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Oral L-arginine stimulates GLP-1 secretion to improve glucose tolerance in male mice.  


Pharmacological and surgical interventions that increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) action are effective to improve glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In light of this, nutritional strategies to enhance postprandial GLP-1 secretion, particularly in the context of diet-induced obesity, may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. Importantly, recent evidence suggests the amino acid L-arginine, a well-known insulin secretagogue, can also stimulate release of GLP-1 from isolated rat intestine. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral L-arginine acts as a GLP-1 secretagogue in vivo, to augment postprandial insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance. To test this, we administered L-arginine or vehicle by oral gavage, immediately prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in lean and diet-induced obese mice. In both lean and obese mice oral L-arginine increased plasma GLP-1 and insulin and substantially improved glucose clearance. To directly assess the contribution of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-signaling to these improvements, L-arginine was given to Glp1r knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. In this experiment oral l-arginine significantly augmented insulin secretion and improved glucose clearance in WT mice, but not in Glp1r knockout littermates. Taken together these findings identify L-arginine as a GLP-1 secretagogue in vivo and demonstrate that improvement of glucose tolerance by oral L-arginine depends on GLP-1R-signaling. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that L-arginine-based nutritional and/or pharmaceutical therapies may benefit glucose tolerance by improving the postprandial GLP-1 response in obese individuals. PMID:23959939

Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P; Woods, Stephen C; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Seeley, Randy J; D'Alessio, David A; Ryan, Karen K



Effect of oral l-arginine on blood pressure and symptoms and endothelial function in patients with systemic hypertension, positive exercise tests, and normal coronary arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen hypertensive patients with microvascular angina were studied before and after receiving oral l-arginine (4 weeks, 2 g, 3 times daily). l-arginine significantly improved angina class, systolic blood pressure at rest, and quality of life. Maximal forearm blood flow, plasma l-arginine, l-arginine:asymmetric dimethyl arginine ratio, and cyclic guanylate monophosphate increased significantly after treatment. In medically treated hypertensive patients with micro-vascular

Altin Palloshi; Gabriele Fragasso; PierMarco Piatti; Lucilla D. Monti; Emanuela Setola; Giampiero Valsecchi; Elena Galluccio; Sergio L. Chierchia; Alberto Margonato



Oral l-arginine improves endothelium-dependent dilatation and reduces monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in young men with coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

l-Arginine is the physiological substrate for nitric oxide synthesis by the vascular endothelium. In hypercholesterolaemic rabbits, oral l-arginine reduces atheroma, improves endothelium-dependent dilatation and reduces monocyte\\/endothelial cell adhesion. The effect of oral l-arginine on endothelial physiology is unknown, however, in humans with established atherosclerosis. In a prospective, double-blind, randomised crossover trial, ten men aged 41±2 years with angiographically proven coronary

Mark R Adams; Robyn McCredie; Wendy Jessup; Jacqui Robinson; David Sullivan; David S Celermajer



Oral L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent dilatation and reduces monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in young men with coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-Arginine is the physiological substrate for nitric oxide synthesis by the vascular endothelium. In hypercholesterolaemic rabbits, oral L-arginine reduces atheroma, improves endothelium-dependent dilatation and reduces monocyte:endothelial cell adhesion. The effect of oral L-arginine on endothelial physiology is unknown, however, in humans with established atherosclero- sis. In a prospective, double-blind, randomised crossover trial, ten men aged 419 2 years with angiographically

Mark R. Adams; Robyn McCredie; Wendy Jessup; Jacqui Robinson; David Sullivan; David S. Celermajer


Orally supplemented l-arginine impairs amino acid absorption depending on dose in horses.  


The beneficial effect of l-arginine (l-Arg) supplementation, on the physiology of several species, has generated an interest in the use of l-Arg as a nutraceutical in horses, but dosage and absorption of orally supplemented l-Arg must be inferred from other species. The study objective was to determine the effect of 2 oral l-Arg doses on plasma arginine concentrations and the effect on absorption of other amino acids in mares. In Experiment 1, mares were blocked by age and breed and were fed l-Arg supplemented (supplemented with 0.025% BW l-Arg; n = 6) or control (no supplement; n = 6) concentrate on a single day with blood samples taken at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h relative to feeding. In Experiment 2, mares (n = 6) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with l-Arg (0.0125% of BW), urea (0.0087% of BW), and control (no supplement) fed mixed into a grain concentrate as single meal with blood samples taken at 0, 1,2, 4, 6, 8,10, and 12 h relative to feeding. In Experiment 1, l-Arg supplementation increased (P < 0.05) plasma l-Arg and ornthine concentrations and decreased (P < 0.05) lysine and methionine concentrations compared with the control group. At 1 h post feeding, l-Arg mares had lower (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of histidine, glutamic acid, proline, isoleucine, threonine, phenylalanine, leucine, valine, alanine, and taurine. In Experiment 2, l-Arg supplementation increased (P < 0.05) arginine and ornithine concentrations compared with urea and control; there was no difference among other amino acids. These experiments indicate that l-Argis absorbed and, dependent on the dose, alters the absorption of other amino acids in mares. PMID:25403187

Kelley, D E; Warren, L K; Mortensen, C J



Oral Supplementation of L-Arginine Prevents Chronic Cyclosporine Nephrotoxicity in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to evaluate the effect of L-arginine (L-Arg) on the prevention of chronic cyclosporine (CsA) nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats pair-fed a low-salt diet (0.05%) were given CsA (15 mg\\/kg\\/day s.c.), CsA and L-Arg (L-Arg group, 1.25 g\\/l water), CsA and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME group, 70 mg\\/l water) or vehicle. After 28 days, the L-Arg group had

Chul Woo Yang; Yong Soo Kim; Jin Kim; Young Ok Kim; So Youn Min; Euy Jin Choi; Byung Kee Bang



Effects of L-arginine oral supplements in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats1 Efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of L-arginine oral supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive pregnant rats (SHR). Methods: Thirty SHR and ten Wistar-EPM-1 virgin female rats were used in the study. Before randomization, females were caged with males of the same strain (3:1). Pregnancy was confirmed by sperm-positive vaginal smear (Day 0). Wistar-EPM- 1 rats served as counterpart control (C-1). SHR rats

Sousa Ayres de Moura; Nelson Sass; Sérgio Botelho Guimarães; Paulo Roberto; Leitão de Vasconcelos; Luis Kulay Jr




... For example, L-arginine is used along with ibuprofen for migraine headaches; with conventional chemotherapy drugs for ... L-arginine by mouth along with the painkiller ibuprofen seems to be effective for treating migraine headache. ...


