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1

Long-term creep-rate changes and their causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) We discuss measurements of the long-term creep rate from the San Juan Bautista section of the San Andreas fault. These observations of aseismic slip span a period of approximately half a century making it the longest creep record ever measured along an active fault zone. The records show systematic changes in creep rate over time scales of tens of

Göetz H. R. Bokelmann; Robert L. Kovach

2003-01-01

2

Interest in Long-Term Care Among Health Services Administration Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aging of the population has created increased opportunities for health administrators in long-term care. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of 68 undergraduate health services administration students to explore factors related to interest in a career in long-term care administration. One third expressed interest working in the field. Experience in long-term care settings, quality of contact with unrelated

April Temple; Jon M. Thompson

2011-01-01

3

Interest in Long-Term Care among Health Services Administration Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aging of the population has created increased opportunities for health administrators in long-term care. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of 68 undergraduate health services administration students to explore factors related to interest in a career in long-term care administration. One third expressed interest working in the…

Temple, April; Thompson, Jon M.

2011-01-01

4

Designing a Community to Support Long-term Interest in Programming for Middle School Children  

E-print Network

. Keywords Programming for children, independent learning, social networking. 1. INTRODUCTION The last decadeDesigning a Community to Support Long-term Interest in Programming for Middle School Children Kyle@cse.wustl.edu ABSTRACT To facilitate long-term engagement in programming for middle school children, we developed

Kelleher, Caitlin

5

18 CFR 367.4270 - Account 427, Interest on long-term debt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4270 Account 427, Interest on long-term debt. (a)...

2013-04-01

6

18 CFR 367.4270 - Account 427, Interest on long-term debt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4270 Account 427, Interest on long-term debt. (a)...

2010-04-01

7

Long-Term Volumetric Eruption Rates and Magma Budgets  

SciTech Connect

A global compilation of 170 time-averaged volumetric volcanic output rates (Qe) is evaluated in terms of composition and petrotectonic setting to advance the understanding of long-term rates of magma generation and eruption on Earth. Repose periods between successive eruptions at a given site and intrusive:extrusive ratios were compiled for selected volcanic centers where long-term (>104 years) data were available. More silicic compositions, rhyolites and andesites, have a more limited range of eruption rates than basalts. Even when high Qe values contributed by flood basalts (9 ± 2 Å~ 10-1 km3/yr) are removed, there is a trend in decreasing average Qe with lava composition from basaltic eruptions (2.6 ± 1.0 Å~ 10-2 km3/yr) to andesites (2.3 ± 0.8 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr) and rhyolites (4.0 ± 1.4 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr). This trend is also seen in the difference between oceanic and continental settings, as eruptions on oceanic crust tend to be predominately basaltic. All of the volcanoes occurring in oceanic settings fail to have statistically different mean Qe and have an overall average of 2.8 ± 0.4 Å~ 10-2 km3/yr, excluding flood basalts. Likewise, all of the volcanoes on continental crust also fail to have statistically different mean Qe and have an overall average of 4.4 ± 0.8 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr. Flood basalts also form a distinctive class with an average Qe nearly two orders of magnitude higher than any other class. However, we have found no systematic evidence linking increased intrusive:extrusive ratios with lower volcanic rates. A simple heat balance analysis suggests that the preponderance of volcanic systems must be open magmatic systems with respect to heat and matter transport in order to maintain eruptible magma at shallow depth throughout the observed lifetime of the volcano. The empirical upper limit of Å`10-2 km3/yr for magma eruption rate in systems with relatively high intrusive:extrusive ratios may be a consequence of the fundamental parameters governing rates of melt generation (e.g., subsolidus isentropic decompression, hydration due to slab dehydration and heat transfer between underplated magma and the overlying crust) in the Earth

Scott M. White Dept. Geological Sciences University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208; Joy A. Crisp Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91109; Frank J. Spera Dept. Earth Science University of California, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA 93106

2005-01-01

8

Sharp decrease in long-term chemical weathering rates along an altitudinal transect  

E-print Network

Sharp decrease in long-term chemical weathering rates along an altitudinal transect� Cli�ord S long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion across a steep climatic gradient analyses indicate that, relative to the parent rock, soils are less intensively weathered with increasing

Kirchner, James W.

9

Long term effects of amlodipine on heart rate and heart rate variability in essential hypertensives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the influence of long term therapy, in essential hypertensives, with the CCB amlodipine, on sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, by analyzing heart rate and heart rate variability. 28 patients (16 male, 12 female, mean age 60+9,7yrs) with essential hypertension (stage 1 or 2 according the sixth report of the JNC) received daily 5mg amlodipine as monotherapy. In those remaining

Ilias Zarkos; Gerasimos Livieratos; Irini Vrana; Padelis Sinnis; Nearchos Nearchou; Eleftherios A. Thireos

2001-01-01

10

Influence of long-term beta receptor stimulation with prenalterol on intrinsic heart rate in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Previous studies have shown that the intrinsic heart rate (IHR) may undergo changes, e.g., decrease after long-term endurance training. The mechanism for this adaptation is not known. In this study, rats were subjected to long-term oral treatment with the beta receptor stimulating drug prenalterol. During the treatment period heart rates at rest and during submaximal exercise were measured. Heart rate

Eva Nylander; Ulf Dahlström

1984-01-01

11

Long-Term Erosion and Sedimentation Rates of the Ri Chagres Basin Based on Cosmogenic 10  

E-print Network

Long-Term Erosion and Sedimentation Rates of the Rió Chagres Basin Based on Cosmogenic 10 Be Kyle K on the first point bar upstream of Lake Alhajuela to determine the average basin-wide erosion rate range of nuclide activities and thus basin-wide erosion rates (54 to 134 mm ky-1 ; average = 92 ± 22 mm

Nichols, Kyle K.

12

HRV measures for CHF detection Page nr. 1 of 8 Discrimination power of long-term heart rate variability  

E-print Network

HRV measures for CHF detection Page nr. 1 of 8 1 Discrimination power of long-term heart rate: Melillo P, Fusco R, Sansone M, Bracale M, Pecchia L (2011) Discrimination power of long-term heart rate-010-0728-5 Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the discrimination power of standard long-term Heart Rate

Oakley, Jeremy

13

Investigating possible gravity change rates expected from long-term deep crustal processes in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to test if gravimetry can prove useful in discriminating different models of long-term deep crustal processes in the case of the Taiwan mountain belt. We discuss two existing tectonic models that differ in the deep processes proposed to sustain the long-term growth of the orogen. One model assumes underplating of the uppermost Eurasian crust with subduction of the deeper part of the crust into the mantle. The other one suggests the accretion of the whole Eurasian crust above crustal-scale ramps, the lower crust being accreted into the collisional orogen. We compute the temporal gravity changes caused only by long-term rock mass transfers at depth for each of them. We show that the underplating model implies a rate of gravity change of -6 × 10-2 ?Gal yr-1, a value that increases to 2 × 10-2 ?Gal yr-1 if crustal subduction is neglected. If the accretion of the whole Eurasian crust occurs, a rate of 7 × 10-2 ?Gal yr-1 is obtained. The two models tested differ both in signal amplitude and spatial distribution. The yearly gravity changes expected by long-term deep crustal mass processes in Taiwan are two orders of magnitude below the present-day uncertainty of land-based gravity measurements. Assuming that these annually averaged long-term gravity changes will linearly accumulate with ongoing mountain building, multidecadal time-series are needed to identify comparable rates of gravity change. However, as gravity is sensitive to any mass redistribution, effects of short-term processes such as seismicity and surface mass transfers (erosion, sedimentation, ground-water) may prevent from detecting any long-term deep signal. This study indicates that temporal gravity is not appropriate for deciphering the long-term deep crustal processes involved in the Taiwan mountain belt.

Mouyen, M.; Simoes, M.; Mouthereau, F.; Masson, F.; Hwang, C.; Cheng, C.-C.

2014-07-01

14

Effects of Smoking Cessation on Heart Rate Variability Among Long-Term Male Smokers  

E-print Network

Effects of Smoking Cessation on Heart Rate Variability Among Long-Term Male Smokers Christopher B Cigarette smoking has been shown to adverse- ly affect heart rate variability (HRV), suggesting dysregula- tion of cardiac autonomic function. Conversely, smoking cessation is posited to improve cardiac

Meston, Cindy

15

Physical exercise rehabilitation: Long-term dropout rate in cardiac patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term dropout rate was examined in a physical exercise rehabilitation program in which 203 cardiac patients were followed for 40 months. The dropout curve was found to be downward-sloping and negatively accelerated with most of the dropouts occurring during the first 3 months. This dropout rate appeared to resemble the group relapse curve previously found in the treatment of

Timothy P. Carmody; John W. Senner; Manuel R. Malinow; Joseph D. Matarazzo

1980-01-01

16

Long-term Stability of Global Erosion Rates and1 Weathering during late Cenozoic Cooling2  

E-print Network

1 of 18 Long-term Stability of Global Erosion Rates and1 Weathering during late Cenozoic Cooling2 3 rates15 require a global mechanism to explain them4,5,6 . Accelerated uplift and global16 cooling have caused5 Cenozoic global cooling, and that global cooling had no profound effect on6 spatially

Willenbring, Jeb F.

17

Long-term shoreline retreat rates on Whidbey Island, Washington, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term retreat rates of Puget Sound's unconsolidated sediment shorelines have been difficult to quantify, and little systematic research has been completed to constrain retreat in this area. We put forward a new application of cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating to assess long-term shoreline retreat on Whidbey Island, WA by dating lag boulders exposed on the shore platform as the shoreline erodes. Production of 10Be in shoreline boulders is modulated by both tidal submergence and topographic shielding from the retreating bluff. By modeling the combined effect of these variables on 10Be production, the timing of exposure can be determined and used to calculate long-term (103-104 yr) bluff retreat rates. In rare cases, retreat rates are underestimated due to inherited 10Be. Within the study area, average retreat rates ranged between 0 and 8 cm yr- 1. Our results demonstrate the utility of cosmogenic nuclides for determining long-term shoreline retreat rates in areas with thick sediment cover, where large numbers of samples can be collected, and where the pre-depositional history of the boulders is uncomplicated.

Rogers, Heather E.; Swanson, Terry W.; Stone, John O.

2012-09-01

18

Estimating hydroxyl radical photochemical formation rates in natural waters during long-term laboratory irradiation experiments.  

PubMed

In this study it was observed that, during long-term irradiations (>1 day) of natural waters, the methods for measuring hydroxyl radical (?OH) formation rates based upon sequentially determined cumulative concentrations of photoproducts from probes significantly underestimate actual ?OH formation rates. Performing a correction using the photodegradation rates of the probe products improves the ?OH estimation for short term irradiations (<1 day), but not long term irradiations. Only the 'instantaneous' formation rates, which were obtained by adding probes to aliquots at each time point and irradiating these sub-samples for a short time (?2 h), were found appropriate for accurately estimating ?OH photochemical formation rates during long-term laboratory irradiation experiments. Our results also showed that in iron- and dissolved organic matter (DOM)-rich water samples, ?OH appears to be mainly produced from the Fenton reaction initially, but subsequently from other sources possibly from DOM photoreactions. Pathways of ?OH formation in long-term irradiations in relation to H2O2 and iron concentrations are discussed. PMID:24513701

Sun, Luni; Chen, Hongmei; Abdulla, Hussain A; Mopper, Kenneth

2014-04-01

19

INTERCAL: long-term inter-comparison experiment for dose rate and spectrometric probes.  

PubMed

The Schauinsland inter-calibration facility (INTERCAL) has been designed to enable long-term comparison experiments for 20 different dose rate probes from different networks. Two reference probes characterised by the European Radiation Dosimetry WG3 inter-calibration experiments in 2008 and 2009 have been installed at the INTERCAL facility. Additional instrumentation provides measured data of activity in air and nuclide-specific dose rate as well as environmental parameters such as air pressure, temperature, precipitation and soil moisture. Complementary to WG3 experiments, the INTERCAL platform is an ideal framework to investigate the long-term behaviour of dose rate probes and different spectrometry systems under environmental conditions. Two additional exposure experiments were performed in April 2009 and in May 2012. PMID:24639590

Bleher, M; Doll, H; Harms, W; Stöhlker, U

2014-08-01

20

Long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion from cosmogenic nuclides and geochemical mass balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion is important for understanding the long-term evolution of soils, landscapes, and Earth's climate. Here we describe how long-term chemical weathering rates can be measured for actively eroding landscapes using cosmogenic nuclides together with a geochemical mass balance of weathered soil and parent rock. We tested this approach in the Rio Icacos

Clifford S. Riebe; James W. Kirchner; Robert C. Finkel

2003-01-01

21

Erosional and climatic effects on long-term chemical weathering rates in granitic landscapes spanning diverse climate regimes  

E-print Network

Erosional and climatic effects on long-term chemical weathering rates in granitic landscapes and geochemical mass balance methods to measure long-term rates of chemical weathering and total denudation-term chemical weathering rates range from 0 to 173 tÁkm� 2 year� 1 , in several cases exceeding the highest

Kirchner, James W.

22

Short-term and long-term government debt and nonresident interest withholding taxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the incidence of nonresident interest withholding taxes in the international 3-month Treasury-bill market and the international 5-year government bond market. The approach is one of pooled cross-section, time-series regressions. The evidence suggests that the yields on national Treasury-bills and on 5-year government bonds fully reflect the nonresident interest withholding taxes imposed on American or Japanese investors. Nonresident

Sylvester C. W. Eijffinger; Harry P. Huizinga; Jan J. G. Lemmen

1998-01-01

23

From Spark to Fire: Can Situational Reading Interest Lead to Long-Term Reading Motivation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The processes of change in children's reading motivation have not been widely studied. We investigated whether situated interest for a specific book may lead to longer-term intrinsic motivation for general reading. Two schools with 120 grade 3 students filled out reading logs identifying their reasons for reading their favorite books twice. In…

Guthrie, John T.; Hoa, Laurel W.; Wigfield, Allan; Tonks, Stephen M.; Perencevich, Kathleen C.

2006-01-01

24

From spark to fire: Can situational reading interest lead to long?term reading motivation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes of change in children's reading motivation have not been widely studied. We investigated whether situated interest for a specific book may lead to longer?term intrinsic motivation for general reading. Two schools with 120 grade 3 students filled out reading logs identifying their reasons for reading their favorite books twice. In addition, students completed general motivation and comprehension measures

John T. Guthrie; Laurel W. Hoa; Allan Wigfield; Stephen M. Tonks; Kathleen C. Perencevich

2005-01-01

25

Long term average rates of large-volume explosive volcanism are not average  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How good are our estimates of long term recurrence rates of large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions? To investigate this question, we created a data set of all known explosive eruptions in Japan since 1.8 Ma and VEI magnitude 4 or greater. This data set contains 696 explosive eruptions. We use this data set to consider the change in apparent recurrence rate of large volume explosive eruptions through time. Assuming there has been little change in recurrence rate of volcanism since 2.25 Ma, apparent changes are due to erosion of explosive eruption deposits and a lower rate of identification of older deposits preserved in the geologic record. Surprisingly, one half of the eruptions in the data set occurred within the last 65 ka. 77% of the total eruptions occurred since 200 ka; the oldest eruption in the database is 2.25 Ma. Overall, there is a roughly exponential decrease in the numbers of eruptions of a given magnitude identified in the geological record as a function of time. This result clearly indicates that even large magnitude eruptions are significantly under-reported. In addition, percentages of explosive eruptions in the entire data set by eruption magnitude are: VEI 4 (40%), VEI 5 (42%), VEI 6 (13%) and VEI 7 (5%). Because it is reasonable to assume that smaller eruptions occur much more frequently, fewer VEI 4 eruptions than VEI 5 eruptions indicates that small eruptions are missing in this data set. We quantify these variations by plotting survivor functions, noting that there is little change in apparent rate of activity (or the preservation potential of deposits) with geographic and tectonic setting in Japan. These data indicate that eruption probabilities based on long term recurrence rate may underestimate rates of activity. This result also indicates there is considerable uncertainty about the future recurrence rate of large magnitude eruptions, as our best estimates of frequency are based on an unrealistically short record.

Connor, C.; Kiyosugi, K.

2011-12-01

26

Detection of Long Term Variations of Heart Rate Variability in Normal Sinus Rhythm and Atrial Fibrillation ECG Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circadian variations of heart rate variability (HRV ) have been well known in cardiac diseases. However, long term HRV features were not thoroughly investigated for t he prediction of atrial fibrillation (AF). Thus, we a nalyzed the 15 hour long changes of HRV of normal sinus rhythm (NS R) and AF data. Long term patterns of HRV in NSR were

Desok Kim; Yunhwan Seo; Woo Ram Jung; Chan-hyun Youn

2008-01-01

27

Interest rates mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study deals with the analysis and mapping of Swiss franc interest rates. Interest rates depend on time and maturity, defining term structure of the interest rate curves (IRC). In the present study IRC are considered in a two-dimensional feature space-time and maturity. Exploratory data analysis includes a variety of tools widely used in econophysics and geostatistics. Geostatistical models and machine learning algorithms (multilayer perceptron and Support Vector Machines) were applied to produce interest rate maps. IR maps can be used for the visualisation and pattern perception purposes, to develop and to explore economical hypotheses, to produce dynamic asset-liability simulations and for financial risk assessments. The feasibility of an application of interest rates mapping approach for the IRC forecasting is considered as well.

Kanevski, M.; Maignan, M.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Timonin, V.

2008-06-01

28

Predictors of Response Rates to a Long Term Follow-Up Mail out Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective Very little is known about predictors of response rates to long-term follow-up mail-out surveys, including whether the timing of an incentive affects response rates. We aimed to determine whether the timing of the incentive affects response rates and what baseline demographic and psychological factors predict response rates to a 12 year follow-up survey. Study design and setting: Participants were 450 randomly selected people from the Penrith population, Australia who had previously participated in a mail-out survey 12 years earlier. By random allocation, 150 people received no incentive, 150 received a lottery ticket inducement with the follow-up survey and 150 received a lottery ticket inducement on the return of a completed survey. Results The overall response rate for the study was 63%. There were no significant differences in terms of response rates between the no incentive (58.8%;95%CI 49.8%,67.3%), incentive with survey (65.1%;95%CI 56.2%,73.3%) and promised incentive (65.3%;95%CI 56.1%,73.7%) groups. Independent predictors of responding to the 12 year survey were being older (OR=1.02, 95%CI 1.01,1.05,P=0.001) and being less neurotic as reported on the first survey 12 years earlier (OR=0.92, 95%CI 0.86,0.98, P=0.010). Conclusions Psychological factors may play a role in determining who responds to long-term follow-up surveys although timing of incentives does not. PMID:24223902

Koloski, Natasha A.; Jones, Michael; Eslick, Guy; Talley, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

29

A comparison of measurements of short-term hillslope degradation rates with model long-term rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event-scale erosion data were collected in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, AZ, from 1996 to 2000, to establish natural short-term hillslope degradation rates and compare these with existing computational models of long-term rates. This Neogene scoria cone field consists of late Miocene to Holocene volcanic cones, with a wide range of degradation stages. The semiarid climate makes the area exceptionally

B. Martinez-Hackert; M. I. Bursik

2001-01-01

30

76 FR 38717 - Interest Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg...rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This [[Page...

2011-07-01

31

Long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault Al surface exposure dating of an offset alluvial fan  

E-print Network

Long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault from 10 Be-26 Al surface exposure dating San Andreas Fault in the southeastern Indio Hills using 10 Be and 26 Al isotopes to date an offset.5 ka. The long-term slip rate of the San Andreas Fault south of Biskra Palms is thus 15.9 ± 3.4 mm

32

Cell Tropism Predicts Long-term Nucleotide Substitution Rates of Mammalian RNA Viruses  

PubMed Central

The high rates of RNA virus evolution are generally attributed to replication with error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. However, these long-term nucleotide substitution rates span three orders of magnitude and do not correlate well with mutation rates or selection pressures. This substitution rate variation may be explained by differences in virus ecology or intrinsic genomic properties. We generated nucleotide substitution rate estimates for mammalian RNA viruses and compiled comparable published rates, yielding a dataset of 118 substitution rates of structural genes from 51 different species, as well as 40 rates of non-structural genes from 28 species. Through ANCOVA analyses, we evaluated the relationships between these rates and four ecological factors: target cell, transmission route, host range, infection duration; and three genomic properties: genome length, genome sense, genome segmentation. Of these seven factors, we found target cells to be the only significant predictors of viral substitution rates, with tropisms for epithelial cells or neurons (P<0.0001) as the most significant predictors. Further, one-tailed t-tests showed that viruses primarily infecting epithelial cells evolve significantly faster than neurotropic viruses (P<0.0001 and P<0.001 for the structural genes and non-structural genes, respectively). These results provide strong evidence that the fastest evolving mammalian RNA viruses infect cells with the highest turnover rates: the highly proliferative epithelial cells. Estimated viral generation times suggest that epithelial-infecting viruses replicate more quickly than viruses with different cell tropisms. Our results indicate that cell tropism is a key factor in viral evolvability. PMID:24415935

Hicks, Allison L.; Duffy, Siobain

2014-01-01

33

Climate trends and variability of rain rate derived from long-term measurements in Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

systems are affected by rainfall, and the attenuation increases significantly with rain rate and frequency. Above about 10 GHz rainfall must generally be considered for estimating expected link availability with sufficient attenuation margin included. Rain rate is a key factor, and depending on climate, it will dictate the possible path length and other factors such as antenna size, for the planned performance of a system that operates at higher frequencies than about 10 GHz. This paper presents results from an analysis of Norwegian tipping bucket rain gauge data from 1967 to 2013. It is found that the rain rate currently used by the Radiocommunication Sector of the International Telecommunication Union recommendation for attenuation prediction, R0.01—the rate exceeded for 0.01% of an average year—has actually increased in all parts of the country from where long-term data exist. Moreover, the year to year variability is significant. The increase may well be seen as a consequence of climate change. Such a change may cause higher attenuation effects than expected when radio links are designed following "normal" dimensioning procedures.

Tjelta, Terje; Mamen, Jostein

2014-09-01

34

Daily and Long Term Variations of Out-Door Gamma Dose Rate in Khorasan Province, Iran  

SciTech Connect

In Iran before 1996, only a few hot spots had been identified, no systematic study had been envisaged. Since then preparation of out-door environmental gamma radiation map of Iran was defined as a long term goal in our center, at the same time simultaneous monitoring of outdoor gamma level in Khorasan was also proposed. A Rados area monitoring system (AAM-90) including 10 intelligent RD-02 detector and all associated components were purchased. From 2003 gradually seven stations have been setup in Khorasan. For all seven stations monthly average and one hour daily average on four time intervals have been computed. Statistically no significant differences have been observed. This is also true for monthly averages. The overall average dose rate for present seven stations varies from 0.11 {mu}Sv{center_dot}h{sup -1} for Ferdows, to 0.04 {mu}Sv{center_dot}h{sup -1} for Dargaz. Based on our data, 50 minutes sample in any time interval is an accurate sample size to estimate out door Gamma dose rate.

Toossi, M. T. Bahreyni; Bayani, SH. [Environmental dosimetery laboratory, Medical Physics Research Center, Mashad University of Medical Sciences, Mashad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-08-07

35

Glomerular Filtration Rate and Calcium Metabolism in Long-Term Lithium Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does long-term lithium treatment induce an irreversible renal damage, and does polyuria or changes in the calcium metabolism indicate this? To elucidate these questions GFR, diuresis, S-Ca, S-Mg, S-PTH and bone mineral content (photonabsorptiometry) were determined in 29 consecutive patients on long-term lithium therapy for 2.5–12 years and in 4 patients, who had been admitted to the Renal Clinic with

H. T. Thysell; G. Brante; L. Sjöstedt; B. Lindergård; T. Lindholm; G. Franzén; B. Rorsman

1981-01-01

36

Long-term dynamics of death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and improving air quality  

PubMed Central

Background The respiratory tract is a major target of exposure to air pollutants, and respiratory diseases are associated with both short- and long-term exposures. We hypothesized that improved air quality in North Carolina was associated with reduced rates of death from respiratory diseases in local populations. Materials and methods We analyzed the trends of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia mortality and changes of the levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using monthly data measurements from air-monitoring stations in North Carolina in 1993–2010. The log-linear model was used to evaluate associations between air-pollutant levels and age-adjusted death rates (per 100,000 of population) calculated for 5-year age-groups and for standard 2000 North Carolina population. The studied associations were adjusted by age group-specific smoking prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of disease-specific respiratory deaths. Results Decline in emphysema deaths was associated with decreasing levels of SO2 and CO in the air, decline in asthma deaths–with lower SO2, CO, and PM10 levels, and decline in pneumonia deaths–with lower levels of SO2. Sensitivity analyses were performed to study potential effects of the change from International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 to ICD-10 codes, the effects of air pollutants on mortality during summer and winter, the impact of approach when only the underlying causes of deaths were used, and when mortality and air-quality data were analyzed on the county level. In each case, the results of sensitivity analyses demonstrated stability. The importance of analysis of pneumonia as an underlying cause of death was also highlighted. Conclusion Significant associations were observed between decreasing death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and decreases in levels of ambient air pollutants in North Carolina. PMID:25018627

Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Abernethy, Amy P; Holman, Sheila; Ross, William G; Lyerly, H Kim

2014-01-01

37

Coupling of realistic rate estimates with genomic for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Phone  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved dense nonaqueous-phase liquid plumes are persistent, widespread problems in the DOE complex. While perceived as being difficult to degrade, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) is disappearing from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) by natural attenuation, a finding that saves significant site restoration costs. Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation as a preferred treatment technology requires direct proof of the process and rate of the degradation. Our proposal aims to provide that proof for one such site by testing two hypotheses. First, we believe that realistic values for in situ rates of TCE cometabolism can be obtained by sustaining the putative microorganisms at the low catabolic activities consistent with aquifer conditions. Second, the patterns of functional gene expression evident in these communities under starvation conditions while carrying out TCE cometabolism can be used to diagnose the cometabolic activity in the aquifer itself. Using the cometabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained at this location and validate the long term stewardship of this plume. Realistic terms for cometabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE's ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics at other sites, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. Finally, this project will derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

2003-06-01

38

77 FR 76586 - Interest Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg...rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

2012-12-28

39

76 FR 77581 - Interest Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2011-12-13

40

78 FR 39434 - Interest Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2013-07-01

41

75 FR 37872 - Interest Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-06-30

42

75 FR 17453 - Interest Rates  

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2010-04-06

43

78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg...rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

2013-10-22

44

75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg...rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

2010-12-27

45

77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg...rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

2012-04-04

46

76 FR 18821 - Interest Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg...rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

2011-04-05

47

77 FR 39560 - Interest Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg...rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

2012-07-03

48

77 FR 59447 - Interest Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg...rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

2012-09-27

49

78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg...rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

2013-03-27

50

75 FR 60152 - Interest Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg...rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

2010-09-29

51

Scaling and wavelet-based analyses of the long-term heart rate variability of the Eastern Oyster  

E-print Network

Characterisations of the long--term behaviour of heart rate variability in humans have emerged in the last few years as promising candidates to became clinically significant tools. We present two different statistical analyses of long time recordings of the heart rate variation in the Eastern Oyster. The circulatory system of this marine mollusk has important anatomical and physiological dissimilitudes in comparison to that of humans and it is exposed to dramatically different environmental influences. Our results resemble those previously obtained in humans. This suggests that in spite of the discrepancies, the mechanisms of long--term cardiac control on both systems share a common underlying dynamic.

Ritto, P A; Alvarado-Gil, J J

2004-01-01

52

doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00382-X Long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion from cosmogenic nuclides  

E-print Network

doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00382-X Long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion from weathering and physical erosion is important for under- standing the long-term evolution of soils, landscapes, and Earth's climate. Here we describe how long-term chemical weathering rates can be measured for actively

Kirchner, James W.

53

Short-term vs. long-term heart rate variability in ischemic cardiomyopathy risk stratification  

PubMed Central

In industrialized countries with aging populations, heart failure affects 0.3–2% of the general population. The investigation of 24 h-ECG recordings revealed the potential of nonlinear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) for enhanced risk stratification in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF). However, long-term analyses are time-consuming, expensive, and delay the initial diagnosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether 30 min short-term HRV analysis is sufficient for comparable risk stratification in IHF in comparison to 24 h-HRV analysis. From 256 IHF patients [221 at low risk (IHFLR) and 35 at high risk (IHFHR)] (a) 24 h beat-to-beat time series (b) the first 30 min segment (c) the 30 min most stationary day segment and (d) the 30 min most stationary night segment were investigated. We calculated linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear HRV analysis indices. Optimal parameter sets for risk stratification in IHF were determined for 24 h and for each 30 min segment by applying discriminant analysis on significant clinical and non-clinical indices. Long- and short-term HRV indices from frequency domain and particularly from nonlinear dynamics revealed high univariate significances (p < 0.01) discriminating between IHFLR and IHFHR. For multivariate risk stratification, optimal mixed parameter sets consisting of 5 indices (clinical and nonlinear) achieved 80.4% AUC (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics) from 24 h HRV analysis, 84.3% AUC from first 30 min, 82.2 % AUC from daytime 30 min and 81.7% AUC from nighttime 30 min. The optimal parameter set obtained from the first 30 min showed nearly the same classification power when compared to the optimal 24 h-parameter set. As results from stationary daytime and nighttime, 30 min segments indicate that short-term analyses of 30 min may provide at least a comparable risk stratification power in IHF in comparison to a 24 h analysis period. PMID:24379785

Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Vallverdu, Montserrat; Schulz, Steffen; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Vazquez, Rafael; Bayes de Luna, Antoni; Caminal, Pere

2013-01-01

54

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LAND APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER, ROSWELL, NEW MEXICO, SLOW RATE IRRIGATION SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the findings of a study on the long-term effects of applying treated domestic wastewater to farmland at Roswell, New Mexico. On the test site, a slow rate irrigation method was used for 33 years. Water, soil, and crop samples from this test site were compared...

