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1

DID U.S. MONETARY POLICY RESPOND TO EXCHANGE RATES, LONG-TERM INTEREST RATES, AND THE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE GAP?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extending the original Taylor rule and applying the VAR model, the author finds that the federal funds rate (FFR) responds positively to a shock to the output gap, the inflation gap, the long-term interest rate, or the lagged FFR, and it reacts negatively to a shock to the unemployment rate gap or the exchange rate. The response of FFR to

Yu Hsing

2005-01-01

2

Federal budget deficits and long-term interest rates in USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate whether the emergence of high inflation rates after 1965 and large budget deficits after 1980s caused the financial market agents to become more sensitive to the outlooks for inflation and budget deficits. Our approach is parametric and our models fully account for possible presence of ARCH effects in the data.Our results show a statistically significant positive link between

Khurshid M. Kiani

2009-01-01

3

Government budget deficits, nominal and ex ante real long-term interest rates in the U.K., 1960:1–1990:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact of government budget deficits on the U.K. nominal and ex ante real long-term interest rates over the period from 1960:1 to 1990:2 utilizing an open and closed economy IS-LM model. An open economy IS-LM model indicates that nominal and ex ante real long-term interest rates are affected by the expected rate of inflation, the real

Amer K. Al-Saji

1993-01-01

4

An empirical analysis of the impact of federal budget deficits on long-term nominal interest rate yields, 1973.2–1995.4, using alternative expected inflation measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using two alternative measures of expected inflation, this study investigates the impact of federal budget deficits on nominal long-term interest rate yields for the 1973.2–1995.4 period. Based on an open-economy loanable funds framework, four instrumental variable estimates in first differences are provided. In all cases, the budget deficit is found to elevate the nominal long-term interest rate.

Richard J. Cebula

1998-01-01

5

The rising long-term trend in occupational injury rates.  

PubMed Central

Establishment survey data for the United States as a whole and workers' compensation data for the State of California were used to document long-term trends in occupational injury and acute illness rates. After declining throughout the first half of the century, national rates of disabling injuries in manufacturing, construction, and the trade sector have risen sharply in recent decades. Injury rates in mining show no strong trend either up or down since 1960. Increases over recent years have been especially pronounced for strains and sprains, cuts, lacerations and punctures, bone fractures, and acute illnesses. Injury rates in the manufacturing sector are strongly influenced by general economic conditions--rising sharply with business upsurges and declining during recessions. Increases in the rate of unemployment, which decrease worker and labor union bargaining power, are associated with increases in injury rates within manufacturing. PMID:3341497

Robinson, J C

1988-01-01

6

Rates of Long-Term Cochlear Implant Use in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the rate of long-term cochlear implant (CI) use in children Study Design: Consecutive case series Setting: Tertiary referral center Patients: 474 patients <18 years who received a first CI from 1999-2011 Interventions: Cochlear implantation Main Outcome Measure(s): Regular CI use, defined as using the CI for ? 8 hours per day Results: We successfully contacted and obtained follow-up data on 402 patients (85%) via email, telephone, and postal survey. The rate of regular CI use was 93.2% (95% CI, 90.0-95.4) at 5 years post-implantation and 87.7% (95% CI, 82.9-91.3) at 10 years post-implantation. The mean number of hours of use per day was 12.0 hours (SD, 4.1 hrs). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis demonstrated a linear association between the age at implantation and the risk of discontinuing regular CI use. Rates of CI discontinuation increased by 18.2% per year of age at implantation (95% CI, 7.2-30.4%). Reported reasons for CI use < 8 hours of per day include poor hearing benefit (53.2%), social pressure (21.3%), and recurrent displacement of the transmitter coil (17.0%). Conclusions: High rates of regular CI use are sustained after childhood implantation, and younger age at implantation is associated with a higher rate of continued device usage. PMID:24518403

Contrera, Kevin J.; Choi, Janet S.; Blake, Caitlin R.; Betz, Joshua F.; Niparko, John K.; Lin, Frank R.

2014-01-01

7

Long-Term Volumetric Eruption Rates and Magma Budgets  

SciTech Connect

A global compilation of 170 time-averaged volumetric volcanic output rates (Qe) is evaluated in terms of composition and petrotectonic setting to advance the understanding of long-term rates of magma generation and eruption on Earth. Repose periods between successive eruptions at a given site and intrusive:extrusive ratios were compiled for selected volcanic centers where long-term (>104 years) data were available. More silicic compositions, rhyolites and andesites, have a more limited range of eruption rates than basalts. Even when high Qe values contributed by flood basalts (9 ± 2 Å~ 10-1 km3/yr) are removed, there is a trend in decreasing average Qe with lava composition from basaltic eruptions (2.6 ± 1.0 Å~ 10-2 km3/yr) to andesites (2.3 ± 0.8 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr) and rhyolites (4.0 ± 1.4 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr). This trend is also seen in the difference between oceanic and continental settings, as eruptions on oceanic crust tend to be predominately basaltic. All of the volcanoes occurring in oceanic settings fail to have statistically different mean Qe and have an overall average of 2.8 ± 0.4 Å~ 10-2 km3/yr, excluding flood basalts. Likewise, all of the volcanoes on continental crust also fail to have statistically different mean Qe and have an overall average of 4.4 ± 0.8 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr. Flood basalts also form a distinctive class with an average Qe nearly two orders of magnitude higher than any other class. However, we have found no systematic evidence linking increased intrusive:extrusive ratios with lower volcanic rates. A simple heat balance analysis suggests that the preponderance of volcanic systems must be open magmatic systems with respect to heat and matter transport in order to maintain eruptible magma at shallow depth throughout the observed lifetime of the volcano. The empirical upper limit of Å`10-2 km3/yr for magma eruption rate in systems with relatively high intrusive:extrusive ratios may be a consequence of the fundamental parameters governing rates of melt generation (e.g., subsolidus isentropic decompression, hydration due to slab dehydration and heat transfer between underplated magma and the overlying crust) in the Earth

Scott M. White Dept. Geological Sciences University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208; Joy A. Crisp Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91109; Frank J. Spera Dept. Earth Science University of California, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA 93106

2005-01-01

8

Long-term alteration of basaltic glass: Mechanisms and rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term behavior study of archaeological artifacts and natural minerals and glasses revealed discrepancies between laboratory and field data. For a better understanding of the cause of these discrepancies and to reinforce the use of basaltic glass as an analog for nuclear waste glasses, this study focuses on the determination of alteration rates and processes of synthetic basaltic glass in residual rate regime. Laboratory batch experiments were performed at high surface-to-volume ratios at 90 and 30 °C for more than 1000 days. In all the experiments, the residual rate regime was reached after about 6 months. The residual alteration rates at 30 and 90 °C were 4.0 ± 1.0 × 10-6 and 9.5 ± 3.2 × 10-6 g·m-2·d-1, respectively. At 90 °C, this residual alteration rate is five orders of magnitude lower than the forward alteration rate (0.8 g·m-2·d-1). Altered powders and monoliths were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. From glass core to solution, the altered materials are structured as follows: pristine glass, gel (corresponding to the palagonitic layer of natural glasses) and intergranular clays. To assess the passivating properties of this alteration film, we used solid characterization, an isotopically-tagged post-leaching experiment and the measurement of mobile species diffusion coefficients through the alteration film at different stages of reaction using various techniques (solution analysis and X-ray Reflectometry). These characterizations showed that the alteration film formed during residual rate alteration is passivating even without clogged porosity within the gel. Diffusion coefficients of water and alkali metals - respectively diffusing to and from the pristine glass - through the alteration film dropped from 10-20 to 10-19 m2·s-1 during the first alteration stages to 10-25 m2·s-1 in residual rate regime.

Parruzot, Benjamin; Jollivet, Patrick; Rébiscoul, Diane; Gin, Stéphane

2015-04-01

9

Lunar gravity - A long-term Keplerian rate method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearside tracking data from Apollo subsatellites and Lunar Orbiter 5 are used to construct a model of the farside lunar gravity field. An indirect method of calculating the average effect of all the gravity anomalies which affect spacecraft orbits is reduced to a linear estimation problem by eliminating the integration of spacecraft dynamics. Doppler frequency shifts between the lunar satellite and earth-based tracking station are used to measure the line of sight velocity component between the orbiter and the tracker; gravity determination is then performed in a weighted least squares estimator which employs the orbital rates as data and formulates the normal equations using the associated Keplerian state. Simulations performed demonstrate that farside gravity features can be economically determined by use of gravity estimates obtained from long-period models of nearside orbiting tracks.

Ferrari, A. J.; Ananda, M. P.

1977-01-01

10

Long-Term Data Reveal Rate and Risk Factors for Subsequent Surgeries Following Initial ACL Reconstruction  

MedlinePLUS

... December 2013 Long-term Data Reveal Rate and Risk Factors for Subsequent Surgeries Following Initial ACL Reconstruction Nearly ... and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, also clarified key risk factors associated with the need for subsequent knee surgeries. ...

11

Decade fluctuations in the earth's rate of rotation and long-term librations in polar motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation into long series of astronomical lattude and time observations is presented in order to analyze their long-term variations. Decade fluctuations in the earth's rate of rotation and long-term librations in polar motion (secular drift and Markowitz wobble) are discussed. Available data show a good correlation between observed rotational acceleration of the earth and the motion of the mean pole over periods of about thirty years.

Poma, A.; Proverbio, E.; Uras, S.

1991-04-01

12

HRV measures for CHF detection Page nr. 1 of 8 Discrimination power of long-term heart rate variability  

E-print Network

HRV measures for CHF detection Page nr. 1 of 8 1 Discrimination power of long-term heart rate: Melillo P, Fusco R, Sansone M, Bracale M, Pecchia L (2011) Discrimination power of long-term heart rate-010-0728-5 Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the discrimination power of standard long-term Heart Rate

Oakley, Jeremy

13

Investigating possible gravity change rates expected from long-term deep crustal processes in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to test if gravimetry can prove useful in discriminating different models of long-term deep crustal processes in the case of the Taiwan mountain belt. We discuss two existing tectonic models that differ in the deep processes proposed to sustain the long-term growth of the orogen. One model assumes underplating of the uppermost Eurasian crust with subduction of the deeper part of the crust into the mantle. The other one suggests the accretion of the whole Eurasian crust above crustal-scale ramps, the lower crust being accreted into the collisional orogen. We compute the temporal gravity changes caused only by long-term rock mass transfers at depth for each of them. We show that the underplating model implies a rate of gravity change of -6 × 10-2 ?Gal yr-1, a value that increases to 2 × 10-2 ?Gal yr-1 if crustal subduction is neglected. If the accretion of the whole Eurasian crust occurs, a rate of 7 × 10-2 ?Gal yr-1 is obtained. The two models tested differ both in signal amplitude and spatial distribution. The yearly gravity changes expected by long-term deep crustal mass processes in Taiwan are two orders of magnitude below the present-day uncertainty of land-based gravity measurements. Assuming that these annually averaged long-term gravity changes will linearly accumulate with ongoing mountain building, multidecadal time-series are needed to identify comparable rates of gravity change. However, as gravity is sensitive to any mass redistribution, effects of short-term processes such as seismicity and surface mass transfers (erosion, sedimentation, ground-water) may prevent from detecting any long-term deep signal. This study indicates that temporal gravity is not appropriate for deciphering the long-term deep crustal processes involved in the Taiwan mountain belt.

Mouyen, M.; Simoes, M.; Mouthereau, F.; Masson, F.; Hwang, C.; Cheng, C.-C.

2014-07-01

14

Physical exercise rehabilitation: Long-term dropout rate in cardiac patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term dropout rate was examined in a physical exercise rehabilitation program in which 203 cardiac patients were followed for 40 months. The dropout curve was found to be downward-sloping and negatively accelerated with most of the dropouts occurring during the first 3 months. This dropout rate appeared to resemble the group relapse curve previously found in the treatment of

Timothy P. Carmody; John W. Senner; Manuel R. Malinow; Joseph D. Matarazzo

1980-01-01

15

Effects of Smoking Cessation on Heart Rate Variability Among Long-Term Male Smokers  

E-print Network

Effects of Smoking Cessation on Heart Rate Variability Among Long-Term Male Smokers Christopher B Cigarette smoking has been shown to adverse- ly affect heart rate variability (HRV), suggesting dysregula- tion of cardiac autonomic function. Conversely, smoking cessation is posited to improve cardiac

Meston, Cindy

16

Long term rain rate and Ka-band attenuation variability in Aveiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents and discusses a multiyear rain rate and concurrent attenuation propagation database at Ka- band in a Earth-Satellite link. Data is analysed in several temporal scales from hourly, monthly, seasonally to yearly periods concerning mainly variability issues. General local rain climate issues are highlighted. Long term seasonal attenuation distributions are also compared to the concurrent rain attenuation and

Armando Rocha; Claudia Camacho

2011-01-01

17

Short-term and Long-term Variations of Dose Rate measured by MSL/RAD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), onboard Mars Science Laboratory’s (MSL) rover Curiosity, measures the spectra of both energetic charged and neutral particles along with radiation dose rate at the surface of Mars. Several effects have been observed for the first time to influence the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR)-driven particle radiation on the surface: [a] short-term diurnal variations of the Martian atmospheric pressure caused by daily thermal tides [Rafkin 2014]; [b] long-term seasonal pressure changes in the Martian atmosphere; and [c] the modulation of the primary GCR fluxes by the heliospheric magnetic field, which correlates with long-term solar activities and heliospheric rotation. These concurrent factors affect the dose rate variations measured by RAD on the Martian surface. RAD also recorded the dose rate during the 253-day cruise phase of MSL from the Earth to Mars. The variations of the GCR-induced dose rates during quiet time period without the direct detection of Solar Particle Events (SPE) were solely driven by the changes of heliospheric conditions (i.e. [c]). The RAD cruise and surface dose measurements, along with the surface pressure data and the solar modulation factor, are analysed in order to understand how the long-term influences ([b] and [c]) individually correlate with the measured dose rates.

Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Rafkin, Scot; Boettcher, Stephan; Reitz, Guenther; Koehler, Jan; Ehresmann, Bent; Martin, Cesar; Burmeister, Soenke; Posner, Arik; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Hassler, Donald M.; Brinza, David; Boehm, Henning Eckart; Lohf, Henning; Appel, Jan

18

Long-Term Care Insurance: An Assessment of States' Capacity to Review and Regulate Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Issued by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Public Policy Institute, this report explores the inadequacies of the state government's review process of long-term care insurance premiums, and offers recommendations to remedy these problems. Authors Steven Lutzky, Lisa Maria B. Alecxih, and Ryan Foreman of the Lewin Group suggest that states require premium reviews by an actuary with training in long-term care insurance, review the process used to set the premiums, and offer consumers comparative rate guides as well as information regarding insurance companies' rate increase histories. The entire report can be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. This report is not easily readable online; therefore, printing the report is recommended.

Alecxih, Lisa Maria B.

2002-01-01

19

Discrimination power of long-term heart rate variability measures for chronic heart failure detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the discrimination power of standard long-term heart rate variability (HRV) measures\\u000a for the diagnosis of chronic heart failure (CHF). The authors performed a retrospective analysis on four public Holter databases,\\u000a analyzing the data of 72 normal subjects and 44 patients suffering from CHF. To assess the discrimination power of HRV measures,\\u000a an

Paolo Melillo; Roberta Fusco; Mario Sansone; Marcello Bracale; Leandro Pecchia

2011-01-01

20

Long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion from cosmogenic nuclides and geochemical mass balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion is important for understanding the long-term evolution of soils, landscapes, and Earth's climate. Here we describe how long-term chemical weathering rates can be measured for actively eroding landscapes using cosmogenic nuclides together with a geochemical mass balance of weathered soil and parent rock. We tested this approach in the Rio Icacos

Clifford S. Riebe; James W. Kirchner; Robert C. Finkel

2003-01-01

21

Erosional and climatic effects on long-term chemical weathering rates in granitic landscapes spanning diverse climate regimes  

E-print Network

important for quantitative study of soil development, watershed geochemistry and landscape evolution. Quantifying long-term rates of chemical weather- ing and physical erosion is also important for under- standinErosional and climatic effects on long-term chemical weathering rates in granitic landscapes

Kirchner, James W.

22

Determination of the long-term intergranular corrosion rate of stainless steel in concentrated nitric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stainless steels with low carbon content and free from any precipitation undergo intergranular attack in hot nitric acid. The corrosion rate measured by weight loss requires prolonged immersion testing to reach the apparent steady state corrosion, which coincides with the onset of grain dropping. A more appropriate method for predicting the long-term penetration rate is described in this study. A close observation and a statistical analysis of the attack grooves were firstly undertaken using immersion testing. The major findings are an outstanding morphology of the grooves with flat planes and preserved angle even after the onset of grain dropping, as well as a constant rate of the penetration into the surface. The formation of the grooves could then be represented by a geometrical model put forward by Beaunier and co-workers. Consequently, the method proposed for predicting the penetration rate consists in measuring the depth and the angle of the grooves obtained in short time immersion testing. Multiplying the penetration rate calculated from the previous data by the ratio between the penetration depth and the length of the grain boundary path does give an accurate long-term penetration rate. The method has been shown to apply successfully to AISI 304L stainless steel in several nitric solutions.

Bague, V.; Chachoua, S.; Tran, Q. T.; Fauvet, P.

2009-08-01

23

Short-term and long-term government debt and nonresident interest withholding taxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the incidence of nonresident interest withholding taxes in the international 3-month Treasury-bill market and the international 5-year government bond market. The approach is one of pooled cross-section, time-series regressions. The evidence suggests that the yields on national Treasury-bills and on 5-year government bonds fully reflect the nonresident interest withholding taxes imposed on American or Japanese investors. Nonresident

Sylvester C. W. Eijffinger; Harry P. Huizinga; Jan J. G. Lemmen

1998-01-01

24

Effects of long-term grazing on sediment deposition and salt-marsh accretion rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have attempted to predict whether coastal marshes will be able to keep up with future acceleration of sea-level rise by estimating marsh accretion rates. However, there are few studies focussing on the long-term effects of herbivores on vegetation structure and subsequent effects on marsh accretion. Deposition of fine-grained, mineral sediment during tidal inundations, together with organic matter accumulation from the local vegetation, positively affects accretion rates of marsh surfaces. Tall vegetation can enhance sediment deposition by reducing current flow and wave action. Herbivores shorten vegetation height and this could potentially reduce sediment deposition. This study estimated the effects of herbivores on 1) vegetation height, 2) sediment deposition and 3) resulting marsh accretion after long-term (at least 16 years) herbivore exclusion of both small (i.e. hare and goose) and large grazers (i.e. cattle) for marshes of different ages. Our results firstly showed that both small and large herbivores can have a major impact on vegetation height. Secondly, grazing processes did not affect sediment deposition. Finally, trampling by large grazers affected marsh accretion rates by compacting the soil. In many European marshes, grazing is used as a tool in nature management as well as for agricultural purposes. Thus, we propose that soil compaction by large grazers should be taken in account when estimating the ability of coastal systems to cope with an accelerating sea-level rise.

Elschot, Kelly; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Temmerman, Stijn; Bakker, Jan P.

2013-11-01

25

Long term average rates of large-volume explosive volcanism are not average  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How good are our estimates of long term recurrence rates of large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions? To investigate this question, we created a data set of all known explosive eruptions in Japan since 1.8 Ma and VEI magnitude 4 or greater. This data set contains 696 explosive eruptions. We use this data set to consider the change in apparent recurrence rate of large volume explosive eruptions through time. Assuming there has been little change in recurrence rate of volcanism since 2.25 Ma, apparent changes are due to erosion of explosive eruption deposits and a lower rate of identification of older deposits preserved in the geologic record. Surprisingly, one half of the eruptions in the data set occurred within the last 65 ka. 77% of the total eruptions occurred since 200 ka; the oldest eruption in the database is 2.25 Ma. Overall, there is a roughly exponential decrease in the numbers of eruptions of a given magnitude identified in the geological record as a function of time. This result clearly indicates that even large magnitude eruptions are significantly under-reported. In addition, percentages of explosive eruptions in the entire data set by eruption magnitude are: VEI 4 (40%), VEI 5 (42%), VEI 6 (13%) and VEI 7 (5%). Because it is reasonable to assume that smaller eruptions occur much more frequently, fewer VEI 4 eruptions than VEI 5 eruptions indicates that small eruptions are missing in this data set. We quantify these variations by plotting survivor functions, noting that there is little change in apparent rate of activity (or the preservation potential of deposits) with geographic and tectonic setting in Japan. These data indicate that eruption probabilities based on long term recurrence rate may underestimate rates of activity. This result also indicates there is considerable uncertainty about the future recurrence rate of large magnitude eruptions, as our best estimates of frequency are based on an unrealistically short record.

Connor, C.; Kiyosugi, K.

2011-12-01

26

Predictors of Response Rates to a Long Term Follow-Up Mail out Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective Very little is known about predictors of response rates to long-term follow-up mail-out surveys, including whether the timing of an incentive affects response rates. We aimed to determine whether the timing of the incentive affects response rates and what baseline demographic and psychological factors predict response rates to a 12 year follow-up survey. Study design and setting: Participants were 450 randomly selected people from the Penrith population, Australia who had previously participated in a mail-out survey 12 years earlier. By random allocation, 150 people received no incentive, 150 received a lottery ticket inducement with the follow-up survey and 150 received a lottery ticket inducement on the return of a completed survey. Results The overall response rate for the study was 63%. There were no significant differences in terms of response rates between the no incentive (58.8%;95%CI 49.8%,67.3%), incentive with survey (65.1%;95%CI 56.2%,73.3%) and promised incentive (65.3%;95%CI 56.1%,73.7%) groups. Independent predictors of responding to the 12 year survey were being older (OR=1.02, 95%CI 1.01,1.05,P=0.001) and being less neurotic as reported on the first survey 12 years earlier (OR=0.92, 95%CI 0.86,0.98, P=0.010). Conclusions Psychological factors may play a role in determining who responds to long-term follow-up surveys although timing of incentives does not. PMID:24223902

Koloski, Natasha A.; Jones, Michael; Eslick, Guy; Talley, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

27

Cold water corals - Converting short term scientific excitement into long term public interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vesteraalen area off the Northern Norwegian coast is of ecological importance as a spawning ground for several fish stocks and as a corridor for migrating mature fish and drifting fish larvae for other stocks. The area is also of great interest to oil exploration companies for its hitherto untapped energy supplies. In the midst of it all, there are a number of cold-water coral reefs. Researchers at the Institute of Marine Research in Norway have constructed a sophisticated system for monitoring habitats around the cold-water corals and their environment over time. Two so-called landers will be placed next to coral reefs, will be equipped with echo sounders, camera, hydrophone, acoustic current profiler, CTD-sensor and sediment traps in March 09. This will provide high quality data regarding both physical conditions and biological activity. The sensors will make it possible to observe how different species interact with each other, with particular focus on the activity of fish and how they use the reef habitat. The system will have the capacity to transmit data live from the ocean floor. Creating attention in national media regarding such a ground-breaking project is not all that difficult. Already, the Norwegian national TV channel NRK has confirmed participation on the cruise that will deploy the landers. However, this project also presents communication challenges. One of which is to find a way of making echogram images of the reef understandable ("readable") to people not familiar with interpreting echo sounder signals. This will be especially important if it is decided to make the data from the coral reef available live on the internet. Furthermore, the aim will be to create interest amongst specific audiences in following the life in and around the coral reef over time.

Maestad, K.

2009-04-01

28

Metamemory ratings predict long-term changes in reactivated episodic memories  

PubMed Central

Reactivation of long-term memory can render the memory item temporarily labile, offering an opportunity to modify it via behavioral or pharmacological intervention. Declarative memory reactivation is accompanied by a metamemory ability to subjectively assess the knowledge available concerning the target item (Feeling of knowing, FOK). We set out to examine whether FOK can predict the extent of change of long-term episodic memories by post-retrieval manipulations. To this end, participants watched a short movie and were immediately thereafter tested on their memory for it. A day later, they were reminded of that movie, and either immediately or 1 day later, were presented with a second movie. The reminder phase consisted of memory cues to which participants were asked to judge their FOK regarding the original movie. The memory performance of participants to whom new information was presented immediately after reactivating the original episode corresponded to the degree of FOK ratings upon reactivation such that the lower their FOK, the less their memory declined. In contrast, no relation was found between FOK and memory strength for those who learned new information 1 day after the reminder phase. Our findings suggest that the subjective accessibility of reactivated memories may determine the extent to which new information might modify those memories. PMID:25709571

Yacoby, Amnon; Dudai, Yadin; Mendelsohn, Avi

2015-01-01

29

Preliminary investigations of Spirulina effect on cancer cells: interest for long-term manned space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background In view of long haul space exploration missions the development of regenerative life support systems is of crucial importance to increase the crew autonomy and decrease the cost associated to the mass embarked Therefore in the late 80 s the European Space Agency initiated the MELiSSA project Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative MELiSSA has been conceived as a micro-organisms and higher plant process enabling high recycling efficiency The cyanobacteria Arthrospira sp is occupying one of the MELiSSA compartments Its genome is now being sequenced and this will help to better understand or improve its food value as well as to have a look at its putative toxic potential Aim In this study we were interested in studying the threshold of intrinsic cytotoxic effects of Spirulina dry extract from Sigma containing washed and lyophilized mixed Arthrospira strains on human cancer cells and its cell type dependency Method For that purpose we used flow cytometry to estimate cell death apoptosis and necrosis in three human leukaemic cell lines HELA cervix carcinoma IM-9 multiple myeloma K562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia Cells were cultured in the presence of an aqueous extract of Spirulina concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 mu g ml for 15 to 40 hours Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by annexin-V-PI staining cell size and granularity Early apoptosis was monitored by analysing the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential DioC 6 3 and the

Baatout, S.; Bekaert, S.; Hendrickx, L.; Derradji, H.; Mergeay, M.

30

Heart rate dynamics in temporal lobe epilepsy-A long-term follow-up study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate long-term changes in interictal heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). A 24-h ECG was recorded at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 6.1 years in 18 patients with refractory TLE and 18 patients with well-controlled TLE. After the follow-up, the Poincaré components SD(1) (p=0.039) and SD(2) (p=0.001) were decreased in patients with refractory TLE compared to baseline, whereas in patients with well-controlled TLE no changes (p>0.05) in HR variability were observed. The reduction in HRV seems to be progressive in patients with chronic refractory TLE with recurrent seizures. PMID:21093218

Suorsa, Eija; Korpelainen, Juha T; Ansakorpi, Hanna; Huikuri, Heikki V; Suorsa, Ville; Myllylä, Vilho V; Isojärvi, Jouko I T

2011-01-01

31

Cell tropism predicts long-term nucleotide substitution rates of mammalian RNA viruses.  

PubMed

The high rates of RNA virus evolution are generally attributed to replication with error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. However, these long-term nucleotide substitution rates span three orders of magnitude and do not correlate well with mutation rates or selection pressures. This substitution rate variation may be explained by differences in virus ecology or intrinsic genomic properties. We generated nucleotide substitution rate estimates for mammalian RNA viruses and compiled comparable published rates, yielding a dataset of 118 substitution rates of structural genes from 51 different species, as well as 40 rates of non-structural genes from 28 species. Through ANCOVA analyses, we evaluated the relationships between these rates and four ecological factors: target cell, transmission route, host range, infection duration; and three genomic properties: genome length, genome sense, genome segmentation. Of these seven factors, we found target cells to be the only significant predictors of viral substitution rates, with tropisms for epithelial cells or neurons (P<0.0001) as the most significant predictors. Further, one-tailed t-tests showed that viruses primarily infecting epithelial cells evolve significantly faster than neurotropic viruses (P<0.0001 and P<0.001 for the structural genes and non-structural genes, respectively). These results provide strong evidence that the fastest evolving mammalian RNA viruses infect cells with the highest turnover rates: the highly proliferative epithelial cells. Estimated viral generation times suggest that epithelial-infecting viruses replicate more quickly than viruses with different cell tropisms. Our results indicate that cell tropism is a key factor in viral evolvability. PMID:24415935

Hicks, Allison L; Duffy, Siobain

2014-01-01

32

Long?term Cardiovascular Risks Associated With an Elevated Heart Rate: The Framingham Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background Higher heart rate has been associated with an adverse prognosis, but most prior studies focused on individuals with known cardiovascular disease or examined a limited number of outcomes. We sought to examine the association of baseline heart rate with both fatal and nonfatal outcomes during 2 decades of follow?up. Methods and Results Our study included 4058 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 55 years, 56% women). Cox models were performed with multivariable adjustment for clinical risk factors and physical activity. A total of 708 participants developed incident cardiovascular disease (303 heart failure, 343 coronary heart disease, and 216 stroke events), 48 received a permanent pacemaker, and 1186 died. Baseline heart rate was associated with incident cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15 per 1 SD [11 bpm] increase in heart rate, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.24, P=0.0002), particularly heart failure (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.48, P<0.0001). Higher heart rate was also associated with higher all?cause (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.24, P<0.0001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.33, P=0.01). Spline analyses did not suggest a lower threshold beyond which the benefit of a lower heart rate abated or increased. In contrast, individuals with a higher heart rate had a lower risk of requiring permanent pacemaker placement (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.79, P=0.001). Conclusions Individuals with a higher heart rate are at elevated long?term risk for cardiovascular events, in particular, heart failure, and all?cause death. On the other hand, a higher heart rate is associated with a lower risk of future permanent pacemaker implantation. PMID:24811610

Ho, Jennifer E.; Larson, Martin G.; Ghorbani, Anahita; Cheng, Susan; Coglianese, Erin E.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

33

Differences in Heart Rate Variability Associated with Long-Term Exposure to NO2  

PubMed Central

Background Heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of cardiac autonomic tone, has been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Short-term studies have shown that subjects exposed to higher traffic-associated air pollutant levels have lower HRV. Objective Our objective was to investigate the effect of long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide on HRV in the Swiss cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA). Methods We recorded 24-hr electrocardiograms in randomly selected SAPALDIA participants ? 50 years of age. Other examinations included an interview investigating health status and measurements of blood pressure, body height, and weight. Annual exposure to NO2 at the address of residence was predicted by hybrid models (i.e., a combination of dispersion predictions, land-use, and meteorologic parameters). We estimated the association between NO2 and HRV in multivariable linear regression models. Complete data for analyses were available for 1,408 subjects. Results For women, but not for men, each 10-?g/m3 increment in 1-year averaged NO2 level was associated with a decrement of 3% (95% CI, ?4 to ?1) for the standard deviation of all normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN), ?6% (95% CI, ?11 to ?1) for nighttime low frequency (LF), and ?5% (95% CI, ?9 to 0) for nighttime LF/high-frequency (HF) ratio. We saw no significant effect for 24-hr total power (TP), HF, LF, or LF/HF or for nighttime SDNN, TP, or HF. In subjects with self-reported cardiovascular problems, SDNN decreased by 4% (95% CI, ?8 to ?1) per 10-?g/m3 increase in NO2. Conclusions There is some evidence that long-term exposure to NO2 is associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunction in elderly women and in subjects with cardiovascular disease. PMID:18941578

Dietrich, Denise Felber; Gemperli, Armin; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Schindler, Christian; Liu, L.-J. Sally; Gold, Diane R.; Schwartz, Joel; Rochat, Thierry; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Pons, Marco; Roche, Frédéric; Probst Hensch, Nicole M.; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Gerbase, Margaret W.; Neu, Urs; Ackermann-Liebrich, Ursula

2008-01-01

34

Low slip rates and long-term preservation of geomorphic features in Central Asia.  

PubMed

In order to understand the dynamics of the India Asia collision zone, it is important to know the strain distribution in Central Asia, whose determination relies on the slip rates for active faults. Many previous slip-rate estimates of faults in Central Asia were based on the assumption that offset landforms are younger than the Last Glacial Maximum (approximately 20 kyr ago). In contrast, here we present surface exposure ages of 40 to 170 kyr, obtained using cosmogenic nuclide dating, for a series of terraces near a thrust at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Combined with the tectonic offset, the ages imply a long-term slip rate of only about 0.35 mm x yr(-1) for the active thrust, an order of magnitude lower than rates obtained from the assumption that the terraces formed after the Last Glacial Maximum. Our data demonstrate that the preservation potential of geomorphic features in Central Asia is higher than commonly assumed. PMID:12024210

Hetzel, Ralf; Niedermann, Samuel; Tao, Mingxin; Kubik, Peter W; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Gao, Bo; Strecker, Manfred R

2002-05-23

35

Long-term tracking of a patient's health condition based on pulse rate dynamics during sleep.  

PubMed

This article proposed a method to track the changes in health condition of a patient after coronary stenting over seven successive seasons based on daily pulse rate (PR). The pulse signal was recorded by an unconstrained monitoring system during sleep. Seasonal PR dynamics were evaluated by both linear measures, including time domain and frequency domain indexes, and nonlinear measures such as noise limit (NL), detection rate (DR), sample entropy (SampEn), and Poincaré plots. NL and DR were derived using the noise titration method. Significant changes in seasonal indexes of the patient were evaluated statistically. The results show that an overall downward trend of the PR dynamics corresponds to changes in the patient's health condition that began in winter and developed in spring and worsened most seriously in the following summer. The monthly and seasonal orbits of PR nonlinearity of the patient were plotted and observed to follow different trajectory compared with a healthy subject. These results indicate the feasibility of applying dynamics of PR as a potential prognostic tool for detecting early changes in a patient's health condition and also for understanding the temporal transition of health condition over a long-term period. PMID:21932168

Chen, Ying; Chen, Wenxi

2011-12-01

36

Effect of Long-term Smoking on Whole-mouth Salivary Flow Rate and Oral Health  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Change in the resting whole-mouth salivary flow rate (SFR) plays a significant role in patho-genesis of various oral conditions. Factors such as smoking may affect SFR as well as the oral and dental health. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of smoking on SFR, and oral and dental health. Materials and methods One-hundred smokers and 100 non-tobacco users were selected as case and control groups, respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data and smoking habits. A previously used questionnaire about dry mouth was also employed. Then, after a careful oral examination, subjects’ whole saliva was collected in the resting condition. Data was analyzed by chi-square test using SPSS 15. Results The mean (±SD) salivary flow rate were 0.38 (± 0.13) ml/min in smokers and 0.56 (± 0.16) ml/min in non-smokers. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.00001). Also, 39% of smokers and 12% of non-smokers reported experiencing at least one xerostomia symptom, with statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.0001). Oral lesions including cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus and halitosis were significantly higher in smokers. Conclusion Our findings indicated that long-term smoking would significantly reduce SFR and increase oral and dental disorders associated with dry mouth, especially cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus, and halitosis. PMID:23346336

Rad, Maryam; Kakoie, Shahla; Niliye Brojeni, Fateme; Pourdamghan, Nasim

2010-01-01

37

Short-term disruption rates and long-term outcomes of a professional parent program.  

PubMed

Both traditional and specialized foster care have disruption rates ranging from 36% to 70%. Connecting Children and Families was a professional parent program that provided permanent family placements for children and young adults with significant behavior problems and mental health issues. During the 15 years of the Connecting Children and Families program, the short-term disruption rate was 21%. Long-term positive outcomes (i.e., stability in the family, reunification with birth family, or adoption) occurred for 83% of the children and young adults. This article is a program description of Connecting Children and Families. There were five key elements of this program: (a) The primary treatment was the life itself provided by the professional parents; (b) The parents were paid a significant stipend and they were treated both as professionals and as the parents of the children placed in their home; (c) The program model was one based on continuity of clinical care rather than case management; (d) Treatment interventions were derived from the fields of behaviorism and applied behavior analysis; and (e) The core value of the program was rooted in Wolfensberger's concept of social role valorization. PMID:24205552

Redinger, Robyn

2012-01-01

38

Interest rates factor model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interdependence of the interest rates of the US, the UK, and Japan is analyzed in this work by means of spectral analysis and network methods. A predominant effective factor in the interest rate market is which country floats a bond issue, and a minor effective factor is time to maturity of bonds. Power-law cross-correlation among different countries is analyzed by the detrended cross-correlation analysis method. Long-range cross-correlation is found between the first factors of interest rate, while there is no cross-correlation between some of the second factors. The tail dependency is indicated by tail indices from Archimedean copulas, including an empirical copula. In contrast to other pairs, the US-UK first factor pair has tail dependencies in both the upper-tail and lower-tail. Dynamic properties of interest rate are modeled by a stochastic volatility model. The properties of mean reverting and volatility clustering are observed and reflected in this model. The proposed simulation method combines the dependence structures and the factor dynamics model; it simultaneously describes the interest rates of different countries.

Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Soo Yong

2011-07-01

39

Observer-rated depression in long-term care: frequency and risk factors.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the prevalence and 6-month incidence of observer-rated depression in residents age 65 and over of long-term care (LTC) facilities; (2) to describe risk factors for depression, at baseline and over time. A multisite, prospective observational study was conducted in residents aged 65 and over of 7 LTC facilities. The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) was completed by nurses monthly for 6 months. We measured demographic, medical, and functional factors at baseline and monthly intervals, using data from research assessments, nurse interviews, and chart reviews. 274 residents were recruited and completed baseline depression assessments. The prevalence of depression (CSDD score of 6+) was 19.0%. The incidence of depression among those without prevalent depression was 73.3 per 100 person-years. A delirium diagnosis, pain, and diabetes were independently associated with prevalent depression. CSDD score at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were independent risk factors for incident depression. A diagnosis of delirium and uncorrected visual impairment at follow-up occurred concurrently with incident depression. The results of this study have implications for the detection and prevention of depression in LTC. Delirium diagnosis, pain and diabetes at baseline were associated with prevalent depression; depression symptoms at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were risk factors for incident depression. PMID:24345307

McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Vu, Minh; Dyachenko, Alina; Belzile, Eric

2014-01-01

40

Long-term dynamics of death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and improving air quality  

PubMed Central

Background The respiratory tract is a major target of exposure to air pollutants, and respiratory diseases are associated with both short- and long-term exposures. We hypothesized that improved air quality in North Carolina was associated with reduced rates of death from respiratory diseases in local populations. Materials and methods We analyzed the trends of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia mortality and changes of the levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using monthly data measurements from air-monitoring stations in North Carolina in 1993–2010. The log-linear model was used to evaluate associations between air-pollutant levels and age-adjusted death rates (per 100,000 of population) calculated for 5-year age-groups and for standard 2000 North Carolina population. The studied associations were adjusted by age group-specific smoking prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of disease-specific respiratory deaths. Results Decline in emphysema deaths was associated with decreasing levels of SO2 and CO in the air, decline in asthma deaths–with lower SO2, CO, and PM10 levels, and decline in pneumonia deaths–with lower levels of SO2. Sensitivity analyses were performed to study potential effects of the change from International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 to ICD-10 codes, the effects of air pollutants on mortality during summer and winter, the impact of approach when only the underlying causes of deaths were used, and when mortality and air-quality data were analyzed on the county level. In each case, the results of sensitivity analyses demonstrated stability. The importance of analysis of pneumonia as an underlying cause of death was also highlighted. Conclusion Significant associations were observed between decreasing death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and decreases in levels of ambient air pollutants in North Carolina. PMID:25018627

Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Abernethy, Amy P; Holman, Sheila; Ross, William G; Lyerly, H Kim

2014-01-01

41

Long-term analysis of survival, fertility, and population growth rate of black bears in North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We estimated survival, fertility, and realized and asymptotic population growth rates from 1981 to 2002 for a protected population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We used Akaike's information criterion to assess the time interval for averaging observations that was best for estimating vital rates for our study, given our yearly sample sizes. The temporal symmetry approach allowed us to directly assess population growth and to address all losses and gains to the population by using only capture data, offering an alternative to the logistically intensive collection of reproductive data. Models that averaged survival and fertility across 5- and 7-year time intervals were best supported by our data. Studies of black bear populations with annual sample sizes similar to ours should be of at least 5 years in duration to estimate vital rates reliably, and at least 10 years in duration to evaluate changes in population growth rate (??). We also hypothesized that survival would not track changes in ?? because ?? is influenced by both survival and fertility. The 5-year model supported our hypothesis, but the 7-year model did not. Where long-term dynamics of large, relatively stable bear populations are of interest, monitoring survival is likely to be sufficient for evaluating trends in ??. For rapidly changing, small populations, however, failure to incorporate fertility into assessments of ?? could be misleading. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

Brongo, L.L.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

2005-01-01

42

Timing and rates of long-term landscape evolution in Southern Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. North of the Sierras Septentrionales the Salado basin is located. The Sierras Septentrionales and the Sierras Australes are also divided by a smaller intracratonic basin. Further in the South the Colorado basin is located. The Sierras Australes is a variscian fold belt originated by strong phases of metamorphosis, but till now it is unclear by how many tectonic phases the area was influenced (Tomezzoli & Vilas, 1999). It consists of Proterozoic to Paleozoic rocks. The Sierras Septentrionales consists mainly of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The Precambrian sequences are overlain by younger Sediments (Cingolani, 2010). The aim is to understand the long-term landscape evolution of the area by quantifiying erosion- and exhumation-rates and by dating ancient rock-uplift-events. Another goal is to find out how the opening of the south atlantic took effect on this region. To fulfill this goal, thermochronological techniques, such as fission-track dating and (U-Th-Sm)/He dating has been applied to samples from the region. Because there was no low- temperature thermochronology done in this area, both techniques were applied on apatites and zircons. Furthermore, numerical modeling of the cooling history has provided the data base for the quantification of the exhumation rates. The data-set shows clusters of different ages which can be linked to tectonic activities during late Paleozoic times. Also the thermokinematic modeling is leading to new insights of the evolution of both mountain ranges and shows patterns of ongoing tectonic processes in this region. Caltculated exhumation rates show also varying cooling historys and the influence of tectonics throughout the research area. References: Renata Nela Tomezzoli and Juan Francisco Vilas (1999): Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of deformation of the Sierras Australes thrust and fold belt, Argentina. Geophys. J. Int. (1999) 138, 857-870 Carlos A. Cingolani (2010): The Tandilia System of Argentina as a southern extension of the Rio de la Plata craton: an overview, Int. J. Earth. Sci. (Geol. Rundsch.) (2011) 100, 221-242

Kollenz, S.; Glasmacher, P. A.

2013-12-01

43

Electronic Medical Record and Quality Ratings of Long Term Care Facilities Long-Term Care Facility Characteristics and Reasons and Barriers for Adoption of Electronic Medical Record  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing elderly population, compounded by the retirement of the babyboomers, the need for long-term care (LTC) facilities is expected to grow. An area of great concern for those that are seeking a home for their family member is the quality of care provided by the nursing home to the residents. Electronic medical records (EMR) are often…

Daniels, Cheryl Andrea

2013-01-01

44

Simulating long-term effects of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on corn yield and nitrogen dynamics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thoroughly tested agricultural systems models can be used to quantify the long-term effects of crop management practices under conditions where measurements are lacking. In a field near Story City, Iowa, ten years (1996-2005) of measured data were collected from plots receiving low, medium, and high...

45

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LAND APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER: DICKINSON, NORTH DAKOTA, SLOW RATE IRRIGATION SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the findings of a study on the long-term effects of applying treated domestic wastewater to farmland at Dickinson, North Dakota. On the test site, slow rate irrigation, using the border-strip method, has been practiced since 1959. Water, soil, and crop sample...

46

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LAND APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER, ROSWELL, NEW MEXICO, SLOW RATE IRRIGATION SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the findings of a study on the long-term effects of applying treated domestic wastewater to farmland at Roswell, New Mexico. On the test site, a slow rate irrigation method was used for 33 years. Water, soil, and crop samples from this test site were compared...

47

[Variation characteristics of maize yield and fertilizer utilization rate on an upland yellow soil under long term fertilization].  

PubMed

An analysis was made on the 16-year experimental data from the long term fertilization, experiment of maize on a yellow soil in Guizhou of Southwest China. Four treatments, i. e. , no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (165 kg N x hm(-2), 82.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2), and 82.5 kg K2O x hm(-2), NPK), organic manure (30555 kg x hm(-2), M), and combined applicatioin of chemical fertilizers and organic manure (NPKM), were selected to analyze the variation trends of maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency on yellow soil under effects of different long term fertilization modes, aimed to provide references for evaluating and establishing long term fertilization mode and promote the sustainable development of crop production. Overall, the maize yield under long term fertilization had an increasing trend, with a large annual variation. Treatment NPKM had the best yield-increasing effect, with the maize yield increased by 4075.71 kg x hm(-2) and the increment being up to 139.2%. Long term fertilization increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of maize. In treatment M, the nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates were increased significantly by 35.4% and 18.8%, respectively. Treatment NPK had obvious effect in improving potassium utilization rate, with an increment of 20% and being far higher than that in treatments M (8.7%) and NPKM (9.2%). The results showed that long term fertilization, especially the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, was of great importance in increasing crop yield and fertilizer use efficiency. PMID:24483072

Luo, Long-Zao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wen-An; Xiao, Hou-Jun; Jiang, Tai-Ming

2013-10-01

48

Short-term vs. long-term heart rate variability in ischemic cardiomyopathy risk stratification  

PubMed Central

In industrialized countries with aging populations, heart failure affects 0.3–2% of the general population. The investigation of 24 h-ECG recordings revealed the potential of nonlinear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) for enhanced risk stratification in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF). However, long-term analyses are time-consuming, expensive, and delay the initial diagnosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether 30 min short-term HRV analysis is sufficient for comparable risk stratification in IHF in comparison to 24 h-HRV analysis. From 256 IHF patients [221 at low risk (IHFLR) and 35 at high risk (IHFHR)] (a) 24 h beat-to-beat time series (b) the first 30 min segment (c) the 30 min most stationary day segment and (d) the 30 min most stationary night segment were investigated. We calculated linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear HRV analysis indices. Optimal parameter sets for risk stratification in IHF were determined for 24 h and for each 30 min segment by applying discriminant analysis on significant clinical and non-clinical indices. Long- and short-term HRV indices from frequency domain and particularly from nonlinear dynamics revealed high univariate significances (p < 0.01) discriminating between IHFLR and IHFHR. For multivariate risk stratification, optimal mixed parameter sets consisting of 5 indices (clinical and nonlinear) achieved 80.4% AUC (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics) from 24 h HRV analysis, 84.3% AUC from first 30 min, 82.2 % AUC from daytime 30 min and 81.7% AUC from nighttime 30 min. The optimal parameter set obtained from the first 30 min showed nearly the same classification power when compared to the optimal 24 h-parameter set. As results from stationary daytime and nighttime, 30 min segments indicate that short-term analyses of 30 min may provide at least a comparable risk stratification power in IHF in comparison to a 24 h analysis period. PMID:24379785

Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Schulz, Steffen; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Vázquez, Rafael; Bayés de Luna, Antoni; Caminal, Pere

2013-01-01

49

Factors Associated With Nursing Assistant Quality-of-Life Ratings for Residents With Dementia in Long-Term Care Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We identify resident, nursing assistant, and facility factors associated with nursing assistant quality-of-life ratings for residents with dementia in long-term care. Design and Methods: We used a cross-sectional survey of 143 nursing assistants providing care to 335 residents in 38 residential care\\/assisted living (RC\\/AL) facilities and nursing homes in four states. We assessed resident quality of life by using

Gary S. Winzelberg; Christianna S. Williams; John S. Preisser; Sheryl Zimmerman; Philip D. Sloane

2005-01-01

50

Impact of road traffic injuries on disability rates and long-term care costs in Spain.  

PubMed

Road traffic injuries are one of the leading causes of increasing disability-adjusted life expectancy. We analyze long-term care needs associated with motor vehicle crash-related disability in Spain and conclude that needs attributable traffic injuries are most prevalent during victims' mid-life years, they create a significant burden for both families and society as a whole given that public welfare programmes supporting these victims need to be maintained over a long time frame. High socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents (in Spain 0.04% of the GDP in 2008) are clearly indicative of the need for governments and policymakers to strengthen road accident preventive measures. PMID:24036315

Alemany, Ramon; Ayuso, Mercedes; Guillén, Montserrat

2013-11-01

51

Effects of long-term microgravity exposure in space on circadian rhythms of heart rate variability.  

PubMed

We evaluated their circadian rhythms using data from electrocardiographic records and examined the change in circadian period related to normal RR intervals for astronauts who completed a long-term (?6-month) mission in space. The examinees were seven astronauts, five men and two women, from 2009 to 2010. Their mean?±?SD age was 52.0?±?4.2 years (47-59?yr). Each stayed in space for more than 160 days; their average length of stay was 172.6?±?14.6 days (163-199 days). We conducted a 24-h Holter electrocardiography before launch (Pre), at one month after launch (DF1), at two months after launch (DF2), at two weeks before return (DF3), and at three months after landing (Post), comparing each index of frequency-domain analysis and 24-h biological rhythms of the NN intervals (normal RR intervals). Results show that the mean period of Normal Sinus (NN) intervals was within 24?±?4?h at each examination. Inter-individual variability differed among the stages, being significantly smaller at DF3 (Pre versus DF1 versus DF3 versus Post?=?22.36?±?2.50 versus 25.46?±?4.37 versus 22.46?±?1.75 versus 26.16?±?7.18?h, p?

Yamamoto, Naomune; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Kubo, Yutaka; Hayashi, Mitsutoshi; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki

2015-04-01

52

The Effect of Dose Rate on Composite Durability When Exposed to a Simulated Long-Term Lunar Radiation Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) requires a safe living and working environment for crew. Composite materials are one type of material being investigated by NASA as a multi-functional structural approach to habitats for long-term use in space or on planetary surfaces with limited magnetic fields and atmosphere. These materials provide high strength with the potential for decreased weight and increased radiation protection of crew and electronics when compared with conventional aluminum structures. However, these materials have not been evaluated in a harsh radiation environment, as would be experienced outside of LEO or on a planetary surface. Thus, NASA has been investigating the durability of select composite materials in a long-term radiation environment. Previously, NASA exposed composite samples to a simulated, accelerated 30-year radiation treatment and tensile stresses similar to those of a habitat pressure vessel. The results showed evidence of potential surface oxidation and enhanced cross-linking of the matrix. As a follow-on study, we performed the same accelerated exposure alongside an exposure with a decreased dose rate. The slower dose ]rate is comparable to a realistic scenario, although still accelerated. Strain measurements were collected during exposure and showed that with a fastdose rate, the strain decreased with time, but with a slow ]dose rate, the strain increased with time. After the radiation exposures, samples were characterized via tensile tests, flexure tests, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results of these tests will be discussed.

Rojdev, Kristina; O'Rourke, Mary Jane; Hill, Charles; Nutt, Steven; Atwell, William

2011-01-01

53

Temporal scaling of episodic point estimates of seed predation to long-term predation rates  

E-print Network

to predators for two 48-h pre- dation intervals, with no weighting of predation rates by seed rain. Model predation rates to be made at a daily time-scale. 2. We compared several models for estimating M, the annual rates by concurrent seed rain. Verification data were obtained from field studies at experimental

Sims, Gerald K.

54

The effect of long term combined yoga practice on the basal metabolic rate of healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Different procedures practiced in yoga have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the basal metabolic rate when studied acutely. In daily life however, these procedures are usually practiced in combination. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the net change in the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of individuals actively engaging in a combination of yoga practices (asana or

Chaya; AV Kurpad; HR Nagendra; R Nagarathna

2006-01-01

55

The Long-Term Trend of the RMB Exchange Rate in the Context of Internationalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes and compares more than 100 countries' purchasing power parity and exchange rate of 2005 with 1993 and 2005 as the benchmark year respectively, based on the data from the International Comparison Program (ICP). The results reveal that: (1) For a developing country, the exchange rate gradually tents toward the purchasing power parity given a period of sustained

Wu Jun; Xu Miaomiao

2010-01-01

56

Estimating Reservoir Sedimentation Rates: Long-Term Implications for California's Reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a compilation and analysis of reservoir sedimentation rates applied to unsurveyed reservoirs in California. A number of reservoirs, primarily in the Coast Ranges, have already filled or are nearly filled with sediment and are being considered for removal, including the Matilija, San Clemente, Rindge and Searsville Dams. Of the over 1,400 dams in California listed in the National Inventory of Dams (NID), only 213 (15%) have been surveyed for reservoir sedimentation, presenting a significant gap in current knowledge. Using previously published reports on reservoir sedimentation rates (excluding flood control and debris flow basins), we determined the median reservoir sedimentation rates for the nine different geomorphic regions in California. For the geomorphic regions with sedimentation data, the median sedimentation rate +/- standard error in m3 km-2 yr-1, and (number of measured reservoirs) are: Siskiyou: 340 +/- 170 (3), Coast Range: 220 +/- 50 (49), Central Valley: 145 +/- 90 (5), Sierra Nevada: 95 +/- 25 (23), Transverse Range: 500 +/- 200 (18), and Peninsular Range: 260 +/- 185 (4). These reservoir sedimentation rates were then applied to the unsurveyed reservoirs. Of the approximately 42 million acre-feet of water storage in the state, approximately 5.14 million acre-feet may be currently occupied by sediment, representing a significant decrease of 12% of the state's water supply. Using the same rates to forecast the effects after 50-years, we found that the reservoirs with most risk of sedimentation are primarily small reservoirs (<2,500 acre-feet), such as municipal water-supply reservoirs, especially those operated by coastal towns and cities. Reservoirs in the Coast and Transverse Ranges are the most at risk, with high sedimentation rates, small reservoirs on large watersheds, and older reservoirs. There are over twenty reservoirs that will likely be full or nearly full in 50-years, including Tinemaha, Pleasant Valley, Lee Lake, Potrero, Hour House, Hansen, Century, and Benbow.

Minear, J. T.; Kondolf, G. M.

2004-12-01

57

F-LE Interesting Interest Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: City Bank pays a simple interest rate of 3% per year, meaning that each year the balance increases by 3% of the initial deposit. National Bank pays an ...

2012-05-01

58

Analysis of long term heart rate variability: methods, 1/f scaling and implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of spectral techniques to quantify short term heart rate fluctuations on the order of seconds to minutes has helped define the autonomic contributions to beat-to-beat control of heart rate. We used similar techniques to quantify the entire spectrum (0.00003-1.0 Hz) of heart rate variability during 24 hour ambulatory ECG monitoring. The ECG from standard Holter monitor recordings from normal subjects was sampled with the use of a phase locked loop, and a heart rate time series was constructed at 3 Hz. Frequency analysis of the heart rate signal was performed after a nonlinear filtering algorithm was used to eliminate artifacts. A power spectrum of the entire 24 hour record revealed power that was inversely proportional to frequency, 1/f, over 4 decades from 0.00003 to 0.1 Hz (period approximately 10 hours to 10 seconds). Displaying consecutive spectra calculated at 5 minute intervals revealed marked variability in the peaks at all frequencies throughout the 24 hours, probably accounting for the lack of distinct peaks in the spectra of the entire records.

Saul, J. P.; Albrecht, P.; Berger, R. D.; Cohen, R. J.

1988-01-01

59

Long-term pretreatment with proton pump inhibitor and Helicobacter pylori eradication rates  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether proton pump inhibitor (PPI) pretreatment influences Helicobacter pylori eradication rate. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed H. pylori-infected patients who were treated with a standard triple regimen (PPI, amoxicillin 1 g, and clarithromycin 500 mg, all twice daily for 7 d). The diagnosis of H. pylori infection and its eradication was assessed with the rapid urease test, histological examination by silver staining, or the 13C-urea breath test. We divided the patients into two groups: one received the standard eradication regimen without PPI pretreatment (Group A), and the other received PPI pretreatment (Group B). The patients in Group B were reclassified into three groups based on the duration of PPI pretreatment: Group B-I (3-14 d), Group B-II (15-55 d), and Group B-III (? 56 d). RESULTS: A total of 1090 patients were analyzed and the overall eradication rate was 80.9%. The cure rate in Group B (81.2%, 420/517) was not significantly different from that in Group A (79.2%, 454/573). The eradication rates in Group B-I, B-II and B-III were 80.1% (117/146), 81.8% (224/274) and 81.4% (79/97), respectively. CONCLUSION: PPI pretreatment did not affect H. pylori eradication rate, regardless of the medication period. PMID:24574779

Yoon, Seung Bae; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, Jong-Yul; Baeg, Myong Ki; Lim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Jin Soo; Cho, Yu Kyung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

2014-01-01

60

Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil.  

PubMed

A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4-6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions. PMID:24593340

Mazur, J; Kozak, K

2014-02-01

61

Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil  

SciTech Connect

A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4–6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions.

Mazur, J.; Kozak, K., E-mail: Krzysztof.Kozak@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)

2014-02-15

62

Long-Term Variable Rate Lime and Phosphorus Application for Piedmont No-Till Field Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable rate (VR) fertilizer application is a paradigm with potential to improve input efficiency and farm profitability. It is widely marketed by commercial applicators in the southeastern US. However, field studies comparing VR with traditional management have not demonstrated consistent, positive results. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the soil impact, crop response and economic potential of

Randy Weisz; Ron Heiniger; Jeffrey G. White; Ben Knox; Lonnie Reed

2003-01-01

63

FATE OF NITROGEN-15 IN A LONG-TERM NITROGEN RATE STUDY: II. NITROGEN UPTAKE EFFICIENCY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased fertilizer N-uptake efficiency (FNUE) will allow producers to grow corn (Zea mays L.) more economically while reducing the potential for groundwater contamination by NO3. Previous research has suggested that application of N fertilizer at excessive rates can affect subsequent crop respons...

64

1 Long-term volumetric eruption rates and magma budgets 2 Scott M. White  

E-print Network

. Even when high Qe values contributed by flood basalts (9 ± 2 Â 10À1 km3 /yr) are 17 removed mean Qe 23 and have an overall average of 4.4 ± 0.8 Â 10À3 km3 /yr. Flood basalts also form silicic compositions, rhyolites and andesites, have a more limited range of eruption 16 rates than basalts

Bigelow, Stephen

65

New emission deterioration rates for gasoline cars - Results from long-term measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle emission control systems have been found to degrade with use resulting in increasing emission rates with vehicle age. Standard European data for deterioration factors have only been based on a sample of vehicles with limited high mileage ranges, with only few Euro 3 and Euro 4 vehicles, and on laboratory tests only. Here we present deterioration rates derived from more than 110?000 records collected over the past thirteen years from on-road emission remote sensing in Zurich/Switzerland. Deterioration rates for hot NOx and CO emissions of older gasoline vehicles are much lower than assumed so far, but significantly higher for Euro 3 and Euro 4 cars. There is no evidence of high emitters but equipment gradually degrades across the fleet. Deterioration rates do not seem to depend on engine load. Routine idle emission tests have not resulted in measurable emission reductions of the inspected vehicles. National emission inventories should be updated in the light of this new data.

Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Chen, Yuche

2015-01-01

66

The Effect of Long-Term Marsh Management on Land-Loss Rates in Coastal Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

3   ha) studied previously were obtained, expanded, and tested statistically to provide empirically valid conclusions over a\\u000a longer management period than previously available (1–32 years compared to 6–37 years). There was no statistically significant\\u000a difference between managed and nearby reference sites. The effects of changes in the regional environment appear to have had\\u000a much greater influence on the land-loss rates

MARK E. BOYER

1997-01-01

67

Long-term evolution of biodegradation and volatilization rates in a crude oil-contaminated aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rates of biodegradation and volatilization were documented twice 12 yr apart at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji. Minnesota. Model results indicated that the coupled pathway has resulted in significant hydrocarbon mass loss at the site, and it was estimated that ??? 10.52 kg/day were lost in 1985 and 1.99 kg/day in 1997. In 1985, 3% of total volatile hydrocarbons diffusing from the floating oil were biodegraded in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone and increased to 52% by 1997. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation above the center of the floating oil were relatively stable from 1985 to 1997, as the primary metabolic pathway shifted from aerobic to methanogenic biodegradation. Model results indicate that in 1997 biodegradation under methanogenic conditions represented ??? 50% of total hydrocarbon biodegradation in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone. Further downgradient, where substrate concentrations have greatly increased, total biodegradation rates increased by greater than an order of magnitude from 0.04 to 0.43 g/sq m-day.

Chaplin, B.P.; Delin, G.N.; Baker, R.J.; Lahvis, M.A.

2002-01-01

68

Pool 13 drawdown: Predicting success rates and affected areas. Long term resource monitoring program -- technical report  

SciTech Connect

The likelihood of 1- or 2-foot drawdowns, and the area affected by such alternative drawdown, was estimated for Pool 13 on the Upper Mississippi River. Minimum water surface (elevation) requirements were compared to computed water surface profiles to determine a critical low flow that would allow a navigation channel 400 feet wide and 10.5 feet deep. An upper limit on flow was established based on the flow at which open river conditions would exist for a given drawdown. The range in flows that would allow for a drawdown was used to estimate success rates using historical daily discharge data. Success rates were determined for a variety of drawdown durations between two time periods, May 1--August 15 and June 15--August 15. Areas that would be affected by these two drawdown scenarios were predicted by overlaying maps of water surfaces with depth using a geographic information system. Although the drawdown effects on most physical and biotic components of Pool 13 are unknown, some general drawdown effects likely to occur because of the changes in water surface elevation are presented.

Rogala, J.T.; Wlosinski, J.H.; Landwehr, K.J.

1999-04-01

69

Dampening effects of long-term experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of a Holm oak forest.  

PubMed

Forests respond to increasing intensities and frequencies of drought by reducing growth and with higher tree mortality rates. Little is known, however, about the long-term consequences of generally drier conditions and more frequent extreme droughts. A Holm oak forest was exposed to experimental rainfall manipulation for 13 years to study the effect of increasing drought on growth and mortality of the dominant species Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo. The drought treatment reduced stem growth of A. unedo (-66.5%) and Q. ilex (-17.5%), whereas P. latifolia remained unaffected. Higher stem mortality rates were noticeable in Q. ilex (+42.3%), but not in the other two species. Stem growth was a function of the drought index of early spring in the three species. Stem mortality rates depended on the drought index of winter and spring for Q. ilex and in spring and summer for P. latifolia, but showed no relation to climate in A. unedo. Following a long and intense drought (2005-2006), stem growth of Q. ilex and P. latifolia increased, whereas it decreased in A. unedo. Q. ilex also enhanced its survival after this period. Furthermore, the effect of drought treatment on stem growth in Q. ilex and A. unedo was attenuated as the study progressed. These results highlight the different vulnerabilities of Mediterranean species to more frequent and intense droughts, which may lead to partial species substitution and changes in forest structure and thus in carbon uptake. The response to drought, however, changed over time. Decreased intra- and interspecific competition after extreme events with high mortality, together with probable morphological and physiological acclimation to drought during the study period, may, at least in the short term, buffer forests against drier conditions. The long-term effects of drought consequently deserve more attention, because the ecosystemic responses are unlikely to be stable over time.Nontechnical summaryIn this study, we evaluate the effect of long-term (13 years) experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of three forest Mediterranean species, and their response to the different intensities and durations of natural drought. We provide evidence for species-specific responses to drought, what may eventually lead to a partial community shift favoring the more drought-resistant species. However, we also report a dampening of the treatment effect on the two drought-sensitive species, which may indicate a potential adaptation to drier conditions at the ecosystem or population level. These results are thus relevant to account for the stabilizing processes that would alter the initial response of ecosystem to drought through changes in plant physiology, morphology, and demography compensation. PMID:23712619

Barbeta, Adrià; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep

2013-10-01

70

Long term effects of lithium on glomerular filtration rate in Indian subjects - a cross sectional study.  

PubMed

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was evaluated in thirty patients on lithium and in thirty healthy prospective kidney donors by single compartment, multiple sample plasma clearance method using (99m)Technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)TC-DTPA). Normality test revealed that dose and treatment duration were skewed and the coefficient of skewness were 0.067 (p< 0.0001) and 1.41 (p< 0.0001) respectively. Age was marginally skewed (p =0.04) for the control group. At 5% significance level, dose and creatinine were negatively correlated (r=-0.030), whereas age and duration were positively correlated (r =+ 0.53) (single tailed only). Duration and GFR seems to be negatively correlated (r = -0.23), however this correlation did not reach statistically significance level. In the present cross sectional study no significant difference in mean GFR was observed in lithium treated affective disorder patients when compared with the age matched normal subjects. PMID:21407979

Singh, B; Mittal, B R; Sud, K; Bhattacharya, A; Sharan, P; Jindal, S K; Deodhar, S D

2000-10-01

71

LONG TERM EFFECTS OF LITHIUM ON GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE IN INDIAN SUBJECTS - A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was evaluated in thirty patients on lithium and in thirty healthy prospective kidney donors by single compartment, multiple sample plasma clearance method using 99mTechnetium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (99mTC-DTPA). Normality test revealed that dose and treatment duration were skewed and the coefficient of skewness were 0.067 (p< 0.0001) and 1.41 (p< 0.0001) respectively. Age was marginally skewed (p =0.04) for the control group. At 5% significance level, dose and creatinine were negatively correlated (r=-0.030), whereas age and duration were positively correlated (r =+ 0.53) (single tailed only). Duration and GFR seems to be negatively correlated (r = -0.23), however this correlation did not reach statistically significance level. In the present cross sectional study no significant difference in mean GFR was observed in lithium treated affective disorder patients when compared with the age matched normal subjects. PMID:21407979

Singh, Baljinder; Mittal, Bhagwant R.; Sud, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sharan, Pratap; Jindal, Surinder K.; Deodhar, Shridhar D.

2000-01-01

72

Long Term Corrosion Potential and Corrosion Rate of Creviced Alloy 22 in Chloride Plus Nitrate Brines  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 22 is a nickel base alloy highly resistant to all forms of corrosion. In conditions where tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions and at anodic potentials, Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion, a form of localized attack. The occurrence (or not) of crevice corrosion in a given environment (e.g. salt concentration and temperature), is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) that the alloy may establish in the studied environment. If E{sub corr} is equal or higher than E{sub crit}, crevice corrosion may be expected. In addition, it is generally accepted that as Alloy 22 becomes passive in a certain environment, its E{sub corr} increases and its corrosion rate (CR) decreases. This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} and corrosion rate (CR) of creviced Alloy 22 specimens in six different mixtures of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium nitrate (KNO{sub 3}) at 100 C. The effect of immersion time on the value of E{sub crit} was also determined. Two types of specimens were used, polished as-welded (ASW) and as-welded plus solution heat-treated (ASW+SHT). The latter contained the black annealing oxide film on the surface. Results show that, as the immersion time increases, E{sub corr} increased and the CR decreased. Even for highly concentrated brine solutions at 100 C the CR was < 30 nm/year after more than 250 days immersion. Some of the exposed specimens (mainly the SHT specimens) suffered crevice corrosion at the open circuit potential in the naturally aerated brines. Immersion times of over 250 days did not reduce the resistance of Alloy 22 to localized corrosion.

Evans, K J; Stuart, M L; Etien, R A; Hust, G A; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

2005-11-05

73

Styles and rates of long-term denudation in carbonate terrains under a Mediterranean to hyper-arid climatic gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate minerals, unlike silicates, have the potential to dissolve almost completely and with high efficiency. Thus, in carbonate terrains denudation rate and style (the governing process of denudation, mechanical or chemical) should be more sensitive to climatic forcing. Using 36Cl measurements in 39 carbonate bedrock and sediment samples, we calculate long-term denudation rates across a sharp climatic gradient from Mediterranean to hyper-arid conditions. Our samples were collected along the Arugot watershed, which drains the eastern flank of the Judea Range (central Israel) to the Dead Sea and is characterized by a pronounced rain shadow. Denudation rates of flat-lying bedrock outcrops sampled along interfluves differ by an order of magnitude from ?20 mm ka-1 in the Mediterranean zone to 1-3 mm ka-1 in the hyper-arid zone. These rates are strongly correlated with precipitation, and thus reflect the importance of carbonate mineral dissolution in the overall denudation process. In contrast, denudation rates of steep bedrock surfaces depend on the hillslope gradient, but only in the hyper-arid climate zone, indicating that mechanical processes dominate the overall hillslope denudation within this zone. The dominance of slope-dependent mechanical erosion in the hyper-arid zone is also reflected by an increase in spatially-average denudation rates from 17-19 mm ka-1 in the Mediterranean-semi-arid zones to 21-25 mm ka-1 in the hyper-arid zone. These higher rates are attributed to clast contribution from steep slopes under arid climate. This suggests an increased importance of mechanical processes to the overall denudation in the hyper-arid zone. We demonstrate that the transition between chemically-dominated denudation to mechanically-dominated denudation occurs between 100 and 200 mm of mean annual precipitation. Long-term denudation rates across the Judea Range indicate that between Mediterranean and hyper-arid climates, chemical weathering rates are limited by precipitation. Nevertheless, in more humid climates, chemical weathering rates are apparently limited by the rates of carbonate mineral dissolution. This study demonstrates that carbonate terrains have the capacity to shift between mechanically and chemically dominated denudation in response to changes in precipitation. Similar transitions in response to changes in temperature or the level of tectonic activity have been previously reported. We suggest that the abrupt nature of such transitions can be primarily attributed to the efficiency of carbonate dissolution processes and the competition between surface and subsurface drainage systems in carbonate terrains.

Ryb, U.; Matmon, A.; Erel, Y.; Haviv, I.; Benedetti, L.; Hidy, A. J.

2014-11-01

74

Detection of circaseptan rhythm and the "Monday effect" from long-term pulse rate dynamics.  

PubMed

This study proposes a methodology to detect circaseptan (CS) rhythm in pulse rate (PR) data and to investigate the "Monday effect" in CS rhythm. Daily PR was collected from a middle-aged healthy working woman over one year. PR, SDNN index and sample entropy (SampEn) were chosen as the indexes of PR dynamics. In order to avoid interference from other biorhythms, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method was used to decompose the original PR series into multiple components. And the single cosinor method was applied to fit the detrended component signal. An optimal 7-day period was found in all indexes (P = 0.0103, P = 0.0133, P = 0.0122 for PR, SDNN index and SampEn, separately) that demonstrated an underlying CS rhythm. In the following study, a statistical Monday decrease in PR dynamics was observed especially significant in the detrended signal. The results suggested a direct relationship between the "Monday effect" and the CS variation, and also indicated a cardiac susceptibility to the social activities. The findings in CS periodicity and the "Monday effect" may help understand the human's biorhythm, provide evidence for preventive and optimized timing treatment, and also serve to daily health management. PMID:22255162

Chen, Ying; Chen, Wenxi

2011-01-01

75

Fed to Raise Interest Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As expected, the Federal Reserve voted to raise interest rates 0.25 percent, the fifth rate raise since June. The interest rate boost is expected to help keep inflation in check during this record period (108 months) of economic expansion. Technology companies have continued to signal healthy economic growth, and unemployment rates remain low. Despite drastic price hikes in gasoline and heating oil prices, consumers are still spending. This worries economists who watched consumers pay little heed to the last four interest rate increases. The quarter point interest rate increase will average out to an extra $1 a month on consumers's credit cards, which in this period of prosperity, will not curb consumers's spending.

Missner, Emily D.

76

A short-term antihypertensive treatment-induced fall in glomerular filtration rate predicts long-term stability of renal function  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short-term antihypertensive treatment-induced fall in glomerular filtration rate predicts long-term stability of renal function. In long-term intervention studies on renal function outcome an initial decline in the glomerular nitration rate (GFR) may occur after starting therapy. If this initial GFR decline is the result of a treatment-induced hemodynamic change reflecting a fall in intraglomerular pressure, it should be reversible

Alfred J Apperloo; Dick de Zeeuw; Paul E de Jong

1997-01-01

77

Effect of the Presence of Long Term Correlated Common Source Fluctuations to the Heart Rate Feedback Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the effect of the presence of long term correlated common driving forces to the bivariate autoregressive (BAR) analysis for the closed loop characterization of heart rate fluctuations (HRF) and systolic blood pressure change (SBP). It has been shown that the estimation accuracy decreases as common noise power and Hurst parameter value increases. However, the accuracy is acceptable even with relatively high common driving force power at 50% and with high Hurst parameter values at 0.95. The relative mean squared error in the impulse response estimation is shown to be 12% in that ill condition. As an illustrative example of the bivariate fluctuation analysis, the change in impulse responses between HRF and SBP due to the water intake has been examined.

Nishiyama, S.; Yana, K.; Mizuta, H.; Ono, T.

2007-07-01

78

Between the cup and the lip On Post Keynesian interest rate rules and long-term interest rates management  

E-print Network

of reducing the amount of bad debts by means of temporary large public deficits and accommodating monetary policies (which is not to say permanent large deficits and inflationary policies), even though long the system to activity, we must remind ourselves that there may be several slips between the cup and the lip

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

Uncertainties in long-term geologic offset rates of faults: General principles illustrated with data from California and other western states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologic slip rate determinations are critical to both tectonic mod- eling and seismic hazard evaluation. Because the slip rates of seismic faults are highly variable, a better target for statistical estimation is the long-term offset rate, which can be defi ned as the rate of one com- ponent of the slip that would be measured between any two different times

Peter Bird

2007-01-01

80

Effects of Long-Term Dharma-Chan Meditation on Cardiorespiratory Synchronization and Heart Rate Variability Behavior  

PubMed Central

Abstract Remarkable changes in cardiorespiratory interactions are frequently experienced by Chan meditation practitioners following years of practice. This study compares the results of our study on cardiorespiratory interactions for novice (control group) and experienced (experimental group) Chan meditation practitioners. The effectual co-action between the cardiac and respiratory systems was evaluated by the degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization (CRPS). In addition, an adaptive-frequency-range (AFR) scheme to reliably quantify heart rate variability (HRV) was developed for assessing the regulation of sympathetic–parasympathetic activity and the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange. The enhanced HRV method, named HRVAFR, can resolve the issue of overestimating HRV under the condition of slow respiration rates, which is frequently encountered in studies on Chan meditation practitioners. In the comparison of the three data sets collected from the two groups, our findings resulted in innovative hypotheses to interpret the extraordinary process of the rejuvenation of cardiorespiratory functions through long-term Dharma-Chan meditation practice. Particularly, advanced practitioners exhibit a continuously high degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization, even during rapid breathing. Based on our post-experimental interview with advanced practitioners, the activation of inner Chakra energy, during the course of Chan-detachment practice, frequently induces perceptible physiological-mental reformation, including an efficient mechanism for regulating cardiorespiratory interactions. PMID:23323597

Chang, Chih-Hao

2013-01-01

81

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

SciTech Connect

Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers.

