeding treatment and added protein had no effect on growth rate in the prepubertal period, but the postweaning difference in BW between the WM and MR heifers remained throughout the entire rearing period. The age at first insemination was 23 d earlier and age at pregnancy and first calving was numerically lower for the WM heifers than for the MR heifers. Adipose tissue weights at weaning were doubled in the WM calves. First-lactation milk production and 4% fat-corrected milk were 10.3 and 7.1% higher, respectively, for WM heifers than for MR heifers, whereas prepubertal added protein tended to increase milk yield. In conclusion, preweaning WM at high feeding rates appears to have long-term effects that are beneficial to future milk production. The positive long-term effects of feeding WM on first-lactation milk production were independent of their effects on skeletal growth. Enhanced milk production observed with WM treatment may be related to the milk supply, paracrine or endocrine effects of fat tissues on mammary parenchyma, or a combination of both factors. PMID:20494173

Moallem, U; Werner, D; Lehrer, H; Zachut, M; Livshitz, L; Yakoby, S; Shamay, A

2010-06-01

196

Long-term erosion and exhumation rates across different climatic zones in the Indian NW-Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concepts have been developed that explain the changeover from tectonically to erosionally controlled exhumation processes in the tectonic evolution of the Himalayan orogen. However, the degree to which climate-driven erosion controls the late Cenozoic development of the southern Himalayan front is still a matter of debate. The Himalaya forms an orographic barrier with strong gradients both perpendicular to and along strike of the orogen. Thus, quantifying whether or not precipitation, erosion, and deformation patterns are correlated over geologic time should provide important insights into the tectonic evolution of the orogen. To constrain spatial and temporal variations in erosion and along strike variations in the timing and magnitude of deformation in the NW-Himalaya, we are establishing a data set of multiple low-temperature thermochronometers. Together with previous published data, our new apatite fission track (AFT) and zircon (U-Th)/He ages (ZHe) ages will be integrated with 3D-thermo-kinematic modeling. On a first sampling campaign, we collected 40 bedrock samples from the hanging wall of the MCT along an approximately 100 km long, strike perpendicular transect across the High Himalaya of the Chamba/Zanskar region that is situated between the Kishtwar- and the Larji-Kulu-Rampur-Windows. It extends from the southern Himalayan front, that is characterised by concentrated monsoonal precipitation, to the arid interior of the orogen. We present ca. 33 new AFT and 30 new ZHe from 3 elevation transects, which span between 2400 m and 3600 m. Our data constrain the exhumation history of the Chamba/Zanskar region spanning from the Miocene until present. ZHe and AFT ages range between 6.3 and 18.1 Ma, and 1.7 and 9.3 Ma, respectively. Our new data reveal spatiotemporal variation in the exhumation between the frontal range and the more internal compartments of the High Himalaya. At the internal ranges to the north, ZHe ages (9.4-18.1 Ma) as well as AFT ages (3.8-9.3 Ma) increase with sample elevation. In contrast, AFT ages, and to some degree ZHe ages at the southernmost frontal range are young (<3.7 Ma and <9.2 Ma, respectively), and are not correlated with sample elevation. Our preliminary interpretation of these observations is that as a consequence of moderate exhumation rates at earlier times (Miocene) isotherms were sub-horizontal (forming an age/elevation relationship), whereas the frontal range has been affected by more deep-seated and rapid exhumation over the last couple of Ma causing more advected isotherms, which are running sub-parallel to the first order topography (no age/elevation relationship). Our new data provide insight in lateral variations in exhumation along strike of the northwesternmost segment of the Himalaya in space and time. In contrast to most other regions of the NW Himalaya, the Chamba/Zanskar region is characterized by rapid exhumation along the southernmost frontal range in the hanging wall of the MBT, whereas to the northwest and to the southeast, at the tectonic Kishtwar and Larji-Kullu-Rampur windows, focused denudation is concentrated in a narrow belt ~100 km north of the orogenic front.

Deeken, A.; Hourigan, J. K.; Thiede, R. C.; Sobel, E. R.; Strecker, M. R.

2009-12-01

197

Long-term marriages: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research guidelines are proposed for the study of long-term marriages based on a critical review of existing studies. Current problems in the collection and analysis of the data include the lack of agreement about the minimum length of a “long-term” relationship, the failure to make couple comparisons, or to follow samples longitudinally. In addition, the response rate is uniformly low

Michael J. Sporakowski; Leland V. Axelson

1984-01-01

198

Long-term temporal trends and estimated transmission rates for Mycobacterium bovis infection in an undisturbed high-density badger (Meles meles) population.  

PubMed

We describe epidemiological trends in Mycobacterium bovis infection in an undisturbed wild badger (Meles meles) population. Data were derived from the capture, clinical sampling and serological testing of 1803 badgers over 9945 capture events spanning 24 years. Incidence and prevalence increased over time, exhibiting no simple relationship with host density. Potential explanations are presented for a marked increase in the frequency of positive serological test results. Transmission rates (R0) estimated from empirical data were consistent with modelled estimates and robust to changes in test sensitivity and the spatial extent of the population at risk. The risk of a positive culture or serological test result increased with badger age, and varied seasonally. Evidence consistent with progressive disease was found in cubs. This study demonstrates the value of long-term data and the repeated application of imperfect diagnostic tests as indices of infection to reveal epidemiological trends in M. bovis infection in badgers. PMID:23537573

Delahay, R J; Walker, N; Smith, G C; Smith, G S; Wilkinson, D; Clifton-Hadley, R S; Cheeseman, C L; Tomlinson, A J; Chambers, M A

2013-03-28

199

Caregiver Ratings of Long-term Executive Dysfunction and Attention Problems After Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: Family Functioning Is Important  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the relationship of family and parenting factors to long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that the magnitude of executive dysfunction and attention problems would be moderated by family and parenting factors. Design A multicenter, prospective cohort study that included an orthopedic injury (OI) reference group. Setting Three tertiary academic children’s hospital medical centers and one general medical center. Participants Children, ages 3–7 years, hospitalized for OI, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. Methods and Outcome Measurements Parental ratings of family functioning and parenting styles were obtained 18 months after the injury occurred. The main outcome measurements, which were parental ratings of children’s executive function and attention, were performed at least 24 months after the injury occurred (mean, 39 months; range, 25–63 months). Analysis Group comparisons were conducted with use of t-tests, ?2 analysis, analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlations. Regression analysis was used to examine associations of the outcomes with family functioning and parenting styles and to test moderating effects of these factors on group differences. Results Participants with severe TBI demonstrated increased executive dysfunction and attention problems compared with those who sustained moderate TBI or OI. Lower levels of family dysfunction were associated with better executive function and attention across groups but did not moderate group differences. However, attention deficits after severe TBI were exacerbated under conditions of more permissive parenting relative to attention deficits after OIs. Conclusions Executive function and attention problems persisted on a long-term basis (>24 months) after early childhood TBI, and positive global family functioning and nonpermissive parenting were associated with better outcomes. Better characterization of the optimal family environment for recovery from early childhood TBI could help target future interventions.

Kurowski, Brad G.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay C.; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.

2013-01-01

200

Long-term data archiving  

SciTech Connect

Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web Consortium, an independent standards body) as a new data interchange tool is being investigated and implemented. In order to facilitate data archiving, Raman data needs calibration as well as some other kinds of data treatment. Figure 1 illustrates schematically the present situation for Raman data calibration in the world-wide Raman spectroscopy community, and presents some of the terminology used.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

201

75 FR 82146 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY...30, 2011, the prompt payment interest rate is 2\\5/8\\ per centum per...interest penalty calculated with the interest rate, which is in effect at the...

2010-12-29

202

76 FR 82350 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY...30, 2012, the prompt payment interest rate is 2 per centum per annum. ADDRESSES...interest penalty calculated with the interest rate, which is in effect at the...

2011-12-30

203

77 FR 76624 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-12-28

204

78 FR 39063 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2013-06-28

205

77 FR 38888 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-06-29

206

76 FR 38742 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY...31, 2011, the prompt payment interest rate is 2\\1/2\\ per centum per...interest penalty calculated with the interest rate, which is in effect at the...

2011-07-01

207

75 FR 37881 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY...31, 2010, the prompt payment interest rate is 3\\1/8\\ per centum per...interest penalty calculated with the interest rate, which is in effect at the...

2010-06-30

208

Interest rate and bank stock returns asymmetry: Evidence from U.S. banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the multivariate extension of Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic (EGARCH) of Nelson,\\u000a Econometrica, 59: 347–370, 1991 to test for spillover effects and examine the extent of asymmetries between short- and long-term interest rates and portfolios\\u000a of money center, large, and medium-size banks in the U.S. Our results indicate the existence of price and volatility spillovers\\u000a from short- and

Priti Verma; Dave O. Jackson

2008-01-01

209

Money, Interest Rates, and Exchange Rates with Endogenously Segmented Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the effects of money injections on interest rates and exchange rates when agents must pay a Baumol-Tobin-style fixed cost to exchange bonds and money. Asset markets are endogenously segmented because this fixed cost leads agents to trade bonds and money infrequently. When the government injects money through an open market operation, only those agents that are currently trading

Fernando Alvarez; Andrew Atkeson; Patrick J. Kehoe

2002-01-01

210

High rate of spontaneous inhibitor clearance during the long term observation study of a single cohort of 524 haemophilia A patients not undergoing immunotolerance  

PubMed Central

Background The natural history of inhibitors in patients with haemophilia A not undergoing immune tolerance induction (ITI) is largely unknown. A recent randomized controlled trial suggests that the higher the FVIII dose used for ITI, the faster the clearance and the lower the rate of bleeding, without any difference in the rate of tolerance. We aimed at assessing the rate of spontaneous inhibitor clearance in a large cohort of patients not undergoing ITI. Methods A retrospective analysis of anti-FVIII inhibitors of long-term registry data in a single centre cohort of 524 haemophilia A patients considered for synovectomy was performed. Patients were tested for inhibitors before and 15 days after any and each surgical episode and thereafter did not undergo immune tolerance at any time. Results The cumulative incidence of inhibitors overall was 34% (180 out of 524) with the highest percentage of 39% (168 out of 434) in severe patients which represented 83% of the cohort. Among the 180 inhibitor patients: 63 had permanent inhibitors; 70 fulfilled current criteria for transient inhibitors but a third category of 47 additional patients cleared the alloantibody spontaneously in >6 months. At logistic regression, both the inhibitor titre and the gene mutation were shown to predict time to clearance. Conclusions Spontaneous clearance of inhibitors over variable time in the absence of ITI treatment was found in up to 2/3 of the cases.

2013-01-01

211

12 CFR 7.4001 - Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES... Charging interest at rates permitted...national bank located in...may charge interest at the maximum rate permitted...permitted interest. For example, a national bank may lawfully...the highest rate...

2013-01-01

212

Paying for long-term care.  

PubMed Central

Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage.

Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

1994-01-01

213

Nitrogen transformations in a Vertisol under long-term tillage and no tillage management in dryland agricultual systems: key genes and potential rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of tillage practices on microbial N transformations in semiarid regions is poorly understood and data from long-term field experiments are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the effects of traditional tillage (TT) vs no-tillage (NT) on key processes of the N cycle such as nitrification and denitrification in a long-term field experiment under a rainfed crop rotation system (cereal-sunflower-legumes) on a vertisol (SW Spain). Besides general soil chemical and biological parameters, we quantified the size of the ammonia oxidizing and denitrifying bacterial populations via real-time PCR (amoA, nirS and nosZ genes), and measured potential nitrification and denitrification rates. Soil was sampled at two depths (0-30, till layer; and 30-50 cm), once during the growing period of the crop (wheat) and another time after harvesting. Conservation tillage slightly increased total organic carbon and microbial biomass C content, whereas no effect on nutrient availability (C and N) was observed, likely due to the fertilization regime and the textural characteristics of the soil type (Vertisol). Gene abundance and potential rates were influenced by the interaction between tillage treatment and sampling period, mainly at 0-30 cm depth. In general, ammonia oxidizers and potential nitrification were enhanced under TT, particularly after harvesting. By contrast, higher abundance of denitrifiers, as reflected by both nirS and nosZ gene copy numbers and larger potential denitrification rates were found under NT during the growing period, but not after harvesting. Results also showed that the N2O/N2 ratio was constant throughout the experiment and thus was affected more significantly by environmental parameters such as the availability carbon than by changes in denitrifier abundance. Our results stress the importance of quantifying microbial populations to address the impact of agricultural practices on N transformations in soil. Furthermore, results suggest that the spatial and seasonal variability of tillage practices need to be taken into account as they can substantially influence the size and activity of microbial communities involved in nitrification and denitrification.

Melero, Sebastiana; Perez de Mora, Alfredo; Murillo, J. Manuel; Buegger, Franz; Kleinedam, Kristina; Kublik, Susanne; Vanderlinden, Karl; Moreno, Felix; Schloter, Michael

2010-05-01

214

Long-Term Memory Improvement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests Piaget's interpretation of long-term memory improvement among 82 five- and six-year-old children. Concludes that there is little evidence for long-term memory improvement or for Piaget's theory of memory. (Author/RH)

Maurer, Daphne; And Others

1979-01-01

215

12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Management of interest rate risk. 615...615.5135 Banks and Banking...Management of interest rate risk. The...Farm Credit Bank, bank for...agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk...

2013-01-01

216

76 FR 9870 - Financial Management Policies-Interest Rate Risk  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk AGENCY: Office of Thrift...Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk OMB Number: 1550-0094...accordance with OTS's regulation on interest rate risk procedures, 12 CFR...

2011-02-22

217

5 CFR 842.605 - Election of insurable interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Election of insurable interest rate. 842.605 Section 842...605 Election of insurable interest rate. (a) At the time of retirement...annuity may elect an insurable interest rate. An election under this...

2010-01-01

218

76 FR 23646 - Financial Management Policies-Interest Rate Risk  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk AGENCY: Office of Thrift...Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk. OMB Number: 1550-0094...accordance with OTS's regulation on interest rate risk procedures, 12 CFR...

2011-04-27

219

5 CFR 842.605 - Election of insurable interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Election of insurable interest rate. 842.605 Section 842...605 Election of insurable interest rate. (a) At the time of retirement...annuity may elect an insurable interest rate. An election under this...

2009-01-01

220

Magnetospheric electron density long-term (>1 day) refilling rates inferred from passive radio emissions measured by IMAGE RPI during geomagnetically quiet times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using measurements of the electron density ne found from passive radio wave observations by the IMAGE spacecraft RPI instrument on consecutive passes through the magnetosphere, we calculate the long-term (>1 day) refilling rate of equatorial electron density dne,eq/dt from L = 2 to 9. Our events did not exhibit saturation, probably because our data set did not include a deep solar minimum and because saturation is an unusual occurrence, especially outside of solar minimum. The median rate in cm-3/day can be modeled with log10(dne,eq/dt) = 2.22 - 0.006L - 0.0347L2, while the third quartile rate can be modeled with log10(dne,eq/dt) = 3.39 - 0.353L, and the mean rate can be modeled as log10(dne,eq/dt) = 2.74 - 0.269L. These statistical values are found from the ensemble of all observed rates at each L value, including negative rates (decreases in density due to azimuthal structure or radial motion or for other reasons), in order to characterize the typical behavior. The first quartile rates are usually negative for L < 4.7 and close to zero for larger L values. Our rates are roughly consistent with previous observations of ion refilling at geostationary orbit. Most previous studies of refilling found larger refilling rates, but many of these examined a single event which may have exhibited unusually rapid refilling. Comparing refilling rates at solar maximum to those at solar minimum, we found that the refilling rate is larger at solar maximum for small L < 4, about the same at solar maximum and solar minimum for L = 4.2 to 5.8, and is larger at solar minimum for large L > 5.8 such as at geostationary orbit (L ˜ 6.8) (at least to L of about 8). These results agree with previous results for ion refilling at geostationary orbit, may agree with previous results at lower L, and are consistent with some trends for ionospheric density.

Denton, R. E.; Wang, Y.; Webb, P. A.; Tengdin, P. M.; Goldstein, J.; Redfern, J. A.; Reinisch, B. W.

2012-03-01

221

Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. Part II: Solute profiles, gradients and the comparisons of contemporary and long-term weathering rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and pore water elemental and 87Sr/86Sr compositions are used to determine contemporary weathering rates in a 65- to 226-kyr-old soil chronosequence formed from granitic sediments deposited on marine terraces along coastal California. Soil moisture, tension and saturation exhibit large seasonal variations in shallow soils in response to a Mediterranean climate. These climate effects are dampened in underlying argillic horizons that progressively developed in older soils, and reached steady-state conditions in unsaturated horizons extending to depths in excess of 15 m. Hydraulic fluxes (qh), based on Cl mass balances, vary from 0.06 to 0.22 m yr-1, resulting in fluid residence times in the terraces of 10-24 yrs. As expected for a coastal environment, the order of cation abundances in soil pore waters is comparable to sea water, i.e., Na > Mg > Ca > K > Sr, while the anion sequence Cl > NO3 > HCO3 > SO4 reflects modifying effects of nutrient cycling in the grassland vegetation. Net Cl-corrected solute Na, K and Si increase with depth, denoting inputs from feldspar weathering. Solute 87Sr/86Sr ratios exhibit progressive mixing of sea water-dominated precipitation with inputs from less radiogenic plagioclase. While net Sr and Ca concentrations are anomalously high in shallow soils due to biological cycling, they decline with depth to low and/or negative net concentrations. Ca/Mg, Sr/Mg and 87Sr/86Sr solute and exchange ratios are similar in all the terraces, denoting active exchange equilibration with selectivities close to unity for both detrital smectite and secondary kaolinite. Large differences in the magnitudes of the pore waters and exchange reservoirs result in short-term buffering of the solute Ca, Sr, and Mg. Such buffering over geologic time scales can not be sustained due to declining inputs from residual plagioclase and smectite, implying periodic resetting of the exchange reservoir such as by past vegetational changes and/or climate. Pore waters approach thermodynamic saturation with respect to albite at depth in the younger terraces, indicating that weathering rates ultimately become transport-limited and dependent on hydrologic flux. Contemporary rates Rsolute are estimated from linear Na and Si pore weathering gradients bsolute such that Rsolute = frac(qh, bsolute ?? Sv) where Sv is the volumetric surface area and ?? is the stoichiometric coefficient. Plagioclase weathering rates (0.38-2.8 ?? 10-15 mol m-2 s-1) are comparable to those based on 87Sr/86Sr mass balances and solid-state Na and Ca gradients using analogous gradient approximations. In addition, contemporary solute gradients, under transport-limited conditions, approximate long-term solid-state gradients when normalized against the mass of protolith plagioclase and its corresponding aqueous solubility. The multi-faceted weathering analysis presented in this paper is perhaps the most comprehensive yet applied to a single field study. Within uncertainties of the methods used, present day weathering rates, based on solute characterizations, are comparable to average long-term past rates as evidenced by soil profiles.