55

Perceptual Long-Term Variable-Rate Sinusoidal Modeling of Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the problem of modeling the time-trajectory of the sinusoidal components of voiced speech signals is addressed. A new global approach is presented: a single so-called long-term (LT) model, based on discrete cosine functions, is used to model the overall trajectories of amplitude and phase parameters, for each entire voiced section of speech, differing from usual (short-term) models

Laurent Girin; Mohammad Firouzmand; Sylvain Marchand

2007-01-01

56

Quantifying uptake rate of potassium from soil in a long-term grass rotation experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-plant potassium (K) dynamics were studied using a long-term field experiment in order to evaluate the plant performance\\u000a and K delivering capacity of the soil parent material. Rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) based rotations on a loamy sand derived from granitic bedrock were studied over 30 years with two K-fertilisation regimes,\\u000a nil (K0) and 65 kg K ha?1?yr?1. Mineralogical and chemical methods were

Ingrid Öborn; Anthony C. Edwards; Stephen Hillier

2010-01-01

57

Motivation and learning — The role of interest in construction of representation of text and long-term retention: Inter and intraindividual analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work examined the influence of topic interest on the strength of différent components of text representation and\\u000a long-term retention according to the model of text processing by van Dijk and Kintsch (1983). A Series of relevant personality\\u000a characteristics were assessed to control for alternative explanations of interest effect. A total of 286 8th, 9th, and 10th\\u000a grade students

Abdelmajid Naceur; Ulrich Schiefele

2005-01-01

58

Effect of long-term and short-term progestagen treatment on follicular development and pregnancy rate in cyclic ewes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of a progestagen treatment (12 d vs. 6 d) on follicular dynamics, estrus synchronization and pregnancy rate using medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) with or without an eCG dose at the end of MAP treatment. One hundred sixty Polwarth ewes were divided into four equal groups: long-term treated (LT, n=40); short-term treated (ST, n=40); long-term treated plus eCG (LTeCG, n=40); and short-term treated plus eCG (STeCG, n=40). Five ewes of each group were separated to undergo daily transrectal ultrasonography, and blood samples were taken for hormone determination. Until 96 h after sponge withdrawal the number of ewes in estrus was higher in both long-term-treated groups than in both short-term-treated groups but at the end of the observational period (144 h) no significant differences were found among groups. The pregnancy rate was higher in the ST group (87%) than in the other groups (LT, 63%; LTeCG, 67%; and STeCG, 58%; P< or =0.03). The ovulatory follicle emerged before sponge withdrawal in long-term-treated ewes (-3.8+/-0.4 d and -2.2+/-0.8 d for LT and LTeCG, respectively), whereas in short-term-treated ewes it emerges around sponge removal (0.4+/-1.1 d and 0.5+/-0.5 d for ST and STeCG, respectively; P< or =0.01). The ovulatory follicle in the LT group had a longer lifespan and attained a larger (P< or =0.05) maximum diameter than in the ST group. We conclude: a) that the lower pregnancy rate observed after long-term progestagen treatment was related to a slower follicular turnover that promoted the ovulation of persistent dominant follicles; (b) that short-term treatment resulted in a higher pregnancy rate probably due to the ovulation of newly recruited growing follicles; and (c) treatment with eCG had no advantage in association with long-term treatment and had a deleterious effect in combination with short-term treatment with MAP. PMID:11291921

Viñoles, C; Forsberg, M; Banchero, G; Rubianes, E

2001-03-01

59

Changes in long-term no-till corn growth and yield under different rates of stover mulch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received for publication January 4, 2006. Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. We assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam

Humberto Blanco-Canqui; Rattan Lal; Wilfred M Post; Lloyd Owens

2006-01-01

60

Changes in Long-Term No-Till Corn Growth and Yield under Different Rates of Stover Mulch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable.Weassessed theshort-term impactsofstovermanagement on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam (fine loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam

Humberto Blanco-Canqui; R. Lal; W. M. Post; L. B. Owens

2006-01-01

61

The impact of compensation and productivity on the final consumption of households and GDP growth rates in the long term  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-commodity model reflecting the material aspect of GDP reproduction, the balance between revenue and expenditure flows\\u000a in key economic sectors, and labor dynamics is considered in terms of simulation models to analyze Russia’s long-term economic\\u000a development options. Different levels of compensation and productivity were assumed as the model’s basic data in the scenario,\\u000a and the growth rates of the

V. I. Antipov; I. B. Kolmakov; F. F. Pashchenko

2007-01-01

62

Short and long-term assessment of heart rate variability for risk stratification after acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depressed heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to be a powerful and independent risk factor in patients following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A detailed comparison of the predictive values between short- and long-term HRV has not been made. The predictive value of short-term HRV for 1-year total cardiac mortality was studied in 700 consecutive patients after AMI. All patients

Lü Fei; Xavier Copie; Marek Malik; A. John Camm

1996-01-01

63

Fate and long-term inhibitory impact of ZnO nanoparticles during high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) on the performance of high-rate anaerobic bioreactors. Laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were fed with a mixture of volatile fatty acids and exposed to either low (0.32 mg Zn L(-1)) or high (34.5 mg Zn L(-1)) concentrations of ZnO NPs. Exposure to high NP concentrations caused a rapid and permanent decline in the methane production and the removal of acetate and propionate. In contrast, a gradual and partial inhibitory response was observed in the reactor exposed to low NP concentrations. The long-term effect of the NP exposure was also evident from a decline in the specific methanogenic activity, which was more severe for the acetoclastic compared to the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. ZnO NPs were removed by 62-82% during passage through the UASB reactors. The results taken as a whole indicate that ZnO NPs cause severe inhibition of acetoclastic methanogens. Even sub-ppm levels of the nano-ZnO in the influent had a negative impact on the performance of the UASB reactor due to long-term exposure of methanogens to NPs that accumulated in the sludge bed. PMID:24531382

Otero-González, Lila; Field, Jim A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

2014-03-15

64

Long-term and short-term vertical deformation rates of the forearc along the NE Japan subduction zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimated the long-term vertical deformation rate of the northeastern (NE) Japan forearc along the Japan Trench by using the height distribution of MIS 5.5 marine terraces as determined from tephra and cryptotephra stratigraphy. The uplift rate at the north Pacific coast of NE Japan was estimated from the relative heights between the MIS 5.5 marine terrace surface and eustatic sea levels to be 0.10-0.31 (mostly 0.19-0.31) m ka-1, which is faster than the uplift rate of the south Pacific coast of NE Japan (0.11-0.19 m ka-1). The short-term vertical velocity profile, obtained from GPS observations, showed that the north Pacific coast of NE Japan is today being uplifted at a maximum rate of 3.7 +/- 0.4 mm yr-1 as a result of after-slip related to the 1994 inter-plate moment release, whereas tidal-gauge records show that it was subsiding over several decades preceding the 1970s. The south Pacific coast of NE Japan has also subsided for those several decades and is currently subsiding at a maximum rate of 1.9 +/- 0.4 mm yr-1. Thus, the current observed short-term (geodetically determined) vertical velocities do not reflect long-term (geological) vertical tectonic movement. Short-term vertical movement is probably driven by elastic deformation caused by interplate coupling. However, long-term uplift is probably the result of crustal thickening rather than mega-thrusting.

Matsu'Ura, T.; Furusawa, A.; Saomoto, H.

2008-12-01

65

Interest Rates and Occupational Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes the labor supply effects of changes in the rate of interest on wage rates paid in generalized training occupations. The evidence appears to be consistent with the hypothesis that the rate of interest is a determinant of labor supply and is positively related to occupational wage rates. (Author)

Martin, Donald L.

1975-01-01

66

The Long Term Effects of Merit Rating Plans on Individual Motorists  

E-print Network

Student interest in public sector problems has increased markedly in recent years. At M.I.T., this change has increased the demand for courses and programs of study that lead to the development of technologically advanced ...

Ferreira, Joseph Jr.

67

The Effect of Dose Rate on Composite Durability When Exposed to a Simulated Long-Term Lunar Radiation Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) requires a safe living and working environment for crew. Composite materials are one type of material being investigated by NASA as a multi-functional structural approach to habitats for long-term use in space or on planetary surfaces with limited magnetic fields and atmosphere. These materials provide high strength with the potential for decreased weight and increased radiation protection of crew and electronics when compared with conventional aluminum structures. However, these materials have not been evaluated in a harsh radiation environment, as would be experienced outside of LEO or on a planetary surface. Thus, NASA has been investigating the durability of select composite materials in a long-term radiation environment. Previously, NASA exposed composite samples to a simulated, accelerated 30-year radiation treatment and tensile stresses similar to those of a habitat pressure vessel. The results showed evidence of potential surface oxidation and enhanced cross-linking of the matrix. As a follow-on study, we performed the same accelerated exposure alongside an exposure with a decreased dose rate. The slower dose ]rate is comparable to a realistic scenario, although still accelerated. Strain measurements were collected during exposure and showed that with a fastdose rate, the strain decreased with time, but with a slow ]dose rate, the strain increased with time. After the radiation exposures, samples were characterized via tensile tests, flexure tests, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results of these tests will be discussed.

Rojdev, Kristina; O'Rourke, Mary Jane; Hill, Charles; Nutt, Steven; Atwell, William

2011-01-01

68

A long-term forecast of shallow seismicity based on the Global Strain Rate Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Strain Rate Map (GSRM) of Kreemer et al. [2003] was project II-8 of the International Lithosphere Program; it describes the spatial variations of horizontal strain rate tensor components, rotation rates and velocities for the whole Earth. The model consists of 25 rigid spherical plates and ~25,000 0.6 x 0.5-degree deformable grid areas within the diffuse plate boundary zones.

P. Bird; C. W. Kreemer; W. E. Holt

2009-01-01

69

Explaining long term exchange rate behavior in the United States and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional exchange rate models are based on the fundamental hypothesis that, in the long run, real exchange rates will move in such a way as to make countries equally competitive. Thus they assume that in the long run, trade between countries will be roughly balanced. The difficulty in assessing expectations about the consequences of trade arrangements (such as NAFTA or

Anwar Shaikh; Rania Antonopoulos

1998-01-01

70

A Hazard Rate Approach to the Analysis of Long-Term Unemployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a discrete-time hazard regression approach based on the interrelation between excess over threshold models and hazard rate models, which is well known from the theory of extreme values. While the proposed duration model does not impose any proportionality restrictions on the hazard rate, it incorporates a grouped duration analogue of the well-known Cox pro- portional hazards model

Wolfgang Hess

71

Low slip rates and long-term preservation of geomorphic features in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone, it is important to know the strain distribution in Central Asia, whose determination relies on the slip rates for active faults. Many previous slip-rate estimates of faults in Central Asia were based on the assumption that offset landforms are younger than the Last Glacial Maximum (~20kyr ago). In contrast,

Ralf Hetzel; Samuel Niedermann; Mingxin Tao; Peter W. Kubik; Susan Ivy-Ochs; Bo Gao; Manfred R. Strecker

2002-01-01

72

Analysis of long term heart rate variability: methods, 1/f scaling and implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of spectral techniques to quantify short term heart rate fluctuations on the order of seconds to minutes has helped define the autonomic contributions to beat-to-beat control of heart rate. We used similar techniques to quantify the entire spectrum (0.00003-1.0 Hz) of heart rate variability during 24 hour ambulatory ECG monitoring. The ECG from standard Holter monitor recordings from normal subjects was sampled with the use of a phase locked loop, and a heart rate time series was constructed at 3 Hz. Frequency analysis of the heart rate signal was performed after a nonlinear filtering algorithm was used to eliminate artifacts. A power spectrum of the entire 24 hour record revealed power that was inversely proportional to frequency, 1/f, over 4 decades from 0.00003 to 0.1 Hz (period approximately 10 hours to 10 seconds). Displaying consecutive spectra calculated at 5 minute intervals revealed marked variability in the peaks at all frequencies throughout the 24 hours, probably accounting for the lack of distinct peaks in the spectra of the entire records.

Saul, J. P.; Albrecht, P.; Berger, R. D.; Cohen, R. J.

1988-01-01

73

Long-term pretreatment with proton pump inhibitor and Helicobacter pylori eradication rates  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether proton pump inhibitor (PPI) pretreatment influences Helicobacter pylori eradication rate. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed H. pylori-infected patients who were treated with a standard triple regimen (PPI, amoxicillin 1 g, and clarithromycin 500 mg, all twice daily for 7 d). The diagnosis of H. pylori infection and its eradication was assessed with the rapid urease test, histological examination by silver staining, or the 13C-urea breath test. We divided the patients into two groups: one received the standard eradication regimen without PPI pretreatment (Group A), and the other received PPI pretreatment (Group B). The patients in Group B were reclassified into three groups based on the duration of PPI pretreatment: Group B-I (3-14 d), Group B-II (15-55 d), and Group B-III (? 56 d). RESULTS: A total of 1090 patients were analyzed and the overall eradication rate was 80.9%. The cure rate in Group B (81.2%, 420/517) was not significantly different from that in Group A (79.2%, 454/573). The eradication rates in Group B-I, B-II and B-III were 80.1% (117/146), 81.8% (224/274) and 81.4% (79/97), respectively. CONCLUSION: PPI pretreatment did not affect H. pylori eradication rate, regardless of the medication period. PMID:24574779

Yoon, Seung Bae; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, Jong-Yul; Baeg, Myong Ki; Lim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Jin Soo; Cho, Yu Kyung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

2014-01-01

74

Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil.  

PubMed

A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4-6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions. PMID:24593340

Mazur, J; Kozak, K

2014-02-01

75

Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4-6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions.

Mazur, J.; Kozak, K.

2014-02-01

76

Estimating Reservoir Sedimentation Rates: Long-Term Implications for California's Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a compilation and analysis of reservoir sedimentation rates applied to unsurveyed reservoirs in California. A number of reservoirs, primarily in the Coast Ranges, have already filled or are nearly filled with sediment and are being considered for removal, including the Matilija, San Clemente, Rindge and Searsville Dams. Of the over 1,400 dams in California listed in the

J. T. Minear; G. M. Kondolf

2004-01-01

77

Bidirectional Scaling of Astrocytic Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Signaling following Long-Term Changes in Neuronal Firing Rates  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the ability of astrocytic receptors to exhibit plasticity as a result of changes in neuronal activity. Here we provide evidence for bidirectional scaling of astrocytic group I metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling in acute mouse hippocampal slices following long-term changes in neuronal firing rates. Plasticity of astrocytic mGluRs was measured by recording spontaneous and evoked Ca2+ elevations in both astrocytic somata and processes. An exogenous astrocytic Gq G protein-coupled receptor was resistant to scaling, suggesting that the alterations in astrocyte Ca2+ signaling result from changes in activity of the surface mGluRs rather than a change in intracellular G protein signaling molecules. These findings suggest that astrocytes actively detect shifts in neuronal firing rates and adjust their receptor signaling accordingly. This type of long-term plasticity in astrocytes resembles neuronal homeostatic plasticity and might be important to ensure an optimal or expected level of input from neurons. PMID:23166735

Xie, Alison X.; Sun, Min-Yu; Murphy, Thomas; Lauderdale, Kelli; Tiglao, Elizabeth; Fiacco, Todd A.

2012-01-01

78

Long-Term PIT and T-Bar Anchor Tag Retention Rates in Adult Muskellunge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mark–recapture studies require knowledge of tag retention rates specific to the tag types, fish species and size, and study duration. We determined the probability of tag loss for passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted into dorsal musculature, T-bar anchor tags attached to dorsal pterygiophores, and both tags in relation to years posttagging for double-marked adult muskellunge Esox masquinongy over a

Neil P. Rude; Gregory W. Whitledge; Quinton E. Phelps; Shawn Hirst

2011-01-01

79

The determinants and long-term projections of saving rates in Developing Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

► We present data on trends over time in domestic saving rates in twelve economies in Developing Asia during 1966–2007. ► We analyze the determinants of these trends using econometric analysis and panel cross-country data for 1996–2007. ► We find that the main determinants of these trends were the age structure of the population and income levels. ► We project

Charles Yuji Horioka; Akiko Terada-Hagiwara

2012-01-01

80

The long-term alteration rate of Na-smectite in natural bentonite formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alteration of the natural bentonite in Kuroishi ore deposit located in the north Japan was estimated by the vertical element profiles of Na, Ca and Mg in the drilled core samples. The exchangeable Na depleted from the ground surface to 20 m in depth and the total loss of Na coincided with the accumulation of Ca and Mg. This suggests the Na depletion was caused by the ion exchange reactions. A simple analytical calculation using the steady state approximation indicated the average alteration rate was about 1 cm/1000 years. This value is equivalent to that by geomorphological studies.

Ohe, T.; Itoh, M.; Ishii, T.; Nakashima, H.; Hirata, Y.; Yoshida, H.

1998-12-01

81

Pool 13 drawdown: Predicting success rates and affected areas. Long term resource monitoring program -- technical report  

SciTech Connect

The likelihood of 1- or 2-foot drawdowns, and the area affected by such alternative drawdown, was estimated for Pool 13 on the Upper Mississippi River. Minimum water surface (elevation) requirements were compared to computed water surface profiles to determine a critical low flow that would allow a navigation channel 400 feet wide and 10.5 feet deep. An upper limit on flow was established based on the flow at which open river conditions would exist for a given drawdown. The range in flows that would allow for a drawdown was used to estimate success rates using historical daily discharge data. Success rates were determined for a variety of drawdown durations between two time periods, May 1--August 15 and June 15--August 15. Areas that would be affected by these two drawdown scenarios were predicted by overlaying maps of water surfaces with depth using a geographic information system. Although the drawdown effects on most physical and biotic components of Pool 13 are unknown, some general drawdown effects likely to occur because of the changes in water surface elevation are presented.

Rogala, J.T.; Wlosinski, J.H.; Landwehr, K.J.

1999-04-01

82

LONG TERM EFFECTS OF LITHIUM ON GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE IN INDIAN SUBJECTS - A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was evaluated in thirty patients on lithium and in thirty healthy prospective kidney donors by single compartment, multiple sample plasma clearance method using 99mTechnetium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (99mTC-DTPA). Normality test revealed that dose and treatment duration were skewed and the coefficient of skewness were 0.067 (p< 0.0001) and 1.41 (p< 0.0001) respectively. Age was marginally skewed (p =0.04) for the control group. At 5% significance level, dose and creatinine were negatively correlated (r=-0.030), whereas age and duration were positively correlated (r =+ 0.53) (single tailed only). Duration and GFR seems to be negatively correlated (r = -0.23), however this correlation did not reach statistically significance level. In the present cross sectional study no significant difference in mean GFR was observed in lithium treated affective disorder patients when compared with the age matched normal subjects. PMID:21407979

Singh, Baljinder; Mittal, Bhagwant R.; Sud, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sharan, Pratap; Jindal, Surinder K.; Deodhar, Shridhar D.

2000-01-01

83

Long-term predictive power of heart rate variability on all-cause mortality in the diabetic population.  

PubMed

To examine the long-term predictive power of heart rate variability (HRV) on all-cause mortality in randomly selected diabetic individuals. A total of 240 diabetic persons were randomly selected from the diabetic population. A 24-h ECG was obtained for each person included and analysed on the Pathfinder 700. In the RR Tools Program time (SDNN, SDANN, SDNN index, RMSSD, NN50, Triangular index) and frequency domain parameters (total power, VLF, LF, LFnorm, HF, HFnorm, HF/LF) were computed. After 15½ years vital statistics were obtained. The analysis included 165 persons with acceptable ECG recordings. 81 individuals (49%) died during follow-up. Correcting for age and gender we found that in time domain, only the SDNN index was a significant mortality predictor but in the frequency domain, all parameters were significantly associated with death. In multivariate analysis only the power in the low frequency band was an independent predictor. During the period following the first 5 years, the baseline LF continued to be a significant predictor of mortality. This long-term follow-up study indicates that the LF power is the strongest HRV predictor with regard to mortality. A reduced HRV at baseline still holds prognostic information after 5 years. PMID:20844904

May, Ole; Arildsen, Hanne

2011-03-01

84

Dampening effects of long-term experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of a Holm oak forest.  

PubMed

Forests respond to increasing intensities and frequencies of drought by reducing growth and with higher tree mortality rates. Little is known, however, about the long-term consequences of generally drier conditions and more frequent extreme droughts. A Holm oak forest was exposed to experimental rainfall manipulation for 13 years to study the effect of increasing drought on growth and mortality of the dominant species Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo. The drought treatment reduced stem growth of A. unedo (-66.5%) and Q. ilex (-17.5%), whereas P. latifolia remained unaffected. Higher stem mortality rates were noticeable in Q. ilex (+42.3%), but not in the other two species. Stem growth was a function of the drought index of early spring in the three species. Stem mortality rates depended on the drought index of winter and spring for Q. ilex and in spring and summer for P. latifolia, but showed no relation to climate in A. unedo. Following a long and intense drought (2005-2006), stem growth of Q. ilex and P. latifolia increased, whereas it decreased in A. unedo. Q. ilex also enhanced its survival after this period. Furthermore, the effect of drought treatment on stem growth in Q. ilex and A. unedo was attenuated as the study progressed. These results highlight the different vulnerabilities of Mediterranean species to more frequent and intense droughts, which may lead to partial species substitution and changes in forest structure and thus in carbon uptake. The response to drought, however, changed over time. Decreased intra- and interspecific competition after extreme events with high mortality, together with probable morphological and physiological acclimation to drought during the study period, may, at least in the short term, buffer forests against drier conditions. The long-term effects of drought consequently deserve more attention, because the ecosystemic responses are unlikely to be stable over time.Nontechnical summaryIn this study, we evaluate the effect of long-term (13 years) experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of three forest Mediterranean species, and their response to the different intensities and durations of natural drought. We provide evidence for species-specific responses to drought, what may eventually lead to a partial community shift favoring the more drought-resistant species. However, we also report a dampening of the treatment effect on the two drought-sensitive species, which may indicate a potential adaptation to drier conditions at the ecosystem or population level. These results are thus relevant to account for the stabilizing processes that would alter the initial response of ecosystem to drought through changes in plant physiology, morphology, and demography compensation. PMID:23712619

Barbeta, Adrià; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep

2013-10-01

85

Hepatic filling rate of a microbubble agent: a novel predictor of long-term outcomes in patients with cirrhosis.  

PubMed

The aim of the study described here was to evaluate the significance of the hepatic filling rate of a perflubutane microbubble agent in predicting long-term outcomes and prognoses in 32 patients with cirrhosis (37-76 y, 20 females, Child-Pugh A16, B16). The time from delivery of the contrast agent to the hepatic artery to maximum enhancement of the liver parenchyma on the sonogram was defined as the hepatic filling rate (mean = 18.6 s). Hepatic filling rate did not correlate significantly with the Child-Pugh score or the model for end-stage liver disease score. However, the survival rate was lower (93.3% at 1 y, 60.2% at 3 y) and the rate of occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was higher (13.3% at 1 y, 33.3% at 3 y) in the group with the slow filling rate (?18 s) than in the group with the rapid filling rate (<18 s) (93.3% at 1 and 3 y for survival, 6.3% at 1 and 3 y for HCC occurrence). Hepatic filling rate may constitute a non-invasive marker for the occurrence of HCC and prognosis of cirrhosis. PMID:25018029

Sekimoto, Tadashi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kiyono, Soichiro; Kondo, Takayuki; Shimada, Taro; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Masanori; Yokosuka, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Tadashi

2014-09-01

86

Styles and rates of long-term denudation in carbonate terrains under a Mediterranean to hyper-arid climatic gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate minerals, unlike silicates, have the potential to dissolve almost completely and with high efficiency. Thus, in carbonate terrains denudation rate and style (the governing process of denudation, mechanical or chemical) should be more sensitive to climatic forcing. Using 36Cl measurements in 39 carbonate bedrock and sediment samples, we calculate long-term denudation rates across a sharp climatic gradient from Mediterranean to hyper-arid conditions. Our samples were collected along the Arugot watershed, which drains the eastern flank of the Judea Range (central Israel) to the Dead Sea and is characterized by a pronounced rain shadow. Denudation rates of flat-lying bedrock outcrops sampled along interfluves differ by an order of magnitude from ?20 mm ka-1 in the Mediterranean zone to 1-3 mm ka-1 in the hyper-arid zone. These rates are strongly correlated with precipitation, and thus reflect the importance of carbonate mineral dissolution in the overall denudation process. In contrast, denudation rates of steep bedrock surfaces depend on the hillslope gradient, but only in the hyper-arid climate zone, indicating that mechanical processes dominate the overall hillslope denudation within this zone. The dominance of slope-dependent mechanical erosion in the hyper-arid zone is also reflected by an increase in spatially-average denudation rates from 17-19 mm ka-1 in the Mediterranean-semi-arid zones to 21-25 mm ka-1 in the hyper-arid zone. These higher rates are attributed to clast contribution from steep slopes under arid climate. This suggests an increased importance of mechanical processes to the overall denudation in the hyper-arid zone. We demonstrate that the transition between chemically-dominated denudation to mechanically-dominated denudation occurs between 100 and 200 mm of mean annual precipitation. Long-term denudation rates across the Judea Range indicate that between Mediterranean and hyper-arid climates, chemical weathering rates are limited by precipitation. Nevertheless, in more humid climates, chemical weathering rates are apparently limited by the rates of carbonate mineral dissolution. This study demonstrates that carbonate terrains have the capacity to shift between mechanically and chemically dominated denudation in response to changes in precipitation. Similar transitions in response to changes in temperature or the level of tectonic activity have been previously reported. We suggest that the abrupt nature of such transitions can be primarily attributed to the efficiency of carbonate dissolution processes and the competition between surface and subsurface drainage systems in carbonate terrains.

Ryb, U.; Matmon, A.; Erel, Y.; Haviv, I.; Benedetti, L.; Hidy, A. J.

2014-11-01

87

Wildfire and monsoon induced short-term hillslope degradation rates compared with model long-term rates,San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event-scale erosion data were collected in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, AZ, from 1996 to 2000, to establish natural short-term hillslope degradation rates and compare these with existing computational models of long-term rates. This Neogene scoria cone field consists of late Miocene to Holocene volcanic cones, with a wide range of degradation stages. The semiarid climate makes the area exceptionally

B. Martinez-Hackert; M. Bursik

2003-01-01

88

Long-term periodicity in LS I +61°303 as beat frequency between orbital and precessional rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. In the binary system LS I +61°303 the peak flux density of the radio outburst, which is related to the orbital period of 26.4960 ± 0.0028d, exibits a modulation of 1667 ± 8 d. The radio emission at high spatial resolution appears structured in a precessing jet with a precessional period of 27-28 d. Aims: How close is the precessional period of the radio jet to the orbital period? Any periodicity in the radio emission should be revealed by timing analysis. The aim of this work is to establish the accurate value of the precessional period. Methods: We analyzed 6.7 years of the Green Bank Interferometer database at 2.2 GHz and 8.3 GHz with the Lomb-Scargle and phase dispersion minimization methods and performed simulations. Results: The periodograms show two periodicities, P1 = 26.49 ± 0.07d (?1 = 0.03775 d-1) and P2 = 26.92 ± 0.07d (?2 = 0.03715 d-1). Whereas radio outbursts have been known to have nearly orbital occurrence P1 with timing residuals exhibiting a puzzling sawtooth pattern, we probe in this paper that they are actually periodical outbursts and that their period is Paverage = 2/(?1 + ?2) = 26.70 ± 0.05 d. The period Paverage as well as the long-term modulation Pbeat = 1/(?1 - ?2) = 1667 ± 393 d result from the beat of the two close periods, the orbital P1 and the precessional P2 periods. Conclusions: The precessional period, indicated by the astrometry to be of 27-28 d, is P2 = 26.92 d. The system LS I +61°303 seems to be one more case in astronomy of beat, i.e., a phenomenon occurring when two physical processes create stable variations of nearly equal frequencies. The very small difference in frequency creates a long-term variation of period 1/(?1 - ?2). The long-term modulation of 1667 d results from the beat of the two close orbital and precessional rates.

Massi, M.; Jaron, F.

2013-06-01

89

Long-term influence of tillage and fertilization on net carbon dioxide exchange rate on two soils with different textures.  

PubMed

The importance of agricultural practices to greenhouse gas mitigation is examined worldwide. However, there is no consensus on soil organic carbon (SOC) content and CO emissions as affected by soil management practices and their relationships with soil texture. No-till (NT) agriculture often results in soil C gain, though, not always. Soil net CO exchange rate (NCER) and environmental factors (SOC, soil temperature [T], and water content [W]), as affected by soil type (loam and sandy loam), tillage (conventional, reduced, and NT), and fertilization, were quantified in long-term field experiments in Lithuania. Soil tillage and fertilization affected total CO flux (heterotrophic and autotrophic) through effect on soil SOC sequestration, water, and temperature regime. After 11 yr of different tillage and fertilization management, SOC content was 23% more in loam than in sandy loam. Long-term NT contributed to 7 to 27% more SOC sequestration on loam and to 29 to 33% more on sandy loam compared with reduced tillage (RT) or conventional tillage (CT). Soil water content in loam was 7% more than in sandy loam. Soil gravimetric water content, averaged across measurement dates and fertilization treatments, was significantly less in NT than CT and RT in both soils. Soil organic carbon content and water storage capacity of the loam and sandy loam soils exerted different influences on NCER. The NCER from the sandy loam soil was 13% greater than that from the loam. In addition, NCER was 4 to 9% less with NT than with CT and RT systems on both loam and sandy loam soils. Application of mineral NPK fertilizers promoted significantly greater NCER from loam but suppressed NCER by 15% from sandy loam. PMID:22031561

Feiziene, Dalia; Feiza, Virginijus; Slepetiene, Alvyra; Liaudanskiene, Inga; Kadziene, Grazina; Deveikyte, Irena; Vaideliene, Asta

2011-01-01

90

Long-term monitoring of heart rate, respiration rhythm, and body movement during sleep based upon a network.  

PubMed

A method for accurately recording heart rate (HR), respiration rhythm (RR), and body movement (BM) during sleep using a network-based system is proposed in this article. Its application to the long-term monitoring of HR, RR, and BM during sleep was examined. HR, RR, and BM were detected by pressure variations corresponding to changes in the heartbeat and respiratory motion, which were measured by a sensor unit placed beneath a pillow during sleep under completely unconstrained conditions. The pressure signals were digitized and transmitted to a remote database server using transmission control protocol (TCP)/Internet protocol (IP) via a netbox. In the server, the data were processed to obtain HR, RR, and BM. The overall performance of the system was examined using data collected over a 13-month period from a female subject. Besides the long-term profiles of HR, RR, and the periods during which the HR and RR were undetectable owing to BMs during sleep, the average frequency of BM in a day varied from 4.4 to 22.4/h, and the mean frequency over 332 nights was 8.3/h with a standard deviation of 2.2/h. Periodic biorhythms can also be assessed using the profiles of the average HR and certain frequency-domain parameters of HR variability. The rhythmic property of these profiles was confirmed to coincide with the subject's menstrual cycle. The results of this 13-month trial operation show that this system can be installed in the home environment; used to monitor HR, RR, and BM during sleep; and analyze various physiological rhythms in humans over prolonged periods. PMID:20184454

Zhu, Xin; Chen, Wenxi; Nemoto, Tetsu; Kitamura, Kei-Ichiro; Wei, Daming

2010-03-01

91

Unit roots, interest rate spreads, and inflation forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research suggests that long-term interest rate spreads provide information that can be useful in forecasting inflation, but that the spread between the three-month and six-month Treasury bill rates appears to have little forecasting ability. This paper uses the concepts of unit roots and cointegration to examine the failure of the short-term T-bill spread to forecast inflation. The results suggest

Kevin Jacques

1995-01-01

92

Forced Migration and Mortality in the Very Long Term: Did Perestroika Affect Death Rates Also in Finland?  

PubMed Central

In this article, we analyze mortality rates of Finns born in areas that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II and from which the entire population was evacuated. These internally displaced persons are observed during the period 1971–2004 and compared with people born in the same region but on the adjacent side of the new border. We find that in the 1970s and 1980s, the forced migrants had mortality rates that were on par with those of people in the comparison group. In the late 1980s, the mortality risk of internally displaced men increased by 20% in relation to the expected time trend. This deviation, which manifests particularly in cardiovascular mortality, coincides with perestroika and the demise of the Soviet Union, which were events that resulted in an intense debate in civil society about restitution of the ceded areas. Because state actors were reluctant to engage, the debate declined after some few years, and after the mid-1990s, the death risk again approached the long-term trend. Our findings indicate that when internally displaced persons must adjust to situations for which appropriate coping behaviors are unknown, psychosocial stress might arise several decades after their evacuation. PMID:19771945

SAARELA, JAN; FINNAS, FJALAR

2009-01-01

93

Effects of Long-Term Dharma-Chan Meditation on Cardiorespiratory Synchronization and Heart Rate Variability Behavior  

PubMed Central

Abstract Remarkable changes in cardiorespiratory interactions are frequently experienced by Chan meditation practitioners following years of practice. This study compares the results of our study on cardiorespiratory interactions for novice (control group) and experienced (experimental group) Chan meditation practitioners. The effectual co-action between the cardiac and respiratory systems was evaluated by the degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization (CRPS). In addition, an adaptive-frequency-range (AFR) scheme to reliably quantify heart rate variability (HRV) was developed for assessing the regulation of sympathetic–parasympathetic activity and the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange. The enhanced HRV method, named HRVAFR, can resolve the issue of overestimating HRV under the condition of slow respiration rates, which is frequently encountered in studies on Chan meditation practitioners. In the comparison of the three data sets collected from the two groups, our findings resulted in innovative hypotheses to interpret the extraordinary process of the rejuvenation of cardiorespiratory functions through long-term Dharma-Chan meditation practice. Particularly, advanced practitioners exhibit a continuously high degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization, even during rapid breathing. Based on our post-experimental interview with advanced practitioners, the activation of inner Chakra energy, during the course of Chan-detachment practice, frequently induces perceptible physiological-mental reformation, including an efficient mechanism for regulating cardiorespiratory interactions. PMID:23323597

Chang, Chih-Hao

2013-01-01

94

Effects of long-term dharma-chan meditation on cardiorespiratory synchronization and heart rate variability behavior.  