Colwell, F.S.; Crawford, R.L.; Sorenson, K.

2005-09-01

82

Long-term survival rates of laryngeal cancer patients treated by radiation and surgery, radiation alone, and surgery alone : studied by lognormal and Kaplan-Meier survival methods  

PubMed Central

Background Validation of the use of the lognormal model for predicting long-term survival rates using short-term follow-up data. Methods 907 cases of laryngeal cancer were treated from 1973–1977 by radiation and surgery (248), radiation alone (345), and surgery alone (314), in registries of Connecticut and Metropolitan Detroit of the SEER database, with known survival status up to 1999. Phase 1 of this study used the minimum chi-square test to assess the goodness of fit of the survival times of those who died with disease to a lognormal distribution. Phase 2 used the maximum likelihood method to estimate long-term survival rates using short-term follow-up data. In order to validate the lognormal model, the estimated long-term cancer-specific survival rates (CSSR) were compared with the values calculated by the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method using long-term data. Results The 25-year CSSR were predicted to be 72%, 68% and 65% for treatments by radiation and surgery, by radiation alone, and by surgery alone respectively, using short-term follow-up data by the lognormal model. Corresponding results calculated by the KM method were: 72+/-3%, 68+/-3% and 66+/-4% respectively. Conclusions The lognormal model was validated for the prediction of the long-term survival rates of laryngeal cancer patients treated by these different methods. The lognormal model may become a useful tool in research on outcomes. PMID:15683543

Tai, Patricia; Yu, Edward; Shiels, Ross; Tonita, Jon

2005-01-01

83

FEASIBILITY OF DOSE ADJUSTMENT BASED ON DIFFERENCE IN LONG-TERM CLEARANCE RATES OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Long-term pulmonary clearance rates were evaluated for several laboratory animal species, dogs, and humans to determine if differences among species exist, and if so, the adequacy of the data for dose adjustment. Within each species, large variations in clearance rates were seen,...

84

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

SciTech Connect

Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers. Third, we have systematically considered the aquifer contaminants at different locations in plumes at other DOE sites in order to determine whether MNA is a broadly applicable remediation strategy for chlorinated hydrocarbons (North Wind Inc.). Realistic terms for co-metabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE’s ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. This project also aims to derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

2005-09-01

85

The impairment of true glomerular filtration rate in long-term cyclosporine-treated pediatric allograft recipients  

SciTech Connect

We performed indium-111-DTPA plasma clearance studies in 61 pediatric kidney and liver recipients treated with cyclosporine to compare true glomerular filtration rate with calculated GFR (cGFR). The mean true GFR of 61.9 +/- 36.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 indicated renal impairment. The mean cGFR of 85.2 +/- 22.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 was significantly higher (P less than 0.001), and overestimated GFR by 38%. cGFR alone did not accurately reflect the degree of renal dysfunction. A group of 48 pediatric orthotopic liver transplant recipients was studied in more detail: 73% of these patients had a true GFR less than 70 ml/min/1.73 m2, while 85% had a true GFR below 90 ml/min/1.73 m2, the lower limit for normal GFR in children. The mean true GFR for patients treated more than 24 months with CsA was lower (P = 0.02) than patients treated with CsA for 12 to 24 months. OLT patients with normal true GFR (greater than 90 ml/min/1.73 m2) had significantly lower plasma CsA levels, and 50% of patients with a true GFR less than or equal to 50 ml/min/1.73 m2 had hypertension. There was no effect on true GFR of age, liver function, azathioprine use, or peritransplant treatment with other nephrotoxic drugs. We conclude that true GFR is significantly impaired in long-term CsA-treated allograft pediatric recipients. Calculations of GFR underestimate the degree of renal dysfunction. As patients treated greater than 24 months had the lowest true GFRs, the fall in GFR may be progressive.

McDiarmid, S.V.; Ettenger, R.B.; Hawkins, R.A.; Senguttvan, P.; Busuttil, R.W.; Vargas, J.; Berquist, W.E.; Ament, M.E.

1990-01-01

86

24 CFR 206.21 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 206.21 Section...AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE ...206.21 Interest rate. (a) Fixed interest...the periodic interest rate increases and decreases as...

2010-04-01

87

FATE OF NITROGEN-15 IN A LONG-TERM NITROGEN RATE STUDY: I. INTERACTIONS WITH SOIL NITROGEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A better understanding of how N management practices affect transformations and movement of fertilizer N may lead to more efficient N management. The objectives of this work were to determine how long-term N fertilizer history in a continuous corn (Zea mays L.) production system affects (i) movemen...

88

Long-term operation of high rate algal ponds for the bioremediation of piggery wastewaters at high loading rates.  

PubMed

The performance of two 464-L high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) treating 20- and 10-folds diluted swine manure at 10 days of hydraulic residence time was evaluated under continental climatic conditions in Castilla y Leon (Spain) from January to October. Under optimum environmental conditions (from July to September), both HRAPs supported a stable and efficient carbon and nitrogen oxidation performance, with average COD and TKN removal efficiencies of 76+/-11% and 88+/-6%, respectively, and biomass productivities ranging from 21 to 28 g/m(2)d. Nitrification was identified as the main TKN removal mechanism at dissolved oxygen concentrations higher than 2mg/L (accounting for 80-86% of the TKN removed from January to May and for 54% from July to September). On the other hand, empirical evidences of a simultaneous nitrification-denitrification process were found at dissolved oxygen concentrations lower than 0.5mg/L (high organic loading rates). However, despite the achievement of excellent COD and nitrogen oxidation performance, phosphorous removal efficiencies lower than 10% were recorded in both HRAPs probably due to the high buffer capacity of the piggery wastewater treated (absence of abiotic pH-mediated PO(4)(3-) precipitation). Finally, a detailed monitorization of the dynamics of microalgae population revealed that the combination of moderate temperatures/solar irradiances and high organic loading rates, prevailing during late spring and summer, supported higher microalgae diversities than those found during winter conditions. PMID:19427783

Godos, Ignacio de; Blanco, Saúl; García-Encina, Pedro A; Becares, Eloy; Muñoz, Raúl

2009-10-01

89

Long-term erosion rate measurements in gypsum caves of Sorbas (SE Spain) by the Micro-Erosion Meter method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work deals with the results of long-term micro-erosion measurements in the most important gypsum cave of Spain, the Cueva del Agua (Sorbas, Almeria, SE Spain). Nineteen MEM stations were positioned in 1992 in a wide range of morphological and environmental settings (gypsum floors and walls, carbonate speleothems, dry conduits and vadose passages) inside and outside the cave, on gypsum and carbonate bedrocks and exposed to variable degree of humidity, different air flow and hydrodynamic conditions. Four different sets of stations have been investigated: (1) the main cave entrance (Las Viñicas spring); (2) the main river passage; (3) the abandoned Laboratory tunnel; and (4) the external gypsum surface. Data over a period of about 18 years are available. The average lowering rates vary from 0.014 to 0.016 mm yr- 1 near the main entrance and in the Laboratory tunnel, to 0.022 mm - 1 on gypsum floors and 0.028 mm yr- 1 on carbonate flowstones. The denudation data from the external gypsum stations are quite regular with a rate of 0.170 mm yr- 1. The observations allowed the collecting of important information concerning the feeding of the karst aquifer not only by infiltrating rainwater, but under present climate conditions also by water condensation of moist air flow. This contribution to the overall karst processes in the Cueva del Agua basin represents over 20% of the total chemical dissolution of the karst area and more than 50% of the speleogenetically removed gypsum in the cave system, thus representing all but a secondary role in speleogenesis. Condensation-corrosion is most active along the medium walls, being slower at the roof and almost absent close to the floor. This creates typical corrosion morphologies such as cupola, while gypsum flowers develop where evaporation dominates. This approach also shows quantitatively the morphological implications of condensation-corrosion processes in gypsum karst systems in arid zones, responsible for an average surface lowering of 0.047 mm yr- 1, while mechanical erosion produces a lowering of 0.123 mm yr- 1.

Sanna, Laura; De Waele, Jo; Calaforra, José Maria; Forti, Paolo

2015-01-01

90

Changes in long-term no-till corn growth and yield under different rates of stover mulch  

SciTech Connect

Received for publication January 4, 2006. Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. We assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam (fine loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston in Ohio, and predicted corn yield from soil properties using principal component analysis (PCA). The study was conducted in 2005 on the ongoing experiments started in May 2004 under 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200)% of stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal promoted early emergence and rapid seedling growth (P < 0.01). Early-emerging plants grew taller than late-emerging plants up to about 50 d, and then the heights reversed at Coshocton and were comparable at other two sites. Stover management affected corn yield only at the Coshocton site where average grain and stover yields in the T200, T100, T75, and T50 (10.8 and 10.3 Mg ha-1) were higher than those in the T0 and T25 treatments (8.5 and 6.5 Mg ha-1) (P < 0.01), showing that stover removal at rates as low as 50% (2.5 Mg ha-1) decreased crop yields. Soil properties explained 71% of the variability in grain yield and 33% of the variability in stover yield for the Coshocton site. Seventeen months after the start of the experiment, effects of stover management on corn yield and soil properties were site-specific.

Blanco-Canqui, Dr. Humberto [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Lal, Dr. Rattan [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Owens, Lloyd [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

2006-09-01

91

Long-term outcome by risk factors using conformal high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) boost with or without neoadjuvant androgen suppression for localized prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe aim of this study is to analyze, during the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era, the long-term outcome of patients treated with conformal high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost to the prostate with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) when patients are stratified by risk factors for failure.

Razvan M Galalae; Alvaro Martinez; Tim Mate; Christina Mitchell; Gregory Edmundson; Nils Nuernberg; Stephen Eulau; Gary Gustafson; Michael Gribble; Gyoergy Kovács

2004-01-01

92

Long-Term Nutrient Accumulation Rates in the Everglades K. R. Reddy,* R. D. DeLaune, W. F. DeBusk, and M. S. Koch  

E-print Network

Long-Term Nutrient Accumulation Rates in the Everglades K. R. Reddy,* R. D. DeLaune, W. F. DeBusk, and M. S. Koch ABSTRACT Anthropogenic nutrient inputs to the northern Everglades of Flor- ida during the last three decades have resulted in alteration of vege- tation and soil nutrient storage. Due

Florida, University of

93

Effects of initial iron corrosion rate on long-term performance of iron permeable reactive barriers: Column experiments and numerical simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Column experiments and numerical simulation were conducted to test the hypothesis that iron material having a high corrosion rate is not beneficial for the long-term performance of iron permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) because of faster passivation of iron and greater porosity loss close to the influent face of the PRBs. Four iron materials (Connelly, Gotthart-Maier, Peerless, and ISPAT) were used

Jin suk O; Sung-Wook Jeen; Robert W. Gillham; Lai Gui

2009-01-01

94

Rates, causes, and dynamic of long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic "passive continental margin", Brazil and Namibia, as revealed by thermo-kinematic numerical modeling.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the research is to quantify the long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in SE-Brazil and NW-Namibia. Excellent onshore outcrop conditions and complete rift to post-rift archives between Sao Paulo and Porto Alegre and in the transition from Namibia to Angola (onshore Walvis ridge) allow a high precision quantification of exhumation, and uplift rates, influencing physical parameters, long-term acting forces, and process-response systems. Research will integrate the published and partly published thermochronological data from Brazil and Namibia, and test lately published new concepts on causes of long-term landscape evolution at rifted margins. The climate-continental margin-mantle coupled process-response system is caused by the interaction between endogenous and exogenous forces, which are related to the mantle-process driven rift - drift - passive continental margin evolution of the South Atlantic, and the climate change since the Early/Late Cretaceous climate maximum. Special emphasis will be given to the influence of long-living transform faults such as the Florianopolis Fracture Zone (FFZ) on the long-term topography evolution of the SAPCM's. A long-term landscape evolution model with process rates will be achieved by thermo-kinematic 3-D modeling (software code PECUBE and FastCape). Testing model solutions obtained for a multidimensional parameter space against the real thermochronological and geomorphological data set, the most likely combinations of parameter rates, and values can be constrained. The data and models will allow separating the exogenous and endogenous forces and their process rates.

Christian, Stippich; Anton, Glasmacher Ulrich; Peter, Christian, Hackspacher

2014-05-01

95

76 FR 16570 - Interest Rate Risk  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Part 741 RIN 3133-AD66 Interest Rate Risk AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration...written policy addressing interest rate risk (IRR) management and an effective IRR...effective program addressing interest rate risk (IRR) as part of their asset...

2011-03-24

96

Short-term foraging costs and long-term fueling rates in central-place foraging swans revealed by giving-up exploitation times.  

PubMed

Foragers tend to exploit patches to a lesser extent farther away from their central place. This has been interpreted as a response to increased risk of predation or increased metabolic costs of prey delivery. Here we show that migratory Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii), though not incurring greater predation risks farther out or delivering food to a central place, also feed for shorter periods at patches farther away from their roost. Predictions from an energy budget model suggest that increasing metabolic travel costs per se are responsible. Establishing the relation between intake rate and exploitation time enabled us to express giving-up exploitation times as quitting harvest rates (QHRs). This revealed that net QHRs were not different from observed long-term net intake rates, a sign that the birds were maximizing their long-term net intake rate. This study is unique because giving-up decisions were measured at the individual level, metabolic and predation costs were assessed simultaneously, the relation with harvest rate was made explicit, and finally, short-term giving-up decisions were related to long-term net intake rates. We discuss and conceptualize the implications of metabolic traveling costs for carrying-capacity predictions by bridging the gap between optimal-foraging theory and optimal-migration theory. PMID:17427132

van Gils, J A; Tijsen, W

2007-05-01

97

Gray matter volume is associated with rate of subsequent skill learning after a long term training intervention  

PubMed Central

The ability to predict learning performance from brain imaging data has implications for selecting individuals for training or rehabilitation interventions. Here, we used structural MRI to test whether baseline variations in gray matter (GM) volume correlated with subsequent performance after a long-term training of a complex whole-body task. 44 naïve participants were scanned before undertaking daily juggling practice for 6 weeks, following either a high intensity or a low intensity training regime. To assess performance across the training period participants' practice sessions were filmed. Greater GM volume in medial occipito-parietal areas at baseline correlated with steeper learning slopes. We also tested whether practice time or performance outcomes modulated the degree of structural brain change detected between the baseline scan and additional scans performed immediately after training and following a further 4 weeks without training. Participants with better performance had higher increases in GM volume during the period following training (i.e., between scans 2 and 3) in dorsal parietal cortex and M1. When contrasting brain changes between the practice intensity groups, we did not find any straightforward effects of practice time though practice modulated the relationship between performance and GM volume change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that practice time and performance modulate the degree of structural brain change evoked by long-term training regimes. PMID:24680712

Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Scholz, Jan; Jenkinson, Mark; Thomas, Adam G.; Filippini, Nicola; Smit, Gabrielle; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

2014-01-01

98

A New Paradigm for Gamma Ray Bursts: Long Term Accretion Rate Modulation by an External Accretion Disk  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a new way of looking at the very long term evolution of GRBs in which the disk of material surrounding the putative black hole powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the efficacy of the process that extracts rotational energy from the black hole and inner accretion disk. The pre-Swift paradigm of achromatic, shallow-to-steep "breaks" in the long term GRB light curves has not been borne out by detailed Swift data amassed in the past several years. We argue that, given the initial existence of a fall-back disk near the progenitor, an unavoidable consequence will be the formation of an "external disk" whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. The mass reservoir at large radii moves outward with time and gives a natural power law decay to the GRB light curves. In this model, the different canonical power law decay segments in the GRB identified by Zhang et al. and Nousek et al. represent different physical states of the accretion disk. We identify a physical disk state with each power law segment.

Cannizzo, John; Gehrels, Neil

2009-01-01

99

Possible use of EPDM in radioactive waste disposal: Long term low dose rate and short term high dose rate irradiation in aquatic and atmospheric environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, changes in the properties of ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) irradiated with different dose rates in ambient atmosphere and aqueous environment were investigated. Irradiations were carried out both with low dose and high dose rate irradiation sources. EPDM samples which were differentiated from each other by peroxide type and 5-ethylidene 2-norbornene (ENB) contents were used. Long term low dose rate irradiations were carried out for the duration of up to 2.5 years (total dose of 1178 kGy) in two different irradiation environments. Dose rates (both high and low), irradiation environments (in aquatic and open to atmosphere), and peroxide types (aliphatic or aromatic) were the parameters studied. Characterization of irradiated EPDM samples were performed by hardness, compression, tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), TGA-FTIR, ATR-FTIR, XRD and SEM tests. It was observed that the irradiation in water environment led to a lower degree of degradation when compared to that of irradiation open to atmosphere for the same irradiation dose. In addition, irradiation environment, peroxide type and dose rate had effects on the extent of change in the properties of EPDM. It was observed that EPDM is relatively radiation resistant and a candidate polymer for usage in radioactive waste management.

Hac?o?lu, F?rat; Özdemir, Tonguç; Çavdar, Seda; Usanmaz, Ali

2013-02-01

100

Interest rate swaps and economic exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest rate swap market has grown rapidly. Since the inception of the swap market in 1981, the outstanding notional principal of interest rate swaps has reached a level of $12.81 trillion in 1995. Recent surveys indicate that interest rate swaps are the most commonly used interest rate derivative by nonfinancial firms and that nonfinancial firms are major users of

Gautam Goswami; Milind Shrikhande

1997-01-01

101

Three-Year long-term outcome of 458 naturalistically treated inpatients with major depressive episode: severe relapse rates and risk factors.  

PubMed

In randomized controlled trials, maintenance treatment for relapse prevention has been proven to be efficacious in patients responding in acute treatment, its efficacy in long-term outcome in "real-world patients" has yet to be proven. Three-year long-term data from a large naturalistic multisite follow-up were presented. Severe relapse was defined as suicide, severe suicide attempt, or rehospitalization. Next to relapse rates, possible risk factors including antidepressant medication were identified using univariate generalized log-rank tests and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model for time to severe relapse. Overall data of 458 patients were available for analysis. Of all patients, 155 (33.6%) experienced at least one severe relapse during the 3-year follow-up. The following variables were associated with a shorter time to a severe relapse in univariate and multivariate analyses: multiple hospitalizations, presence of avoidant personality disorder, continuing antipsychotic medication, and no further antidepressant treatment. In comparison with other studies, the observed rate of severe relapse during 3-year period is rather low. This is one of the first reports demonstrating a beneficial effect of long-term antidepressant medication on severe relapse rates in naturalistic patients. Concomitant antipsychotic medication may be a proxy marker for treatment resistant and psychotic depression. PMID:24590257

Seemüller, Florian; Meier, Sebastian; Obermeier, Michael; Musil, Richard; Bauer, Michael; Adli, Mazda; Kronmüller, Klaus; Holsboer, Florian; Brieger, Peter; Laux, Gerd; Bender, Wolfram; Heuser, Isabella; Zeiler, Joachim; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Riedel, Michael; Falkai, Peter; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

2014-10-01

102

High Credit-Card Interest Rates: What Gives? Chairman Greenspan and his colleagues on the Federal Open Market Committee have  

E-print Network

High Credit-Card Interest Rates: What Gives? Chairman Greenspan and his colleagues on the Federal, even though long-term interest rates have inched higher in recent weeks. Credit-card interest rates information about credit cards provides important context. A credit card allows financial institutions

Ahmad, Sajjad

103

Long Term Ecological Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze data on temperature and precipitation collected from 26 different Long Term Ecological Research sites and compare them with annual net primary productivity. The students then form an ecological rule to explain their results.

Scott Cooper

104

7 CFR 1738.152 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Direct Loan Terms § 1738.152 Interest rates. (a) Direct cost-of-money loans shall bear interest at a rate equal to...

2013-01-01

105

7 CFR 1738.152 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Direct Loan Terms § 1738.152 Interest rates. (a) Direct cost-of-money loans shall bear interest at a rate equal to...

2014-01-01

106

7 CFR 1738.152 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Direct Loan Terms § 1738.152 Interest rates. (a) Direct cost-of-money loans shall bear interest at a rate equal to...

2012-01-01

107

Pricing Interest-Rate-Derivative Securities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows that the one-state-variable interest-rate models of Vasicek (1977) and Cox, Ingersoll, and Ross (1985b) can be extended so that they are consistent with both the current term structure of interest rates and either the current volatilities of all spot interest rates or the current volatilities of all forward interest rates. The extended Vasicek model is shown to

John Hull; Alan White

1990-01-01

108

Long-term cattle gain responses to stocking rate and grazing systems in northern mixed-grass prairie  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of stocking rate and grazing system on gains of yearling beef cattle grazing rangelands have largely been addressed in short-term (<10 yr) studies, and often stocking rates are confounded within grazing systems with higher stocking rates for short-duration rotational grazing systems comp...

109

Long-term testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

110

Long-term complication and patency rates of Vectra and IMPRA Carboflo vascular access grafts with aggressive monitoring, surveillance and endovascular management.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to compare infection, pseudoaneurysm formation and patency rates during long-term follow-up of polyurethane and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vascular access grafts maintained with contemporary endovascular methods. During a 34-month period, 239 polyurethane and 125 carbon-impregnated PTFE vascular access grafts were placed in 324 consecutive patients. Thirty-six patients (9.9%) developed a pseudoaneurysm (anastomotic, n = 6 or at the needle-stick site, n = 30). An additional 19 patients (5.2%) required graft excision for infection. Three-year graft infection and pseudoaneurysm formation (at needle-stick site) rates were similar in polyurethane and PTFE grafts (11% versus 8%, P = 0.61, and 17% versus 23%, P = 0.72, respectively). Three-year secondary patency was better in polyurethane than PTFE grafts (69% versus 57%, respectively, P = 0.012). Straight upper arm polyurethane grafts had the best secondary patency (P = 0.001). Contemporary long-term secondary patency of vascular access grafts is satisfactory. Further follow-up is necessary to compare late infection and pseudoaneurysm formation rates. PMID:21489923

Kakkos, S K; Topalidis, D; Haddad, R; Haddad, G K; Shepard, A D

2011-02-01

111

Carbon accumulation in a permafrost polygon peatland: steady long-term rates in spite of shifts between dry and wet conditions.  

PubMed

Ice-wedge polygon peatlands contain a substantial part of the carbon stored in permafrost soils. However, little is known about their long-term carbon accumulation rates (CAR) in relation to shifts in vegetation and climate. We collected four peat profiles from one single polygon in NE Yakutia and cut them into contiguous 0.5 cm slices. Pollen density interpolation between AMS (14) C dated levels provided the time span contained in each of the sample slices, which - in combination with the volumetric carbon content - allowed for the reconstruction of CAR over decadal and centennial timescales. Vegetation representing dry palaeo-ridges and wet depressions was reconstructed with detailed micro- and macrofossil analysis. We found repeated shifts between wet and dry conditions during the past millennium. Dry ridges with associated permafrost growth originated during phases of (relatively) warm summer temperature and collapsed during relatively cold phases, illustrating the important role of vegetation and peat as intermediaries between ambient air temperature and the permafrost. The average long-term CAR across the four profiles was 10.6 ± 5.5 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) . Time-weighted mean CAR did not differ significantly between wet depression and dry ridge/hummock phases (10.6 ± 5.2 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) and 10.3 ± 5.7 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) , respectively). Although we observed increased CAR in relation to warm shifts, we also found changes in the opposite direction and the highest CAR actually occurred during the Little Ice Age. In fact, CAR rather seems to be governed by strong internal feedback mechanisms and has roughly remained stable on centennial time scales. The absence of significant differences in CAR between dry ridge and wet depression phases suggests that recent warming and associated expansion of shrubs will not affect long-term rates of carbon burial in ice-wedge polygon peatlands. PMID:25230297

Gao, Yang; Couwenberg, John

2015-02-01

112

Short and long-term joint symbolic dynamics of heart rate and blood pressure in dilated cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic cardiovascular control involves complex interactions of heart rate and blood pressure. In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), this control is impaired and parameters for its quantification might be of prognostic importance. In this paper, we introduce methods based on joint symbolic dynamics (JSD) for the enhanced analysis of heart rate and blood pressure interactions. To assess the coarse-grained dynamics

Mathias Baumert; V. Baier; S. Truebner; A. Schirdewan; A. Voss

2005-01-01

113

Determinants of metastatic rate and survival in patients with zollinger-ellison syndrome: A prospective long-term study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: It is unclear whether tumor location, size, or the presence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) alters metastatic rate and survival in patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic factors of survival and metastatic rate in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Methods: Data were analyzed from 185 consecutive patients with

H. Christian Weber; David J. Venzon; Jaw-Town Lin; Vitaly A. Fishbein; Murray Orbuch; Doris B. Strader; Fathia Gibril; David C. Metz; Douglas L. Fraker; Jeffrey A. Norton; Robert T. Jensen

1995-01-01

114

Erosion rates at the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites and long-term climate change on Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of ???0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga). Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J.A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R.E.; Bell, J.F., III; Weitz, C.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Christensen, P.R.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S.W.

2006-01-01

115

Erosion Rates at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites and Long-Term Climate Change on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of approx.0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga).

Golombek, M. P.; Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L. S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Weitz, C. M.; Sullivan, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Soderblom, L. A.; Squyres, S. W.

2006-01-01

116

The impact of long-term water stress on relative growth rate and morphology of needles and shoots of Metasequoia glyptostroboides seedlings: research toward identifying mechanistic models.  

PubMed

Leaf morphology in the upper canopy of trees tends to be different from that lower down. The effect of long-term water stress on leaf growth and morphology was studied in seedlings of Metasequoia glyptostroboides to understand how tree height might affect leaf morphology in larger trees. Tree height increases water stress on growing leaves through increased hydraulic resistance to water flow and increased gravitational potential, hence we assume that water stress imposed by soil dehydration will have an effect equivalent to stress induced by height. Seedlings were subjected to well-watered and two constant levels of long-term water stress treatments. Drought treatment significantly reduced final needle count, area and mass per area (leaf mass area, LMA) and increased needle density. Needles from water-stressed plants had lower maximum volumetric elastic modulus (?(max)), osmotic potential at full turgor (?¹??(?)) (and at zero turgor (??(?)) (than those from well-watered plants. Palisade and spongy mesophyll cell size and upper epidermal cell size decreased significantly in drought treatments. Needle relative growth rate, needle length and cell sizes were linear functions of the daily average water potential at the time of leaf growth (r² 0.88-0.999). We conclude that water stress alone does mimic the direction and magnitude of changes in leaf morphology observed in tall trees. The results are discussed in terms of various models for leaf growth rate. PMID:21534977

Zhang, Yanxiang; Equiza, Maria Alejandra; Zheng, Quanshui; Tyree, Melvin T

2011-09-01

117

Activity Preferences and Satisfaction Among Older Adults in a Veterans Administration Long-Term Care Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities can be a nonpharmacological intervention for depression in long-term care. To address the activity needs of men, 183 residents of a VA long-term care facility were surveyed about activity interests, past and present, and activity satisfaction. With a 30% return rate, residents reported 85% overall satisfaction with activities and identified television as the most preferred activity, past and present.

Jacqueline Kracker; Kelly Kearns; Frederick J. Kier; Kimberly A. Christensen

2011-01-01

118

Corporate debt, Share of Wages in Value Added and Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been observed, in a number of european countries like France, that the increase in real long term interest rates seemd to imply a decrease in the corporate debt ratios (the debt to equity ratio or the debt to value added ratio) and also a decrease in th share of wages in value-added. We analyse the existence of a

P. Artus

1996-01-01

119

Money, Interest Rate and Stock Prices: New Evidence from Singapore and The United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the long-term as well as short-term equilibrium relationships between the major stock indices and selected macroeconomic variables (such as money supply and interest rate) of Singapore and the United States by employing the advanced time series analysis techniques that include cointegration, Johansen multivariate cointegrated system, fractional cointegration and Granger causality. The cointegration results based on data covering

Wong Keung-Wing; Habibullah Khan; Jun Du

2006-01-01

120

Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Effects, Weight Loss and Maintenance During Long-Term Phentermine Pharmacotherapy for Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a perception that phentermine pharmacotherapy for obesity increases blood pressure and heart rate (HR), exposing treated patients to increased cardiovascular risk. We collected data from phentermine-treated (PT) and phentermine-untreated (P0) patients at a private weight management practice, to examine blood pressure, HR, and weight changes. Records of 300 sequential returning patients were selected who had been treated with

Ed J. Hendricks; Frank L. Greenway; Eric C. Westman; Alok K. Gupta

2011-01-01

121

Surgical Correction of Isolated Superficial Venous Reflux Reduces Long-term Recurrence Rate in Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: surgical correction of isolated superficial venous reflux in ulcerated legs may reduce short term recurrence rates but the longer term benefits are unknown. Design: prospective non-randomised cohort study. Methods: consecutive patients with chronic leg ulcers were prospectively assessed at a one-stop clinic over a 4-year period from July 1995 to July 1999. All patients with ankle brachial pressure indices

JR Barwell; M Taylor; J Deacon; ASK Ghauri; C Wakely; LK Phillips; Whyman; KR Poskitt

2000-01-01

122

Outcomes of High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Long-term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and toxicity of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between March 1996 and May 2009, 116 patients with cervical cancer were treated. Of these, 106 (91%) patients had advanced disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA). Ten patients had stage IB, 48 had stage II, 51 had stage III, and 7 had stage IVA disease. All patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the pelvis (5040 cGy) and 2 applications of HDR-ISBT to a dose of 3600 cGy to the implanted volume. Sixty-one percent of patients also received interstitial hyperthermia, and 94 (81%) patients received chemotherapy. Results: Clinical LRC was achieved in 99 (85.3%) patients. Three-year DFS rates were 59%, 67%, 71%, and 57% for patients with stage IB, II, III, and IVA disease, respectively. The 5-year DFS and overall survival rates for the entire group were 60% and 44%, respectively. Acute and late toxicities were within acceptable limits. Conclusions: Locally advanced cervical cancer patients for whom intracavitary BT is unsuitable can achieve excellent LRC and OS with a combination of EBRT and HDR-ISBT.

Pinn-Bingham, Melva [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States); Puthawala, Ajmel A., E-mail: aputhawla@memorialcare.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, California (United States); Syed, A.M. Nisar; Sharma, Anil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, California (United States); DiSaia, Philip; Berman, Michael; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Randall-Whitis, Leslie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecology and Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecology and Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States); Mahmood, Usama [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ramsinghani, Nilam; Kuo, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States); Chen, Wen-Pin [Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States); McLaren, Christine E. [Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California (United States)

2013-03-01

123

Long-Term Data Reveal a Population Decline of the Tropical Lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a Negative Affect of El Nino Years on Population Growth Rate  

PubMed Central

Climate change threatens biodiversity worldwide, however predicting how particular species will respond is difficult because climate varies spatially, complex factors regulate population abundance, and species vary in their susceptibility to climate change. Studies need to incorporate these factors with long-term data in order to link climate change to population abundance. We used 40 years of lizard abundance data and local climate data from Barro Colorado Island to ask how climate, total lizard abundance and cohort-specific abundance have changed over time, and how total and cohort-specific abundance relate to climate variables including those predicted to make the species vulnerable to climate change (i.e. temperatures exceeding preferred body temperature). We documented a decrease in lizard abundance over the last 40 years, and changes in the local climate. Population growth rate was related to the previous years’ southern oscillation index; increasing following cooler-wetter, la niña years, decreasing following warmer-drier, el nino years. Within-year recruitment was negatively related to rainfall and minimum temperature. This study simultaneously identified climatic factors driving long-term population fluctuations and climate variables influencing short-term annual recruitment, both of which may be contributing to the population decline and influence the population’s future persistence. PMID:25671423

Stapley, Jessica; Garcia, Milton; Andrews, Robin M.

2015-01-01

124

Long-term data reveal a population decline of the tropical lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a negative affect of el nino years on population growth rate.  

PubMed

Climate change threatens biodiversity worldwide, however predicting how particular species will respond is difficult because climate varies spatially, complex factors regulate population abundance, and species vary in their susceptibility to climate change. Studies need to incorporate these factors with long-term data in order to link climate change to population abundance. We used 40 years of lizard abundance data and local climate data from Barro Colorado Island to ask how climate, total lizard abundance and cohort-specific abundance have changed over time, and how total and cohort-specific abundance relate to climate variables including those predicted to make the species vulnerable to climate change (i.e. temperatures exceeding preferred body temperature). We documented a decrease in lizard abundance over the last 40 years, and changes in the local climate. Population growth rate was related to the previous years' southern oscillation index; increasing following cooler-wetter, la niña years, decreasing following warmer-drier, el nino years. Within-year recruitment was negatively related to rainfall and minimum temperature. This study simultaneously identified climatic factors driving long-term population fluctuations and climate variables influencing short-term annual recruitment, both of which may be contributing to the population decline and influence the population's future persistence. PMID:25671423

Stapley, Jessica; Garcia, Milton; Andrews, Robin M

2015-01-01

125

Effects of long-term increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, precipitation, temperature and N deposition on gross N mineralization and nitrification rates in California annual grassland soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the effects of long-term increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, precipitation, temperature and N deposition on soil inorganic N content, and gross and net N transformation rates in Californian grassland. We sampled soil (0-10 cm) from the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment plots in February and April 2005, and determined the gross N mineralization and nitrification rates using the 15N isotope dilution methodology. Statistical analysis revealed significant interactions between multiple climate change factors, making mechanistic interpretations difficult. Consistent effects of N deposition and an interaction between atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature treatments on N cycling were observed. These results demonstrate the importance of studying interactions between multiple climate change factors in order to provide realistic predictions of C and N cycling under realistic future environmental conditions.

Hungate, B. A.; Gurwick, N. P.; Dijkstra, P.

2007-12-01

126

Heart rate reduction for 36 months with ivabradine reduces left ventricular mass in cardiac allograft recipients: a long-term follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Due to graft denervation, sinus tachycardia is a common problem after heart transplantation, underlining the importance of heart rate control without peripheral effects. However, long-term data regarding the effects of ivabradine, a novel If channel antagonist, are limited in patients after heart transplantation. Methods In this follow-up analysis, the resting heart rate, left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area (LVMI), tolerability, and safety of ivabradine therapy were evaluated at baseline and after 36 months in 30 heart transplant recipients with symptomatic sinus tachycardia versus a matched control group. Results During the study period, ivabradine medication was stopped in three patients (10% of total). Further analysis was based on 27 patients with 36 months of drug intake. The mean patient age was 53.3±11.3 years and mean time after heart transplantation was 5.0±4.8 years. After 36 months, the mean ivabradine dose was 12.0±3.4 mg/day. Resting heart rate was reduced from 91.0±10.7 beats per minute before initiation of ivabradine therapy (ie, baseline) to 81.2±9.8 beats per minute at follow-up (P=0.0006). After 36 months of ivabradine therapy, a statistically significant reduction of LVMI was observed (104.3±22.7 g at baseline versus 93.4±18.4 g at follow-up, P=0.002). Hematologic, renal, and liver function parameters remained stable during ivabradine therapy. Except for a lower mycophenolate mofetil dose at follow-up (P=0.02), no statistically significant changes in immunosuppressive drug dosage or blood levels were detected. No phosphenes were observed during 36 months of ivabradine intake despite active inquiry. Conclusion In line with previously published 12-month data, heart rate reduction with ivabradine remained effective and safe in chronic stable patients after heart transplantation, and also during 36-month long-term follow-up. Further, a significant reduction of LVMI was observed only during ivabradine therapy. Therefore, ivabradine may have a sustained long-term beneficial effect with regard to left ventricular remodeling in heart transplant patients. PMID:24235815

Doesch, Andreas O; Mueller, Susanne; Erbel, Christian; Gleissner, Christian A; Frankenstein, Lutz; Hardt, Stefan; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Ehlermann, Philipp; Dengler, Thomas; Katus, Hugo A

2013-01-01

127

Hierarchical vanadium pentoxide microflowers with excellent long-term cyclability at high rates for lithium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hierarchical V2O5 microflowers composed of thin nanosheets have been achieved by a solvothermal reaction first and then a low-temperature calcination. These micro-flowers are characterized by powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The nanoscale size and sheet-like structure of the building blocks in V2O5 microflowers make them a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries. After 1500 cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1, the reversible capacity of V2O5 microflowers is kept at 104 mAh g-1. Even at a rate of 2 A g-1, the reversible capacity is still above 80 mAh g-1 after 3000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical properties of V2O5 microflowers are associated with their unique structure and capacitive feature.

Chen, Liang; Gu, Xin; Jiang, Xiaolei; Wang, Nana; Yue, Jie; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

2014-12-01

128

In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives  

PubMed Central

A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, ?c, and its geometric mean, ?per-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined ?c and ?per-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (?per-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (?per-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trillium’s ?per-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (?per-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives’ success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide. PMID:24616522

Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B.; Horvitz, Carol C.

2014-01-01

129

In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives.  