White, A. F.; Schulz, M. S.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Vivit, D. V.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Bullen, T. D.; Maher, K.; Blum, A. E.

2009-01-01

222

A model for ex ante real interest rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new model for estimating economic agents' anticipation of the real rate of interest. It decomposes the nominal short-term interest rate into an ex ante real interest rate and an expected inflation rate, according to Fisher's equation. Assume the ex ante real interest rate follows an autoregressive structure and inflation follows an IMA(1, 1) process. Using the

Li-Hsueh Chen

2001-01-01

223

THE CONNECTION BETWEEN BANK AND INTERBANK INTEREST RATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interbank interest rates are the main determinant of interest rates practiced by banks on deposits and loans of households and non-financial corporations customers. In Romania, the empiric optimum of connection between interest rates of deposits and loans and the interbank interest rates is differing from 1, because of the following main factors: weak money market turnover, Romanian banking system having

Gabriel Bistriceanu

2009-01-01

224

Inflation expectations and interest rates development in the Visegrad countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market interest rates are usually determined not only by the inflation related determinants but also by the forces that affect real interest rates fluctuations. In point of fact the nominal interest rates are driven by many specific determinants so that it should not be clear the nominal interest rates fluctuations are given by the changes in inflation expectations or by

Rajmund Mirdala

2009-01-01

225

24 CFR 232.560 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES...Finance Purchase and Installation of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments...borrower. (b) Interest shall be payable in monthly installments on the...

2013-04-01

226

Promising Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To explore the long-term general and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) >5 years after combined radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer, including a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost and hormonal deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: Of 196 eligible patients with localized prostate cancer (Stage T1-T3a) consecutively treated with curative radiotherapy at our institution between June 1998 and August 2000, 182 (93%) completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25, including specific questions on fecal incontinence >5 years after treatment in September 2005. A comparison with age-matched normative data was done, as well as a longitudinal analysis using HRQOL data from a previous study. Results: The analysis included 158 nonrecurrent patients. Comparisons made with normative data showed that physical and role functioning were significantly better statistically and social functioning was significantly worse. Diarrhea and sleep disturbances were more pronounced and pain less pronounced than in a normal male population. The longitudinal analysis of disease-specific HRQOL showed that urinary urgency and erectile problems persisted 5 years after treatment, and nocturia and hormonally dependent symptoms had declined significantly, with a statistically significant difference. Fecal incontinence was recognized by 25% of patients, of whom 80% considered it a minor problem. Conclusion: More than 5 years after combined radiotherapy, irritative urinary problems and erectile dysfunction remain concerns, although severe bowel disturbance and fecal incontinence seem to be minor problems. Longitudinally, a decline mainly in hormonally dependent symptoms was seen. Minor differences in general HRQOL compared with normative data were observed, possibly including 'response shift' effects.

Wahlgren, Thomas [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: thomas.wahlgren@karolinska.se; Nilsson, Sten [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Lennernaes, Bo [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Hospital and Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Brandberg, Yvonne [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-11-01

227

Reduced glomerular filtration rate but sustained virologic response in HIV/hepatitis B co-infected individuals on long-term tenofovir.  

PubMed

Reports have described a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) associated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use in HIV positive individuals. However, no study has examined renal function over a prolonged period in HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infected patients. We assessed the long-term durability and toxicity of TDF in a cohort of 39 e antigen (eAg) positive co-infected patients commenced on TDF 245 mg daily either in addition to or as part of standard antiretroviral therapy. Immunological and virological parameters were followed to 260 weeks, with the median follow-up period being 251 weeks (range 69-290 weeks). eGFR was calculated using the Modification in Diet in Renal Disease equation. On treatment at 260 weeks, 88% (14/16) had HIV viral load <50 copies/mL, median CD4 count rose from 318 to 532 cells/mm(3), median alanine aminotransferase (ALT) fell from 61 IU/L to 42 IU/L, with 35% (7/20) having a normal ALT, median HBV DNA fell from 69 x 10(6) copies/mL to 500 copies/mL, with 75% (12/16) having an undetectable HBV DNA level and 55% (6/11) becoming eAg negative. Of those with detectable HBV DNA, none had TDF resistance mutations. The eGFR declined by 22.19 mL/min/1.73 mm(2) from baseline (P = 0.023) over this period, which was unaffected by protease inhibitor use, baseline CD4 count, ALT or HBV DNA level. Three patients discontinued TDF therapy due to renal dysfunction. In conclusion, TDF has sustained efficacy but is associated with a significant decline in eGFR. Further larger studies are required to clarify this observation. PMID:19457140

Tan, L K K; Gilleece, Y; Mandalia, S; Murungi, A; Grover, D; Fisher, M; Atkins, M; Nelson, M

2009-05-08

228

Long-term slip rates of the Elsinore-Laguna Salada fault, southern California, by U-series Dating of Pedogenic Carbonate in Progressively Offset Alluvial fan Remnants.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Elsinore-Laguna Salada (ELS) fault is one of the principal strands of the San Andreas fault system in southern California, however its seismic potential is often de-emphasized due to previous estimates of a low slip rate. Nevertheless, the fault zone has produced two historic earthquakes over M6, with the 1892 event estimated at >M7; thus further investigation of the long-term slip rate on the ELS fault is warranted. On the western slopes of the Coyote Mountains (CM), southwest Imperial Valley, a series of alluvial fans are progressively offset by the Elsinore fault. These fans can be correlated to their source drainages via distinctive clast assemblages, thereby defining measurable offsets on the fault. Dating of the CM fans (to compute slip rates), however, is challenging. Organic materials appropriate for C-14 dating are rare or absent in the arid, oxidizing environment. Cosmogenic surface exposure techniques are limited by the absence of suitable sample materials and are inapplicable to numerous buried fan remnants that are otherwise excellent strain markers. Pedogenic carbonate datable by U-series, however, occurs in CM soil profiles, ubiquitously developed in fan gravels, and is apparent in deposits as young as ~1 ka. In CM gravels 10's ka and older, carbonate forms continuous, dense, yellow coatings up to 3 mm thick on the undersides of clasts. Powdery white carbonate may completely engulf clasts, but is not dateable. Carefully selected samples of dense, innermost carbonate lamina weighing 10's of milligrams and analyzed by TIMS, are geochemically favorable for precise U-series dating (e.g., U = 1-1.5 ppm, median 238U/232Th ~ 7), and yield reproducible ages for coatings from the same microstratigraphic horizon (e.g., 48.2 ± 2.7 and 49.9 ± 2.2 ka), indicating that U-Th systems have remained closed and that inherited coatings, though present, have been avoided. Accordingly, U-series on pedogenic carbonate provides reliable minimum ages for deposition of host landforms, thereby facilitating determination of maximum bounds on corresponding slip rates. Results to date show that pedogenic carbonate dating in the CM has a useful range of at least 140 ka, thus progressively offset geomorphic surfaces in the CM study area afford the opportunity to examine the pattern of slip on the Elsinore fault over time scales from circa 10 to >100 ka.

Fletcher, K. E.; Rockwell, T. K.; Sharp, W. D.

2007-12-01

229

Volatility in interest rates: its impact and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatility in interest rates has direct and indirect effects on the economy, particularly on businesses. Studies indicate that due to deregulation, following liberalization of economies, the interest rate volatility has surged worldwide, with India among the highest-volatility counties. Hedging in interest rate futures helps stabilize interest costs enabling businesses to remain competitive. Transparency of futures leads to increased lending at

V. Shunmugam; Danish A. Hashim

2009-01-01

230

A Discordancy Between Short-Term Sedimentation Rate Using Pb210, Cs137 and Pu and Long-Term Sedimentation Rate Using C-14  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-lived radionuclides (210Pb, 137Cs, etc) have been successfully utilized to obtain sedimentation rates in freshwater and coastal marine environments over the past 3 decades. Combined use of 210Pb and Pu enable to delineate sedimentation from sediment mixing. However independent validation of short-term accumulation rates using other long-lived isotopes, such as 14C are very limited. We collected a sediment core from

M. Baskaran; T. R. Filley; T. S. Bianchi; K. H. Freeman; P. G. Hatcher

2005-01-01

231

Long-term safety of rituximab in rheumatoid arthritis: 9.5-year follow-up of the global clinical trial programme with a focus on adverse events of interest in RA patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives Evaluation of long-term safety of rituximab in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Pooled observed case analysis of data from patients with moderate-to-severe, active RA treated with rituximab in a global clinical trial programme. Results As of September 2010, 3194 patients had received up to 17 rituximab courses over 9.5?years (11?962 patient-years). Of these, 627 had >5 years’ follow-up (4418 patient-years). A pooled placebo population (n=818) (placebo+methotrexate (MTX)) was also analysed. Serious adverse event and infection rates generally remained stable over time and multiple courses. The overall serious infection event (SIE) rate was 3.94/100 patient-years (3.26/100 patient-years in patients observed for >5?years) and was comparable with placebo+MTX (3.79/100 patient-years). Serious opportunistic infections were rare. Overall, 22.4% (n=717) of rituximab-treated patients developed low immunoglobulin (Ig)M and 3.5% (n=112) low IgG levels for ?4?months after ?1 course. SIE rates were similar before and during/after development of low Ig levels; however, in patients with low IgG, rates were higher than in patients who never developed low IgG. Rates of myocardial infarction and stroke were consistent with rates in the general RA population. No increased risk of malignancy over time was observed. Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that rituximab remains generally well tolerated over time and multiple courses, with a safety profile consistent with published data and clinical trial experience. Overall, the findings indicate that there was no evidence of an increased safety risk or increased reporting rates of any types of adverse events with prolonged exposure to rituximab during the 9.5?years of observation.

van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Emery, Paul; Bingham, Clifton O; Keystone, Edward C; Fleischmann, Roy M; Furst, Daniel E; Tyson, Nicola; Collinson, Neil; Lehane, Patricia B

2013-01-01

232

Interest Rate Model Calibration Using Semidefinite Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that, for the purpose of pricing Swaptions, the Swap rate and the corresponding Forward rates can be considered lognormal under a single martingale measure. Swaptions can then be priced as options on a basket of lognormal assets and an approximation formula is derived for such options. This formula is centered around a Black-Scholes price with an appropriate volatility,

Alexandre D'aspremont

2003-01-01

233

Luminescence dating of offset terraces at the Elmali segment of the North Anatolian Fault (NE Turkey); Implications for long term geologic slip-rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is 1500 km-long dextral strike-slip fault, starts from Karliova triple junction in the east and terminates at the Aegean Sea in the west with northward convex arc shaped geometry. In the 20th century, series of earthquakes which started by 1939 Erzincan (M=7.9) in the east and ended by August 17, 1999 Izmit (M=7.4) and November 12, 1999 Duzce (M=7.1) events in the west, caused many causalities and economic loss at settlements all along this zone. Geodetic short term slip rate is measured to be between 28.0±0.3 mm/yr and 24.2±0.3 mm/yr by GPS as snapshots of strain accumulation for a relatively short period of time. The geologic long term slip rates are determined, mostly from west and middle sections of the NAF, to be between 10 mm to 20.5±5.5 mm/yr, which are slower than the short term of elastic strain accumulation measured geodetically. This mismatch is also seen on many fault systems after the dating of many offset geological and morphotectonic structures at different parts of the Earth. These observations raise several fundamentally important questions about how strain accumulates and is released along major plate boundary fault systems. Are geologic slip rates averaged over thousands to millions of years compatible with short term geodetic rates, or do strain transients commonly occur? In addition, determination of geologic slip rates at many locations on the same fault zone helps to understand the uniformity of the slip rate or an existence of a gradient for the whole system. In this study, we undertook field and aerial photography research on one of the least known sections of the NAF, Elmali segment, at the NE Turkey. The NAF is extremely placed on a relatively narrow zone around Erzincan and 150 to 200 km west of it. However, more to the east, deformation extends to a wider zone of a width of around 10 km between the Yedisu basin and Karliova. Here, three different segments form a restraining double bend and are clearly defined physiographically along the Elmali valley. The compressional nature of this restraining double bend structure creates an uplift, which is expressed by formation of fill terraces in alluvial fans as insets on the geomorphology of the region. We determined two locations, 5 km-apart each other, consist of dextrally deflected; Dinarbey and Kaynarpinar spots. An alluvial fan is incised by an active stream, which created two terrace surfaces, at the Dinarbey spot. Terrace risers, forming boundaries between two terraces and the recent floodplain, have recorded dextral offset of 67±5 m and 21±5 m with respect to each other. We used cylindrical metal pipes with 25 cm length and 5 cm diameter to sample the upper terrace both from the northern and southern blocks of the fault for Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating. These samples yielded ages of 3273±567 yr BP and 3279±258 yr BP giving a slip-rate of 20.4±2.2 mm/yr for this section of the fault. Although, we see the same terrace formation at Kaynarpinar spot, it is not easy to reconstruct the net offset of terrace risers. The lateral erosion of the stream system modified the geometry of terrace risers not to have any piercing point for the measurement of the net offset. However, it is morphologically clear that 55±5m net offset of incised stream should have formed after the formation of the alluvial fan and before the formation of the upper terrace. At this spot, terraces and lower fan surface are sampled for luminescence dating, which is still in process.

Zabci, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Akyuz, H. Serdar; Gunec Kiyak, Nafiye

2010-05-01

234

7 CFR 1714.5 - Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans. 1714... § 1714.5 Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans. ...Program HomePage, a schedule of interest rates for municipal rate loans...

2010-01-01

235

7 CFR 1714.5 - Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans. 1714... § 1714.5 Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans. ...Program HomePage, a schedule of interest rates for municipal rate loans...

2009-01-01

236

Estimated one-yr glomerular filtration rate is an excellent predictor of long-term graft survival in pediatric first kidney transplants.  

PubMed

Acute rejection episodes following pediatric renal transplantation have been progressively reduced by recent immunosuppressive regimens. Nevertheless, grafts continue to fail over time and surrogate parameters for long-term RGS are lacking. We investigated post-transplant renal function within the first yr as an independent predictor of long-term RGS in 104 pediatric first kidney transplant recipients (mean age 11.1 +/- 3.9 yr; mean follow-up 8.3 +/- 3.5 yr) transplanted between January 1989 and December 2000. GFR was assessed by use of the Schwartz formula at 30 days and six and 12 months after transplantation, respectively. Patients were further stratified at all times according to GFR: (i) GFR<45 mL/min/1.73 m(2), (ii) GFR 45-80 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and (iii) GFR>80 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Cox regression analysis including factors potentially influencing long-term RGS, e.g., age, gender, transplant yr, HLA-mismatch, underlying renal disease, clinical acute rejection, absolute GFR as well as the change in GFR within the first yr was performed. Graft failure occurred in 24 out of 104 patients (23%) 6.2 yr (mean) after transplantation corresponding to a cumulative five-yr graft survival of 87.5%. GFRs at 30 days and six and 12 months were significantly associated with long-term RGS in the univariate cox regression analysis (GFR at 30 days, p = 0.045; GFR at six months, p = 0.004; GFR at 12 months, p < 0.001). None of the other variables were significant parameters of correlation. Multivariate cox analysis revealed a GFR below 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 12 months after transplantation as the only independent predictor of long-term RGS (hazard ratio 55.9, 95% CI 5.29-591, p = 0.001). GFR at 12 months post-transplant is an excellent surrogate parameter for long-term RGS in children. This parameter might be useful as a primary end-point in short-term pediatric clinical trials. PMID:18537896

Muscheites, Jutta; Wigger, Marianne; Drueckler, Erdmute; Klaassen, Ilka; John, Ulrike; Wygoda, Simone; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Kundt, Guenther; Misselwitz, Joachim; Müller-Wiefel, Dirk-E; Haffner, Dieter

2008-06-04

237

Accelerated partial breast irradiation: An analysis of variables associated with late toxicity and long-term cosmetic outcome after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To perform a detailed analysis of variables associated with late tissue effects of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in a large cohort of patients with prolonged follow-up. Methods and Materials: Beginning in 1995, 75 women with Stage I/II breast cancer were enrolled in identical institutional trials evaluating APBI as monotherapy after lumpectomy. Patients eligible included those with T1-2, N0-1 ({<=}3 nodes positive), M0 tumors of nonlobular histology with negative surgical margins, no extracapsular nodal extension, and negative results on postexcision mammogram. All patients underwent surgical excision and postoperative irradiation with HDR interstitial brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the excision cavity plus a 2-cm margin. Treatment was delivered with a high-activity Ir-192 source at 3.4 Gy per fraction twice daily for 5 days to a total dose of 34 Gy. Dosimetric analyses were performed with three-dimensional postimplant dose and volume reconstructions. All patients were evaluated at 3-6-month intervals and assessed with a standardized cosmetic rating scale and according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late normal tissue toxicity scoring criteria. Clinical and therapy-related features were analyzed for their relationship to cosmetic outcome and toxicity rating. Clinical features analyzed included age, volume of resection, history of diabetes or hypertension, extent of axillary surgery, and systemic therapies. Therapy-related features analyzed included volume of tissue encompassed by the 100%, 150%, and 200% isodose lines (V100, V150, and V200, respectively), the dose homogeneity index (DHI), number of source dwell positions, and planar separation. Results: The median follow-up of all patients was 73 months (range, 43-118 months). The cosmetic outcome at last follow-up was rated as excellent, good, and fair/poor in 67%, 24%, and 9% of patients, respectively. Suboptimal cosmetic outcome was significantly associated with the number of source dwell positions, V150, and V200 and inversely associated with DHI (0.77 vs. 0.73; p = 0.05). Late skin toxicity was rated as Grade 0, 1, or 2 in 77%, 19%, and 4% of patients, respectively. The risk of Grade 1/2 skin toxicity was significantly associated with V150 and V200 and inversely associated with DHI (0.77 vs. 0.71; p = 0.009). Late subcutaneous toxicity was rated as Grade 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 in 55%, 15%, 12%, 5%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The risk of Grade 0/1 vs. Grade 2-4 subcutaneous toxicity was significantly associated only with a lower value of DHI (0.77 vs. 0.73; p = 0.02). To further explore factors that might contribute to the risk of fat necrosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic), a separate analysis showed that only dose hotspots as reflected in V150 and V200 were significantly associated with elevated risk. The use of adriamycin-based chemotherapy after APBI was found to be associated with a significant increase in the incidence of higher-grade skin toxicity and a higher risk of fat necrosis and suboptimal cosmetic outcome. Patient age, volume of resection, extent of axillary surgery, a history of diabetes or hypertension, and the use of tamoxifen were not found to be significantly associated with cosmetic outcome or late normal tissue complications. Conclusions: Long-term cosmetic results and the risk of late skin and subcutaneous toxicity after APBI with interstitial HDR brachytherapy can be correlated with specific treatment-related variables. These data provide dosimetric parameters that might be used to minimize the risk of normal tissue injury after APBI interstitial brachytherapy.

Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)]. E-mail: dwazer@tufts-nemc.org; Kaufman, Seth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States); Cuttino, Laurie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Di Petrillo, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States); Arthur, Douglas W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

2006-02-01

238

7 CFR 1714.7 - Interest rate cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Interest rate cap. 1714.7 Section 1714.7 Agriculture...LOANS General § 1714.7 Interest rate cap. Except as provided in paragraph...rate disparity test for the interest rate cap and the consumer income test set forth...

2013-01-01

239

Interest rates and inflation: What are the links?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose is to examine some of the links in the chain which is said to run from the rate of interest to the rate of inflation. It is argued that that there is a tendency to slip from arguments which that the rate of interest is related to the price level to suggesting that the rate of interest is

Malcolm Sawyer

2009-01-01

240

Money Supply and the Implementation of Interest Rate Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze the relation between interest rate targets and money supply in a (bubble-free) rational expectations equilibrium of a standard cash-in-advance model. We examine lump-sum injections of money aimed to implement interest rate sequences that satisfy interest rate target rules. An interest rate target with a positive inflation feedback in general corresponds to money growth rates rising

Andreas Schabert

2005-01-01

241

Money supply and the implementation of interest rate targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze the relation between interest rate targets and money supply in a (bubble-free) rational expectations equilibrium of a standard cash-in-advance model. We examine contingent monetary injections aimed to implement interest rate sequences that satisfy interest rate target rules. An interest rate target with a positive inflation feedback in general corresponds to money growth rates rising with

Andreas Schabert

2005-01-01

242

Money Supply and the Implementation of Interest Rate Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze the relation between interest rate targets and money supply in a (bubble-free) rational expectation equilibrium of a standard cash-in-advance model. We examine contingent monetary injections aimed to implement interest rate sequences that satisfy interest rate target rules. An interest rate target with a positive inflation feedback in general corresponds to money growth rates rising with

Andreas Schabert

2005-01-01

243

High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival  

SciTech Connect

Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors.

Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

1981-11-01

244

Long-term synthesis rates of skeletal muscle DNA and protein are higher during aerobic training in older humans than in sedentary young subjects but are not altered by protein supplementation  

PubMed Central

Consuming protein following exercise has been shown to stimulate protein synthesis acutely in skeletal muscle and has been recommended to prevent sarcopenia. It is not known, however, whether acute stimulation persists long term or includes muscle cell division. We asked here whether consuming protein following exercise during aerobic training increases long-term protein and DNA synthesis rates in skeletal muscle of adult humans. Sixteen previously untrained participants (50±8 yr) consumed either a carbohydrate or carbohydrate and protein drink following each session during 6 wk of treadmill training. A younger untrained group provided a nonexercising comparison. Participants were administered heavy water (2H2O; deuterium oxide) continuously for 6 wk to isotopically label newly synthesized skeletal muscle proteins and DNA. Muscle biopsies were performed after 6 wk of training. Contrary to acute studies, consuming protein after exercise did not increase skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates. In contrast, muscle protein synthesis, DNA, and phospholipid synthesis were significantly higher in the older exercise groups than the younger sedentary group. The higher DNA replication rate could not be attributed to mitochondrial DNA and may be due to satellite cell activation. We conclude that postexercise protein supplementation does not increase rates of mixed protein synthesis over 6 wk and that aerobic exercise may stimulate long-term cell division (DNA synthesis) in skeletal muscle of humans. Measurements of long-term synthesis rates provide important insights into aging and exercise adaptations.—Robinson, M. M., Turner, S. M., Hellerstein, M. K., Hamilton, K. L., Miller, B. F. Long-term synthesis rates of skeletal muscle DNA and protein are higher during aerobic training in older humans than in sedentary young subjects but are not altered by protein supplementation.

Robinson, Matthew M.; Turner, Scott M.; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Hamilton, Karyn L.; Miller, Benjamin F.

2011-01-01

245

Long-term environmental stewardship.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

Nagy, Michael David

2010-08-01

246

Percutaneous interventional reconstruction of the iliac arteries: primary and long-term success rate in selected TASC C and D lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the primary and long-term outcome of patients with selected TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) C or D lesions of the iliac arteries after percutaneous interventional reconstruction. Between 1999 and 2001, 89 patients with peripheral arterial disease categorized as TASC C (n=37) and D (n=52) underwent percutaneous interventional reconstruction and stent implantation. Patients were followed for 1–62 months (mean 36

Jörn O. Balzer; Verena Gastinger; Ralf Ritter; Christopher Herzog; Martin G. Mack; Thomas Schmitz-Rixen; Thomas J. Vogl

2006-01-01

247

Long-term treatment with nifedipine reduces urinary albumin excretion and glomerular filtration rate in normotensive type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal effects of long-term treatment with the calcium channel blocker nifedipine in normotensive type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. In a randomized, double-blind trial, 15 type 1 diabetic patients were treated with either nifedipine (n=8; dosage 30 mg\\/day) or placebo (n=7) for 12 months. At baseline and after 6 and

Ch. Schnack; M. Capek; M. Banyai; A. Kautzky-Willer; R. Prager; G. Schernthaner

1994-01-01

248

Presynaptic long-term plasticity  

PubMed Central

Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity.

Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

2013-01-01

249

Macroeconomic Factors Behind the Fall in Farm Interest Rates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interest rates on agricultural loans are determined by factors primarily outside of the agriculture sector in national and international credit markets. This report discusses the macroeconomic factors behind the fall in agricultural interest rates in 2001...

P. Sundell

2002-01-01

250

12 CFR 614.4160 - Differential interest rate programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 7...false Differential interest rate programs. 614...Section 614.4160 Banks and Banking FARM...Loan Policies for Banks and Associations...4160 Differential interest rate programs....

2013-01-01

251

Monetary policy on interest rates: a retrospective analysis since Thornton  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the affirmation by certain authors and critics of a recent return to an interest-rate policy that, in their opinion, resembles a throwback to the nineteenth century theory of monetary policy on interest rates, I pose the question of the difficulties of interest-rate policy in a retrospective analysis beginning with the current that founded the short-term interest rate

Sylvie Diatkine

2012-01-01

252

Interest Rate Exposure and Bank Mergers: A Preliminary Empirical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how interest rates and interest-rate exposures affect the level of acquisition activity, the identities of targets and acquirers, and the pricing of acquisitions in the banking industry. Using a sample of 477 large mergers from 1980 to 1994, we find that the level of acquisition activity is more negatively correlated with interest rates and more positively correlated

Benjamin Esty; Bhanu Narasimhan; Peter Tufano

1996-01-01

253

Determinants of interest rate exposure of Spanish banking industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest rate risk represents one of the key forms of financial risk faced by banks. It has given rise to an extensive body of research, mainly focused on the estimation of sensitivity of bank stock returns to changes in interest rates. However, the analysis of the sources of bank interest rate risk has received much less attention in the literature.

Gloria M. Soto Pacheco; Cristóbal González; Laura Ballester; Román Ferrer

2009-01-01

254

Speculative Attack and Optimal Interest Rate Defense under Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the eect of an interest rate defense in a model of currency crisis with self-fulfilling expectations and noisy private in- formation for both speculators and the central bank. In Morris and Shin (1998), the interest rate - or transaction cost - plays a crucial role in determining the outcome of the attack, as raising the interest rate

Brieuc Monfort

2004-01-01

255

Interest Rates, Banking Spreads and Credit Supply : The Real Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a standard IS-LM model, the effects of monetary policy on real activity are felt through the demand for money and the (unique) interest rate. In reality, shocks in monetary policy will affect the relative structure of interest rates given imperfect substitution among financial instruments. In this paper we analyse the information content of the relative structure of interest rates

Fernando Barran; Virginie Coudert; Benoit Mojon

1995-01-01

256

Delaying the Inevitable: Optimal Interest Rate Policy and BOP Crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical model of balance of payments crises implicitly assumes that the central bank sits passively as international reserves dwindle. In practice, however, central banks typically defend pegs aggressively by raising short-term interest rates. This paper analyzes the feasibility and optimality of raising interest rates to delay a potential BOP crisis. Interest rate policy works through two distinct channels. By

Amartya Lahiri; Carlos A. Vegh

2000-01-01

257

Real interest rates and shifts in macroeconomic volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing amount of research indicates that the relation between nominal interest rates and future inflation is country and period dependent. We investigate the relation between the short-term interest rate and inflation by means of an intertemporal consumption capital asset pricing model, resulting in a generalized Fisher equation in which the nominal interest rate is a function of inflation and

Kees Koedijk; Clemens Kool; Francois Nissen

1998-01-01

258

Are interest rate regressions evidence for a Taylor rule?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a variety of recent papers, researchers have found that interest rate behaviour approximately follows a Taylor rule. We show that such interest rate behaviour results when the central bank may be following quite different monetary policy rules from the one proposed by Taylor. In other words, an interest rate relation with output and inflation does not identify a central

Patrick Minford; Francesco Perugini; Naveen Srinivasan

2002-01-01

259

Cotrel-dubousset instrumentation for the correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Long-term results with an unexpected high revision rate  

PubMed Central

Background For many years, the CD instrumentation has been regarded as the standard device for the surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Nevertheless, scientific long-term results on this procedure are rare. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective follow-up study of patients treated for AIS with CD instrumentation and spondylodesis. Methods A total of 40 patients with AIS underwent CD instrumentation in our department within 3?years and between 1990 and 1992. For the retrospective analysis, first all the patient documents were reviewed, and pre-/postoperative X-ray images as well as those at the latest follow-up were analysed. Furthermore, it was attempted to conduct a clinical survey using the SRS-24 questionnaire, which was sent to the patients after a preceding announcement on the phone. Results Radiologically, the frontal main curvature was improved from a preoperative angle of 69.2° to a postoperative angle of 35.4°, and the secondary curvature was improved from a preoperative angle of 42.6° to a postoperative angle of 20.5°. The latest radiological follow-up at average 57.4?months post surgery showed an average loss of correction of 9.6° (main curvature) and 4.6° (secondary curvature), respectively. Within the first 30?days post surgery, 3 out of 40 patients (7.5%) received early operative revision for the dislocation of hooks or rods. At an average of 45.7?months (range 11 to 142?months), 19 out of 40 patients (47.5%; including 2 patients with early revision) received late operative revisions: The reasons were late infection (10 out of 40 patients; 25%) with the development of fistulae (7 cases) or putrid secretion (3 cases), which was resolved with the complete removal of instrumentation after all. The average time until revision was 35.5?months (range 14 to 56?months) after CD instrumentation. Furthermore, complete implant removal was necessary in 8 out of 40 patients (20%) for late operate site pain (LOSP). The average time until removal of instrumentation was 62.7 months (range 18 to 146?months) post surgery; and one patient received partial device removal for prominent instrumentation 11?months post surgery. Altogether, only 22 out of 40 CD instrumentations (55%) were still in situ. After an average period of 14.3 years post surgery, it was possible to follow-up 14 out of 40 patients (35%) using the SRS-24 questionnaire. The average score was 93 points, without showing significant differences between patients with or without their instrumentation in situ. Conclusions Retrospectively, we documented for the first time a very high revisions rate in patients with AIS and treated by CD instrumentation. Nearly half of the instrumentation had to be removed due to late infection and LOSP. The reasons for the high rate of late infections with or without fistulae and for LOSP were analysed and discussed in detail.

2012-01-01

260

The use of interest rate swaps in hospital capital finance.  

PubMed

This article describes the structure of an interest rate swap as it is commonly employed in hospital capital finance. It explores the role of the swap dealer as a facilitator of interest rate swap transactions and explains the motivation for doing so. Through the use of examples, the article details the incentives for hospitals to engage in interest rate swap transactions, including the desire to lower borrowing costs and/or to reduce exposure to interest rate risk. Finally, the article outlines the types of risks inherent in interest rate swap transactions. PMID:7614222

Smith, S D

1994-01-01

261

Serum prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume predict long-term changes in symptoms and flow rate: results of a four-year, randomized trial comparing finasteride versus placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine whether baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA), in addition to prostate volume, is associated with long-term changes in symptoms and urinary flow rate.Methods. Three thousand forty men with benign prostatic hyperplasia enrolled in the PLESS trial were randomly assigned to finasteride 5 mg or placebo for 4 years. Symptoms and flow rate were assessed every 4 months, and data

Claus G. Roehrborn; Peter Boyle; Donald Bergner; Todd Gray; Marc Gittelman; Thomas Shown; Arnold Melman; R. Bruce Bracken; Ralph deVere White; Alice Taylor; Daniel Wang; Joanne Waldstreicher

1999-01-01

262

Negative nominal interest rates: history and current proposals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the renewed interest in negative interest rates on base money—or equivalently ‘taxing money’—as a means for overcoming\\u000a the zero bound on short-term nominal interest rates, this article reviews the history of negative nominal interest rates starting\\u000a from the ‘taxing money’ proposal of Silvio Gesell up to current proposals that received popular attention in the wake of the\\u000a financial crisis

Cordelius Ilgmann; Martin Menner

2011-01-01

263

Rate of long term bleaching in FK 51 optical glass darkened by Co60 ionizing radiation at dose rates of 10 krad/hr and 7 rad/hr  

SciTech Connect

A previous paper presented long term bleaching data on various glasses exposed to 10.6 krad of ionizing radiation. All the glasses reported except FK 51 have readily available `G` glass equivalents that are stabilized to the natural space environment. Yet, FK 51, because of its location on the Abbe diagram is extremely useful in certain lens design applications. To more fully explore the bleaching of FK 51, after the initial dose of 10.6 krad at 11.8 krad/hour, we irradiated three more samples at a similar dose rate but to different total doses. Since the dose rate for this study was significantly higher than the dose rate anticipated for glasses in as shielded space-based lens system (tilde 3 rad/day), additional data were obtained at a lower rate of 7 rad/hour. While this dose rate is still higher than the anticipated operational rate, it is more than 1000 times lower than the dose 011 011 011 rate used for our initial studies. The bleaching rate for the samples exposed at the lower dose rate is considerably less than for the samples exposed at the higher rate.

Wirtenson, G.R.; White, R.H.

1997-07-01

264

Interest rate control in a model of monetary policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monetary economy comprises a vast array of market-clearing interest rates. Central banks exert a direct influence over only a narrow subset of these rates: the rate at which they supply marginal funds to the commercial banking system. Accordingly, the market interest rates which impinge upon real activity are typically distinct form - though not independent of - the official

Spencer Dale; Andrew Haldane

1993-01-01

265

Interest rate swaps: financial tool of the '90s.  

PubMed

The implementation of prospective payment for capital costs makes it more necessary than ever for healthcare financial managers to be able to creatively balance capital costs with risk. A new financial management tool--the interest rate swap (a contractual agreement in which one party with a fixed interest rate payment liability and another party with a variable interest payment liability agree to trade those obligations)--is proving to be a solution for a growing number of hospital managers. This article describes the uses of interest rate swaps and discusses the variables to be considered when evaluating whether the benefits of an interest rate swap offset the additional risk. PMID:10145900

Woodard, M A

1993-11-01

266

Long Term Strength of Structural Adhesive Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term static strength of adhesive joints is analyzed in terms of a modified Prot method and sustained load tests. Data from the failure times under different loading rates are used to predict the static stress that an adhesive joint will withstand for an infinite time, i.e., the endurance limit. Despite theoretical shortcomings, the method is found to give

Armand F. Lewis; Raymond A. Kinmonth; Robert P. Kreahling

1972-01-01

267

THE EFFECTS OF OPEN MARKET INTEREST RATES ON MALAYSIAN COMMERCIAL BANKS’ INTEREST RATE SPREAD: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the effect of changes in open market interest rates on the interest rate spread of Malaysian commercial banks. This is performed by examining the causality and patterns of reactions of banking rates with respect to variation in open market rates. Based on vector autoregression analysis we show that there is one-way causation running from the

2002-01-01

268

Farm mortgage decisions under varying market interest rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine the likely impact of market interest rates on the choice of farm mortgages for the borrower. The study focuses on choice of mortgages with different rate repricing periods.^ The stochastic process of market interest rate movement is first estimated using a state space time series model. A simulation model is then built

Xiaolong Luo

1998-01-01

269

Peer Mentoring in Long-Term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes two successful peer-mentoring programs designed to improve the quality of care in nursing homes and retention rates among direct care staff. The first program, “Growing Strong Roots,” examined CNA retention rates and the second program, “Peer Mentoring for Long Term Charge Nurses,” examined RN and LPN retention rates. These programs include a training component, an on-the-job mentoring

Carol Hegeman; Debi Hoskinson; Heather Munro; Patricia Maiden; Karl Pillemer

2007-01-01

270

A two-decades (1975 to 1995) long experience in the incidence, in-hospital and long-term case–fatality rates of acute myocardial infarction: a community-wide perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe purpose of the present study is to describe changes over two decades (1975 to 1995) in the incidence, in-hospital and long-term case–fatality rates associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from a multihospital community-wide perspective.BACKGROUNDDespite the magnitude of, and mortality associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), relatively limited population-based data are available to describe recent and temporal trends in the

Robert J. Goldberg; Jorge L. Yarzebski; Darleen M. Lessard; Joel M. Gore

1999-01-01

271

SHORT-TERM INTEREST RATES: A THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identifies some of the more important determinants of short-term interest rates. The period under study is 1959:2-1982:3. A static general model of the economy is first developed and then solved for the interest rate. The reduced form for interest rate suggests that its variations are related to variations in expected inflation, money, government spending, personal taxes, and business

MAHMOODUL ISLAM

1985-01-01

272

Consumption, Inflation Risk, and Real Interest Rates: An Empirical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption-based asset pricing model is used to examine the relation between inflation and interest rates. To the extent that inflation is correlated with real consumption opportunities, expected real interest rates should incorporate a premium for inflation covariance risk. The empirical results suggest a statistically reliable premium for inflation covariability risk in short-term interest rates. Moreover, part of the time-series

Louis K. C. Chan

1994-01-01

273

Predictors of Long-term Mortality After Severe Sepsis in the Elderly.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND:: Mortality rates after severe sepsis are extremely high, and the main focus of most research is short-term mortality, which may not be associated with long-term outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine long-term mortality after a severe sepsis and identify factors associated with this mortality. METHODS:: The authors performed a population-based study using Veterans' Affairs administrative data of patients aged 65 years and older. The outcome of interest was mortality > 90 days following hospitalization. Our primary analyses were Cox proportional hazard models to examine specific risk factors for long-term mortality. RESULTS:: There were 2,727 patients that met the inclusion criteria. Overall mortality was 55%, and 1- and 2-year mortality rates were 31% and 43%, respectively. Factors significantly associated with long-term mortality included congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, dementia, diabetes with complications and use of mechanical ventilation. Smoking cessation and cardiac medications were associated with decreased long-term mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS:: The authors identified several factors, including receipt of mechanical ventilation, which were significantly associated with increased long-term mortality for survivors of severe sepsis. This information will help clinicians discuss prognosis with patients and their families. PMID:23689053

Lemay, Allyson C; Anzueto, Antonio; Restrepo, Marcos I; Mortensen, Eric M

2013-05-17

274

Instructor Ratings: Controlling for Bias from Initial Student Interest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students in 1,905 classes, including 216 business, evaluated teachers using Instructional Development and Effectiveness Assessment (IDEA). Students' initial interest in courses related to ratings. IDEA confounded course-related and instructor-related interest. Accurate assessment of students' initial interest appears important to fair evaluation…

Prave, Rose S.; Baril, Galen L.