Correction of endothelial dysfunction in chronic heart failure: additional effects of exercise training and oral L-arginine supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe aim of this study was to analyze whether L-arginine (L-arg.) has comparable or additive effects to physical exercise regarding endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).BACKGROUNDEndothelial dysfunction in patients with CHF can be corrected by both dietary supplementation with L-arg. and regular physical exercise.METHODSForty patients with severe CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction 19 ± 9%) were randomized

Rainer Hambrecht; Lutz Hilbrich; Sandra Erbs; Stephan Gielen; Eduard Fiehn; Nina Schoene; Gerhard Schuler



Clinical and radiological assessment of effects of long-term corticosteroid therapy on oral health  

PubMed Central

Background: Corticosteroids (Cs) are used widely for their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. They have the potential to cause dramatic improvement as well as produce equally dramatic adverse effects. The clinical misuse like over prescription of the drug should be avoided. Long-term administration may cause many adverse effects leading to impaired oral health. Oral health is usually not considered during management of patients on long-term corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status and radiological changes in the jaw bones of the patients under long-term corticosteroid therapy. Materials and Methods: Oral health of 100 patients under long-term corticosteroid therapy with a minimum of 3 months duration was compared with sex- and age-matched 100 healthy controls. The clinical examination included complete examination of the mouth and periodontal status. Radiographic evaluation of bone with the help of intra oral periapical radiograph and digital orthopantomograph and levels of serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and random blood sugar were assessed. ‘Chi-square test’, ‘Kolmogorov-Smirnov test’ and ‘Mann-Whitney U test’ were used for statistical analysis. P > 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Patients on steroids exhibited significantly higher levels of candidiasis and clinical attachment loss of the periodontal ligament, probing pocket depth. Bone density was significantly lower in the study group than that in the control group. Random blood glucose was significantly higher and significant lower levels of calcium were observed in patients on steroids. Conclusion: Long-term use of Cs may affect oral health adversely leading to candidiasis as well as impair bone metabolism leading to a considerable decrease in the mandibular bone mineral density. PMID:24348627

Beeraka, Swapna Sridevi; Natarajan, Kannan; Patil, Rajendra; Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Prathi, Venkata Sarath; Kolaparthi, Venkata Suneel Kumar



Long term effect of intravenous immunoglobulins and oral cyclophosphamide in multifocal motor neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—To report the long term effect of the combined treatment with high dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) and oral cyclophosphamide (CTX) in patients with multifocal motor neuropathy, and to determine whether the association of oral CTX in these patients may help to delay and, possibly, suspend IVIg infusions.METHODSSix patients with multifocal motor neuropathy responding to an initial course of IVIg (0.4

Nicoletta Meucci; Alberto Cappellari; Sergio Barbieri; Guglielmo Scarlato; Eduardo Nobile-Orazio



Dental caries, gingival health, and oral hygiene of long term survivors of paediatric malignant diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty two children who had had cancer and been treated with chemotherapy, and who were long term event free, were examined for caries prevalence, gingival health, and oral hygiene and compared with a control group. A higher dental caries prevalence for the 14-17 year age group was noted. The restorative index was significantly lower in the age group 10-13. There

F Dens; P Boute; J Otten; F Vinckier; D Declerck



Oral health champions in long-term care facilities-a pilot study.  


This preintervention/postintervention pilot study examined impact of onsite support by a dental hygiene champion (DHC) on oral health and quality of life (QOL) of elderly residents in three long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Arkansas. Oral health and oral health-related QOL were operationalized using the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT) and Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), respectively. CNAs in Facility A received standardized oral health education/materials with onsite DHC support. Facility B received education/materials only. Facility C served as control. Data analyses included Wilcoxon-signed rank tests (OHAT) and repeated measures ANOVA (GOHAI) (p ? .05). OHAT postintervention data in Facility A showed significant improvements in three measured areas (tongue health, denture status, and oral cleanliness); in Facility B, one area (tongue health); and none in Facility C. No significant differences were found in GOHAI scores across facilities. Findings suggest that the presence of DHCs in LTCFs may positively impact the oral health of CNA-assisted residents. PMID:25039379

Amerine, Carol; Boyd, Linda; Bowen, Denise M; Neill, Karen; Johnson, Tara; Peterson, Teri



Racial differences in long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic drug therapy: a longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence to oral antidiabetic medications is often suboptimal. Adherence differences may contribute to health disparities for black diabetes patients, including higher microvascular event rates, greater complication-related disability, and earlier mortality. Methods In this longitudinal retrospective cohort study, we used 10 years of patient-level claims and electronic medical record data (1/1/1992–12/31/2001) to assess differences in short- and long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic medication among 1906 newly diagnosed adults with diabetes (26% black, 74% white) in a managed care setting in which all members have prescription drug coverage. Four main outcome measures included: (1) time from diabetes diagnosis until first prescription of oral antidiabetic medication; (2) primary adherence (time from first prescription to prescription fill); (3) time until discontinuation of oral antidiabetic medication from first prescription; and (4) long-term adherence (amount dispensed versus amount prescribed) over a 24-month follow-up from first oral antidiabetic medication prescription. Results Black patients were as likely as whites to initiate oral therapy and fill their first prescription, but experienced higher rates of medication discontinuation (HR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) and were less adherent over time. These black-white differences increased over the first six months of therapy but stabilized thereafter for patients who initiated on sulfonylureas. Significant black-white differences in adherence levels were constant throughout follow-up for patients initiated on metformin therapy. Conclusion Racial differences in adherence to oral antidiabetic drug therapy persist even with equal access to medication. Early and continued emphasis on adherence from initiation of therapy may reduce persistent racial differences in medication use and clinical outcomes. PMID:19200387

Trinacty, Connie M; Adams, Alyce S; Soumerai, Stephen B; Zhang, Fang; Meigs, James B; Piette, John D; Ross-Degnan, Dennis



Growth hormone in postmenopausal women after long-term oral estrogen replacement therapy.  