PubMed

A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, ?c, and its geometric mean, ?per-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined ?c and ?per-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (?per-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (?per-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trillium's ?per-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (?per-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives' success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide. PMID:24616522

Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B; Horvitz, Carol C

2014-03-25

130

Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids.  

PubMed

Aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. The Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) runs a network of 12·2-m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. In 2014, the RIS celebrated its 50th anniversary. This paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatiotemporal analysis and the provision of the first British annotated checklist of aphids since 1964. Our main aim was to elucidate mechanisms that advance aphid phenology under climate change and explain these using life-history traits. We then highlight emerging pests using accumulation patterns. Linear and nonlinear mixed-effect models estimated the average rate of change per annum and effects of climate on annual counts, first and last flights and length of flight season since 1965. Two climate drivers were used: the accumulated day degrees above 16 °C (ADD16) indicated the potential for migration during the aphid season; the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signalled the severity of the winter before migration took place. All 55 species studied had earlier first flight trends at rate of ? = -0·611 ± SE 0·015 days year(-1) . Of these species, 49% had earlier last flights, but the average species effect appeared relatively stationary (? = -0·010 ± SE 0·022 days year(-1) ). Most species (85%) showed increasing duration of their flight season (? = 0·336 ± SE 0·026 days year(-1) ), even though only 54% increased their log annual count (? = 0·002 ± SE <0·001 year(-1) ). The ADD16 and NAO were shown to drive patterns in aphid phenology in a spatiotemporal context. Early in the year when the first aphids were migrating, the effect of the winter NAO was highly significant. Further into the year, ADD16 was a strong predictor. Latitude had a near linear effect on first flights, whereas longitude produced a generally less-clear effect on all responses. Aphids that are anholocyclic (permanently parthenogenetic) or are monoecious (non-host-alternating) were advancing their phenology faster than those that were not. Climate drives phenology and traits help explain how this takes place biologically. Phenology and trait ecology are critical to understanding the threat posed by emerging pests such as Myzus persicae nicotianae and Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis, as revealed by the species accumulation analysis. PMID:25123260

Bell, James R; Alderson, Lynda; Izera, Daniela; Kruger, Tracey; Parker, Sue; Pickup, Jon; Shortall, Chris R; Taylor, Mark S; Verrier, Paul; Harrington, Richard

2014-08-14

131

Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids  

PubMed Central

1. Aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. The Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) runs a network of 12·2-m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. In 2014, the RIS celebrated its 50th anniversary. This paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatiotemporal analysis and the provision of the first British annotated checklist of aphids since 1964. 2. Our main aim was to elucidate mechanisms that advance aphid phenology under climate change and explain these using life-history traits. We then highlight emerging pests using accumulation patterns. 3. Linear and nonlinear mixed-effect models estimated the average rate of change per annum and effects of climate on annual counts, first and last flights and length of flight season since 1965. Two climate drivers were used: the accumulated day degrees above 16 °C (ADD16) indicated the potential for migration during the aphid season; the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signalled the severity of the winter before migration took place. 4. All 55 species studied had earlier first flight trends at rate of ? = ?0·611 ± SE 0·015 days year?1. Of these species, 49% had earlier last flights, but the average species effect appeared relatively stationary (? = ?0·010 ± SE 0·022 days year?1). Most species (85%) showed increasing duration of their flight season (? = 0·336 ± SE 0·026 days year?1), even though only 54% increased their log annual count (? = 0·002 ± SE <0·001 year?1). 5. The ADD16 and NAO were shown to drive patterns in aphid phenology in a spatiotemporal context. Early in the year when the first aphids were migrating, the effect of the winter NAO was highly significant. Further into the year, ADD16 was a strong predictor. Latitude had a near linear effect on first flights, whereas longitude produced a generally less-clear effect on all responses. Aphids that are anholocyclic (permanently parthenogenetic) or are monoecious (non-host-alternating) were advancing their phenology faster than those that were not. 6. Climate drives phenology and traits help explain how this takes place biologically. Phenology and trait ecology are critical to understanding the threat posed by emerging pests such as Myzus persicae nicotianae and Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis, as revealed by the species accumulation analysis. PMID:25123260

Bell, James R; Alderson, Lynda; Izera, Daniela; Kruger, Tracey; Parker, Sue; Pickup, Jon; Shortall, Chris R; Taylor, Mark S; Verrier, Paul; Harrington, Richard

2015-01-01

132

Effects of short- and long-term exposure to ozone on heart rate and blood pressure of emphysematous rats  

SciTech Connect

Electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure of elastase-treated emphysematous rats (E rats) and saline-treated control rats (S rats) were recorded continuously during exposure to either 1 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/) for 3 hr or 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ for 6 hr. The heart rates (HRs) of both groups decreased to about 50 and 65% of the initial levels at the end of 1 ppm and 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ exposure, respectively. Mean arterial blood pressures (MAPs) also decreased to about 76 and 82%, respectively. There was no significant difference in these responses between E and S rats, although the levels of HRs and MAPs of the E rats were always a little lower than those of the S rats. Another group of E and S rats was continuously exposed to 0.2 ppm O/sub 3/ for 4 weeks. The HRs of both E and S groups decreased to about 81 and 88% of the initial levels on the first day, respectively, although they recovered completely by the third day. No significant difference in the variation of HRs during exposure was noted between E and S rats. However, the HR responses of these rats to a challenge exposure of 0.8 ppm O/sub 3/ for 1.5 hr appeared to be different. That is, S rats were more tolerant of the challenge exposure to O/sub 3/ for 1.5 hr than the E rats.

Uchiyama, I.; Yokoyama, E.

1989-02-01

133

Federal Government Debt and Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does government debt affect interest rates? Despite a substantial body of empirical analysis, the answer based on the past two decades of research is mixed. While many studies suggest, at most, a single-digit rise in the interest rate when government debt increases by one percent of GDP, others estimate either much larger effects or find no effect. Comparing results across

Eric M. Engen; R. Glenn Hubbard

2004-01-01

134

Interest Rates, FICO Scores and Loan Payments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson helps students understand financial topics (interest rates, FICO scores and loan payments) in a mathematical context. Students will calculate monthly payments for a car or home based on the best interest rates available to them. Student materials, including a worksheet, are available on the site.

2011-01-04

135

Semiparametric Odds Rate Model for Modeling Short-Term and Long-Term Effects with Application to a Breast Cancer Genetic Study  

PubMed Central

The proportional odds model is commonly used in the analysis of failure time data. The assumption of constant odds ratios over time in the proportional odds model, however, can be violated in some applications. Motivated by a genetic study with breast cancer patients, we propose a novel semiparametric odds rate model for the analysis of right-censored survival data. The proposed model incorporates the short-term and long-term covariate effects on the failure time data and includes the proportional odds model as a nested model. We develop efficient likelihood-based inference procedures and establish the large sample properties of the proposed non-parametric maximum likelihood estimators. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well in practical settings. An application to the motivating example is provided. PMID:24815054

Yuan, Mengdie

2014-01-01

136

Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of (90)Sr in the skeleton.  

PubMed

The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of (90)Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of (90)Sr were conducted with a whole body counter (WBC) for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of (90)Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested (90)Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption. PMID:21871673

Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

2012-01-01

137

Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton  

SciTech Connect

The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

2012-06-01

138

Long-term data archiving  

SciTech Connect

Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web Consortium, an independent standards body) as a new data interchange tool is being investigated and implemented. In order to facilitate data archiving, Raman data needs calibration as well as some other kinds of data treatment. Figure 1 illustrates schematically the present situation for Raman data calibration in the world-wide Raman spectroscopy community, and presents some of the terminology used.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

139

Rate of Primary Refractory Disease in B and T-Cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Correlation with Long-Term Survival  

PubMed Central

Background Primary refractory disease is a main challenge in the management of non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL). This survey was performed to define the rate of refractory disease to first-line therapy in B and T-cell NHL subtypes and the long-term survival of primary refractory compared to primary responsive patients. Methods Medical records were reviewed of 3,106 patients who had undergone primary treatment for NHL between 1982 and 2012, at the Hematology Centers of Torino and Bergamo, Italy. Primary treatment included CHOP or CHOP-like regimens (63.2%), intensive therapy with autograft (16.9%), or other therapies (19.9%). Among B-cell NHL, 1,356 (47.8%) received first-line chemotherapy with rituximab. Refractory disease was defined as stable/progressive disease, or transient response with disease progression within six months. Results Overall, 690 (22.2%) patients showed primary refractory disease, with a higher incidence amongst T-cell compared to B-cell NHL (41.9% vs. 20.5%, respectively, p<0.001). Several other clinico-pathological factors at presentation were variably associated with refractory disease, including histological aggressive disease, unfavorable clinical presentation, Bone Marrow involvement, low lymphocyte/monocyte ration and male gender. Amongst B-cell NHL, the addition of rituximab was associated with a marked reduction of refractory disease (13.6% vs. 26.7% for non-supplemented chemotherapy, p<0.001). Overall, primary responsive patients had a median survival of 19.8 years, compared to 1.3 yr. for refractory patients. A prolonged survival was consistently observed in all primary responsive patients regardless of the histology. The long life expectancy of primary responsive patients was documented in both series managed before and after 2.000. Response to first line therapy resulted by far the most predictive factor for long-term outcome (HR for primary refractory disease: 16.52, p<0.001). Conclusion Chemosensitivity to primary treatment is crucial for the long-term survival in NHL. This supports the necessity of studies aimed to early identify refractory disease and to develop different treatment strategies for responsive and refractory patients. PMID:25255081

Tarella, Corrado; Gueli, Angela; Delaini, Federica; Rossi, Andrea; Barbui, Anna Maria; Gritti, Giuseppe; Boschini, Cristina; Caracciolo, Daniele; Bruna, Riccardo; Ruella, Marco; Gottardi, Daniela; Passera, Roberto; Rambaldi, Alessandro

2014-01-01

140

[Stapedectomy: long term results].  

PubMed

Stapedectomy, with its most innovatory variations, constitutes the treatment of choice for otoesclerosis. Short term results are spectacular, getting GAP closures of less than 5 dB approximatelly in 94% patients, variations depending on the authors. Long term follow up check results show a gradual auditory deterioration. The aim of this study is to audiometric evolution of patients operated of stapedectomy 7 to 10 years ago in our department and to correlate the results with those obtained by other authors, in an attempt to unify conclusions. PMID:12185900

Hernández Montero, E; Fraile Rodrigo, J; Marín Garrido, C; Sampériz, L Carmen; Llorente Arenas, E; Naya Gálvez, M J; Ortiz García, A

2002-04-01

141

Long-term conditions.  

PubMed

Technology enabled care services (TECS), which include technologies such as telehealth, telecare, telemedicine and self-care apps, are designed to help people manage long-term conditions and retain as much independence as possible. The NHS Commissioning Assembly has published TECS Resource for Commissioners, a toolkit that raises awareness of the range of TECS available and their benefits to patients and professionals, supports commissioners to collaborate with providers to implement TECS, and advises how to create a TECS strategy, oversee implementation plans and ensure effective evaluation. The publication is at tinyurl.com/khsebyr. PMID:25806457

2015-03-25

142

Reconstructing shifts in vital rates driven by long-term environmental change: a new demographic method based on readily available data  

PubMed Central

Frequently, vital rates are driven by directional, long-term environmental changes. Many of these are of great importance, such as land degradation, climate change, and succession. Traditional demographic methods assume a constant or stationary environment, and thus are inappropriate to analyze populations subject to these changes. They also require repeat surveys of the individuals as change unfolds. Methods for reconstructing such lengthy processes are needed. We present a model that, based on a time series of population size structures and densities, reconstructs the impact of directional environmental changes on vital rates. The model uses integral projection models and maximum likelihood to identify the rates that best reconstructs the time series. The procedure was validated with artificial and real data. The former involved simulated species with widely different demographic behaviors. The latter used a chronosequence of populations of an endangered cactus subject to increasing anthropogenic disturbance. In our simulations, the vital rates and their change were always reconstructed accurately. Nevertheless, the model frequently produced alternative results. The use of coarse knowledge of the species' biology (whether vital rates increase or decrease with size or their plausible values) allowed the correct rates to be identified with a 90% success rate. With real data, the model correctly reconstructed the effects of disturbance on vital rates. These effects were previously known from two populations for which demographic data were available. Our procedure seems robust, as the data violated several of the model's assumptions. Thus, time series of size structures and densities contain the necessary information to reconstruct changing vital rates. However, additional biological knowledge may be required to provide reliable results. Because time series of size structures and densities are available for many species or can be rapidly generated, our model can contribute to understand populations that face highly pressing environmental problems. PMID:23919169

González, Edgar J; Martorell, Carlos

2013-01-01

143

Assessment of individual adaptation to microgravity during long term space flight based on stepwise discriminant analysis of heart rate variability parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimization of the cardiovascular system under conditions of long term space flight is provided by individual changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is an easy to use method under these extreme conditions. We tested the hypothesis that individual HRV analysis provides important information for crew health monitoring. HRV data from 14 Russian cosmonauts measured during long term space flights are presented (two times before and after flight, monthly in flight). HRV characteristics in the time and in the frequency domain were calculated. Predefined discriminant function equations obtained in reference groups (L1=-0.112*HR-1.006*SI-0.047*pNN50-0.086*HF; L2=0.140*HR-0.165*SI-1.293*pNN50+0.623*HF) were used to define four functional states. (1) Physiological normal, (2) prenosological, (3) premorbid and (4) pathological. Geometric mean values for the ISS cosmonauts based on L1 and L2 remained within normal ranges. A shift from the physiological normal state to the prenosological functional state during space flight was detected. The functional state assessed by HRV improved during space flight if compared to pre-flight and early post-flight functional states. Analysis of individual cosmonauts showed distinct patterns depending on the pre-flight functional state. Using the developed classification a transition process from the state of physiological normal into a prenosological state or premorbid state during different stages of space flight can be detected for individual Russian cosmonauts. Our approach to an estimation of HR regulatory pattern can be useful for prognostic purposes.

Baevsky, Roman M.; Chernikova, Anna G.; Funtova, Irina I.; Tank, Jens

2011-12-01

144

US Interests Rates Take a Hike  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As speculated, on Tuesday, May 16, 2000, the Federal Reserve Board decided to raise US interest rates another 0.5 percent, to 6.5 percent. This interest rate hike follows five previous increases of a quarter-point each since June 1999. This is the first time in sixteen years that US interest rates have risen above 5 percent. The new rate will affect the borrowing costs for many Americans, including those with unpaid credit card balances and home equity loans, and also for small business that have taken out bank loans. Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan has long worried that the low unemployment rate coupled with booming economic growth will cause inflation to rise, which is why he has continued to advocate for these interest rate increases. Following Tuesday's announcement by the Fed, Wall Street remained stable; the Dow Jones ended the day up 127 points at 10,935. While President Clinton stands behind the Fed's decision to raise the rates, others, including NAM President Jerry Jasinowski, John Sweeney the president of AFL-CIO, and Democratic Senator Tom Harken of Iowa, have all spoken against the latest interest rate hike.

Missner, Emily D.

145

Interest Rate Transmission to Commercial Credit Rates in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission process from policy-controlled interest rates to bank lending rates deserves reconsideration owing to the implementation of the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1999. Additional attention to the subject in Austria is due to several large banks which, in 2002, have been charged for not passing on interest rate decreases to their customers. I examine dynamic responses of commercial

Johann Burgstaller; Johannes Kepler

2003-01-01

146

Impact of organic loading rate on the performance of psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and wheat straw: Long-term operation.  

PubMed

Development of efficient processes for valorising animal wastes would be a major advancement in cold-climate regions. This paper reports the results of long term (315days experiment) of novel psychrophilic (20°C) dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) of cow feces and wheat straw in laboratory scale sequence batch reactor operated at increasing organic loading rate. The PDAD process fed with a mixture of feces and straw (TS of 27%) over a treatment cycle length of 21days at organic loading rate (OLR) 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0g TCODkg(-1) inoculum d(-1) (of 2.9±0.1, 3.7±0.1, and 4.4±0.1g VSkg(-1) inoculum d(-1), respectively) resulted in average specific methane yield (SMY) of 187.3±18.1, 163.6±39.5, 150.8±32.9NL CH4kg(-1)VS fed, respectively. PDAD of cow feces and wheat straw is possible with VS-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 1.4 at OLR of 6.0g TCODkg(-1) inoculum d(-1). Hydrolysis was the limiting step reaction. PMID:25681795

Saady, Noori M Cata; Massé, Daniel I

2015-04-01

147

Long-term reliability of single-crystal silicon thin films: the influence of environment on the fatigue damage accumulation rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-crystal silicon thin films were forced to resonate at high frequency (~40 kHz) in different environments to study the long-term durability of this structural material used in microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices. The fatigue characterization structure consists of a notched cantilever beam attached to a plate shaped mass and is actuated at resonance, creating fully reversed, constant amplitude, sinusoidal stresses at the notch root. The dynamic behavior of the resonating structure has been meticulously quantified to allow accurate stress measurements from the knowledge of the driving voltage amplitude and the calculation of the quality factors in air and vacuum. In addition, the change in resonant frequency is periodically monitored for long-life specimens. Fatigue failure was observed for specimens tested in humid air and medium vacuum. In air, the stress-life (S-N) curve confirms the unique fatigue behavior already attributed to silicon thin films. In vacuum, the strength of the specimens appears to increase, and fatigue failure is delayed. Fracture surface examination reveals distinct features on the fracture surfaces of long-life fatigued specimens, not found in quasistatic failure, that are clear indications of initiation regions. The decrease rate in resonant frequency during cycling is demonstrated to be related to damage accumulation rate, and is strongly sensitive to both stress amplitude and humidity. The different currently proposed mechanisms are discussed in light of this new set of experimental evidence.

Pierron, Olivier N.; Muhlstein, Christopher L.

2005-01-01

148

Long-term reliability of single-crystal silicon thin films: the influence of environment on the fatigue damage accumulation rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-crystal silicon thin films were forced to resonate at high frequency (~40 kHz) in different environments to study the long-term durability of this structural material used in microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices. The fatigue characterization structure consists of a notched cantilever beam attached to a plate shaped mass and is actuated at resonance, creating fully reversed, constant amplitude, sinusoidal stresses at the notch root. The dynamic behavior of the resonating structure has been meticulously quantified to allow accurate stress measurements from the knowledge of the driving voltage amplitude and the calculation of the quality factors in air and vacuum. In addition, the change in resonant frequency is periodically monitored for long-life specimens. Fatigue failure was observed for specimens tested in humid air and medium vacuum. In air, the stress-life (S-N) curve confirms the unique fatigue behavior already attributed to silicon thin films. In vacuum, the strength of the specimens appears to increase, and fatigue failure is delayed. Fracture surface examination reveals distinct features on the fracture surfaces of long-life fatigued specimens, not found in quasistatic failure, that are clear indications of initiation regions. The decrease rate in resonant frequency during cycling is demonstrated to be related to damage accumulation rate, and is strongly sensitive to both stress amplitude and humidity. The different currently proposed mechanisms are discussed in light of this new set of experimental evidence.

Pierron, Olivier N., II; Muhlstein, Christopher L.

2004-12-01

149

Single-Fraction High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Hypofractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer - Long Term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We present the long-term results of a cohort of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) treated with single-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (HypoRT). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated exclusively with HDRB and HypoRT. HDRB delivered a dose of 10 Gy to the prostate surface and HypoRT consisted of 50 Gy delivered in 20 daily fractions. The first 121 consecutive patients with a minimum of 2 years posttreatment follow-up were assessed for toxicity and disease control. Results: The median follow-up was 65.2 months. No acute Grade III or higher toxicity was seen. Late Grade II gastrointestinal toxicity was seen in 9 patients (7.4%) and Grade III in 2 (1.6%). Late Grade III genitourinary toxicity was seen in 2 patients (1.6%). After a 24-month follow-up, a rebiopsy was offered to the first 58 consecutively treated patients, and 44 patients agreed with the procedure. Negative biopsies were found in 40 patients (91%). The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival rate was 90.7% (95% CI, 84.5-96.9%), with 13 patients presenting biochemical failure. Among them, 9 were diagnosed with distant metastasis. Prostate cancer-specific and overall survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 98.8% (95% CI, 96.4-100%), respectively. Conclusion: The combination of HDRB and HypoRT is well tolerated, with acceptable toxicity rates. Furthermore, results from rebiopsies revealed an encouraging rate of local control. These results confirm that the use of conformal RT techniques, adapted to specific biological tumor characteristics, have the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in intermediate-risk PC patients.

Cury, Fabio L., E-mail: fabio.cury@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Duclos, Marie [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Aprikian, Armen [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Patrocinio, Horacio [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Shenouda, George; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc; Souhami, Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)

2012-03-15

150

The Cointegration of International Interest rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cointegration is a new way of looking at the relationship between economic variables. If rNL and rDE are interest rates on the same instrument in the Netherlands and Germany respectively we would expect that they would be the same i.e. (1) rNL - rDE = 0 At any instant in time there may be a differential between the two interest

Máiréad Devine

1997-01-01

151

Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. Part II: Solute profiles, gradients and the comparisons of contemporary and long-term weathering rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and pore water elemental and 87Sr/86Sr compositions are used to determine contemporary weathering rates in a 65- to 226-kyr-old soil chronosequence formed from granitic sediments deposited on marine terraces along coastal California. Soil moisture, tension and saturation exhibit large seasonal variations in shallow soils in response to a Mediterranean climate. These climate effects are dampened in underlying argillic horizons that progressively developed in older soils, and reached steady-state conditions in unsaturated horizons extending to depths in excess of 15 m. Hydraulic fluxes (qh), based on Cl mass balances, vary from 0.06 to 0.22 m yr-1, resulting in fluid residence times in the terraces of 10-24 yrs. As expected for a coastal environment, the order of cation abundances in soil pore waters is comparable to sea water, i.e., Na > Mg > Ca > K > Sr, while the anion sequence Cl > NO3 > HCO3 > SO4 reflects modifying effects of nutrient cycling in the grassland vegetation. Net Cl-corrected solute Na, K and Si increase with depth, denoting inputs from feldspar weathering. Solute 87Sr/86Sr ratios exhibit progressive mixing of sea water-dominated precipitation with inputs from less radiogenic plagioclase. While net Sr and Ca concentrations are anomalously high in shallow soils due to biological cycling, they decline with depth to low and/or negative net concentrations. Ca/Mg, Sr/Mg and 87Sr/86Sr solute and exchange ratios are similar in all the terraces, denoting active exchange equilibration with selectivities close to unity for both detrital smectite and secondary kaolinite. Large differences in the magnitudes of the pore waters and exchange reservoirs result in short-term buffering of the solute Ca, Sr, and Mg. Such buffering over geologic time scales can not be sustained due to declining inputs from residual plagioclase and smectite, implying periodic resetting of the exchange reservoir such as by past vegetational changes and/or climate. Pore waters approach thermodynamic saturation with respect to albite at depth in the younger terraces, indicating that weathering rates ultimately become transport-limited and dependent on hydrologic flux. Contemporary rates Rsolute are estimated from linear Na and Si pore weathering gradients bsolute such that Rsolute = frac(qh, bsolute ?? Sv) where Sv is the volumetric surface area and ?? is the stoichiometric coefficient. Plagioclase weathering rates (0.38-2.8 ?? 10-15 mol m-2 s-1) are comparable to those based on 87Sr/86Sr mass balances and solid-state Na and Ca gradients using analogous gradient approximations. In addition, contemporary solute gradients, under transport-limited conditions, approximate long-term solid-state gradients when normalized against the mass of protolith plagioclase and its corresponding aqueous solubility. The multi-faceted weathering analysis presented in this paper is perhaps the most comprehensive yet applied to a single field study. Within uncertainties of the methods used, present day weathering rates, based on solute characterizations, are comparable to average long-term past rates as evidenced by soil profiles.

White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Vivit, D.V.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Bullen, T.D.; Maher, K.; Blum, A.E.

2009-01-01

152

Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. Part II: Solute profiles, gradients and the comparisons of contemporary and long-term weathering rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and pore water elemental and 87Sr/ 86Sr compositions are used to determine contemporary weathering rates in a 65- to 226-kyr-old soil chronosequence formed from granitic sediments deposited on marine terraces along coastal California. Soil moisture, tension and saturation exhibit large seasonal variations in shallow soils in response to a Mediterranean climate. These climate effects are dampened in underlying argillic horizons that progressively developed in older soils, and reached steady-state conditions in unsaturated horizons extending to depths in excess of 15 m. Hydraulic fluxes ( q h), based on Cl mass balances, vary from 0.06 to 0.22 m yr -1, resulting in fluid residence times in the terraces of 10-24 yrs. As expected for a coastal environment, the order of cation abundances in soil pore waters is comparable to sea water, i.e., Na > Mg > Ca > K > Sr, while the anion sequence Cl > NO 3 > HCO 3 > SO 4 reflects modifying effects of nutrient cycling in the grassland vegetation. Net Cl-corrected solute Na, K and Si increase with depth, denoting inputs from feldspar weathering. Solute 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios exhibit progressive mixing of sea water-dominated precipitation with inputs from less radiogenic plagioclase. While net Sr and Ca concentrations are anomalously high in shallow soils due to biological cycling, they decline with depth to low and/or negative net concentrations. Ca/Mg, Sr/Mg and 87Sr/ 86Sr solute and exchange ratios are similar in all the terraces, denoting active exchange equilibration with selectivities close to unity for both detrital smectite and secondary kaolinite. Large differences in the magnitudes of the pore waters and exchange reservoirs result in short-term buffering of the solute Ca, Sr, and Mg. Such buffering over geologic time scales can not be sustained due to declining inputs from residual plagioclase and smectite, implying periodic resetting of the exchange reservoir such as by past vegetational changes and/or climate. Pore waters approach thermodynamic saturation with respect to albite at depth in the younger terraces, indicating that weathering rates ultimately become transport-limited and dependent on hydrologic flux. Contemporary rates R solute are estimated from linear Na and Si pore weathering gradients b solute such that Rsolute={qh}/{bsolute?Sv} where S v is the volumetric surface area and ? is the stoichiometric coefficient. Plagioclase weathering rates (0.38-2.8 × 10 -15 mol m -2 s -1) are comparable to those based on 87Sr/ 86Sr mass balances and solid-state Na and Ca gradients using analogous gradient approximations. In addition, contemporary solute gradients, under transport-limited conditions, approximate long-term solid-state gradients when normalized against the mass of protolith plagioclase and its corresponding aqueous solubility. The multi-faceted weathering analysis presented in this paper is perhaps the most comprehensive yet applied to a single field study. Within uncertainties of the methods used, present day weathering rates, based on solute characterizations, are comparable to average long-term past rates as evidenced by soil profiles.

White, Art F.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Stonestrom, David A.; Vivit, Davison V.; Fitzpatrick, John; Bullen, Tom D.; Maher, Kate; Blum, Alex E.

2009-05-01

153

Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 ?g SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

2014-11-01

154

Estimation of autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant--experience from the long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system.  

PubMed

The autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant, muA,max, is the critical parameter for design and performance of nitrifying activated sludge systems. In literature reviews (i.e., Henze et al., 1987; Metcalf and Eddy, 1991), a wide range of muA,max values have been reported (0.25 to 3.0 days(-1)); however, recent data from several wastewater treatment plants across North America revealed that the estimated muA,max values remained in the narrow range 0.85 to 1.05 days(-1). In this study, long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system was investigated for estimating this coefficient according to the low food-to-microorganism ratio bioassay and simulation methods, as recommended in the Water Environment Research Foundation (Alexandria, Virginia) report (Melcer et al., 2003). The estimated muA,max values using steady-state model calculations for four operating periods ranged from 0.83 to 0.99 day(-1). The International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) dynamic model simulations revealed that a single value of muA,max (1.2 days(-1)) could be used, despite variations in the measured specific nitrification rates. However, the average muA,max was gradually decreasing during the activated sludge chlorination tests, until it reached the value of 0.48 day(-1) at the dose of 5 mg chlorine/(g mixed liquor suspended solids x d). Significant discrepancies between the predicted XA/YA ratios were observed. In some cases, the ASM1 predictions were approximately two times higher than the steady-state model predictions. This implies that estimating this ratio from a complex activated sludge model and using it in simple steady-state model calculations should be accepted with great caution and requires further investigation. PMID:18536487

Su, Yu-min; Makinia, Jacek; Pagilla, Krishna R

2008-04-01

155

The incidence rate, high-risk factors, and short- and long-term adverse outcomes of fetal growth restriction: a report from Mainland China.  

PubMed

To investigate the incidence and high-risk factors of fetal growth restriction (FGR) in Mainland China and determine the adverse effects of this condition on fetal-neonatal health. This study was a retrospective chart review. We investigated the incidence rate of FGR using a retrospective analysis of clinical data obtained from mothers and newborns from 7 hospitals in Mainland China from January 1 to December 31, 2011. The short-term outcomes of FGR were analyzed based on data obtained from the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) of Bayi Children's Hospital. The long-term outcomes of FGR were determined after a follow-up study of 125 cases of FGR in children at 18 months. The physical development index, mental development index (MDI), and psychomotor development index (PDI) were compared between FGR patients and controls. The incidence of FGR was 8.77%. The incidence of FGR was significantly higher in females than in males (9.80% vs 7.84%, P < 0.05). The incidence of FGR in preterm infants was higher than that in full-term infants (16.43% vs 7.87%, P < 0.01). Chronic hypertension, abnormal amniotic fluid, and umbilical cord abnormalities were independent factors of FGR. A significantly higher incidence of complications, including hypoglycemia, asphyxia, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, gastrointestinal bleeding, congenital malformations, polycythemia, lung hemorrhage, apnea, congenital heart disease, and disseminated intravascular coagulation, was observed in FGR patients than in controls. The FGR prolonged the duration of the hospital stay and markedly increased hospitalization expenses (P < 0.05). Children with FGR showed catch-up growth, which reached the level of the control group after 1.5 years, but these individuals still had lower MDI and PDI scores. The incidence rate of FGR in Mainland China was 8.77%. It has a significantly adverse effect on fetal-neonatal health and cognitive development. PMID:25501078

Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Ying

2014-12-01

156

Money, Income, Prices, and Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Including data from the 1980s sharply weakens the postwar time-series evidence indicating significant relationships between money (however defined) and nominal income or between money and either real income or prices separately. Focusing on data from 1970 onward destroys this evidence altogether. Evidence indicating cointegration of real income and real money balances, with due allowance for the effect of interest rates,

Benjamin M. Friedman; Kenneth N. Kuttner

1992-01-01

157

Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia with Multiple Discontinuities in the Atrioventricular Node Conduction Curve: Immediate Success Rates of Radiofrequency Ablation and Long-Term Clinical Follow-up Results as Compared to Patients with Single or No AH-Jumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Some patients with atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) demonstrate multiple discontinuities (AH jump) in their antegrade AV node conduction curves. We evaluated and compared the immediate success rates, procedure-related complications, long-term clinical follow-up results and recurrence rates after slow pathway ablation in patients with multiple versus single or no AH jumps.

Sedat Kose; Basri Amasyali; Kudret Aytemir; Ayhan Kilic; Ilknur Can; Hurkan Kursaklioglu; Turgay Celik; Ersoy Isik

2004-01-01

158

Promising Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To explore the long-term general and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) >5 years after combined radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer, including a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost and hormonal deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: Of 196 eligible patients with localized prostate cancer (Stage T1-T3a) consecutively treated with curative radiotherapy at our institution between June 1998 and August 2000, 182 (93%) completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25, including specific questions on fecal incontinence >5 years after treatment in September 2005. A comparison with age-matched normative data was done, as well as a longitudinal analysis using HRQOL data from a previous study. Results: The analysis included 158 nonrecurrent patients. Comparisons made with normative data showed that physical and role functioning were significantly better statistically and social functioning was significantly worse. Diarrhea and sleep disturbances were more pronounced and pain less pronounced than in a normal male population. The longitudinal analysis of disease-specific HRQOL showed that urinary urgency and erectile problems persisted 5 years after treatment, and nocturia and hormonally dependent symptoms had declined significantly, with a statistically significant difference. Fecal incontinence was recognized by 25% of patients, of whom 80% considered it a minor problem. Conclusion: More than 5 years after combined radiotherapy, irritative urinary problems and erectile dysfunction remain concerns, although severe bowel disturbance and fecal incontinence seem to be minor problems. Longitudinally, a decline mainly in hormonally dependent symptoms was seen. Minor differences in general HRQOL compared with normative data were observed, possibly including 'response shift' effects.

Wahlgren, Thomas [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: thomas.wahlgren@karolinska.se; Nilsson, Sten [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Lennernaes, Bo [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Hospital and Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Brandberg, Yvonne [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-11-01

159

31 CFR 351.12 - What do I need to know about the long-term savings bond rate, to understand redemption value...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings Bonds General Provisions § 351.12 What do I need to know about the long-term savings bond...

2013-07-01

160

31 CFR 351.12 - What do I need to know about the long-term savings bond rate, to understand redemption value...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings Bonds General Provisions § 351.12 What do I need to know about the long-term savings bond...

2010-07-01

161

31 CFR 351.12 - What do I need to know about the long-term savings bond rate, to understand redemption value...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings Bonds General Provisions § 351.12 What do I need to know about the long-term savings bond...

2012-07-01

162

31 CFR 351.12 - What do I need to know about the long-term savings bond rate, to understand redemption value...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF THE FISCAL SERVICE OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings Bonds General Provisions § 351.12 What do I need to know about the long-term savings bond...

2014-07-01

163

31 CFR 351.12 - What do I need to know about the long-term savings bond rate, to understand redemption value...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings Bonds General Provisions § 351.12 What do I need to know about the long-term savings bond...

2011-07-01

164

Accelerated partial breast irradiation: An analysis of variables associated with late toxicity and long-term cosmetic outcome after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To perform a detailed analysis of variables associated with late tissue effects of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in a large cohort of patients with prolonged follow-up. Methods and Materials: Beginning in 1995, 75 women with Stage I/II breast cancer were enrolled in identical institutional trials evaluating APBI as monotherapy after lumpectomy. Patients eligible included those with T1-2, N0-1 ({<=}3 nodes positive), M0 tumors of nonlobular histology with negative surgical margins, no extracapsular nodal extension, and negative results on postexcision mammogram. All patients underwent surgical excision and postoperative irradiation with HDR interstitial brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the excision cavity plus a 2-cm margin. Treatment was delivered with a high-activity Ir-192 source at 3.4 Gy per fraction twice daily for 5 days to a total dose of 34 Gy. Dosimetric analyses were performed with three-dimensional postimplant dose and volume reconstructions. All patients were evaluated at 3-6-month intervals and assessed with a standardized cosmetic rating scale and according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late normal tissue toxicity scoring criteria. Clinical and therapy-related features were analyzed for their relationship to cosmetic outcome and toxicity rating. Clinical features analyzed included age, volume of resection, history of diabetes or hypertension, extent of axillary surgery, and systemic therapies. Therapy-related features analyzed included volume of tissue encompassed by the 100%, 150%, and 200% isodose lines (V100, V150, and V200, respectively), the dose homogeneity index (DHI), number of source dwell positions, and planar separation. Results: The median follow-up of all patients was 73 months (range, 43-118 months). The cosmetic outcome at last follow-up was rated as excellent, good, and fair/poor in 67%, 24%, and 9% of patients, respectively. Suboptimal cosmetic outcome was significantly associated with the number of source dwell positions, V150, and V200 and inversely associated with DHI (0.77 vs. 0.73; p = 0.05). Late skin toxicity was rated as Grade 0, 1, or 2 in 77%, 19%, and 4% of patients, respectively. The risk of Grade 1/2 skin toxicity was significantly associated with V150 and V200 and inversely associated with DHI (0.77 vs. 0.71; p = 0.009). Late subcutaneous toxicity was rated as Grade 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 in 55%, 15%, 12%, 5%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The risk of Grade 0/1 vs. Grade 2-4 subcutaneous toxicity was significantly associated only with a lower value of DHI (0.77 vs. 0.73; p = 0.02). To further explore factors that might contribute to the risk of fat necrosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic), a separate analysis showed that only dose hotspots as reflected in V150 and V200 were significantly associated with elevated risk. The use of adriamycin-based chemotherapy after APBI was found to be associated with a significant increase in the incidence of higher-grade skin toxicity and a higher risk of fat necrosis and suboptimal cosmetic outcome. Patient age, volume of resection, extent of axillary surgery, a history of diabetes or hypertension, and the use of tamoxifen were not found to be significantly associated with cosmetic outcome or late normal tissue complications. Conclusions: Long-term cosmetic results and the risk of late skin and subcutaneous toxicity after APBI with interstitial HDR brachytherapy can be correlated with specific treatment-related variables. These data provide dosimetric parameters that might be used to minimize the risk of normal tissue injury after APBI interstitial brachytherapy.

Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)]. E-mail: dwazer@tufts-nemc.org; Kaufman, Seth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States); Cuttino, Laurie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Di Petrillo, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States); Arthur, Douglas W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

2006-02-01

165

Long-term environmental stewardship.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

Nagy, Michael David

2010-08-01

166

Long-Term Recidivism of Child Molesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the long-term recidivism rates of 197 child molesters released from prison between 1958 and 1974. Overall, 42% of the total sample were reconvicted for sexual crimes, violent crimes, or both, with 10% of the total sample reconvicted 10–31 years after being released. Incest offenders were reconvicted at a slower rate than were offenders who selected only boys, with

R. Karl Hanson; Richard A. Steffy; Rene Gauthier

1993-01-01

167

Presynaptic long-term plasticity  

PubMed Central

Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

2013-01-01

168

12 CFR 652.30 - Interest rate risk management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Interest rate risk management. 652.30 Section 652... § 652.30 Interest rate risk management. (a) The board of directors...supervision) of interest rate risk management and must be knowledgeable...

2014-01-01

169

Interest Rates and Coupon Bonds in Quantum Finance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Synopsis; 2. Interest rates and coupon bonds; 3. Options and option theory; 4. Interest rate and coupon bond options; 5. Quantum field theory of bond forward interest rates; 6. Libor Market Model of interest rates; 7. Empirical analysis of forward interest rates; 8. Libor Market Model of interest rate options; 9. Numeraires for bond forward interest rates; 10. Empirical analysis of interest rate caps; 11. Coupon bond European and Asian options; 12. Empirical analysis of interest rate swaptions; 13. Correlation of coupon bond options; 14. Hedging interest rate options; 15. Interest rate Hamiltonian and option theory; 16. American options for coupon bonds and interest rates; 17. Hamiltonian derivation of coupon bond options; Appendixes; Glossaries; List of symbols; Reference; Index.

Baaquie, Belal E.

2009-09-01

170

Long-term contraceptives.  

PubMed

To avoid unintended pregnancy, women in the UK need to consistently use reliable contraception for over 30 years. The long-acting reversible contraceptive methods compromise the progestogen-only implant, the progestogen-only injectable contraceptive, the copper-bearing intra-uterine device and the levonorgestrel-releasing intra-uterine system. These methods of contraception are highly reliable in pregnancy prevention, and are amongst the medically safest methods for users. Despite this, these long-acting methods are used by less than 10% of the UK population. National guidance has advised that increasing uptake of these long-acting methods will reduce the unplanned pregnancy rate. In addition, these methods are more cost effective than the oral contraceptive even at 1 year of use. Obstetricians and gynaecologists frequently come into contact with women requiring contraceptive advice, and should have a sound knowledge of the long-acting methods. PMID:20558111

Brown, Audrey

2010-10-01

171

Long-term safety of rituximab in rheumatoid arthritis: 9.5-year follow-up of the global clinical trial programme with a focus on adverse events of interest in RA patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives Evaluation of long-term safety of rituximab in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Pooled observed case analysis of data from patients with moderate-to-severe, active RA treated with rituximab in a global clinical trial programme. Results As of September 2010, 3194 patients had received up to 17 rituximab courses over 9.5?years (11?962 patient-years). Of these, 627 had >5 years’ follow-up (4418 patient-years). A pooled placebo population (n=818) (placebo+methotrexate (MTX)) was also analysed. Serious adverse event and infection rates generally remained stable over time and multiple courses. The overall serious infection event (SIE) rate was 3.94/100 patient-years (3.26/100 patient-years in patients observed for >5?years) and was comparable with placebo+MTX (3.79/100 patient-years). Serious opportunistic infections were rare. Overall, 22.4% (n=717) of rituximab-treated patients developed low immunoglobulin (Ig)M and 3.5% (n=112) low IgG levels for ?4?months after ?1 course. SIE rates were similar before and during/after development of low Ig levels; however, in patients with low IgG, rates were higher than in patients who never developed low IgG. Rates of myocardial infarction and stroke were consistent with rates in the general RA population. No increased risk of malignancy over time was observed. Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that rituximab remains generally well tolerated over time and multiple courses, with a safety profile consistent with published data and clinical trial experience. Overall, the findings indicate that there was no evidence of an increased safety risk or increased reporting rates of any types of adverse events with prolonged exposure to rituximab during the 9.5?years of observation. PMID:23136242

van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Emery, Paul; Bingham, Clifton O; Keystone, Edward C; Fleischmann, Roy M; Furst, Daniel E; Tyson, Nicola; Collinson, Neil; Lehane, Patricia B

2013-01-01

172

Rate of long term bleaching in FK 51 optical glass darkened by Co60 ionizing radiation at dose rates of 10 krad/hr and 7 rad/hr  

SciTech Connect

A previous paper presented long term bleaching data on various glasses exposed to 10.6 krad of ionizing radiation. All the glasses reported except FK 51 have readily available `G` glass equivalents that are stabilized to the natural space environment. Yet, FK 51, because of its location on the Abbe diagram is extremely useful in certain lens design applications. To more fully explore the bleaching of FK 51, after the initial dose of 10.6 krad at 11.8 krad/hour, we irradiated three more samples at a similar dose rate but to different total doses. Since the dose rate for this study was significantly higher than the dose rate anticipated for glasses in as shielded space-based lens system (tilde 3 rad/day), additional data were obtained at a lower rate of 7 rad/hour. While this dose rate is still higher than the anticipated operational rate, it is more than 1000 times lower than the dose 011 011 011 rate used for our initial studies. The bleaching rate for the samples exposed at the lower dose rate is considerably less than for the samples exposed at the higher rate.

Wirtenson, G.R.; White, R.H.

1997-07-01

173

Basics (Long-Term Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers ... on Alzheimer's Disease Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community Home About Us Accessibility Disclaimer Privacy Contact ...

174

Medicare (Long-Term Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... term Care Services – Skilled Nursing Medicare does not pay the largest part of long-term care services ... 100 days . For the first 20 days, Medicare pays 100 percent of your costs. For days 21 ...

175

12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth in subpart G of this...directors shall adopt an interest rate risk management section of an asset/liability management policy which establishes interest...

2012-01-01

176

12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth in subpart G of this...directors shall adopt an interest rate risk management section of an asset/liability management policy which establishes interest...

2013-01-01

177

12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth in subpart G of this...directors shall adopt an interest rate risk management section of an asset/liability management policy which establishes interest...

2010-01-01

178

12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth in subpart G of this...directors shall adopt an interest rate risk management section of an asset/liability management policy which establishes interest...

2011-01-01

179

A two-decades (1975 to 1995) long experience in the incidence, in-hospital and long-term case–fatality rates of acute myocardial infarction: a community-wide perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe purpose of the present study is to describe changes over two decades (1975 to 1995) in the incidence, in-hospital and long-term case–fatality rates associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from a multihospital community-wide perspective.BACKGROUNDDespite the magnitude of, and mortality associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), relatively limited population-based data are available to describe recent and temporal trends in the

Robert J. Goldberg; Jorge L. Yarzebski; Darleen M. Lessard; Joel M. Gore

1999-01-01

180

The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.  

PubMed

Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment. PMID:18752014

Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

2008-12-01

181

A Simple Approach to Interest-Rate Option Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple introduction to contingent claim valuation of risky assets in a discrete time, stochastic interest-rate economy is provided. Taking the term structure of interest rates as exogenous, closed-form solutions are derived for European options written on (1) Treasury bills, (2) interest-rate forward contracts, (3) interest-rate futures contracts, (4) Treasury bonds, (5) interest-rate caps, (6) stock options, (7) equity forward

Stuart M Turnbull; Frank Milne

1991-01-01

182

12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of Rates and Terms on...

2012-01-01

183

12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of Rates and Terms on...

2011-01-01

184

12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of Rates and Terms on...

2014-01-01

185

12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of Rates and Terms on...

2010-01-01

186

12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of Rates and Terms on...

2013-01-01

187

49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rate would not be appropriate because it would result in an effective rate in excess of the nominal rate. Under this “exponential” approach, the total cumulative reparations payment (including interest) is calculated by multiplying the interest...

2010-10-01

188

Long-term Variation of AGNs  

E-print Network

In this paper, we will discuss the long-term variations in the optical and the infrared bands of some AGNs. It is interesting to note that the reported periods of AGNs are of the similar values (about 10 years, see Fan et al. 1998a, ApJ, 507 in press, and references therein). DCF method shows the optical and infrared bands are strongly correlated suggesting that the emission mechanisms in the two bands have a common origin.

J. H. Fan; G. Z. Xie; G. Adam; S. L. Wen; Y. Copin; R. G. Lin; J. M. Bai; Y. P. Qin

1998-09-02

189

A Note on Interest Rates and Structural Federal Budget Deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides evidence on the response of interest rates to Federal budget deficits. A simple model is presented that incorporates the role of monetary policy in the determination of short-run interest rates and that ascribes the effects of government budget imbalances on the term structure of interest rates to uncertainty about the expected evolution of inflation and real interest

John Kitchen

2002-01-01

190

Fracture protection provided by long-term estrogen treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine the incidence rate of osteoporotic fractures among elderly women who had long-term postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and to compare this with the incidence rate in women who had not used estrogen. In a previous retrospective cohort study based on medical record review in 1982, we showed that long-term ERT was associated

P. Maxim; B. Ettinger; G. M. Spitalny

1995-01-01

191

Long term consistency of handwriting grip kinetics in adults.  

PubMed

While there is growing interest in clinical applications of handwriting grip kinetics, the consistency of these forces over time is not well-understood at present. In this study, we investigated the short- and long-term intra-participant consistency and inter-participant differences in grip kinetics associated with adult signature writing. Grip data were collected from 20 adult participants using a digitizing tablet and an instrumented pen. The first phase of data collection occurred over 10 separate days within a three week period. To ascertain long-term consistency, a second phase of data collection followed, one day per month over several months. In both phases, data were collected three times a day. After pre-processing and feature extraction, nonparametric statistical tests were used to compare the within-participant grip force variation between the two phases. Participant classification based on grip force features was used to determine the relative magnitude of inter-participant versus intra-participant differences. The misclassification rate for the longitudinal data were used as an indication of long term kinetic consistency. Intra-participant analysis revealed significant changes in grip kinetic features between the two phases for many participants. However, the misclassification rate, on average, remained stable, despite different demarcations of training, and testing data. This finding suggests that while signature writing grip forces may evolve over time, inter-participant kinetic differences consistently exceeds within-participant force changes in the long-term. These results bear implications on the collection, modeling and interpretation of grip kinetics in clinical applications. PMID:24510237

Ghali, Bassma; Mamun, Khondaker A; Chau, Tom

2014-04-01

192

7 CFR 4280.125 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.125 Interest...

2014-01-01

193

7 CFR 4280.125 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.125 Interest...

2012-01-01

194

Osteoporosis management in long-term care  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Demographic variables; physician attitudes; and practices concerning awareness, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. RESULTS Respondents returned 275 of 490 questionnaires, for a response rate of 56.1%. Most respondents (92.4%) were family physicians; 28.7% were caring for more than 100 patients in long-term care. Most (85.8%) saw from one to 10 hip fractures yearly in their practices. Although

H. G. McKercher; R. G. Crilly; M. Kloseck

2000-01-01

195

Credit Cards, Economization of Money, and Interest Rates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the effect of interest rates on the increased use of credit cards, a popular method of financing households. Uses three models to demonstrate that interest rates must rise, resulting in increased consumption expenditures. (CMK)

Steindl, Frank G.

2000-01-01

196

12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to time during the period of the loan, if provision is made in the note or loan...

2013-01-01

197

Consider long-term care as service alternative.  

PubMed

The increasing demand for elderly care services, pressures on inpatient average length of stay and payment levels, and potential financial rewards from providing additional services, makes long-term care look attractive to hospitals. Long-term care, however, is not for every hospital. Before deciding to establish long-term care services, management should examine how the service fits within the hospital's strategic plan. The action plan below provides guidance in evaluating a decision to use hospital facilities for long-term care. Examine how long-term care services fit within the hospital's strategic plan. Study area demographics and competitors to assess the need and supply of long-term care services. Survey the medical staff, consumers and payers to determine attitudes, perceptions and interests regarding long-term care services. Develop a facility plan that identifies areas of excess capacity that can be most easily converted into long-term care with minimal effects on hospital operations. Prepare a financial feasibility analysis of the contribution margin and return on investment attributable to long-term care services. Include an impact analysis on hospital operations. Establish a management task force to develop a detailed implementation plan including assigned individual responsibilities and related timetable. Develop an effective marketing plan designed to generate increased patient market share. PMID:10312056

Loria, L S

1987-04-01

198

77 FR 5155 - Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Part 741 RIN 3133-AD66 Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program AGENCY: National Credit...adopt a written policy on interest rate risk management and a program to effectively...management responsibilities. The interest rate risk policy and implementation program...

2012-02-02

199

Japan useful medication program for schizophrenia (JUMPs)-long-term study on discontinuation rate, resolution and remission, and improvement in social functioning rate associated with atypical antipsychotic medications in patients with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background It is desirable to establish evidence for the selection of antipsychotics from the viewpoint of recovery of social activity in individual patient with schizophrenia receiving medication. From this perspective, awareness of the importance of studies about drug effectiveness on treatment discontinuation rate, remission rate, and improvement in QOL has grown recently. In Western countries, numerous reports are available in effectiveness studies, which are related to olanzapine and risperidone primarily, whereas evidence for other second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) is poor. In Japan, no effectiveness study has been reported: thus, it is desirable to collect data that will serve as evidence for selection of the 3 SGAs approved after olanzapine. Methods The present study was a long-term effectiveness study under healthcare setting in Japan. It was designed as an open-label, multicenter, randomized, comparative study involving 104-week oral treatment with 1 of the 3 drugs (aripiprazole, blonanserin, and paliperidone) in patients with schizophrenia aged 20 years or over who required antipsychotic medication or switching of the current medication to others for reasons such as lack of efficacy and intolerability. The primary endpoint is treatment discontinuation rate for any causes. The secondary endpoints include remission rate, improvement of social activity, alleviation, aggravation or recurrence of psychiatric symptoms, and safety. The target number of subjects was set at 300. Discussion Because this study is expected to yield evidence regarding the selection of antipsychotics for facilitating the recovery of social activity in patients with schizophrenia, it is considered highly valuable to perform this effectiveness study under ordinary healthcare setting in Japan. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000007942 PMID:24090047

2013-01-01

200

Electrodes for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.  

PubMed

The emerging application of long-term and high-quality ECG recording requires alternative electrodes to improve the signal quality and recording capability of surface skin electrodes. The esophageal ECG has the potential to overcome these limitations but necessitates novel recorder and lead designs. The electrode material is of particular interest, since the material has to ensure conflicting requirements like excellent biopotential recording properties and inertness. To this end, novel electrode materials like PEDOT and silver-PDMS as well as established electrode materials such as stainless steel, platinum, gold, iridium oxide, titanium nitride, and glassy carbon were investigated by long-term electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and model-based signal analysis using the derived in vitro interfacial properties in conjunction with a dedicated ECG amplifier. The results of this novel approach show that titanium nitride and iridium oxide featuring microstructured surfaces did not degrade when exposed to artificial acidic saliva. These materials provide low electrode potential drifts and insignificant signal distortion superior to surface skin electrodes making them compatible with accepted standards for ambulatory ECG. They are superior to the noble and polarizable metals such as platinum, silver, and gold that induced more signal distortions and are superior to esophageal stainless steel electrodes that corrode in artificial saliva. The study provides rigorous criteria for the selection of electrode materials for prolonged ECG recording by combining long-term in vitro electrode material properties with ECG signal quality assessment. PMID:23649132

Niederhauser, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Jungo, Michael; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Abacherli, Roger; Vogel, Rolf

2013-09-01

201

Long-term tree growth rate, water use efficiency, and tree ring nitrogen isotope composition of Pinus massoniana L. in response to global climate change and local nitrogen deposition in Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We aimed to investigate long-term tree growth rates, water use efficiencies (WUE), and tree ring nitrogen (N) isotope compositions\\u000a (?15N) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) in response to global climate change and local N deposition in Southern China.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Tree annual growth rings of Masson pine were collected from four forest sites, viz. South China Botanical Garden (SBG),

Fangfang Sun; Yuanwen Kuang; Dazhi Wen; Zhihong Xu; Jianli Li; Weidong Zuo; Enqing Hou

2010-01-01

202

Optimal Mortgage Refinancing with Stochastic Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic model of mortgage refinancing in a contingent claim framework that simultaneously solves for the borrower's optimal mortgage refinancing strategy, the value of the refinancing call option, the value of the mortgage liability to the borrower, and the market (lender) value of the fixed-rate contract. We also calculate the minimum differential

Andrew H. Chen; David C. Ling

1989-01-01

203

Modeling for fracture in materials under long-term static creep loading and neutron irradiation. Part 3. Crack growth rate prediction for austenitic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an engineering method which permits predicting the creep crack growth rate under neutron irradiation conditions.\\u000a Theoretical analysis of the creep crack-tip stress-strain state is carried out. Calculations are performed to determine the\\u000a effect of neutron flux intensity (flux) and pre-irradiation dose (fluence) on the crack growth rate.

B. Z. Margolin; A. G. Gulenko; A. A. Buchatskii; S. M. Balakin

2006-01-01

204

Using the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) to Predict Long Term Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the predictive validity of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, Autism detection in early childhood: ADEC. Australian Council of Educational Research, Camberwell, VIC 2007) and a well-established screening tool, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler et al. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS).…

Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L.; Brewer, Neil

2014-01-01

205

Yield Spreads and Interest Rate Movements: A Bird's Eye View  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expectations theory of the term structure implies that the spread between a longer-term interest rate and a shorter-term interest rate forecasts two subsequent interest rate changes: the change in yield of the longer-term bond over the life of the shorter-term bond, and a weighted average of the changes in shorter-term rates over the life of the longer-term bond. For

John Y. Campbell; Robert J. Shiller

1991-01-01

206

Late Cenozoic reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the comparison of short-term and long-term deformation rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabia-Eurasia collision deforms an area of ?3,000,000 km2 of continental crust, making it one of the largest regions of convergent deformation on Earth. There are now estimates for the active slip rates, total convergence and timing of collision-related deformation of regions from western Turkey to eastern Iran. This paper shows that extrapolating the present day slip rates of many

Mark Allen; James Jackson; Richard Walker

2004-01-01

207

Long-term course of opioid addiction.  

PubMed

Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed. PMID:25747921

Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

2015-01-01

208

Medicare program; prospective payment system for long-term care hospitals RY 2009: annual payment rate updates, policy changes, and clarifications; and electronic submission of cost reports: revision to effective date of cost reporting period. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule updates the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs). We are also consolidating the annual July 1 update for payment rates and the October 1 update for Medicare severity long-term care diagnosis-related group (MS-LTC-DRG) weights to a single rulemaking cycle that coincides with the Federal fiscal year (FFY). In addition, we are clarifying various policy issues. This final rule also finalizes the provisions from the Electronic Submission of Cost Reports: Revision to Effective Date of Cost Reporting Period interim final rule with comment period that was published in the May 27, 2005 Federal Register which revises the existing effective date by which all organ procurement organizations (OPOs), rural health clinics (RHCs), Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), and community mental health centers (CMHCs) are required to submit their Medicare cost reports in a standardized electronic format from cost reporting periods ending on or after December 31, 2004 to cost reporting periods ending on or after March 31, 2005. This final rule does not affect the current cost reporting requirement for hospices and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) facilities. Hospices and ESRD facilities are required to continue to submit cost reports under the Medicare regulations in a standardized electronic format for cost reporting periods ending on or after December 31, 2004. PMID:18567174

2008-05-01

209

Effects of Wyoming big sagebrush seeding rate and grass competition on the long-term density and canopy volume of the big sagebrush and wildlife habitat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research was initiated in 1997 to evaluate the effects of seeding rates of grass and Wyoming big sagebrush on the establishment of big sagebrush. The research was accomplished at the Belle Ayr West mine, south of Gillette, WY using a randomized complete block experimental design with three big ...

210

1991 data: low interest rates cut both ways for hospitals.  

PubMed

Low interest rates proved to be a mixed blessing for hospitals in 1991, as many capitalized on plummeting interest rates by refinancing existing debt. And though lower rates caused investment income to shrink, one CEO notes that, because most hospitals have higher debt loads than investment income, the situation has proven to be a net positive for that majority. PMID:1427729

Johnsson, J

1992-11-20

211

Diet selection in a molluscivore shorebird across Western Europe: does it show short- or long-term intake rate-maximization?  

PubMed

1. Studies of diet choice usually assume maximization of energy intake. The well-known 'contingency model' (CM) additionally assumes that foraging animals only spend time searching or handling prey. Despite considerable empirical support, there are many foraging contexts in which the CM fails, but such cases were considered exceptions rather than the rule. 2. For animals constrained by the rate at which food is digested, CM does not necessarily lead to maximal energy intake rates because the time for digestion is not part of the selection criteria. In the main model developed to explain diet choice under a digestive constraint, the 'digestive rate model' (DRM), time lost to digestive breaks is minimized so that energy intake over total time (searching, handling, digestive breaks) is maximized. 3. It is increasingly acknowledged that most animals may face digestive constraints as prey capture rates vary over time and as it would be a waste to carry around heavy digestive machinery that can rapidly process food under all circumstances: this is only needed in times of high demand, provided that enough food can be found. 4. In molluscivore shorebirds ingesting hard-shelled prey such as red knots (Calidris canutus), the predictions of DRM were held up so far, whereas those of CM were rejected. However, most tests were carried out under controlled experimental conditions. Red knots overwinter in coastal areas over much of Western Europe and we capitalized on this variation by comparing, during a single winter, observed diet composition with predictions of DRM, CM and a null model assuming no prey selection ('no-selection model', NSM). 5. The observed diets were best predicted by DRM followed by CM. NSM poorly predicted observed diet choice. Under the present conditions, diet choice based on DRM would on average have yielded an energy intake rate twice as large as one based on CM. By adjusting the size of their gizzard (held constant in the present simulations), red knots could have lifted their energy intake rate further. We suggest that application of the DRM can help many diet studies forward, especially those previously seen as exceptions to the classical CM-based rule. PMID:19674177

Quaintenne, Gwenael; van Gils, Jan A; Bocher, Pierrick; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

2010-01-01

212

Effects of Gap-Size Classes on Long-Term Litter Decomposition Rates of Beech, Oak and Chestnut Species at High Elevations in Northeast Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of gap-size classes on litter decomposition rates were investigated in a high-elevation forest for 4 years by placing\\u000a leaf litter of beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.), oak (Quercus robur L.), and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in (1) a closed canopy, (2) small gaps with a diameter of less than 15 m, (3) intermediate gaps with a diameter of\\u000a 15–30 m, and (4) large

Temel Sariyildiz

2008-01-01

213

Short and long-term effects of a single bout of exercise on heart rate variability: comparison between constant and interval training exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed during the short- (within 1 h) and long- (within 48 h) term recovery following a single bout of either constant (CST) or interval training (SWEET) exercise performed at the same total physical work [9.4 (0.3) kJ kg ?1]. R-R intervals, systolic (SAP) and diastolic (DAP) arterial pressures were recorded in supine and upright positions before and 1, 24

Laurent Mourot; Malika Bouhaddi; Nicolas Tordi; Jean-Denis Rouillon; Jacques Regnard

2004-01-01

214

A comparison of methods for deriving solute flux rates using long-term data from streams in the mirror lake watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Calculation of chemical flux rates for streams requires integration of continuous measurements of discharge with discrete measurements of solute concentrations. We compared two commonly used methods for interpolating chemistry data (time-averaging and flow-weighting) to determine whether discrepancies between the two methods were large relative to other sources of error in estimating flux rates. Flux rates of dissolved Si and SO42- were calculated from 10 years of data (1981-1990) for the NW inlet and Outlet of Mirror Lake and for a 40-day period (March 22 to April 30, 1993) during which we augmented our routine (weekly) chemical monitoring with collection of daily samples. The time-averaging method yielded higher estimates of solute flux during high-flow periods if no chemistry samples were collected corresponding to peak discharge. Concentration-discharge relationships should be used to interpolate stream chemistry during changing flow conditions if chemical changes are large. Caution should be used in choosing the appropriate time-scale over which data are pooled to derive the concentration-discharge regressions because the model parameters (slope and intercept) were found to be sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual variation. Both methods approximated solute flux to within 2-10% for a range of solutes that were monitored during the intensive sampling period. Our results suggest that errors arising from interpolation of stream chemistry data are small compared with other sources of error in developing watershed mass balances.

Bukaveckas, P.A.; Likens, G.E.; Winter, T.C.; Buso, D.C.

1998-01-01

215

Unique monetary equilibria with interest rate rules: An extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent paper, Adão et al. (2011), using a cash-in-advance framework, derive an interest rate rule that results in a unique monetary equilibrium. The resulting interest rate rule is forward looking and the interest rate responds positively to forecasts of future real activity and to forecasts of the future price level. This paper extends their approach to a transactions

Kent P. Kimbrough

2012-01-01

216

Microbial degradation at a shallow coastal site: Long-term spectra and rates of exoenzymatic activities in the NE Adriatic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation of organic matter along the water column is mediated by enzymes released into the environment by planktonic organisms. Variations in enzymes profiles (types and levels of activity) reflect the trophic status of the environment and could be caused by shifts in the dominant species or in the level of enzyme expression by the same species in response to changes in the spectrum of organic substrates. To explore this issue, we examined the maximum rates of hydrolysis of 6 different enzymes (protease, ?-glucosidase, ?-glucosidase, ?-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase and lipase) along the water column (4 depths) at a coastal station in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea), from 2000 to 2005. Most of the studied enzymes exhibited a pronounced seasonal variability with winter minima and maxima from April to October. During summer, alkaline phosphatase, lipase and protease reached the highest activities, while polysaccharide degradation prevailed in spring and autumn, associated to phytoplankton blooms. Phosphatase/protease activities ratio was generally low, indicating that microbial communities were rarely P-limited, possibly because of the use of organic P sources. A pronounced interannual variability of degradation patterns was found, with maximum rates of protease being the highest in most of the samples, followed by the alkaline phosphatase's ones. Water column features greatly affected hydrolysis rates, being degradation of linear polysaccharides, lipids, phosphorilated compounds and polypeptides significantly different at different depths during stratified condition. Mixing processes affected especially ?-glucosidase activity, possibly as a consequence of resuspension of organic matter from the seabed. Large-impact phenomena such as the 2003 heat wave and mucilage influenced the degradation of specific substrates. Mucilage enhanced lipase, phosphatase and protease, whereas a pronounced inhibition characterised phosphatase and protease during summer 2003.

Celussi, Mauro; Del Negro, Paola

2012-12-01

217

The influence of environmental factors on heart rate chronostructure depending on the individual characteristics of autonomic regulation. Results of long-term medical-ecological studies.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was previously shown [Baevsky, Petrov, 1998] that during space flight under influence of geomagnetic disturbances there are both specific response of the autonomic regulation system in the form of vasomotor cardiovascular center activation (LF spectral components) and non-specific stress response, which depends on the actual autonomic balance [Breus, Baevsky, 2002]. Within the project "Mars-500" the parallel medical-ecological studies were conducted in 10 groups (10-16 people), that lived in different regions of the world under the influence of various environmental factors - climatic, geographic, industrial, social and other. It allowed us to obtain a sufficiently large number of variants of adaptive reactions caused by differences in external impacts. The main research method was the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in short ECG samples (5 minutes) for assessing heart rate chronostructure and functional status of autonomic regulation. Results of studies have demonstrated that environmental loads on the regulatory mechanisms is higher in the northern and north-eastern regions of Russia - Magadan and Syktyvkar. Stress-index of regulatory systems and adaptive risk indicator is significantly higher in these groups [Baevsky, Berseneva, 2013]. The preliminary search of weather factors (atmospheric pressure, air temperature, humidity and magnetic index Kp) influence on the autonomic regulation of heart rate showed that there are no any significant changes and relationships in the entire group of participants. We have assumed that the character of adaptive responses, including responses to changing weather and geomagnetic conditions, is associated with the individual characteristics and the initial functional state of autonomic regulation. To test this hypothesis, we have identified two groups of subjects with different autonomic balance. The first group included individuals with a pronounced predominance of sympathetic regulation (n = 127), the second - with a strong predominance of parasympathetic activity (n = 64). The analysis of correlations between weather and heart rate chronostructure and functional condition of autonomic regulation revealed that attitude of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) of heart rhythm spectrum higher in both groups at declining geomagnetic activity and lower at its growth. The comparison of other HRV indicators at decreasing and increasing geomagnetic activity displayed the opposite trends in these groups. Stress-index of regulatory systems (SI), which reflects the sympathetic activity, rises in group with sympathetic dominance at reducing geomagnetic activity, and at its growth - in group with parasympathetic dominance. So, we can see that specific adaptive reaction as response to changing geomagnetic situation, which manifested in activation of vasomotor cardiovascular center, is the similar in subjects with different autonomic balance. Non-specific component depends on initial dominance of one or another regulatory mechanism.

Isaeva, Olga; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Breus, Tamara; Chernikova, Anna; Baevsky, Roman

218

A long-term comparison of carbon sequestration rates in impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the lower Waccamaw River, South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon storage was compared between impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the Lower Waccamaw River in South Carolina, USA. Soil cores were collected in (1) naturally tidal, (2) moist soil (impounded, seasonally drained since ~1970), and (3) deeply flooded “treatments” (impounded, flooded to ~90 cm since ~2002). Cores were analyzed for % organic carbon, % total carbon, bulk density, and 210Pb and 137Cs for dating purposes. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 25 to 200 g C m?2 yr?1 (moist soil), 80–435 g C m?2 yr?1 (naturally tidal), and 100–250 g C m?2 yr?1 (deeply flooded). The moist soil and naturally tidal treatments were compared over a period of 40 years. The naturally tidal treatment had significantly higher carbon storage (mean?=?219 g C m?2 yr?1 vs. mean?=?91 g C m?2 yr?1) and four times the vertical accretion rate (mean?=?0.84 cm yr?1 vs. mean?=?0.21 cm yr?1) of the moist soil treatment. The results strongly suggest that the long drainage period in moist soil management limits carbon storage over time. Managers across the National Wildlife Refuge system have an opportunity to increase carbon storage by minimizing drainage in impoundments as much as practicable.

Drexler, Judith Z.; Krauss, Ken W.; Sasser, M. Craig; Fuller, Christopher C.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Powell, Amber; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Orlando, James

2013-01-01

219

Group sequential tests for long-term survival comparisons.  

PubMed

Sometimes in clinical trials, the hazard rates are anticipated to be nonproportional, resulting in potentially crossing survival curves. In these cases, researchers are usually interested in which treatment has better long-term survival. The log-rank test and the weighted log-rank test may not be appropriate or efficient to use here, because they are sensitive to differences in survival at any time and don't just focus on long-term outcomes. Also in a prospective clinical trial, patients are entered sequentially over calendar time, so that group sequential designs may be considered for ethical, administrative and economic concerns. Here we develop group sequential methods for testing the null hypothesis that the survival curves are identical after a prespecified time point. Several classes of tests are considered, including an integrated difference in survival probabilities after this time point, and linear or quadratic combinations of two component test statistics (pointwise comparisons of survival at the time point and comparisons of hazard rates after the time point). We examine the type I errors, stopping probabilities, and powers of these tests through simulation studies under the null and different alternatives, and we apply them to a real bone marrow transplant clinical trial. PMID:25053470

Logan, Brent R; Mo, Shuyuan

2015-04-01

220

Long-term results of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the primary treatment of medically inoperable stage I-II endometrial carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Total-abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAHBSO) is the gold-standard therapy for patients with endometrial carcinoma. However, patients with high operative risks are usually treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone. The goal of this study was to update our experience of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB), with or without external-beam irradiation (EBRT), for such patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1984 and 2003, 38 patients with Stage I and Stage II adenocarcinoma of the endometrium considered high operative risk received RT as the primary treatment. The median age was 74.1 years. Before 1996, the local extent of the disease was assessed by an examination under anesthesia (EUA) and by EUA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thereafter. Eight patients (21%) were treated with combined HDRB and EBRT, and 30 patients (79%) were treated with with HDRB alone. The median HDRB dose was 23.9 Gy, typically delivered in 3 fractions in a weekly schedule. The median EBRT dose was 42 Gy. Results: At a median follow-up of 57.5 months for patients at risk, 11 patients (29%) have failed: 6 patients (16%) locally, 4 patients (10.5%) distantly, and 1 patient (3%) locally and distantly. Local failure was established by biopsy, and 4 patients were salvaged by TAHBSO. Higher stage and higher grade were both associated with increased failure rate. The 15-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 78% for all stages, 90% for Stage I, and 42% for Stage II (p < 0.0001). The 15-year DSS was 91% for Grade I and 67% for Grade II and III combined (p = 0.0254). Patients with Stage I disease established by MRI (11 patients) and who received a total HDRB dose of 30 Gy had a DSS rate of 100% at 10 years. Four patients experienced late toxicities: 1 Grade II and 3 Grade III or IV. Conclusion: Medically inoperable Stage I endometrial carcinoma may be safely and effectively treated with HDRB as the primary therapy. In selected Stage I patients, our results are equivalent to that of surgery. We believe that the alternative option of HDRB as the primary therapy for selected Stage I endometrial carcinoma, even in patients with low operative risks, needs further evaluation.

Niazi, Tamim M. [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Portelance, Lorraine [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bahoric, Boris [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gilbert, Lucy [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Stanimir, Gerald [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2005-11-15

221

Rutile TiO2 Mesocrystals/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Rate and Long-Term Performance for Lithium-Ion Batteries  

PubMed Central

An in situ hydrothermal route is developed for fabricating rutile TiO2 mesocrystals/reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (TGR) hybrids in the presence of dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (ADBS). These rutile TiO2 mesocrystals with a Wulff shape are composed of ultra-tiny rod-like subunits with the same oriented direction and closely wrapped by the nanosheets of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). It is found that ADBS played a key role for the formation of mesocrystals during the self-assembly process, which pillared the graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and involved the aggregation of the mesocrystal subunits. Furthermore, the TGR hybrids are used as an anode material and exhibited a large capacity over 150?mA h g?1 at 20 C after 1000 cycles, and high rate capability up to 40 C. These high performance characteristics may be due to the intrinsic characteristics of rutile TiO2 mesocrystals constructed from ultra-tiny subunits and hybridized with super conductive RGO nanosheets. PMID:25688035

Lan, Tongbin; Qiu, Heyuan; Xie, Fengyan; Yang, Jie; Wei, Mingdeng

2015-01-01

222

Rutile TiO2 Mesocrystals/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Rate and Long-Term Performance for Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in situ hydrothermal route is developed for fabricating rutile TiO2 mesocrystals/reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (TGR) hybrids in the presence of dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (ADBS). These rutile TiO2 mesocrystals with a Wulff shape are composed of ultra-tiny rod-like subunits with the same oriented direction and closely wrapped by the nanosheets of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). It is found that ADBS played a key role for the formation of mesocrystals during the self-assembly process, which pillared the graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and involved the aggregation of the mesocrystal subunits. Furthermore, the TGR hybrids are used as an anode material and exhibited a large capacity over 150 mA h g-1 at 20 C after 1000 cycles, and high rate capability up to 40 C. These high performance characteristics may be due to the intrinsic characteristics of rutile TiO2 mesocrystals constructed from ultra-tiny subunits and hybridized with super conductive RGO nanosheets.

Lan, Tongbin; Qiu, Heyuan; Xie, Fengyan; Yang, Jie; Wei, Mingdeng

2015-02-01

223

Rutile TiO2 mesocrystals/reduced graphene oxide with high-rate and long-term performance for lithium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

An in situ hydrothermal route is developed for fabricating rutile TiO2 mesocrystals/reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (TGR) hybrids in the presence of dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (ADBS). These rutile TiO2 mesocrystals with a Wulff shape are composed of ultra-tiny rod-like subunits with the same oriented direction and closely wrapped by the nanosheets of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). It is found that ADBS played a key role for the formation of mesocrystals during the self-assembly process, which pillared the graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and involved the aggregation of the mesocrystal subunits. Furthermore, the TGR hybrids are used as an anode material and exhibited a large capacity over 150?mA h g(-1) at 20 C after 1000 cycles, and high rate capability up to 40 C. These high performance characteristics may be due to the intrinsic characteristics of rutile TiO2 mesocrystals constructed from ultra-tiny subunits and hybridized with super conductive RGO nanosheets. PMID:25688035

Lan, Tongbin; Qiu, Heyuan; Xie, Fengyan; Yang, Jie; Wei, Mingdeng

2015-01-01

224

Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1992 by the Kentucky General Assembly, the Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center is dedicated to helping the Bluegrass State "act as a catalyst to change the way decisions are made in government." Their research has proved seminal to the state's advancement, and interested parties can learn about their publications, conferences, and other work on this site. First-time visitors should start by looking over some of their work in the "Publications" area. Here they will find full-length reports, their "Policy Notes" series, and PowerPoint presentations created by staff members. There are several hundred publications here, which can be viewed by topics, which range from "aging population" to "workforce development". The "Videos" section is quite good as well, and it features talks with 43 persons of interest from across the state, including journalist Betty Winston Baye and the mayor of Madisonville, Karen Cunningham.

225

38 CFR 36.4307 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4307 Section 36.4307...36.4307 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. (a) Pursuant to 38 U...36.4340. (4) The amount of the refinancing loan does not exceed: (i) An...

2014-07-01

226

38 CFR 36.4307 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4307 Section 36.4307...36.4307 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. (a) Pursuant to 38 U...36.4340. (4) The amount of the refinancing loan does not exceed: (i) An...