1993-01-01

275

Econometric analysis of interest rate pass-through  

Microsoft Academic Search

The econometric analysis of interest rate pass-through is examined. It is noted a number of recent studies have employed a procedure that underestimates the extent of interest rate pass-through. This issue is highlighted via an analysis of pass-through from the U.S. Federal Funds rate to the U.S. 30-year fixed mortgage rate. In contrast to work of Payne (2006), which draws

Steven Cook

2008-01-01

276

Linear and nonlinear interest rate exposure in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the influence of interest rate risk on Spanish firms at the industry level. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology employed has its origin in the two-index linear regression model proposed by Stone. This traditional interest rate exposure model has been extended in this paper to allow for a nonlinear exposure

Román Ferrer; Cristóbal González; Gloria M. Soto

2010-01-01

277

Interest rates, banking spreads and credit supply: the real effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse the information content of the relative structure of interest rates on economic activity. Over and above currently defined spreads, we have defined spreads based on bank interest rates. In order to analyse the information content of financial variables on economic activity, measured through a set of proxy variables like output, investment, industrial production, employment, private consumption, durable goods

F. Barran; V. Coudert; B. Mojon

1997-01-01

278

Interest rate risk in the French banking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most bank failures and banking problems historically have been attributable to poorly managed exposures to credit risk, inadequate management of interest rate risk can give rise to the same types of problems, as illustrated by the U.S. 'savings and loan crisis' of the early 1990s. Interest rate risk is one of the principal risks inherent in the maturity transformation

JEAN-LUC QUÉMARD; VALÉRIE GOLITIN

2005-01-01

279

78 FR 23936 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of...42 U.S.C. 288(c)(4)(B)).'' This interest rate will be applied to overdue debt until the...

2013-04-23

280

75 FR 22136 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of...certified for the quarter ended December 31, 2009. This interest rate is effective until the Secretary of the Treasury...

2010-04-27

281

77 FR 76492 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Office Of The Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of...certified for the quarter ended September 30, 2012. This interest rate is effective until the Secretary of the Treasury...

2012-12-28

282

75 FR 80055 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of...certified for the quarter ended September 30, 2010. This interest rate is effective until the Secretary of the Treasury...

2010-12-21

283

78 FR 44124 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of...42 U.S.C. 288(c)(4)(B)).'' This interest rate will be applied to overdue debt until the...

2013-07-23

284

77 FR 20399 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of...certified for the quarter ended September 30, 2011. This interest rate is effective until the Secretary of the Treasury...

2012-04-04

285

75 FR 48690 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of...certified for the quarter ended June 30, 2010. This interest rate is effective until the Secretary of the Treasury...

2010-08-11

286

77 FR 60438 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of...certified for the quarter ended June 30, 2012. This interest rate is effective until the Secretary of the Treasury...

2012-10-03

287

76 FR 8370 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of...certified for the quarter ended December 31, 2010. This interest rate is effective until the Secretary of the Treasury...

2011-02-14

288

76 FR 30721 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of...certified for the quarter ended March 31, 2011. This interest rate is effective until the Secretary of the Treasury...

2011-05-26

289

77 FR 20399 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of...certified for the quarter ended December 31, 2011. This interest rate is effective until the Secretary of the Treasury...

2012-04-04

290

77 FR 35681 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of...certified for the quarter ended March 31, 2012. This interest rate is effective until the Secretary of the Treasury...

2012-06-14

291

75 FR 22136 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of...certified for the quarter ended March 31, 2010. This interest rate is effective until the Secretary of the Treasury...

2010-04-27

292

When Are Farm Interest Rate Subsidy Programs Most Effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides subsidized credit to high-risk farm borrowers unable to obtain credit from commercial sources. To boost incomes and to relieve financial stress, Farm Service Agency programs can provide additional interest rate subsidies to borrowers. However, when market interest rates are low as in recent years, these additional subsidies are less effective in improving borrower income

Steven R. Koenig; Charles B. Dodson

1998-01-01

293

Goal programming models for managing interest-rate risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two goal programming models (Forecast Model and Duration Model) to assist a bank in creating optimal strategies to manage interest-rate risk. The Forecast Model requires knowledge concerning the magnitude and direction of potential interest-rate shocks, and the Duration Model only needs information concerning the direction of this shock. The two models are shown to provide identical solutions

G. C. Booth; W. Bessler

1989-01-01

294

Modeling Short Term Interest Rates: A Comparison of Methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The celebrated Taylor rule methodology has established that the decisions made by the Federal Open Market Committee concerning possible changes in short term interest rates reflected in Fed funds are influenced by deviations from a desired level of inflation and from potential output. The Taylor rule determines the future interest rate and is one among several methodologies than can be

A. G. Malliaris; Mary Malliaris

2007-01-01

295

Monetary Policy, Financial Stability and Interest Rate Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the interaction between monetary policy and financial stability and provides an assessment of the implications of banks' risk management practices for monetary policy management. We derive inertial interest rate rules (characterized by backward and forward interest rate smoothing) by explicitly modeling the desire of the central bank to stabilize different definitions of the basis risk. The paper

Giorgio Di Giorgio; Zeno Rotondi

296

Measuring the Natural Interest Rate for the Peruvian Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the adoption of the fully-fledged inflation targeting (IT) regime by an important group of central banks, a measure of both the potential output and the natural interest rate have become one of the main concerns of the research agenda. Estimation of the natural interest rate (NIR) is crucial to capture the stance of the monetary policy. In particular, the

Paul Castillo; Carlos Montoro; Vicente Tuesta

2006-01-01

297

THE ROLE OF INTEREST RATES IN INFLUENCING HOUSING PRICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the role of interest rates on housing prices from the perspective of homeowners' expectations. Using quarterly data on interest rates and housing prices for Hong Kong in 1981-2001, it identifies a structural shift in housing prices coinciding with a move from inflation to deflation around 1997. The results indicate a moderately high correlation between housing prices and

JOE WONG; EDDIE HUI; WILLIAM SEABROOKE

298

Monetary Policy and the Term Structure of Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how well a New Keynesian business cycle model can explain the observed behavior of nominal interest rates. We focus on two puzzles raised in previous literature. First, Donaldson, Johnsen, and Mehra (1990) show that while in the U.S. nominal term structure the interest rates are pro-cyclical and term spreads counter-cyclical the stochastic growth model predicts that the interest

Federico Ravenna; Juha Seppala

2006-01-01

299

Long-term opioid therapy reconsidered.  

PubMed

In the past 20 years, primary care physicians have greatly increased prescribing of long-term opioid therapy. However, the rise in opioid prescribing has outpaced the evidence regarding this practice. Increased opioid availability has been accompanied by an epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose. The rate of opioid addiction among patients receiving long-term opioid therapy remains unclear, but research suggests that opioid misuse is not rare. Recent studies report increased risks for serious adverse events, including fractures, cardiovascular events, and bowel obstruction, although further research on medical risks is needed. New data indicate that opioid-related risks may increase with dose. From a societal perspective, higher-dose regimens account for the majority of opioids dispensed, so cautious dosing may reduce both diversion potential and patient risks for adverse effects. Limiting long-term opioid therapy to patients for whom it provides decisive benefits could also reduce risks. Given the warning signs and knowledge gaps, greater caution and selectivity are needed in prescribing long-term opioid therapy. Until stronger evidence becomes available, clinicians should err on the side of caution when considering this treatment. PMID:21893626

Von Korff, Michael; Kolodny, Andrew; Deyo, Richard A; Chou, Roger

2011-09-01

300

Long Term Illness and Wages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.

2005-01-01

301

? Carinae long-term variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of our analysis on the long-term variations observed in the optical spectrum of the LBV star ? Carinae. Based on the hydrogen line profiles, we conclude that the physical parameters of the primary star did not change in the last 15 years.

Damineli, Augusto; Teodoro, Mairan; Corcoran, Michael F.; Groh, Jose H.

2011-07-01

302

Interest-rate stickiness and optimal monetary policy: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern central banks use short-term (overnight) interest rates as a policy instrument. However, little attention has been paid in the optimal monetary policy literature to the correlation between the policy rate and the retail interest rates that are directly related to the decision-making of fi rms and households. Recently, a lot of empirical studies report that the pass-through from money

Teruyoshi KOBAYASHI

2007-01-01

303

Individuals and Environments: Linking Ability and Skill Ratings With Interests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holland’s (1997) theory of corresponding person and work environment structures was evaluated by comparing the integration of individual and occupational ratings of interests, abilities, and skills. Occupational ratings were obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor’s O*NET database (U.S. Department of Labor, 2007). College students (494 women, 526 men) provided self-ratings of their interests, abilities, and skills. Property vector fitting

Sarah Fetter Anthoney; Patrick Ian Armstrong

2010-01-01

304

An Investigation of the Impact of Interest Rates and Interest Rate Volatility on Australian Financial Sector Stock Return Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the existing literature by analysing the dual impact of changes in the interest rate and interest rate volatility on the distribution of Australian financial sector stock returns. In addition, a multivariate GARCH-M model is used to analyse the impact of deregulation on the financial institutions sector. It was found that there is a consistent inter-temporal trade off

Robert W. Faff; Allan Hodgson; Michael L. Kremmer

2005-01-01

305

Heterogenous Information About the Term Structure of Interest Rates, Least-Squares Learning and Optimal Interest Rate Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Paper we incorporate the term structure of interest rates in a standard inflation forecast targeting framework. Learning about the transmission process of monetary policy is introduced by having heterogeneous agents - i.e. the central bank and private agents - who have different information sets about the future sequence of short-term interest rates. We analyse inflation forecast targeting in

Sylvester C W Eijffinger; Eric Schaling; Mewael F. Tesfaselassie

2004-01-01

306

An Investigation of the impact of interest rates and interest rate volatility on Australian financial sector stock return distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the existing literature by analysing the dual impact of changes in the interest rate and interest rate volatility on the distribution of Australian financial sector stock returns. In addition, a multivariate GARCH-M model is used to analyse the impact of deregulation on the financial institutions sector. It was found that there is a consistent inter-temporal trade off

R. Faff; M. Kremmer; A. Hodgson

2004-01-01

307

Interest rates in quantum finance: The Wilson expansion and Hamiltonian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest rate instruments form a major component of the capital markets. The Libor market model (LMM) is the finance industry standard interest rate model for both Libor and Euribor, which are the most important interest rates. The quantum finance formulation of the Libor market model is given in this paper and leads to a key generalization: all the Libors, for different future times, are imperfectly correlated. A key difference between a forward interest rate model and the LMM lies in the fact that the LMM is calibrated directly from the observed market interest rates. The short distance Wilson expansion [Phys. Rev. 179, 1499 (1969)] of a Gaussian quantum field is shown to provide the generalization of Ito calculus; in particular, the Wilson expansion of the Gaussian quantum field A(t,x) driving the Libors yields a derivation of the Libor drift term that incorporates imperfect correlations of the different Libors. The logarithm of Libor ?(t,x) is defined and provides an efficient and compact representation of the quantum field theory of the Libor market model. The Lagrangian and Feynman path integrals of the Libor market model of interest rates are obtained, as well as a derivation given by its Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonian formulation of the martingale condition provides an exact solution for the nonlinear drift of the Libor market model. The quantum finance formulation of the LMM is shown to reduce to the industry standard Bruce-Gatarek-Musiela-Jamshidian model when the forward interest rates are taken to be exactly correlated.

Baaquie, Belal E.

2009-10-01

308

Northern bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus) abundance in relation to yearly weather and long-term climate patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a multilayered, backpropagation neural network to investigate the relative effects of yearly weather and long-term climate patterns on the abundance of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus: hereafter, bobwhite) in Oklahoma, USA. Bobwhite populations have been declining for several decades across the United States, and predicted global climate change might accelerate the rate of decline. We were interested in whether

Jeffrey J. Lusk; Fred S. Guthery; Stephen J. DeMaso

2001-01-01

309

Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect

The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

2011-03-22

310

Long-range dependence in interest rates and monetary policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter studies the dynamics of Brazilian interest rates for short-term maturities. The Letter employs developed techniques in the econophysics literature and tests for long-range dependence in the term structure of these interest rates for the last decade. Empirical results suggest that the degree of long-range dependence has changed over time due to changes in monetary policy, specially in the short-end of the term structure of interest rates. Therefore, we show that it is possible to identify monetary arrangements using these techniques from econophysics.

Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

2008-01-01

311

Which Interest Rate Should We Use In The Is Curve?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do interest rates effect investment and the GDP? If so, which ones, and by how much? Research on this topic over 5 decades has produced conflicting results. Yet, this question is of critical importance to the viability of Keynesian macroeconomics. This paper attempts to explain why results have been conflicting. It also attempts to determine with some finality which rate(s),

John J. Heim

2007-01-01

312

Bank Consolidation and the Dynamics of Consumer Loan Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes interest rates quoted by individual banks for personal and automobile loans in 10 cities. Personal loan rates are higher in concentrated markets, and banks involved in mergers reduce personal rates relative to their competitors prior to the merger's completion. This is consistent with mergers changing the size structure of personal loan markets and merger participants' desire to

Charles Kahn; Ben Sopranzetti

2005-01-01

313

Atrial fibrillation in long term care.  

PubMed

Increasing age is a potent risk factor for the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), as well as for incident stroke in patients with AF. The prevalence of AF in long term care facilities ranges from 7.5% to 17%, and such patients often present management challenges due to heightened risk for both stroke and bleeding complications related to thromboprophylaxis. This article reviews the diagnosis and management of AF in long term care. In general, patients with minimal symptoms can be managed with rate-control medications and anticoagulation. Patients with persistent symptoms and impaired quality of life despite adequate rate-control should be considered for cardioversion and antiarrhythmic drug therapy aimed at maintaining sinus rhythm. A small percentage of patients who do not respond to rate-control or rhythm-control interventions may be candidates for a catheter-based or surgical ablative procedure. In most older adults, the benefits of systemic anticoagulation in reducing the risk of stroke outweigh the risk of serious bleeding; therefore, anticoagulation is indicated in the majority of older AF patients, including nursing home residents. Although warfarin remains the preferred agent for stroke prophylaxis in the long term care setting, primarily due to very limited experience with the newer agents dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, it is likely that the use of these newer drugs will increase as additional data accumulate documenting their safety and efficacy in AF patients of advanced age. PMID:22889728

Rich, Michael W

2012-08-11

314

Interest Rate Policies in Selected Developing Countries, 1970-1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper examines the level and structure of interest rates for the period 1970-82 in ten developing countries: Bangladesh, Kenya, Korea, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey and Uruguay. In addition, the paper briefly examines the countrie...

J. A. Hanson C. R. Neal

1985-01-01

315

Asset Demand and Interest Rate Setting Equations in Imperfect Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper extends the literature on models of portfolio selection to include agents who are not necessarily price-takers in asset markets. Asset demands and interest rate setting equations are derived under the hypothesis of Constant Absolute Risk Aversi...

C. J. Green

1984-01-01

316

High Interest Rates, Spreads, and the Costs of Intermediation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: High real interest rates and spreads: An introduction (Spreads and explicit taxes, spreads and implicit taxes on financial intermediation, spreads, operating costs and profits, conclusions and an Agenda for reducing spreads). The costs of interm...

J. A. Hanson R. R. Rocha

1986-01-01

317

When does an interest rate path “look good”? Criteria for an appropriate future interest rate path  

Microsoft Academic Search

Svensson (2004) suggested that a monetary policy committee of a central bank (MPC) should “find an instrument-rate path such that projections of inflation and output gap ‘look good’.” Academic literature on monetary policy gives guidance as to what the words “look good” means. However, there is a need for a translation of the theoretical framework into concrete criteria when an

Jan F. Qvigstad; NORGES BANK

2006-01-01

318

Interest rate changes and the timing of debt issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much recent interest in the role of market timing in firm financial decisions. Using a large detailed sample of corporate public debt issues, private placements, Rule 144A issues and bank loans over the period 1970–2006, we investigate the relationship between interest rate changes and issues of floating and fixed-rate debt. Our results indicate that both past and future

Christopher B. Barry; Steven C. Mann; Vassil Mihov; Mauricio Rodríguez

2009-01-01

319

A Theory of the Nominal Term Structure of Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of the nominal term structure of interest rates is developed that has a positive and stationary process for the interest rate and delivers closed-form expressions for the prices of discount bonds and European options on bonds. Unlike the one-state-variable version of the Cox, Ingersoll, and Ross (1985) model, this model--even in its one-state-variable version--allows the term premium to

George M Constantinides

1992-01-01

320

Interest rate reaction functions for the euro area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimating interest rate reaction functions for the euro area is still hampered by the short time span since the conduct of\\u000a a single monetary policy. This is why estimates of union-wide reaction functions are usually based on historical pre-EMU data.\\u000a In this paper we circumvent the common use of aggregated data before 1999 by estimating interest rate reaction functions based

Karsten Ruth

2007-01-01

321

On real interest rate dynamics and regime switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find evidence of regime switching dynamics in the USA and the UK real interest rates over the period 1881–2003. For the UK, there is a regime in which the real interest rate displays a relatively stronger mean-reversion and a regime in which it displays a relatively weaker mean-reversion. The former regime is characterized by a relatively larger error in

Angelos Kanas

2008-01-01

322

Applications of information geometry to interest rate theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an information geometry associated with the theory of interest rates. This arises from the fact that the system of smooth yield curves is isomorphic to the convex space of density functions on the positive real line. The arbitrage-free interest rate dynamics of Heath, Jarrow & Morton (1992) can be represented as a process on this space. Properties of this process are investigated and some special cases examined. .

Brody, Dorje C.; Hughston, Lane P.