PubMed

Remarkable changes in cardiorespiratory interactions are frequently experienced by Chan meditation practitioners following years of practice. This study compares the results of our study on cardiorespiratory interactions for novice (control group) and experienced (experimental group) Chan meditation practitioners. The effectual co-action between the cardiac and respiratory systems was evaluated by the degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization (CRPS). In addition, an adaptive-frequency-range (AFR) scheme to reliably quantify heart rate variability (HRV) was developed for assessing the regulation of sympathetic-parasympathetic activity and the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange. The enhanced HRV method, named HRVAFR, can resolve the issue of overestimating HRV under the condition of slow respiration rates, which is frequently encountered in studies on Chan meditation practitioners. In the comparison of the three data sets collected from the two groups, our findings resulted in innovative hypotheses to interpret the extraordinary process of the rejuvenation of cardiorespiratory functions through long-term Dharma-Chan meditation practice. Particularly, advanced practitioners exhibit a continuously high degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization, even during rapid breathing. Based on our post-experimental interview with advanced practitioners, the activation of inner Chakra energy, during the course of Chan-detachment practice, frequently induces perceptible physiological-mental reformation, including an efficient mechanism for regulating cardiorespiratory interactions. PMID:23323597

Chang, Chih-Hao; Lo, Pei-Chen

2013-04-01

95

7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 1779.33 Section 1779...GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates...may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates will be those rates...

2010-01-01

96

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

SciTech Connect

Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers.

Colwell, F.S.; Crawford, R.L.; Sorenson, K.

2005-09-01

97

24 CFR 206.21 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 206.21 Section 206.21 Housing and...Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.21 Interest rate. (a) Fixed interest rate. A fixed interest rate is agreed upon...

2010-04-01

98

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved dense nonaqueous-phase liquid plumes are persistent, widespread problems in the DOE complex. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) is disappearing from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) by natural attenuation, a finding that saves significant site restoration costs. Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation as a preferred treatment technology requires direct evidence of the processes and rates of the degradation. Our proposal aims to provide that evidence for one such site by testing two hypotheses. First, we believe that realistic values for in situ rates of TCE cometabolism can be obtained by sustaining the putative microorganisms at the low catabolic activities consistent with aquifer conditions. Second, the patterns of functional gene expression evident in these communities under starvation conditions while carrying out TCE cometabolism can be used to diagnose the cometabolic activity in the aquifer itself. Using the cometabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained at this location and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Realistic terms for cometabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE's ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics at other sites, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. Finally, this project aims to derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

2005-06-01

99

Long-Term Determinants of the Personal Savings Rate: Literature Review and Some Empirical Results for Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the structural determinants of the personal savings rate in Canada over the last 30 years, using cointegration techniques. The main finding is that the real interest rate, expected inflation, the ratio of the all-government fiscal balances to nominal GDP, and the ratio of household net worth to personal disposable income are the most important determinants of the

Gilles Bérubé; Denise Côté

2000-01-01

100

Evaluation of Neural Response Telemetry (NRT™) with focus on long-term rate adaptation over a wide range of stimulation rates.  

PubMed

Custom Sound EP™ (CSEP) is an advanced flexible software tool dedicated to recording of electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) in Nucleus® recipients using Neural Response Telemetry™ (NRT™). European multi-centre studies of the Freedom™ cochlear implant system confirmed that CSEP offers tools to effectively record ECAP thresholds, amplitude growth functions, recovery functions, spread of excitation functions, and rate adaptation functions and an automated algorithm (AutoNRT™) to measure threshold profiles. This paper reports on rate adaptation measurements. Rate adaptation of ECAP amplitudes can successfully be measured up to rates of 495 pulses per second (pps) by repeating conventional ECAP measurements and over a wide range of rates up to 8000 pps using the masked response extraction technique. Rate adaptation did not show a predictable relationship with speech perception and coding strategy channel rate preference. The masked response extraction method offers opportunities to study long-term rate adaptation with well-defined and controlled stimulation paradigms. PMID:24559068

Huarte, Alicia; Ramos, Angel; Morera, Constantino; Garcia-Ibáñez, Luis; Battmer, Rolf; Dillier, Norbert; Wesarg, Thomas; Müller-Deile, Joachim; Hey, Mattias; Offeciers, Erwin; von Wallenberg, Ernst; Coudert, Chrystelle; Killian, Matthijs

2014-05-01

101

76 FR 59767 - Interest Rates; Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates; Notice AGENCY: Small Business...Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg...rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

2011-09-27

102

7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 3575.33 Section 3575...Guaranteed Loans § 3575.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates...may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates will be those...

2010-01-01

103

A study of the long term impact of an inquiry-based science program on student's attitudes towards science and interest in science careers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One reason science enrichment programs were created was to address the underrepresentation of women and minorities in science. These programs were designed to increase underrepresented groups' interest in science and science careers. One attempt to increase students' interest in science was the Summer Science Exploration Program (SSEP). The SSEP was a two week, inquiry-based summer science camp offered by Hampshire College for students entering grades seven and eight. Students who participated were from three neighboring school districts in Western Massachusetts. The goal of the program was to stimulate greater interest in science and scientific careers among middle school students, in particular among females and students of color. A review of the literature of inquiry-based science programs revealed that the effect of inquiry-based programs on students' attitudes towards science is typically investigated shortly after the end of the treatment period. The findings from this study contribute to our understanding of the long-term impact of inquiry-based science enrichment programs on students' attitude towards science and their interest in science careers. The data collected consisted of quantitative survey data as well as qualitative data through case studies of selected participants from the sample population. This study was guided by the following questions: (1) What was the nature and extent of the impact of the Summer Science Exploration Program (SSEP) on students' attitudes towards science and interest in science careers, in particular among females and students of color? (2) What factors, if any, other than participation in SSEP impacted students' attitude towards science and interest in scientific careers? (3) In what other ways, if any, did the participants benefit from the program? Conclusions drawn from the data indicate that SSEP helped participants maintain a high level of interest in science. In contrast, students who applied but were not accepted showed a decrease in their attitude towards science and their interest in science careers over time, compared to the participants. The interviews suggested that students enjoyed the inquiry-based approach that was used at camp. In addition, students said they found the hands-on inquiry-based approach used at camp more interesting than traditional methods of instruction (lectures and note taking) used at school. Recommendations for future research are presented.

Gibson, Helen Lussier

104

Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

2007-07-01

105

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

SciTech Connect

Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers. Third, we have systematically considered the aquifer contaminants at different locations in plumes at other DOE sites in order to determine whether MNA is a broadly applicable remediation strategy for chlorinated hydrocarbons (North Wind Inc.). Realistic terms for co-metabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE’s ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. This project also aims to derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

2005-09-01

106

7 CFR 1714.4 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 1714.4 Section 1714...LOANS General § 1714.4 Interest rates. (a) Municipal rate loans...interest at a single rate for each interest rate term. All interest rates...

2010-01-01

107

Changes in long-term no-till corn growth and yield under different rates of stover mulch  

SciTech Connect

Received for publication January 4, 2006. Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. We assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam (fine loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston in Ohio, and predicted corn yield from soil properties using principal component analysis (PCA). The study was conducted in 2005 on the ongoing experiments started in May 2004 under 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200)% of stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal promoted early emergence and rapid seedling growth (P < 0.01). Early-emerging plants grew taller than late-emerging plants up to about 50 d, and then the heights reversed at Coshocton and were comparable at other two sites. Stover management affected corn yield only at the Coshocton site where average grain and stover yields in the T200, T100, T75, and T50 (10.8 and 10.3 Mg ha-1) were higher than those in the T0 and T25 treatments (8.5 and 6.5 Mg ha-1) (P < 0.01), showing that stover removal at rates as low as 50% (2.5 Mg ha-1) decreased crop yields. Soil properties explained 71% of the variability in grain yield and 33% of the variability in stover yield for the Coshocton site. Seventeen months after the start of the experiment, effects of stover management on corn yield and soil properties were site-specific.

Blanco-Canqui, Dr. Humberto [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Lal, Dr. Rattan [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Owens, Lloyd [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

2006-09-01

108

Long-term outcome by risk factors using conformal high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) boost with or without neoadjuvant androgen suppression for localized prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe aim of this study is to analyze, during the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era, the long-term outcome of patients treated with conformal high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost to the prostate with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) when patients are stratified by risk factors for failure.

Razvan M Galalae; Alvaro Martinez; Tim Mate; Christina Mitchell; Gregory Edmundson; Nils Nuernberg; Stephen Eulau; Gary Gustafson; Michael Gribble; Gyoergy Kovács

2004-01-01

109

12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 614.4155 Section 614...Associations § 614.4155 Interest rates. Loans made by each bank and...institution board. The board shall set interest rates or approve individual...

2010-01-01

110

7 CFR 3550.66 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 3550.66 Section 3550...502 Origination § 3550.66 Interest rate. Loans will be written using the applicable RHS interest rate in effect at loan approval...

2010-01-01

111

7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1980.320 Section 1980.320 Agriculture...GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.320 Interest rate. The interest rate must not exceed the established applicable...

2010-01-01

112

7 CFR 1950.105 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1950.105 Section 1950...Armed Forces § 1950.105 Interest rate. (a) The Soldiers and Sailors...Act requires that the effective interest rate charged a borrower who...

2010-01-01

113

Short-term foraging costs and long-term fueling rates in central-place foraging swans revealed by giving-up exploitation times.  

PubMed

Foragers tend to exploit patches to a lesser extent farther away from their central place. This has been interpreted as a response to increased risk of predation or increased metabolic costs of prey delivery. Here we show that migratory Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii), though not incurring greater predation risks farther out or delivering food to a central place, also feed for shorter periods at patches farther away from their roost. Predictions from an energy budget model suggest that increasing metabolic travel costs per se are responsible. Establishing the relation between intake rate and exploitation time enabled us to express giving-up exploitation times as quitting harvest rates (QHRs). This revealed that net QHRs were not different from observed long-term net intake rates, a sign that the birds were maximizing their long-term net intake rate. This study is unique because giving-up decisions were measured at the individual level, metabolic and predation costs were assessed simultaneously, the relation with harvest rate was made explicit, and finally, short-term giving-up decisions were related to long-term net intake rates. We discuss and conceptualize the implications of metabolic traveling costs for carrying-capacity predictions by bridging the gap between optimal-foraging theory and optimal-migration theory. PMID:17427132

van Gils, J A; Tijsen, W

2007-05-01

114

Possible use of EPDM in radioactive waste disposal: Long term low dose rate and short term high dose rate irradiation in aquatic and atmospheric environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, changes in the properties of ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) irradiated with different dose rates in ambient atmosphere and aqueous environment were investigated. Irradiations were carried out both with low dose and high dose rate irradiation sources. EPDM samples which were differentiated from each other by peroxide type and 5-ethylidene 2-norbornene (ENB) contents were used. Long term low dose rate irradiations were carried out for the duration of up to 2.5 years (total dose of 1178 kGy) in two different irradiation environments. Dose rates (both high and low), irradiation environments (in aquatic and open to atmosphere), and peroxide types (aliphatic or aromatic) were the parameters studied. Characterization of irradiated EPDM samples were performed by hardness, compression, tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), TGA-FTIR, ATR-FTIR, XRD and SEM tests. It was observed that the irradiation in water environment led to a lower degree of degradation when compared to that of irradiation open to atmosphere for the same irradiation dose. In addition, irradiation environment, peroxide type and dose rate had effects on the extent of change in the properties of EPDM. It was observed that EPDM is relatively radiation resistant and a candidate polymer for usage in radioactive waste management.

Hac?o?lu, F?rat; Özdemir, Tonguç; Çavdar, Seda; Usanmaz, Ali

2013-02-01

115

Short and long term mortality rates associated with first pregnancy outcome: Population register based study for Denmark 1980-2004  

PubMed Central

Summary Background There is a growing interest in examining death rates associated with different pregnancy outcomes for time periods beyond one year. Previous population studies, however, have failed to control for complete reproductive histories. In this study we seek to eliminate the potential confounding effect of unknown prior pregnancy history by examining mortality rates associated specifically with first pregnancy outcome alone. We also examine differences in mortality rates associated with early abortion and late abortions (after 12 weeks). Material/Method Medical records for the entire population of women born in Denmark between 1962 and 1991 and were alive in 1980, were linked to death certificates. Mortality rates associated with first pregnancy outcomes (delivery, miscarriage, abortion, and late abortion) were calculated. Odds ratios examining death rates based on reproductive outcomes, adjusted for age at first pregnancy and year of women’s births, were also calculated. Results A total of 463,473 women had their first pregnancy between 1980 and 2004, of whom 2,238 died. In nearly all time periods examined, mortality rates associated with miscarriage or abortion of a first pregnancy were higher than those associated with birth. Compared to women who delivered, the age and birth year adjusted cumulative risk of death for women who had a first trimester abortion was significantly higher in all periods examined, from 180 days (OR=1.84; 1.11 <95% CI <3.71) through 10 years (1.39; 1.22 <95% CI <1.61), as was the risk for women who had abortions after 12 weeks from one year (OR=4.31; 2.18 <95% CI <8.54) through 10 years (OR=2.41; 1.56 <95% CI <2.41). For women who miscarried, the risk was significantly higher for cumulative deaths through 4 years (OR=1.75; 1.34 <95% CI <2.27) and at 10 years (OR=1.48; 1.18 <95% CI <1.85). Conclusions Compared to women who delivered, women who had an early or late abortion had significantly higher mortality rates within 1 through 10 years. A lesser effect may also be present relative to miscarriage. Recommendations for additional research are offered. PMID:22936199

Reardon, David C.; Coleman, Priscilla K.

2012-01-01

116

An acute fall in estimated glomerular filtration rate during treatment with losartan predicts a slower decrease in long-term renal function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intervention in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) is associated with slowing the progressive loss of renal function. During initiation of therapy, however, there may be an acute fall in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We tested whether this initial fall in GFR reflects a renal hemodynamic effect and whether this might result in a slower decline in long-term renal function. We performed a

Frank A Holtkamp; Dick de Zeeuw; Merlin C Thomas; Mark E Cooper; Pieter A de Graeff; Hans J L Hillege; Hans-Henrik Parving; Barry M Brenner; Shahnaz Shahinfar; Hiddo J Lambers Heerspink

2011-01-01

117

Long-term Failure Rate of Brackets Bonded with Plasma and High-intensity Light-emitting Diode Curing Lights: A Clinical Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To comparatively assess the long-term failure rate of brackets bonded with a plasma or a high-intensity light-emitting diode (LED) curing light. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with complete permanent dentitions with similar treatment planning and mechanotherapy were selected for the study. Brackets were bonded ac- cording to a split-mouth design with the 3M Ortholite Plasma or the high-power Satelec

Nikolaos Pandis; Sophia Strigoub; Theodore Eliades

2007-01-01

118

Long-term survival rates of patients with stage IIIB and IV non-small cell lung cancer treated with cisplatin plus vinorelbine or gemcitabine  

PubMed Central

Limited data exist concerning the long-term (?5 year) survival rates of patients with stage IIIB and IV non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) receiving chemotherapy. We aimed to determine the long-term results of cisplatin plus third-generation (vinorelbine or gemcitabine) cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced and advanced NSCLC. The study included 141 patients, and all patients were followed up from the time of diagnosis until death. The median age of the patients was 59.1±9.9 years. The male-to-female ratio was 124/17; 62.4% of the patients had stage IIIB and 37.6% had stage IV NSCLC. Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated NSCLC subtypes accounted for 69.5, 17.7 and 12.7% of the cases, respectively. The overall response rate was 32.6% and the median survival time was 12.3 months (95% CI, 10.2–14.5). The median survival times for stages IIIB and IV were 12.6±1.4 and 11.9±1.7 months, respectively. The 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 33, 7.5, 4.3 and 2.8%, respectively. In conclusion, cisplatin-based new-generation cytotoxic agents for combined modality therapy offer an increased hope of long-term survival for patients with locally advanced and advanced NSCLC. PMID:23226770

OZKAYA, SEVKET; FINDIK, SERHAT; DIRICAN, ADEM; ATICI, ATILLA GUVEN

2012-01-01

119

Measuring the Natural Rate of Interest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural rate of interest-the real interest rate consistent with output equaling its natural rate and stable inflation-plays a central role in macroeconomic theory and monetary policy. Estimation of the natural rate of interest, however, has received little attention. We apply the Kalman filter to estimate jointly time-varying natural rates of interest and output and trend growth. We find a

Thomas Laubach; John C. Williams

2003-01-01

120

The Association Between Rate of Initial Weight Loss and Long-Term Success in Obesity Treatment: Does Slow and Steady Win the Race?  

PubMed Central

Background Controversy exists regarding the optimal rate of weight loss for long-term weight management success. Purpose This study examined whether gradual initial weight loss was associated with greater long-term weight reduction than rapid initial loss. Methods Groups were drawn from participants in the TOURS trial, which included a sample of middle-aged (mean =59.3 years) obese women (mean BMI =36.8) who received a 6-month lifestyle intervention followed by a 1-year extended care program. Participants were encouraged to reduce caloric intake to achieve weight losses of 0.45 kg/ week. Groups were categorized as “FAST” (?0.68 kg/week, n=69), “MODERATE” (?0.23 and <0.68 kg/week, n= 104), and “SLOW” (<0.23 kg/week, n=89) based on rate of weight loss during first month of treatment. Results The FAST, MODERATE, and SLOW groups differed significantly in mean weight changes at 6 months (?13.5, ?8.9, and ?5.1 kg, respectively, ps <0.001), and the FAST and SLOW groups differed significantly at 18 months (?10.9, ?7.1, and ?3.7 kg, respectively, ps <0.001). No significant group differences were found in weight regain between 6 and 18 months (2.6, 1.8, and 1.3 kg, respectively, ps < 0.9). The FAST and MODERATE groups were 5.1 and 2.7 times more likely to achieve 10% weight losses at 18 months than the SLOW group. Conclusion Collectively, findings indicate both short- and long-term advantages to fast initial weight loss. Fast weight losers obtained greater weight reduction and long-term maintenance, and were not more susceptible to weight regain than gradual weight losers. PMID:20443094

Ross, Kathryn M.; Perri, Michael G.

2013-01-01

121

7 CFR 1950.105 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interest rate. 1950.105 Section 1950.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Accounts of Borrowers Entering the Armed Forces § 1950.105 Interest rate. (a) The...

2012-01-01

122

7 CFR 1950.105 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest rate. 1950.105 Section 1950.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Accounts of Borrowers Entering the Armed Forces § 1950.105 Interest rate. (a) The...

2011-01-01

123

Long Term Ecological Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze data on temperature and precipitation collected from 26 different Long Term Ecological Research sites and compare them with annual net primary productivity. The students then form an ecological rule to explain their results.

Cooper, Scott

124

Long Term Prognosis  

MedlinePLUS

... TERM PROGNOSIS The long-term outlook of pediatric cardiomyopathy continues to be unpredictable because it occurs with ... a child also depends on the type of cardiomyopathy and the stage the disease is first diagnosed. ...

125

Pricing Interest-Rate-Derivative Securities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows that the one-state-variable interest-rate models of Vasicek (1977) and Cox, Ingersoll, and Ross (1985b) can be extended so that they are consistent with both the current term structure of interest rates and either the current volatilities of all spot interest rates or the current volatilities of all forward interest rates. The extended Vasicek model is shown to

John Hull; Alan White

1990-01-01

126

The Euro Area and World Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the behavior of world interest rates, focusing on the ramifications of European Monetary Union. Our analysis indicates that nominal US interest rates tend to drive European rates at both the short and long horizons. There is some evidence that US rates are becoming increasingly influenced by European rates, but the relationship is still far from symmetric, despite EMU.

Menzie David Chinn; Jeffrey A. Frankel

2003-01-01

127

13 CFR 120.932 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 120.932 Section 120.932 Business...504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.932 Interest rate. The interest rate of the 504 Loan and the Debenture which funds...

2010-01-01

128

38 CFR 36.4312 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rates. 36.4312 Section 36.4312...Electronic Reporting § 36.4312 Interest rates. (a) In guaranteeing or...Federal Register. However, the interest rate of a loan for the purpose of...

2010-07-01

129

8 CFR 293.2 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 293.2 Section 293.2...IMMIGRATION BONDS § 293.2 Interest rate. The Secretary of the Treasury...occurring after April 27, 1966, the interest rate shall be 3 per centum per...

2010-01-01

130

24 CFR 200.83 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 200.83 Section 200.83 Housing...Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.83 Interest rate. (a) The mortgage shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the mortgagee and the...

2010-04-01

131

Sociosexual orientation and 2D:4D ratios in women: Relationship to men's desirability ratings as a long-term pair bond.  

PubMed

The current study examined whether men's ratings of women's desirability as a long-term pairbond, based on static photographs, were related to the women's second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio and their sexual attitudes and behavior. The 2D:4D ratio was measured in 164 women and facial photographs were taken of 55 of these women. All women completed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI). Male participants (n = 89), masked to this information, rated the 55 female participants on their desirability as a long-term sexual partner, specifically along dimensions of faithfulness, youthfulness, and attractiveness. Ten independent judges rated women's photographed faces on masculinity. Results indicated a significant negative relationship between women's SOI scores and men's faithfulness ratings (more unrestricted sociosexuality was associated with lower faithfulness ratings). There was also a significant positive relationship between right (but not left) 2D:4D ratio and faithfulness ratings (women with female-like ratios were rated as being more faithful). The SOI scores of the women were not related to 2D:4D ratios. These results suggest that the potential for sexual infidelity can be gleaned from static facial cues. PMID:24356948

DeLecce, Tara L; Polheber, John P; Matchock, Robert L

2014-02-01

132

Retention Rates - Renewed Interest but Whose Interest is Being Served?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the increased level of interest in retention rates among full-time, undergraduate students, considering the interests served by the state, universities and colleges, and students, and suggesting that as British higher education moves from an elite to a mass system, the elite instincts continue to dominate, working against student…

Longden, Bernard

2002-01-01

133

Long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault, from 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating of an offset alluvial fan  

SciTech Connect

We determine the long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault in the southeastern Indio Hills using {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al isotopes to date an offset alluvial fan surface. Field mapping complemented with topographic data, air photos and satellite images allow to precisely determine piercing points across the fault zone that are used to measure an offset of 565 {+-} 80 m. A total of twenty-six quartz-rich cobbles from three different fan surfaces were collected and dated. The tight cluster of nuclide concentrations from 19 samples out of 20 from the offset fan surface implies a simple exposure history, negligible prior exposure and erosion, and yield an age of 35.5 {+-} 2.5 ka. The long-term slip rate of the San Andreas Fault south of Biskra Palms is thus 15.9 {+-} 3.4 mm/yr. This rate is about 10 mm/yr slower than geological (0-14 ka) and short-term geodetic estimates for this part of the San Andreas Fault implying changes in slip rate or in faulting behavior. This result puts new constraints on the slip rate of the San Jacinto and on the Eastern California Shear Zone for the last 35 ka. Our study shows that more sites along the major faults of southern California need to be targeted to better constrain the slip-rates over different time scales.

der Woerd, J v; Klinger, Y; Sieh, K; Tapponnier, P; Ryerson, F; M?riaux, A

2006-01-13

134

Long-term testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

135

Long-term testing  

SciTech Connect

Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000--10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

Ferber, M.; Graves, G.A. Jr.

1994-12-31

136

Long-term monitoring of creep rate along the Hayward fault and evidence for a lasting creep response to 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present results from over 30 yr of precise surveys of creep along the Hayward fault. Along most of the fault, spatial variability in long-term creep rates is well determined by these data and can help constrain 3D-models of the depth of the creeping zone. However, creep at the south end of the fault stopped completely for more than 6 years after the M7 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPEQ), perhaps delayed by stress drop imposed by this event. With a decade of detailed data before LPEQ and a decade after it, we report that creep response to that event does indeed indicate the expected deficit in creep.

Lienkaemper, J. J.; Galehouse, J. S.; Simpson, R. W.

2001-01-01

137

Determinants of metastatic rate and survival in patients with zollinger-ellison syndrome: A prospective long-term study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: It is unclear whether tumor location, size, or the presence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) alters metastatic rate and survival in patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic factors of survival and metastatic rate in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Methods: Data were analyzed from 185 consecutive patients with

H. Christian Weber; David J. Venzon; Jaw-Town Lin; Vitaly A. Fishbein; Murray Orbuch; Doris B. Strader; Fathia Gibril; David C. Metz; Douglas L. Fraker; Jeffrey A. Norton; Robert T. Jensen

1995-01-01

138

Erosion rates at the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites and long-term climate change on Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of ???0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga). Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J.A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R.E.; Bell, J.F., III; Weitz, C.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Christensen, P.R.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S.W.

2006-01-01

139

Erosion Rates at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites and Long-Term Climate Change on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of approx.0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga).

Golombek, M. P.; Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L. S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Weitz, C. M.; Sullivan, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Soderblom, L. A.; Squyres, S. W.

2006-01-01

140

Quaternary Science Reviews 22 (2003) 12131221 Preliminary results of long-term slip rates of 1999 earthquake fault by  

E-print Network

-term slip rates of different segments along the surface rupture of 1999 Chi-chi earthquake, radiocarbon that of the southern segment, which is consistent with the coseismic offsets that occurred in the 1999 earthquake. r and the associated surface rupture ran through the urban area following the established Chelungpu fault (Fig. 1b; Ma

Chen, Wen-Shan

141

Carotid endarterectomy and contralateral internal carotid artery occlusion: Perioperative risks and long-term stroke and survival rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this article was to analyze the perioperative mortality and stroke risk rates and late benefits of carotid endarterectomy (CE) contralateral to an occluded internal carotid artery (ICA), on the basis of our surgical experience from July 1990 to June 1996. Methods: In 57 (14.7%) of 336 patients undergoing 388 CEs, the contralateral ICA was occluded (group

Enzo Ballotta; Giuseppe Da Giau; Marco Guerra

1998-01-01

142

Long-Term Rates of Undetectable PSA with Initial Observation and Delayed Salvage Radiotherapy after Radical Prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRandomized trials have shown an improvement in progression-free survival rates with adjuvant radiation therapy (ART) after radical prostatectomy for patients with a high risk of cancer recurrence. Less is known about the relative advantages and disadvantages of initial observation with delayed salvage radiation therapy (SRT).

Stacy Loeb; Kimberly A. Roehl; Davis P. Viprakasit; William J. Catalona

2008-01-01

143

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural attenuation of TCE under aerobic conditions at the INEEL Test Area North site was demonstrated largely on the basis of preferential loss of TCE relative to conservative solutes (PCE and H-3) along groundwater flow paths. First order degradation half-lives were calculated from the rate of preferential TCE loss. We are utilizing the same approach at other DOE sites that

Kent S. Jr

2003-01-01

144

Erosion rates at the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites and long-term climate change on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks

M. P. Golombek; J. A. Grant; L. S. Crumpler; R. Greeley; R. E. Arvidson; J. F. Bell; C. M. Weitz; R. Sullivan; P. R. Christensen; L. A. Soderblom; S. W. Squyres

2006-01-01

145

Using the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) to predict long term outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the predictive validity of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, Autism detection in early childhood: ADEC. Australian Council of Educational Research, Camberwell, VIC 2007) and a well-established screening tool, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler et al. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS). Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles 1988), for long term outcomes of children with ASD engaged in an early intervention program. Participants were 55 children (44 male, 11 female) aged 19–42 months (M = 33.5, SD = 5.6) at initial assessment who were followed up 2 and 6 years after their initial assessment. The ADEC and the CARS performed similarly when predicting long term outcomes such as clinical diagnostic outcome and overall adaptive functioning level. However, only the ADEC score was significantly correlated with ASD symptom severity at the 6-year follow up. Although these findings need to be replicated with additional and larger samples, this study extends our understanding of the psychometric properties of both the ADEC and the CARS. PMID:24658894

Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil

2014-09-01

146

The impact of long-term water stress on relative growth rate and morphology of needles and shoots of Metasequoia glyptostroboides seedlings: research toward identifying mechanistic models.  

PubMed

Leaf morphology in the upper canopy of trees tends to be different from that lower down. The effect of long-term water stress on leaf growth and morphology was studied in seedlings of Metasequoia glyptostroboides to understand how tree height might affect leaf morphology in larger trees. Tree height increases water stress on growing leaves through increased hydraulic resistance to water flow and increased gravitational potential, hence we assume that water stress imposed by soil dehydration will have an effect equivalent to stress induced by height. Seedlings were subjected to well-watered and two constant levels of long-term water stress treatments. Drought treatment significantly reduced final needle count, area and mass per area (leaf mass area, LMA) and increased needle density. Needles from water-stressed plants had lower maximum volumetric elastic modulus (?(max)), osmotic potential at full turgor (?¹??(?)) (and at zero turgor (??(?)) (than those from well-watered plants. Palisade and spongy mesophyll cell size and upper epidermal cell size decreased significantly in drought treatments. Needle relative growth rate, needle length and cell sizes were linear functions of the daily average water potential at the time of leaf growth (r² 0.88-0.999). We conclude that water stress alone does mimic the direction and magnitude of changes in leaf morphology observed in tall trees. The results are discussed in terms of various models for leaf growth rate. PMID:21534977

Zhang, Yanxiang; Equiza, Maria Alejandra; Zheng, Quanshui; Tyree, Melvin T

2011-09-01

147

Effect of Age-at-Release on Long Term Sexual Re-offense Rates in Civilly Committed Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cohort of 136 rapists and 115 child molesters civilly committed to a prison in Massachusetts and followed for 25 years (see\\u000a Prentky, Lee, Knight, & Cerce, 1997) was examined for the effect of age at time of release on sexual recidivism. The present\\u000a study (1) examined the recidivism rates for each of five age-at-release groups, separately for rapists and

Robert Alan Prentky; Austin F. S. Lee

2007-01-01

148

Sources of variability in spotted owl population growth rate: testing predictions using long-term mark–recapture data  

Microsoft Academic Search

For long-lived iteroparous vertebrates that annually produce few young, life history theory predicts that reproductive output\\u000a (R) and juvenile survival should influence temporal variation in population growth rate (?) more than adult survival does. We\\u000a examined this general prediction using 15 years of mark–recapture data from a population of California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). We found that survival of individuals

Mark E. Seamans; R. J. Gutiérrez

2007-01-01

149

Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Effects, Weight Loss and Maintenance During Long-Term Phentermine Pharmacotherapy for Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a perception that phentermine pharmacotherapy for obesity increases blood pressure and heart rate (HR), exposing treated patients to increased cardiovascular risk. We collected data from phentermine-treated (PT) and phentermine-untreated (P0) patients at a private weight management practice, to examine blood pressure, HR, and weight changes. Records of 300 sequential returning patients were selected who had been treated with

Ed J. Hendricks; Frank L. Greenway; Eric C. Westman; Alok K. Gupta

2011-01-01

150

Hierarchical vanadium pentoxide microflowers with excellent long-term cyclability at high rates for lithium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hierarchical V2O5 microflowers composed of thin nanosheets have been achieved by a solvothermal reaction first and then a low-temperature calcination. These micro-flowers are characterized by powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The nanoscale size and sheet-like structure of the building blocks in V2O5 microflowers make them a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries. After 1500 cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1, the reversible capacity of V2O5 microflowers is kept at 104 mAh g-1. Even at a rate of 2 A g-1, the reversible capacity is still above 80 mAh g-1 after 3000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical properties of V2O5 microflowers are associated with their unique structure and capacitive feature.

Chen, Liang; Gu, Xin; Jiang, Xiaolei; Wang, Nana; Yue, Jie; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

2014-12-01

151

In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives.  

PubMed

A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, ?c, and its geometric mean, ?per-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined ?c and ?per-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (?per-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (?per-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trillium's ?per-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (?per-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives' success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide. PMID:24616522

Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B; Horvitz, Carol C

2014-03-25

152

Interest Rates, FICO Scores and Loan Payments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson helps students understand financial topics (interest rates, FICO scores and loan payments) in a mathematical context. Students will calculate monthly payments for a car or home based on the best interest rates available to them. Student materials, including a worksheet, are available on the site.