Studies of estrogen effects on growth hormone (GH) and its pulsatile release in postmenopausal women have typically utilized estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) of relatively short duration (days to weeks). The purpose of this study was to compare GH measures from healthy postmenopausal women who were on oral ERT for 3 years or more (n = 24; mean ERT duration = 16.1 years) with women not on ERT (NERT; n = 40). Blood samples were drawn remotely every 20 min for 24 h and then analyzed for mean 24-h GH, mean GH during sleep, and mean 24-h insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). GH peak analyses were also performed. Mean 24-h GH and GH during sleep were significantly higher and IGF-I was significantly lower in ERT women compared with NERT women. In addition, use of long-term ERT was associated with more GH peaks relative to women not on ERT, but no change in GH peak amplitude or area. GH was not related to age in either group. GH was strongly and negatively correlated with measures of adiposity in NERT women but not in ERT women. In conclusion, long-term oral ERT is associated with increased circulating GH and decreased IGF-I levels, even after many years of treatment. PMID:9520907

Moe, K E; Prinz, P N; Larsen, L H; Vitiello, M V; Reed, S O; Merriam, G R



Pilot program provides oral health services to long term care facility residents through service learning and community partnership.  


Old Dominion University School of Dental Hygiene in Norfolk, Virginia, created an innovative preventive oral health program at Lake Taylor Transitional Care Hospital, a long term care facility located in coastal Virginia. The program had two main short-term goals: to increase the number of residents who receive preventive and therapeutic oral health services and to enhance future dental hygienists' learning experience with this diverse vulnerable population through service learning. The anticipated long-term goals are to improve quality of oral health care and overall health of long term care residents, to prevent potential disease, and to reproduce this model at other long term care facilities to improve access to care. PMID:23375477

Lemaster, Margaret



Oral health status among long-term hospitalized adults: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background. Many Long-Term Care (LTC) institutionalized patients are the most frail and functionally dependent among the geriatric population and have significant oral health disparities.They often suffer from dental neglect due to limited access to appropriate professional dental care. These patients have chronic health situations and are treated with medications, which increase their risk of oral diseases. Despite the growth in elderly population in Israel, there is insufficient data regarding their oral health status and treatment needs. Objective. To describe the oral health status of the LTC hospitalized adults in a geriatric and psychiatric hospital in Israel. Methods. Data was recorded from LTC hospitalized adults with a physical and/or mental disabilities in a cross-sectional research design, which included general health anamnesis and clinical oral examination. Variables included gender, medicines, oral hygiene (OH), using dentures, number of caries lesions and residual teeth. Univariate analyses included Pearson ?2 and t-test analyses. Multivariate analyses included logistic and linear regressions while the outcome variables were categorical OH index and number of carious cavitations, number of residual teeth and carious teeth percentage. Results. 153 participants were included in the study with a mean age of 65.03 ± 18.67 years. 31.3% of the patients were edentulous, and only 14% had partial or full dentures. Females had a significantly higher number of caries cavitation than males (P = 0.044). The number of caries cavitation was higher among patients with poor OH (P < 0.001) and when taking Clonazepam (P = 0.018). Number of residual teeth was higher in the fair OH group (P < 0.001). Carious teeth percentage was higher among the poor OH group (P < 0.001). PMID:24949240

Yavnai, Nirit; Zini, Avi



Long term results of sentinel lymph node biopsy in early oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to evaluate the long term results of the sentinel node (SN) biopsy technique in the management of the clinically negative (N0) neck in patients with early oral squamous cell carcinoma (T1–T2). Patients with positive SN underwent neck dissection. A sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was performed on 31 consecutive patients. Six of the 31 patients were upstaged by the results of the SLN biopsy. The SLN biopsy allowed the identification of node metastasis in 100% of the cases with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 100%, and negative predictive value of 100%. There was a mean follow-up of 59 months. The neck control rate was 100% in the SLN negative group and two SLN positive patients developed subsequent neck disease (neck control rate of 88%). One SLN patient presented at the follow-up with a second primary tumor, 18 months later treated successfully by chemoradiotherapy. The overall survival rate was 100% in both groups. The promising reported short-term results have been sustained by long term follow-up. Patients with negative SLN achieved an excellent neck control rate. The neck control rate in SN negative patients was superior to that in SLN positive patients, but not statistically different. PMID:23836993

Dequanter, Didier; Shahla, Mohammad; Paulus, Pascal; Lothaire, Philippe



No increased risk of infection for long-term sex partners of people with HPV-related oral cancers

Spouses and long-term partners of patients with mouth and throat cancers related to infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV) appear to have no increased prevalence of oral HPV infections, according to results of a multicenter, pilot study led by investigators from Johns Hopkins (home of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center). The study’s results suggest that long-term couples need not change their sexual practices, say the scientists.


Alternative markers for the long-term detection of oral testosterone misuse.  


The screening of testosterone misuse in the doping control field is normally performed by the measurement of the ratio between the concentrations of testosterone and epitestosterone excreted as glucuronides (T/E). Despite the satisfactory results obtained with this approach, the measurement of T/E presents some limitations like the long-term detection of oral testosterone administration. Recently, several testosterone metabolites released after basic treatment of the urine have been reported (androsta-1,4-dien-3,17-dione, androsta-4,6-dien-3,17-dione, 17?-hydroxy-androsta-4,6-dien-3-one and 15-androsten-3,17-dione). In the present work, the usefulness of these metabolites for the detection of oral testosterone misuse has been evaluated and compared with the conventional T/E measurement. For this purpose, 173 urine samples collected from healthy volunteers were analysed in order to obtain reference concentrations for the four metabolites released after alkaline treatment. On the other hand, urine samples collected from five volunteers before and after testosterone undecanoate administration were also analysed. Concentrations of androsta-4,6-dien-3,17-dione and 17?-hydroxy-androsta-4,6-dien-3-one showed a similar behaviour as the T/E, allowing the detection of the misuse for several hours after administration. More promising results were obtained by quantifying androsta-1,4-dien-3,17-dione and 15-androsten-3,17-dione. The time in which the concentrations of these analytes could be differentiated from the basal level was between 3 and 6 times longer than the obtained with T/E, as a result, an improvement in the detection of testosterone abuse can be achieved. Moreover, several ratios between these compounds were evaluated. Some of them improved the detection of testosterone misuse when comparing with T/E. The best results were obtained with those ratios involving androsta-1,4-dien-3,17-dione. PMID:21782838

Fabregat, Andreu; Pozo, Oscar J; Marcos, Josep; Segura, Jordi; Ventura, Rosa




EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this investigation was to characterize the acute and short- and long-term toxic potency of orally administered 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP). In the acute and short-term studies, male rats of 250-300 g were gavaged with 0, 100, 250, 500, or 1000 mg DCP/kg in corn oil...