2001-02-01

323

Influenza vaccination in Alberta long-term care facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization recom- mends that both staff and residents of long-term care facilities be vaccinated against influenza. This paper describes the influenza vaccination policies and programs, as well as vaccination rates, for staff and residents of long-term care institutions in Alberta. Such data have not previously been reported. Methods: Data were collected by means of

Margaret L. Russell

2001-01-01

324

The expectations hypothesis of the term structure of interest rates, open interest rate parity and central bank policy reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rational expectations model with endogenous monetary policy reacting to the exchange rate and the term spread shows that the empirical performance of the expectations hypothesis of the term structure and the uncovered interest rate parity hypothesis improves with the strength of the policy reaction to the exchange rate and the term spread, respectively.

Peter Kugler

2000-01-01

325

Short-term foraging costs and long-term fueling rates in central-place foraging swans revealed by giving-up exploitation times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do foraging decisions tell us something about the cost of foraging? Dutch swan experts at the Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW) were interested in the apparent heterogeneity in the use of agricultural fields by migratory Bewick’s swans. In Wieringermeer, a typical Dutch polder that was reclaimed from the sea in 1930, Bewick’s swans stop by during migration to feed on

Gils van J. A; W. Tijsen

2007-01-01

326

Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

2013-05-21

327

Does Fed Funds Target Interest Rate Lead Bank of England’s Bank Rate and European Central Bank’s Key Interest Rate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been a long debate whether Fed Funds target interest rate (FFTR) has significant explanatory power on interest rates in other countries. In this paper, we analyze the effects of FFTR on Bank of England (BOE) bank rate and European Central Bank (ECB) key interest rate employing-the rather new and trustworthy technique of-Bounds testing developed by Pesaran (2001). Our

Sadullah Çelik; P?nar Deniz

2009-01-01

328

Long term thermoelectric module testing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period.

D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy

2009-10-01

329

41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cost is computed by dividing the total lodging cost by the number of days in the rental period. Reimbursement, including an appropriate amount for M&IE, may not exceed the maximum daily per diem rate for the TDY...

2011-07-01

330

41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cost is computed by dividing the total lodging cost by the number of days in the rental period. Reimbursement, including an appropriate amount for M&IE, may not exceed the maximum daily per diem rate for the TDY...

2012-07-01

331

Late Cenozoic reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the comparison of short-term and long-term deformation rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabia-Eurasia collision deforms an area of ?3,000,000 km2 of continental crust, making it one of the largest regions of convergent deformation on Earth. There are now estimates for the active slip rates, total convergence and timing of collision-related deformation of regions from western Turkey to eastern Iran. This paper shows that extrapolating the present day slip rates of many

Mark Allen; James Jackson; Richard Walker

2004-01-01

332

Twenty year trends (1975–1995) in the incidence, in-hospital and long-term death rates associated with heart failure complicating acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo describe from a population-based perspective, recent and temporal (1975–1995) trends in the incidence, in-hospital and postdischarge case-fatality rates of heart failure (HF) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI).BACKGROUNDExtremely limited data are available describing the incidence and case-fatality rates associated with HF complicating AMI from a community-wide perspective.METHODSThe medical records of 6,798 residents of the Worcester, Massachusetts metropolitan area with validated

Frederick A Spencer; Theo E Meyer; Robert J Goldberg; Jorge Yarzebski; Mark Hatton; Darleen Lessard; Joel M Gore

1999-01-01

333

Constraining the long-term evolution of the slip rate for a major extensional fault system in the central Aegean, Greece, using thermochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brittle\\/ductile transition is a major rheologic boundary in the crust yet little is known about how or if rates of tectonic processes are influenced by this boundary. In this study we examine the slip history of the large-scale Naxos\\/Paros extensional fault system (NPEFS), Cyclades, Greece, by comparing published slip rates for the ductile crust with new thermochronological constraints on

Stephanie Brichau; Uwe Ring; Richard A. Ketcham; Andrew Carter; Daniel Stockli; Maurice Brunel

2006-01-01

334

Does ECB Communication Help in Predicting its Interest Rate Decisions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the usefulness of communication by the European Central Bank for predicting its interest rate decisions. We use ordered probit models based on the Taylor rule which we estimate using statements by ECB officials as well as macroeconomic variables. Statements by ECB officials on the main refinancing rate and future inflation are significantly related to ECB decisions. However, an

David-Jan Jansen; Jakob de Haany

2006-01-01

335

Forecasting of interest rates using neural network models  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past couple of years, interest rates around the world have declined to very low levels and there is a quest in the financial community for better understanding the dynamics of this situation. In the paper, the development of the monthly Libor and Swap rates are investigated over a 10 year period (1993-2002) in relation to a number of

A. Din

336

Individuals and Environments: Linking Ability and Skill Ratings with Interests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holland's (1997) theory of corresponding person and work environment structures was evaluated by comparing the integration of individual and occupational ratings of interests, abilities, and skills. Occupational ratings were obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database (U.S. Department of Labor, 2007). College students (494 women,…

Anthoney, Sarah Fetter; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

2010-01-01

337

Interest rates in quantum finance: the Wilson expansion and Hamiltonian.  

PubMed

Interest rate instruments form a major component of the capital markets. The Libor market model (LMM) is the finance industry standard interest rate model for both Libor and Euribor, which are the most important interest rates. The quantum finance formulation of the Libor market model is given in this paper and leads to a key generalization: all the Libors, for different future times, are imperfectly correlated. A key difference between a forward interest rate model and the LMM lies in the fact that the LMM is calibrated directly from the observed market interest rates. The short distance Wilson expansion [Phys. Rev. 179, 1499 (1969)] of a Gaussian quantum field is shown to provide the generalization of Ito calculus; in particular, the Wilson expansion of the Gaussian quantum field A(t,x) driving the Libors yields a derivation of the Libor drift term that incorporates imperfect correlations of the different Libors. The logarithm of Libor phi(t,x) is defined and provides an efficient and compact representation of the quantum field theory of the Libor market model. The Lagrangian and Feynman path integrals of the Libor market model of interest rates are obtained, as well as a derivation given by its Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonian formulation of the martingale condition provides an exact solution for the nonlinear drift of the Libor market model. The quantum finance formulation of the LMM is shown to reduce to the industry standard Bruce-Gatarek-Musiela-Jamshidian model when the forward interest rates are taken to be exactly correlated. PMID:19905402

Baaquie, Belal E

2009-10-26

338

Changes in emotional state modulate neuronal firing rates of human speech motor cortex: A case study in long-term recording  

PubMed Central

In many brain areas, modulations in neuronal firing rates are thought to code information. However, in electrophysiological recording experiments, especially recordings in human patients, the type of information that is coded by a neuron’s discharge patterns is often not known, or difficult to determine. From our long experience with chronic recordings in humans, we have come to suspect that such unexplained modulations in firing rates are often due to state changes in the subject. We here present two case studies, with extensive data in one subject to illustrate the point that a change in the subject’s emotions, such as sudden fear, surprise, or happiness, may trigger substantial changes in firing rates.

Kennedy, Philip

2011-01-01

339

Links between short and long term tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the quest for understanding the rheology of the lithosphere a central question that can be addressed is the existence of a parameterisation of the rheology, which could reflect both the response of the lithosphere over the large time scale (10's Myr) and the time scale of earthquakes and faulting. The gap existing between these observational time scales is mainly due to modelling approximations which in each separate fields permit to fit the data but which rely on simplification of the physics, the rheology and set of boundary conditions which are not always compatible one with each other. The long-term community, i.e. the geodynamics community, tend to use Mohr-Coulomb non-associated plasticity to model self-consistent shear zone localisation. This type of rheology corresponds, in the limit of a discrete fault plan, to a slip weakening/hardening formulation in which weakening rate depends on fault plan orientation. The short term community, i.e. the earthquake community, has stopped using this kind of formulation and rather uses the rate and state formulation to model the activity of faults. Rate and State is limited because it cannot self-consistently generate an earthquake, the triggering, i.e. the initial slip acceleration must be imposed. This contribution is a synthesis of several geological case studies at different length-scale, in which we suspects a strong link between long term geodynamic processes and current seismological and geodetic observations. We make use of these case studies together with quantitative numerical models to understand how the seismic and inter-seismic behaviour reflects the rather long-term geodynamic setting than the internal rheological properties of faults. After briefly revisiting the different modelling approaches from geodynamic seismologic and geodetic communities, we show how modelling results obtained with the long term modelling approach brings new insights and alternative models for both the seismological and geodetic behaviour of active faults. The first example will concern the seismic activity on low angle normal faults focussing on the case of the Gulf of Corinth. Then focusing on strike slip tectonic, I will compare data from active and exhumed strike slip faults and discuss how a single model can explain their behaviour. The last example will focus on the creeping segment of the San Andreas Fault to discuss how heterogeneities in the long-term tectonic loading (in that instance flexure of the lithosphere) may influence the seismic behaviour of strike slip fault.

Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Traoré, Nafissatou; Lecomte, Emmanuel; Saleeby, Jason

2013-04-01

340

Long-term Follow-up of Asymptomatic Patients with Major Artery Occlusion: Rate of Symptomatic Change and Evaluation of Cerebral Hemodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The natural history of asymptomatic major cerebral artery occlusive disease is unclear. Rate of symptomatic change, appearance of new lesions on MR images, and cerebral hemodynamics were analyzed for patients with asymptomatic major ce- rebral artery occlusion. METHODS: This prospective study included asymptomatic patients who had occlusive dis- ease between 1992 and 1995. MR imaging and MR angiography

Nobuhiko Miyazawa; Kazuhiro Hashizume; Mikito Uchida; Hideaki Nukui

341

COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIOURAL EFFECTS Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on Ratings of Attractiveness of Facial Stimuli: Evidence of Long-Term Encoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: A strongly held popular belief is that alcohol increases the perceived attractiveness of members of the opposite sex. Despite this, there are no experimental data that investigate this possibility. We therefore explored the relationship between acute alcohol consumption and ratings of attractiveness of facial stimuli. Methods: We investigated male and female participants (n = 84), using male and female

Lycia L. C. Parker; Ian S. Penton-Voak; Angela S. Attwood; Marcus R. Munaf

342

Constraining the long-term evolution of the slip rate for a major extensional fault system in the central Aegean, Greece, using thermochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brittle/ductile transition is a major rheologic boundary in the crust yet little is known about how or if rates of tectonic processes are influenced by this boundary. In this study we examine the slip history of the large-scale Naxos/Paros extensional fault system (NPEFS), Cyclades, Greece, by comparing published slip rates for the ductile crust with new thermochronological constraints on slip rates in the brittle regime. Based on apatite and zircon fission-track (AFT and ZFT) and (U-Th)/He dating we observe variable slip rates across the brittle/ductile transition on Naxos. ZFT and AFT ages range from 11.8 ± 0.8 to 9.7 ± 0.8 Ma and 11.2 ± 1.6 to 8.2 ± 1.2 Ma and (U-Th)/He zircon and apatite ages are between 10.4 ± 0.4 to 9.2 ± 0.3 Ma and 10.7 ± 1.0 to 8.9 ± 0.6 Ma, respectively. On Paros, ZFT and AFT ages range from 13.1 ± 1.4 Ma to 11.1 ± 1.0 Ma and 12.7 ± 2.8 Ma to 10.5 ± 2.0 Ma while the (U-Th)/He zircon ages are slightly younger between 8.3 ± 0.4 Ma and 9.8 ± 0.3 Ma. All ages consistently decrease northwards in the direction of hanging wall transport. Most of our new thermochronological results and associated thermal modeling more strongly support the scenario of an identical fault dip and a constant or slightly accelerating slip rate of ˜ 6-8 km Myr - 1 on the NPEFS across the brittle/ductile transition. Even the intrusion of a large granodiorite body into the narrowing fault zone at ˜ 12 Ma on Naxos does not seem to have affected the thermal structure of the area in a way that would significantly disturb the slip rate. The data also show that the NPEFS accomplished a minimum total offset of ˜ 50 km between ˜ 16 and 8 Ma.

Brichau, Stephanie; Ring, Uwe; Ketcham, Richard A.; Carter, Andrew; Stockli, Daniel; Brunel, Maurice

2006-01-01

343

Diet selection in a molluscivore shorebird across Western Europe: does it show short- or long-term intake rate-maximization?  

PubMed

1. Studies of diet choice usually assume maximization of energy intake. The well-known 'contingency model' (CM) additionally assumes that foraging animals only spend time searching or handling prey. Despite considerable empirical support, there are many foraging contexts in which the CM fails, but such cases were considered exceptions rather than the rule. 2. For animals constrained by the rate at which food is digested, CM does not necessarily lead to maximal energy intake rates because the time for digestion is not part of the selection criteria. In the main model developed to explain diet choice under a digestive constraint, the 'digestive rate model' (DRM), time lost to digestive breaks is minimized so that energy intake over total time (searching, handling, digestive breaks) is maximized. 3. It is increasingly acknowledged that most animals may face digestive constraints as prey capture rates vary over time and as it would be a waste to carry around heavy digestive machinery that can rapidly process food under all circumstances: this is only needed in times of high demand, provided that enough food can be found. 4. In molluscivore shorebirds ingesting hard-shelled prey such as red knots (Calidris canutus), the predictions of DRM were held up so far, whereas those of CM were rejected. However, most tests were carried out under controlled experimental conditions. Red knots overwinter in coastal areas over much of Western Europe and we capitalized on this variation by comparing, during a single winter, observed diet composition with predictions of DRM, CM and a null model assuming no prey selection ('no-selection model', NSM). 5. The observed diets were best predicted by DRM followed by CM. NSM poorly predicted observed diet choice. Under the present conditions, diet choice based on DRM would on average have yielded an energy intake rate twice as large as one based on CM. By adjusting the size of their gizzard (held constant in the present simulations), red knots could have lifted their energy intake rate further. We suggest that application of the DRM can help many diet studies forward, especially those previously seen as exceptions to the classical CM-based rule. PMID:19674177

Quaintenne, Gwenael; van Gils, Jan A; Bocher, Pierrick; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

2009-08-06

344

Analysis of P\\/E ratios and interest rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criticizes previous research on price\\/earnings ratios (PER) for neglecting their historical links with interest rates and analyses the causal links between interest ratres and the PERs of the Toronto Stock Exchange 300 Index (TSE300) and of seven major Canadian industries 1965-1997. Explains the methodology and identifies three “distinct PER regimes”: 1965-1974 (average PER 17.17), 1975-1982 (average PER 8.92) and 1983-1997

Ben Amoako-Adu; Brian Smith

2002-01-01

345

Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. Part II: Solute profiles, gradients and the comparisons of contemporary and long-term weathering rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and pore water elemental and 87Sr\\/86Sr compositions are used to determine contemporary weathering rates in a 65- to 226-kyr-old soil chronosequence formed from granitic sediments deposited on marine terraces along coastal California. Soil moisture, tension and saturation exhibit large seasonal variations in shallow soils in response to a Mediterranean climate. These climate effects

Art F. White; Marjorie S. Schulz; David A. Stonestrom; Davison V. Vivit; John Fitzpatrick; Tom D. Bullen; Kate Maher; Alex E. Blum

2009-01-01

346

The long-term reinfection rate and the course of duodenal ulcer disease after eradication of Helicobacter pylori in a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication on the natural history of duodenal ulcer disease and the reinfection rate after treatment in a developing country.METHODS:A total of 111 H. pylori-infected patients with duodenal ulcer were treated with either omeprazole or famotidine plus two antibiotics for 2 wk. Those failed to respond

Antonio Rollan; Rossana Giancaspero; Francisco Fuster; Claudia Acevedo; Cecilia Figueroa; Karen Hola; Marcela Schulz; Ignacio Duarte

2000-01-01

347

A comparison of methods for deriving solute flux rates using long-term data from streams in the mirror lake watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Calculation of chemical flux rates for streams requires integration of continuous measurements of discharge with discrete measurements of solute concentrations. We compared two commonly used methods for interpolating chemistry data (time-averaging and flow-weighting) to determine whether discrepancies between the two methods were large relative to other sources of error in estimating flux rates. Flux rates of dissolved Si and SO42- were calculated from 10 years of data (1981-1990) for the NW inlet and Outlet of Mirror Lake and for a 40-day period (March 22 to April 30, 1993) during which we augmented our routine (weekly) chemical monitoring with collection of daily samples. The time-averaging method yielded higher estimates of solute flux during high-flow periods if no chemistry samples were collected corresponding to peak discharge. Concentration-discharge relationships should be used to interpolate stream chemistry during changing flow conditions if chemical changes are large. Caution should be used in choosing the appropriate time-scale over which data are pooled to derive the concentration-discharge regressions because the model parameters (slope and intercept) were found to be sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual variation. Both methods approximated solute flux to within 2-10% for a range of solutes that were monitored during the intensive sampling period. Our results suggest that errors arising from interpolation of stream chemistry data are small compared with other sources of error in developing watershed mass balances.

Bukaveckas, P. A.; Likens, G. E.; Winter, T. C.; Buso, D. C.

1998-01-01

348

The application of stepwise regression method in discussing the relation between interest rate and inflation rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper study the relation between Interest rate and Inflation rate, we use the Stepwise Regression Method to build the math model about the relation between Interest rate and Inflation rate. And the model has passed the significance test, and we use the model to discuss the influence on social economy through adjust Deposit rate, so we can provide a

Xiaohong Xu; Yu Chen; Haiwei Jia

2009-01-01

349

The impact of jump risks on nominal interest rates and foreign exchange rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the relationship between the nominal interest rate and inflation and also the forward exchange rate under a general specification of the underlying processes govering the foreign exchange rate. There are three distinct risks that affect the relation between the real rate of interest and the nominal rate namely, consumption risk, diffusion risk, and the existence of jump

Chang Mo AHN; Howard E. Thompson

1992-01-01

350

Microbial degradation at a shallow coastal site: Long-term spectra and rates of exoenzymatic activities in the NE Adriatic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation of organic matter along the water column is mediated by enzymes released into the environment by planktonic organisms. Variations in enzymes profiles (types and levels of activity) reflect the trophic status of the environment and could be caused by shifts in the dominant species or in the level of enzyme expression by the same species in response to changes in the spectrum of organic substrates. To explore this issue, we examined the maximum rates of hydrolysis of 6 different enzymes (protease, ?-glucosidase, ?-glucosidase, ?-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase and lipase) along the water column (4 depths) at a coastal station in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea), from 2000 to 2005. Most of the studied enzymes exhibited a pronounced seasonal variability with winter minima and maxima from April to October. During summer, alkaline phosphatase, lipase and protease reached the highest activities, while polysaccharide degradation prevailed in spring and autumn, associated to phytoplankton blooms. Phosphatase/protease activities ratio was generally low, indicating that microbial communities were rarely P-limited, possibly because of the use of organic P sources. A pronounced interannual variability of degradation patterns was found, with maximum rates of protease being the highest in most of the samples, followed by the alkaline phosphatase's ones. Water column features greatly affected hydrolysis rates, being degradation of linear polysaccharides, lipids, phosphorilated compounds and polypeptides significantly different at different depths during stratified condition. Mixing processes affected especially ?-glucosidase activity, possibly as a consequence of resuspension of organic matter from the seabed. Large-impact phenomena such as the 2003 heat wave and mucilage influenced the degradation of specific substrates. Mucilage enhanced lipase, phosphatase and protease, whereas a pronounced inhibition characterised phosphatase and protease during summer 2003.