2012-07-01

227

38 CFR 36.4223 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4223 Section 36.4223...36.4223 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. (a) A veteran may refinance...prescribe. (3) The amount of the refinancing loan may not exceed an amount...

2012-07-01

228

38 CFR 36.4223 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4223 Section 36.4223...36.4223 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. (a) A veteran may refinance...prescribe. (3) The amount of the refinancing loan may not exceed an amount...

2010-07-01

229

38 CFR 36.4223 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4223 Section 36.4223...36.4223 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. (a) A veteran may refinance...prescribe. (3) The amount of the refinancing loan may not exceed an amount...

2011-07-01

230

38 CFR 36.4307 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4307 Section 36.4307...36.4307 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. (a) Pursuant to 38 U...36.4340. (4) The amount of the refinancing loan does not exceed: (i) An...

2011-07-01

231

38 CFR 36.4307 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4307 Section 36.4307...36.4307 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. (a) Pursuant to 38 U...36.4840. (4) The amount of the refinancing loan does not exceed: (i) An...

2010-07-01

232

38 CFR 36.4223 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4223 Section 36.4223...36.4223 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. (a) A veteran may refinance...prescribe. (3) The amount of the refinancing loan may not exceed an amount...

2013-07-01

233

38 CFR 36.4307 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4307 Section 36.4307...36.4307 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. (a) Pursuant to 38 U...36.4340. (4) The amount of the refinancing loan does not exceed: (i) An...

2013-07-01

234

38 CFR 36.4223 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. 36.4223 Section 36.4223...36.4223 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. (a) A veteran may refinance...prescribe. (3) The amount of the refinancing loan may not exceed an amount...

2014-07-01

235

The Impact of Interest Rate Changes on Islamic Bank Financing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the impact of interest rate changes on the demand for Islamic financing in a dual banking system. Theoretically, any change in the interest rate would lead customers who are guided by the profit motive to substitute Islamic financing for conventional bank loans and vice versa. Using monthly data from 1999 to 2007, the study found that any

Radiah Abdul Kader; Yap Kok Leong

236

Thailand's Student Loans Fund: Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Burdens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Government student loan schemes typically have implicit interest rate subsidies which, while these are a cost to taxpayers, they have the benefit of diminishing repayment burdens for graduates. Our goal is to illustrate the extent of both interest rate subsidies and repayment burdens with respect to Thailand's Student Loans Fund (SLF), using…

Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha; Polsiri, Piruna; Sarachitti, Rangsit; Sitthipongpanich, Thitima

2010-01-01

237

Lessons from Long-term Studies  

E-print Network

Lessons from Long-term Studies Gordon Reeves U.S. Forest Service PNW Research Station Corvallis #12 #12;Lessons from Long-term Studies Habitat responds quickly Biological response variables · difficult;Long-term Studies of the Aquatic-Land Interaction Program, PNW Research Station, Corvallis Fish Creek

238

Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

2005-01-01

239

Which Interest Rate Should We Use In The Is Curve?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do interest rates effect investment and the GDP? If so, which ones, and by how much? Research on this topic over 5 decades has produced conflicting results. Yet, this question is of critical importance to the viability of Keynesian macroeconomics. This paper attempts to explain why results have been conflicting. It also attempts to determine with some finality which rate(s),

John J. Heim

2007-01-01

240

Long term thermoelectric module testing system.  

PubMed

Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period. PMID:19895086

D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy

2009-10-01

241

The Long-Term Influence of Body Mass Index on the Success Rate of Mid-Urethral Sling Surgery among Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence or Stress-Predominant Mixed Incontinence: Comparisons between Retropubic and Transobturator Approaches  

PubMed Central

Objectives Mid-urethral sling (MUS) surgery for the treatment of urinary incontinence has been widespread since the introduction of tension-free vaginal tape in the mid-1990s. The majority of studies with short-term follow-up <2 years found no differences in the surgical outcomes according to body mass index (BMI). However, considering the chronic influence of obesity on pelvic floor musculature, it is cautiously speculated that higher BMI could increase stress on pelvic floor and sub-urethral tape, possibly decreasing the long-term success rate in the obese population. We aimed to compare the long-term effects of BMI on the outcomes of MUS between women with retropubic and transobturator approaches. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis on 243 consecutive women who received MUS and were followed up for ?36 months. The influence of BMI on the success rates was separately estimated and the factors for treatment failure were examined using logistic regression in either approach. Results The mean follow-up was 58.4 months, and 30.5% were normal weight, 51.0% overweight, and 18.5% obese. Patients received either the retropubic (30.5%) or transobturator (69.5%) approach. The success rates (%) under the transobturator approach differed according to the BMI groups (94.3, 88.6, and 78.6, respectively; P?=?0.037) while those under the retropubic approach were not different according to the BMI groups. However, in multivariate models, only the presence of preoperative mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) was proven to be the risk factor for treatment failure in the transobturator approach (OR 6.39, P?=?0.003). The percent of subjects with MUI was higher in obese women than in non-obese women with the transobturator approach. Conclusions BMI was not independently associated with failures in either approach. Higher success rates in women with lower BMI in the transobturator approach were attributed to the lower percent of preoperative MUI in those with lower BMI. PMID:25415490

Jeong, Seong Jin; Lee, Han Sol; Lee, Jeong Keun; Jeong, Jin Woo; Lee, Sang Cheol; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

2014-01-01

242

A YIELD-FACTOR MODEL OF INTEREST RATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a consistent and arbitrage-free multifactor model of the term structure of interest rates in which yields at selected fixed maturities follow a parametric muitivariate Markov diffusion process with \\

Darrell Duffie; Rui Kan

1996-01-01

243

Individuals and Environments: Linking Ability and Skill Ratings with Interests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holland's (1997) theory of corresponding person and work environment structures was evaluated by comparing the integration of individual and occupational ratings of interests, abilities, and skills. Occupational ratings were obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database (U.S. Department of Labor, 2007). College students (494 women,…

Anthoney, Sarah Fetter; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

2010-01-01

244

Prediction of interest rate using CKLS model with stochastic parameters  

SciTech Connect

The Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff and Sanders (CKLS) model is a popular one-factor model for describing the spot interest rates. In this paper, the four parameters in the CKLS model are regarded as stochastic. The parameter vector ?{sup (j)} of four parameters at the (J+n)-th time point is estimated by the j-th window which is defined as the set consisting of the observed interest rates at the j?-th time point where j?j??j+n. To model the variation of ?{sup (j)}, we assume that ?{sup (j)} depends on ?{sup (j?m)}, ?{sup (j?m+1)},…, ?{sup (j?1)} and the interest rate r{sub j+n} at the (j+n)-th time point via a four-dimensional conditional distribution which is derived from a [4(m+1)+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. Treating the (j+n)-th time point as the present time point, we find a prediction interval for the future value r{sub j+n+1} of the interest rate at the next time point when the value r{sub j+n} of the interest rate is given. From the above four-dimensional conditional distribution, we also find a prediction interval for the future interest rate r{sub j+n+d} at the next d-th (d?2) time point. The prediction intervals based on the CKLS model with stochastic parameters are found to have better ability of covering the observed future interest rates when compared with those based on the model with fixed parameters.

Ying, Khor Chia [Faculty of Computing and Informatics, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Hin, Pooi Ah [Sunway University Business School, No. 5, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Sunway, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

2014-06-19

245

Phase II Trial of Radiation Dose Escalation With Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy and High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Suppression in Unfavorable Prostate Cancer: Feasibility Report  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist-based androgen suppressive therapy (AST) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for high-risk (HRPC) or very-high-risk prostate cancer (VHRPC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and October 2006, 134 patients (median age, 70 years) with either National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria-defined HRPC (n = 47, 35.1%) or VHRPC (n = 87, 64.9%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of 14.6 ng/mL, a median clinical stage of T2c, and a median Gleason score of 7. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (54 Gy in 30 fractions) was followed by HDR brachytherapy (19 Gy in 4 b.i.d. treatments). Androgen suppressive therapy started 0-3 months before three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and continued for 2 years. Results: One implant was repositioned with a new procedure (0.7%). Five patients (3.7%) discontinued AST at a median of 13 months (range, 6-18 months) because of disease progression (n = 1), hot flashes (n = 2), fatigue (n = 1), and impotence (n = 1). After a median follow-up of 37.4 months (range, 24-90 months), the highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late urinary toxicities were Grade 0 in 47.8%, Grade 1 in 38.1%, Grade 2 in 7.5%, and Grade 3 in 6.7% of patients. Maximal late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 0 in 73.1%, Grade 1 in 16.4%, Grade 2 in 7.5%, and Grade 3 in 2.9% of patients. There were no Grade 4 or 5 events. Conclusions: Intermediate-term results show that dose escalation with HDR brachytherapy combined with long-term AST is feasible and has a toxicity profile similar to that reported by previous HDR brachytherapy studies.

Valero, Jeanette; Cambeiro, Mauricio [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Galan, Carlos [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Rioja, Logrono (Spain); Teijeira, Mercedes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Divino Valles, Burgos (Spain); Romero, Pilar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Zudaire, Javier [Department of Urology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Aristu, Jose Javier [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Martinez-Monge, Rafael, E-mail: rmartinezm@unav.e [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain)

2010-02-01

246

Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  

MedlinePLUS

Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program (OAA, Title VII, Chapter 2, Sections 711/712) The Purpose of the Program and How it ... Services Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2013 indicate that ...

247

Group Benefits Long Term Disability Benefits  

E-print Network

­ not the specific job they were hired to do. Contracts that have an own occupation definition of disability usuallyGroup Benefits Long Term Disability Benefits #12;What are Long Term Disability (LTD) benefits? Long job to confirm whether you meet the definition of disability within your group benefits contract

248

Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

249

Long term investigations of silver cathodes for alkaline fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline fuel cells (AFC) are an interesting alternative to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). In AFC no expensive platinum metal is necessary; silver can be used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) (cathode catalyst). For technical use of AFC the long term behavior of AFC components is important, especially that of the electrodes. The investigated cathodes for AFC consist of

N Wagner; M Schulze; E Gülzow

2004-01-01

250

Essays on Interest Rate Analysis with GovPX Data  

E-print Network

ESSAYS ON INTEREST RATE ANALYSIS WITH GOVPX DATA A Dissertation by BONG JU SONG Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2009 Major... Subject: Economics ESSAYS ON INTEREST RATE ANALYSIS WITH GOVPX DATA A Dissertation by BONG JU SONG Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved...

Song, Bong Ju

2010-10-12

251

Individuals and environments: Linking ability and skill ratings with interests.  

PubMed

Holland's (1997) theory of corresponding person and work environment structures was evaluated by comparing the integration of individual and occupational ratings of interests, abilities, and skills. Occupational ratings were obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database (U.S. Department of Labor, 2007). College students (494 women, 526 men) provided self-ratings of their interests, abilities, and skills. Property vector fitting was used to embed ability and skill ratings into the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC) interest structure, and bootstrapping was used to generate confidence intervals for the angles of the vectors and the magnitude of their fit to the Holland model. Across the individual and occupational ratings, 18 of 45 (40%) ability vectors and 41 of 48 (85%) skill vectors were fit into the RIASEC model. No significant gender differences were found in the integration of self-rated abilities and skills into the RIASEC circumplex; however, some differences were found between individual and environmental ratings. Obtained results highlight the potential utility and limitations of using Holland's model for representing both individual and occupational data in a common structure. PMID:21133559

Anthoney, Sarah Fetter; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

2010-01-01

252

Modifying Effect of a Common Polymorphism in the Interleukin-6 Promoter on the Relationship between Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Particulate Matter and Heart Rate Variability  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with an increase in many inflammatory markers, including interleukin 6 (IL6). Air pollution exposure has also been suggested to induce an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), such as a decrease in heart rate variability (HRV). In this study we aimed to investigate the modifying effect of polymorphisms in a major proinflammatory marker gene, interleukin 6 (IL6), on the relationship between long-term exposure to traffic-related PM10 (TPM10) and HRV. Methods For this cross-sectional study we analysed 1552 participants of the SAPALDIA cohort aged 50 years and older. Included were persons with valid genotype data, who underwent ambulatory 24-hr electrocardiogram monitoring, and reported on medical history and lifestyle. Main effects of annual average TPM10 and IL6 gene variants (rs1800795; rs2069827; rs2069840; rs10242595) on HRV indices and their interaction with average annual exposure to TPM10 were tested, applying a multivariable mixed linear model. Results No overall association of TPM10 on HRV was found. Carriers of two proinflammatory G-alleles of the functional IL6 -174 G/C (rs1800795) polymorphism exhibited lower HRV. An inverse association between a 1 µg/m3 increment in yearly averaged TPM10 and HRV was restricted to GG genotypes at this locus with a standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) (GG-carriers: ?1.8%; 95% confidence interval ?3.5 to 0.01; pinteraction(additive)?=?0.028); and low frequency power (LF) (GG-carriers: ?5.7%; 95%CI: ?10.4 to ?0.8; pinteraction(dominant)?=?0.049). Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that traffic-related air pollution decreases heart rate variability through inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:25133672

Adam, Martin; Imboden, Medea; Boes, Eva; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Künzli, Nino; Phuleria, Harish Chandra; Kronenberg, Florian; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Carballo, David; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

2014-01-01

253

Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

2014-05-01

254

Analysis of Solar Irradiation Anomalies in Long Term Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of global hemispheric irradiation measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of solar irradiation in India using anomalies techniques and trends in ten places over India. Most of the places have exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, M.; Polo, J.; Martin, L.; Navarro, A.; Serra, I.

2012-04-01

255

Factors Influencing Interest Rates on Delinquent Property Tax Certificates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the market for delinquent property tax certificates, a commonly used enforcement mechanism in property tax systems around the United States. We model the value of such certificates using a continuous-time framework and propose a statistical model that allows testing for factors that affect interest rates charged by investors who purchase the certificates as investment instruments. Using sample

Marcus T. Allen; Sheri Faircloth; Ali Nejadmalayeri

2004-01-01

256

Money, Prices, Interest Rates and the Business Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms governing the relationship of money, prices and interest rates to the business cycle are the most studied and most disputed topics in macroeconomics. In this paper, we first document key empirical aspects of this relationship. We then ask how well three benchmark rational expectations macroeconomic models--real business cycle model, a sticky price model and a liquidity effect model--account

Robert G. King; Mark W. Watson

1996-01-01

257

Exploring Fiscal Policy at Zero Interest Rates in Intermediate Macroeconomics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the financial meltdown of 2007, advanced macroeconomic theory has delved more deeply into the question of the appropriate fiscal policy when the nominal interest rate is close to or at zero percent. Such analysis is typically conducted with the aid of New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium models. The policy implications are,…

Ramamurthy, Srikanth; Sedgley, Norman

2013-01-01

258

49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...in effect on the day when the unlawful charge is paid. The interest rate in complaint...period shall begin on the date the unlawful charge is paid. (c) For both...

2014-10-01

259

49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...in effect on the day when the unlawful charge is paid. The interest rate in complaint...period shall begin on the date the unlawful charge is paid. (c) For both...

2013-10-01

260

49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT...quarter in which an unlawful charge is paid. The interest rate...begin on the date the unlawful charge is paid. However, in order...from the date the unlawful charge is paid to the last day...

2012-10-01

261

49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT...quarter in which an unlawful charge is paid. The interest rate...begin on the date the unlawful charge is paid. However, in order...from the date the unlawful charge is paid to the last day...

2011-10-01

262

Budget deficits and interest rates: a fresh perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend the literature on budget deficits and interest rates in three ways: we examine both advanced and emerging economies and for the first time a large emerging market panel; explore interactions to explain some of the heterogeneity in the literature; and apply system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). There is overall a highly significant positive effect of budget deficits

Ari Aisen; David Hauner

2013-01-01

263

Development/Plasticity/Repair Dopaminergic Control of Long-Term Depression/Long-Term  

E-print Network

Development/Plasticity/Repair Dopaminergic Control of Long-Term Depression/Long-Term Potentiation) 7102, University Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris 6, F-75005, Paris, France, and 2Unit of Psychopathology, U952, University Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris 6, F-75005, Paris, France Long-term memory

Arleo, Angelo

264

Long-term potentiation in the Eocene.  

PubMed Central

The first ten years of long-term potentiation (LTP) research are reviewed. Surprisingly, given the intensity of current interest, the discovery paper did not trigger a wave of follow-on experiments. Despite this, the initial work laid out what ultimately became standard questions and paradigms. The application of the then still novel hippocampal slice technique oriented LTP towards basic neuroscience, perhaps somewhat at the cost of lesser attention to its functional significance. The use of slices led to the discovery of the events that trigger the formation of LTP and provided some first clues about its extraordinary persistence. Signs of the intense controversy over the nature of LTP expression (release vs receptors) emerged towards the end of the first decade of work. What appears to be lacking in the literature of that time is a widespread concern about LTP and memory. This may reflect a somewhat different attitude that neurobiologists then had towards memory research and a perceived need to integrate the new potentiation phenomenon into the web of established science before advancing extended arguments about its contributions to behaviour. PMID:12740106

Lynch, G

2003-01-01

265

Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.  

PubMed

Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. PMID:11607658

Sykes, L R

1996-04-30

266

Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.  

PubMed Central

Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

Sykes, L R

1996-01-01

267

Transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy: Long term results  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the outcomes of transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy (TRC-DCR) surgery in patients with epiphora due to primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) at second year follow-up. Methods In this retrospective, interventional study, 33 eyes of 29 patients, with epiphora due to PANDO, are included. Lower eyelid conjunctiva is incised at vestibulum inferomedially to access the lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa. Bone is perforated with burr and rongeurs and saccal and nasal flaps are anastomosed. Conjunctival wound edges are apposed and left unsutured. Intraoperative difficulties, surgical time and complications are noted. Average follow-up time was 2 years. Anatomical success was defined as patent lacrimal passages upon irrigation and functional success was defined as relief of epiphora. Results In nineteen (57.6%) eyes the surgeries were completed with the anterior and the posterior flaps sutured. In eight eyes (24.2%) only anterior flaps could be sutured. In 6 eyes (18.2%), the surgical procedure was converted to external dacryocystorhinostomy since the nasal mucosa could not be exposed adequately via transconjunctival route. The mean surgical time was 65.1 min. One patient had a millimeter long lower eyelid margin laceration in one eye (3.7%) intraoperatively due to traction for visualization of the operative site. Epiphora resolved in 25 of 27 eyes (92.5%) in whom TRC-DCR could be completed. Epiphora and failure to irrigation were noted in two eyes (7.4%) at the postoperative 4th and 8th months, respectively and required reoperation. No complications occurred, except granuloma formation at the conjunctival incision site in three eyes (11.1%). Epiphora resolved in all the six eyes of patients who underwent an external DCR (100%). Conclusion Transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy is a scarless dacryocystorhinostomy technique which is performed without endoscope and/or laser assistance, with 92.5% success rate comparable to external DCR at the second year follow-up without major complications. PMID:24526861

Kaynak, Pelin; Ozturker, Can; Karabulut, Gamze; Çelik, Burcu; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk; Demirok, Ahmet

2013-01-01

268

F-BF Compounding with a 5% Interest Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A man invests \\$1000 in an account with a 5% annual interest rate. He knows that money in an account where interest is compounded semi-annually will ea...

269

Who Pays for Long-Term Care?  

MedlinePLUS

... Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers ... on Alzheimer's Disease Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community Home About Us Accessibility Disclaimer Privacy Contact ...

270

Who Needs Care? (Long-Term Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers ... on Alzheimer's Disease Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community Home About Us Accessibility Disclaimer Privacy Contact ...

271

Transverse Myelitis: Long-Term Care  

MedlinePLUS

... at this stage. The long-term management of TM requires attention to a number of issues. These ... residual effects of any spinal cord injury, including TM. In addition to chronic medical problems, there are ...

272

External-Beam Radiation Therapy and High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy in High and Very High Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Data on Clinical Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 200 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (32.5%) or very high-risk prostate cancer (67.5%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen of 15.2 ng/mL, a clinical stage of T2c, and a Gleason score of 7. Treatment consisted of 54 Gy of external irradiation (three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [3DCRT]) followed by 19 Gy of HDR brachytherapy in four twice-daily treatments. ADT started 0-3 months before 3DCRT and continued for 2 years. Results: One hundred and ninety patients (95%) received 2 years of ADT. After a median follow-up of 3.7 years (range, 2-9), late Grade {>=}2 urinary toxicity was observed in 18% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 was observed in 5%. Prior transurethral resection of the prostate (p = 0.013) and bladder D{sub 50} {>=}1.19 Gy (p = 0.014) were associated with increased Grade {>=}2 urinary complications; age {>=}70 (p = 0.05) was associated with Grade {>=}3 urinary complications. Late Grade {>=}2 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 9% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 in 1.5%. CTV size {>=}35.8 cc (p = 0.007) and D{sub 100} {>=}3.05 Gy (p = 0.01) were significant for increased Grade {>=}2 complications. The 5-year and 9-year biochemical relapse-free survival (nadir + 2) rates were 85.1% and 75.7%, respectively. Patients with Gleason score of 7-10 had a decreased biochemical relapse-free survival (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Intermediate-term results at the 5-year time point indicate a favorable outcome without an increase in the rate of late complications.

Martinez-Monge, Rafael, E-mail: rmartinezm@unav.es [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Cambeiro, Mauricio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio [Department of Medical Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Gaztanaga, Miren; Arbea, Leire [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Pascual, Ignacio [Department of Urology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Aristu, Javier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain)

2012-03-01

273

Long-term assessment of cryopreserved vein bypass grafting success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: When autogenous vein is unavailable, cryopreserved veins have been used in patients as a means of attempted limb salvage. We evaluated the long-term patency and limb salvage rates for patients undergoing bypass grafting with cryopreserved veins. Methods: Medical records were reviewed for patients undergoing cryovein bypass grafting at two hospitals from 1992 to 1997. Follow-up data were obtained from

Linda Harris; Monica O'Brien-Irr; John J. Ricotta

2001-01-01

274

Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

MacFall, Janet

2012-01-01

275

Long-Term Mortality after Gastric Bypass Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this retrospective cohort study, we determined the long-term mortality (from 1984 to 2002) among 9949 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery and 9628 severely obese persons who applied for driver's licenses. From these subjects, 7925 surgical patients and 7925 severely obese control subjects were matched for age, sex, and body-mass index. We determined the rates of death from

Ted D. Adams; Richard E. Gress; Sherman C. Smith; R. Chad Halverson; Steven C. Simper; Wayne D. Rosamond; Michael J. LaMonte; Antoinette M. Stroup; Steven C. Hunt

2007-01-01

276

Nutrient budgeting in a long term fertilizer experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a long term field experiment on maize-wheat cropping sequence, the effect of recommended doses of NPK alone and in combination with farmyard manure (FYM) and lime was studied on nutrient budgeting after completing 28 years of cropping cycles. At 100 percent recommendation rate, a total of 6,240 kg N was added through chemical fertilizers to maize and wheat crops

Sarwan Kumar

277

Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516

2013-01-01

278

The Significance of Introducing Permanent Assignments for Nursing Assistants at a Long-Term Care Setting on the Incidence Rate of Facility-Acquired Pressure Ulcers Among Elderly Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure ulcer prevalence remains a major health concern in long-term care facilities. The treatment of these pressure ulcers causes a financial drain on health care resources and adds potential costs for the family of the institutionalized elderly, according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The prevention of pressure ulcer development continues to be an essential objective of caregivers

Erlynda Mangaco-Borja

2011-01-01

279

Generating interest rate scenarios for bank asset liability management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last years the Second European Directive on Banking and Financial services demand that financial institutions develop\\u000a asset liability management tools to identify and measure the various financial risks they encounter. The present paper develops\\u000a a goal programming ALM model with a simulation analysis, to assist a commercial bank in managing its exposure to interest\\u000a rate risk taking into

Kosmidou Kyriaki; Constantin Zopounidis

2008-01-01

280

Private Long-Term Care Insurance: Value to Claimants and Implications for Long-Term Care Financing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain a profile of individuals with private long-term care (LTC) insurance as they begin using paid LTC services and track their patterns of service use, satisfaction with services and insurance, claims denial rates, and transitions over a 28-month period. Design and Methods: Ten LTC insurance companies…

Doty, Pamela; Cohen, Marc A.; Miller, Jessica; Shi, Xiaomei

2010-01-01

281

Equivalence of interest rate models and lattice gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the class of short rate interest rate models for which the short rate is proportional to the exponential of a Gaussian Markov process x(t) in the terminal measure r(t)=a(t)exp[x(t)]. These models include the Black-Derman-Toy and Black-Karasinski models in the terminal measure. We show that such interest rate models are equivalent to lattice gases with attractive two-body interaction, V(t1,t2)=-Cov[x(t1),x(t2)]. We consider in some detail the Black-Karasinski model with x(t) as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and show that it is similar to a lattice gas model considered by Kac and Helfand, with attractive long-range two-body interactions, V(x,y)=-?(e-?|x-y|-e-?(x+y)). An explicit solution for the model is given as a sum over the states of the lattice gas, which is used to show that the model has a phase transition similar to that found previously in the Black-Derman-Toy model in the terminal measure.

Pirjol, Dan

2012-04-01

282

The US Long Term Ecological Research Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience describes Long Term Ecological Research program in the US. The 24 projects of the National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research Network, whose sites range from the poles to the Tropics, from rain forests to tundras and deserts, and from offshore marine to estuarine and freshwater habitats, address fundamental and applied ecological issues that can be understood only through a long-term approach. Each project addresses different ecological questions; even the scale of research differs across sites. Projects in the network are linked by the requirement for some research at each site on five core areas, including primary production, decomposition, and trophic dynamics, and by cross-site comparisons, which are aided by the universally available databases. Many species and environmental variables are studied, and a wide range of synthetic results have been generated.

JOHN E. HOBBIE, STEPHEN R. CARPENTER, NANCY B. GRIMM, JAMES R. GOSZ, and TIMOTHY R. SEASTEDT (; )

2003-01-01

283

Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

NONE

1996-01-01

284

Valuing a long-term care facility.  

PubMed

The business valuation industry generally uses at least one of three basic approaches to value a long-term care facility: the cost approach, sales comparison approach, or income approach. The approach that is chosen and the resulting weight that is applied to it depend largely on the circumstances involved. Because a long-term care facility is a business enterprise, more weight usually is given to the income approach which factors into the estimate of value both the tangible and intangible assets of the facility. PMID:10145686

Mellen, C M

1992-10-01

285

12 CFR 652.15 - Interest rate risk management and requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Interest rate risk management and requirements. 652.15...Management § 652.15 Interest rate risk management and requirements. (a...and supervision) to the interest rate risk management program and must be...

2011-01-01

286

77 FR 38397 - Agency Information Collection (Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet) Activities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection (Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet) Activities Under OMB...INFORMATION: Title: Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet, VA Form 26-8923...guaranty on all interest rate reduction refinancing loan and provide a receipt as...

2012-06-27

287

77 FR 20890 - Proposed Information Collection (Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet) Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection (Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet) Activity: Comment...loan amount on interest rate reduction refinancing loans properly. DATES: Written comments...technology. Title: Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet, VA Form...

2012-04-06

288

12 CFR 652.15 - Interest rate risk management and requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Interest rate risk management and requirements. 652.15...Management § 652.15 Interest rate risk management and requirements. (a...and supervision) to the interest rate risk management program and must be...

2010-01-01

289

12 CFR 563.176 - Interest-rate-risk-management procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. 563.176 Section...563.176 Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. Savings associations...policy for interest-rate-risk management and shall make that...

2011-01-01

290

12 CFR 652.15 - Interest rate risk management and requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Interest rate risk management and requirements. 652.15... § 652.15 Interest rate risk management and requirements. (a...supervision) to the interest rate risk management program and must be...

2013-01-01

291

12 CFR 163.176 - Interest-rate-risk-management procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. 163.176 Section...163.176 Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. Federal savings...policy for interest-rate-risk management and shall make that...

2012-01-01

292

12 CFR 563.176 - Interest-rate-risk-management procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-01-01 true Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. 563.176 Section...563.176 Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. Savings associations...policy for interest-rate-risk management and shall make that...

2013-01-01

293

12 CFR 652.15 - Interest rate risk management and requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Interest rate risk management and requirements. 652.15... § 652.15 Interest rate risk management and requirements. (a...supervision) to the interest rate risk management program and must be...

2012-01-01

294

12 CFR 163.176 - Interest-rate-risk-management procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. 163.176 Section...163.176 Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. Federal savings...policy for interest-rate-risk management and shall make that...

2013-01-01

295

12 CFR 163.176 - Interest-rate-risk-management procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. 163.176 Section...163.176 Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. Federal savings...policy for interest-rate-risk management and shall make that...

2014-01-01

296

12 CFR 563.176 - Interest-rate-risk-management procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2012-01-01 true Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. 563.176 Section...563.176 Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. Savings associations...policy for interest-rate-risk management and shall make that...

2014-01-01

297

12 CFR 563.176 - Interest-rate-risk-management procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. 563.176 Section...563.176 Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. Savings associations...policy for interest-rate-risk management and shall make that...

2012-01-01

298

12 CFR 563.176 - Interest-rate-risk-management procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. ...563.176 Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. ...The board of directors or a committee thereof shall review the savings...association's interest-rate-risk exposure and devise a...

2010-01-01

299

Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.  

PubMed Central

This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximately 10% and remained at approximately that level throughout follow-up. The proportion meeting criteria for remission (Hamilton Depression score of 7 or less) rose gradually to approximately 45%. Long-term prognosis (i.e. probability of remission at 6 months and beyond) was strongly related to remission status at 3 months (odds ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.81-4.76) and only modestly related to various clinical characteristics assessed at baseline (e.g. prior history of recurrent depression, medical comorbidity, comorbid anxiety symptoms). The findings indicate that potentially modifiable risk factors influence the long-term prognosis of depression. This suggests that more systematic and effective depression treatment programmes might have an important effect on long-term course and reduce the overall burden of chronic and recurrent depression. PMID:10885162

Simon, G. E.

2000-01-01

300

Long Term Corrosion/Degradation Test Six Year Results  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains neutron-activated metals from non-fuel, nuclear reactor core components. The Long-Term Corrosion/Degradation (LTCD) Test is designed to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements to the environment. The test is using two proven, industry-standard methods—direct corrosion testing using metal coupons, and monitored corrosion testing using electrical/resistance probes—to determine corrosion rates for various metal alloys generally representing the metals of interest buried at the SDA, including Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, Beryllium S200F, Aluminum 6061, Zircaloy-4, low-carbon steel, and Ferralium 255. In the direct testing, metal coupons are retrieved for corrosion evaluation after having been buried in SDA backfill soil and exposed to natural SDA environmental conditions for times ranging from one year to as many as 32 years, depending on research needs and funding availability. In the monitored testing, electrical/resistance probes buried in SDA backfill soil will provide corrosion data for the duration of the test or until the probes fail. This report provides an update describing the current status of the test and documents results to date. Data from the one-year and three-year results are also included, for comparison and evaluation of trends. In the six-year results, most metals being tested showed extremely low measurable rates of general corrosion. For Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, and Ferralium 255, corrosion rates fell in the range of “no reportable” to 0.0002 mils per year (MPY). Corrosion rates for Zircaloy-4 ranged from no measurable corrosion to 0.0001 MPY. These rates are two orders of magnitude lower than those specified in the performance assessment for the SDA. The corrosion on the carbon steel, beryllium, and aluminum were more evident with a clear difference in corrosion performance between the 4-ft and 10-ft levels. Notable surface corrosion products were evident as well as numerous pit initiation sites. Since the corrosion of the beryllium and aluminum is characterized by pitting, the geometrical character of the corrosion becomes more significant than the general corrosion rate. Both pitting factor and weight loss data should be used together. For six-year exposure, the maximum carbon steel corrosion rate was 0.3643 MPY while the maximum beryllium corrosion rate was 0.3282 MPY and the maximum aluminum corrosion rate was 0.0030 MPY.

M. K. Adler Flitton; C. W. Bishop; M. E. Delwiche; T. S. Yoder

2004-09-01

301

TOXIC MODELING SYSTEM LONG-TERM (TOXLT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Toxic Modeling System Long-Term (TOXLT) is a personal-computer- based model that has been developed in conjunction with the release of the new version of the EPAs Industrial Source Complex (ISC2) Dispersion Models (EPA, 1992) and the promulgation of the EPAs A Tiered Modeling...

302

Evaluating Long-Term Disability Insurance Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report analyzes the factors involved in reviewing benefits and services of employer-sponsored group long-term disability plans for higher education institutions. Opening sections describe the evolution of disability insurance and its shape today. Further sections looks at the complex nature of "value" within a plan, relationship between plan…

Powell, Jan

1992-01-01

303

Long-term treatment with recombinant  

E-print Network

Long-term treatment with recombinant nerve growth factor for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy and significantly im- proved pain symptoms. However, there was no improvement of neuropathy severity as assessed antiretroviral zal- citabine, didanosine, and stavudine is associated with a toxic neuropathy clinically similar

Steinbach, Joe Henry

304

Long-Term Stability of Social Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

2008-01-01

305

Long-Term Tracking Through Failure Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long term tracking of an object, given only a single instance in an initial frame, remains an open problem. We propose a visual tracking algorithm, robust to many of the difficulties which often occur in real-world scenes. Correspondences of edge-based features are used, to overcome the reliance on the texture of the tracked object and improve invariance to lighting. Furthermore

Karel Lebeda; Simon Hadfield; Jiri Matas; Richard Bowden

2013-01-01

306

Long-term complications of chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with cancer are living longer and, therefore, are not only at risk for recurrence of the disease but also for long-term side effects of treatment. For patients treated with chemotherapy, secondary malignancies are a special concern, with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia being the most common. Although typically associated with alkylating agents, this complication is now being seen with use of

Mark A. Morgan; Stephen C. Rubin

1998-01-01

307

Long-Term Sequelae of Stroke  

PubMed Central

Scant attention has been paid to the long-term consequences and complications resulting from a stroke. Many stroke survivors go on to develop a variety of medical, musculoskeletal, and psychosocial complications, years after the acute stroke. The family physician is regularly called upon to deal with these problems, but is often hampered by a lack of resources. PMID:21221264

Teasell, Robert W.

1992-01-01

308

Truancy: Short and Long-Term Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers guidance on dealing with the problem of truancy and non-attendance. It provides examples of the latest ways that schools, teachers, education welfare officers, and local education authorities in the United Kingdom have worked to overcome their attendance problems, identifying 120 short-term solutions and several long-term

Reid, Ken

309

Long-term cropping systems study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This long-term study has been conducted on the Agronomy Farm at ARDC since the early 1970’s. In the beginning, the objectives were mainly related to crop production as affected by different cropping systems. The cropping systems included in the study are Continuous Corn, Soybean, and Sorghum; 2-year...

310

Long-term data storage in DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses how DNA might be used to store data. It is argued that, at present, DNA would be best employed as a long-term repository (thousands or millions of years). How data-containing DNA might be packaged and how the data might be encrypted, with particular attention to the encryption of written information, is also discussed. Various encryption issues are

Jonathan P. L Cox

2001-01-01

311

Long term perspectives in energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long term perspectives in global energy use patterns and energy resources are considered. The potential contributions of natural gas and coal, oil, nuclear energy, hydroelectric energy, and alternative energy resources (geothermal, wind, biomass, solar) are evaluated. It is concluded that fossile fuels will continue to provide the bulk of the world's energy through the upcoming decades. The political uncertainty of

C. Destival

1978-01-01

312

NATIONAL LONG TERM CARE SURVEY (NLTCS)  

EPA Science Inventory

National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...

313

LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

314

Process synchronization without long-term interlock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented for replacing long-term interlocking of shared data by the possible repetition of unprivileged code in case a version number (associated with the shared data) has been changed by another process. Four principles of operating system architecture (which have desirable effects on the intrinsic reliability of a system) are presented; implementation of a system adhering to these

William B. Easton

1971-01-01

315

Process synchronization without long-term interlock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented for replacing long-term interlocking of shared data by the possible repetition of unprivileged code in case a version number (associated with the shared data) has been changed by another process. Four principles of operating system architecture (which have desirable effects on the intrinsic reliability of a system) are presented; implementation of a system adhering to these

William B. Easton

1972-01-01

316

Four Long-Term Fiscal Realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States faces a long-run fiscal imbalance because of rapid projected growth in Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid spending. The policy response to the imbalance will be shaped by four long-term fiscal realities. First, revenue will rise as a share of GDP. Second, entitlement spending will be reduced, relative to current policies. Third, the middle class, broadly defined, will

Alan D Viard

2009-01-01

317

Attachment style and long-term singlehood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how long-term single people satisfy their attachment and sexual needs. A community sample of single and coupled adults (N ¼ 142) located in the United States completed measures of attachment style, attachment figures, loneliness, depression, anxiety, quality of relationships with parents, and sexual behavior. In a structured interview, they answered questions about their childhoods and managing attachment,

DORY A. SCHACHNER; PHILLIP R. SHAVER; OMRI GILLATHc

2008-01-01

318

Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected

Dominique Robert; Laurent Argaud

2007-01-01

319

Long-term projection: Initializing sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term climate change and sea-level rise in model projections have been primarily determined by external forcing of climate conditions. Now, research shows that centennial projections of the dynamic sea level are also sensitive to the ocean's initial conditions.