Age-related oxidative decline of mitochondrial functions in rat brain is prevented by long term oral antioxidant supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of antioxidants (N-acetyl cysteine, ?-lipoic acid, and ?-tocopherol) was selected for long term oral supplementation\\u000a study in rats for protective effects on age-related mitochondrial alterations in the brain. Four groups of rats were chosen:\\u000a young control (6–7 months); aged rats (22–24 months); aged rats (22–24 months) on daily antioxidant supplementation from 18 month\\u000a onwards and young rats (6–7 months) on daily antioxidant supplementation

Maria Bindu Bagh; Ishita Guha Thakurta; Mallika Biswas; Prajna Behera; Sasanka Chakrabarti



Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial?mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL  

SciTech Connect

Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial?mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ? Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ? Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ? Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ? Si-Snail blocked xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells.

Yu, Cheng-Chia [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Chao, E-mail: [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China) [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)



The Impact of Long-Term Dental Health Education on Oral Hygiene Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study evaluated the impact of five years' exposure to a dental health curriculum on the oral hygiene of fifth-grade students. Findings of the study indicate that a well-designed dental health curriculum based on cognitive and behavioral objectives can result in a greater accumulation of dental health knowledge. (JN)

Houle, Bonnie A.



Resveratrol Based Oral Nutritional Supplement Produces Long-Term Beneficial Effects on Structure and Visual Function in Human Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Longevinex® (L/RV) is a low dose hormetic over-the-counter (OTC) oral resveratrol (RV) based matrix of red wine solids, vitamin D3 and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) with established bioavailability, safety, and short-term efficacy against the earliest signs of human atherosclerosis, murine cardiac reperfusion injury, clinical retinal neovascularization, and stem cell survival. We previously reported our short-term findings for dry and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. Today we report long term (two to three year) clinical efficacy. Methods: We treated three patients including a patient with an AMD treatment resistant variant (polypoidal retinal vasculature disease). We evaluated two clinical measures of ocular structure (fundus autofluorescent imaging and spectral domain optical coherence extended depth choroidal imaging) and qualitatively appraised changes in macular pigment volume. We further evaluated three clinical measures of visual function (Snellen visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and glare recovery to a cone photo-stress stimulus). Results: We observed broad bilateral improvements in ocular structure and function over a long time period, opposite to what might be expected due to aging and the natural progression of the patient’s pathophysiology. No side effects were observed. Conclusions: These three cases demonstrate that application of epigenetics has long-term efficacy against AMD retinal disease, when the retinal specialist has exhausted other therapeutic modalities. PMID:25329968

Richer, Stuart; Patel, Shana; Sockanathan, Shivani; Ulanski, Lawrence J.; Miller, Luke; Podella, Carla



Long-term oral administration of hop flower extracts mitigates Alzheimer phenotypes in mice.  


Coincident with the expanding population of aged people, the incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is rapidly increasing in most advanced countries. At present, no effective prophylactics are available. Among several pathological mechanisms proposed for AD, the "amyloid hypothesis" has been most widely accepted, in which accumulation or deposition of A? is considered to be the initial event. Thus, prevention of A? production would be an ideal strategy for the treatment or prevention of AD. A? is produced via the proteolytic cleavage of its precursor protein, APP (amyloid precursor protein), by two different enzymes, ? and ?-secretases. Indeed, inhibitors against either or both enzymes have been developed and tested for clinical efficacy. Based on the "amyloid hypothesis", we developed a luciferase-based screening method to monitor ?-secretase activity, screened more than 1,600 plant extracts, most of which have long been used in Chinese medicine, and observed that Hop extracts significantly inhibit A? production in cultured cells. A major component of the inhibitory activity was purified, and its chemical identity was determined by NMR to be Garcinielliptone HC. In vivo, oral administration of Hop extracts to AD model mice decreased A? depositions in the cerebral cortex of the parietal lobe, hippocampus, and artery walls (amyloid angiopathy) in the brains. In a Morris water maze test, AD model mice that had daily consumed Hop extracts in their drinking water showed significant mitigation of memory impairment at ages of 9 and 12 months. Moreover, in the open field test oral administration of Hop extracts also prevented an emotional disturbance that appeared in the AD mice at 18 months. Despite lifelong consumption of Hop extracts, no deleterious side effects were observed at any age. These results support the "amyloid hypothesis", and indicate that Hop extract is a promising candidate for an effective prophylactic for AD. PMID:24489866

Sasaoka, Norio; Sakamoto, Megumi; Kanemori, Shoko; Kan, Michiru; Tsukano, Chihiro; Takemoto, Yoshiji; Kakizuka, Akira



Disabled patients and oral health in Rome, Italy: long-term evaluation of educational initiatives  

PubMed Central

Summary This study is concerned with the educational intervention layout proposed as a possible answer for the disparities in healthcare services for disabled persons. Material and methods The data sampling was performed on individuals in Rome, affected by psychophysical disabilities, living in residential care facilities. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: Study and Control Group, consisting of patients who did or did not participate in the Educational Phase. All the caregivers participated in an educational course. Screening period: September 2008 – March 2009. Examinations were performed using Visible Plaque Index (VPI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Microbiological Analysis. Results The total number of patients utilized for the study was 36 (18 in each group). The final sample amounted to 70% (14/20) in the Study Group and to 75% (15/20) in the Control Group. In both examined groups Oral Hygiene, Gingival Health State and Microbiological Analysis show an overall improvement of the indices, compared with the initial status, mostly at a follow-up after 4 weeks. However, Study Group show a significantly better improvement. Conversely, after 6 months the overall clinical indices worsened again. Conclusion The difference in the significant improvements of the groups, even if only over a short-time evaluation, endorses that the participation of the patients as well as tutors in the educational phase is an effective strategy for the short-term. PMID:22545186

Avenali, Laura; Guerra, Fabrizio; Cipriano, Luigi; Corridore, Denise; Ottolenghi, Livia



Novel mutations in a patient isolate of Streptococcus agalactiae with reduced penicillin susceptibility emerging after long-term oral suppressive therapy.  