Celussi, Mauro; Del Negro, Paola

2012-12-01

351

Non-steady long-term uplift rates and Pleistocene marine terrace development along the Andean margin of Chile (31°S) inferred from 10Be dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pleistocene uplift of the Chilean coast is recorded by the formation of wave-cut platforms resulting from marine erosion during sea-level highstands. In the Altos de Talinay area (~ 31°S), we have identified a sequence of 5 wave-cut platforms. Using in situ produced 10Be exposure ages we show that these platforms were formed during interglacial periods at 6, 122, 232, 321 and 690 ka. These ages correspond to marine isotopic stages (MIS) or substages (MISS) 1, 5e, 7e, 9c and 17. Shoreline angle elevations used in conjunction with our chronology of wave-cut platform formation, illustrate that surface uplift rates vary from 103 ± 69 mm/ka between 122 and 6 ka, to 1158 ± 416 mm/ka between 321 and 232 ka. The absence of preserved platforms related to the MIS 11, 13 and 15 highstands likely reflects slow uplift rates during these times. We suggest that since 700 ka, the Altos de Talinay area was predominantly uplifted during 2 short periods following MIS 17 and MISS 9c. This episodic uplift of the Chilean coast in the Pleistocene may result from subduction related processes, such as pulses of tectonic accretion at the base of the forearc wedge.

Saillard, M.; Hall, S. R.; Audin, L.; Farber, D. L.; Hérail, G.; Martinod, J.; Regard, V.; Finkel, R. C.; Bondoux, F.

2009-01-01

352

Long term observations of halogenated greenhouse gases in a European continental background station for assessing atmospheric trends, annual growth rates and emission sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate altering halocarbons are continuously monitored at the atmospheric research station "O. Vittori" located on the top of Monte Cimone, Northern Apennines, Italy ( 2165 m asl), in the frame of the SOGE (System for Observation of halogenated Greenhouse gases in Europe) network, an integrated system based on a combination of observations and models aimed at assessing atmospheric trends, annual growth rates and at estimating European halocarbon emissions. The use of such a top-down approach is useful to ascertain compliance to International Protocols regulating production/emission of halogenated greenhouse gases. Establishing the baseline is essential both for estimating annual growth rates and because back attribution techniques are based on the clear identification of "above the background" data. That is particularly challenging in a Station like Monte Cimone characterised by a complex meteorological and source field. The approach proposed is based on the identification of the lowest concentration values in a given temporal range to which a ?c representing variation due to instrumental error is added. Trends are evaluated by using a non-linear regression function, able to take into account both annual and seasonal variation. In order to identify source, regions baseline data are subtracted from the full data set and an inversion modelling cascade, which makes use of MM5 model to reproduce meteorological fields and of FLEXPART to simulate tracer dispersion, is used to find the best emissions map that fits the observations.

Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Uguccioni, F.; Giostra, U.; Furlani, F.; Belfiore, L.; Cava, D.

2009-04-01

353

Individuals and environments: Linking ability and skill ratings with interests.  

PubMed

Holland's (1997) theory of corresponding person and work environment structures was evaluated by comparing the integration of individual and occupational ratings of interests, abilities, and skills. Occupational ratings were obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database (U.S. Department of Labor, 2007). College students (494 women, 526 men) provided self-ratings of their interests, abilities, and skills. Property vector fitting was used to embed ability and skill ratings into the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC) interest structure, and bootstrapping was used to generate confidence intervals for the angles of the vectors and the magnitude of their fit to the Holland model. Across the individual and occupational ratings, 18 of 45 (40%) ability vectors and 41 of 48 (85%) skill vectors were fit into the RIASEC model. No significant gender differences were found in the integration of self-rated abilities and skills into the RIASEC circumplex; however, some differences were found between individual and environmental ratings. Obtained results highlight the potential utility and limitations of using Holland's model for representing both individual and occupational data in a common structure. PMID:21133559

Anthoney, Sarah Fetter; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

2010-01-01

354

Does a Long-Term Relationship Kill Romantic Love?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the possibility that romantic love (with intensity, engagement, and sexual interest) can exist in long-term relationships. A review of taxonomies, theory, and research suggests that romantic love, without the obsession component typical of early stage romantic love, can and does exist in long-term marriages, and is associated with marital satisfaction, well-being, and high self-esteem. Supporting the separate

Bianca P. Acevedo; Arthur Aron

2009-01-01

355

Evidence of long memory in short-term interest rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issues of non-stationarity and long memory of real interest rates are examined here. Autoregressive models allowing short-term mean reversion are compared with fractional integration models in terms of their ability to explain the behaviour of the data and to forecast out-of-sample. The data used are weekly observations of 3-month Eurodeposit rates for 10 countries, adjusted for inflation, for 14

Margaret R. Maier; Nigel Meade

2003-01-01

356

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment - Task 4: Modeling - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Trichloroethene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, can be degraded under certain conditions by microorganisms that occur naturally in the subsurface. TCE can be degraded under anaerobic conditions to less chlorinated compounds and ultimately into the non-chlorinated, non-hazardous end product, ethene, via anaerobic reductive dechlorination (ARD). ARD is widely recognized as a TCE degradation mechanism, and occurs in active groundwater remediation and can occur during monitored natural attenuation (MNA). MNA relies on natural processes, such as dispersion and degradation, to reduce contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels without active human intervention other than monitoring. TCE can also be biodegraded under aerobic conditions via cometabolism, in which microbial enzymes produced for other purposes fortuitously also react with TCE. In cometabolism, TCE is oxidized directly to non-hazardous products. Cometabolism as a TCE-degrading process under aerobic conditions is less well known than ARD. Natural attenuation is often discounted as a TCE remedial alternative in aerobic conditions based on the paradigm that TCE is biodegradable only under anaerobic conditions. In contrast to this paradigm, TCE was shown to degrade relative to conservative co-contaminants at an environmentally significant rate in a large (approximately 3 km long) TCE plume in aerobic groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the degradation mechanism was shown to be cometabolism. MNA was selected as the remedy for most of this plume, resulting in a considerable cost savings relative to conventional remedial methods. To determine if cometabolism might be a viable remedy at other sites with TCE-contaminated aerobic groundwater, TCE plumes at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities were screened to evaluate whether TCE commonly degrades in aerobic groundwater, and if degradation rates are fast enough that natural attenuation could be a viable remedy. One hundred and twenty seven plumes at 24 DOE facilities were screened, and 14 plumes were selected for detailed examination. In the plumes selected for further study, spatial changes in the concentration of a conservative co-contaminant were used to compensate for the effects of mixing and temporal changes in TCE release from the contaminant source. Decline in TCE concentration along a flow path in excess of the co contaminant concentration decline was attributed to cometabolic degradation. This study indicated that TCE was degraded in 9 of the 14 plumes examined, with first order degradation half-lives ranging from about 1 to 12 years. TCE degradation in about two-thirds of the plumes examined suggests that cometabolism of TCE in aerobic groundwater is a common occurrence, in contrast to the conventional wisdom that TCE is recalcitrant in aerobic groundwater. The degradation half-life values calculated in this study are short enough that natural attenuation may be a viable remedy in many aerobic plumes. Computer modeling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport and degradation is frequently used to predict the evolution of groundwater plumes, and for evaluating natural attenuation and other remedial alternatives. An important aspect of a computer model is the mathematical approach for describing degradation kinetics. A common approach is to assume that degradation occurs as a first-order process. First order kinetics are easily incorporated into transport models and require only a single value (a degradation half-life) to describe reaction kinetics. The use of first order kinetics is justified in many cases because more elaborate kinetic equations often closely approximate first order kinetics under typical field conditions. A previous modeling study successfully simulated the INL TCE plume using first order degradation kinetics. TCE cometabolism is the result of TCE reacting with microbial enzymes that were produced for other purposes, such as oxidizing a growth substrate to obtain energy. Both TCE and the growth substrate compete for enzyme reactive sites, and the presence of

Robert C. Starr

2005-10-31

357

Critical mechanical structure of superconducting high current coils for fast ramped accelerator magnets with high repetition rates in long term operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heavy ion synchrotron SIS100 is the core component of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) currently under construction at GSI in Darmstadt. It is rapidly cycled with a ramp rate of 4 T/s up to 2 T maximum field and a repetition frequency of 1 Hz. The superconducting coils of the Nuclotron-type magnets utilise a hollow cable cooled with a forced two phase helium flow. These coils must operate reliably over a period of at least 20 years and thus survive 2 · 10 load cycles. Intensive R&D is necessary to find the optimal solution preventing any possible damage of the coils by the fast pulsing loads over the life time taking into account the complex fine structure of the cable and coil designs as well as its sensitive influence on the field quality, AC loss generation and quench protection. We used FEM codes to analyse critical aspects of various design options and had manufactured coils for detailed mechanical tests. These tests on samples extracted from the coil are: thermal expansion measurements in all three directions on the cable package itself and its composite elements, compression tests and investigation of the Inter Laminar Shear Stress (ILSS). The stress strain behaviour of the cable package was measured along the transversal direction; the most important one to sustain the cycling load by Lorentz forces. A second sample was fatigue tested. Successful integral operation test results for the coil mechanics have been obtained within our first experimental runs on the prototype dipole magnets already started at GSI in the end of 2008.

Fischer, E.; Schnizer, P.; Weiss, K.; Nyilas, A.; Mierau, A.; Sikler, G.

2010-06-01

358

Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) (on Magnetic Tape).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This product contains the data for the Federal Housing Finance Board's Monthly Interest Rate Survey for 1993. The data are based on a monthly survey of major lenders that are asked to report the terms and conditions on all conventional, single-family, ful...

1993-01-01

359

Monthly Interest Rate Survey, 1995 (on Magnetic Tape).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This product contains the data for the Federal Housing Finance Board's Monthly Interest Rate Survey. The data are based on a monthly survey of major lenders that are asked to report the terms and conditions on all conventional, single-family, fully amorti...

1997-01-01

360

Why Central Banks Smooth Interest Rates? A Political Economy Explanation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend the New Keynesian Monetary Policy literature relaxing the assumption that the decisions are taken by a single policymaker, considering instead that monetary policy decisions are taken collectively in a committee. We introduce a Monetary Policy Committee (MPC), whose members have different preferences between output and inflation variability and have to vote on the level of the interest rate.

Carlos Montoro

2007-01-01

361

Real Interest Rates and Central Bank Operating Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the years following the influential article of Poole (1970), many central banks reoriented their operating procedures to focus more on interest rates and less on monetary aggregates. The rapid restructuring of global financial markets was thought to have led to instability in standard monetary relationships, and Poole's basic insight suggested that a central bank would have better control of

Matthew B Canzoneri; Harris Dellas

1995-01-01

362

A nonlinear non-probabilistic spot interest rate model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how to use 'uncertainty' in place of the more traditional Brownian 'randomness' to model a short-term interest rate. The advantage of this model is principally that it is difficult to show statistically that it is wrong. Whether the model is useful for pricing fixed-income products is less clear. We discuss the pros and cons of the model, showing

David Epstein; Paul Wilmott

1999-01-01

363

Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS), 1997 (Raw Data File).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This product contains the data for the Federal Housing Finance Board's Monthly Interest Rate Survey. The data are based on a monthly survey of major lenders that are asked to report the terms and conditions on all conventional, single-family, fully amorti...

1999-01-01

364

Actuarial models of life insurance with stochastic interest rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of general actuarial model of life insurance, this article has carried on research to continuous life insurance actuarial models under the stochastic interest rate separately. And it provide net single premium for life insurance and life annuity due over a period based on that de Moivre law of mortality and Makeham's law of mortality separately.

Wei, Xiang; Hu, Ping

2009-07-01

365

Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS), 1996 (on Magnetic Tape).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This product contains the data for the Federal Housing Finance Board's Monthly Interest Rate Survey. The data are based on a monthly survey of major lenders that are asked to report the terms and conditions on all conventional, single-family, fully amorti...

1997-01-01

366

Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS), 1998 (Raw Data File).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This product contains the data for the Federal Housing Finance Board's Monthly Interest Rate Survey. The data are based on a monthly survey of major lenders that are asked to report the terms and conditions on all conventional, single-family, fully amorti...

1999-01-01

367

Evidence of nonlinear mean reversion in the real interest rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article utilizes tests for a unit root that have power against nonlinear alternatives to provide empirical evidence on the time series properties of the ex-post real interest rate in the G7 countries. We find that the unit root hypothesis can be rejected in the presence of a nonlinear alternative motivated by theoretical literature on optimal monetary policy rules. This

Zisimos Koustas; Jean-François Lamarche

2010-01-01

368

Inflation uncertainty and interest rates: is the Fisher relation universal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests the validity of the Fisher hypothesis, which establishes a positive relation between interest rates and expected inflation, for the G7 countries and 45 developing economies. For this purpose, we estimate a version of the GARCH specification of the hypothesis for all countries included in the sample. We also test the augmented Fisher relation by including the inflation

Hakan Berument; Nildag Basak Ceylan; Hasan Olgun

2007-01-01

369

Low Nominal Interest Rates: A Public Finance Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies low-interest-rate policies from a public finance perspective. Two policy regimes are considered. In the first regime, the central bank is subordinate and its budget is integrated into the fiscal authority's budget constraint. In this case, monetary policy influences the revenue mainly through currency seigniorage. In the other regime, the central bank's budget is separated from that of

Noritaka Kudoh

2007-01-01

370

Volatility of Money Market Interest Rates Under the Inflation Targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an analysis of the sources of variability of interest rates in the money market in the context of inflation targeting by Czech National Bank (CNB). The factors in question are changes in the structural characteristics of economies in transition, changing perception of inflation risks, the inconsistency of central bank's monetary decisions and central bank's weakened credibility and

Karel Bruna

2009-01-01

371

Predictive Ability of the Interest Rate Spread Using Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest rates are commonly used as predictors of future economic conditions as measured by industrial production, real gross domestic product and real total business sales (RTBS), as well as through the prediction of recessions in the economy. Recession forecasting is mainly characterized by probit categorical analysis, and there appear to be hardly any neural network research in this area. This

Anthony Joseph; Maurice Larrain; Eshwar Singh

2011-01-01

372

The Zero Bound on Interest Rates and Optimal Monetary Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the consequences for monetary policy of the zero floor for nominal interest rates. The zero bound can be a significant constraint on the ability of a central bank to combat deflation. The paper shows, in the context of an intertemporal equilibrium model, that open-market operations, even of \\

Gauti B. Eggertsson; MICHAEL WOODFORD

2003-01-01

373

Interest rate and exchange rate exposures of banking institutions in pre-crisis Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study empirically investigates interest rate and exchange rate exposures of banking institutions in pre-crisis Korea. Using the sensitivity of stock returns as a measure of the exposure, it is shown that Korean commercial banks and merchant banking corporations had been significantly exposed to both interest rate and exchange rate risks, and that the subsequent profitability of commercial banks was

Joon-Ho Hahm

2004-01-01

374

Glomerular filtration rate after alpha-radioimmunotherapy with 211At-MX35-F(ab')2: a long-term study of renal function in nude mice.  

PubMed

Besides bone marrow, the kidneys are often dose-limiting organs in internal radiotherapy. The effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the kidneys after alpha-radioimmunotherapy (alpha-RIT) with the alpha-particle emitter, (211)At, were studied in nude mice by serial measurements of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The renal toxicity was evaluated at levels close to the dose limit for the bone marrow and well within the range for therapeutic efficacy on tumors. Astatinated MX35-F(ab')(2) monoclonal antibodies were administered intravenously to nude mice. Both non-tumor-bearing animals and animals bearing subcutaneous xenografts of the human ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-3, were used. The animals received approximately 0.4, 0.8, or 1.2 MBq in one, two, or three fractions. The mean absorbed doses to the kidneys ranged from 1.5 to 15 Gy. The renal function was studied by serial GFR measurements, using plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA, up to 67 weeks after the first astatine injection. A dose-dependent effect on GFR was found and at the time interval 8-30 weeks after the first administration of astatine, the absorbed doses causing a 50% decrease in GFR were 16.4 +/- 3.3 and 14.0 +/- 4.1 Gy (mean +/- SEM), tumor- and non-tumor-bearing animals, respectively. The reduction in GFR progressed with time, and at the later time interval, (31-67 weeks) the corresponding absorbed doses were 7.5 +/- 2.4 and 11.3 +/- 2.3 Gy, respectively, suggesting that the effects of radiation on the kidneys were manifested late. Examination of the kidney sections showed histologic changes that were overall subdued. Following alpha-RIT with (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2) at levels close to the dose limit of severe myelotoxicity, the effects found on renal function were relatively small, with only minor to moderate reductions in GFR. These results suggest that a mean absorbed dose to the kidneys of approximately 10 Gy is acceptable, and that the kidneys would not be the primary dose-limiting organ in systemic alpha-RIT when using (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2). PMID:20025544

Bäck, Tom; Haraldsson, Börje; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Johansson, Martin E; Lindegren, Sture; Jacobsson, Lars

2009-12-01

375

Long Term Care: Early Planning Pays Off  

MedlinePLUS

... reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Long term care: Early planning pays off By Mayo Clinic staff ... your e-mail address Sign up Long term care: Early planning pays off It's best to talk ...

376

Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  

MedlinePLUS

... shortly. Unable to Share This Page Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program (OAA, Title VII, Chapter 2, Sections ... Services Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2011 indicate that ...

377

Interest rates in quantum finance: Caps, swaptions and bond options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prices of the main interest rate options in the financial markets, derived from the Libor (London Interbank Overnight Rate), are studied in the quantum finance model of interest rates. The option prices show new features for the Libor Market Model arising from the fact that, in the quantum finance formulation, all the different Libor payments are coupled and (imperfectly) correlated. Black’s caplet formula for quantum finance is given an exact path integral derivation. The coupon and zero coupon bond options as well as the Libor European and Asian swaptions are derived in the framework of quantum finance. The approximate Libor option prices are derived using the volatility expansion. The BGM-Jamshidian (Gatarek et al. (1996) [1], Jamshidian (1997) [2]) result for the Libor swaption prices is obtained as the limiting case when all the Libors are exactly correlated. A path integral derivation is given of the approximate BGM-Jamshidian approximate price.

Baaquie, Belal E.