2011-01-04

153

Federal Government Debt and Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does government debt affect interest rates? Despite a substantial body of empirical analysis, the answer based on the past two decades of research is mixed. While many studies suggest, at most, a single-digit rise in the interest rate when government debt increases by one percent of GDP, others estimate either much larger effects or find no effect. Comparing results across

Eric M. Engen; R. Glenn Hubbard

2004-01-01

154

Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment  

SciTech Connect

Natural attenuation of TCE under aerobic conditions at the INEEL Test Area North site was demonstrated largely on the basis of preferential loss of TCE relative to conservative solutes (PCE and H-3) along groundwater flow paths. First order degradation half-lives were calculated from the rate of preferential TCE loss. We are utilizing the same approach at other DOE sites that have aerobic TCE plumes to determine if aerobic natural attenuation of TCE is rapid enough at these sites to be environmentally significant, i.e. if natural attenuation can reduce concentrations to acceptable levels before groundwater reaches potential receptors. The first step in this process was to identify TCE plumes at DOE sites that have the appropriate site conditions and data needed to perform this analysis. The site conditions include the presence of TCE in groundwater at appreciable concentrations in an aerobic aquifer, a co-mingled contaminant that can be used as a conservative tracer (e.g. PCE, H-3, Tc-99), a flow path that represents at least a decade of travel time, and several monitoring wells located along this flow path. Candidate sites were identified through interviews with knowledgeable individuals in the DOE system and by screening the U.S. Dept. of Energy Groundwater Database using the keywords ''TCE'' and ''groundwater''. The initial screening yielded 25 plumes for consideration. These sites had anywhere from one to 37 individual plumes containing TCE. Of the 25 sites, 13 sites were further evaluated because they met the screening criteria or were promising. After contacting DOE personnel from the respective sites, they were divided into three groups: (1) sites that meet all the project criteria, (2) sites that could potentially be used for the project, and (3) DOE sites that did not meet the criteria. The five sites with plumes that met the criteria were: Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and the Savannah River Site. Detailed characterization data from the promising plumes is being entered into our database as it is received. The next step is to calculate natural attenuation half-life values for all of these plumes. We will next identify the plumes in which natural attenuation via aerobic degradation of TCE is fast enough that it may be relevant as a component of a remedy. We will then select at least one of these sites and either modify an existing groundwater transport model or, if necessary, create a new model, for this plume. This model will initially include first order decay of TCE, and degradation will be parameterized using the half-live values determined from the field data. The models will be used to simulate the evolution of the TCE plume and to predict concentrations as a function of time at property lines or other artificial boundaries, and where potential receptors are located. Ultimately rate data from th e laboratory studies being performed at INEEL will be incorporated into this model, as well as the model of the TAN site to provide a realistic prediction of degradation rates and plume longevity. Although identifying suitable TCE plumes and obtaining characterization data has taken longer than expected, this process has successfully identified the plumes needed for the detailed modeling activity without adversely impacting the project budget.

Sorenson, Kent S. Jr.

2003-06-01

155

A study of the long term impact of an inquiry-based science program on student's attitudes towards science and interest in science careers  

Microsoft Academic Search

One reason science enrichment programs were created was to address the underrepresentation of women and minorities in science. These programs were designed to increase underrepresented groups' interest in science and science careers. One attempt to increase students' interest in science was the Summer Science Exploration Program (SSEP). The SSEP was a two week, inquiry-based summer science camp offered by Hampshire

Helen Lussier Gibson

1998-01-01

156

Long-term glomerular filtration rate in liver allograft recipients according to the type of calcineurin inhibitors.  

PubMed

The calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) cyclosporine micro emulsion (CyA-ME) and tacrolimus (Tac) both display renal and vascular toxicities. We undertook a single-center retrospective study among 149 surviving liver transplant recipients. The primary outcome was kidney function over 10 years posttransplant, evaluating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula with subsequent Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative staging. The secondary outcomes included correlations between CNI trough levels (C0), GFR, and items of cardiovascular toxicity. At 1 and 5 years, the mean GFRs were 74.2 and 76.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2) under Tac versus 62.8 and 66.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) under CyA-ME (P < .001). The mean value in favor of Tac was + 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Distribution of GFR stages showed more Tac patients at stage 1 or 2 and more at stage 4 or 5 under CyA-ME. There was no significant correlation between CNI-C0 and GFR. Switches between CNI or to mycophenolate mofetil did not show any significant GFR improvement. Patients under CyA-ME displayed significantly higher blood pressures with 3 requiring dialysis versus none under Tac. In conclusion, we observed that liver transplant patients under Tac maintained significantly better renal function with less progression to dialysis as compared with CyA-ME, indicating a lower renal and vascular (lower BP) toxicity. PMID:19857743

Niel, O R P; Berthoux, F; Albano, L; Dahan, P; Aoudia, R; Gugenheim, J; Cassuto, E

2009-10-01

157

Long-term follow up Helicobacter Pylori reinfection rate after second-line treatment: bismuth-containing quadruple therapy versus moxifloxacin-based triple therapy  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing trend of antibiotic resistance requires effective second-line Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment in high prevalence area of H. pylori. The aim of our study was to evaluate the reinfection rate of H. pylori after second-line treatment that would determine the long-term follow up effect of the rescue therapy. Methods A total of 648 patients who had failed previous H. pylori eradication on standard triple therapy were randomized into two regimens: 1, esomeprazole (20 mg b.i.d), tripotassium dicitrate bismuthate (300 mg q.i.d), metronidazole (500 mg t.i.d), and tetracycline (500 mg q.i.d) (EBMT) or 2, moxifloxacin (400 mg q.d.), esomeprazole (20 mg b.i.d), and amoxicillin (1000 mg b.i.d.) (MEA). At four weeks after completion of eradication therapy, H. pylori tests were performed with 13C urea breath test or invasive tests. In patients who maintained continuous H. pylori negativity for the first year after eradication therapy, H. pylori status was assessed every year. For the evaluation of risk factors of reinfection, gender, age, clinical diagnosis, histological atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia were analyzed. Results The recrudescence rate of the EBMT was 1.7% and of the MEA group 3.3% (p?=?0.67). The annual reinfection rate of H. pylori of EBMT was found to be 4.45% and the MEA group 6.46%. Univariate analysis (Log-rank test) showed no association with any clinical risk factor for reinfection. Conclusions The long-term reinfection rate of H. pylori stayed low in both of bismuth-containing quadruple therapy and moxifloxacin-based triple therapy; thus reinfection cannot affect the choice of second-line treatment. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT01792700 PMID:24050512

2013-01-01

158

Evaluating release alternatives for a long-lived bird species under uncertainty about long-term demographic rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The release of animals to reestablish an extirpated population is a decision problem that is often attended by considerable uncertainty about the probability of success. Annual releases of captive-reared juvenile Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) were begun in 1993 in central Florida, USA, to establish a breeding, non-migratory population. Over a 12-year period, 286 birds were released, but by 2004, the introduced flock had produced only four wild-fledged birds. Consequently, releases were halted over managers' concerns about the performance of the released flock and uncertainty about the efficacy of further releases. We used data on marked, released birds to develop predictive models for addressing whether releases should be resumed, and if so, under what schedule. To examine the outcome of different release scenarios, we simulated the survival and productivity of individual female birds under a baseline model that recognized age and breeding-class structure and which incorporated empirically estimated stochastic elements. As data on wild-fledged birds from captive-reared parents were sparse, a key uncertainty that confronts release decision-making is whether captive-reared birds and their offspring share the same vital rates. Therefore, we used data on the only population of wild Whooping Cranes in existence to construct two alternatives to the baseline model. The probability of population persistence was highly sensitive to the choice of these three models. Under the baseline model, extirpation of the population was nearly certain under any scenario of resumed releases. In contrast, the model based on estimates from wild birds projected a high probability of persistence under any release scenario, including cessation of releases. Therefore, belief in either of these models suggests that further releases are an ineffective use of resources. In the third model, which simulated a population Allee effect, population persistence was sensitive to the release decision: high persistence probability was achieved only through the release of more birds, whereas extirpation was highly probable with cessation of releases. Despite substantial investment of time and effort in the release program, evidence collected to date does not favor one model over another; therefore, any decision about further releases must be made under considerable biological uncertainty. However, given an assignment of credibility weight to each model, a best, informed decision about releases can be made under uncertainty. Furthermore, if managers can periodically revisit the release decision and collect monitoring data to further inform the models, then managers have a basis for confronting uncertainty and adaptively managing releases through time.

Moore, Clinton T.; Converse, Sarah J.; Folk, Martin J.; Runge, Michael C.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

2012-01-01

159

Semiparametric Odds Rate Model for Modeling Short-Term and Long-Term Effects with Application to a Breast Cancer Genetic Study  

PubMed Central

The proportional odds model is commonly used in the analysis of failure time data. The assumption of constant odds ratios over time in the proportional odds model, however, can be violated in some applications. Motivated by a genetic study with breast cancer patients, we propose a novel semiparametric odds rate model for the analysis of right-censored survival data. The proposed model incorporates the short-term and long-term covariate effects on the failure time data and includes the proportional odds model as a nested model. We develop efficient likelihood-based inference procedures and establish the large sample properties of the proposed non-parametric maximum likelihood estimators. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well in practical settings. An application to the motivating example is provided. PMID:24815054

Yuan, Mengdie

2014-01-01

160

Who Becomes a Physics Major? A Long-term Longitudinal Study Examining the Roles of Pre-college Beliefs about Physics and Learning Physics, Interest, and Academic Achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we examine the correlation between students' beliefs upon entering college and their likelihood of continuing on to become a physics major. Since 2004, we have collected CLASS survey and self-reported level-of-interest responses from students in the first-term, introductory calculus-based physics course (N>2500). Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis of students' incoming CLASS scores and level of interest, comparing those students who go on to become physics majors with those who do not. We find the incoming CLASS scores and reported interest of these future physics majors to be substantially higher than the class average, indicating that these students enter their first college course already having quite expert-like beliefs. The comparative differences are much smaller for grades, SAT score, and university predicted-GPA.

Perkins, Katherine K.; Gratny, Mindy

2010-10-01

161

Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of (90)Sr in the skeleton.  

PubMed

The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of (90)Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of (90)Sr were conducted with a whole body counter (WBC) for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of (90)Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested (90)Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption. PMID:21871673

Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

2012-01-01

162

Recovery of the proliferative and functional integrity of mouse bone marrow in long-term cultures established after whole-body irradiation at different doses and dose rates  

SciTech Connect

Injury inflicted upon the bone marrow stroma following whole-body irradiation and its repair over a 1-year period has been assessed in murine long-term bone marrow cultures established at increasing time intervals after irradiation. Different doses at different dose rates (10 Gy at 0.05 cGy/min, 4.5 Gy and 10 Gy at 1.6 cGy/min, and 4 x 4.5 Gy (3 weeks between doses) at 60 cGy/min) were chosen so as to maximize differences in effect in the stroma. The cellularity of the adherent layer in long-term cultures established 1 month after irradiation was reduced by 40%-90% depending on the dose and dose rate. Simultaneous with the poor ability of the marrow to form adherent layers, the cumulative spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-S) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC) production over a 7-week period was reduced to 0% and 30% of control cultures, respectively. The slow recovery of the adherent layer was paralleled by an increase in the numbers of CFU-S and GM-CFC in the supernatant. Cultures established from repeatedly irradiated mice performed poorly over the entire 1-year period. Whereas the regeneration of the stroma was near complete 1 year after irradiation, the CFU-S and GM-CFC levels reached only between 50% and 80% of control cultures, respectively. Also, the concentration of CFU-S and GM-CFC in the supernatant remained persistently lower in cultures established from irradiated mice as compared to control cultures. The levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, which have been implicated in the establishment of the functional integrity of the microenvironment, were not reduced in the adherent layers at any time after irradiation. These results indicate that the regeneration of the stroma is accompanied by an incomplete recovery of active hemopoiesis in vitro.

Bierkens, J.G.; Hendry, J.H.; Testa, N.G. (Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester (England))

1991-02-01

163

Long-term data archiving  

SciTech Connect

Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web Consortium, an independent standards body) as a new data interchange tool is being investigated and implemented. In order to facilitate data archiving, Raman data needs calibration as well as some other kinds of data treatment. Figure 1 illustrates schematically the present situation for Raman data calibration in the world-wide Raman spectroscopy community, and presents some of the terminology used.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

164

Rate of Primary Refractory Disease in B and T-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Correlation with Long-Term Survival  

PubMed Central

Background Primary refractory disease is a main challenge in the management of non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL). This survey was performed to define the rate of refractory disease to first-line therapy in B and T-cell NHL subtypes and the long-term survival of primary refractory compared to primary responsive patients. Methods Medical records were reviewed of 3,106 patients who had undergone primary treatment for NHL between 1982 and 2012, at the Hematology Centers of Torino and Bergamo, Italy. Primary treatment included CHOP or CHOP-like regimens (63.2%), intensive therapy with autograft (16.9%), or other therapies (19.9%). Among B-cell NHL, 1,356 (47.8%) received first-line chemotherapy with rituximab. Refractory disease was defined as stable/progressive disease, or transient response with disease progression within six months. Results Overall, 690 (22.2%) patients showed primary refractory disease, with a higher incidence amongst T-cell compared to B-cell NHL (41.9% vs. 20.5%, respectively, p<0.001). Several other clinico-pathological factors at presentation were variably associated with refractory disease, including histological aggressive disease, unfavorable clinical presentation, Bone Marrow involvement, low lymphocyte/monocyte ration and male gender. Amongst B-cell NHL, the addition of rituximab was associated with a marked reduction of refractory disease (13.6% vs. 26.7% for non-supplemented chemotherapy, p<0.001). Overall, primary responsive patients had a median survival of 19.8 years, compared to 1.3 yr. for refractory patients. A prolonged survival was consistently observed in all primary responsive patients regardless of the histology. The long life expectancy of primary responsive patients was documented in both series managed before and after 2.000. Response to first line therapy resulted by far the most predictive factor for long-term outcome (HR for primary refractory disease: 16.52, p<0.001). Conclusion Chemosensitivity to primary treatment is crucial for the long-term survival in NHL. This supports the necessity of studies aimed to early identify refractory disease and to develop different treatment strategies for responsive and refractory patients. PMID:25255081

Tarella, Corrado; Gueli, Angela; Delaini, Federica; Rossi, Andrea; Barbui, Anna Maria; Gritti, Giuseppe; Boschini, Cristina; Caracciolo, Daniele; Bruna, Riccardo; Ruella, Marco; Gottardi, Daniela; Passera, Roberto; Rambaldi, Alessandro

2014-01-01

165

US Interests Rates Take a Hike  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As speculated, on Tuesday, May 16, 2000, the Federal Reserve Board decided to raise US interest rates another 0.5 percent, to 6.5 percent. This interest rate hike follows five previous increases of a quarter-point each since June 1999. This is the first time in sixteen years that US interest rates have risen above 5 percent. The new rate will affect the borrowing costs for many Americans, including those with unpaid credit card balances and home equity loans, and also for small business that have taken out bank loans. Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan has long worried that the low unemployment rate coupled with booming economic growth will cause inflation to rise, which is why he has continued to advocate for these interest rate increases. Following Tuesday's announcement by the Fed, Wall Street remained stable; the Dow Jones ended the day up 127 points at 10,935. While President Clinton stands behind the Fed's decision to raise the rates, others, including NAM President Jerry Jasinowski, John Sweeney the president of AFL-CIO, and Democratic Senator Tom Harken of Iowa, have all spoken against the latest interest rate hike.

Missner, Emily D.

166

Assessment of individual adaptation to microgravity during long term space flight based on stepwise discriminant analysis of heart rate variability parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimization of the cardiovascular system under conditions of long term space flight is provided by individual changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is an easy to use method under these extreme conditions. We tested the hypothesis that individual HRV analysis provides important information for crew health monitoring. HRV data from 14 Russian cosmonauts measured during long term space flights are presented (two times before and after flight, monthly in flight). HRV characteristics in the time and in the frequency domain were calculated. Predefined discriminant function equations obtained in reference groups (L1=-0.112*HR-1.006*SI-0.047*pNN50-0.086*HF; L2=0.140*HR-0.165*SI-1.293*pNN50+0.623*HF) were used to define four functional states. (1) Physiological normal, (2) prenosological, (3) premorbid and (4) pathological. Geometric mean values for the ISS cosmonauts based on L1 and L2 remained within normal ranges. A shift from the physiological normal state to the prenosological functional state during space flight was detected. The functional state assessed by HRV improved during space flight if compared to pre-flight and early post-flight functional states. Analysis of individual cosmonauts showed distinct patterns depending on the pre-flight functional state. Using the developed classification a transition process from the state of physiological normal into a prenosological state or premorbid state during different stages of space flight can be detected for individual Russian cosmonauts. Our approach to an estimation of HR regulatory pattern can be useful for prognostic purposes.

Baevsky, Roman M.; Chernikova, Anna G.; Funtova, Irina I.; Tank, Jens

2011-12-01

167

Single-Fraction High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Hypofractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer - Long Term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We present the long-term results of a cohort of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) treated with single-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (HypoRT). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated exclusively with HDRB and HypoRT. HDRB delivered a dose of 10 Gy to the prostate surface and HypoRT consisted of 50 Gy delivered in 20 daily fractions. The first 121 consecutive patients with a minimum of 2 years posttreatment follow-up were assessed for toxicity and disease control. Results: The median follow-up was 65.2 months. No acute Grade III or higher toxicity was seen. Late Grade II gastrointestinal toxicity was seen in 9 patients (7.4%) and Grade III in 2 (1.6%). Late Grade III genitourinary toxicity was seen in 2 patients (1.6%). After a 24-month follow-up, a rebiopsy was offered to the first 58 consecutively treated patients, and 44 patients agreed with the procedure. Negative biopsies were found in 40 patients (91%). The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival rate was 90.7% (95% CI, 84.5-96.9%), with 13 patients presenting biochemical failure. Among them, 9 were diagnosed with distant metastasis. Prostate cancer-specific and overall survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 98.8% (95% CI, 96.4-100%), respectively. Conclusion: The combination of HDRB and HypoRT is well tolerated, with acceptable toxicity rates. Furthermore, results from rebiopsies revealed an encouraging rate of local control. These results confirm that the use of conformal RT techniques, adapted to specific biological tumor characteristics, have the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in intermediate-risk PC patients.

Cury, Fabio L., E-mail: fabio.cury@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Duclos, Marie [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Aprikian, Armen [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Patrocinio, Horacio [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Shenouda, George; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc; Souhami, Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)

2012-03-15

168

Outcomes of a ventilator-associated pneumonia bundle on rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia and other health care-associated infections in a long-term acute care hospital setting.  

PubMed

Long-term trends in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates, and other health care-associated infections, were examined prior to, during, and after introduction of a VAP bundle in a long-term acute care hospital setting. VAP incidence rate declined in a step-wise fashion and reached a null value. Incidence rates of bacteremia from any cause declined in a similar fashion. The incidence rates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization or infection rates also decreased, but that of Clostridium difficile infection did not. VAP in the long-term acute care hospital setting can be controlled over time with implementation of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based VAP bundle. This outcome also may decrease certain other health care-associated infections. PMID:24773791

Sulis, Carol A; Walkey, Allan J; Abadi, Yafet; Campbell Reardon, Christine; Joyce-Brady, Martin

2014-05-01

169

Money, Income, Prices, and Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Including data from the 1980s sharply weakens the postwar time-series evidence indicating significant relationships between money (however defined) and nominal income or between money and either real income or prices separately. Focusing on data from 1970 onward destroys this evidence altogether. Evidence indicating cointegration of real income and real money balances, with due allowance for the effect of interest rates,

Benjamin M. Friedman; Kenneth N. Kuttner

1992-01-01

170

Long-term care in international perspective  

PubMed Central

The findings of a study of long-term care policies in 18 countries are reported in this article. Initial data were collected by a questionnaire survey under the auspices of the International Social Security Association. These data were supplemented by published documents and government statistics obtained while researching long-term care for the International Social Security Association and, subsequently, for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The principal focus is a cross-national comparison of institutionalization rates for the elderly. Differences in use rates for medically oriented facilities are less than those for nonmedical residential long-term care facilities. Only a small amount of variation is related to demographic differences, such as older or more female elderly populations in those countries with higher institutionalization rates. Included also is a description of the modes of financing long-term care. PMID:10312969

Doty, Pamela

1988-01-01

171

Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. Part II: Solute profiles, gradients and the comparisons of contemporary and long-term weathering rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and pore water elemental and 87Sr/86Sr compositions are used to determine contemporary weathering rates in a 65- to 226-kyr-old soil chronosequence formed from granitic sediments deposited on marine terraces along coastal California. Soil moisture, tension and saturation exhibit large seasonal variations in shallow soils in response to a Mediterranean climate. These climate effects are dampened in underlying argillic horizons that progressively developed in older soils, and reached steady-state conditions in unsaturated horizons extending to depths in excess of 15 m. Hydraulic fluxes (qh), based on Cl mass balances, vary from 0.06 to 0.22 m yr-1, resulting in fluid residence times in the terraces of 10-24 yrs. As expected for a coastal environment, the order of cation abundances in soil pore waters is comparable to sea water, i.e., Na > Mg > Ca > K > Sr, while the anion sequence Cl > NO3 > HCO3 > SO4 reflects modifying effects of nutrient cycling in the grassland vegetation. Net Cl-corrected solute Na, K and Si increase with depth, denoting inputs from feldspar weathering. Solute 87Sr/86Sr ratios exhibit progressive mixing of sea water-dominated precipitation with inputs from less radiogenic plagioclase. While net Sr and Ca concentrations are anomalously high in shallow soils due to biological cycling, they decline with depth to low and/or negative net concentrations. Ca/Mg, Sr/Mg and 87Sr/86Sr solute and exchange ratios are similar in all the terraces, denoting active exchange equilibration with selectivities close to unity for both detrital smectite and secondary kaolinite. Large differences in the magnitudes of the pore waters and exchange reservoirs result in short-term buffering of the solute Ca, Sr, and Mg. Such buffering over geologic time scales can not be sustained due to declining inputs from residual plagioclase and smectite, implying periodic resetting of the exchange reservoir such as by past vegetational changes and/or climate. Pore waters approach thermodynamic saturation with respect to albite at depth in the younger terraces, indicating that weathering rates ultimately become transport-limited and dependent on hydrologic flux. Contemporary rates Rsolute are estimated from linear Na and Si pore weathering gradients bsolute such that Rsolute = frac(qh, bsolute ?? Sv) where Sv is the volumetric surface area and ?? is the stoichiometric coefficient. Plagioclase weathering rates (0.38-2.8 ?? 10-15 mol m-2 s-1) are comparable to those based on 87Sr/86Sr mass balances and solid-state Na and Ca gradients using analogous gradient approximations. In addition, contemporary solute gradients, under transport-limited conditions, approximate long-term solid-state gradients when normalized against the mass of protolith plagioclase and its corresponding aqueous solubility. The multi-faceted weathering analysis presented in this paper is perhaps the most comprehensive yet applied to a single field study. Within uncertainties of the methods used, present day weathering rates, based on solute characterizations, are comparable to average long-term past rates as evidenced by soil profiles.

White, A. F.; Schulz, M. S.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Vivit, D. V.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Bullen, T. D.; Maher, K.; Blum, A. E.

2009-01-01

172

Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 ?g SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

2014-11-01

173

137Cs and 210Pb derived sediment accumulation rates and their role in the long-term development of the Mkuze River floodplain, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are well known to act as sinks for sediment and chemicals in the landscape. Within the Mkuze River floodplain in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, deposition of clastic sediment occurs predominantly in close proximity to the river channel, resulting in the formation of levees. Over time, this leads to channel avulsion, a process that may be accelerated by the activities of hippopotami whose trails create hydraulically favourable pathways. Sedimentation rates, determined using the isotopes 210Pb and 137Cs, indicate that the Mkuze River floodplain is a relatively rapidly aggrading system that should experience frequent avulsion, with average short-term rates in the order of 0.25 to 0.50 cm/y. Sediments on the floodplain are also an important sink for solutes, which concentrate in the groundwater and precipitate out because of evapotranspiration. Over long timescales, chemical sedimentation affects the landscape by influencing salinity, vegetation distribution, hydrological flows, and local topography. The Mkuze River floodplain is an actively evolving system, which continues to aggrade as a result of the combination of clastic and chemical sedimentation. In a region characterised by a strong annual water deficit, temporal patterns of clastic and chemical sedimentation are likely to exert influence on the long-term development of wetland systems elsewhere in southern Africa. This study, the first on sediment accretion rates using 210Pb and 137Cs dating for a southern African wetland, demonstrates that radioisotopic methods are an important tool that can be applied toward fully understanding wetland formation, evolution, and functioning in the region.

Humphries, Marc S.; Kindness, Andrew; Ellery, William N.; Hughes, Jeffrey C.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.

2010-07-01

174

24 CFR 220.830 - Debenture interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 220.830 Section 220...Loans § 220.830 Debenture interest rate. Debentures shall bear interest...rate is higher. The applicable rates of interest will be published twice each...

2010-04-01

175

Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy Is Associated with a Higher Long-Term Recurrence Rate of Internal Hemorrhoids Compared with Conventional Excisional Hemorrhoid Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose  The purpose of this systematic review was to compare the long-term results of stapled hemorrhoidopexy with conventional excisional\\u000a hemorrhoidectomy in patients with internal hemorrhoids.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A systematic review of all randomized, controlled trials comparing stapled hemorrhoidopexy and conventional hemorrhoidectomy\\u000a with long-term results was performed by using the Cochrane methodology. The minimum follow-up was six months. Primary outcomes\\u000a were hemorrhoid recurrence, hemorrhoid

Shiva Jayaraman; Patrick H. D. Colquhoun; Richard A. Malthaner

2007-01-01

176

Chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine improves systolic function of the reperfused heart through a dual mechanism involving a direct mechanical effect and a long-term increase in FKBP12/12.6 expression  

PubMed Central

Aims To investigate the adaptations of left ventricular function and calcium handling to chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine in the reperfused heart. Methods and Results Rabbits underwent 20-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 3 weeks of reperfusion. Throughout reperfusion, rabbits received ivabradine (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (Control). Ivabradine reduced heart rate by about 20% and improved both ejection fraction (+35%) and systolic displacement (+26%) after 3 weeks of treatment. Interestingly, this was associated with a 2-fold increase expression of FKBP12/12.6. There was no difference in the expressions of phospholamban, SERCA2a, calsequestrin, ryanodine, phospho-ryanodine and Na2+/Ca2+ exchanger in the two groups. Infarct scar and vascular density were similar in both groups. Administration of a single intravenous bolus of ivabradine (1 mg/kg) in control rabbits at 3 weeks of reperfusion also significantly improved acutely ejection fraction and systolic displacement. Conclusion Chronic heart rate reduction protects the myocardium against ventricular dysfunction induced by myocardial ischaemia followed by 3 weeks of reperfusion. Beyond pure heart rate reduction, ivabradine improves global and regional systolic function of the reperfused heart through a dual mechanism involving a direct mechanical effect and a long-term adaptation in calcium handling, as supported by the increase in FKBP12/12.6 expression. PMID:20028694

Couvreur, Nicolas; Tissier, Renaud; Pons, Sandrine; Chetboul, Valerie; Gouni, Vassiliky; Bruneval, Patrick; Mandet, Chantal; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis; Berdeaux, Alain; Ghaleh, Bijan

2010-01-01

177

26 CFR 301.6621-1 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 301.6621-1 Section 301.6621-1...Interest on Underpayments § 301.6621-1 Interest rate. (a) In general. The interest rate established under section 6621 shall...

2010-04-01

178

78 FR 39063 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY...31, 2013, the prompt payment interest rate is 1\\3/4\\ per centum per...interest penalty calculated with the interest rate, which is in effect at...

2013-06-28

179

Short-term interest rate models: valuing interest rate derivatives using a Monte-Carlo approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an accessible description and several examples of how to use Monte-Carlo simulation to value interest rate derivatives when the short rate follows an arbitrary time series process. We compare the values of various interest rate derivatives using closed-form solutions (when available), the Hull and White (1994) trinomial tree procedure, and a Monte-Carlo simulation technique. We show that

Sirimon Treepongkaruna; Stephen Gray

2003-01-01

180

78 FR 67364 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30...the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless...2013. This rate is based on the Interest Rates for Specific...

2013-11-12

181

78 FR 23936 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30...the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless...2013. This rate is based on the Interest Rates for Specific...

2013-04-23

182

24 CFR 221.790 - Debenture interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 221.790 Section 221...Projects § 221.790 Debenture interest rate. The debentures issued pursuant...Federal rate means the annual rate of interest specified by the...

2010-04-01

183

78 FR 44124 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30...the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless...2013. This rate is based on the Interest Rates for Specific...

2013-07-23

184

7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Variable interest rate loans. 1735.33 Section...Loans § 1735.33 Variable interest rate loans. After June 10...certain variable rate loans at interest rates less than 5 percent but not...

2010-01-01

185

12 CFR 619.9130 - Differential interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Differential interest rates. 619.9130 Section 619.9130 Banks and...SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9130 Differential interest rates. An interest rate program under which different rates of...

2010-01-01

186

Luminescence dating of offset terraces at the Elmali segment of the North Anatolian Fault (NE Turkey); Implications for long term geologic slip-rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is 1500 km-long dextral strike-slip fault, starts from Karliova triple junction in the east and terminates at the Aegean Sea in the west with northward convex arc shaped geometry. In the 20th century, series of earthquakes which started by 1939 Erzincan (M=7.9) in the east and ended by August 17, 1999 Izmit (M=7.4) and November 12, 1999 Duzce (M=7.1) events in the west, caused many causalities and economic loss at settlements all along this zone. Geodetic short term slip rate is measured to be between 28.0±0.3 mm/yr and 24.2±0.3 mm/yr by GPS as snapshots of strain accumulation for a relatively short period of time. The geologic long term slip rates are determined, mostly from west and middle sections of the NAF, to be between 10 mm to 20.5±5.5 mm/yr, which are slower than the short term of elastic strain accumulation measured geodetically. This mismatch is also seen on many fault systems after the dating of many offset geological and morphotectonic structures at different parts of the Earth. These observations raise several fundamentally important questions about how strain accumulates and is released along major plate boundary fault systems. Are geologic slip rates averaged over thousands to millions of years compatible with short term geodetic rates, or do strain transients commonly occur? In addition, determination of geologic slip rates at many locations on the same fault zone helps to understand the uniformity of the slip rate or an existence of a gradient for the whole system. In this study, we undertook field and aerial photography research on one of the least known sections of the NAF, Elmali segment, at the NE Turkey. The NAF is extremely placed on a relatively narrow zone around Erzincan and 150 to 200 km west of it. However, more to the east, deformation extends to a wider zone of a width of around 10 km between the Yedisu basin and Karliova. Here, three different segments form a restraining double bend and are clearly defined physiographically along the Elmali valley. The compressional nature of this restraining double bend structure creates an uplift, which is expressed by formation of fill terraces in alluvial fans as insets on the geomorphology of the region. We determined two locations, 5 km-apart each other, consist of dextrally deflected; Dinarbey and Kaynarpinar spots. An alluvial fan is incised by an active stream, which created two terrace surfaces, at the Dinarbey spot. Terrace risers, forming boundaries between two terraces and the recent floodplain, have recorded dextral offset of 67±5 m and 21±5 m with respect to each other. We used cylindrical metal pipes with 25 cm length and 5 cm diameter to sample the upper terrace both from the northern and southern blocks of the fault for Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating. These samples yielded ages of 3273±567 yr BP and 3279±258 yr BP giving a slip-rate of 20.4±2.2 mm/yr for this section of the fault. Although, we see the same terrace formation at Kaynarpinar spot, it is not easy to reconstruct the net offset of terrace risers. The lateral erosion of the stream system modified the geometry of terrace risers not to have any piercing point for the measurement of the net offset. However, it is morphologically clear that 55±5m net offset of incised stream should have formed after the formation of the alluvial fan and before the formation of the upper terrace. At this spot, terraces and lower fan surface are sampled for luminescence dating, which is still in process.

Zabci, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Akyuz, H. Serdar; Gunec Kiyak, Nafiye

2010-05-01

187

Long-term rates and the depth extent of fault creep along the San Andreas Fault system in northern California from alinement arrays and GPS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dextral San Andreas Fault system (SAFS) in northern California comprises five branches that exhibit considerable variation in the amount and spatial extent of aseismic release or creep. We estimate the depth extent of creep with a forward elastic model using the algorithms of Okada (1992) and boundary value dislocation solutions for creep rate and depth of creeping patches. For purposes of analysis we label branches, from west to east: A (San Gregorio), B (San Andreas), C (Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama), D (Northern Calaveras-Green Valley-Bartlett Springs) and E (Greenville. Since the 1960s alinement arrays have provided one of the most accurate means to estimate the long-term creep rate and these rates have been reasonably well determined for much of the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) southward. Over the past decade we have been installing alinement arrays along the more remote faults, especially northward of the SFBA, to monitor the extent of creep on branches C and D. We currently monitor about 80 such arrays throughout the northern SAFS. To analyze the depth extent of creep over the entire system, we model 30 fault sections on these five branches, delineated either by geometric discontinuities between them or by distinctly different creeping behaviors. We have removed any significant transient rate changes imposed by large regional earthquakes. We use crustal velocities determined for global-positioning station pairs of survey mode and continuous (SGPS, CGPS or mixed pairs) that are located near each fault to provide additional constraint on average creep rates. We estimate the mean depth of creep from the mean observed surface creep rate for each section and the rate uncertainty allows estimation of a depth uncertainty. Uncertainties are generally much higher where only five years or less of alinement array data are available, but in some cases the addition of CGPS or multiple SGPS station pairs has been essential for a more complete evaluation of the extent of creep. For example near-fault CGPS data clearly indicate that significant dextral creep occurs on both branches C and D north of the Mendocino triple junction. However, creep depth on some remote sections of branches C and D remains poorly constrained and will require a few more years of data to adequately evaluate the impact of creep on their seismic hazard. On the two urban fault sections in the northern SFBA, the Rodgers Creek and southern Green Valley faults, our denser creep measurements made over the past decade now allow us to characterize the along-strike and depth extent of their creep with much greater certainty for seismic hazard purposes. Two other urban faults, the Northern Calaveras and the Greenville faults, located in the eastern SFBA, we have also monitored more densely for creep over the past decade, and hence we now can more accurately characterize their seismic hazard.