Penicillin nonsusceptibility has been demonstrated in group B streptococci (GBS), but there is limited information regarding mechanisms of resistance. We report a case of GBS with reduced susceptibility to penicillin emerging after long-term suppressive oral penicillin therapy for a prosthetic joint infection. Molecular characterization of the isolate before and after long-term penicillin therapy revealed 5 mutations in the ligand-binding regions of PBP1a, -2a, and -2x not previously reported in GBS. PMID:21383092

Longtin, Jean; Vermeiren, Christie; Shahinas, Dea; Tamber, Gurdip Singh; McGeer, Allison; Low, Donald E; Katz, Kevin; Pillai, Dylan R



Differential long-term outcomes for voluntary and involuntary transition from injection to oral opioid maintenance treatment  

PubMed Central

Background The most widely used maintenance treatment for opioid dependency is substitution with long-acting oral opioids. Treatment with injectable diacetylmorphine provides an opportunity for patients to stabilize and possibly transition to oral treatment, if clinically indicated. The aim of this study was to explore outcomes of individuals that received injectable diacetylmorphine and voluntarily transitioned to oral methadone. Design and methods The North American Opiate Medication Initiative was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effectiveness of injectable diacetylmorphine (or hydromorphone) to oral methadone for long-term opioid-dependency. Treatment was provided for 12-months with an additional 3 months for transition and weaning. Participants were followed until 24-months from randomization. Among the participants randomized to injectable treatments, a sub-group voluntarily chose to transition to oral methadone (n?=?16) during the treatment period. Illicit heroin use and treatment retention were assessed at 24-months for those voluntarily and involuntarily transitioning (n?=?95) to oral methadone. Results At 24-months, the group that voluntarily transitioned to oral methadone had higher odds of treatment retention (adjusted odds ratio?=?5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.11, 27.81; Chi-square?=?4.33, df?=?1, p-value?=?0.037) than the involuntary transition group. At 24-months, the adjusted mean difference in prior 30 days of illicit heroin use for the voluntary, compared to the involuntary group was -5.58 (95% CI?=?-11.62, 0.47; t-value?=?-1.83, df?=?97.4, p-value?=?0.070). Conclusions Although the results of this study were based on small groups of self-selected (i.e., non-randomized) participants, our data underlines the critical importance of voluntary and patient-centered decision making. If we had continued offering treatment with diacetylmorphine, those retained to injectable medication may have sustained the achieved improvements in the first 12 months. Diversified opioid treatment should be available so patients and physicians can flexibly choose the best treatment at the time. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration: NCT00175357 PMID:24908387



Molecular analysis of the microbiota in hard feces from healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) medicated with long term oral meloxicam  

PubMed Central

Background Analgesia is often indicated in rabbits undergoing surgical procedures or suffering from various painful conditions and the most common adverse effects associated with NSAIDs occur in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The objective of this study was to determine the potential effect of long-term (21 days) meloxicam administration on the fecal bacterial microbiota in healthy rabbits. Samples of hard feces were collected from six rabbits treated with meloxicam (1 mg/kg orally once every 24 h) on days 0,6,14 and 21. Next generation sequencing of V4 16S rRNA gene products was performed. Results A total of 2589912 V4 rRNA gene sequences passed all quality control filters. Firmicutes predominated (82.0?±?6.2%). Sixteen other phyla were also identified but other than Verrucomicrobia (4.4?±?4.9%), all accounted for less than 1% of the identified sequences. Within Firmicutes, Clostridia was the dominant class, accounting for 76% of operational taxon units (OTUs). In general, there were only few differences observed between time points and different rabbits at the phylum level. A significant change was observed in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria over the 4 time points (P?=?0.02). Conclusions The gastrointestinal tract of rabbits harbors dense and diverse microbiota. Significant alteration of the hard fecal microbiota does not appear to be a considerable adverse effect expected in rabbits treated for 21 days with oral meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg. PMID:24618207



[L-arginine and male infertility].  


The clinical efficacy and acceptance of L-arginina HCL was tested in 40 infertile men. All of these men had a normal number of spermatozoa (> 20 million/ml), but a decreased motility; this decreased motility was not due to infection or to immunological disorders. The treatment consisted of 80 ml of 10% L-arginine HCL administered daily per os for 6 months. L-arginine HCL showed to be able to improve the motility of spermatozoa without any side-effects. PMID:7701414

Scibona, M; Meschini, P; Capparelli, S; Pecori, C; Rossi, P; Menchini Fabris, G F



Point-of-Care International Normalized Ratio (INR) Monitoring Devices for Patients on Long-term Oral Anticoagulation Therapy  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Subject of the Evidence-Based Analysis The purpose of this evidence based analysis report is to examine the safety and effectiveness of point-of-care (POC) international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring devices for patients on long-term oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Long-term OAT is typically required by patients with mechanical heart valves, chronic atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or peripheral arterial occlusion. It is estimated that approximately 1% of the population receives anticoagulation treatment and, by applying this value to Ontario, there are an estimated 132,000 patients on OAT in the province, a figure that is expected to increase with the aging population. Patients on OAT are regularly monitored and their medications adjusted to ensure that their INR scores remain in the therapeutic range. This can be challenging due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin and variation in individual responses. Optimal INR scores depend on the underlying indication for treatment and patient level characteristics, but for most patients the therapeutic range is an INR score of between 2.0 and 3.0. The current standard of care in Ontario for patients on long-term OAT is laboratory-based INR determination with management carried out by primary care physicians or anticoagulation clinics (ACCs). Patients also regularly visit a hospital or community-based facility to provide a venous blood samples (venipuncture) that are then sent to a laboratory for INR analysis. Experts, however, have commented that there may be under-utilization of OAT due to patient factors, physician factors, or regional practice variations and that sub-optimal patient management may also occur. There is currently no population-based Ontario data to permit the assessment of patient care, but recent systematic reviews have estimated that less that 50% of patients receive OAT on a routine basis and that patients are in the therapeutic range only 64% of the time. Overview of POC INR Devices POC INR devices offer an alternative to laboratory-based testing and venipuncture, enabling INR determination from a fingerstick sample of whole blood. Independent evaluations have shown POC devices to have an acceptable level of precision. They permit INR results to be determined immediately, allowing for more rapid medication adjustments. POC devices can be used in a variety of settings including physician offices, ACCs, long-term care facilities, pharmacies, or by the patients themselves through self-testing (PST) or self-management (PSM) techniques. With PST, patients measure their INR values and then contact their physician for instructions on dose adjustment, whereas with PSM, patients adjust the medication themselves based on pre-set algorithms. These models are not suitable for all patients and require the identification and education of suitable candidates. Potential advantages of POC devices include improved convenience to patients, better treatment compliance and satisfaction, more frequent monitoring and fewer thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications. Potential disadvantages of the device include the tendency to underestimate high INR values and overestimate low INR values, low thromboplastin sensitivity, inability to calculate a mean normal PT, and errors in INR determination in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies with certain instruments. Although treatment satisfaction and quality of life (QoL) may improve with POC INR monitoring, some patients may experience increased anxiety or preoccupation with their disease with these strategies. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions 1. Effectiveness Does POC INR monitoring improve clinical outcomes in various settings compared to standard laboratory-based testing? Does POC INR monitoring impact patient satisfaction, QoL, compliance, acceptability, convenience compared to standard laboratory-based INR determination? Settings include primary care settings with use of POC INR dev