2010-01-01

378

12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Minimum Capital Components for Interest Rate and Foreign Exchange Rate Contracts  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Minimum Capital Components for Interest Rate and Foreign Exchange Rate Contracts...Minimum Capital Components for Interest Rate and Foreign Exchange Rate Contracts...minimum capital components for interest rate and foreign exchange rate...

2009-01-01

379

12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Minimum Capital Components for Interest Rate and Foreign Exchange Rate Contracts  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Minimum Capital Components for Interest Rate and Foreign Exchange Rate Contracts...Minimum Capital Components for Interest Rate and Foreign Exchange Rate Contracts...minimum capital components for interest rate and foreign exchange rate...

2010-01-01

380

F-BF Compounding with a 5% Interest Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A man invests \\$1000 in an account with a 5% annual interest rate. He knows that money in an account where interest is compounded semi-annually will ea...

381

Spatial Patterns of Long-Term Erosion Rates Beneath the Marine West Antarctic Ice Sheet: Insights into the Physics of Continental Scale Glacial Erosion from a Comparison with the Ice-Velocity Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the effort to build quantitative models of glacial erosion and sedimentation, it is particularly important to construct scaled relations between erosion, transport, and sedimentation rates and appropriate glaciological variables (e.g., ice velocity). Recent acquisition of bed topography and ice velocity data for the marine West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS)[Joughin et al., 1999; Lythe et al., in press] provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate continental-scale patterns of glacial erosion and their relationship to the ice velocity field. Utilizing this data, we construct a map of estimated long-term erosion rates beneath the WAIS. In order to calculate long-term erosion rates from the available data, we assume that: (1) the ice sheet has been present for ~5 mill. years, (2) the initial topography beneath the WAIS was that of a typical ( ~200 m.b.s.l.) continental shelf, and (3) the present topography is near local isostatic equilibrium (Airy type). The map of long-term erosion rates constructed in this fashion shows an intriguing pattern of relatively high rates (of the order of 0.1 mm/yr) concentrated beneath modern ice stream tributaries (ice velocity ~100 m/yr), but much lower erosion rates (of the order of 0.01 mm/yr) beneath both the modern fast-moving ice streams ( ~400 m/yr.) and the slow-moving parts of the ice sheet ( ~10 m/yr). This lack of clear correlation between the estimated erosion rates and ice velocity is somewhat unexpected given that both observational and theoretical studies have shown that bedrock erosion rates beneath mountain glaciers can often be calculated by multiplying the basal sliding velocity by a constant (typically of the order of ~10^-4)(Humphrey and Raymond, 1993 and Mac Gregor et al., 2000). We obtain an improved match between estimated erosion rates and bed topography by calculating erosion rates using horizontal gradients within the ice velocity field rather than the magnitude of ice velocity, as consistent with the steady state deforming till model of Cuffey and Alley (1997). Therefore, we hypothesize that the erosional system beneath the WAIS, which has overridden a thick layer of erodible, Tertiary marine sediments (Studinger et al., in press), is 'transport limited' and that the horizontal gradients in ice velocity and till flux have the predominant control over spatial patterns of subglacial erosion and deposition rates. In contrast, past studies of erosional systems have concentrated on mountain glaciers that derive their debris through erosion of hard bedrock. In those cases, the erosional system may be 'production limited' because erosion rates scale with dissipation of gravitational energy, represented by the velocity-times-constant equation. Thus, this concept of a 'transport limited' system represents a deviation from past thinking regarding the dynamics of bed erosion, and may be unique to marine-based ice sheets. Using this concept as a base, we will construct more accurately parameterized models to better define the relationship between the dynamics of ice streams and the character of the sub glacial bed.

Howat, I. M.; Tulaczyk, S.; Mac Gregor, K.; Joughin, I.

2001-12-01

382

The link between interest rates on interbank money and for credit lines: are asymmetric interest rate adjustments empirically evident?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates the behaviour of banks with regard to the pricing of commercial short term loans over the period from 1975 until 1997. Due to the inclusion of interest rate quotes by banks located in east Germany in 1991 we distinguished between the subperiods from 1975 – 1989 and 1991 – 1997. In the context of the price setting

Petra Korndörfer

1997-01-01

383

Long-term creep of copper at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Presents preliminary data on the long-term creep behavior of oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper at 77K through a facility especially designed for long-term stability at cryogenic temperatures of both temperature and strain measurement. Uses a constant load lever arm creep machine, a vacuum thermally isolated cryostat that is cooled by a low rate of cryogen flow, and a tensile testing insert to transmit the load onto the specimen. Concludes that long-term creep testing (about 100 hrs) is necessary to study creep behavior of materials at very low temperatures.

Yen, C.T.; Roth, L.D.; Tien, J.K.; Wells, J.M.

1982-10-01

384

Interest Rates and the Exchange Rate: A Non-Monotonic Tale  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the relationship between interest rates and the exchange rate? The empirical literature in this area has been inconclusive. We use an optimizing model of a small open economy to rationalize the mixed empirical findings. The model has three key margins. First, higher domestic interest rates raise the demand for deposits, and, hence, the money base. Second, firms need

Viktoria Hnatkovska; Amartya Lahiri; Carlos A. Vegh

2008-01-01

385

The instability of fixed exchange rate systems when raising the nominal interest rate is costly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper points to a vicious circle which may arise when a government tries to defend its currency by raising the nominal interest rate in a fixed exchange rate system. We present a stylised model in which raising the nominal interest rate helps to maintain the parity, but is costly for the government. The speculators are aware that this cost

Bernard Bensaid

1997-01-01

386

Long-term corrosion studies  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application.

Gdowski, G.

1998-05-29

387

Future value with type-1 fuzzy interest rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose the more sophisticated way in formulating interest rate by using type-1 fuzzy sets. This approach is essential in deriving the future value of an investment. The confidence level is represented as the value of ? - cut where we can obtain a fuzzy interval that will finally become crisp value using defuzzification method of center of area. We illustrate our approach in calculating future value of an investment with a simple case of saving money in a bank.

Darus, Mukminah; Wahab, Abdul Fatah

2013-04-01

388

Trustworthiness and interest rates: an empirical study of Italian SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trust is expected to reduce transaction costs and agency costs and thus influence the cost of credit for small businesses.\\u000a Assessments of trustworthiness are based on the ability, benevolence and integrity of the owner manager. The study examines\\u000a whether lending managers’ assessments of the trustworthiness of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) owner managers are\\u000a associated with the interest rate charged.

Carole Howorth; Andrea Moro

2012-01-01

389

The application of stepwise regression method in discussing the relation between interest rate and inflation rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper study the relation between Interest rate and Inflation rate, we use the Stepwise Regression Method to build the math model about the relation between Interest rate and Inflation rate. And the model has passed the significance test, and we use the model to discuss the influence on social economy through adjust Deposit rate, so we can provide a lot of theory proof for government to draw policy.

Xu, Xiaohong; Chen, Yu; Jia, Haiwei

2009-07-01

390

Commercial bank net interest margins, default risk, interest-rate risk, and off-balance sheet banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests the hypothesis that banks with more risky loans and higher interest-rate risk exposure would select loan and deposit rates to achieve higher net interest margins. Call Report data for different size classes of banks for 1989–1993 show that the net interest margins of commercial banks reflect both default and interest-rate risk premia. The net interest margins of

Lazarus Angbazo

1997-01-01

391

Equivalence of interest rate models and lattice gases.  

PubMed

We consider the class of short rate interest rate models for which the short rate is proportional to the exponential of a Gaussian Markov process x(t) in the terminal measure r(t)=a(t)exp[x(t)]. These models include the Black-Derman-Toy and Black-Karasinski models in the terminal measure. We show that such interest rate models are equivalent to lattice gases with attractive two-body interaction, V(t(1),t(2))=-Cov[x(t(1)),x(t(2))]. We consider in some detail the Black-Karasinski model with x(t) as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and show that it is similar to a lattice gas model considered by Kac and Helfand, with attractive long-range two-body interactions, V(x,y)=-?(e(-?|x-y|)-e(-?(x+y))). An explicit solution for the model is given as a sum over the states of the lattice gas, which is used to show that the model has a phase transition similar to that found previously in the Black-Derman-Toy model in the terminal measure. PMID:22680547

Pirjol, Dan

2012-04-25

392

Equivalence of interest rate models and lattice gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the class of short rate interest rate models for which the short rate is proportional to the exponential of a Gaussian Markov process x(t) in the terminal measure r(t)=a(t)exp[x(t)]. These models include the Black-Derman-Toy and Black-Karasinski models in the terminal measure. We show that such interest rate models are equivalent to lattice gases with attractive two-body interaction, V(t1,t2)=-Cov[x(t1),x(t2)]. We consider in some detail the Black-Karasinski model with x(t) as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and show that it is similar to a lattice gas model considered by Kac and Helfand, with attractive long-range two-body interactions, V(x,y)=-?(e-?|x-y|-e-?(x+y)). An explicit solution for the model is given as a sum over the states of the lattice gas, which is used to show that the model has a phase transition similar to that found previously in the Black-Derman-Toy model in the terminal measure.

Pirjol, Dan

2012-04-01

393

Long-term creep of copper at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents preliminary data on the long-term creep behavior of oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper at 77K through a facility especially designed for long-term stability at cryogenic temperatures of both temperature and strain measurement. Uses a constant load lever arm creep machine, a vacuum thermally isolated cryostat that is cooled by a low rate of cryogen flow, and a tensile testing insert

C. T. Yen; L. D. Roth; J. K. Tien; J. M. Wells

1982-01-01

394

Long-term effects of sludge application to land  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term environmental effects of applying alum sludge to land. Investigations at the original field site included soil analysis, soil water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and analysis of tissues from pine needles. No long-term (30 months) effects were observed, and the authors conclude that alum coagulant sludges can be applied to forest lands at loading rates of at least 1.5 to 2.5% by dry weight without adverse effect.

Geertsema, W.S. (Metcalf and Eddy Pacific Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)); Knocke, W.R.; Novak, J.T.; Dove, D. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

1994-11-01

395

Plasma Protein Characteristics of Long-Term Hemodialysis Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemodialysis (HD) patients are under recurrent circulatory stress, and hemodialysis has a high mortality rate. The characteristics of plasma proteomes in patients surviving long-term HD remain obscure, as well as the potential biomarkers in predicting prognoses. This study reports the proteome analyses of patient plasma from non-diabetic long-term HD (LHD, dialysis vintage 14.9±4.1 years, n = 6) and the age\\/sex\\/uremic

Yao-Ping Lin; Chih-Yu Yang; Chen-Chung Liao; Wen-Chung Yu; Chin-Wen Chi; Chao-Hsiung Lin

2012-01-01

396

Long term stability of Earth Trojans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the long-term stability of Earth Trojans by using a chaos indicator, the Frequency Map Analysis. We find that there is an extended stability region at low eccentricity and for inclinations lower than about even if the most stable orbits are found at . This region is not limited in libration amplitude, contrary to what found for Trojan orbits around outer planets. We also investigate how the stability properties are affected by the tidal force of the Earth-Moon system and by the Yarkovsky force. The tidal field of the Earth-Moon system reduces the stability of the Earth Trojans at high inclinations while the Yarkovsky force, at least for bodies larger than 10 m in diameter, does not seem to strongly influence the long-term stability. Earth Trojan orbits with the lowest diffusion rate survive on timescales of the order of years but their evolution is chaotic. Their behaviour is similar to that of Mars Trojans even if Earth Trojans appear to have shorter lifetimes.

Marzari, F.; Scholl, H.

2013-09-01

397

Comparing equilibrium real interest rates: different approaches to measure Brazilian rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the difficulties involved in the precise determination of equilibrium real interest rates, it seems clear that nominal interest rates has been higher in Brazil than in similar emerging economies. This paper aims to shed light on the possible reasons for this feature of the Brazilian economy. We extend Miranda and Muinhos (2003) one-country study to a sample of 20

Marcelo Kfoury Muinhos; Márcio I. Nakane

2006-01-01

398

Multistage Optimization for Long-term Investors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-stage simulation and optimization models are effective for solving long-term financial planning problems. Prominent examples include: asset-liability management for pension plans, integrated risk management for insurance companies, and long-term planning for individuals. Several applications will be briefly mentioned. A multi-stage framework provides advantages over single-period myopic approaches. First, the investor gains an understanding of the risks that a long-term goal

John M. Mulvey

399

LONG-TERM PLASTIC PIPE STIFFNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parallel-plate loading mechanism (ASTM D2412 standard test method) was used for investigating the long-term pipe stiffness values of HDPE, PVC and ABS pipes. Both conventional and accelerated test procedures were used. The nominal inside diameters of the test pipes were 300 and 400mm. S-type long-term deflection curves were observed for the test plastic pipes on a semi-log scale. Long-term

Chiwan Wayne Hsieh; Chien-Chih Huang; Jau-Bih Wang

400

Long-term correlations in earth sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we review the occurrence and consequences of long-term memory in geophysical records like climate and seismic records, and describe similarities with financial data sets. We review several methods to detect linear and nonlinear long-term correlations, also in the presence of external trends, and show how external trends can be detected in data with long-term memory. We show as well that long-term correlations lead to a natural clustering of extreme events and discuss the implications for several geophysical data sets.

Bunde, Armin; Lennartz, Sabine

2012-06-01

401

Economic Incentives, Business Cycles, and Long-Term Sickness Absence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate long-term absenteeism in Norway, on the basis of register data covering 8 years and more than two million absence spells. Key findings are that: (1) a tighter labor market yields lower work resumption rates for persons who are absent, and higher relapse rates for persons who have already resumed work; and (2) the work resumption rates increase when

MORTEN NORDBERG; KNUT RØED

2009-01-01

402

The effect of changes in official UK rates on market interest rates since 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that a central bank, such as the Bank of England, has the ability to control very short-term interest rates. Moreover, a number of studies have documented the very close relationship between Bank-administered rates (notably the Band 1 stop rate) and their market analogues. This paper investigates the extent to which the Bank is able to influence

Spencer Dale

1993-01-01

403

Banks' interest rate risk: the net interest income perspective versus the market value perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use portfolios of passive investment strategies to replicate the interest risk of banks' banking books. The following empirical statements are derived. (i) Changes in banks' market value and in their net interest income are highly correlated, irrespective of the banks' portfolio composition. (ii) However, banks' portfolio composition has a huge impact on the ratio of changes in net interest

Christoph Memmel

2011-01-01

404

Long term investigations of silver cathodes for alkaline fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline fuel cells (AFC) are an interesting alternative to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). In AFC no expensive platinum metal is necessary; silver can be used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) (cathode catalyst). For technical use of AFC the long term behavior of AFC components is important, especially that of the electrodes. The investigated cathodes for AFC consist of

N Wagner; M Schulze; E Gülzow

2004-01-01

405

Designing robots for long-term social interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valerie the roboceptionist is the most recent addition to Carnegie Mellon's social robots project. A permanent installation in the entranceway to Newell-Simon hall, the robot combines useful functionality - giving directions, looking up weather forecasts, etc. - with an interesting and compelling character. We are using Valerie to investigate human-robot social interaction, especially long-term human-robot \\

Rachel Gockley; Allison Bruce; Jodi Forlizzi; Marek Michalowski; Anne Mundell; Stephanie Rosenthal; Brennan Sellner; Reid Simmons; Kevin Snipes; Alan C. Schultz

2005-01-01

406

Financing long-term care in Canada.  

PubMed

Financial policies relating to long-term care in Canada are changing rapidly in response to demands for health care reform. This chapter focuses on the financial structure of institutional care, primarily nursing homes, in the western provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. Community-based long-term care is discussed briefly. PMID:10169492

Jacobs, P; Mills, C; Hollander, M

1997-06-01

407

Long-Term Results After Pancreas Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advances in technique and immunosupression, not only the short- but the long-term outcomes of pancreas transplantation have improved significantly. This retrospective study describes the long-term outcomes of simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplants, pancreas after kidney (PAK), and pancreas transplants alone (PTA). An overall analysis was performed for all deceased donor (DD) primary pancreas transplants performed in the

D. E. R. Sutherland; A. C. Gruessner

2007-01-01

408

Paying for Long-term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Policy Brief aims to present information on the current picture of (public and private) expenditure on long-term care (LTC) for older people and discuss the challenges of financing care. It also reviews the rationale for public funding of long-term care needs, since the funding is currently relatively low in most European countries when compared to other social protection areas.

Ricardo Rodrigues; Andrea Schmidt

2010-01-01

409

Veterans Affairs Benefits (Long-Term Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... to obtain information about services available in your area. LTC PathFinder Long-term care is a big topic. Use the PathFinder to get to the information most relevant and useful to you now. Please fill out all questions How old are you? Less than 50 51-64 65+ Do you currently require long-term ...

410

Real World Pricing of Long Term Contracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long dated contingent claims are relevant in insurance, pension fund management and derivative pricing. This paper proposes a paradigm shift in the valuation of long term contracts, away from classical no-arbitrage pricing towards pricing under the real world probability measure. In contrast to risk neutral pricing, the long term excess return of the equity market, known as the equity premium,

Eckhard Platen

2009-01-01

411

Virtual Models of Long-Term Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

2012-01-01

412

LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor.

Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

2003-01-01

413

The interest rate transmission mechanism and the management of interest margin in the context of Czech national bank disinflation policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes the relationship between interest rate transmission mechanism and bank's management of interest rate risk during the disinflation monetary policy in the Czech Republic in 1999-2006. In theoretical part, main determinants of short-run and long-run equilibrium of client interest rates are discussed (market power, duration of credits and deposits, pricing mechanism, credit risk, operation efficiency). Using the error

Karel Br?na

2007-01-01

414

Role of Isotope Selection in Long-term Outcomes in Patients With Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer Treated With a Combination of External Beam Radiotherapy and Low-dose-rate Interstitial Brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the rates of long-term biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) with respect to isotope in intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy. METHODS A total of 242 consecutive patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with iodine-125 (125I) or palladium-103 (103Pd) implants after EBRT (range 45.0–50.4 Gy) from 1996 to 2002. Of the 242 patients, 119 (49.2%) were treated with 125I and 123 (50.8%) with 103Pd. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to analyze BRFS, defined according to the Phoenix definition (prostate-specific antigen nadir plus 2 ng/mL) with respect to Gleason score, stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, and source selection. Late genitourinary/gastrointestinal toxicities were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scale. RESULTS At a median follow-up of 10 years, the BRFS rate was 77.3%. A statistically significant difference was found in the 10-year BRFS rate between the 125I- and 103Pd-treated groups (82.7% and 70.6%, respectively; P = .001). The addition of hormonal therapy did not improve the 10-year BRFS rate (77.6%) compared with RT alone (77.1%; P = .22). However, a statistically significant difference in the BRFS rate was found with the addition of hormonal therapy to 103Pd, improving the 10-year BRFS rate for (73.8%) compared with 103Pd alone (69.1%; P = .008). On multivariate analysis, isotope type (103Pd vs 125I), pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level > 10 ng/mL, and greater tumor stage increased the risk of recurrence by 2.6-fold (P = .007), 5.9-fold (P < .0001), and 1.7-fold (P = .14), respectively. CONCLUSION 125I renders a superior rate of BRFS compared with 103Pd when used with EBRT. Hormonal therapy does not provide additional benefit in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with a combination of EBRT and brachytherapy, except for the addition of hormonal therapy to 103Pd.