Lienkaemper, J. J.; McFarland, F. S.; Simpson, R. W.; Caskey, J.

2013-12-01

188

Accelerated partial breast irradiation: An analysis of variables associated with late toxicity and long-term cosmetic outcome after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To perform a detailed analysis of variables associated with late tissue effects of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in a large cohort of patients with prolonged follow-up. Methods and Materials: Beginning in 1995, 75 women with Stage I/II breast cancer were enrolled in identical institutional trials evaluating APBI as monotherapy after lumpectomy. Patients eligible included those with T1-2, N0-1 ({<=}3 nodes positive), M0 tumors of nonlobular histology with negative surgical margins, no extracapsular nodal extension, and negative results on postexcision mammogram. All patients underwent surgical excision and postoperative irradiation with HDR interstitial brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the excision cavity plus a 2-cm margin. Treatment was delivered with a high-activity Ir-192 source at 3.4 Gy per fraction twice daily for 5 days to a total dose of 34 Gy. Dosimetric analyses were performed with three-dimensional postimplant dose and volume reconstructions. All patients were evaluated at 3-6-month intervals and assessed with a standardized cosmetic rating scale and according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late normal tissue toxicity scoring criteria. Clinical and therapy-related features were analyzed for their relationship to cosmetic outcome and toxicity rating. Clinical features analyzed included age, volume of resection, history of diabetes or hypertension, extent of axillary surgery, and systemic therapies. Therapy-related features analyzed included volume of tissue encompassed by the 100%, 150%, and 200% isodose lines (V100, V150, and V200, respectively), the dose homogeneity index (DHI), number of source dwell positions, and planar separation. Results: The median follow-up of all patients was 73 months (range, 43-118 months). The cosmetic outcome at last follow-up was rated as excellent, good, and fair/poor in 67%, 24%, and 9% of patients, respectively. Suboptimal cosmetic outcome was significantly associated with the number of source dwell positions, V150, and V200 and inversely associated with DHI (0.77 vs. 0.73; p = 0.05). Late skin toxicity was rated as Grade 0, 1, or 2 in 77%, 19%, and 4% of patients, respectively. The risk of Grade 1/2 skin toxicity was significantly associated with V150 and V200 and inversely associated with DHI (0.77 vs. 0.71; p = 0.009). Late subcutaneous toxicity was rated as Grade 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 in 55%, 15%, 12%, 5%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The risk of Grade 0/1 vs. Grade 2-4 subcutaneous toxicity was significantly associated only with a lower value of DHI (0.77 vs. 0.73; p = 0.02). To further explore factors that might contribute to the risk of fat necrosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic), a separate analysis showed that only dose hotspots as reflected in V150 and V200 were significantly associated with elevated risk. The use of adriamycin-based chemotherapy after APBI was found to be associated with a significant increase in the incidence of higher-grade skin toxicity and a higher risk of fat necrosis and suboptimal cosmetic outcome. Patient age, volume of resection, extent of axillary surgery, a history of diabetes or hypertension, and the use of tamoxifen were not found to be significantly associated with cosmetic outcome or late normal tissue complications. Conclusions: Long-term cosmetic results and the risk of late skin and subcutaneous toxicity after APBI with interstitial HDR brachytherapy can be correlated with specific treatment-related variables. These data provide dosimetric parameters that might be used to minimize the risk of normal tissue injury after APBI interstitial brachytherapy.

Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)]. E-mail: dwazer@tufts-nemc.org; Kaufman, Seth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States); Cuttino, Laurie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Di Petrillo, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States); Arthur, Douglas W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

2006-02-01

189

Long-term environmental stewardship.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

Nagy, Michael David

2010-08-01

190

High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival  

SciTech Connect

Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors.

Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

1981-11-01

191

Long-term tillage, straw and N rate effects on quantity and quality of organic C and N in a Gray Luvisol soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term use of soil, crop and fertilizer management practices alters some soil properties, but the magnitude of change depends\\u000a on soil type and climatic conditions. A field experiment with a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–canola (Brassica napus L.) rotation was conducted on a Gray Luvisol (Typic Cryoboralf) loam soil at Breton, Alberta, Canada. Effects of 19 or 27 years

S. S. Malhi; M. Nyborg; T. Goddard; D. Puurveen

2011-01-01

192

Applying the Rothamsted Carbon Model for Long-Term Experiments on Japanese Paddy Soils and Modifying It by Simple Tuning of the Decomposition Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied the Rothamsted Carbon Model (RothC), which was developed for simulating the soil organic carbon (SOC) turnover in non-waterlogged soils, for long-term experiments (16–22 years) on Japanese paddy soils and modified it to accurately simulate the changes in the content of SOC with time in paddy soils. The RothC underestimated the SOC content in all the nine plots at

Yasuhito Shirato; Masayuki Yokozawa

2005-01-01

193

Long-term tillage, straw and N rate effects on some chemical properties in two contrasting soil types in Western Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term use of soil, crop residue and fertilizer management practices may affect some soil properties, but the magnitude\\u000a of change depends on soil type and climatic conditions. Two field experiments with barley, wheat, or canola in a rotation\\u000a on Gray Luvisol (Typic Cryoboralf) loam at Breton and Black Chernozem (Albic Argicryoll) loam at Ellerslie, Alberta, Canada,\\u000a were conducted to determine

S. S. Malhi; M. Nyborg; T. Goddard; D. Puurveen

2011-01-01

194

Scenarios for long-term analysis  

SciTech Connect

Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis of High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments data is described and summarized in this talk. The summary covers information presented at the First Workshop on Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis. Experiments representing e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions (LEP, B Factories and CLEO), ep collisions (H1 and ZEUS), p{bar p} collisions (CDF and D0) and others presented interesting information related to utilizing the large datasets collected over many years at these HEP facilities. Many questions and issues remain to be explored.

Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

2009-01-01

195

12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Monthly interest rate survey. 906.5 Section 906.5 Banks and...OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its...

2011-01-01

196

12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Monthly interest rate survey. 906.5 Section 906.5 Banks and...OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its...

2010-01-01

197

75 FR 22136 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30...the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless...quarter ended March 31, 2010. This interest rate is effective until the...

2010-04-27

198

75 FR 48690 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30...the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless...quarter ended June 30, 2010. This interest rate is effective until the...

2010-08-11

199

76 FR 8370 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30...the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless...ended December 31, 2010. This interest rate is effective until the...

2011-02-14

200

77 FR 76492 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office Of The Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30...the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless...ended September 30, 2012. This interest rate is effective until the...

2012-12-28

201

77 FR 20399 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30...the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless...ended December 31, 2011. This interest rate is effective until the...

2012-04-04

202

38 CFR 36.4307 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan...Electronic Reporting § 36.4307 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan...or direct loan to reduce the interest rate payable on the existing...

2010-07-01

203

38 CFR 36.4223 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rate reduction refinancing loan...General Provisions § 36.4223 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan...guaranteed loan to reduce the interest rate payable on the Department...

2010-07-01

204

77 FR 60438 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30...the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless...quarter ended June 30, 2012. This interest rate is effective until the...

2012-10-03

205

75 FR 22136 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30...the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless...ended December 31, 2009. This interest rate is effective until the...

2010-04-27

206

7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate adjustments. 4287.112 ...Guaranteed Loans § 4287.112 Interest rate adjustments. (a) Reductions...permanent or temporary reduction in the interest rate of the guaranteed loan...

2010-01-01

207

75 FR 80055 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30...the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless...ended September 30, 2010. This interest rate is effective until the...

2010-12-21

208

12 CFR 614.4160 - Differential interest rate programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Differential interest rate programs. 614.4160 Section... § 614.4160 Differential interest rate programs. Pursuant to policies...board of directors, differential interest rates may be established for...

2010-01-01

209

77 FR 20399 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30...the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless...ended September 30, 2011. This interest rate is effective until the...

2012-04-04

210

77 FR 35681 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30...the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless...quarter ended March 31, 2012. This interest rate is effective until the...

2012-06-14

211

24 CFR 241.1070 - Agreed interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.1070 Section 241...Requirements § 241.1070 Agreed interest rate. The equity or acquisition loan shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the borrower...

2010-04-01

212

24 CFR 203.405 - Debenture interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 203.405 Section 203...Benefits § 203.405 Debenture interest rate. (a) Debentures shall bear...is paid in cash, the debenture interest rate for purposes of...

2010-04-01

213

76 FR 30721 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30...the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless...quarter ended March 31, 2011. This interest rate is effective until the...

2011-05-26

214

43 CFR 1882.5-2 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GOVERNMENTS Mineral Development Impact Relief Loans § 1882.5-2 Interest rate. Loans shall bear interest at a rate equivalent to the lowest interest rate paid on an issue of at least $1 million of bonds exempt from Federal taxes...

2011-10-01

215

43 CFR 1882.5-2 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GOVERNMENTS Mineral Development Impact Relief Loans § 1882.5-2 Interest rate. Loans shall bear interest at a rate equivalent to the lowest interest rate paid on an issue of at least $1 million of bonds exempt from Federal taxes...

2012-10-01

216

43 CFR 1882.5-2 - Interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GOVERNMENTS Mineral Development Impact Relief Loans § 1882.5-2 Interest rate. Loans shall bear interest at a rate equivalent to the lowest interest rate paid on an issue of at least $1 million of bonds exempt from Federal taxes...

2013-10-01

217

Interest Rates and Coupon Bonds in Quantum Finance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Synopsis; 2. Interest rates and coupon bonds; 3. Options and option theory; 4. Interest rate and coupon bond options; 5. Quantum field theory of bond forward interest rates; 6. Libor Market Model of interest rates; 7. Empirical analysis of forward interest rates; 8. Libor Market Model of interest rate options; 9. Numeraires for bond forward interest rates; 10. Empirical analysis of interest rate caps; 11. Coupon bond European and Asian options; 12. Empirical analysis of interest rate swaptions; 13. Correlation of coupon bond options; 14. Hedging interest rate options; 15. Interest rate Hamiltonian and option theory; 16. American options for coupon bonds and interest rates; 17. Hamiltonian derivation of coupon bond options; Appendixes; Glossaries; List of symbols; Reference; Index.

Baaquie, Belal E.

2009-09-01

218

Serum prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume predict long-term changes in symptoms and flow rate: results of a four-year, randomized trial comparing finasteride versus placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine whether baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA), in addition to prostate volume, is associated with long-term changes in symptoms and urinary flow rate.Methods. Three thousand forty men with benign prostatic hyperplasia enrolled in the PLESS trial were randomly assigned to finasteride 5 mg or placebo for 4 years. Symptoms and flow rate were assessed every 4 months, and data

Claus G. Roehrborn; Peter Boyle; Donald Bergner; Todd Gray; Marc Gittelman; Thomas Shown; Arnold Melman; R. Bruce Bracken; Ralph deVere White; Alice Taylor; Daniel Wang; Joanne Waldstreicher

1999-01-01

219

A long-term frequency stabilized deep ultraviolet laser for Mg+ ions trapping experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As many precision laser spectroscopy experiments require frequency stabilized lasers, development of long-term stabilized lasers is of great interest. In this work, we report long-term frequency stabilization of a 280 nm deep ultraviolet laser to a high precision wavemeter with digital servo control such that the long-term drift of the laser frequency was greatly reduced. Long-term laser frequency drift was measured with a fiber frequency comb system over 8 h. After locking, the maximum drift rate of the 280 nm laser was lowered from 576 MHz/h to 6.4 MHz/h. With proper environment control of the wavemeter, the maximum drift rate of the 280 nm laser was further lowered to less than 480 kHz/h. The locked laser system was successfully used in a Mg+ ions trapping experiment, which was also discussed in this work.

Zhang, J.; Yuan, W. H.; Deng, K.; Deng, A.; Xu, Z. T.; Qin, C. B.; Lu, Z. H.; Luo, J.

2013-12-01

220

29 CFR 20.58 - Rate of interest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rate of interest. 20.58 Section 20.58...Administrative Costs § 20.58 Rate of interest. (a) The rate of interest...agreement, the agency may set a new interest rate which reflects the current...

2010-07-01

221

The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.  

PubMed

Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment. PMID:18752014

Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

2008-12-01

222

7 CFR 1714.5 - Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans. 1714... § 1714.5 Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans. ...Program HomePage, a schedule of interest rates for municipal rate loans...

2010-01-01

223

49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall be the coupon equivalent yield (investment rate) of marketable securities...proceedings, the interest rate shall be the coupon equivalent yield in effect on...proceedings, the interest rate shall be the coupon equivalent yield in effect...

2010-10-01

224

49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...shall be the coupon equivalent yield (investment rate) of marketable securities...proceedings, the interest rate shall be the coupon equivalent yield in effect on...proceedings, the interest rate shall be the coupon equivalent yield in effect...

2011-10-01

225

49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...shall be the coupon equivalent yield (investment rate) of marketable securities...proceedings, the interest rate shall be the coupon equivalent yield in effect on...proceedings, the interest rate shall be the coupon equivalent yield in effect...

2012-10-01

226

A two-decades (1975 to 1995) long experience in the incidence, in-hospital and long-term case–fatality rates of acute myocardial infarction: a community-wide perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe purpose of the present study is to describe changes over two decades (1975 to 1995) in the incidence, in-hospital and long-term case–fatality rates associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from a multihospital community-wide perspective.BACKGROUNDDespite the magnitude of, and mortality associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), relatively limited population-based data are available to describe recent and temporal trends in the

Robert J. Goldberg; Jorge L. Yarzebski; Darleen M. Lessard; Joel M. Gore

1999-01-01

227

76 FR 16570 - Interest Rate Risk  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...repricing or duration gaps, income simulation, asset valuation, or net economic...repricing or duration gaps, income simulation, asset valuation, or net economic...cumulatively over 12 months. Income Simulation: Net interest income after shock...

2011-03-24

228

5 CFR 841.603 - Rate of interest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rate of interest. 841.603 Section 841...Computation of Interest § 841.603 Rate of interest. For calendar year 1985... to notify the public of the interest rate that will be in effect...

2010-01-01

229

24 CFR 242.26 - Agreed interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 242.26 Section 242.26 Housing...Mortgage Requirements § 242.26 Agreed interest rate. (a) The mortgage shall bear interest at the rate or rates agreed upon by the...

2010-04-01

230

Page 1 of 5 Long-term Student Loan application  

E-print Network

charges (international students only) · holiday expenses · any debt incurred before enrollingPage 1 of 5 Long-term Student Loan application General information If you are enrolled as a Monash University student at an Australian campus, you may be eligible to receive a long- term interest-free student

Albrecht, David

231

Long Term Illness and Wages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.

2005-01-01

232

75 FR 10411 - Borrower Rights; Effective Interest Rates; Effective Date  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 617 RIN 3052-AC45 Borrower Rights; Effective Interest Rates; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration...publicized external index receive appropriate disclosure of interest rate changes in accordance with statutory requirements...

2010-03-08

233

46 CFR 298.20 - Term, redemptions, and interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Term, redemptions, and interest rate. 298.20 Section 298.20...20 Term, redemptions, and interest rate. (a) In general. The...exceed the anticipated physical and economic life of the Vessel or...

2010-10-01

234

Credit Cards, Economization of Money, and Interest Rates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the effect of interest rates on the increased use of credit cards, a popular method of financing households. Uses three models to demonstrate that interest rates must rise, resulting in increased consumption expenditures. (CMK)

Steindl, Frank G.

2000-01-01

235

38 CFR 36.4212 - Interest rates and late charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rates and late charges. 36.4212...General Provisions § 36.4212 Interest rates and late charges. (a... Provided, however, that the interest rate of a loan for the purpose of...

2010-07-01

236

24 CFR 203.20 - Agreed interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 203.20 Section 203.20 Housing...Eligible Mortgages § 203.20 Agreed interest rate. (a) The mortgage shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the mortgagee and the...

2010-04-01

237

7 CFR 3565.210 - Maximum interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum interest rate. 3565.210 Section 3565.210 Agriculture...PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.210 Maximum interest rate. The interest rate for a guaranteed loan must not exceed the...

2010-01-01

238

12 CFR 619.9170 - Fixed interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fixed interest rate. 619.9170 Section 619.9170 Banks and...CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9170 Fixed interest rate. The rate of interest specified in the note or loan document...

2010-01-01

239

12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and...SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be...

2010-01-01

240

12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135 ...and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ...of interest rate risk. The board of directors of each Farm Credit Bank, bank for...and agricultural credit bank shall develop...an interest rate risk management...

2010-01-01

241

Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect

The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

2011-03-22

242

China and the Korean peninsula: Playing for the long term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halting North Korea's nuclear program is not the ultimate end that China hopes to achieve. China's calculations, interests, and goals are more long term and complicated, comprising a hierarchy of these six objectives.

David Shambaugh

2003-01-01

243

Japan useful medication program for schizophrenia (JUMPs)-long-term study on discontinuation rate, resolution and remission, and improvement in social functioning rate associated with atypical antipsychotic medications in patients with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background It is desirable to establish evidence for the selection of antipsychotics from the viewpoint of recovery of social activity in individual patient with schizophrenia receiving medication. From this perspective, awareness of the importance of studies about drug effectiveness on treatment discontinuation rate, remission rate, and improvement in QOL has grown recently. In Western countries, numerous reports are available in effectiveness studies, which are related to olanzapine and risperidone primarily, whereas evidence for other second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) is poor. In Japan, no effectiveness study has been reported: thus, it is desirable to collect data that will serve as evidence for selection of the 3 SGAs approved after olanzapine. Methods The present study was a long-term effectiveness study under healthcare setting in Japan. It was designed as an open-label, multicenter, randomized, comparative study involving 104-week oral treatment with 1 of the 3 drugs (aripiprazole, blonanserin, and paliperidone) in patients with schizophrenia aged 20 years or over who required antipsychotic medication or switching of the current medication to others for reasons such as lack of efficacy and intolerability. The primary endpoint is treatment discontinuation rate for any causes. The secondary endpoints include remission rate, improvement of social activity, alleviation, aggravation or recurrence of psychiatric symptoms, and safety. The target number of subjects was set at 300. Discussion Because this study is expected to yield evidence regarding the selection of antipsychotics for facilitating the recovery of social activity in patients with schizophrenia, it is considered highly valuable to perform this effectiveness study under ordinary healthcare setting in Japan. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000007942 PMID:24090047

2013-01-01

244

78 FR 37839 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning July 1, 2013, the interest rates for overpayments will be 2...

2013-06-24

245

75 FR 20373 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning April 1, 2010, the interest rates for overpayments will be 3...

2010-04-19

246

77 FR 38076 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning July 1, 2012, the interest rates for overpayments will be 2...

2012-06-26

247

76 FR 64964 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning October 1, 2011, the interest rates for overpayments will be 2...

2011-10-19

248

78 FR 1222 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning January 1, 2013, the interest rates for [[Page 1223

2013-01-08

249

77 FR 2308 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning January 1, 2012, the interest rates for overpayments will be 2...

2012-01-17

250

76 FR 2404 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning January 1, 2011, the interest rates for overpayments will be 2...

2011-01-13

251

78 FR 20349 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning April 1, 2013, the interest rates for overpayments will be 2...

2013-04-04

252

77 FR 18256 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning April 1, 2012, the interest rates for overpayments will be 2...

2012-03-27

253

78 FR 63238 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning October 1, 2013, the interest rates for overpayments will be 2...

2013-10-23

254

75 FR 419 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning January 1, 2010, the interest rates for overpayments will be 3...

2010-01-05

255

75 FR 37823 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning July 1, 2010, the interest rates for overpayments will be 3...

2010-06-30

256

76 FR 20697 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning April 1, 2011, the interest rates for overpayments will be 3...

2011-04-13

257

75 FR 59279 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used In Calculating Interest On Overdue Accounts and Refunds On...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used In Calculating Interest On...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning October 1, 2010, the interest rates for overpayments will be 3...

2010-09-27

258

77 FR 59411 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning October 1, 2012, the interest rates for overpayments will be 2...

2012-09-27

259

76 FR 41283 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on...quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on...beginning July 1, 2011, the interest rates for overpayments will be 3...

2011-07-13

260

Long-term tree growth rate, water use efficiency, and tree ring nitrogen isotope composition of Pinus massoniana L. in response to global climate change and local nitrogen deposition in Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We aimed to investigate long-term tree growth rates, water use efficiencies (WUE), and tree ring nitrogen (N) isotope compositions\\u000a (?15N) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) in response to global climate change and local N deposition in Southern China.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Tree annual growth rings of Masson pine were collected from four forest sites, viz. South China Botanical Garden (SBG),

Fangfang Sun; Yuanwen Kuang; Dazhi Wen; Zhihong Xu; Jianli Li; Weidong Zuo; Enqing Hou

2010-01-01

261

Long-term complications related to the modified Indiana pouch  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo describe a single-institution, single-surgeon experience with 125 modified Indiana pouches performed during a period of 14 years and their long-term complications. The modified Indiana pouch is a widely accepted and often used form of continent urinary diversion. Few studies have established the long-term complication rates associated with the procedure.

Daniel G Holmes; J. Brantley Thrasher; Gerald Y Park; Deborah C Kueker; John W Weigel

2002-01-01

262

Yield Spreads and Interest Rate Movements: A Bird's Eye View  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expectations theory of the term structure implies that the spread between a longer-term interest rate and a shorter-term interest rate forecasts two subsequent interest rate changes: the change in yield of the longer-term bond over the life of the shorter-term bond, and a weighted average of the changes in shorter-term rates over the life of the longer-term bond. For

John Y. Campbell; Robert J. Shiller

1991-01-01

263

Modeling for fracture in materials under long-term static creep loading and neutron irradiation. Part 3. Crack growth rate prediction for austenitic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an engineering method which permits predicting the creep crack growth rate under neutron irradiation conditions.\\u000a Theoretical analysis of the creep crack-tip stress-strain state is carried out. Calculations are performed to determine the\\u000a effect of neutron flux intensity (flux) and pre-irradiation dose (fluence) on the crack growth rate.

B. Z. Margolin; A. G. Gulenko; A. A. Buchatskii; S. M. Balakin

2006-01-01

264

Using the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) to Predict Long Term Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the predictive validity of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, Autism detection in early childhood: ADEC. Australian Council of Educational Research, Camberwell, VIC 2007) and a well-established screening tool, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler et al. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS).…

Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L.; Brewer, Neil

2014-01-01

265

Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

2013-07-01

266

Long term thermoelectric module testing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period.

D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy

2009-10-01

267

Links between short and long term tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the quest for understanding the rheology of the lithosphere a central question that can be addressed is the existence of a parameterisation of the rheology, which could reflect both the response of the lithosphere over the large time scale (10's Myr) and the time scale of earthquakes and faulting. The gap existing between these observational time scales is mainly due to modelling approximations which in each separate fields permit to fit the data but which rely on simplification of the physics, the rheology and set of boundary conditions which are not always compatible one with each other. The long-term community, i.e. the geodynamics community, tend to use Mohr-Coulomb non-associated plasticity to model self-consistent shear zone localisation. This type of rheology corresponds, in the limit of a discrete fault plan, to a slip weakening/hardening formulation in which weakening rate depends on fault plan orientation. The short term community, i.e. the earthquake community, has stopped using this kind of formulation and rather uses the rate and state formulation to model the activity of faults. Rate and State is limited because it cannot self-consistently generate an earthquake, the triggering, i.e. the initial slip acceleration must be imposed. This contribution is a synthesis of several geological case studies at different length-scale, in which we suspects a strong link between long term geodynamic processes and current seismological and geodetic observations. We make use of these case studies together with quantitative numerical models to understand how the seismic and inter-seismic behaviour reflects the rather long-term geodynamic setting than the internal rheological properties of faults. After briefly revisiting the different modelling approaches from geodynamic seismologic and geodetic communities, we show how modelling results obtained with the long term modelling approach brings new insights and alternative models for both the seismological and geodetic behaviour of active faults. The first example will concern the seismic activity on low angle normal faults focussing on the case of the Gulf of Corinth. Then focusing on strike slip tectonic, I will compare data from active and exhumed strike slip faults and discuss how a single model can explain their behaviour. The last example will focus on the creeping segment of the San Andreas Fault to discuss how heterogeneities in the long-term tectonic loading (in that instance flexure of the lithosphere) may influence the seismic behaviour of strike slip fault.

Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Traoré, Nafissatou; Lecomte, Emmanuel; Saleeby, Jason

2013-04-01

268

Accelerated partial breast irradiation: An analysis of variables associated with late toxicity and long-term cosmetic outcome after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To perform a detailed analysis of variables associated with late tissue effects of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in a large cohort of patients with prolonged follow-up. Methods and Materials: Beginning in 1995, 75 women with Stage I\\/II breast cancer were enrolled in identical institutional trials evaluating APBI as monotherapy after lumpectomy. Patients eligible included

David E.. Wazer; Seth Kaufman; Laurie Cuttino; Thomas Di Petrillo; Douglas W. Arthur

2006-01-01

269

A comparison of methods for deriving solute flux rates using long-term data from streams in the mirror lake watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Calculation of chemical flux rates for streams requires integration of continuous measurements of discharge with discrete measurements of solute concentrations. We compared two commonly used methods for interpolating chemistry data (time-averaging and flow-weighting) to determine whether discrepancies between the two methods were large relative to other sources of error in estimating flux rates. Flux rates of dissolved Si and SO42- were calculated from 10 years of data (1981-1990) for the NW inlet and Outlet of Mirror Lake and for a 40-day period (March 22 to April 30, 1993) during which we augmented our routine (weekly) chemical monitoring with collection of daily samples. The time-averaging method yielded higher estimates of solute flux during high-flow periods if no chemistry samples were collected corresponding to peak discharge. Concentration-discharge relationships should be used to interpolate stream chemistry during changing flow conditions if chemical changes are large. Caution should be used in choosing the appropriate time-scale over which data are pooled to derive the concentration-discharge regressions because the model parameters (slope and intercept) were found to be sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual variation. Both methods approximated solute flux to within 2-10% for a range of solutes that were monitored during the intensive sampling period. Our results suggest that errors arising from interpolation of stream chemistry data are small compared with other sources of error in developing watershed mass balances.

Bukaveckas, P.A.; Likens, G.E.; Winter, T.C.; Buso, D.C.

1998-01-01

270

The influence of environmental factors on heart rate chronostructure depending on the individual characteristics of autonomic regulation. Results of long-term medical-ecological studies.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was previously shown [Baevsky, Petrov, 1998] that during space flight under influence of geomagnetic disturbances there are both specific response of the autonomic regulation system in the form of vasomotor cardiovascular center activation (LF spectral components) and non-specific stress response, which depends on the actual autonomic balance [Breus, Baevsky, 2002]. Within the project "Mars-500" the parallel medical-ecological studies were conducted in 10 groups (10-16 people), that lived in different regions of the world under the influence of various environmental factors - climatic, geographic, industrial, social and other. It allowed us to obtain a sufficiently large number of variants of adaptive reactions caused by differences in external impacts. The main research method was the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in short ECG samples (5 minutes) for assessing heart rate chronostructure and functional status of autonomic regulation. Results of studies have demonstrated that environmental loads on the regulatory mechanisms is higher in the northern and north-eastern regions of Russia - Magadan and Syktyvkar. Stress-index of regulatory systems and adaptive risk indicator is significantly higher in these groups [Baevsky, Berseneva, 2013]. The preliminary search of weather factors (atmospheric pressure, air temperature, humidity and magnetic index Kp) influence on the autonomic regulation of heart rate showed that there are no any significant changes and relationships in the entire group of participants. We have assumed that the character of adaptive responses, including responses to changing weather and geomagnetic conditions, is associated with the individual characteristics and the initial functional state of autonomic regulation. To test this hypothesis, we have identified two groups of subjects with different autonomic balance. The first group included individuals with a pronounced predominance of sympathetic regulation (n = 127), the second - with a strong predominance of parasympathetic activity (n = 64). The analysis of correlations between weather and heart rate chronostructure and functional condition of autonomic regulation revealed that attitude of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) of heart rhythm spectrum higher in both groups at declining geomagnetic activity and lower at its growth. The comparison of other HRV indicators at decreasing and increasing geomagnetic activity displayed the opposite trends in these groups. Stress-index of regulatory systems (SI), which reflects the sympathetic activity, rises in group with sympathetic dominance at reducing geomagnetic activity, and at its growth - in group with parasympathetic dominance. So, we can see that specific adaptive reaction as response to changing geomagnetic situation, which manifested in activation of vasomotor cardiovascular center, is the similar in subjects with different autonomic balance. Non-specific component depends on initial dominance of one or another regulatory mechanism.

Isaeva, Olga; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Breus, Tamara; Chernikova, Anna; Baevsky, Roman

271

A long-term comparison of carbon sequestration rates in impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the lower Waccamaw River, South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon storage was compared between impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the Lower Waccamaw River in South Carolina, USA. Soil cores were collected in (1) naturally tidal, (2) moist soil (impounded, seasonally drained since ~1970), and (3) deeply flooded “treatments” (impounded, flooded to ~90 cm since ~2002). Cores were analyzed for % organic carbon, % total carbon, bulk density, and 210Pb and 137Cs for dating purposes. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 25 to 200 g C m?2 yr?1 (moist soil), 80–435 g C m?2 yr?1 (naturally tidal), and 100–250 g C m?2 yr?1 (deeply flooded). The moist soil and naturally tidal treatments were compared over a period of 40 years. The naturally tidal treatment had significantly higher carbon storage (mean?=?219 g C m?2 yr?1 vs. mean?=?91 g C m?2 yr?1) and four times the vertical accretion rate (mean?=?0.84 cm yr?1 vs. mean?=?0.21 cm yr?1) of the moist soil treatment. The results strongly suggest that the long drainage period in moist soil management limits carbon storage over time. Managers across the National Wildlife Refuge system have an opportunity to increase carbon storage by minimizing drainage in impoundments as much as practicable.

Drexler, Judith Z; Krauss, Ken W.; Sasser, M. Craig; Fuller, Christopher C.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Powell, Amber; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Orlando, James

2013-01-01

272

Long-term results of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the primary treatment of medically inoperable stage I-II endometrial carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Total-abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAHBSO) is the gold-standard therapy for patients with endometrial carcinoma. However, patients with high operative risks are usually treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone. The goal of this study was to update our experience of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB), with or without external-beam irradiation (EBRT), for such patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1984 and 2003, 38 patients with Stage I and Stage II adenocarcinoma of the endometrium considered high operative risk received RT as the primary treatment. The median age was 74.1 years. Before 1996, the local extent of the disease was assessed by an examination under anesthesia (EUA) and by EUA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thereafter. Eight patients (21%) were treated with combined HDRB and EBRT, and 30 patients (79%) were treated with with HDRB alone. The median HDRB dose was 23.9 Gy, typically delivered in 3 fractions in a weekly schedule. The median EBRT dose was 42 Gy. Results: At a median follow-up of 57.5 months for patients at risk, 11 patients (29%) have failed: 6 patients (16%) locally, 4 patients (10.5%) distantly, and 1 patient (3%) locally and distantly. Local failure was established by biopsy, and 4 patients were salvaged by TAHBSO. Higher stage and higher grade were both associated with increased failure rate. The 15-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 78% for all stages, 90% for Stage I, and 42% for Stage II (p < 0.0001). The 15-year DSS was 91% for Grade I and 67% for Grade II and III combined (p = 0.0254). Patients with Stage I disease established by MRI (11 patients) and who received a total HDRB dose of 30 Gy had a DSS rate of 100% at 10 years. Four patients experienced late toxicities: 1 Grade II and 3 Grade III or IV. Conclusion: Medically inoperable Stage I endometrial carcinoma may be safely and effectively treated with HDRB as the primary therapy. In selected Stage I patients, our results are equivalent to that of surgery. We believe that the alternative option of HDRB as the primary therapy for selected Stage I endometrial carcinoma, even in patients with low operative risks, needs further evaluation.