L-Arginine: Rediscovery in Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the recognition that L-arginine (LA) is the natural metabolic donor of nitric oxide, this amino acid has reached the medical spotlight. LA exerts favorable effects in the prevention and treatment of endothelial damage and the restoration of endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular risk factors (hypercholesterolemia, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and advanced age) or with several chronic cardiovascular disorders (coronary,

Alexander Tenenbaum; Enrique Z. Fisman; Michael Motro



Oral toxicity of 1,2-dichloropropane: Acute, short-term, and long-term studies in rats  

SciTech Connect

The investigation characterized the acute and short- and long-term toxic potency of orally administered 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP). In the acute and short-term studies, male rats of 250-300 g were gavaged with 0, 100, 250, 500, or 1000 mg DCP/kg in corn oil once daily for up to 10 consecutive days. Although ingestion of DCP caused body weight loss and CNS depression, few other toxic effects were manifest 24 hr after a single dose of the chemical. Morphological changes were limited to liver centrilobular cells in 500 and 1000 mg/kg rats. Similarly, elevated activity of some serum enzymes occurred only at these two highest dose levels. Hepatic nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPS) levels were decreased and renal NPS levels increased at 24 hr. In the short-term study resistance developed to DCP hepatotoxicity over the 10 consecutive days of exposure, as reflected by progressively lower serum enzyme levels and by decreases in the severity and incidence of toxic hepatitis and periportal vacuolization. Nucleolar enlargement in hepatocytes, however, was observed at all dosage levels at 5 and 10 days. There were a number of manifestations of hemolytic anemia, including erythrophagocytosis in the liver, splenic hemosiderosis and hyperplasia of erythropoietic elements of the red pulp, renal tubular cell hemosiderosis, and hyperbilirubinemia.

Bruckner, J.V.; MacKenzie, W.F.; Ramanathan, R.; Muralidhara, S.; Kim, H.J.



Patients’ perspectives regarding long-term warfarin therapy and the potential transition to new oral anticoagulant therapy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine patients’ perspectives regarding long-term vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy and the potential transition to new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) such as dabigatran and rivaroxaban, and to determine if factors such as residential location affect these opinions. Design, setting and participants: Patients on VKA therapy for at least 12 weeks completed a questionnaire specifically designed for the study. They were recruited while attending point-of-care international normalized ratio (INR) testing at six South Australian general practice clinics during the period July–September 2013. Main outcome measures: Opinions of current VKA therapy, level of awareness of NOACs, and ratings of potential benefits and deterrents of transition to NOACs were sought. Results: Data from 290 participants were available for analysis (response rate 95.4%). The majority of the sample (79.5%, 229/288) were either satisfied or very satisfied with current VKA therapy. The mean score for the potential benefits of transition to NOACs was 7.6 (±4.2) out of a possible 20, which was significantly lower than the mean score 10.9 (±4.5) for the perceived deterrents to transition (p < 0.001). Rural patients (82.0%, 82/100) were significantly more likely (p = 0.001) to have not heard of NOACs than metropolitan patients (50.3%, 95/189) and also perceived significant less benefits in a transition to NOACs (p = 0.001). Conclusion: When considering potential transition from VKAs to NOACs it is important for prescribers to consider that some patients, in particular those from a rural location, may not perceive a significant benefit in transitioning or may have particular concerns in this area.

Gebler-Hughes, Elizabeth S.; Kemp, Linda



Altered l-arginine metabolism in children with controlled asthma.  


Decreased level of l-arginine may lead to airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and airway remodeling. Changes in l-arginine metabolism were observed earlier in adult asthmatic patients. Studies on l-arginine metabolism in children with bronchial asthma are limited. Because biosynthesis of l-arginine is insufficient in growing children, its potential metabolic alterations may have important clinical implications. This study was designed to evaluate l-arginine metabolism in children with well-controlled asthma. The studies were conducted on blood serum of 30 asthmatic and 20 healthy children (control group). Levels of l-arginine and its metabolic products, l-citrulline and l-ornithine, were measured by HPLC. Arginase activity was determined spectrophotometrically. Disease severity was evaluated by the asthma control test (ACT) and the level of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air. In asthmatic children l-arginine concentration was significantly lowered, whereas arginase activity was unchanged when compared with the healthy group. However, l-ornithine and l-citrulline levels were significantly increased. There was no correlation between arginase activity, amino acids levels, ACT scores, and exhaled NO. In children with chronic, well-controlled asthma l-arginine metabolism is altered. Given that l-arginine is absolutely essential for children, our findings may be of particular importance for the management of children with nonexacerbated asthma. They may also help to develop new therapeutic strategies targeted at l-arginine metabolism in the future. PMID:25295800

Kraj, Leszek; Krawiec, Marta; Koter, Marek; Grabo?, Wojciech; Kraj, Gra?yna; Cho?ojczyk, Ma?gorzata; Kulus, Marek; Bara?czyk-Ku?ma, Anna



Effects of long-term postoperative oral contraceptive use for the prevention of endometrioma recurrence on bone mineral density in young women.  


Abstract Concerns for negative effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) on bone mineral density (BMD) in long-term users have been raised, since OCs suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. However, there have been still limited data regarding the effects of long-term OC use on BMD in young women in the twenties. We investigated the effects of long-term OC use for the prevention of endometrioma recurrence on BMD in young women. Ninety-two women aged 20-30 years who underwent conservative surgery for endometrioma and used postoperative OC for at least 12 months to prevent the recurrence were included for this cross-sectional study, and BMDs after OC use were analyzed. The mean age at starting OC and duration of OC use was 25.6?±?2.9 years and 40.7?±?28.5 months, respectively. No correlation was found between BMDs and age at starting OC at all sites. In addition, BMDs were also not correlated with the duration of OC use, and were comparable according to the dose of OC (20 versus 30??g). In conclusion, long-term use of OCs has no adverse effect on BMD in post-adolescent young women. PMID:24927075

Lee, Dong-Yun; Oh, Yoon-Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok



The efficacy of long-term oral chemotherapy with 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine and cyclophosphamide for recurrent breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background 5?-Deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5?-DFUR) is a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which is known to be converted by thymidine phosphorylase (dThdPase). A recent preclinical study revealed that cyclophosphamide (CPA) upregulated dThdPase activity, specifically in tumor cells. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of long-term administration of 5?-DFUR\\/CPA for patients with recurrent breast cancer. Methods Fifteen breast cancer

Toshiaki Iba; Akio Kidokoro; Masaki Fukunaga; Kazuyoshi Sugiyama; Nobuyoshi Aihara; Masaru Suda