Yin, Jianjun

2015-04-01

320

Long-term effects of gypsiferous coal combustion ash applied at disposal levels on soil chemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there is renewed interest in the agricultural utilization of coal combustion byproducts. Field sites where high rates (112 Mg ha-1) of high gypsum coal combustion spent bed ashes were surface applied in 1980 within fruit tree orchard rows were identified and sampled with depth. The objective of this study was to examine the effects on long-term exposure\\/leaching of these

R. F. Korcak; W. Doral Kemper

1993-01-01

321

Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Long-Term Cryopreserved Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Cryopreservation represents an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and allows pooling of cells via long-term storage for clinical applications, e.g., cell-based therapies. It is crucial to reduce freezing injury during the cryopreservation process by loading the ASCs with the optimum concentration of suitable cryoprotective agents (CPAs). In this study, human ASCs were preserved for 3 months in different combinations of CPAs, including 1) 0.25 M trehalose; 2) 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO); 3) 10% DMSO; 4) 5% DMSO + 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS); 5) 10% DMSO + 20% FBS; 6) 10% DMSO + 90% FBS. Interestingly, even with a reduction of DMSO to 5% and without FBS, cryopreserved ASCs maintained high cell viability comparable with standard cryomedium (10% DMSO + 90% FBS), with normal cell phenotype and proliferation rate. Cryopreserved ASCs also maintained their differentiation capability (e.g., to adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes) and showed an enhanced expression level of stemness markers (e.g., NANOG, OCT-4, SOX-2 and REX-1). Our findings suggest that 5% DMSO without FBS may be an ideal CPA for an efficient long-term cryopreservation of human ASCs. These results aid in establishing standardized xeno-free long-term cryopreservation of human ASCs for clinical applications. PMID:25872464

Yong, Kar Wey; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Choi, Jane Ru; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Chua, Kien Hui; Safwani, Wan Kamarul Zaman Wan

2015-01-01

322

Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Long-Term Cryopreserved Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation represents an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and allows pooling of cells via long-term storage for clinical applications, e.g., cell-based therapies. It is crucial to reduce freezing injury during the cryopreservation process by loading the ASCs with the optimum concentration of suitable cryoprotective agents (CPAs). In this study, human ASCs were preserved for 3 months in different combinations of CPAs, including 1) 0.25 M trehalose; 2) 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO); 3) 10% DMSO; 4) 5% DMSO + 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS); 5) 10% DMSO + 20% FBS; 6) 10% DMSO + 90% FBS. Interestingly, even with a reduction of DMSO to 5% and without FBS, cryopreserved ASCs maintained high cell viability comparable with standard cryomedium (10% DMSO + 90% FBS), with normal cell phenotype and proliferation rate. Cryopreserved ASCs also maintained their differentiation capability (e.g., to adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes) and showed an enhanced expression level of stemness markers (e.g., NANOG, OCT-4, SOX-2 and REX-1). Our findings suggest that 5% DMSO without FBS may be an ideal CPA for an efficient long-term cryopreservation of human ASCs. These results aid in establishing standardized xeno-free long-term cryopreservation of human ASCs for clinical applications. PMID:25872464

Yong, Kar Wey; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Choi, Jane Ru; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Chua, Kien Hui; Safwani, Wan Kamarul Zaman Wan

2015-01-01

323

Is current hydrogeologic research addressing long-term predictions?  

PubMed

Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physicochemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions. PMID:15882321

Tsang, Chin-Fu

2005-01-01

324

Oil Prices and Interest Rates: Do They Determine the Exchange Rate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the relationship between the British pound sterling, interest rates, and oil prices has been overemphasized by economic commentators because they ignored a basic economic theory about the determination of the exchange rate. Provides an example and suggestions for follow up instruction. (Author/JDH)

Law, I. A.; Old, J. L.

1986-01-01

325

Psychometric performance during withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two patients were withdrawn from normal-dose, long-term benzodiazepine treatment and their data compared with those of two control groups. Patients and controls were assessed repeatedly on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Symbol Copying Test (SCT), Cancellation Task (CT), Auditory Reaction Time (RT) and Key Tapping Rate (KTR). A substantial and prolonged practice effect was found on all the tests

H. Petursson; G. H. Gudjonsson; M. H. Lader

1983-01-01

326

Long-term predictive capability of erosion models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief overview of long-term cavitation and liquid impingement erosion and modeling methods proposed by different investigators, including the curve-fit approach is presented. A table was prepared to highlight the number of variables necessary for each model in order to compute the erosion-versus-time curves. A power law relation based on the average erosion rate is suggested which may solve several modeling problems.

Veerabhadra, P.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

327

The Reaction of Exchange Rates and Interest Rates to News Releases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the response of exchange rates and interest rates--US and foreign--to economic news. The news is associated with the surprise component of the monthly release of six US macroeconomic variables. The results suggest that dollar exchange rates systematically react to news about real economic activity--a surprise of 100,000 on non-farm payroll employment leads to a 0.2% appreciation of

Hali J. Edison

1997-01-01

328

The reaction of exchange rates and interest rates to news releases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the response of exchange rates and interest rates--U.S. and foreign--to economic news. The news is associated with the surprise component of the monthly release of six U.S. macroeconomic variables. The results suggest that dollar exchange rates systematically react to news about real economic activity--a surprise of 100,000 on nonfarm payroll employment leads to a 0.2 percent appreciation

Hali J. Edison

1996-01-01

329

Long term results of lumbar sequestrectomy versus aggressive microdiscectomy.  

PubMed

It remains unknown whether aggressive microdiscectomy (AD) provides a better outcome than simple sequestrectomy (S) with little disc disruption for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy. We compared the long term results for patients with lumbar disc herniation who underwent either AD or S. The patients were split into two groups: 85 patients who underwent AD in Group A and 40 patients who underwent S in Group B. The patients were chosen from a cohort operated on by the same surgeon using either of the two techniques between 2003 and 2008. The demographic characteristics were similar. The difference in complication rates between the two groups was not statistically significant. During the first 10 days post-operatively, the Visual Analog Scale score for back pain was 4.1 in Group A and 2.1 in Group B, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.005). The Oswestry Disability Index score was 11% in Group A and 19% in Group B at the last examination. The reherniation rate was 1.5% in Group A and 4.1% in Group B (p<0.005). We argue that reherniation rates are much lower over the long term when AD is used with microdiscectomy. AD increases back pain for a short time but does not change the long term quality of life. To our knowledge this is the first study with a very long term follow-up showing that reherniation is three times less likely after AD than S. PMID:24890447

Kotil, Kadir; Köksal, Neslihan Sutpideler; Kayaci, Selim

2014-10-01

330

Long-Term Outcome after Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated long-term outcome of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Survival, functional status, quality of life, health care utilization, and relationships between these parameters and postoperative pulmo- nary hemodynamics were assessed. Questionnaires were mailed to 420 patients who were more than 1 yr post-PTE; 308 responded (mean age, 56 yr (range, 19-89 yr);

CAROL J. ARCHIBALD; WILLIAM R. AUGER; PETER F. FEDULLO; RICHARD N. CHANNICK; KIM M. KERR; STUART W. JAMIESON; DAVID P. KAPELANSKI; CONSTANCE N. WATT; KENNETH M. MOSER

331

Anemia in Long-Term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term care refers to a heterogeneous spectrum of facilities and health-related services that range from home nursing services\\u000a to residential care and skilled nursing facilities, so-called nursing homes. Although the services eligible for Medicare coverage\\u000a are defined by CMS, the clinical and demographic mix in facilities, even of the same level of care, is highly variable. The\\u000a shifting health care

Andrew S. Artz; Miriam Rodin

332

Quantal analysis and long-term potentiation.  

PubMed

Quantal analysis is useful for assessing the pre- and/or post-synaptic locus of the expression of long-term tetanic potentiation with the condition, however, that the studied synaptic potentials have been evoked by single cell stimulations, as is the case with paired recordings of identified neurons. The application of this methodology, primarily with indirect criteria, has produced conclusions which dance back and forth across the synaptic cleft. PMID:9759330

Korn, H; Faber, D S

1998-01-01

333

Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated stimulation of hippocampal neurons can induce an immediate and prolonged increase in synaptic strength that is called long-term potentiation (LTP)-the primary cellular model of memory in the mammalian brain1. An early phase of LTP (lasting less than three hours) can be dissociated from late-phase LTP by using inhibitors of transcription and translation2-8. Because protein synthesis occurs mainly in the

Uwe Frey; Richard G. M. Morris

1997-01-01

334

A long-term view of hypospadias.  

PubMed

The long-term psychological and physical sequelae of hypospadias and its management were assessed in a study of 213 patients over the age of fifteen. A high level of adult dissatisfaction regarding the quality of their repairs both in terms of function and aesthetics, plus criticism of inadequate guidance, indicates the need for follow-up until at least mid-teens, and the choice of operations which produce a terminal meatus and more natural appearance. PMID:2758195

Bracka, A

1989-05-01

335

LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a

2003-01-01

336

Long-term sequelae of electrical injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

2013-01-01

337

Pupil motility in long-term diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Employing infrared TV-videopupillography and the open loop stimulatory technique the ability of the pupil of the eye to react to rhythmic light stimuli of increasing frequencies was studied in 15 control subjects and 14 long-term juvenile diabetics. The degree of retinopathy varied from nil to proliferative changes. The visual acuity of all subjects studied was at least 6\\/9 and there

Á. B. Hreidarsson

1979-01-01

338

Integration of Research with Long-Term Monitoring: Breeding Wood Ducks on the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

In 1981, long-term monitoring of breeding wood ducks was initiated. Females were marked and recaptured for 15 years and annual population parameters were developed. Precise parameter estimates were possible due to high capture rates. The results contribute to the long-term understanding of wood duck populations.

Kennamer, R.A.; Hepp, G.R.

2000-10-01

339

Long-term EEG in children.  

PubMed

Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. PMID:25687590

Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

2015-03-01

340

5 CFR 842.605 - Election of insurable interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Member. (1) An insurable interest is presumed to exist with...relationship that would constitute a common-law marriage in jurisdictions recognizing common-law marriages. (2) When an insurable interest is not presumed, the...

2010-01-01

341

Transcription Factors in Long-Term Memory and Synaptic Plasticity  

PubMed Central

Transcription is a molecular requisite for long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. Thus, in the last several years, one main interest of molecular neuroscience has been the identification of families of transcription factors that are involved in both of these processes. Transcription is a highly regulated process that involves the combined interaction and function of chromatin and many other proteins, some of which are essential for the basal process of transcription, while others control the selective activation or repression of specific genes. These regulated interactions ultimately allow a sophisticated response to multiple environmental conditions, as well as control of spatial and temporal differences in gene expression. Evidence based on correlative changes in expression, genetic mutations, and targeted molecular inhibition of gene expression have shed light on the function of transcription in both synaptic plasticity and memory formation. This review provides a brief overview of experimental work showing that several families of transcription factors, including CREB, C/EBP, Egr, AP-1, and Rel have essential functions in both processes. The results of this work suggest that patterns of transcription regulation represent the molecular signatures of long-term synaptic changes and memory formation. PMID:19126756

Alberini, Cristina M.

2013-01-01

342

Long-term characteristic features of the Earth's motion.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics of long-term variations in the Earth's rate of rotation and in polar motion are briefly discussed. An analysis of the polar coordinates supplied by the Bureau International de l'Heure for the period 1956 - 1987 is carried out to investigate the possibility of there being a correlation between the Earth's rotational acceleration and the so-called Markowitz wobble, in analogy to what the authors found in a previous work on analyzing observations of the International Latitude Service. It is concluded that within the limits imposed by the short span of the data, this new analysis appears to confirm what was found previously which contrasts with the hypothesis that long-term libration in polar motion is only an observational artifact.

Poma, A.; Proverbio, E.

343

[Long-term control of psoriasis is necessary].  

PubMed

Psoriasis is an immune mediated, inflammatory skin condition affecting approximately 1.43% of Spanish population. In clinical practice, physicians use PASI index to assess the severity. Psoriasis causes physical and mental disability comparable to other chronic diseases and affects seriously the patients quality of life. For treatment we have different options. Conventional systemic treatment such as methotrexate, cyclosporine and acitretin may be associated with relevant side effects, and organ toxicity that avoid long term therapy. Several psoriasis patients have other comorbid disorders like obesity, diabetes, dyslipemia, hypertension and an increased rate of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome and these patients need safer treatments. The accumulating clinical experience with new therapies consistent on biological agents like efalizumab indicates that are effective therapies, with safety profile and no evidence of cumulative toxicity that allows a long term use. A better control of psoriasis improves patients quality of life. PMID:18341851

Sánchez Carazo, J L; Martínez Casimiro, L; Alegre de Miguel, V

2008-01-01

344

Medicare program; changes to the hospital inpatient prospective payment system for acute care hospitals and fiscal year 2010 rates; and changes to the long-term care hospital prospective payment system and rate years 2010 and 2009 rates. Final rules and interim final rule with comment period.  

PubMed

We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems, and to implement certain provisions made by the TMA, Abstinence Education, and QI Program Extension Act of 2007, the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008, and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. In addition, in the Addendum to this final rule, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the rates for Medicare acute care hospital inpatient services for operating costs and capital-related costs. These changes are applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2009. We also are setting forth the update to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. The updated rate-of-increase limits are effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2009. Second, we are updating the payment policy and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for rate year (RY) 2010, including responding to public comments received on a June 3, 2009 supplemental proposed rule relating to the proposed RY 2010 Medicare Severity Long-Term Care Diagnosis-Related Groups (MS-LTC-DRG) relative weights and the proposed RY 2010 high-cost outlier (HCO) fixed-loss amount. In the Addendum to this final rule, we also set forth the changes to the payment rates, factors, and other payment rate policies under the LTCH PPS for RY 2010. These changes are applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2009. In addition, we are responding to public comments received on and finalizing a June 3, 2009 interim final rule with comment period that revised the MS-LTC-DRG relative weights for payments under the LTCH PPS for the remainder of FY 2009 (that is, from June 3, 2009, through September 30, 2009). Third, in this final rule, we are responding to public comments we received on, and finalizing, two May 2008 interim final rules with comment period that implemented certain provisions of section 114 of the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Extension Act of 2007 (MMSEA, Pub. L. 110-173) relating to payments to LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities, the establishment of LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities, and increases in beds in existing LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities under the LTCH PPS. Fourth, through an interim final rule with comment period as part of this document, we are implementing those provisions of the ARRA that amended certain provisions of section 114 of the MMSEA relating to payments to LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities and increases in beds in existing LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities under the LTCH PPS. PMID:19827228

2009-08-27

345

Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat Disposal Site, Mexican Hat, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSP (based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program), documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

NONE

1996-02-01

346

Long-term pituitary downregulation before frozen embryo transfer could improve pregnancy outcomes in women with adenomyosis.  

PubMed

Some studies have shown that long-term gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist administration before in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm in infertile women with endometriosis or adenomyosis significantly increases the chances of pregnancy. We were interested in whether long-term GnRH agonist pretreatment could improve pregnancy outcomes in adenomyosis patients undergoing frozen embryo transfer (FET) after preparation of the endometrium with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Totally, 339 patients with adenomyosis were included in this retrospective study, 194 received long-term GnRH agonist plus HRT (down-regulation?+?HRT) and 145 received HRT. There were no differences between the groups in characteristic such as age, body mass index, duration or cause of infertility, serum CA-125 level and basal hormone levels. On the day of progesterone administration, mean endometrial thickness and serum progesterone level were significantly greater in HRT patients. Mean score and number of embryos transferred showed no differences. In down regulation?+?HRT group, clinical pregnancy, implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates were 51.35%, 32.56% and 48.91%, respectively, significantly higher than that of HRT group (24.83%, 16.07% and 21.38%, respectively). So, we concluded that in FET, long-term GnRH agonist pretreatment significantly improved pregnancy outcomes in patients with adenomyosis. PMID:24006906

Niu, Zhihong; Chen, Qian; Sun, Yijuan; Feng, Yun

2013-12-01

347

Spent filter packaging for long term storage and disposal  

SciTech Connect

This paper will discuss filter packaging experience using spent filter transfer casks, a filter shear and the NUKEM macro-encapsulation process. Marco-encapsulation of spent filters in cement has provided sufficient shielding to enable filter containers to be shipped in less expensive IP-2 casks. The lower dose rate and higher density also off-sets disposal rates at Barnwell based on mass. No re-dewatering of encapsulated filter containers is required after a period of long term storage and encapsulation eliminates the possibility of gas generation from filters during storage. Encapsulation can be performed on filters loaded into poly HICs or carbon steel liners. (authors)

Duberville, T.M. [NUKEM Corporation, Columbia, SC (United States); Miller, C. [Pacific Gas and Electric, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Avila Bach, CA (United States)

2007-07-01

348

The coevolution of long-term pair bonds and cooperation.  

PubMed

The evolution of social traits may not only depend on but also change the social structure of the population. In particular, the evolution of pairwise cooperation, such as biparental care, depends on the pair-matching distribution of the population, and the latter often emerges as a collective outcome of individual pair-bonding traits, which are also under selection. Here, we develop an analytical model and individual-based simulations to study the coevolution of long-term pair bonds and cooperation in parental care, where partners play a Snowdrift game in each breeding season. We illustrate that long-term pair bonds may coevolve with cooperation when bonding cost is below a threshold. As long-term pair bonds lead to assortative interactions through pair-matching dynamics, they may promote the prevalence of cooperation. In addition to the pay-off matrix of a single game, the evolutionarily stable equilibrium also depends on bonding cost and accidental divorce rate, and it is determined by a form of balancing selection because the benefit from pair-bond maintenance diminishes as the frequency of cooperators increases. Our findings highlight the importance of ecological factors affecting social bonding cost and stability in understanding the coevolution of social behaviour and social structures, which may lead to the diversity of biological social systems. PMID:23496797

Song, Z; Feldman, M W

2013-05-01

349

Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

Akins, F. R.

1979-01-01

350

Long-Term Wind Power Variability  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

Wan, Y. H.

2012-01-01

351

A long-term climatology of medicanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medicanes, intense and destructive mesoscale cyclones exhibiting several similarities with tropical hurricanes, are known to struck occasionally the Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to a high-resolution dynamical downscaling effort, we are able to study for the first time the long-term climatology of those rare storms in a systematic way. The distribution of medicanes frequency in space and time is discussed, and the environmental factors responsible for their formation are investigated. We find that medicanes develop in those areas of the Mediterranean region where intrusions of cold air in the upper troposphere can produce configurations of thermodynamical disequilibrium of the atmosphere similar to those associated with the formation of tropical cyclones.

Cavicchia, Leone; von Storch, Hans; Gualdi, Silvio

2014-09-01

352

Pediatric HIV Long-Term Nonprogressors  

PubMed Central

Patients infected with HIV are best categorized along a continuum from rapid progressors to HIV long-term nonprogressors. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) are those in which AIDS develop many years after being infected with HIV, often beyond the 10-year mark, and represent 15–20% of the HIV infected patients. Many of these patients are able to control their infection and maintain undetectable viral loads for long periods of time without antiretroviral therapy. After a comprehensive literature search, we found extensive data related to HIV LTNPs in the adult population; however, very limited data was available related to LTNPs within the pediatric population. We present a case of pediatric HIV LTNPs, perinatally infected patient with undetectable viral loads, despite never receiving ART. Although there are not many instances of LTNPs among children, this child may be one, though she had intermittent viremia. She has continued to manifest serologic evidence of infection, with yearly ELISA and western blot positive tests. Based on the viral fitness studies that were performed, this case exemplifies an adolescent LTNP. PMID:25247098

Rimawi, B. H.; Rimawi, R. H.; Micallef, M.; Pinckney, L.; Fowler, S. L.; Dixon, T. C.

2014-01-01

353

The Long-Term Hemispheric Sunspot Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sunspot activity is usually represented by either sunspot numbers (SN) or sunspot areas (SA). The smoothed monthly mean SA and SN in the northern and southern hemispheres from 1945 January to 2008 March are used to investigate the characteristics of long-term hemispheric sunspot activity. Although sunspot activity (SA and SN) is found to begin one month earlier in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere on the average of the considered time interval, the shift is so small that no long-term systematic phase shift is statistically acceptable as a first-order effect, as suggested by White & Trotter. Sunspot activity never peaks at the same time in the two hemispheres. Although the Schwabe cycle appears in hemispheric sunspot activity, its period length slightly varies during the considered time interval and seems to be longer in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere on the average. Sunspot activity is asymmetrically distributed in the hemispheres, but the largest hemispheric diversity usually does not appear around the maximum time of a cycle. The diversity of SA, respectively, in the northern and southern hemispheres runs on the Sun similarly and synchronously as the diversity of SN does. Sunspot activity is slightly asynchronous in the hemispheres.

Li, K. J.; Gao, P. X.; Zhan, L. S.; Shi, X. J.

2009-01-01

354

Long-term anticoagulation. Indications and management.  

PubMed Central

Each year half a million persons in the United States receive long-term anticoagulant therapy to prevent venous and arterial thromboembolism. Unfortunately, the relative benefits and risks of anticoagulant therapy have not been adequately quantified for many thromboembolic disorders, and the decisions as to whether, for how long, and how intensely to administer anticoagulation are often complex and controversial. Several expert panels have published recommendations for anticoagulant therapy for different thromboembolic disorders; the primary area of disagreement among these panels concerns the optimal intensity of anticoagulation. Recent research and analytic reviews have helped to clarify both the risk factors for and the appropriate diagnostic evaluation of anticoagulant-induced hemorrhage. Clinicians must be aware of the nonhemorrhagic complications of anticoagulant therapy, particularly during pregnancy. The administration of anticoagulants is difficult both in relation to dosing and long-term monitoring. Knowledge of the pharmacology of the anticoagulants, an organized approach to ongoing monitoring, and thorough patient education may facilitate the safe and effective use of these drugs. PMID:2686173

Stults, B M; Dere, W H; Caine, T H

1989-01-01

355

Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation  

PubMed Central

Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as ‘storage’. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation—which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes—with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

2013-01-01

356

Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected to improve patient outcomes, reduce ICU admission, enhance patient comfort, and increase the efficiency of health care resource utilization. Current literature indicates that noninvasive ventilation improves and stabilizes the clinical course of many patients with chronic ventilatory failure. Noninvasive ventilation also permits long-term mechanical ventilation to be an acceptable option for patients who otherwise would not have been treated if tracheostomy were the only alternative. Nevertheless, these results appear to be better in patients with neuromuscular/-parietal disorders than in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This clinical review will address the use of noninvasive ventilation (not including continuous positive airway pressure) mainly in diseases responsible for chronic hypoventilation (that is, restrictive disorders, including neuromuscular disease and lung disease) and incidentally in others such as obstructive sleep apnea or problems of central drive. PMID:17419882

Robert, Dominique; Argaud, Laurent

2007-01-01

357

F-BF Compounding with a 100% Interest Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A man knows that money in an account where interest is compounded semi-annually will earn interest faster than money in an account where interest is co...

358

78 FR 13999 - Maximum Interest Rates on Guaranteed Farm Loans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to nationally published indices, specifically the 3-month London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) or the 5-year Treasury note...Abbreviations and definitions. * * * * * (a) * * * LIBOR London Interbank Offered Rate. * * * * * PART 762--GUARANTEED...

2013-03-04

359

Increased Risk of Long-Term Sickness Absence, Lower Rate of Return to Work, and Higher Risk of Unemployment and Disability Pensioning for Thyroid Patients: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Context: Little is known about how thyroid diseases affect work ability. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of work disability for patients with thyroid disease compared with the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a longitudinal register study, outpatients (n = 862) with nontoxic goiter, hyperthyroidism, Graves' orbitopathy (GO), autoimmune hypothyroidism, or other thyroid diseases and their matched controls (n = 7043) were observed in the years 1994–2011 in Danish national registers of social benefits, health, and work characteristics. Cox regression analyses estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the first year after diagnosis and subsequent years. Main Outcome Measures: Transitions between work, long-term sickness absence, unemployment, and disability pension were measured. Results: Patients differed significantly from the general population with regard to sickness absence, disability pension, return from sickness absence, and unemployment. In the first year after diagnosis, higher risks of sickness absence was seen for GO (HR 6.94) and other hyperthyroid patients (HR 2.08), who also had lower probability of returning from sickness absence (HR 0.62) and higher risk of disability pension (HR 4.15). Patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism showed a lower probability of returning from sickness absence (HR 0.62). In subsequent years, GO patients had significantly higher risk of sickness absence (HR 2.08), lower probability of return from sickness absence (HR 0.51), and unemployment (HR 0.52) and a higher risk of disability pension (HR 4.40). Hyperthyroid patients also had difficulties returning from sickness absence (HR 0.71). Conclusions: Thyroid patients' risk of work disability is most pronounced in the first year after diagnosis and attenuates in subsequent years. GO patients have the highest risk of work disability. PMID:24937367

Watt, T.; Pedersen, J.; Bonnema, S. J.; Hegedüs, L.; Rasmussen, A. K.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Bjorner, J. B.

2014-01-01

360

Long-term performance of filtration layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permeable pavements are commonly employed to capture and divert stormwater before it enters the stormwater or sewer conveyance systems. During a storm event, runoff water passes through the permeable pavement surface, enters a storage gallery and finally exfiltrates into the surrounding soil. Thus, the ability of the system to store an appropriate volume of runoff water is an important consideration for stormwater control design. Traditionally, crushed stone or other porous material has been used to provide the necessary interstitial void space to store the runoff water. Unfortunately, over time the available void space within the storage gallery is reduced due to settlement, biological growth and sediment accumulation. This gradual reduction in void space reduces the long-term effectiveness of these stormwater controls by limiting its ability to store and pass runoff water. This study examined the long-term performance of the storage gallery layer with respect to its ability to both store and pass runoff water. As the porosity within the storage gallery decreased, it was anticipated that volumetric water content within the gallery would increase and that time necessary to drain the gallery would increase as well. The effects of the gallery porosity were assessed over a one-year study using both laboratory experimentation and monitoring data from naturally occurring rain events. Changes in gallery porosity were first assessed by correlating monitoring piezometer data with surface infiltration testing; building a relation between know volume of poured water being used for the test and the associated pressure head at the base of the gallery. As a known volume of water enters the system, volume change in the gallery directly correlate to increases in pressure head. Second, the time required for water to permeate through pavers and gallery layer to trigger the TDRs in the filtration layer and the time to drain it from the crushed stone were calculated and compared by the age of permeable pavement. These data were utilized to develop a model that more appropriately considered changes in gallery porosity. By better understanding the progression of the runoff water through the storage gallery a better assessment of the long-term performance of the entire system can be developed. Future storage gallery designs can be appropriately modified to account for changes within the storage gallery so that volume and flow requirements are maintained throughout the life of the structure.

Radfar, A.; Rockaway, T. D.

2013-12-01

361

76 FR 37030 - Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate Risk; Investment and Deposit Activities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 703 Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate...in the purchase and sale of financial derivatives for the purpose of offsetting interest...Comments on Part 703 ANPR, Financial Derivatives Transactions to Offset Interest...

2011-06-24

362

Development of a new test of accelerated long-term forgetting in epilepsy   

E-print Network

Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is a novel form of memory impairment in which epilepsy patients demonstrate intact recall and recognition after standard delays, but they show an accelerated rate of forgetting in comparison to controls when...

Williams, Katie

2010-11-24

363

Continuous and Long-Term Volume Measurements with a Commercial Coulter Counter  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a method to enhance the time resolution of a commercial Coulter counter and enable continuous and long-term cell size measurements for growth rate analyses essential to understanding basic cellular processes, ...

Bryan, Andrea Kristine

364

Nutrient constraints to tropical agroecosystem productivity in long-term degrading soils  

E-print Network

soils. Keywords: chronosequence, fertilizer, long-term cultivation, nitrogen, phosphorus, soil fertility of western Kenya, we investigated soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) constraints to maize productivity fertilizer rates applied separately and in combination. Maize productivity without fertilizer was used

Lehmann, Johannes

365

Automated patient-specific classification of long-term Electroencephalography.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel systematic approach for patient-specific classification of long-term Electroencephalography (EEG). The goal is to extract the seizure sections with a high accuracy to ease the Neurologist's burden of inspecting such long-term EEG data. We aim to achieve this using the minimum feedback from the Neurologist. To accomplish this, we use the majority of the state-of-the-art features proposed in this domain for evolving a collective network of binary classifiers (CNBC) using multi-dimensional particle swarm optimization (MD PSO). Multiple CNBCs are then used to form a CNBC ensemble (CNBC-E), which aggregates epileptic seizure frames from the classification map of each CNBC in order to maximize the sensitivity rate. Finally, a morphological filter forms the final epileptic segments while filtering out the outliers in the form of classification noise. The proposed system is fully generic, which does not require any a priori information about the patient such as the list of relevant EEG channels. The results of the classification experiments, which are performed over the benchmark CHB-MIT scalp long-term EEG database show that the proposed system can achieve all the aforementioned objectives and exhibits a significantly superior performance compared to several other state-of-the-art methods. Using a limited training dataset that is formed by less than 2 min of seizure and 24 min of non-seizure data on the average taken from the early 25% section of the EEG record of each patient, the proposed system establishes an average sensitivity rate above 89% along with an average specificity rate above 93% over the test set. PMID:24566194

Kiranyaz, Serkan; Ince, Turker; Zabihi, Morteza; Ince, Dilek

2014-06-01

366

Assessing nutritional risk of long-term care residents.  

PubMed

The validity was determined for Minimum Data Set (MDS) 2.0 oral/nutrition status (Section K) items, used to identify long-term care residents at nutritional risk. A registered dietitian assessed 128 long-term care residents using standardized procedures, and used clinical judgment to provide a nutritional risk rating. Registered nursing staff completed the MDS assessments. Bivariate tests of association were used to assess the relationship between the dietitian rating and each Section K item. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of specific and combinations of variables were also determined. The MDS variables of dietary prescription (diet rx), supplement use, and swallowing problems were significantly associated with nutritional risk rating. Body mass index (BMI), calculated from MDS data, also was significantly associated with nutritional risk rating. The MDS trigger system, however, had poor Se and Sp. The best combination of variables included the presence of one or more of diet rx, supplement use, swallowing problem, or BMI <24 kg/m2 (Se=0.81, Sp=0.50). Although Section K items are associated with nutritional risk, Se and Sp analyses suggest that these items and this section require further refinement and validation before use as part of a referral mechanism. PMID:16159408

Bowman, Jennifer J; Keller, Heather H

2005-01-01

367

12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...615.5180 Interest rate risk management by banks—general. The...implement an interest rate risk management program tailored to the needs...program shall establish a risk management process that effectively...

2010-01-01

368

12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...615.5180 Interest rate risk management by banks—general. The...implement an interest rate risk management program tailored to the needs...program shall establish a risk management process that effectively...

2011-01-01

369

12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...615.5180 Interest rate risk management by banks—general. The...implement an interest rate risk management program tailored to the needs...program shall establish a risk management process that effectively...

2012-01-01

370

12 CFR 615.5180 - Bank interest rate risk management program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...5180 Bank interest rate risk management program. (a) The board...oversee an interest rate risk management program tailored to the needs...program must establish a risk management process that effectively...

2014-01-01

371

12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615.5181 Section...AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5181 Bank interest rate risk management program. (a) The...

2011-01-01

372

76 FR 33028 - Agency Information Collection (Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection (Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits...INFORMATION: Title: Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans. OMB Control Number: 2900-0601. Type of...

2011-06-07

373

76 FR 15055 - Proposed Information Collection (Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection (Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...technology. Title: Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans. OMB Control Number: 2900-0601. Type of...

2011-03-18

374

12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615.5181 Section...AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5181 Bank interest rate risk management program. (a) The...

2010-01-01

375

7 CFR 1610.10 - Determination of interest rate on Bank loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. 1610.10 Section 1610.10...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES...10 Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. (a) All loan fund...

2010-01-01

376

7 CFR 773.19 - Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.19 Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a) Interest rate....

2014-01-01

377

7 CFR 773.19 - Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.19 Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a) Interest rate....

2011-01-01

378

7 CFR 773.19 - Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.19 Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a) Interest rate....

2013-01-01

379

7 CFR 773.19 - Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.19 Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a) Interest rate....

2012-01-01

380

7 CFR 773.19 - Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.19 Interest rate, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a) Interest rate....

2010-01-01

381

31 CFR 359.9 - When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced? 359.9...OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Information § 359.9 When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced?...

2014-07-01

382

31 CFR 359.9 - When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced? 359.9...OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Information § 359.9 When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced?...

2012-07-01

383

31 CFR 359.9 - When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced? 359.9...OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Information § 359.9 When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced?...

2011-07-01

384

31 CFR 359.9 - When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced? 359.9...OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Information § 359.9 When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced?...

2010-07-01

385

31 CFR 359.9 - When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced? 359.9...OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Information § 359.9 When are interest rates for Series I savings bonds announced?...

2013-07-01

386

24 CFR 221.795 - Displacement-below market interest rate mortgages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement-below market interest rate mortgages...Income Projects § 221.795 Displacement—below market interest rate mortgages. (a) Minimizing displacement. Consistent with the...

2011-04-01

387

12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615.5181 Section...AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5181 Bank interest rate risk management program. (a) The...

2012-01-01

388

12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615.5181 Section...AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5181 Bank interest rate risk management program. (a) The...

2013-01-01

389

7 CFR 1610.10 - Determination of interest rate on Bank loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. 1610.10 Section 1610...Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN...Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. (a) All loan fund...

2011-01-01

390

7 CFR 1610.10 - Determination of interest rate on Bank loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. 1610.10 Section 1610...Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN...Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. (a) All loan fund...

2014-01-01

391

7 CFR 1610.10 - Determination of interest rate on Bank loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. 1610.10 Section 1610...Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN...Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. (a) All loan fund...

2012-01-01

392

7 CFR 1610.10 - Determination of interest rate on Bank loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. 1610.10 Section 1610...Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN...Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. (a) All loan fund...

2013-01-01

393

Reducing long-term reservoir performance uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir performance is one of the key issues that have to be addressed before going ahead with the development of a geothermal field. In order to select the type and size of the power plant and design other surface installations, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the production wells and of the produced fluids, and to predict the changes over a 10--30 year period. This is not a straightforward task, as in most cases the calculations have to be made on the basis of data collected before significant fluid volumes have been extracted from the reservoir. The paper describes the methodology used in predicting the long-term performance of hydrothermal systems, as well as DOE/GTD-sponsored research aimed at reducing the uncertainties associated with these predictions. 27 refs., 1 fig.

Lippmann, M.J.

1988-04-01

394

Long-term U. S. energy outlook  

SciTech Connect

Each year Chase Econometrics offers its clients a brief summary of the assumptions underlying the long-term energy forecast for the U.S. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they choose to compare forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Particular emphasis is placed on Scenario B, which is the mid-range reference case. As the introduction to the supplement emphasizes, the NEPP projections should not be considered a statement of the policy goals of the Reagan Administration. They represent an analysis of the possible evolution of U.S. energy markets, given current information and existing policies. The purpose of providing Scenario B as a reference case as well as Scenarios A and C as alternate cases is to show the sensitivity of oil price projections to small swings in energy demand.

Friesen, G.

1984-01-01

395

Long-term control of root growth  

DOEpatents

A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

Burton, Frederick G. (West Richland, WA); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Richland, WA)

1992-05-26

396

Networking: a long-term management strategy.  

PubMed

As we face a changing health-care landscape of mergers and acquisitions during these tough economic times, it is more important than ever to cultivate a network of individuals who can assist you in your career development efforts. How do you manage your career in a shrinking economy? What is networking and how can you use it to enhance your career and professional competencies? Many myths surround the networking process; this article clarifies those misperceptions and tells you the truth about networking and the positive results you can achieve. Networking can be used to get a new job, but it has much wider application as a long-term career management strategy. Learn how you can manage your own career while building professional relationships and coaching your employees. PMID:12813955

Gumbus, Andra

2003-01-01

397

Long-term data storage in DNA.  

PubMed

This article discusses how DNA might be used to store data. It is argued that, at present, DNA would be best employed as a long-term repository (thousands or millions of years). How data-containing DNA might be packaged and how the data might be encrypted, with particular attention to the encryption of written information, is also discussed. Various encryption issues are touched on, such as how data-containing DNA might be differentiated from genetic material, error detection, data compression and reading frame location. Finally, this article broaches the difficulty of constructing very large pieces of DNA in the laboratory and highlights some complications that might arise when attempting to transmit DNA-encrypted data to recipients who are a long period of time in the future. PMID:11412947

Cox, J P

2001-07-01

398

Energy medicine for long-term disabilities.  