Niazi, Tamim M. [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Portelance, Lorraine [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bahoric, Boris [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gilbert, Lucy [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Stanimir, Gerald [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2005-11-15

273

Long-Term Prognostic Performance of Ki67 Rate in Early Stage, pT1-pT2, pN0, Invasive Breast Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular signatures may become of use in clinical practice to assess the prognosis of breast cancers. However, although international consensus conferences sustain the use of these new markers in the near future, concerns remain about their degree of discordance and cost-effectiveness in different international settings. The present study aims to validate Ki67 as prognostic factor in a large cohort of early-stage (pT1–pT2, pN0) breast cancer patients. Methods 456 patients treated in 1995–1996 were identified in the Institut Curie database. Ki67 (MIB1) was retrospectively assessed by immunohistochemistry for all cases. The prognostic value of this index was compared to that of histological grade (HG), Estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 status. Distant disease free interval, loco-regional recurrence, time-lapse from first metastatic diagnosis to death were analyzed. Results All 456 patients were treated by lumpectomy plus axillary dissection and radiotherapy. 27 patients (5.9%) received systemic treatment. Tumors were classified as HG1 in 35%, HG2 in 42% and HG3 in 23% of cases. ER was expressed in 86% of the tumors, HER2 in 5% and 14% were triple negative. The median follow-up was 151 [5–191] months. Distant and loco-regional disease recurrences were observed in 16% and 18%, respectively. High (>20%) Ki67 rate [HR?=?3 (1.8–4.8), p<10e?06] and HG3 [HR?=?4.4 (2.2–8.6), p?=?0.00002] were associated with an increased rate of distant relapse. In multivariate analysis, the Ki67 remained the only significant prognostic factor in the subgroups of ER positive HER2 negative [HR?=?2.6 (1.5–4.6), p?=?0.0006] and ER positive HER2 negative HG2 tumors [HR?=?2.2 (1.01–4.8), p?=?0.04]. Conclusions We validate the prognosis value of the Ki67 rate in small size node negative breast cancer. We conclude that Ki67 is a potential cost-effective decision marker for adjuvant therapy in early-stage HG2, pT1–pT2, pN0, breast cancers. PMID:23526930

Savignoni, Alexia; Feron, Jean-Guillaume; Bollet, Marc Andrew; Kirova, Youlia; Fourquet, Alain; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Cottu, Paul; Dieras, Veronique; Fourchotte, Virginie; Laki, Fatima; Alran, Severine; Asselain, Bernard; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Sastre-Garau, Xavier

2013-01-01

274

Long-term oxygen therapy.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the status of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). In the United States, payment cutbacks are occurring as a result of congressionally mandated competitive bidding and capped rental programs. These Medicare programs are discussed. These legislative and regulatory changes may result in reduced patient access to appropriate oxygen-delivery systems that meet medical needs, including optimal ambulation. Prescribing LTOT is addressed in this article, as is the need for adequate patient education. The importance of appropriate monitoring and reassessment is presented. The use of an LTOT collaborative care model is discussed. Although the new intermittent flow oxygen-delivery systems have potential benefits, there is consensus that each patient should be tested on the specific device because of variability in delivery and patient response. Feasible locations for patient education and monitoring are identified. PMID:21285057

Christopher, Kent L; Porte, Phillip

2011-02-01

275

Association between resting heart rate, chronotropic index, and long-term outcomes in patients with heart failure receiving ?-blocker therapy: data from the HF-ACTION trial  

PubMed Central

Aims The aim of this study was to assess the association between resting heart rate (HR), chronotropic index (CI), and clinical outcomes in optimally treated chronic heart failure (HF) patients on ?-blocker therapy. Methods and results We performed a sub-study in 1118 patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (EF < 35%) included in the HF-ACTION trial. Patients in sinus rhythm who received a ?-blocker and who performed with maximal effort on the exercise test were included. Chronotropic index was calculated as an index of HR reserve achieved, by using the equation (220-age) for estimating maximum HR. A sensitivity analysis using an equation developed for HF patients on ?-blockers was also performed. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to assess the association between CI and clinical outcomes. Median (25th, 75th percentiles) follow-up was 32 (21, 44) months. In a multivariable model including resting HR and CI as continuous variables, neither was associated with the primary outcome of all-cause mortality or hospitalization. However, each 0.1 unit decrease in CI <0.6 was associated with 17% increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.36; P = 0.036), and 13% increased risk of cardiovascular mortality or HF hospitalization (hazard ratio 1.13, 1.02–1.26; P = 0.025). Overall, 666 of 1118 (60%) patients had a CI <0.6. Chronotropic index did not retain statistical significance when dichotomized at a value of ?0.62. Conclusion In HF patients receiving optimal medical therapy, a decrease in CI <0.6 was associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Obtaining an optimal HR response to exercise, even in patients receiving optimal ?-blocker therapy, may be a therapeutic target in the HF population. PMID:23315907

Dobre, Daniela; Zannad, Faiez; Keteyian, Steven J.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Rossignol, Patrick; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Landzberg, Joel; Howlett, Jonathan; Kraus, William E.; Ellis, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

276

Thailand's Student Loans Fund: Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Burdens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Government student loan schemes typically have implicit interest rate subsidies which, while these are a cost to taxpayers, they have the benefit of diminishing repayment burdens for graduates. Our goal is to illustrate the extent of both interest rate subsidies and repayment burdens with respect to Thailand's Student Loans Fund (SLF), using…

Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha; Polsiri, Piruna; Sarachitti, Rangsit; Sitthipongpanich, Thitima

2010-01-01

277

The Impact of Interest Rate Changes on Islamic Bank Financing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the impact of interest rate changes on the demand for Islamic financing in a dual banking system. Theoretically, any change in the interest rate would lead customers who are guided by the profit motive to substitute Islamic financing for conventional bank loans and vice versa. Using monthly data from 1999 to 2007, the study found that any

Radiah Abdul Kader; Yap Kok Leong

278

April 2004. The Interest Rate, Learning, and Inventory Investment  

E-print Network

, but previous empirical studies (mostly based on the older stock adjustment model) have found little evidence in the real interest rate and learning, of why tests based on the stock adjustment model, the Euler equation with statements by business people asserting that higher interest rates induce firms to cut inventory holdings

Niebur, Ernst

279

Microfinance and Moneylender Interest Rate: Evidence from Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linkage between the formal and informal credit markets in developing countries has largely been unexplored. This paper addresses one important aspect of the linkage by empirically investigating the impact of the intervention of microfinance programs on the moneylender interest rates in northern Bangladesh, and finds that moneylender interest rates increase with microfinance program coverage. Higher microfinance program coverage increases

Debdulal Mallick

2012-01-01

280

Glomerular filtration rate after alpha-radioimmunotherapy with 211At-MX35-F(ab')2: a long-term study of renal function in nude mice.  

PubMed

Besides bone marrow, the kidneys are often dose-limiting organs in internal radiotherapy. The effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the kidneys after alpha-radioimmunotherapy (alpha-RIT) with the alpha-particle emitter, (211)At, were studied in nude mice by serial measurements of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The renal toxicity was evaluated at levels close to the dose limit for the bone marrow and well within the range for therapeutic efficacy on tumors. Astatinated MX35-F(ab')(2) monoclonal antibodies were administered intravenously to nude mice. Both non-tumor-bearing animals and animals bearing subcutaneous xenografts of the human ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-3, were used. The animals received approximately 0.4, 0.8, or 1.2 MBq in one, two, or three fractions. The mean absorbed doses to the kidneys ranged from 1.5 to 15 Gy. The renal function was studied by serial GFR measurements, using plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA, up to 67 weeks after the first astatine injection. A dose-dependent effect on GFR was found and at the time interval 8-30 weeks after the first administration of astatine, the absorbed doses causing a 50% decrease in GFR were 16.4 +/- 3.3 and 14.0 +/- 4.1 Gy (mean +/- SEM), tumor- and non-tumor-bearing animals, respectively. The reduction in GFR progressed with time, and at the later time interval, (31-67 weeks) the corresponding absorbed doses were 7.5 +/- 2.4 and 11.3 +/- 2.3 Gy, respectively, suggesting that the effects of radiation on the kidneys were manifested late. Examination of the kidney sections showed histologic changes that were overall subdued. Following alpha-RIT with (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2) at levels close to the dose limit of severe myelotoxicity, the effects found on renal function were relatively small, with only minor to moderate reductions in GFR. These results suggest that a mean absorbed dose to the kidneys of approximately 10 Gy is acceptable, and that the kidneys would not be the primary dose-limiting organ in systemic alpha-RIT when using (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2). PMID:20025544

Bäck, Tom; Haraldsson, Börje; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Johansson, Martin E; Lindegren, Sture; Jacobsson, Lars

2009-12-01

281

Does a Long-Term Relationship Kill Romantic Love?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the possibility that romantic love (with intensity, engagement, and sexual interest) can exist in long-term relationships. A review of taxonomies, theory, and research suggests that romantic love, without the obsession component typical of early stage romantic love, can and does exist in long-term marriages, and is associated with marital satisfaction, well-being, and high self-esteem. Supporting the separate

Bianca P. Acevedo; Arthur Aron

2009-01-01

282

Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1992 by the Kentucky General Assembly, the Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center is dedicated to helping the Bluegrass State "act as a catalyst to change the way decisions are made in government." Their research has proved seminal to the state's advancement, and interested parties can learn about their publications, conferences, and other work on this site. First-time visitors should start by looking over some of their work in the "Publications" area. Here they will find full-length reports, their "Policy Notes" series, and PowerPoint presentations created by staff members. There are several hundred publications here, which can be viewed by topics, which range from "aging population" to "workforce development". The "Videos" section is quite good as well, and it features talks with 43 persons of interest from across the state, including journalist Betty Winston Baye and the mayor of Madisonville, Karen Cunningham.

283

Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control  

MedlinePLUS

... Control Health Issues Listen Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic versions of hormones produced ... form, they are used exclusively for long-term control; they are not very effective for acute symptoms. ...

284

Prediction of interest rate using CKLS model with stochastic parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff and Sanders (CKLS) model is a popular one-factor model for describing the spot interest rates. In this paper, the four parameters in the CKLS model are regarded as stochastic. The parameter vector ?(j) of four parameters at the (J+n)-th time point is estimated by the j-th window which is defined as the set consisting of the observed interest rates at the j'-th time point where j?j'?j+n. To model the variation of ?(j), we assume that ?(j) depends on ?(j-m), ?(j-m+1),…, ?(j-1) and the interest rate rj+n at the (j+n)-th time point via a four-dimensional conditional distribution which is derived from a [4(m+1)+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. Treating the (j+n)-th time point as the present time point, we find a prediction interval for the future value rj+n+1 of the interest rate at the next time point when the value rj+n of the interest rate is given. From the above four-dimensional conditional distribution, we also find a prediction interval for the future interest rate rj+n+d at the next d-th (d?2) time point. The prediction intervals based on the CKLS model with stochastic parameters are found to have better ability of covering the observed future interest rates when compared with those based on the model with fixed parameters.

Ying, Khor Chia; Hin, Pooi Ah

2014-06-01

285

Long-term corrosion studies  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application.

Gdowski, G.

1998-05-29

286

Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

2005-01-01

287

High-dose-rate brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy combined with long-term hormonal therapy for high-risk and very high-risk prostate cancer: outcomes after 5-year follow-up.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria-defined high-risk (HR) and very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer. Data from 178 HR (n = 96, 54%) and VHR (n = 82, 46%) prostate cancer patients who underwent (192)Ir-HDR brachytherapy and hypofractionated EBRT with long-term ADT between 2003 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After five fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent ? 6 months of neoadjuvant ADT, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months after EBRT. The median follow-up was 61 months (range, 25-94 months) from the start of radiotherapy. The 5-year biochemical non-evidence of disease, freedom from clinical failure and overall survival rates were 90.6% (HR, 97.8%; VHR, 81.9%), 95.2% (HR, 97.7%; VHR, 92.1%), and 96.9% (HR, 100%; VHR, 93.3%), respectively. The highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late genitourinary toxicities were Grade 2 in 7.3% of patients and Grade 3 in 9.6%. The highest late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 2 in 2.8% of patients and Grade 3 in 0%. Although the 5-year outcome of this tri-modality approach seems favorable, further follow-up is necessary to validate clinical and survival advantages of this intensive approach compared with the standard EBRT approach. PMID:24222312

Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Kitano, Masashi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Komori, Shouko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Soda, Itaru; Kurosaka, Shinji; Sekiguchi, Akane; Kimura, Masaki; Kawakami, Shogo; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

2014-05-01

288

Long-range dependence in interest rates and monetary policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter studies the dynamics of Brazilian interest rates for short-term maturities. The Letter employs developed techniques in the econophysics literature and tests for long-range dependence in the term structure of these interest rates for the last decade. Empirical results suggest that the degree of long-range dependence has changed over time due to changes in monetary policy, specially in the short-end of the term structure of interest rates. Therefore, we show that it is possible to identify monetary arrangements using these techniques from econophysics.

Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

2008-01-01

289

People with limiting long-term conditions report poorer experiences and more problems with hospital care  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term conditions have a significant impact on individuals, their families, and the health service. As people with these conditions represent a high proportion of hospital admissions, investigating their experiences of inpatient care has become an important area of investigation. We conducted a secondary analysis of the NHS adult inpatient survey for England to compare the hospital experiences of three groups of patients: those without long-term conditions, those with a single long-term condition, and those with multiple long-term conditions. We were particularly interested in the extent to which these patients received self-management support from hospital staff, so we developed a brief summary tool drawn from salient questions in the survey to aid the comparison. Methods Analysis of data from the 2011 national adult inpatient survey (n?=?65,134) to compare the experiences of three groups of patients: those with no limiting long-term conditions (No-LLTC), those with one limiting long-term condition (S-LLTC), and those with two or more limiting long-term conditions (M-LLTC). The main outcome measure was patients’ self-reports of their experience of inpatient care, including staff-patient interactions, information provision, involvement in decisions and support for self-care and overall ratings of care. A short form scale, the Oxford Patient Involvement and Experience scale (OxPIE) was developed from the adult inpatient survey and used to compare the groups using logistic regression. Results There were significant differences between the No-LLTC group in comparison to both the S-LLTC and M-LLTC groups. Patients with limiting long-term conditions reported significantly worse hospital experiences than those without, as measured by OxPIE: S-LLTC odds ratio?=?1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.48; M-LLTC odds ratio?=?1.64, 95% CI 1.19 – 2.26. Responses to a single global rating question were more positive but not strongly correlated with OxPIE. Conclusions Patients with LLTCs were more critical of their inpatient care than those with no LLTCs. Those with more than one long-term condition reported worse experiences than those with a single limiting condition. Simple rating questions may not be sufficiently sensitive to reflect important aspects of patients’ experience. PMID:24456971

2014-01-01

290

26 CFR 19.3-1 - Interest on certain deferred payments; interest rate for use in determining whether there is...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on certain deferred payments; interest rate for use in determining whether...on certain deferred payments; interest rate for use in determining whether...at a 4 percent per annum simple interest rate, shall be used for...

2010-04-01

291

12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.  

...906.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATIONS...906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of...

2014-01-01

292

12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...906.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATIONS...906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of...

2012-01-01

293

12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...906.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATIONS...906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of...

2013-01-01

294

Survey Evidence on The Rationality of Interest Rate Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of predictions of six interest rates over 3-months-ahead and 6-months-aheadhorizons, surveyed regularly over eight years, casts doubt on the hypothesis that market participants' expectations are 'rational' in Muth's sense. Tests show that the survey respondents did not make unbiased predictions, that (especially for the 6-months-ahead predictions) they did not efficiently exploit the information contained in past interest rate

Benjamin M. Friedman

1980-01-01

295

Fertility waves, aggregate savings and the rate of interest.  

PubMed

"During the last fifty years there have in many countries been large movements in the growth of labor productivity, real wage rates, the rate of interest, and the household savings ratio. In this paper we use an overlapping generations model to study if demographic shocks, like the baby boom, can generate the kind of movements observed. Simulations show this is indeed the case. We also study the interactions between a pay-as-you-go pension system and demographic disturbances.... We present some stylized facts of the historical development in Sweden for the rate of interest, the aggregate household saving ratio, growth of labor productivity and the birth rate." PMID:12287547

Blomquist, N S; Wijkander, H

1994-02-01

296

The Long-Term Influence of Body Mass Index on the Success Rate of Mid-Urethral Sling Surgery among Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence or Stress-Predominant Mixed Incontinence: Comparisons between Retropubic and Transobturator Approaches  

PubMed Central

Objectives Mid-urethral sling (MUS) surgery for the treatment of urinary incontinence has been widespread since the introduction of tension-free vaginal tape in the mid-1990s. The majority of studies with short-term follow-up <2 years found no differences in the surgical outcomes according to body mass index (BMI). However, considering the chronic influence of obesity on pelvic floor musculature, it is cautiously speculated that higher BMI could increase stress on pelvic floor and sub-urethral tape, possibly decreasing the long-term success rate in the obese population. We aimed to compare the long-term effects of BMI on the outcomes of MUS between women with retropubic and transobturator approaches. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis on 243 consecutive women who received MUS and were followed up for ?36 months. The influence of BMI on the success rates was separately estimated and the factors for treatment failure were examined using logistic regression in either approach. Results The mean follow-up was 58.4 months, and 30.5% were normal weight, 51.0% overweight, and 18.5% obese. Patients received either the retropubic (30.5%) or transobturator (69.5%) approach. The success rates (%) under the transobturator approach differed according to the BMI groups (94.3, 88.6, and 78.6, respectively; P?=?0.037) while those under the retropubic approach were not different according to the BMI groups. However, in multivariate models, only the presence of preoperative mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) was proven to be the risk factor for treatment failure in the transobturator approach (OR 6.39, P?=?0.003). The percent of subjects with MUI was higher in obese women than in non-obese women with the transobturator approach. Conclusions BMI was not independently associated with failures in either approach. Higher success rates in women with lower BMI in the transobturator approach were attributed to the lower percent of preoperative MUI in those with lower BMI. PMID:25415490

Jeong, Seong Jin; Lee, Han Sol; Lee, Jeong Keun; Jeong, Jin Woo; Lee, Sang Cheol; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

2014-01-01

297

Determinants of interest rates on tax-exempt hospital bonds.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to examine the determinants of interest rates on tax-exempt hospital bonds. The results highlight the potential and actual roles of Federal and state policy in the determination of these rates. The shift to a Prospective Payment System under Medicare has subsidized the borrowing costs of some hospitals at the expense of others. The selection of underwriters by negotiation rather than by competitive bidding results in higher interest rates. The Federal tax act of 1986 raised the cost of hospital debt by encouraging bond issues to contain call features. PMID:10131753

Grossman, M; Goldman, F; Nesbitt, S W; Mobilia, P

1993-12-01

298

Long-term solar-terrestrial observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

1988-01-01

299

Long-term kidney transplant survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

With improvements in short-term kidney graft survival, focus has shifted towards long-term survival. There has also been a substantial improvement in long-term survival as measured by kidney half-life. Long-term graft failure is secondary to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), recurrent disease, and death with a functioning graft. CAN is secondary to a combination of chronic rejection, chronic cyclosporine toxicity, and\\/or donor

Sundaram Hariharan

2001-01-01

300

Managing soils for long-term productivity  

PubMed Central

Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil erosion accentuates the often very low inherent fertility of many soils in the tropics. An integrated approach involving inorganic and organic inputs is required where animal and plant residues are returned, as far as practicable. Chemical fertilizers alone cannot achieve long-term productivity on many soils and organic material inputs are required to maintain soil organic matter levels and crop productivity. A major research effort is required to develop improved strategies for halting and reversing soil degradation if long-term productivity is to be secured.

Syers, J. K.

1997-01-01

301

Long-term correlations in earth sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we review the occurrence and consequences of long-term memory in geophysical records like climate and seismic records, and describe similarities with financial data sets. We review several methods to detect linear and nonlinear long-term correlations, also in the presence of external trends, and show how external trends can be detected in data with long-term memory. We show as well that long-term correlations lead to a natural clustering of extreme events and discuss the implications for several geophysical data sets.

Bunde, Armin; Lennartz, Sabine

2012-06-01

302

Long-term outcome after respiratory rehabilitation.  

PubMed Central

To determine the long-term effect of respiratory rehabilitation, we followed up for 6 months after discharge 31 consecutive patients enrolled in a multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation program lasting 4 to 6 weeks. Of the 31, 24 showed improvement in quality of life (as measured with a previously validated questionnaire) and in functional exercise capacity (as measured with the 6-minute walk test) 2 weeks after discharge. The improvement was sustained for 6 months in 11 of the 24. Other investigators have found higher response rates than those that we report. The differences are likely due to our enrolment of consecutive patients, the length and completeness of follow-up, and the objective measurement of quality of life by an interviewer not associated with the rehabilitation program. Controlled trials of respiratory rehabilitation measuring both costs and benefits are warranted. In the meantime, strategies to maintain the initial improvement seen after rehabilitation should be developed and studied. PMID:3676969

Guyatt, G H; Berman, L B; Townsend, M

1987-01-01

303

The Behavior of Real Interest Rates in Exchange-Rate-Based Stabilization Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the behavior of real interest rates at the inception of exchange-rate-based stabilization programs. The analysis is based on an optimizing model of a small open economy facing imperfect world capital markets. A reduction in the devaluation rate is shown to have a positive impact on real interest rates. By contrast, a program characterized by an initial reduction

Pierre-Richard Agénor

1998-01-01

304

7 CFR 3550.208 - Reamortization using promissory note interest rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reamortization using promissory note interest rate. 3550.208 Section 3550...Reamortization using promissory note interest rate. Reamortization using the promissory note interest rate may be authorized when...

2010-01-01

305

Phase II Trial of Radiation Dose Escalation With Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy and High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Suppression in Unfavorable Prostate Cancer: Feasibility Report  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist-based androgen suppressive therapy (AST) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for high-risk (HRPC) or very-high-risk prostate cancer (VHRPC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and October 2006, 134 patients (median age, 70 years) with either National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria-defined HRPC (n = 47, 35.1%) or VHRPC (n = 87, 64.9%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of 14.6 ng/mL, a median clinical stage of T2c, and a median Gleason score of 7. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (54 Gy in 30 fractions) was followed by HDR brachytherapy (19 Gy in 4 b.i.d. treatments). Androgen suppressive therapy started 0-3 months before three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and continued for 2 years. Results: One implant was repositioned with a new procedure (0.7%). Five patients (3.7%) discontinued AST at a median of 13 months (range, 6-18 months) because of disease progression (n = 1), hot flashes (n = 2), fatigue (n = 1), and impotence (n = 1). After a median follow-up of 37.4 months (range, 24-90 months), the highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late urinary toxicities were Grade 0 in 47.8%, Grade 1 in 38.1%, Grade 2 in 7.5%, and Grade 3 in 6.7% of patients. Maximal late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 0 in 73.1%, Grade 1 in 16.4%, Grade 2 in 7.5%, and Grade 3 in 2.9% of patients. There were no Grade 4 or 5 events. Conclusions: Intermediate-term results show that dose escalation with HDR brachytherapy combined with long-term AST is feasible and has a toxicity profile similar to that reported by previous HDR brachytherapy studies.

Valero, Jeanette; Cambeiro, Mauricio [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Galan, Carlos [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Rioja, Logrono (Spain); Teijeira, Mercedes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Divino Valles, Burgos (Spain); Romero, Pilar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Zudaire, Javier [Department of Urology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Aristu, Jose Javier [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Martinez-Monge, Rafael, E-mail: rmartinezm@unav.e [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain)

2010-02-01

306

Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  

MedlinePLUS

Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program (OAA, Title VII, Chapter 2, Sections 711/712) The Purpose of the Program and How it ... Services Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2011 indicate that ...

307

Structure preserving stochastic integration schemes in interest rate derivative modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many applications, differential equation models require geometric integration, i.e., the application of structure-preserving integration schemes. In computational finance, for example, the numerical simulation of extended Libor market models used to value structured interest rate derivatives has to preserve positivity or boundedness of the underlying stochastic processes used to model mean-reverting volatility or forward rates. This paper discusses how stochastic

C. H. KAHL; M. Günther; T. Rossberg

2008-01-01

308

Exploring Fiscal Policy at Zero Interest Rates in Intermediate Macroeconomics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the financial meltdown of 2007, advanced macroeconomic theory has delved more deeply into the question of the appropriate fiscal policy when the nominal interest rate is close to or at zero percent. Such analysis is typically conducted with the aid of New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium models. The policy implications are,…

Ramamurthy, Srikanth; Sedgley, Norman

2013-01-01

309

On Recall Rate of Interest Point Detectors Henrik Aans  

E-print Network

- dustrial robot arm. The scene surfaces have been scanned using structured light, providing precise 3D in relation to the number of interest points, the recall rate as a function of camera position and light variation, and the sensitivity relative to model parameter change. The overall conclusion is that the Harris

310

Optimal Dividend Policy with Random Interest Rates Erdinc Akyildirim  

E-print Network

dividend policy problem for a company that is not allowed to issue new securities or obtain a new loan from interest rates are high and less when issuing costs are high. Key words: Dividend Policy, Business Cycles of this problem is to investigate how the optimal dividend policy is modified when the profitability of the firm

Soner, Halil Mete

311

Money, Prices, Interest Rates and the Business Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms governing the relationship of money, prices and interest rates to the business cycle are the most studied and most disputed topics in macroeconomics. In this paper, we first document key empirical aspects of this relationship. We then ask how well three benchmark rational expectations macroeconomic models--real business cycle model, a sticky price model and a liquidity effect model--account

Robert G. King; Mark W. Watson

1996-01-01

312

Factors Influencing Interest Rates on Delinquent Property Tax Certificates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the market for delinquent property tax certificates, a commonly used enforcement mechanism in property tax systems around the United States. We model the value of such certificates using a continuous-time framework and propose a statistical model that allows testing for factors that affect interest rates charged by investors who purchase the certificates as investment instruments. Using sample

Marcus T. Allen; Sheri Faircloth; Ali Nejadmalayeri

2004-01-01

313

Interest rates in quantum finance: Caps, swaptions and bond options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prices of the main interest rate options in the financial markets, derived from the Libor (London Interbank Overnight Rate), are studied in the quantum finance model of interest rates. The option prices show new features for the Libor Market Model arising from the fact that, in the quantum finance formulation, all the different Libor payments are coupled and (imperfectly) correlated. Black’s caplet formula for quantum finance is given an exact path integral derivation. The coupon and zero coupon bond options as well as the Libor European and Asian swaptions are derived in the framework of quantum finance. The approximate Libor option prices are derived using the volatility expansion. The BGM-Jamshidian (Gatarek et al. (1996) [1], Jamshidian (1997) [2]) result for the Libor swaption prices is obtained as the limiting case when all the Libors are exactly correlated. A path integral derivation is given of the approximate BGM-Jamshidian approximate price.

Baaquie, Belal E.

2010-01-01

314

7 CFR 771.9 - Interest rates, terms, security requirements, and repayment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates, terms, security requirements...ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.9 Interest rates, terms, security requirements, and repayment. (a) Interest rate. The interest rate will...

2010-01-01

315

The role of emotions for musical long-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated whether music rated as emotional is kept in episodic long-term memory better than music rated as less emotional. Furthermore, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory of music. Twenty non musicians participated in this study. Short excerpts of film music were used as the stimuli. In the first session, all subjects listened to

Susann Eschrich; Thomas F. Münte; Eckart Altenmüller

2006-01-01

316

SLEEP DISTURBANCES IN LONG-TERM CARE  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Nighttime sleep disruption is characteristic of long-term care residents, is typically accompanied by daytime sleepiness and may be caused by a multitude of factors. Causal factors include medical and psychiatric illness, medications, circadian rhythm abnormalities, sleep disordered breathing and other primary sleep disorders, environmental factors and lifestyle habits. There is some suggestion that these factors are amenable to treatment; however, further research on the implementation of treatments within the long-term care setting is needed. Additional work is also needed to understand the administrative and policy factors that might lead to systemic changes in how sleep is viewed and sleep problems are addressed in long-term care settings. A growing number of older adults reside in long-term care facilities. In this setting, residents commonly suffer from nighttime sleep disruption, which is often accompanied by daytime sleepiness and may be caused by a multitude of factors. Importantly, sleep disturbance is associated with negative health outcomes, including risk for falling, and elevated mortality risk among long-term care residents. A number of factors contribute to sleep disturbance in the long-term care setting including medical and psychiatric illness, medications, circadian rhythm abnormalities, sleep disordered breathing and other primary sleep disorders, environmental conditions (e.g., noise and light) and lifestyle habits. Based on research with older adults in the community and work conducted within long-term care settings, there is some suggestion that these factors are amenable to nonpharmacological treatments. Further research on the broad implementation of treatments for sleep problems within the long-term care setting is still needed. Additional work is also needed to understand the administrative and policy factors that might lead to systemic changes in how sleep is viewed and sleep problems are addressed in long-term care settings. PMID:18035230

Martin, Jennifer L.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

2008-01-01

317

Transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy: Long term results  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the outcomes of transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy (TRC-DCR) surgery in patients with epiphora due to primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) at second year follow-up. Methods In this retrospective, interventional study, 33 eyes of 29 patients, with epiphora due to PANDO, are included. Lower eyelid conjunctiva is incised at vestibulum inferomedially to access the lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa. Bone is perforated with burr and rongeurs and saccal and nasal flaps are anastomosed. Conjunctival wound edges are apposed and left unsutured. Intraoperative difficulties, surgical time and complications are noted. Average follow-up time was 2 years. Anatomical success was defined as patent lacrimal passages upon irrigation and functional success was defined as relief of epiphora. Results In nineteen (57.6%) eyes the surgeries were completed with the anterior and the posterior flaps sutured. In eight eyes (24.2%) only anterior flaps could be sutured. In 6 eyes (18.2%), the surgical procedure was converted to external dacryocystorhinostomy since the nasal mucosa could not be exposed adequately via transconjunctival route. The mean surgical time was 65.1 min. One patient had a millimeter long lower eyelid margin laceration in one eye (3.7%) intraoperatively due to traction for visualization of the operative site. Epiphora resolved in 25 of 27 eyes (92.5%) in whom TRC-DCR could be completed. Epiphora and failure to irrigation were noted in two eyes (7.4%) at the postoperative 4th and 8th months, respectively and required reoperation. No complications occurred, except granuloma formation at the conjunctival incision site in three eyes (11.1%). Epiphora resolved in all the six eyes of patients who underwent an external DCR (100%). Conclusion Transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy is a scarless dacryocystorhinostomy technique which is performed without endoscope and/or laser assistance, with 92.5% success rate comparable to external DCR at the second year follow-up without major complications. PMID:24526861

Kaynak, Pelin; Ozturker, Can; Karabulut, Gamze; Celik, Burcu; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk; Demirok, Ahmet

2013-01-01

318

Analysis of Solar Irradiation Anomalies in Long Term Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of global hemispheric irradiation measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of solar irradiation in India using anomalies techniques and trends in ten places over India. Most of the places have exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, M.; Polo, J.; Martin, L.; Navarro, A.; Serra, I.

2012-04-01

319

Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

2014-05-01

320

Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.  

PubMed Central

Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

Sykes, L R

1996-01-01

321

Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.  

PubMed

Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. PMID:11607658

Sykes, L R

1996-04-30

322

Long-term care and the elderly  

E-print Network

Long-term care expenditures represent one of the largest uninsured financial risks facing the elderly. Medicaid provides incomplete insurance against these costs: unlimited nursing home benefits with a deductible equal to ...

Coe, Norma B

2005-01-01

323

Pharmaceutical Services in Long Term Care Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information pertinent to the development of policies and procedures for pharmaceutical services in long-term care facilities in the State of Washington is presented. Topics to be included in policy and procedures manuals are outlined, with references to a...