Wernicke, A. Gabriella; Shamis, Michael; Yan, Weisi; Trichter, Samuel; Sabbas, Albert M.; Goltser, Yevgenia; Christos, Paul J.; Brennan, Jennifer S.; Parashar, Bhupesh; Nori, Dattatreyudu

2013-01-01

415

12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by banks-general. 615... § 615.5180 Interest rate risk management by banksâgeneral. ...agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk...

2010-01-01

416

7 CFR 1610.10 - Determination of interest rate on Bank loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. 1610.10 Section...10 Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. (a) All loan...other obligations, the Bank shall reduce the interest rate charged on each...

2010-01-01

417

7 CFR 1610.10 - Determination of interest rate on Bank loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. 1610.10 Section...10 Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. (a) All loan...other obligations, the Bank shall reduce the interest rate charged on each...

2009-01-01

418

12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by banks-general. 615... § 615.5180 Interest rate risk management by banksâgeneral. ...agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk...

2009-01-01

419

7 CFR 1610.10 - Determination of interest rate on Bank loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. 1610.10 Section...10 Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. (a) All loan...other obligations, the Bank shall reduce the interest rate charged on each...

2013-01-01

420

12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program...Management § 615.5181 Bank interest rate risk management program...agricultural credit bank is responsible for...effective oversight to the interest rate risk management...

2010-01-01

421

12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program...Management § 615.5181 Bank interest rate risk management program...agricultural credit bank is responsible for...effective oversight to the interest rate risk management...

2009-01-01

422

12 CFR 652.15 - Interest rate risk management and requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Interest rate risk management and requirements. 652.15... § 652.15 Interest rate risk management and requirements. (a...supervision) to the interest rate risk management program and must be...

2009-01-01

423

12 CFR 652.15 - Interest rate risk management and requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Interest rate risk management and requirements. 652.15... § 652.15 Interest rate risk management and requirements. (a...supervision) to the interest rate risk management program and must be...

2010-01-01

424

76 FR 33028 - Agency Information Collection (Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection (Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans...INFORMATION: Title: Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans...loan with a new loan at a lower interest rate provided that the veteran...

2011-06-07

425

7 CFR 1951.241 - Special provision for interest rate change.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... true Special provision for interest rate change. 1951.241 Section...241 Special provision for interest rate change. (a) General. ...request of the borrower, the interest rate charged by FmHA or its...

2010-01-01

426

76 FR 15055 - Proposed Information Collection (Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection (Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans...VA-guaranteed loan with a lower interest rate. DATES: Written comments and...technology. Title: Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing...

2011-03-18

427

7 CFR 1951.241 - Special provision for interest rate change.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Special provision for interest rate change. 1951.241 Section...241 Special provision for interest rate change. (a) General. ...request of the borrower, the interest rate charged by FmHA or its...

2009-01-01

428

77 FR 38397 - Agency Information Collection (Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet) Activities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Information Collection (Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet...to request a guaranty on all interest rate reduction refinancing loan...

2012-06-27

429

13 CFR 120.214 - What conditions apply for variable interest rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What conditions apply for variable interest rates? 120.214 Section 120...to 7(a) Loans Maturities; Interest Rates; Loan and Guarantee Amounts...What conditions apply for variable interest rates? A Lender may use a...

2010-01-01

430

13 CFR 120.214 - What conditions apply for variable interest rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What conditions apply for variable interest rates? 120.214 Section 120...to 7(a) Loans Maturities; Interest Rates; Loan and Guarantee Amounts...What conditions apply for variable interest rates? A Lender may use a...

2009-01-01

431

Managing Mortgage Interest Rate Risks Through Forward, Futures, and Option Market Hedging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses types of interest rate risk, intermediation and interest rate risks, traditional interest rate risk management by housing finance intermediaries, organized cash forward contracting, an organized offset options market, and origins of t...

G. W. Clark

1982-01-01

432

Criteria and Standards for Long-Term Care Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three criteria and nine standards are presented for long-term care services. The first criterion and three standards discuss travel times and occupancy rates for intermediate care and skilled care facilities. Occupancy rates vary from 90 percent to 95 per...

1982-01-01

433

The role of emotions for musical long-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated whether music rated as emotional is kept in episodic long-term memory better than music rated as less emotional. Furthermore, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory of music. Twenty non musicians participated in this study. Short excerpts of film music were used as the stimuli. In the first session, all subjects listened to

Susann Eschrich; Thomas F. Münte; Eckart Altenmüller

2006-01-01

434

24 CFR 203.405 - Debenture interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract...interest from the date of issue, payable semiannually...originated under the single family Direct Endorsement program...interest from the date of issue, payable...

2013-04-01

435

The expectation hypothesis of interest rates and network theory: The case of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the topological properties of the Brazilian term structure of interest rates network. We build the minimum spanning tree (MST), which is based on the concept of ultrametricity, using the correlation matrix for interest rates of different maturities. We show that the short-term interest rate is the most important within the interest rates network, which is in line with the Expectation Hypothesis of interest rates. Furthermore, we find that the Brazilian interest rates network forms clusters by maturity.

Tabak, Benjamin M.; Serra, Thiago R.; Cajueiro, Daniel O.

2009-04-01

436

31 CFR 535.440 - Commercially reasonable interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...upon between the bank and Iran, or...damages in lieu of interest, is due Iran...part of, the interest at âcommercially reasonable ratesâ required to...settlement between the bank and Iran or any...The contingent interest of Iran in...

2013-07-01

437

Analysis of Solar Irradiation Anomalies in Long Term Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of global hemispheric irradiation measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of solar irradiation in India using anomalies techniques and trends in ten places over India. Most of the places have exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, M.; Polo, J.; Martin, L.; Navarro, A.; Serra, I.

2012-04-01

438

Commodity Prices, Interest Rate Spreads and the Exchange Rate: Useful Monetary Policy Indicators or Redundant Information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ actual data from both private and public sector forecasters to conduct a simple, yet stringent test of the potential usefulness of indicator variables for the conduct of monetary policy. That is, we examine whether commodity prices, interest rate spreads and exchange rates can explain incipient errors in the economic forecasts developed by the Fed's staff and the ASA-NBER

Susanne M. Polley; Raymond E. Lombra

1999-01-01

439

Money, Interest Rates, and Exchange Rates with Endogenously Segmented Asset Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We analyze the effects of money injections on interest rates and exchange rates when agents must pay a Baumol-Tobin style fixed cost to exchange bonds and money. Asset markets are endogenously segmented because this fixed cost leads agents to trade bonds ...

F. Alvarez A. Atkeson P. J. Kehoe

2001-01-01

440

Money, Interest Rates, and Exchange Rates With Endogenously Segmented Asset Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the effects of money injections on interest rates and exchange rates when agents must pay a Baumol-Tobin-style fixed cost to exchange bonds and money. Asset markets are endogenously seg- mented because this fixed cost leads agents to trade bonds and money infrequently. When the government injects money through an open market operation, only those agents that are currently

Fernando Alvarez; Andrew Atkeson; Patrick J. Kehoe

1999-01-01

441

Money, Interest Rates, and Exchange Rates with Endogenously Segmented Asset Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the effects of money injections on interest rates and exchange rates in a model in which agents must pay a Baumol-Tobin style fixed cost to exchange bonds and money. Asset markets are endogenously segmented because this fixed cost leads agents to trade bonds and money only infrequently. When the government injects money through an open market operation,

Fernando Alvarez; Andrew Atkeson; Patrick J. Kehoe

2000-01-01

442

Persistence and the Role of Exchange Rate and Interest Rate Inertia in Monetary Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a general equilibrium model, this paper investigates the importance of the exchange rate and the interpretation of the observed inertia in the policy interest rate. We derive an optimizing macroeconomic model that features habit formation in the consumer's utility function and uses a hybrid New Keynesian Phillips curve with inflation inertia. As a consequence, aggregate demand and supply shocks

2004-01-01

443

SLEEP DISTURBANCES IN LONG-TERM CARE  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Nighttime sleep disruption is characteristic of long-term care residents, is typically accompanied by daytime sleepiness and may be caused by a multitude of factors. Causal factors include medical and psychiatric illness, medications, circadian rhythm abnormalities, sleep disordered breathing and other primary sleep disorders, environmental factors and lifestyle habits. There is some suggestion that these factors are amenable to treatment; however, further research on the implementation of treatments within the long-term care setting is needed. Additional work is also needed to understand the administrative and policy factors that might lead to systemic changes in how sleep is viewed and sleep problems are addressed in long-term care settings. A growing number of older adults reside in long-term care facilities. In this setting, residents commonly suffer from nighttime sleep disruption, which is often accompanied by daytime sleepiness and may be caused by a multitude of factors. Importantly, sleep disturbance is associated with negative health outcomes, including risk for falling, and elevated mortality risk among long-term care residents. A number of factors contribute to sleep disturbance in the long-term care setting including medical and psychiatric illness, medications, circadian rhythm abnormalities, sleep disordered breathing and other primary sleep disorders, environmental conditions (e.g., noise and light) and lifestyle habits. Based on research with older adults in the community and work conducted within long-term care settings, there is some suggestion that these factors are amenable to nonpharmacological treatments. Further research on the broad implementation of treatments for sleep problems within the long-term care setting is still needed. Additional work is also needed to understand the administrative and policy factors that might lead to systemic changes in how sleep is viewed and sleep problems are addressed in long-term care settings.

Martin, Jennifer L.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

2008-01-01

444

Bounded rational expectations and the stability of interest rate policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Keynesian model has recently been subject to two serious criticisms: the model cannot produce plausible inflation and output dynamics following a monetary shock, and the stability of its dynamics suffers from indeterminacy. The procedures that have been proposed to eliminate these two shortcomings fall into two categories: the introduction of some sort of backward price indexation into the standard model and/or other forms of stickiness (like sticky information); and the adoption of some form of policy rule that completely offsets the effects of forward looking dynamics in the optimization process. In this paper we do not eradicate forward looking behavior from the dynamics of the New Keynesian model, neither do we impose some form of backward price indexation. We assume that private economic agents have forward looking behavior and that they do try to optimize with all available information; the only novelty is that they are allowed to make small mistakes near the rational expectations equilibrium, in a fully deterministic setup. These “near rational” or “bounded rational” expectations show that the dynamics of the model with active interest rate rules is much richer than the simple problem of local indeterminacy as is usually found in the literature.

Gomes, Orlando; Mendes, Diana A.; Mendes, Vivaldo M.

2008-06-01

445

Investment sensitivity to interest rates in an uncertain context: is a positive relationship possible?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows a non-linear relationship between investment and interest rates under uncertainty. Since the interest rate’s\\u000a variance is positively related to the investment’s value (through the discount factor) and, generally, is also positively\\u000a related to the interest rate’s level, then, at the same time, a negative (classical) and a positive (through the interest\\u000a rate’s variance) relationship links interest rates

Andrea Beccarini

2007-01-01

446

The pass-through from market interest rates to bank lending rates in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terms and conditions on which bank loans are made to non-financial firms and households play a key role in the transmission of monetary policy. This paper analyses the relationship between German bank lending rates and both money market and capital market rates in the 1990s. This study reveals evidence of structural differences in the interest rate pass-through across German

Mark Andreas Weth

2002-01-01

447

The reaction of exchange rates and interest rates to news releases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the response of exchange rates and interest rates--U.S. and foreign--to economic news. The news is associated with the surprise component of the monthly release of six U.S. macroeconomic variables. The results suggest that dollar exchange rates systematically react to news about real economic activity--a surprise of 100,000 on nonfarm payroll employment leads to a 0.2 percent appreciation

Hali J. Edison

1996-01-01

448

The Reaction of Exchange Rates and Interest Rates to News Releases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the response of exchange rates and interest rates--US and foreign--to economic news. The news is associated with the surprise component of the monthly release of six US macroeconomic variables. The results suggest that dollar exchange rates systematically react to news about real economic activity--a surprise of 100,000 on non-farm payroll employment leads to a 0.2% appreciation of

Hali J. Edison

1997-01-01

449

The Potential Approach to the Term Structure of Interest Rates and Foreign Exchange Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible to specify a model for interest rates in various ways, by giving the dynamics of the spot rate or of the forward rates, for example. A less well-developed approach is to specify the law of the state-price density process directly. In abstract, the state-price density process is a positive supermartingale, and the theory of Markov processes provides

L. C. G. Rogers

1997-01-01

450

Long Term Dissolution Testing of Mine Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reports the results of long term laboratory studies to examine the dissolution of abandoned mine wastes and the consequent drainage quality. The objectives of the study were to provide a description of longer term dissolution of mine wastes,...

K. Lapakko J. Wessels D. Antonson

1995-01-01

451

The Long Term Care Questionnaire and Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to describe an experimental data gathering activity designed to provide information on the utilization of long-term care facilities in western South Dakota. The report describes Western Health Systems, the organization doing ...

D. O. Mueller

1974-01-01

452

Long-Term Corrosion Testing Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and var...

F. D. Wall N. R. Brown

2009-01-01

453

Modeling long-term collider performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model for the SSC arcs is described with multipole lattice field errors agglomerated into 32 lattice points, and with first order lattice errors and modulation provided by discrete transfer elements. Numerical solutions for long term dynamic aperture st...

D. Ritson

1991-01-01

454

Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

455

Effects of interest rate, exchange rate and their volatilities on stock prices: evidence from banking industry of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effects of exchange rate, interest rates, and their volatilities on stock prices of banking industry of Pakistan. Cointegration results suggests the existance of significant negative long run relationship between exchange rate and short term interest rate with stock prices. On the other hand, positive and significant relationship exists between volatilities of exchange rate and interest rate

Syed Tehseen JAWAID; Anwar Ul HAQ

2012-01-01

456

The Significance of Introducing Permanent Assignments for Nursing Assistants at a Long-Term Care Setting on the Incidence Rate of Facility-Acquired Pressure Ulcers Among Elderly Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure ulcer prevalence remains a major health concern in long-term care facilities. The treatment of these pressure ulcers causes a financial drain on health care resources and adds potential costs for the family of the institutionalized elderly, according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The prevention of pressure ulcer development continues to be an essential objective of caregivers

Erlynda Mangaco-Borja

2011-01-01

457

Hospital Performance Reports: Impact On Quality, Market Share, And Reputation Evidence from a controlled experiment shows the long-term effects of reporting hospitals' performance ratings to the public  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study builds on earlier work by assessing the long-term impact of a public hospital performance report on both consumers and hospitals. In doing so, we shed light on the relative importance of alternative assumptions about what stimulates quality im- provements. The findings indicate that making performance data public results in improve- ments in the clinical area reported upon. An

Judith H. Hibbard; Jean Stockard; Martin Tusler

458

External-Beam Radiation Therapy and High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy in High and Very High Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Data on Clinical Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 200 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (32.5%) or very high-risk prostate cancer (67.5%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen of 15.2 ng/mL, a clinical stage of T2c, and a Gleason score of 7. Treatment consisted of 54 Gy of external irradiation (three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [3DCRT]) followed by 19 Gy of HDR brachytherapy in four twice-daily treatments. ADT started 0-3 months before 3DCRT and continued for 2 years. Results: One hundred and ninety patients (95%) received 2 years of ADT. After a median follow-up of 3.7 years (range, 2-9), late Grade {>=}2 urinary toxicity was observed in 18% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 was observed in 5%. Prior transurethral resection of the prostate (p = 0.013) and bladder D{sub 50} {>=}1.19 Gy (p = 0.014) were associated with increased Grade {>=}2 urinary complications; age {>=}70 (p = 0.05) was associated with Grade {>=}3 urinary complications. Late Grade {>=}2 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 9% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 in 1.5%. CTV size {>=}35.8 cc (p = 0.007) and D{sub 100} {>=}3.05 Gy (p = 0.01) were significant for increased Grade {>=}2 complications. The 5-year and 9-year biochemical relapse-free survival (nadir + 2) rates were 85.1% and 75.7%, respectively. Patients with Gleason score of 7-10 had a decreased biochemical relapse-free survival (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Intermediate-term results at the 5-year time point indicate a favorable outcome without an increase in the rate of late complications.

Martinez-Monge, Rafael, E-mail: rmartinezm@unav.es [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Cambeiro, Mauricio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio [Department of Medical Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Gaztanaga, Miren; Arbea, Leire [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Pascual, Ignacio [Department of Urology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Aristu, Javier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain)

2012-03-01

459

Long-term results of endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to review the long-term results of endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) according to\\u000a our experience as well as to evaluate potential prognostic factors for long-term outcomes. The files of 165 patients who underwent\\u000a endonasal DCR at a tertiary referral centre between 1991 and 2001 were retrospectively assessed. Furthermore, these cases\\u000a were clinically evaluated at least

Johannes Zenk; Alexander D. Karatzanis; George Psychogios; Katrin Franzke; Michael Koch; Joachim Hornung; George A. Velegrakis; Heinrich Iro

2009-01-01

460

Long-term preservation of anammox bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques.\\u000a The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox\\u000a biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass was frozen or lyophilized at two different freezing temperatures (?60°C and in liquid\\u000a nitrogen (?200°C)) in skim milk media

Michael J. Rothrock Jr; Matias B. Vanotti; Ariel A. Szögi; Maria Cruz Garcia Gonzalez; Takao Fujii

461

Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: long-term outcomes.  

PubMed

Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia faced in clinical practice with a substantial impact on morbidity, mortality, and heathcare expenditures. Patients with atrial fibrillation in which a rhythm control strategy is desired to improve quality of life have had limited options. The discovery of the role of pulmonary vein triggers has led to the development of catheter ablation techniques that have shown promising short-term success rates. Long-term outcomes were until recently, lacking. These results confirm the inherently recurrent nature of atrial fibrillation and the need for multiple procedures to achieve reasonable long-term successful maintenance of sinus rhythm. PMID:21615318

Cooper, Daniel H; Faddis, Mitchell N

2011-05-01

462

Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment  

SciTech Connect

The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa.

Genesca, A.; Caballin, M.R.; Miro, R.; Benet, J.; Bonfill, X.; Egozcue, J. (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain))

1990-06-01

463

An Empirical Analysis of Short Term Interest Rate Models for Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest rate is one of the most observed and forecasted variables in financial markets. Interest rates and the volatility of interest rates play a crucial role in pricing financial instruments. In this empirical study, we try to investigate which short term interest rate model is appro