L-Arginine and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and loss of cognitive and memory functions. Although the exact causes of AD are still unclear, evidence suggests that atherosclerosis, redox stress, inflammation, neurotransmitter dysregulation, and impaired brain energy metabolism may all be associated with AD pathogenesis. Herein, we explore a possible role for L-arginine (L-arg) in AD, taking into consideration known functions for L-arg in atherosclerosis, redox stress and the inflammatory process, regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, and modulation of glucose metabolism and insulin activity. L-arg, a precursor of nitric oxide and polyamine, exhibits multiple functions in human health and may play a prominent role in age-related degenerative diseases such as AD. PMID:19079617

Yi, Jing; Horky, Laura L.; Friedlich, Avi L.; Shi, Ying; Rogers, Jack T.; Huang, Xudong



Long-term results of oral valganciclovir for treatment of anterior segment inflammation secondary to cytomegalovirus infection  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of oral valganciclovir in the treatment of anterior segment inflammation caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Methods Consecutive patients with anterior segment inflammation due to CMV causing anterior uveitis or corneal endotheliitis treated with oral valganciclovir were reviewed. Diagnosis of CMV infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous aspirate prior to commencement of oral valganciclovir. All patients were treated with an oral loading dose of 900 mg valganciclovir twice daily for at least 2 weeks, followed by an additional 450 mg valganciclovir twice-daily maintenance therapy. Changes in visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), use of antiglaucomatous eye drops, and recurrence were analyzed. Results Thirteen eyes of 11 patients were followed for a mean of 17.2 months. Two patients had bilateral corneal endotheliitis. All eyes had absence of anterior segment inflammation within 3 weeks after treatment. Following treatment, the mean logMAR visual acuity improved significantly from 0.58 at baseline to 0.37 at the last follow-up (P = 0.048). The mean IOP and number of antiglaucomatous eye drops also decreased significantly (P = 0.021 and P = 0.004, respectively). Five (38.5%) eyes had recurrence of anterior uveitis after valganciclovir was stopped and required retreatment with oral valganciclovir. Conclusion Oral valganciclovir appeared to be effective in controlling CMV anterior uveitis, resulting in visual improvement and IOP reduction following control of inflammation. However, despite the initial clinical response in all cases, recurrence after cessation of oral valganciclovir could occur. PMID:22553419

Wong, Victoria WY; Chan, Carmen KM; Leung, Dexter YL; Lai, Timothy YY



Direct oral anticoagulants as alternative treatment options for the effective long-term treatment of patients with pulmonary embolism in primary care: a review.  


Abstract Pulmonary embolism (PE) represents a potentially life-threatening venous thromboembolic disorder, and prompt treatment is vital to prevent early mortality. However, diagnosis of PE is complicated by the range of signs and symptoms with which it presents. Clinical risk scores, imaging techniques, and laboratory tests are recommended in clinical guidelines to aid diagnosis, and risk stratification strategies can be used to inform treatment decisions. Long-term anticoagulation is key to avoid the risk of later complications of acute PE, such as recurrent venous thromboembolism and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Rivaroxaban is a direct oral anticoagulant that has been approved for the treatment of PE (and deep vein thrombosis) and prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism; other direct oral anticoagulants have undergone phase III trials for these indications. These agents may provide advantages over traditional anticoagulants, such as vitamin K antagonists, because they are administered at fixed doses and do not require routine coagulation monitoring. These advantages may improve patient adherence and aid general practitioners by simplifying long-term management of PE in daily primary care. PMID:24888386

Toth, Peter P



Tetrahydrobiopterin, l-Arginine and Vitamin C Act Synergistically to Decrease Oxidant Stress and Increase Nitric Oxide That Increases Blood Flow Recovery after Hindlimb Ischemia in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a potent vasodilator and signaling molecule that plays essential roles in neovascularization. During limb ischemia, decreased NO bioavailability occurs secondary to increased oxidant stress, decreased l-arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary cosupplementation with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), l-arginine and vitamin C acts synergistically to decrease oxidant stress, increase NO and thereby increase blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia. Rats were fed normal chow, chow supplemented with BH4 or l-arginine (alone or in combination) or chow supplemented with BH4 + l-arginine + vitamin C for 1 wk before induction of hindlimb ischemia. In the is-chemic hindlimb, cosupplementation with BH4 + l-arginine resulted in greater eNOS and phospho-eNOS (P-eNOS) expression, Ca2+-dependent NOS activity and NO concentration in the ischemic calf region (gastrocnemius), as well as greater NO concentration in the region of collateral arteries (gracilis). Rats receiving cosupplementation of BH4 + l-arginine led to greater recovery of foot perfusion and greater collateral enlargement than did rats receiving either agent separately. The addition of vitamin C to the BH4 + l-arginine regimen further increased these dependent variables. In addition, rats given all three supplements showed significantly less Ca2+-independent activity, less nitrotyrosine accumulation, greater glutathione (GSH)–to–glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio and less gastrocnemius muscle necrosis, on both macroscopic and microscopic levels. In conclusion, co-supplementation with BH4 + l-arginine + vitamin C significantly increased blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia by reducing oxidant stress, increasing NO bioavailability, enlarging collateral arteries and reducing muscle necrosis. Oral cosupplementation of BH4, l-arginine and vitamin C holds promise as a biological therapy to induce collateral artery enlargement. PMID:23212846

Yan, Jinglian; Tie, Guodong; Messina, Louis M



Protective Effect of L-arginine Against Necrosis and Apoptosis Induced by Experimental Ischemic and Reperfusion in Rat Liver  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: To study the effect of L-arginine on apoptosis and necrosis induced by 1-h ischemia followed by 3-h reperfusion. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar rats underwent 60 min of partial liver ischemia followed by 3-h reperfusion. Eighteen Wistar rats were divided into sham-operated control group (I) (n = 6), ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) group (0.9% saline (5 mL/kg, orally) for 7 days) (II) (n = 6), and L-arginine-treated group (10 mg/kg body weight daily orally for 7 days before inducing ischemia-reperfusion maneuver) (III) (n = 6). Apoptotic and necrotic hepatocytes, nitric oxide levels in hepatocytes, Bcl-2 mRNA, and Bcl-2 protein were measured. Liver injury was assessed by plasma alanine transaminases (ALT), aspartate transaminases (AST), liver histopathology, and electron microscopy. Results: An ischemic and reperfusion hepatocellular injury occurred as was indicated by increased serum ALT, AST, histopathology, and electron microscopy. Apoptosis and necrosis associated marker gene Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression were decreased in I/R group. Pretreatment with L-arginine significantly decreased serum ALT and AST level and apoptotic and necrotic cells after 1 h ischemia followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Nitric oxide production in hepatocytes was increased twofold by L-arginine treatment when compared with I/R group. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies showed markedly diminished hepatocellular injury in L-arginine-pretreated rats during the hepatic I/R. Conclusion: Thus, it may be concluded that L-arginine afforded significant protection from necrosis and apoptosis in I/R injury by upregulated Bcl-2 gene and nitric oxide production. PMID:19636175

Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Shukla, Gunjan; Wahi, Arun Kumar



Consequences of long-term oral administration of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ to wild-type mice.  