1976-01-01

324

Long-term outcome after coronary stenting  

PubMed Central

The present review assesses the data on long-term outcome after coronary stenting. Histological, angiographical and intravascular imaging data have shown that the insertion of stents constitutes only a transient stimulus to lumen renarrowing, that this process is almost complete at 6 months and that a certain degree of neointima regression is also possible after this time. Clinical data have confirmed the sustained benefit of stenting in the long term. Careful selection of optimal stent designs and application of the recent advances in adjunctive pharmacological therapy are currently effective strategies to improve both short-and long-term results with coronary stenting. However, further efforts are needed and are ongoing to combat restenosis, a process that counters the excellent short-term results of stenting in the long term. PMID:11714409

Kastrati, Adnan; Hall, Donald; Schomig, Albert

2000-01-01

325

Long Term TOA - M Data and Information  

... 30 years to date.   The proposed project utilizes knowledge gained in the last 10 years through CERES data analyses and apply the knowledge to existing data to develop long-term (nearly 30 years) consistent ...

2014-08-06

326

Long-term solar activity predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for long term solar activity predictions is addressed. The spatial organization of solar activity is described including applications for predictions, and ancient evidence for solar variability. Methods of predicting sunspot numbers are discussed. The inherent accuracy of the methods varies considerably, but a typical error bar 20%. The accuracy of sunspot cycle predictions is considered along with long term predictions of great solar events.

Mcintosh, P. S.; Brown, G. M.; Buhmann, R.; Clark, T.; Fougere, P. F.; Hunter, H.; Lincoln, J. V.; Sargent, H. H., III; Timothy, J. G.; Lin, Y. Z.

1979-01-01

327

Long-Term Outcome of Fetal Hydrocephaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term outcome of 25 fetuses with ventriculomegaly diagnosed before delivery who survived the neonatal period up to school age was examined at 10.1 (standard deviation, 2.6) years of age. Twelve children had normal motor and mental development, seven were severely handicapped, and six showed intermediate outcome. The fetuses with severe handicaps on long-term follow-up had more severe ventricular dilation than

Pertti Kirkinen; Willy Serlo; Pentti Jouppila; Markku Ryynänen; Anneli Martikainen

1996-01-01

328

External-Beam Radiation Therapy and High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy in High and Very High Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Data on Clinical Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 200 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (32.5%) or very high-risk prostate cancer (67.5%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen of 15.2 ng/mL, a clinical stage of T2c, and a Gleason score of 7. Treatment consisted of 54 Gy of external irradiation (three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [3DCRT]) followed by 19 Gy of HDR brachytherapy in four twice-daily treatments. ADT started 0-3 months before 3DCRT and continued for 2 years. Results: One hundred and ninety patients (95%) received 2 years of ADT. After a median follow-up of 3.7 years (range, 2-9), late Grade {>=}2 urinary toxicity was observed in 18% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 was observed in 5%. Prior transurethral resection of the prostate (p = 0.013) and bladder D{sub 50} {>=}1.19 Gy (p = 0.014) were associated with increased Grade {>=}2 urinary complications; age {>=}70 (p = 0.05) was associated with Grade {>=}3 urinary complications. Late Grade {>=}2 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 9% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 in 1.5%. CTV size {>=}35.8 cc (p = 0.007) and D{sub 100} {>=}3.05 Gy (p = 0.01) were significant for increased Grade {>=}2 complications. The 5-year and 9-year biochemical relapse-free survival (nadir + 2) rates were 85.1% and 75.7%, respectively. Patients with Gleason score of 7-10 had a decreased biochemical relapse-free survival (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Intermediate-term results at the 5-year time point indicate a favorable outcome without an increase in the rate of late complications.

Martinez-Monge, Rafael, E-mail: rmartinezm@unav.es [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Cambeiro, Mauricio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio [Department of Medical Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Gaztanaga, Miren; Arbea, Leire [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Pascual, Ignacio [Department of Urology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Aristu, Javier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain)

2012-03-01

329

Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516

2013-01-01

330

Equivalence of interest rate models and lattice gases.  

PubMed

We consider the class of short rate interest rate models for which the short rate is proportional to the exponential of a Gaussian Markov process x(t) in the terminal measure r(t)=a(t)exp[x(t)]. These models include the Black-Derman-Toy and Black-Karasinski models in the terminal measure. We show that such interest rate models are equivalent to lattice gases with attractive two-body interaction, V(t(1),t(2))=-Cov[x(t(1)),x(t(2))]. We consider in some detail the Black-Karasinski model with x(t) as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and show that it is similar to a lattice gas model considered by Kac and Helfand, with attractive long-range two-body interactions, V(x,y)=-?(e(-?|x-y|)-e(-?(x+y))). An explicit solution for the model is given as a sum over the states of the lattice gas, which is used to show that the model has a phase transition similar to that found previously in the Black-Derman-Toy model in the terminal measure. PMID:22680547

Pirjol, Dan

2012-04-01

331

Equivalence of interest rate models and lattice gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the class of short rate interest rate models for which the short rate is proportional to the exponential of a Gaussian Markov process x(t) in the terminal measure r(t)=a(t)exp[x(t)]. These models include the Black-Derman-Toy and Black-Karasinski models in the terminal measure. We show that such interest rate models are equivalent to lattice gases with attractive two-body interaction, V(t1,t2)=-Cov[x(t1),x(t2)]. We consider in some detail the Black-Karasinski model with x(t) as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and show that it is similar to a lattice gas model considered by Kac and Helfand, with attractive long-range two-body interactions, V(x,y)=-?(e-?|x-y|-e-?(x+y)). An explicit solution for the model is given as a sum over the states of the lattice gas, which is used to show that the model has a phase transition similar to that found previously in the Black-Derman-Toy model in the terminal measure.

Pirjol, Dan

2012-04-01

332

Equivalence of interest rate models and lattice gases  

E-print Network

We consider the class of short rate interest rate models for which the short rate is proportional to the exponential of a Gaussian Markov process x(t) in the terminal measure r(t) = a(t) exp(x(t)). These models include the Black, Derman, Toy and Black, Karasinski models in the terminal measure. We show that such interest rate models are equivalent with lattice gases with attractive two-body interaction V(t1,t2)= -Cov(x(t1),x(t2)). We consider in some detail the Black, Karasinski model with x(t) an Ornstein, Uhlenbeck process, and show that it is similar with a lattice gas model considered by Kac and Helfand, with attractive long-range two-body interactions V(x,y) = -\\alpha (e^{-\\gamma |x - y|} - e^{-\\gamma (x + y)}). An explicit solution for the model is given as a sum over the states of the lattice gas, which is used to show that the model has a phase transition similar to that found previously in the Black, Derman, Toy model in the terminal measure.

Dan Pirjol

2012-04-04

333

Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment.  

PubMed

The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa. PMID:2340495

Genescà, A; Caballín, M R; Miró, R; Benet, J; Bonfill, X; Egozcue, J

1990-06-01

334

Genetic Testing For Alzheimer's And Long-Term Care Insurance  

PubMed Central

A genetic marker known as apolipoprotein E provides a clear signal of a person’s risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and thus that person’s future need for long-term care. People who find that they have the variant of the trait that increases Alzheimer’s disease risk are more likely to purchase long-term care insurance after receiving this information. If the information is widely introduced into the insurance market, coverage rates could be affected in different ways, depending on who possesses that information. Policymakers will eventually need to confront the issue of the use of this and other markers in the pricing of long-term care insurance. PMID:20048367

Taylor, Donald H.; Cook-Deegan, Robert M.; Hiraki, Susan; Roberts, J. Scott; Blazer, Dan G.; Green, Robert C.

2010-01-01

335

[Long term adherence to HAART in Senegal].  

PubMed

Adherence is one of the main predictors of antiretroviral treatment success. A governmental initiative was launched in 1998 for HIV-infected patients in Senegal to provide access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Adherence measurements, defined as pills taken/pills prescribed, were assessed between November 1999 and June 2010 using a pill count along with a questionnaire for 330 patients. Predictors of adherence and identification of adherence trajectories were explored through latent class mixed model. We also performed a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard model. Three adherence behaviours were revealed as well as a better adherence for women. A third of patients had a high adherence trajectory over time and a third had an intermediate one. Male gender and low adherence behaviour over time were independently associated with a higher mortality rate. This study shows that an overall good adherence can be obtained in the long term in Senegal, suggests a better adherence for women and points out a large subsample of patients with intermediate level of adherence behaviour who are at risk for developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:24615434

Bastard, M; Fall, M Basty Koita

2014-10-01

336

Long-term acoustic surveying of bats.  

PubMed

Increasing concern about decline in biodiversity has created a demand for population surveys. Long-term unmanned automatic monitoring may provide unique unbiased data from a whole season, but the large amount of data presents serious challenges for automatic processing. A two-month study of echolocating bats at 500 kHz sampling rate provided 236 GiB of data at full bandwidth. We used a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classier based on a combination of temporal and spectral analyses to classify events into bat calls and non-bat events. Duration, energy, bandwidth, and entropy were used to identify bat calls and reject short noise pulses, e.g., from rain. The SVM classifier reduced our dataset to 162 MiB of candidate bat calls with an estimated accuracy of 96% for dry nights and 70% when it was raining. The automatic survey revealed correlation between bat activity and rain, temperature, and sunset/sunrise. There were calls from two species new to the area, as well as an unexpected abundance of social calls. Future applications aim at higher accuracy in classifying bat calls and using trajectory-tracking to determine flight paths to correct for the bias toward loud bats inherent in acoustic surveying. PMID:25235391

Surlykke, Annemarie; Andreassen, Tórur; Hallam, John

2014-04-01

337

Viability Issues for Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Systems  

SciTech Connect

To date, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has strived to understand the scope of long-term stewardship at DOE facilities. This paper identifies several challenges and needed innovations to provide cost-effective long-term subsurface monitoring. These challenges are significant, as DOE has identified greater than 100 candidate sites that may require subsurface monitoring for long-term stewardship. This enormous stewardship mortgage may be reducible through (1) cost-effective application of high-quality emplacement techniques for state-of-the-art monitoring systems and (2) the development of improved or completely new approaches for monitoring the subsurface environment that demonstrate the data produced are equally representative of the subsurface conditions and comparable over the long term. Currently, and for the near future, the only reliable subsurface/groundwater plume monitoring and assessment technique is sample collection and analysis via wells. At present, no geophysical technique can replace this approach and in situ sensors are just beginning to augment, not substitute conventional sampling. Long-term performance of wells and/or monitoring systems relies on: (1) access consistent with a zone of interest and (2) delivering samples representative of that zone for measurement. Well designs must anticipate the future behavior of the aquifer, as well as maintain chemical and physical stability. Long-term well-based network vulnerabilities can be subdivided into various categories, such as changes in the groundwater level and/or flow; subsurface heterogeneities; biological, chemical or physical reactions between the well screen or filter pack and the aquifer; changes in up-gradient and down-gradient relationships; and catastrophic events. Given the expense of accommodating such changes, site-wide (large-scale) hydraulic management of the aquifer may become cost-effective.

Schalla, Ronald (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Bush, Jim G. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-01-01

338

Representing Long-Term and Interest BDI Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In BDI systems, agents are described using mentalistic notions such as beliefs and goals. According to the intentional stance\\u000a this helps specifying and understanding complex behavior, because the system is made up of folk psychological concepts that\\u000a humans naturally tend to use for explaining reasoning and behavior and therefore can easily grasp. To close the gap between\\u000a the natural usage

Lars Braubach; Alexander Pokahr

2009-01-01

339

LONG-TERM CADMIUM STRESS IN THE CUNNER, TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS  

E-print Network

LONG-TERM CADMIUM STRESS IN THE CUNNER, TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS J. R. MAcINNES, F. P. THURBERG, R to 0.05 or 0.10 ppm Cd as cadmium chloride. The mean gill-tissue respiratory rates exhibited with cunners and other teleosts. In recent years cadmium has become the subject of numerous investigations

340

Long-Term Mortality after Gastric Bypass Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this retrospective cohort study, we determined the long-term mortality (from 1984 to 2002) among 9949 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery and 9628 severely obese persons who applied for driver's licenses. From these subjects, 7925 surgical patients and 7925 severely obese control subjects were matched for age, sex, and body-mass index. We determined the rates of death from

Ted D. Adams; Richard E. Gress; Sherman C. Smith; R. Chad Halverson; Steven C. Simper; Wayne D. Rosamond; Michael J. LaMonte; Antoinette M. Stroup; Steven C. Hunt

2007-01-01

341

Long-Term Maternal Morbidity Associated with Repeat Cesarean Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern regarding the association between cesarean delivery and long-term maternal morbidity is growing as the rate of cesarean delivery continues to increase. Observational evidence suggests that the risk of morbidity increases with increasing number of cesarean deliveries. The dominant maternal risk in subsequent pregnancies is placenta accreta spectrum disorder and its associated complications. A history of multiple cesarean deliveries is

Erin A. S. Clark; Robert M. Silver

342

Long-term assessment of cryopreserved vein bypass grafting success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: When autogenous vein is unavailable, cryopreserved veins have been used in patients as a means of attempted limb salvage. We evaluated the long-term patency and limb salvage rates for patients undergoing bypass grafting with cryopreserved veins. Methods: Medical records were reviewed for patients undergoing cryovein bypass grafting at two hospitals from 1992 to 1997. Follow-up data were obtained from

Linda Harris; Monica O'Brien-Irr; John J. Ricotta

2001-01-01

343

Anxiety Disorders in Long-Term Survivors of Adult Cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the prevalence of anxiety disorders among long-term survivors of adult cancers. Using data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R), we compared rates of anxiety disorders between long-term cancer survivors and individuals without a history of cancer. Methods A nationally representative sample of 9,282 adults participated in a household survey to assess the prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, a subset of whom also answered questions about medical comorbidities, including cancer. Long-term survivors were defined as those who received an adult cancer diagnosis at least five years before the survey. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between cancer history and anxiety disorders in the past year. Results The NCS-R sample consisted of 225 long-term cancer survivors and 5,337 people without a history of cancer. Controlling for socio-demographic variables, long-term cancer survivors were more likely to have an anxiety disorder (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.04-2.13), including specific phobia (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.06-2.44) and medical phobia (OR: 3.45, 95% CI: 1.15-10.0), during the past 12 months compared to those without cancer histories. Rates for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion Long-term survivors of adult cancers were more likely to have an anxiety disorder diagnosis, namely specific phobia, in the past 12 months compared with the general public. Further longitudinal study is needed to clarify the timing and course of anxiety relative to the cancer diagnosis. PMID:21907059

Greer, Joseph A.; Solis, Jessica M.; Temel, Jennifer S.; Lennes, Inga T.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Pirl, William F.

2011-01-01

344

Long-term storage of lyophilized liposomal formulations.  

PubMed

Because aqueous liposomal formulations containing multiply unsaturated lipids are susceptible to chemical degradation, these formulations are often lyophilized. Despite their limited chemical stability, interest in the use of multiply unsaturated lipids to promote intracellular delivery has increased considerably in recent years. The goal of the current study was to examine the long-term storage stability of lyophilized formulations containing lipids with increasing levels of unsaturation, and various strategies that can be employed to improve stability. Aqueous lipid-trehalose formulations containing 1,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLinPC), or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were lyophilized and stored at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. We observed that the lipid degradation rate increased as the storage temperature and unsaturation level were increased. Even the cleanest sugars, which are available commercially, contain iron contaminants, and it was observed that the chelation of these iron contaminants significantly improved the stability of DLPC during storage. However, the glass transition temperature of the sugar that was included in the formulation, the reduction of the oxygen in the aqueous sample prior to lyophilization, the inclusion of helper lipids (i.e., cholesterol), and the rate of freezing did not significantly improve stability. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3869-3878, 2014. PMID:25308534

Payton, Nicole M; Wempe, Michael F; Xu, Yemin; Anchordoquy, Thomas J

2014-12-01

345

12 CFR 557.14 - What interest rate may I pay on savings accounts?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false What interest rate may I pay on savings accounts...Associations § 557.14 What interest rate may I pay on savings accounts? (a) You may pay interest at any rate or anticipated rate of...

2010-01-01

346

Private Long-Term Care Insurance: Value to Claimants and Implications for Long-Term Care Financing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain a profile of individuals with private long-term care (LTC) insurance as they begin using paid LTC services and track their patterns of service use, satisfaction with services and insurance, claims denial rates, and transitions over a 28-month period. Design and Methods: Ten LTC insurance companies…

Doty, Pamela; Cohen, Marc A.; Miller, Jessica; Shi, Xiaomei

2010-01-01

347

A basic strategy for financing long term care.  

PubMed

As pressure mounts to contain Medicaid long term care spending, short-range "quick fixes" must be avoided. Three such false solutions in particular have shortcomings that may actually exacerbate long term care's financial dilemma because they are based on inadequate definitions of the problem. Two of these proposals--legislation to broaden family responsibility toward institutionalized elders on Medicaid and expanded state power to put liens on such elders' real property--err by trying to mandate "caring" and are predicated on a misunderstanding of the "spend-down" problem. The other proposal--to provide tax incentives to family members who care for elders--requires a large administrative apparatus, assumes an elasticity of supply that may not exist, and could disrupt the "gift relationship" on which family exchanges are often based. What is needed is a strategy with short term, intermediate, and long term objectives that move toward an insurance approach. The short term plan should lay the groundwork for intermediate strategy and control costs by changing rate-setting methods and putting limits on facility construction. The intermediate plan should change the problem's definition from one of merely controlling Medicaid long term care expenditures to one of efficiently managing state resources for the elderly through the development of state financing and local delivery systems that target older persons in greatest need. An effective means of doing this is through the creation of social/HMOs, which have five key features: integration of service responsibility and authority; flexibility in organizational design; balanced clientele; pooled prepaid funding; and financial risk for the provider organization. Finally, the long term strategy should transfer much of the long term care financial burden from individuals and state Medicaid agencies to insurance mechanisms. Many individuals would thus avoid impoverishment caused by health care spending and Medicaid would greatly reduce its caseload. Insurance coverage is an appropriate funding mechanism, moreover, in that relatively few persons will ever incur high costs. PMID:10310445

Greenberg, J A; Leutz, W N

1984-02-01

348

Perceptual Correlates of Nociceptive Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength are ubiquitous mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, but their functional relevance in humans remains obscure. Here we report that a long-term increase in perceived pain to electrical test stimuli was induced by high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) (5 1 sec at 100 Hz) of peptidergic cutaneous afferents (27% above baseline, undiminished for3

Thomas Klein; Walter Magerl; Hanns-Christian Hopf; Jurgen Sandkuhler; Rolf-Detlef Treede

2004-01-01

349

Effect of long-term potentiation on the behavior of neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the characteristics of long-term potentiation (LTP) is that it decays as time passes, and the decay rates are different among different synapses. Many simulations have been done using different decay rates with randomized connections and LTPs. The faster the decay rate of the long-term potentiation, the more sensitive the network is to the stimuli. Therefore, the plasticity of

Kwangsup Shim

1990-01-01

350

Long Term Changes in Marine Fisheries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Issue focuses on a research article by Barange (2003) that was published in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. The article discusses long-term (inter-decadal and longer) patterns of change in marine species in the context of over-exploitation of marine fisheries. BarangeÃÂs emphasis is use of ecosystem-based management practice to move us towards sustainable fisheries. However, he questions whether we know enough about patterns and causes of long term change in marine ecosystems to develop such practices.

D'Avanzo, Charlene

2010-02-16

351

Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

NONE

1996-01-01

352

Insurance: Mathematics and Economics xxx (2005) xxxxxx Catastrophe options with stochastic interest rates and  

E-print Network

of catastrophe put options under stochastic interest rates with losses generated by a compound Poisson process derivatives; Reinsurance; Compound Poisson process; Stochastic interest rates 1. Introduction Although interest rates and compound Poisson losses Sebastian Jaimungal, Tao Wang Department of Statistics

Jaimungal, Sebastian

353

13 CFR 120.214 - What conditions apply for variable interest rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What conditions apply for variable interest rates? 120.214 Section 120...to 7(a) Loans Maturities; Interest Rates; Loan and Guarantee Amounts...What conditions apply for variable interest rates? A Lender may use a...

2010-01-01

354

12 CFR 617.7125 - How should a qualified lender determine the effective interest rate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...lender determine the effective interest rate? 617.7125 Section 617...RIGHTS Disclosure of Effective Interest Rates § 617.7125 How should a...lender determine the effective interest rate? (a) A qualified...

2010-01-01

355

7 CFR 3575.80 - Interest rate changes after loan closing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate changes after loan closing...Guaranteed Loans § 3575.80 Interest rate changes after loan closing...effect a permanent reduction in the interest rate on the guaranteed loan...

2010-01-01

356

13 CFR 120.213 - What fixed interest rates may a Lender charge?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false What fixed interest rates may a Lender charge? 120...to 7(a) Loans Maturities; Interest Rates; Loan and Guarantee Amounts § 120.213 What fixed interest rates may a Lender charge?...

2010-01-01

357

76 FR 15055 - Proposed Information Collection (Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection (Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans...VA-guaranteed loan with a lower interest rate. DATES: Written comments and...technology. Title: Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing...

2011-03-18

358

29 CFR Appendix C to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments...Appendix C to Part 4022—Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments...integer and 0 interest rate i 1 shall apply from...

2010-07-01

359

77 FR 5416 - Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate Risk; Investment and Deposit Activities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate Risk; Investment and Deposit Activities...for the purpose of offsetting interest rate risk (IRR).\\1\\ This ANPR follows...1\\ Interest rate risk refers to the vulnerability of a...

2012-02-03

360

What Influences the Long-Term Sustainability of Service-Learning? Lessons from Early Adopters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As service-learning is adopted by growing numbers of higher education institutions, there is increasing interest in understanding the factors necessary to sustain service-learning for the long-term. Institutions that were early adopters of service-learning may offer important insights into what factors influence long-term sustainability. With this…

Vogel, Amanda L.; Seifer, Sarena D.; Gelmon, Sherril B.

2010-01-01

361

Long-Term Impacts of Educational Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school accountability movement has led to a marked increase in the use of standardized test scores to measure school and teacher productivity, yet little is known about the correlation between test score gains and improvements in long-term outcomes. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I study the impact of a school choice policy in…

Deming, David James

2010-01-01

362

Titanium for long-term tritium storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing

Heung

1994-01-01

363

Long-Term Stability of Social Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

2008-01-01

364

Medication error reporting in long term care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Medication errors are common causes of medical error in the long-term care (LTC) setting. Despite their frequency and potential clinical impact, most medication errors in LTC facilities remain unreported. Before better reporting systems can be developed to reduce clinically significant medication errors, it is necessary to understand how current medication error reporting systems function.

Steven M. Handler; David A. Nace; Stephanie A. Studenski; Douglas B. Fridsma

2004-01-01

365

Long-term treatment with recombinant  

E-print Network

Long-term treatment with recombinant nerve growth factor for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy and significantly im- proved pain symptoms. However, there was no improvement of neuropathy severity as assessed antiretroviral zal- citabine, didanosine, and stavudine is associated with a toxic neuropathy clinically similar

Steinbach, Joe Henry

366

Long-term stabilization of assay components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable long-term stabilization of immunoassay components is beneficial in many applications. Stabilization and storage of components are important for effective workflows not only for performing large numbers of ELISA but also for medium and small numbers of ELISA. This article deals with the state of the art - particularly with regard to food, veterinary or clinical diagnostics. Clinical immuno diagnostics

Tobias Polifke; Peter Rauch

367

Long-Term Perspectives on Giant Earthquakes  

E-print Network

Long-Term Perspectives on Giant Earthquakes and Tsunamis at Subduction Zones Kenji Satake1. Such variation in rupture mode, known from written history at a few subduction zones, is also characteristic, Cascadia, Hokkaido Abstract Histories of earthquakes and tsunamis, inferred from geological ev- idence, aid

368

Factors in Long-Term Marriages  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few empirical studies of the factors involved in long-term marriages. The present study involves a nonrandom sample of 351 couples who have been married 15 years or more. Differences were found in the reported reasons for staying together between happy, unhappy, and mixed (one partner happy and one unhappy) marriages. For happy couples, the most frequently mentioned reason

ROBERT H. LAUER; JEANETTE C. LAUER

1986-01-01

369

LONG-TERM POTENTIATION AND LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation (LTP), a relatively long-lived increase in synaptic strength, remains the most popular model for the cellular process that may underlie information storage within neural systems. The strongest arguments for a role of LTP in memory are theoretical and involve Hebb's Postulate, Marr's theory of hippocampal function, and neural network theory. Considering LTP research as a whole, few studies

Joe L. Martinez; Brian E. Derrick

1996-01-01

370

LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

371

Neonatal desensitization allows long-term  

E-print Network

to achieve long-term survival of human neural grafts in the adult mammalian brain, based on desensitizing in Table 1. All experimental and surgical procedures were conducted under the UK Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, and subject to local ethical review and the relevant personal, project and institution

Cai, Long

372

Long-term Silvicultural & Ecological Studies  

E-print Network

Long-term Silvicultural & Ecological Studies Results for Science and Management: Volume 2 Ann E & Ecological Studies Results for Science and Management: Volume 2 Ann E. Camp Yale School of Forestry LTER Glenn Patrick Juday 31 The Rosie Creek Fire Tree Regeneration Installation: A Large White Spruce

373

3, 12491280, 2006 Long-term impacts  

E-print Network

and in particular developments in water storage in reservoirs and consumption for irrigation, drinking water System Sciences Detecting the long-term impacts from climate variability and increasing water consumption-use and water consumption can have profound effects on river runoff. There is an increasing demand to study

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

374

Understanding long-term environmental risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

How well we manage long-term environmental risks depends on how well we understand them. Whether the risk managers are experts or laypeople, that understanding is typically limited. As a result, people must rely on judgment when making decisions about risks. Estimating how big risks are and how much reducing them is worth is an intellectual skill. After reviewing the behavioral

Baruch Fischhoff

1990-01-01

375

Protein Phosphorylation and Long-term Synaptic  

E-print Network

Protein Phosphorylation and Long-term Synaptic Plasticity A Barria, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, USA V Derkach,Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, USA TR Soderling,Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, USA Learning and memory are complex

Malinow, Roberto

376

Attachment style and long-term singlehood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how long-term single people satisfy their attachment and sexual needs. A community sample of single and coupled adults (N ¼ 142) located in the United States completed measures of attachment style, attachment figures, loneliness, depression, anxiety, quality of relationships with parents, and sexual behavior. In a structured interview, they answered questions about their childhoods and managing attachment,

DORY A. SCHACHNER; PHILLIP R. SHAVER; OMRI GILLATHc

2008-01-01

377

Long term exposure of metals to hydrazine nitrate blend  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long term testing program is being conducted to determine the effects of materials in contact with a hydrazine nitrate blend for the purpose of designing chemical propulsion systems which can be used for current as well as future planetary spacecraft. Analysis of this data indicates that some aluminum alloys are acceptable for use with the particular blend of fuel used. Titanium alloy was identified as being acceptable for 10-year applications. Corrosion resistant steels, however, were found to have excessive corrosion rates and are therefore considered unacceptable for long-term use. There is also some evidence that the propellant decomposed at a rate far in excess of the acceptable rate of 0.1 percent per year when in contact with stainless steel.

Moran, Clifford M.; Blue, Gary D.

1986-01-01

378

Long-term consequences of severe infections.  

PubMed

There are convincing data to show that the consequences of a severe infection extend well beyond the first month following it. During the first year after severe sepsis or infection, the survival of sepsis patients is guarded compared with matched control groups. Their quality of life is impaired, and they suffer from rapid degradation in cognition and functional capacity. We could postulate three explanations for the long-term bad outcomes of severe infections and sepsis (or a combination of the three): (i) sepsis usually happens in the elderly and sick, and it causes deterioration in life expectancy and functional status as an acute, non-specific event; (ii) an interaction between specific mechanisms of sepsis and underlying disorders; or (iii) long-term complications directly related to infection. If the second or third explanations are true, then management of the original infection/sepsis might have an influence on long-term outcomes. Elderly survivors of severe infections should be carefully assessed for whether they need intermediate care for recuperation and re-conditioning when leaving hospital. We need prospective, observational studies to define which are the factors that most influence long-term outcomes, and especially management of the acute infection. The investigation of long-term outcomes in trials of treatment modalities for sepsis or severe infections should be encouraged. The true answer for whether one treatment is better than another in severe infections or sepsis lies in the people trajectory in the year following the infection, and not only on 4-6 weeks outcome. PMID:23397980

Leibovici, L

2013-06-01

379

LOP- LONG-TERM ORBIT PREDICTOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. Lotus 1-2-3 is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corporation. MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

Kwok, J. H.

1994-01-01

380

The pass-through from market interest rates to bank lending rates in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terms and conditions on which bank loans are made to non-financial firms and households play a key role in the transmission of monetary policy. This paper analyses the relationship between German bank lending rates and both money market and capital market rates in the 1990s. This study reveals evidence of structural differences in the interest rate pass-through across German

Mark Andreas Weth

2002-01-01

381

Long-term effects of gypsiferous coal combustion ash applied at disposal levels on soil chemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there is renewed interest in the agricultural utilization of coal combustion byproducts. Field sites where high rates (112 Mg ha-1) of high gypsum coal combustion spent bed ashes were surface applied in 1980 within fruit tree orchard rows were identified and sampled with depth. The objective of this study was to examine the effects on long-term exposure\\/leaching of these

R. F. Korcak; W. Doral Kemper

1993-01-01

382

Bounded rational expectations and the stability of interest rate policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Keynesian model has recently been subject to two serious criticisms: the model cannot produce plausible inflation and output dynamics following a monetary shock, and the stability of its dynamics suffers from indeterminacy. The procedures that have been proposed to eliminate these two shortcomings fall into two categories: the introduction of some sort of backward price indexation into the standard model and/or other forms of stickiness (like sticky information); and the adoption of some form of policy rule that completely offsets the effects of forward looking dynamics in the optimization process. In this paper we do not eradicate forward looking behavior from the dynamics of the New Keynesian model, neither do we impose some form of backward price indexation. We assume that private economic agents have forward looking behavior and that they do try to optimize with all available information; the only novelty is that they are allowed to make small mistakes near the rational expectations equilibrium, in a fully deterministic setup. These “near rational” or “bounded rational” expectations show that the dynamics of the model with active interest rate rules is much richer than the simple problem of local indeterminacy as is usually found in the literature.

Gomes, Orlando; Mendes, Diana A.; Mendes, Vivaldo M.

2008-06-01

383

[Bariatric surgery - significance, risks, long term consequences].  

PubMed

In recent years the number of bariatric surgery has markedly increased in industrial nations. Surgery provides a more rapid decrease of body weight than conservative approach. However a long term conservative follow up therapy is mandatory to stabilize reduced weight. Due to increasing knowledge from long term follow up of surgically treated obese patients there is a growing body of evidence that frequently there is necessity of reoperations and of substitution both of trace elementsand of minerals or vitamins due to their hampered enteral resorption. Additionally therapy of surgery induced endocrine alterations not seldom is necessary.These insights are of outstanding importance because meanwhile an enlargement of the indications for bariatric surgery as a therapeutic option for metabolic disorders is being discussed. This review refers to the recent internationally published papers concerning consequences of bariatric surgery. PMID:23678666

Schubert, T; Jahn, U; Eben, E; Deuber, H J

2013-03-21

384

Anthracycline cardiotoxicity in long-term survivors of childhood cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthracycline chemotherapy is a widely-used and effective treatment for a wide spectrum of childhood cancers. Its use is limited\\u000a by associated progressive and clinically significant cardiotoxic effects. Onset can be acute, early, or late. While acute\\u000a onset is rare, long-term survivors have significantly elevated rates of cardiac morbidity and mortality. Major complications\\u000a include cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, and atherosclerosis. Means

Rebecca E. Scully; Steven E. Lipshultz

2007-01-01

385

Long term results of inflatable mammary implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this retrospective study, the long term results of 167 inflatable mammary implants in 77 patients who underwent either breast reconstruction or augmentation between 1972 and 1990 were evaluated. All inflatable implants were manufactured by Heyer-Schulte\\/Mentor company, and were equipped with a posterior leaf valve (style 1800). The mean follow-up was 9 years (SD = 4.3).Complete deflation was found in

A. Worseg; R. Kuzbari; G. Tairych; K. Korak; J. Holle

1995-01-01

386

LOP - Long-Term Orbit Predictor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-Term Orbit Preditor (LOP) trajectory-propagation computer program is useful tool in analysis of lifetime of orbiting spacecraft. Suitable for studying planetary-orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Includes sample data for study of drift cycle of geosynchronous station, strategy for radar mapping of Venus, frozen orbit about Mars, and orbit characterized by repeating ground trace. Executed faster than such programs based on Cowell's method. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Kwok, Johnny H.