PubMed

Energy medicine techniques derive from traditional Chinese medicine and are based upon the concept that health and healing are dependent upon a balance of vital energy, a still mind, and controlled emotions. Physical dysfunctions result from disordered patterns of energy of long standing and reversal of the physical problem requires a return to balanced and ordered energy. Qi Gong (Chi Kung) is a system which teaches an individual to live in a state of energy balance. Shen Qi is a sophisticated form of Qi Gong which relies on no external physical interventions but rather relies on mind control to prevent illness, heal existing physical and emotional problems, and promote health and happiness. This paper will describe the use of these techniques with people who have long-term physical disabilities. PMID:10381239

Trieschmann, R B

1999-01-01

399

Financial contagion, interest rates and the role of the exchange rate as shock absorber in Central and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the impact of external factors on daily exchange rates and short-term interest rates in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland during the period August 1997 – May 2001. I find that neither exchange rates nor interest rates are influenced by short-term German interest rates. Nevertheless, I show that shocks to emerging-market risk premia had a significant impact

Maurizio Michael Habib

2002-01-01

400

Long-term dynamics of Typha populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

1998-01-01

401

Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy Management will keep records management as a high priority. (authors)

Montgomery, John V. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Gueretta, Jeanie [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

2012-07-01

402

Optimal Investment Consumption Model with CIR Interest Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal investment consumption problem for a single riskless bond, a zero-coupon bond and a risky stock modeled by the CIR interest process has been established. The investment objective is maximizing the utility of his consumption and terminal wealth. By the stochastic dynamic programming principle, the HJB equation for the optimal solution is given. In the case of constant relative

Shuping Wan

2007-01-01

403

Optimal Investment Consumption Model with Vasicek Interest Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal investment consumption problem for a single riskless bond, a zero-coupon bond and a risky stock modeled by the Vasicek interest process has been established. The investment objective is maximizing the utility of his consumption and terminal wealth. By the stochastic dynamic programming principle, the HJB equation for the optimal solution is given. In the case of constant relative

Dong Jiuying

2007-01-01

404

The Approximate Average Rate of Interest Cognitive Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research work treats formalization of the knowledge of decision makers of SME. It aims at identifying their diagram of reasoning when they make financial decisions. When they prepare the investment plan, these decision makers make an approximation of the distribution of interests and repayments in the annual instalment of loan. These approximations are similar of one decision maker to

F. Briquet

2000-01-01

405

Onset of tuberculosis disease: New converters in long-term care settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elders living in communal settings, such as nursing homes or other types of long-term care facilities have a tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate of 39.2 per 1,000, nearly four times the rate of TB in the general population. This fact mandates routine screening, reporting, and strict follow-up of TB in long-term care facilities as well as recognizing and addressing barriers to

Marilyn Schultz; José M. Hernández; Norma E. Hernández; Rebecca O. Sanchez

2001-01-01

406

The Causal Effect of Mortgage Refinancing on Interest Rate Volatility: Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the effects of mortgage-backed security (MBS) hedging activity on interest rate volatility and proposes a model that takes these effects into account. An empirical examination suggests that the inclusion of information about MBSs considerably improves model performance in pricing interest rate options and in forecasting future interest rate volatility. The empirical results are consistent with the hypothesis

Jefferson Duarte

2008-01-01

407

Where Can You Receive Care? (Long-Term Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... may need. Share page: Where Can You Receive Care? Most long-term care is provided at home. ... in long-term care facilities. Examples of home care services include: An unpaid caregiver who may be ...

408

Long-Term Maintenance of Weight Loss: Current Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intervention strategies for promoting long-term weight loss are examined empirically and conceptually. Weight control research over the last 20 years has dramatically improved short-term treatment efficacy but has been less successful in improving long-term success. Interventions in preadolescent children show greater long-term efficacy than in adults. Extending treatment length and putting more emphasis on energy expenditure have modestly improved long-term

Robert W. Jeffery; Adam Drewnowski; Leonard H. Epstein; Albert J. Stunkard; G. Terence Wilson; Rena R. Wing; Dana Robin Hill

2000-01-01

409

17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity...UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

2010-04-01

410

Long-Term Consequences of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an acute inflammatory systemic condition that involves injury not just to the skin. Historically, it has been associated with a high mortality but few long-term consequences among survivors. With improved survival, long-term consequences may be becoming more appar- ent. The objective of this study was to define these long- term consequences and their frequency.

Robert L. Sheridan; John T. Schulz; Colleen M. Ryan; Jay J. Schnitzer; David Lawlor; Daniel N. Driscoll; Matthias B. Donelan; Ronald G. Tompkins

411

78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Related to the Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program H...the Office of the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman I. Conflicts...Reform Act of 1995 D. Assessment of Federal Regulations...Program Background State Long-Term Care Ombudsman...

2013-06-18

412

Optimization approach for water resources long term planning and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integration of short-term operation and long-term planning is one of the challenges of development and management of water resources systems. This research is interested in an optimization algorithm consisting of a short-term time step dynamic programming (DP) formulation, coupled with a long-term time step expectation of the future benefit function of flows scenarios. The method takes into account the short-term variability or seasonality of the flow regime as well as long-term uncertainty of flows, which is actuated by either climate change or global climate variability associated with phases of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena. The DP is used to determine an optimum operating policy of flows scenarios for the short-term time step. The use of flows scenarios in optimization problem represents the stochastic aspect of flows, and transition between scenarios is done at long-term time step. This method could be used for water resources planning in the context of future hydrologic regime uncertainties or to evaluate climate change impacts on existing water resources systems. The algorithm was tested for optimum hydropower production of Manicouagan water resources system, Québec, Canada, with two hydropower plants with reservoir and three run-of-river plants, for a period of 90 years, from 2010 to 2099. Future climate weekly time step operating policy was produced with two time steps: annual time step for management of water resources in non-stational climate and a weekly time step for flow seasonality. Annual flows have been used to compute transition probabilities between flow scenarios. Results show that there will be an increase of hydropower production in the future climate thanks to the increase of seasonal and annual flows. However, climate change will reduce the efficiency of the existing hydropower system, with more unproductive spills. The algorithm permitted to evaluate the impact of climate change on water resources without taking any assumptions other than the climate change scenarios and it was able to adapt the operating policy to the climate seasonality and climate change uncertainties in the optimization problem. Key words: water resources, optimization, non-stational climate, flow regime, dynamic programming

Haguma, D.; Leconte, R.; Krau, S.; Côté, P.

2012-04-01

413

LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK  

SciTech Connect

Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart sensors housed in anti-fouling sensor chambers. The monitoring network is highly versatile and can be applied to a variety of subsurface sensing scenarios in different media. However, the current project focused on monitoring water quality parameters of pH, oxidation-reduction potential, conductivity, and temperature in groundwater.

Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

2003-10-16

414

Long-term Changes in Tropospheric Ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric ozone measurements from a selected network of surface and ozonesonde sites are used to give a broad geographic picture of long-term variations. The picture of long-term tropospheric ozone changes is a varied one in terms of both the sign and magnitude of trends and in the possible causes for the changes. At mid latitudes of the S.H. three time series of ~20 years in length agree in showing increases that are strongest in the austral spring (August-October). Profile measurements show this increase extending through the mid troposphere but not into the highest levels of the troposphere. In the N.H. in the Arctic a period of declining ozone in the troposphere through the 1980s into the mid 1990s has reversed and the overall change is small. The decadal-scale variations in the troposphere in this region are related in part to changes in the lowermost stratosphere. At mid latitudes in the N.H., continental Europe and Japan showed significant increases in the 1970s and 1980s. Over North America rises in the 1970s are less than those seen in Europe and Japan, suggesting significant regional differences. In all three of these mid latitude, continental regions tropospheric ozone amounts appear to have leveled off or in some cases declined in the more recent decades. Over the North Atlantic three widely separated sites show significant increases since the late 1990s that may have peaked in recent years. In the N.H. tropics both the surface record and the ozonesondes in Hawaii show a significant increase in the autumn months in the most recent decade compared to earlier periods that drives the overall increase seen in the 30 year record. This appears to be related to a shift in the transport pattern during this season with more frequent flow from higher latitudes in the latest decade. The pattern of change, with the largest increases in the N.H. coming prior to the mid 1980s, suggests that increased positive radiative forcing due to tropospheric ozone was felt most significantly in the period from the 1950s through the 1980s and has not been spread uniformly over the period since the industrial revolution.

Oltmans, S.; Lefohn, A.; Galbally, I.; Scheel, E.; Bodeker, G.; Brunke, E.; Claude, H.; Tarasick, D.; Simmonds, P.; Anlauf, K.; Schmidlin, F.; Akagi, K.; Redondas, A.

2006-05-01

415

Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh-environment surveyor (RHES) is a robotic platform with SCADA capabilities equipped with a sonar-imaging scanner, a high-resolution color CCD camera, and various combinations of sensors. The RHES is controlled remotely via a PC. This paper will discuss the development and application of this system. (authors)

Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso [Florida International University, Miami, Florida (United States)

2002-07-01

416

Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity in Rat Barrel Cortex.  

PubMed

Rats generate sweeping whisker movements in order to explore their environments and identify objects. In somatosensory pathways, neuronal activity is modulated by the frequency of whisker vibration. However, the potential role of rhythmic neuronal activity in the cerebral processing of sensory signals and its mechanism remain unclear. Here, we showed that rhythmic vibrissal stimulation with short duration in anesthetized rats resulted in an increase or decrease in the amplitude of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) in the contralateral barrel cortex. The plastic change of the SEPs was frequency dependent and long lasting. The long-lasting enhancement of the vibrissa-to-cortex evoked response was side- but not barrel-specific. Local application of dl-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid into the barrel cortex revealed that this vibrissa-to-cortex long-term plasticity in adult rats was N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-dependent. Most interestingly, whisker trimming through postnatal day (P)1-7 but not P29-35 impaired the long-term plasticity induced by 100 Hz vibrissal stimulation. The short period of rhythmic vibrissal stimulation did not induce long-lasting plasticity of field potentials in the thalamus. In conclusion, our results suggest that natural rhythmic whisker activity modifies sensory information processing in cerebral cortex, providing further insight into sensory perception. PMID:24735674

Han, Yong; Huang, Ming-De; Sun, Man-Li; Duan, Shumin; Yu, Yan-Qin

2014-04-15

417

Very Long Term Oxidation of Titanium Aluminides Investigated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium aluminides (TiAl) are of great interest for intermediate-temperature (600 to 850 C) aerospace and power-generation applications because they offer significant weight savings over today's nickel alloys. TiAl alloys are being investigated for low-pressure turbine blade applications, exhaust nozzle components, and compressor cases in advanced subsonic and supersonic engines. Significant progress has been made in understanding the fundamental aspects of the oxidation behavior of binary TiAl alloys. However, most of this work has concentrated on short term (<1000 hr), high-temperature (900 to 1000 C) exposures. Also, there is not much data available in the literature regarding the oxidation behavior of the quaternary and higher order engineering alloys. This is especially true for the very long term, low-temperature conditions likely to be experienced during aerospace applications. An investigation at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field was undertaken to characterize the long-term oxidation behavior of various model and advanced titanium aluminides for periods up to 7000 hr at 704 C in air using a high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscope. Also, a unique surface treatment technique developed to improve the oxidation resistance of TiAl was evaluated. The alloys included in this investigation are listed in the table. The table also shows typical alloy compositions and the specific weight changes and scale thickness measured for each alloy after exposure to 700 C for 7000 hr in air.

Locci, Ivan E.; Brady, Michael P.; Smialek, James L.; Retallick, William B.

2000-01-01

418

31 CFR 535.440 - Commercially reasonable interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be the rate agreed upon by the bank and Iran. However, where a deposit has in...account. Furthermore, in the event that the Iran-U.S Claims Tribunal (the “Tribunal...to that agreed upon between the bank and Iran, or compensation or damages in lieu...

2010-07-01

419

Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink.  

PubMed

Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models. PMID:25788097

Brienen, R J W; Phillips, O L; Feldpausch, T R; Gloor, E; Baker, T R; Lloyd, J; Lopez-Gonzalez, G; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A; Malhi, Y; Lewis, S L; Vásquez Martinez, R; Alexiades, M; Álvarez Dávila, E; Alvarez-Loayza, P; Andrade, A; Aragão, L E O C; Araujo-Murakami, A; Arets, E J M M; Arroyo, L; Aymard C, G A; Bánki, O S; Baraloto, C; Barroso, J; Bonal, D; Boot, R G A; Camargo, J L C; Castilho, C V; Chama, V; Chao, K J; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Cornejo Valverde, F; da Costa, L; de Oliveira, E A; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T L; Fauset, S; Forsthofer, M; Galbraith, D R; Grahame, E S; Groot, N; Hérault, B; Higuchi, N; Honorio Coronado, E N; Keeling, H; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Laurance, S; Licona, J; Magnussen, W E; Marimon, B S; Marimon-Junior, B H; Mendoza, C; Neill, D A; Nogueira, E M; Núñez, P; Pallqui Camacho, N C; Parada, A; Pardo-Molina, G; Peacock, J; Peña-Claros, M; Pickavance, G C; Pitman, N C A; Poorter, L; Prieto, A; Quesada, C A; Ramírez, F; Ramírez-Angulo, H; Restrepo, Z; Roopsind, A; Rudas, A; Salomão, R P; Schwarz, M; Silva, N; Silva-Espejo, J E; Silveira, M; Stropp, J; Talbot, J; ter Steege, H; Teran-Aguilar, J; Terborgh, J; Thomas-Caesar, R; Toledo, M; Torello-Raventos, M; Umetsu, R K; van der Heijden, G M F; van der Hout, P; Guimarães Vieira, I C; Vieira, S A; Vilanova, E; Vos, V A; Zagt, R J

2015-03-19

420

Health Practice in Long-Term Survivors of Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the health practice of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) survivors and their siblings, and to assess the impact of socioeconomic status and disease history on health practice of HL survivors. Methods and Materials: We conducted a questionnaire study on long-term HL survivors and their siblings on health care utilization, health habits, and screening behavior. Results: A total of 511 HL survivors (response rate of 50%, including survivors lost to contact) and 224 siblings (response rate, 58%) participated. Median time from HL diagnosis was 15 years. Significantly more survivors than siblings had a physical examination in the past year (63% vs. 49%, p = 0.0001). Male survivors were significantly more likely than siblings to perform monthly self-testicular examinations (19% vs. 9%, p = 0.02). Among survivors, higher household income (p = 0.01) independently predicted for having had a physical examination in the past year. Lower educational level (p = 0.0004) and history of relapsed HL (p = 0.03) were independent predictors for smoking, moderate/heavy alcohol use, and/or physical inactivity. Conclusions: Compared with siblings, long-term HL survivors have a higher level of health care utilization and better screening practice. Survivors from lower socioeconomic background had lower adherence to routine health care and greater report of unhealthy habits. Survivors with history of relapsed HL were also more likely to engage in unhealthy habits.

Ng, Andrea K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: ang@lroc.harvard.edu; Li Sigui [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Recklitis, Christopher; Diller, Lisa R. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Neuberg, Donna [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara; Mauch, Peter M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-06-01

421

Surgical procedure and long-term survival of hilar cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the influencing factors related to outcome of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: From January 1999 to January 2009, 204 cases of hilar cholangiocarcinoma undergoing surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Bismuth-Corlette classification showed type I in 18 patients, type II in 40, type IIIa in 65, type IIIb in 54, type IV in 27. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the relationship between each of the clinicopathologic variables and survival was assessed by the log-rank test. Multivatiate results were confirmed using Cox regression. Results: Radical resection was accomplished in 161 of 204 patients (78.9%). Radical resection offered the best chance of long-term survival, with the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rate were 62.6%, 42.4%, 23.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that lymph node metastasis, surgical margin, operative procedure and tumor differentiation were prognostic impacts. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Cox multivariate analysis showed that lymph node metastasis and surgical margin are two separate prognostic factors. Conclusion: Racical resection is the key to improve the long-term survival rate of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and a favorable outcome after resection is mainly determined by curative resection and the absence of lymph node metastasis. PMID:25785102

Wang, Yue; Yang, Helen; Shen, Chunjian; Luo, Ji

2015-01-01

422

Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models.

Brienen, R. J. W.; Phillips, O. L.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Gloor, E.; Baker, T. R.; Lloyd, J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A.; Malhi, Y.; Lewis, S. L.; Vásquez Martinez, R.; Alexiades, M.; Álvarez Dávila, E.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Andrade, A.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Araujo-Murakami, A.; Arets, E. J. M. M.; Arroyo, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Bánki, O. S.; Baraloto, C.; Barroso, J.; Bonal, D.; Boot, R. G. A.; Camargo, J. L. C.; Castilho, C. V.; Chama, V.; Chao, K. J.; Chave, J.; Comiskey, J. A.; Cornejo Valverde, F.; da Costa, L.; de Oliveira, E. A.; di Fiore, A.; Erwin, T. L.; Fauset, S.; Forsthofer, M.; Galbraith, D. R.; Grahame, E. S.; Groot, N.; Hérault, B.; Higuchi, N.; Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Keeling, H.; Killeen, T. J.; Laurance, W. F.; Laurance, S.; Licona, J.; Magnussen, W. E.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Mendoza, C.; Neill, D. A.; Nogueira, E. M.; Núñez, P.; Pallqui Camacho, N. C.; Parada, A.; Pardo-Molina, G.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Claros, M.; Pickavance, G. C.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Poorter, L.; Prieto, A.; Quesada, C. A.; Ramírez, F.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Restrepo, Z.; Roopsind, A.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R. P.; Schwarz, M.; Silva, N.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Silveira, M.; Stropp, J.; Talbot, J.; Ter Steege, H.; Teran-Aguilar, J.; Terborgh, J.; Thomas-Caesar, R.; Toledo, M.; Torello-Raventos, M.; Umetsu, R. K.; van der Heijden, G. M. F.; van der Hout, P.; Guimarães Vieira, I. C.; Vieira, S. A.; Vilanova, E.; Vos, V. A.; Zagt, R. J.

2015-03-01

423

A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model`s parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

Ross, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Hwang, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1992-02-01

424

A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model's parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

Ross, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.); Hwang, R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-02-01

425

Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

Not Available

1994-08-01

426

Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

Not Available

1993-12-01

427

Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock Disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

Not Available

1994-09-01

428

Preparing Tomorrow's Nursing Home Nurses: The Wisconsin Long Term Care Clinical Scholars Program.  

PubMed

Preparing future nurses to care for the growing population of older adults has become a national priority. The demand for long term care services is expected to double between 2000 and 2040, yet the field remains stigmatized as an undesirable place for highly skilled nurses to work. Recent efforts to increase student preparation in geriatrics have been shown to improve student attitudes toward working with older adults and increase knowledge, but long term care settings remain unattractive to students. This article reports on the development, implementation, and evaluation of The Wisconsin Long Term Care Clinical Scholars Program, a nursing home internship for baccalaureate nursing students. The program couples a paid nursing home work experience with an evidence-based long term care nursing curriculum. The program increased student preparation and interest in working both with older adults and in nursing homes, while increasing the capacity of nursing homes to provide a positive student experience. PMID:25162659

Nolet, Kim; Roberts, Tonya; Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Andrea; Roiland, Rachel; Gullickson, Colleen; Ryther, Brenda; Bowers, Barbara J

2014-08-27

429

Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

Not Available

1994-08-01

430

Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site  

SciTech Connect

The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

NONE

1997-06-01

431

Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

NONE

1995-08-01

432

Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

NONE

1995-06-01

433

Long-term corrosion testing pan.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

2008-08-01

434

Long-term corrosion testing plan.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

2009-02-01

435

Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

Nestroy, O.

2009-04-01

436

Embryo culture and long-term consequences.  

PubMed

The development ofpre-elongation (ruminants) and preimplantation (e.g. mouse and humans) embryos ex vivo has evolved over the past four decades into a reliable technology that is used as a research tool in developmental biology, as well as other embryo technologies, for application in infertility treatment, species conservation and selective breeding. It is clear from a variety of embryo culture studies that adaptive responses by embryos during culture can lead to significant alterations in subsequent developmental profiles, the mechanisms of which are not entirely clear but are unlikely to be limited to a single mechanism because this does not account for the variability seen in responses and the emerging list of specific cellular stressors that cause long-term deviations in fetal development. Epigenetic mechanisms, especially deviation of methylation patterns, and adaptation via causal pathways linking gene expression signalling with critical developmental time points, especially of placental development, are two candidates. Observational studies on post-transfer consequences must now be designed so that specific candidate pathways are followed to elucidate their role in perturbed development following transfer. PMID:17389134

Thompson, Jeremy G B; Mitchell, Megan; Kind, Karen L

2007-01-01

437

Economic efficiency, IRPs and long term contracts  

SciTech Connect

There is no market failure that warrants utility regulation of the construction of new generating plants, the supply of energy efficiency or the purchase of fuel under contract. The natural monopoly problem applies to the distribution of electricity and gas, not to generation, energy conservation, or gas purchases. Utility regulation magnifies a market failure, which is the principal agent problem. Regulatory allowance of utilities signing long term fixed price contracts and undertaking conservation measures result in costs and risks being shifted to ratepayers that would not occur under competitive market conditions. Economic efficiency would be enhanced if cost of service regulation of electric and gas utilities were replaced by a competitive market process for the construction of new power plants, utility conservation programs and contracts to purchase fuel. Conservation measures could be supplied by energy service companies. Gas merchants could provide gas and energy conservation directly to ultimate customers, if they had access to LDC pipelines. With a competitive market established to sell gas and energy services, contracts and conservation measures would not require cost-of- service regulation.

Sutherland, R.J.

1993-04-30

438

Bacterial Cellulose: Long-Term Biocompatibility Studies.  

PubMed

The bacterial cellulose (BC) secreted by Gluconacetobacter xylinus is a network of pure cellulose nanofibres which has high crystallinity, wettability and mechanical strength. These characteristics make BC an excellent material for tissue-engineering constructs, noteworthy for artificial vascular grafts. In this work, the in vivo biocompatibility of BC membranes produced by two G. xylinus strains was analyzed through histological analysis of long-term subcutaneous implants in the mice. The BC implants caused a mild and benign inflammatory reaction that decreased along time and did not elicit a foreign body reaction. A tendency to calcify over time, which may be related to the porosity of the BC implants, was observed, especially among the less porous BC-1 implants. In addition, the potential toxicity of BC nanofibres - obtained by chemical-mechanical treatment of BC membranes - subcutaneously implanted in mice was analysed through bone marrow flow cytometryand histological analyses. At 2 and 4 months post-implantation, the nanofibres implants were found to accumulate intracellularly, in subcutaneous foamy macrophages aggregates. Moreover, no differences were observed between the controls and implanted animals in thymocyte populations and in B lymphocyte precursors and myeloid cells in the bone marrow. PMID:21722421

Pértile, Renata A N; Moreira, Susana; Costa, Rui M Gil da; Correia, Alexandra; Guardão, Luisa; Gartner, Fátima; Vilanova, Manuel; Gama, Miguel

2011-06-28

439

Acute and long-term survival in chronically critically ill surgical patients: a retrospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Various cohort studies have shown that acute (short-term) mortality rates in unselected critically ill patients may have improved during the past 15 years. Whether these benefits also affect acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill patients is unclear, as are determinants relevant to prognosis. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from March 1993 to February 2005. A cohort of 390 consecutive surgical patients requiring intensive care therapy for more than 28 days was analyzed. Results The intensive care unit (ICU) survival rate was 53.6%. Survival rates at one, three and five years were 61.8%, 44.7% and 37.0% among ICU survivors. After adjustment for relevant covariates, acute and long-term survival rates did not differ significantly between 1993 to 1999 and 1999 to 2005 intervals. Acute prognosis was determined by disease severity during ICU stay and by primary diagnosis. However, only the latter was independently associated with long-term prognosis. Advanced age was an independent prognostic determinant of poor short-term and long-term survival. Conclusion Acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill surgical patients has remained unchanged throughout the past 12 years. After successful surgical intervention and intensive care, long-term outcome is reasonably good and is mainly determined by age and underlying disease. PMID:17504535

Hartl, Wolfgang H; Wolf, Hilde; Schneider, Christian P; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jauch, Karl-Walter

2007-01-01

440

The effects of long-term captivity on the metabolic parameters of a small Afrotropical bird.  

PubMed

The few within-species studies on the effects of long-term captivity on avian physiological variables have small samples sizes and contradictory results. Nevertheless, many physiological studies make use of long-term captive birds, assuming the results will be applicable to wild populations. Here we investigated the effects of long-term captivity on a variety of physiological measurements in a relatively small (~12 g) southern African endemic bird, the Cape white-eye (Zosterops virens). Whole animal basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass (Mb) were influenced more by long-term captivity than by season, while mass-specific BMR, standard and basal whole animal and mass-specific evaporative water loss (EWL), and respiratory quotient (RQ), were all affected primarily by season, with long-term captivity having less of an effect. We therefore caution that whole animal BMR and Mb of long-term captive birds should not be used as representative of wild populations, and that the origin of study birds should be considered when comparing EWL and RQ of wild and long-term captive birds. PMID:25636901

Thompson, Lindy J; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

2015-04-01

441

The neuronal response at extended timescales: long-term correlations without long-term memory  

PubMed Central

Long term temporal correlations frequently appear at many levels of neural activity. We show that when such correlations appear in isolated neurons, they indicate the existence of slow underlying processes and lead to explicit conditions on the dynamics of these processes. Moreover, although these slow processes can potentially store information for long times, we demonstrate that this does not imply that the neuron possesses a long memory of its input, even if these processes are bidirectionally coupled with neuronal response. We derive these results for a broad class of biophysical neuron models, and then fit a specific model to recent experiments. The model reproduces the experimental results, exhibiting long term (days-long) correlations due to the interaction between slow variables and internal fluctuations. However, its memory of the input decays on a timescale of minutes. We suggest experiments to test these predictions directly. PMID:24744724

Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron

2014-01-01

442

Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage estuaries below by removing all incoming freshwater. At Toolik Lake, long-term experiments of removing top predators from the good web of lakes showed dramatic alterations of lake populations of small fish and zooplankton. In New Mexico, LTER research on small mammal populations is successfully predicting rodent increases and the potential for increased zoonotic diseases such as Hantavirus and bubonic plague. This ability to forecast based on El Nino prediction is being used to increase scientific awareness and public health awareness through media based communication with the public. In Oregon, the Andrews Forest LTER program has had long, strong links with natural resource policy and management. Basic understanding of forest-stream interactions, characteristics of old-growth forests, roles of woody debris in temperate forest ecosystems, invertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function have been incorporated in management guidelines, plans and regulations for public and private lands throughout the Pacific Northwest. Other examples of the values of long-term research and monitoring will be presented.

Gosz, J.

2001-12-01

443

Long-term care coverage: the need is now.  

PubMed

As the world population steadily ages, the future of America's long-term healthcare system is facing a major crisis. By the year 2050, approximately 22 percent of the United States population is expected to be over the age of 65 and more than 19 million Americans will require long-term care. Long-term care financing will be increasingly important, since nursing home care can lead to financial catastrophe. The key to preventing this catastrophe for the elderly is appropriate third-party coverage. Although more insurance companies are offering long-term care policies today, three major obstacles to the success of such insurance remain: lack of knowledge about the extent of public funding for long-term care, denial of the need for such insurance, and lack of public awareness of potential liabilities inherent in financing long-term care. Congress is supporting the development of long-term care insurance, and states are placing long-term care legislation at the top of their agendas. Tax incentives have been proposed in the form of tax-free individual retirement accounts to finance long-term care, individual medical accounts, tax credits for policyholders, and favorable tax treatment for employers who offer long-term care benefits. But only coordination of public and private financiers will ensure adequate protection for all consumers of long-term care services. PMID:10312281

Constable, J F; Wong, S A

1987-11-01

444

No requirement of TRPV1 in long-term potentiation or long-term depression in the anterior cingulate cortex  

PubMed Central

One major interest in the study of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) in sensory system is that it may serve as a drug target for treating chronic pain. While the roles of TRPV1 in peripheral nociception and sensitization have been well documented, less is known about its contribution to pain-related cortical plasticity. Here, we used 64 multi-electrode array recording to examine the potential role of TRPV1 in two major forms of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We found that pharmacological blockade of TRPV1 with either [(E)-3-(4-t-Butylphenyl)-N-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)acrylamide] (AMG9810, 10 ?M) or N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-chlorocinnamide (SB366791, 20 ?M) failed to affect LTP induced by strong theta burst stimulation in the ACC of adult mice. Similarly, neither AMG9810 nor SB366791 blocked the cingulate LTD induced by low-frequency stimulation. Analysis of the results from different layers of the ACC obtained the same conclusions. Spatial distribution of LTP or LTD-showing channels among the ACC network was also unaltered by the TRPV1 antagonists. Since cortical LTP and LTD in the ACC play critical roles in chronic pain triggered by inflammation or nerve injury, our findings suggest that TRPV1 may not be a viable target for treating chronic pain, especially at the cortical level. PMID:24708859

2014-01-01

445

Soil micronutrient availability to crops as affected by long-term inorganic and organic fertilizer applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micronutrient status in soils and crops can be affected by different fertilization practices during a long-term field experiment. This paper investigated the effects of different fertilization treatments on total and DTPA-extractable micronutrients in soils and micronutrients in crops after 16 year fertilization experiments in Fengqiu County, Henan Province, China. The treatments of the long-term experiment included combinations of various rates

B. Y. Li; D. M. Zhou; L. Cang; H. L. Zhang; X. H. Fan; S. W. Qin

2007-01-01

446

Long-term demographic analysis in goshawk Accipiter gentilis : the role of density dependence and stochasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density dependence and environmental stochasticity are both potentially important processes influencing population demography\\u000a and long-term population growth. Quantifying the importance of these two processes for population growth requires both long-term\\u000a population as well as individual-based data. I use a 30-year data set on a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population from Eastern Westphalia, Germany, to describe the key vital rate elements to

Oliver Krüger

2007-01-01

447

Depression, anxiety, and obsessionality in long-term recovered patients with adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is frequently associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive behavior which also develop secondary to semistarvation. It is less certain if these symptoms persist after recovery. A few studies have already reported on high prevalence rates of anxious, depressive, and obsessive features in long-term recovered patients with AN, but several of these so called “long-term” recovered

K. Holtkamp; B. Müller; N. Heussen; H. Remschmidt; B. Herpertz-Dahlmann

2005-01-01

448

Long-term effects of elevated CO 2 on sour orange trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term responses of trees to elevated CO2 are especially crucial (1) to mitigating the rate of atmospheric CO2 increase, (2) to determining the character of future forested natural ecosystems and their spread across the landscape, and\\u000a (3) to determining the productivity of future agricultural tree crops. Therefore, we initiated a long-term CO2-enrichment experiment on sour orange trees in 1987.

Bruce A. Kimball; Sherwood B. Idso

449

Federal Budget Deficits, Interest Rates, and Inflation: Their Implication for Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The persistence of large federal government deficits has stimulated interest in investigating the impact of deficits on the U.S. economy. The present paper analyzes two related theoretical issues. First, it examines the direction of causal flows in the deficit-nominal interest rate relationship. Second, it investigates the effects of deficits on the two components of nominal interest rates, namely the inflation

Peter J. Saunders

1989-01-01

450

A pilot study of CME on risk management in long-term care.  

PubMed

This pilot study's purpose was to evaluate behavioral changes among medical directors and physicians following CME on risk management in long-term care (LTC) facilities. The setting was a satellite conference at the AGS Meeting Symposium 2000. CME participants included 51 medical directors, attending physicians, and nurses. Evaluations were based on 20 LTC medical directors and physicians. Descriptive statistics were used for outcome measurements. Respondents (n = 15, 75%) "committed" to an average of 3 changes. Of the 45 commitments, no progress was reported on 8 (17.7%); another 8 commitments were reported as fully completed. The mean implementation rate was 60%. LTC physicians departed the course with intentions to alter their behaviors, but important obstacles such as "lack of time" and "staff not available or interested" interfered with implementation. PMID:15778147

Powers, James; Pichert, James W; Habermann, Ralf; Ribble, Rachel

2004-01-01

451

The Effects of Long Term Cure on Offgassed Products of Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Environmental Chemistry and Compatability Team at The Marshall Space Flight Center conducts toxic offgassing analysis on materials and flight hardware for use in habitable environments aboard the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. As part of Research and Development, the Toxic Offgassing Laboratory conducted a long term cure study on four polyurethane coatings which are slated for potential use on Space Station. This study demonstrates the effects of cure time and temperature on the total tox value (sum T) and the maximum usage weight for each coating. All analysis was conducted according to test procedures outlined specifically for Space Station environments. Therefore, the ratings and weight limits generated for these materials are most applicable to space environments. However, this test does give some indication of time frames for solvent removal and is therefore of interest to, the environmental community as a whole.

Engle, Ginger; Whitfield, Steve

1997-01-01

452

Long-Term Lunar Radiation Degradation Effects on Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is focused on developing technologies for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit. These technologies are to advance the state-of-the-art and provide for longer duration missions outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere. One technology of great interest for large structures is advanced composite materials, due to their weight and cost savings, enhanced radiation protection for the crew, and potential for performance improvements when compared with existing metals. However, these materials have not been characterized for the interplanetary space environment, and particularly the effects of high energy radiation, which is known to cause damage to polymeric materials. Therefore, a study focusing on a lunar habitation element was undertaken to investigate the integrity of potential structural composite materials after exposure to a long-term lunar radiation environment. An overview of the study results are presented, along with a discussion of recommended future work.

Rojdev, Kristina; ORourke, Mary Jane; Koontz, Steve; Alred, John; Hill, Charles; Devivar, Rodrigo; Morera-Felix, Shakira; Atwell, William; Nutt, Steve; Sabbann, Leslie

2010-01-01

453

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Early Changes Leading to Long-Term Consequences  

PubMed Central

Neonatal chronic lung disease, i.e., bronchopulmonary dysplasia, is characterized by impaired pulmonary development resulting from the impact of different risk factors including infections, hyperoxia, and mechanical ventilation on the immature lung. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix, apoptosis as well as altered growth factor signaling characterize the disease. The immediate consequences of these early insults have been studied in different animal models supported by results from in vitro approaches leading to the successful application of some findings to the clinical setting in the past. Nonetheless, existing information about long-term consequences of the identified early and most likely sustained changes to the developing lung is limited. Interesting results point towards a tremendous impact of these early injuries on the pulmonary repair capacity as well as aging related processes in the adult lung. PMID:25729750

Hilgendorff, Anne; O’Reilly, Michael A.

2015-01-01

454

LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are also presented.

ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

2003-07-23

455

Long-Term Changes in Chemostat Cultures of Cytophaga johnsonae  

PubMed Central

Long-term studies with a gliding, heterotrophic bacterium, Cytophaga johnsonae, were conducted in a glucose-limited chemostat at a high and a low dilution rate. To test the stability of the steady state during long-term experiments the following parameters were monitored: optical density, glucose concentration, glucose uptake potential, ATP content of the cells, and plate counts on two different agar media. Biomass remained relatively constant, although the observed changes could have been possible in both directions. During all steady states, glucose uptake showed a stepwise increase and the glucose concentration showed a corresponding decrease. Glucose uptake potential and glucose concentration in the chemostat were inversely proportional. The ATP content of the cells varied up to 33% during the steady state, but did not show a general trend. After long cultivation in all chemostats, plate counts on both agars dropped to values less than 20% of the original steady-state level. These decreases were due to an inability of the cells to grow on agar plates, not to a lack of vitality of the cells in the chemostat. This study showed that even during shorter chemostat runs, e.g., 1 week, changes in important parameters with the steady state must be expected, especially in the uptake potential and the concentration of the limiting substrate. PMID:16346411

Höfle, Manfred G.

1983-01-01

456

Managed care and long-term care: a potential solution?  

PubMed

This brief summarizes research by Sparer (2003) and Hughes (2002) on managed care issues for people with long-term care needs. Managed care has been proposed as a solution to the difficult problem of managing the health of this complex population. Sparer's research examines the reasons behind the failure of states' attempts to encourage commercial managed care plans to take on this task. He argues that understanding these reasons can yield important lessons for the mostly provider-sponsored plans that currently serve the long-term care population, as well as for states, that aim to save money and better serve this population. Hughes' evaluation of a small, provider-sponsored organization found that when the organization became a managed care provider, it faced significant organizational challenges that forced it to become more efficient. Importantly, it showed that the use of capitation reimbursed the plan more effectively than fee for service, increased the range of services provided to clients, and maintained client satisfaction; however, capitation did not affect the rate of nursing home admission. PMID:15795990

Nadash, Pamela; Ahrens, Joann

2005-01-01

457

Education in long-term care for family medicine residents  

PubMed Central

Abstract Problem addressed Family medicine residents require more exposure to all aspects of care of the elderly in the community, including care in long-term care (LTC) homes. Objective of program To provide a framework for the development of integrated LTC rotations in family medicine programs. Program description Clear objectives for residents and clinical preceptors provided the foundation for the program. Rotations of 4 half days per year in LTC homes were integrated into core family medicine blocks. Residents worked with family physician preceptors providing LTC in the community. Teaching was case based and aligned with the core competencies set out in the CanMEDS (Canadian Medical Directives for Specialists) framework for medical education. The program was strongly supported by the university’s administration, clinical preceptors in the community, and LTC homes. Conclusion All the residents rated their LTC rotations as useful or extremely useful in preparing them to provide LTC in their future practices. Long-term care homes realized that investing in training medical residents in LTC could help improve care of the elderly in the community. PMID:21841091

Oliver, Doug; Emili, Anna; Chan, David; Taniguchi, Alan

2011-01-01