1992-01-01

387

Long?term Performance of Greek IPOs  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractWe analyse the long?run performance of 254 Greek IPOs that were listed during the period 1994–2002, computing buy?and?hold abnormal returns (BHAR) and cumulative abnormal returns (CAR) over 36 months of secondary market performance. The empirical results differ from international evidence and reveal long?term overperformance that continues for a substantial interval after listing. Measuring these returns in calendar time, we find

Stavros Thomadakis; Christos Nounis; Dimitrios Gounopoulos

2012-01-01

388

Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated stimulation of hippocampal neurons can induce an immediate and prolonged increase in synaptic strength that is called long-term potentiation (LTP)-the primary cellular model of memory in the mammalian brain1. An early phase of LTP (lasting less than three hours) can be dissociated from late-phase LTP by using inhibitors of transcription and translation2-8. Because protein synthesis occurs mainly in the

Uwe Frey; Richard G. M. Morris

1997-01-01

389

Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects--instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought shocks are used to identify differences in pre-school nutritional status across siblings. Improvements in height-for-age in pre-schoolers are associated with increased height as

Harold Alderman; John Hoddinott; Bill Kinsey

2006-01-01

390

Burnout Among Long-Term Care Staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the influence of workload, role conflict, role ambiguity, and stress on burnout among long-term care staff. A cross-sectional design was used to collect data through a self-administered questionnaire from 363 staff members of four nursing homes and five assisted living facilities. Regression analysis revealed that after controlling for demographic variables, workload, role conflicts, and stress contributed to

Gauri S. Rai

2010-01-01

391

Titanium for long-term tritium storage  

SciTech Connect

Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

Heung, L.K.

1994-12-01

392

Long-term solar-terrestrial observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fall of 1985, the Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) created a panel to study the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data. The panel comprised specialists in all four areas that constitute solar-terrestrial science: the sun, interplanetary medium, magnetosphere-thermosphere-ionosphere, and upper atmosphere. It interviewed many individuals from the solar-terrestrial monitoring and data archiving communities, along with administrators and directors from appropriate government agencies. It circulated nearly 500 questionnaires to obtain information and opinions from the broader community to learn which observational data should be considered essential over the long term to support the operational and research needs of solar-terrestrial science. This report summarizes the panel's principal findings, and the panel's recommendations follow. A separate section listing the critical observational needs by area is presented together with the scientific rationale for each area. The recommendations are defended in terms of this explicit scientific rationale and the multifold uses of current and long-term solar-terrestrial observations for continued operational solar-terrestrial forecasts and services.

393

13 CFR 123.512 - What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL? 123.512 Section...ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...512 What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL? The interest...

2013-01-01

394

13 CFR 123.512 - What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL?  

...false What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL? 123.512 Section...ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...512 What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL? The interest...

2014-01-01

395

13 CFR 123.512 - What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL? 123.512 Section...ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...512 What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL? The interest...

2011-01-01

396

13 CFR 123.512 - What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL? 123.512 Section...ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...512 What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL? The interest...

2010-01-01

397

13 CFR 123.512 - What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL? 123.512 Section...ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...512 What is the interest rate on a Military Reservist EIDL? The interest...

2012-01-01

398

Long-term outcomes in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis.  

PubMed

Most clinical studies in subjects with toenail onychomycosis end with a final assessment at 48-52 weeks. This fails to take full account of the physiology of toenail growth, as toenails can take up to 12-18 months to grow out fully. Accurate assessment of long-term outcomes therefore requires follow-up of at least 2 years after completion of the study. We have evaluated long-term outcomes of treatment in the patients whom we contributed to two multicentre studies of oral therapy for toenail onychomycosis caused by dermatophyte infection. In the first, a dose-finding study for terbinafine (Lamisil), the high rates of mycological and clinical cure achieved by terbinafine at week 48 were maintained more than 2 years after completion of the study. In the second, a comparative study between terbinafine and itraconazole (Sporanox), the excellent mycological and clinical cure rates achieved by terbinafine at week 48 were again maintained more than 2 years after completion of the study. By contrast, the failure and relapse rates seen with itraconazole were much higher. Other studies undertaken in recent years have confirmed these positive findings with respect to terbinafine, and have demonstrated its superiority over itraconazole in maintaining mycological and clinical cure over long periods. These long-term benefits of terbinafine probably relate to its primarily fungicidal action against dermatophytes, compared to the fungistatic action of itraconazole and other triazole agents. Future clinical studies should therefore incorporate at least 2 years' follow-up. PMID:10730909

De Cuyper, C; Hindryckx, P H

1999-11-01

399

12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Minimum Capital Components for Interest Rate and Foreign Exchange Rate Contracts  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...foreign exchange rate contracts. ...Calculation of Credit Equivalent Amounts a...contracts. The credit equivalent amount of an off-balance...sheet interest rate and foreign exchange...d. The credit equivalent amount of interest rate and foreign...

2011-01-01

400

12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Minimum Capital Components for Interest Rate and Foreign Exchange Rate Contracts  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...foreign exchange rate contracts. ...Calculation of Credit Equivalent Amounts a...contracts. The credit equivalent amount of an off-balance...sheet interest rate and foreign exchange...d. The credit equivalent amount of interest rate and foreign...

2012-01-01

401

12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Minimum Capital Components for Interest Rate and Foreign Exchange Rate Contracts  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...foreign exchange rate contracts. ...Calculation of Credit Equivalent Amounts a...contracts. The credit equivalent amount of an off-balance...sheet interest rate and foreign exchange...d. The credit equivalent amount of interest rate and foreign...

2013-01-01

402

12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Minimum Capital Components for Interest Rate and Foreign Exchange Rate Contracts  

...foreign exchange rate contracts. ...Calculation of Credit Equivalent Amounts a...contracts. The credit equivalent amount of an off-balance...sheet interest rate and foreign exchange...d. The credit equivalent amount of interest rate and foreign...

2014-01-01

403

Hippocampal long-term depression and long-term potentiation encode different aspects of novelty acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hippocampus is required for encoding spatial information. Little is known however, about how different attributes of learning are related to different types of synaptic plasticity. Here, we investigated the association between long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation, both cellular models for learning, and novelty exploration. We found that exploration of a new environment containing unfamiliar objects and\\/or familiar objects

Anne Kemp; Denise Manahan-Vaughan

2004-01-01

404

Estimating long-term exposures from short-term measurements.  

PubMed

Many health problems are related to chronic exposure of individuals to pollutants in the environment. The level of exposure of a specified population is typically represented by the mean level of exposure of the population, the variation in exposure between individuals within the population, and levels of exposure for selected percentiles of the population, such as the 50th and 98th percentiles. However, the day-to-day level of exposure for individuals varies, and direct measurement of total exposure for long periods of time is impractical. The problem is to estimate the quantities listed above using incomplete sampling of the time period of interest. This paper looks at the effect of using estimates of long-term exposure for individuals on estimating the exposure distribution of the population. A simple and apparently robust estimate for the upper percentiles of the exposure distribution is proposed. Problems related to estimating an individual's long-term exposure, including sample size, are also discussed. The length of time defined as long-term in this paper is one year; however, the results are generalizable to any period of time desired. PMID:8814776

Buck, R J; Hammerstrom, K A; Ryan, P B

1995-01-01

405

Transcription Factors in Long-Term Memory and Synaptic Plasticity  

PubMed Central

Transcription is a molecular requisite for long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. Thus, in the last several years, one main interest of molecular neuroscience has been the identification of families of transcription factors that are involved in both of these processes. Transcription is a highly regulated process that involves the combined interaction and function of chromatin and many other proteins, some of which are essential for the basal process of transcription, while others control the selective activation or repression of specific genes. These regulated interactions ultimately allow a sophisticated response to multiple environmental conditions, as well as control of spatial and temporal differences in gene expression. Evidence based on correlative changes in expression, genetic mutations, and targeted molecular inhibition of gene expression have shed light on the function of transcription in both synaptic plasticity and memory formation. This review provides a brief overview of experimental work showing that several families of transcription factors, including CREB, C/EBP, Egr, AP-1, and Rel have essential functions in both processes. The results of this work suggest that patterns of transcription regulation represent the molecular signatures of long-term synaptic changes and memory formation. PMID:19126756

Alberini, Cristina M.

2013-01-01

406

Pyrophoricity of uranium in long-term storage environments  

SciTech Connect

A corrosion cycle for uranium is postulated which can be used to assess whether a given storage situation might produce fire hazards and/or continual uranium corrosion. A significant reaction rate of uranium and moisture occurs at room temperature which produces uranium oxide and hydrogen. If the hydrogen cannot escape, it will react slowly with uranium to form uranium hydride. The hydride is pyrophoric at room temperature when exposed to air. Either the hydrogen or the hydride can produce a dangerous situation as demonstrated by two different incidents described here. Long-term corrosion will occur even if the normal precautions are taken as is demonstrated by the long-term storage of stainless steel clad uranium fuel plates. The major initiator of these problems is attributed to any moisture condensed on the metal or any brought in by the cover gas. The postulated corrosion cycle is used to suggest ways to circumvent these problems.

Solbrig, C W; Krsul, J R; Olsen, D N

1994-01-01

407

Using the CHANGE intervention to enhance long-term exercise.  

PubMed

Although Phase II Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) is effective at reconditioning people following cardiac events, it has had limited effectiveness in assisting participants to maintain the long-term exercise necessary for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. This article describes a promising new intervention, CHANGE (Change Habits by Applying New Goals and Experiences), designed to enhance individuals' problem solving, self-efficacy, and relapse prevention skills regarding long-term exercise. Five small-group, nurse-led sessions are used to provide the intervention during the last three weeks of the formal CR program, and at one and two months following CR. Pilot data indicate that the CHANGE intervention has a positive effect on number and length of exercise sessions, number of minutes exercised, and time spent in target heart rate (HR) zone as measured by wristwatch HR monitors for three months following CR. The CHANGE intervention was found to be acceptable to clients and feasible to clinicians. PMID:12389268

Moore, Shirley M; Charvat, Jacqueline M

2002-06-01

408

Long-term maternal morbidity associated with repeat cesarean delivery.  

PubMed

Concern regarding the association between cesarean delivery and long-term maternal morbidity is growing as the rate of cesarean delivery continues to increase. Observational evidence suggests that the risk of morbidity increases with increasing number of cesarean deliveries. The dominant maternal risk in subsequent pregnancies is placenta accreta spectrum disorder and its associated complications. A history of multiple cesarean deliveries is the major risk factor for this condition. Pregnancies following cesarean delivery also have increased risk for other types of abnormal placentation, reduced fetal growth, preterm birth, and possibly stillbirth. Chronic maternal morbidities associated with cesarean delivery include pelvic pain and adhesions. Adverse reproductive effects may include decreased fertility and increased risk of spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy. Clinicians and patients need to be aware of the long-term risks associated with cesarean delivery so that they can be considered when determining the method of delivery for first and subsequent births. PMID:22114995

Clark, Erin A S; Silver, Robert M

2011-12-01

409

Ramsey Rule with Progressive Utility in Long Term Yield Curves Modeling  

E-print Network

Ramsey Rule with Progressive Utility in Long Term Yield Curves Modeling El Karoui Nicole of long term yield curves modeling. In- spired by the economic litterature, it provides a financial interpretation of the Ramsey rule that links discount rate and marginal utility of aggregate optimal consumption

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

410

77 FR 74788 - Long-Term Cooling and Unattended Water Makeup of Spent Fuel Pools  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the NRC to assure long-term cooling and unattended...html. To begin the search, select ``ADAMS Public...nominal rating and a short-term overload capacity. Thus, any GICs that enter the plant's electrical...days and creates long-term implications for...

2012-12-18

411

49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal. The rate levels will be determined as...Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the date the statement is...Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the day when the...

2013-10-01

412

[Home medical care and long-term care insurance].  

PubMed

The difference in medical care at home before and after the introduction of the Long-term Care Insurance is discussed and reported on the basis of my 20 years of experience in the home medical care. I appreciate the introduction of the Long-term Care Insurance in terms of its effect in making the general public interested in nursing as well as in those who need care. On the other hand, since emphasis was placed only on the degree of demand for the care in evaluating the qualification of the users of nursing facilities under the Long-term Care Insurance, public interest was focused simply on the degree of demand for the care. In the meantime, the fundamental problem of how to institute medical care at home appears to be neglected. As a result, many of those whose demand for the care have been assessed low make claims and request re-assessment, which results in a lot of personnel and financial waste in office procedures. Moreover, the families of those with the care necessity grade of 1 or more tend to falsely feel that they have been given the right to use the facilities, which decreases their motivation toward the home care. In reality, most facilities are crowded with users and improvement of the facility does not catch up with the rapid increase of users. Needless to say, the present situation is attributed to the inadequate governmental policies taken at the time of introduction of the Long-term Care Insurance. Immediate measures for improving the situation are required. In the case of elderly insurance facilities, in particular, in addition to evaluation of the conditions for using the facility solely on the basis of the degree of demand for the care, their positioning as the rehabilitation facilities aiming at achievement of home care should be clarified like before the introduction of the Long-term Care Insurance. A certain limitation is necessary regarding the duration of the use of the facility. Other than that, various problems have been proposed. We hope to examine these problems as well and report the results. We believe the most important thing is to exercise our ingenuity in creating a system enabling medical care at home in each community. PMID:12536828

Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takao

2002-12-01

413

Long-term memory and volatility clustering in high-frequency price changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the long-term memory in diverse stock market indices and foreign exchange rates using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). For all high-frequency market data studied, no significant long-term memory property was detected in the return series, while a strong long-term memory property was found in the volatility time series. The possible causes of the long-term memory property were investigated using the return data filtered by the AR(1) model, reflecting the short-term memory property, the GARCH(1,1) model, reflecting the volatility clustering property, and the FIGARCH model, reflecting the long-term memory property of the volatility time series. The memory effect in the AR(1) filtered return and volatility time series remained unchanged, while the long-term memory property diminished significantly in the volatility series of the GARCH(1,1) filtered data. Notably, there is no long-term memory property, when we eliminate the long-term memory property of volatility by the FIGARCH model. For all data used, although the Hurst exponents of the volatility time series changed considerably over time, those of the time series with the volatility clustering effect removed diminish significantly. Our results imply that the long-term memory property of the volatility time series can be attributed to the volatility clustering observed in the financial time series.

oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

2008-02-01

414

A Long Term High-Cadence Nova Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have initiated a nova survey that uses a previously unstudied long term high cadence archive data set covering about 1/3 of the sky to 1) improve on the number and recurrence frequency of recurrent novae (RNe), and 2) permit an investigation of the puzzling and diverse set of features in classical novae (CNe) and RNe light curves. RNe are of great astrophysical interest because they have long been considered to be the prime candidates for progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the recurrence time scale is not well known, but is an essential parameter determining whether any RNe become Type Ia supernovae. Novae exhibit a wide variety of light curves with features like pre-eruption rises and dips, flat-tops at peak, and flares superimposed on decline, for example. These features are poorly understood. The answers require more and better light curves. The data set our team is using to address RNe occurrence and light curves was taken in the 1950’s over a nearly 9 year period with two Baker Super-Schmidt telescopes 80 km apart in New Mexico, resulting in 42,000 photographic images. Each telescope had a 52 degree field of view. Images to a limiting stellar magnitude of 13 were taken at a rate of 2-3 per hour sampling a total of one-third of the entire sky. A similar data set does not exist anywhere else, nor is one planned with such high cadence and field of view. We are digitizing the films and through a data pipeline plan to identify candidate RNe and new CNe enhancing the number of known RNe and creating light curves leading up to and following novae eruptions. We will describe the digitizing process and data pipeline, and initial results from the first 1,600 films that we have surveyed.

Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, L.; Barker, T.; Coker, M.

2014-01-01

415

Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

1997-01-01

416

A long-term climatology of medicanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medicanes, intense and destructive mesoscale cyclones exhibiting several similarities with tropical hurricanes, are known to struck occasionally the Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to a high-resolution dynamical downscaling effort, we are able to study for the first time the long-term climatology of those rare storms in a systematic way. The distribution of medicanes frequency in space and time is discussed, and the environmental factors responsible for their formation are investigated. We find that medicanes develop in those areas of the Mediterranean region where intrusions of cold air in the upper troposphere can produce configurations of thermodynamical disequilibrium of the atmosphere similar to those associated with the formation of tropical cyclones.

Cavicchia, Leone; von Storch, Hans; Gualdi, Silvio

2014-09-01

417

Long-term space flights - personal impressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a final 4-month stage of a 1-year space flight of cosmonauts Titov and Manarov, a physician, Valery Polyakov was included on a crew for the purpose of evaluating their health, correcting physical status to prepare for the spacecraft reentry and landing operations. The complex program of scientific investigations and experiments performed by the physician included an evaluation of adaptation reactions of the human body at different stages of space mission using clinicophysiological and biochemical methods; testing of alternative regimes of exercise and new countermeasures to prevent an unfavourable effect of long-term weightlessness.

Polyakov, V. V.

418

Long-Term Solar Irradiance Variability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the solar energy throughout the solar spectrum and understanding its variability provide important information about the physical processes and structural changes in the solar interior and in the solar atmosphere...The aim of this paper is to discuss the solar-cycle-related long-term changes in solar total and UV irradiances. The spaceborne irradiance observations are compared to ground-based indices of solar magnetic activity, such as the Photometric Sunspot Index, full disk magnetic flux, and the Mt. Wilson Magnetic Plage Strength Index.

Pap, J. M.

1996-01-01

419

Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat Disposal Site, Mexican Hat, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSP (based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program), documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

NONE

1996-02-01

420

Interest Rate Pass-Through: Empirical Results for the Euro Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically examines the interest rate pass-through at the euro area level. The focus is on the pass-through of official interest rates, approximated by the overnight interest rate, to longer-term market interest rates, which, in turn, are a proxy for the marginal costs for banks to attract deposits or grant loans, and therefore passed through to retail bank interest

Gabe J. de Bondt

2005-01-01

421

Deficient long-term memory and long-lasting long-term potentiation in mice with a targeted  

E-print Network

. However, consistent with the long-term memory defects, the long-lasting LTP at the same synapses essential for hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal long-lasting LTPDeficient long-term memory and long-lasting long-term potentiation in mice with a targeted deletion

Smith, Desmond J.

422

Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation  

PubMed Central

Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as ‘storage’. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation—which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes—with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

2013-01-01

423

Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by <15% decrease in DMY and <30 days until return to normal (n?=?5), and 'long inflammation', characterized by >15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands. PMID:24906501

Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

2014-07-01

424

Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.  

PubMed

Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source. PMID:15923465

Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

2005-06-01

425

Spent filter packaging for long term storage and disposal  

SciTech Connect

This paper will discuss filter packaging experience using spent filter transfer casks, a filter shear and the NUKEM macro-encapsulation process. Marco-encapsulation of spent filters in cement has provided sufficient shielding to enable filter containers to be shipped in less expensive IP-2 casks. The lower dose rate and higher density also off-sets disposal rates at Barnwell based on mass. No re-dewatering of encapsulated filter containers is required after a period of long term storage and encapsulation eliminates the possibility of gas generation from filters during storage. Encapsulation can be performed on filters loaded into poly HICs or carbon steel liners. (authors)

Duberville, T.M. [NUKEM Corporation, Columbia, SC (United States); Miller, C. [Pacific Gas and Electric, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Avila Bach, CA (United States)

2007-07-01

426

7 CFR 1810.1 - Information concerning interest rates, amortization, guarantee fee, annual charge, and fixed period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Information concerning interest rates, amortization, guarantee fee...AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS INTEREST RATES, TERMS, CONDITIONS, AND APPROVAL AUTHORITY Interest Rates, Amortization, Guarantee...

2010-01-01

427

Long-term monitoring for closed sites  

SciTech Connect

A procedure is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The initial task in this procedure is to collect the available information on the legal/regulatory requirements, site and area characteristics, source term, pathway analysis, and prior monitoring results. This information is coupled with parameters such as half-life and retardation factors to develop a monitoring program. As examples, programs are presented for a site that has had little or no waste migration, and for sites where waste has been moved by suface water, by ground water, and by air. Sampling techniques and practices are discussed relative to how a current program would be structured and projections are made on techniques and practices expected to be available in the future. 8 refs., 2 figs.

Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J.; Veluri, V.R.

1985-01-01

428

Gazprom outlines long term Soviet gas plan  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the U.S.S.R.'s Gazprom Konstern has drawn up a comprehensive, long term plan for the Soviet natural gas industry, Eastern Bloc Energy (EBE) reports. EBE is a publication of Eastern Bloc Research Ltd., Newton Kyme, England. Gazprom, responsible for more than 90% of Soviet gas production, predicts Soviet gas production will continue to increase beyond 2030 and expects the resource base ultimately will total more than 330 trillion cu m, EBE the. Soviet Central Asia will begin to decline as a major source of gas during the early years of the next century, but western Siberian production will continue to grow after 2030. The continental shelf, mainly the Barents Sea, will eventually become a very large supplier of gas, EBE reported. Gazprom the development potential of the Soviet gas industry is not constrained by geological factors, only by economic and technical problems.

Not Available

1991-09-30

429

Long-term control of root growth  

DOEpatents

A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

Burton, Frederick G. (West Richland, WA); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Richland, WA)

1992-05-26

430

Networking: a long-term management strategy.  

PubMed

As we face a changing health-care landscape of mergers and acquisitions during these tough economic times, it is more important than ever to cultivate a network of individuals who can assist you in your career development efforts. How do you manage your career in a shrinking economy? What is networking and how can you use it to enhance your career and professional competencies? Many myths surround the networking process; this article clarifies those misperceptions and tells you the truth about networking and the positive results you can achieve. Networking can be used to get a new job, but it has much wider application as a long-term career management strategy. Learn how you can manage your own career while building professional relationships and coaching your employees. PMID:12813955

Gumbus, Andra

2003-01-01

431

Long-term control of root growth  

SciTech Connect

A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin. 7 figs.

Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

1992-05-26

432

Reducing long-term reservoir performance uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir performance is one of the key issues that have to be addressed before going ahead with the development of a geothermal field. In order to select the type and size of the power plant and design other surface installations, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the production wells and of the produced fluids, and to predict the changes over a 10--30 year period. This is not a straightforward task, as in most cases the calculations have to be made on the basis of data collected before significant fluid volumes have been extracted from the reservoir. The paper describes the methodology used in predicting the long-term performance of hydrothermal systems, as well as DOE/GTD-sponsored research aimed at reducing the uncertainties associated with these predictions. 27 refs., 1 fig.

Lippmann, M.J.

1988-04-01

433

77 FR 46550 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2012...123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...

2012-08-03

434

78 FR 5555 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2013...123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...

2013-01-25

435

7 CFR 762.124 - Interest rates, terms, charges, and fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...will be charged at the note rate but limited to paragraph (a...a temporary reduction in the interest rate through the interest assistance program in accordance...recovering from disaster or economic reverses. (2) The...

2010-01-01

436

78 FR 26680 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2013 In...123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...

2013-05-07

437

77 FR 25010 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2012 In...123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...

2012-04-26

438

77 FR 4854 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2012...123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...

2012-01-31

439

78 FR 45283 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2013...123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...

2013-07-26

440

76 FR 44976 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2011...123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...

2011-07-27

441

78 FR 65416 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2014 In...123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...

2013-10-31

442

76 FR 66769 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2012 In...123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...

2011-10-27

443

77 FR 71668 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2013 In...123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans...

2012-12-03

444

77 FR 20890 - Proposed Information Collection (Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet) Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...technology. Title: Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet, VA Form 26-8923. OMB Control Number: 2900-0386....

2012-04-06

445

77 FR 38397 - Agency Information Collection (Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet) Activities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...INFORMATION: Title: Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan Worksheet, VA Form 26-8923. OMB Control Number: 2900-0386....

2012-06-27

446

Long-term prognosis of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The question of determining prognostically relevant features for schizophrenia was approached with multivariate statistical methods applied to the data from the Bonn longitudinal study of 502 schizophrenic patients. In this study, personal interviews according to a clinical classification scheme allowed every patient to be ranked within each of three different outcome classes: psychopathological remission, occupational remission, and course type. Our multivariate analysis encompassed a total of 50 items pertinent to the time up to and including the first 6 months after the first psychotic manifestation. Despite the introduction of mathematical methods considerably more sophisticated than those employed in earlier studies, no satisfactory solution could be found to the problem of predicting end states of schizophrenia. Reliable predictions could be made only for 'extreme' end states (i.e. full remission versus (1) characteristic residues in the narrower sense; (2) total unemployment, or (3) surging or simple courses to mixed residues or to typical schizophrenic defect psychoses). Accordingly, sufficiently reliable assertions applied only to a minority of about 1/3 of patients, whereas for the majority of 2/3, no generalizable prognostication was possible (67-71% true-positive predictions on 36-63% of total population in extreme states). By contrast, our analyses have clearly uncovered a fundamental problem of investigations into the long-term prognosis of schizophrenia: the extreme dependence of results on the clinical definition of end states. The further the phenomenon 'end state' is qualitatively subdivided, the poorer and less reproducible is the mutual discrimination between intermediate states and the less reliable are allocations of patients to these intermediate states by means of multivariate classifiers. Furthermore, our analyses have also demonstrated the usefulness of multivariate, adaptive procedures for investigations into the structural properties of long-term courses, so that predictions might be considerably improved if more reliable definitions of schizophrenic end states are available. PMID:1754643

Schmid, G B; Stassen, H H; Gross, G; Huber, G; Angst, J

1991-01-01

447

Long term results of pneumatic retinopexy  

PubMed Central

Background Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a commonly encountered retinal problem where rapid treatment can prevent irreversible vision loss. Pneumatic retinopexy (PR) is a simple, minimally invasive procedure for retinal reattachment. Purpose This study aimed to assess the long-term anatomical and functional outcome of pneumatic retinopexy in primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Patients and methods A prospective interventional study was performed. Subjects with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent pneumatic retinopexy from May 2006 to May 2007 at Menoufiya University Hospital were included in this study with at least 3 years follow-up. Results A total of 40 cases were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 44.25 ± 10.85 years. Reattachment of the retina was achieved in 100% of cases. In 75% of cases, the primary intervention was successful. However, the retina redetached in 20% of these during the first 6 months, requiring reinjection or another procedure. Three years after the first intervention, follow-up measurement of the mean visual acuity of the eyes without reoperation was 0.40 ± 0.21 while the mean visual acuity of the eyes which needed additional operations was 0.22 ± 0.13. Conclusion Sixty percent of the cases obtained long-term retinal reattachment with a single operation success (SOS), with good visual recovery and less morbidity than other more invasive procedures like scleral buckling or pars plana vitrectomy, translating to higher productivity for the patient. This procedure, being quicker than the alternatives, also saves the surgeon’s time, making PR a good choice for managing primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in developing countries. PMID:22275808

Ellakwa, Amin F

2012-01-01

448

31 CFR 535.440 - Commercially reasonable interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...be the rate agreed upon by the bank and Iran. However, where a deposit has in...account. Furthermore, in the event that the Iran-U.S Claims Tribunal (the “Tribunal...to that agreed upon between the bank and Iran, or compensation or damages in lieu...

2012-07-01

449

31 CFR 535.440 - Commercially reasonable interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...be the rate agreed upon by the bank and Iran. However, where a deposit has in...account. Furthermore, in the event that the Iran-U.S Claims Tribunal (the “Tribunal...to that agreed upon between the bank and Iran, or compensation or damages in lieu...

2011-07-01

450

AN EXACT SOLUTION OF THE TERM STRUCTURE OF INTEREST RATE  

E-print Network

that the aggregate economy has recurrent shifts between distinct regimes of the business cycle (e.g Hamilton [17 that regimes are intimately related to the busi- ness cycle, suggesting a close link between the regime shift rates) due to regime changes and is an important factor that affects bond returns. Furthermore, we also

Zeng, Yong - Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Missouri

451

Fed Funds--The Driving Force Behind Interest Rates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes federal-funds activity in the United States and the Federal Reserve's role in controlling bank lending and money creation. Discusses the relationship between the money supply and the Federal Reserve, Federal Reserve interventions in the market, and how the Reserve sets the federal-funds rate. Also identifies players in the funds market.…

Jenkins, Anne S.

1995-01-01

452

13 CFR 123.104 - What interest rate will I pay on my home disaster loan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false What interest rate will I pay on my home disaster...Disaster Loans § 123.104 What interest rate will I pay on my home disaster...obtain credit elsewhere, your interest rate is set by a statutory...

2010-01-01

453

29 CFR Appendix B to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for PBGC Payments  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Lump Sum Interest Rates for PBGC Payments B Appendix...Appendix B to Part 4022—Lump Sum Interest Rates for PBGC Payments [In using...integer and 0 interest rate i1 shall apply from the...

2010-07-01

454

7 CFR 1779.80 - Interest rate changes after loan closing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate changes after loan closing...GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.80 Interest rate changes after loan closing...effect a permanent reduction in the interest rate on the guaranteed loan at...

2010-01-01

455

13 CFR 123.302 - What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster...Loans § 123.302 What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster...economic injury loan will have an interest rate of 4 percent per annum or...

2010-01-01

456

Delaying the Inevitable: Interest Rate Defense and Balance of Payments Crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical model of balance of payments crises implicitly assumes that the central bank sits passively as international reserves dwindle. In practice, however, central banks typically defend pegs aggressively by raising short-term interest rates. This paper analyzes the feasibility and optimality of raising interest rates to delay a potential BOP crisis. Interest rate policy works through two distinct channels. By

Amartya Lahiri; Carlos A. Vegh

2003-01-01

457

Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective  

PubMed Central

Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke. PMID:21779718

Bliss, Timothy V.P.; Cooke, Sam F

2011-01-01

458

Nitric Oxide Facilitates Long-Term Potentiation, But Not Long-Term Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition prevents the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) have been controver- sial. Recent evidence suggests that NO may help to regulate the threshold for LTP induction. We have tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of stimulus frequency and train dura- tion on synaptic plasticity in the presence of either NO donors or NOS

Peter L. Malen; Paul F. Chapman

1997-01-01

459

Effect of Long-Term Castration and Long-Term Androgen Treatment on Sexually Dimorphic  

E-print Network

be modified by steroid hormone manipulation. We castrated male whiptail lizards for 1 week (short term) or 6 weeks (long term). We also gonadectomized female whiptails and implanted them with either a Silastic capsule con- taining testosterone or an empty capsule. At the end of that time all implants were removed

Crews, David

460

Maintaining the integrity of global cycles: requirements for long-term research  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing interest in the dynamics of the global cycles, the climate system, and related global environmental processes. The significant role of ecological processes in the global element cycles dictates certain approaches in long-term research. This paper outlines requirements for long-term research and general approaches. Particular emphasis is on terrestrial ecosystems. The status of current research is reviewed. 52 refs.

Emanuel, W.R.; Pastor, J.; O'Neill, R.V.

1984-01-01

461

Long-term cycling studies on electrospun carbon nanofibers as anode material for lithium ion batteries.  

PubMed

Electrospun carbon nanofibers (CNF) have been prepared at different calcination temperatures for a prolonged time (12 h) derived from electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. They are studied as anode materials in lithium ion batteries due to their high reversible capacity, improved long-term cycle performance, and good rate capacity. The fibrous morphologies of fresh electrodes and tested samples for more than 550 cycles have been compared; cyclic voltammogram (CV) has also been studied to understand the lithium intercalation/deintercalation mechanism of 1D nanomaterials. CNFs demonstrate interesting galvanostatic performance with fading capacity after the first few cycles, and the capacity increases during long-term cycling. The increasing capacity is observed accompanied by volumetric expansion on the nanofibers' edge. Results of rate capacity have also been explored for all CNF samples, and their stable electrochemical performances are further analyzed by the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). CNF carbonized at 800 °C is found to have a larger lithium ion storage ability and better cyclic stability than that carbonized at 600 and 1000 °C. PMID:24171411

Wu, Yongzhi; Reddy, M V; Chowdari, B V R; Ramakrishna, S

2013-11-27

462

Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Term Control Medications Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases Long-term control medications are taken daily to control and prevent lung disease symptoms. These medicines should be taken every day ...