The mitochondria-targeted quinone MitoQ protects mitochondria in animal studies of pathologies in vivo and is being developed as a therapy for humans. However, it is unclear whether the protective action of MitoQ is entirely due to its antioxidant properties, because long-term MitoQ administration may alter whole-body metabolism and gene expression. To address this point, we administered high levels of MitoQ orally to wild-type C57BL/6 mice for up to 28 weeks and investigated the effects on whole-body physiology, metabolism, and gene expression, finding no measurable deleterious effects. In addition, because antioxidants can act as pro-oxidants under certain conditions in vitro, we examined the effects of MitoQ administration on markers of oxidative damage. There were no changes in the expression of mitochondrial or antioxidant genes as assessed by DNA microarray analysis. There were also no increases in oxidative damage to mitochondrial protein, DNA, or cardiolipin, and the activities of mitochondrial enzymes were unchanged. Therefore, MitoQ does not act as a pro-oxidant in vivo. These findings indicate that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants can be safely administered long-term to wild-type mice. PMID:19854266

Rodriguez-Cuenca, Sergio; Cochemé, Helena M; Logan, Angela; Abakumova, Irina; Prime, Tracy A; Rose, Claudia; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Smith, Anthony C; Rubinsztein, David C; Fearnley, Ian M; Jones, Bruce A; Pope, Simon; Heales, Simon J R; Lam, Brian Y H; Neogi, Sudeshna Guha; McFarlane, Ian; James, Andrew M; Smith, Robin A J; Murphy, Michael P



Patient Self-Management of Oral Anticoagulation with Vitamin K Antagonists in Everyday Practice: Efficacy and Safety in a Nationwide Long-Term Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Patient self-management (PSM) of oral anticoagulation is under discussion, because evidence from real-life settings is missing. Using data from a nationwide, prospective cohort study in Switzerland, we assessed overall long-term efficacy and safety of PSM and examined subgroups. Data of 1140 patients (5818.9 patient-years) were analysed and no patient were lost to follow-up. Median follow-up was 4.3 years (range 0.2–12.8 years). Median age at the time of training was 54.2 years (range 18.2–85.2) and 34.6% were women. All-cause mortality was 1.4 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 1.1–1.7) with a higher rate in patients with atrial fibrillation (2.5; 1.6–3.7; p<0.001), patients>50 years of age (2.0; 1.6–2.6; p<0.001), and men (1.6; 1.2–2.1; p?=?0.036). The rate of thromboembolic events was 0.4 (0.2–0.6) and independent from indications, sex and age. Major bleeding were observed in 1.1 (0.9–1.5) per 100 patient-years. Efficacy was comparable to standard care and new oral anticoagulants in a network meta-analysis. PSM of properly trained patients is effective and safe in a long-term real-life setting and robust across clinical subgroups. Adoption in various clinical settings, including those with limited access to medical care or rural areas is warranted. PMID:24748062

Nagler, Michael; Bachmann, Lucas M.; Schmid, Pirmin; Raddatz Muller, Pascale; Wuillemin, Walter A.



Responses of dairy cattle to long-term and short-term supplementation with oral selenium and vitamin E  

SciTech Connect

In a two-lactation-gestation cycle experiment, 152 Holstein cows with low serum Se and vitamin E were fed total mixed rations and assigned at parturition to four groups (1, control; 2, 500 IU vitamin E/d; 3, 2 mg Se/d; 4, 500 IU vitamin E plus 2 mg Se/d). Supplements were not fed during dry periods. Serium Se and vitamin E were increased within 1 mo by oral supplements. Maximal mean serum Se in cycles 1 and 2 occurred in groups 3 and 4, respectively. Maximal mean serum vitamin E in cycle 1 and 2 occurred in groups 4 and 2, respectively. Selenium treatment of the dams increased Se in colostrum and in serum of presuckle calves. Vitamin E supplementation of dams did not affect vitamin E in serum of presuckled calves. Reproductive performance was not affected by supplement. In an 8-wk study, 24 lactating cows with low serum Se were assigned (6/group) to 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg supplemental Se/d. Maximal mean serum Se concentrations of 23, 56, 71, and 79 ng/ml were attained by wk 4 in the above respective groups. These data indicate that 2 to 2.5 mg supplemental Se/cow per d were inadequate for desirable serum Se concentrations and support recent changes in allowed Se supplementation for dairy cattle.

Stowe, H.D.; Thomas, J.W.; Johnson, T.; Marteniuk, J.V.; Morrow, D.A.; Ullrey, D.E. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))



Long-Term Effects of Chronic Oral Ritalin Administration on Cognitive and Neural Development in Adolescent Wistar Kyoto Rats  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed “normal” (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in “normal” WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls. PMID:24961199

Pardey, Margery C.; Kumar, Natasha N.; Goodchild, Ann K.; Clemens, Kelly J.; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L.



Long-term effects of chronic oral Ritalin administration on cognitive and neural development in adolescent wistar kyoto rats.  


The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed "normal" (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in "normal" WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls. PMID:24961199

Pardey, Margery C; Kumar, Natasha N; Goodchild, Ann K; Clemens, Kelly J; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L



Long-term degradation of resin-based cements in substances present in the oral environment: influence of activation mode  

PubMed Central

Indirect restorations in contact with free gingival margins or principally within the gingival sulcus, where the presence of organic acids produced by oral biofilm is higher, may present faster degradation of the resin-based cement pellicle. Objectives: To investigate the degradation of four resin-based cements: Rely X ARC (R), Variolink II (V), enforce (E) and All Cem (A), after immersion in distilled water (DW), lactic acid (LA) and artificial saliva (AS) and to analyze the influence of the activation mode on this response. Material and Methods: Two activation modes were evaluated: chemical (Ch) and dual (D). In the dual activation, a two-millimeter thick ceramic disk (IPS empress System) was interposed between the specimen and light-curing unit tip. Specimens were desiccated, immersed in distilled water, artificial saliva and lactic acid 0.1 M at 37ºC for 180 days, weighed daily for the first 7 days, and after 14, 21, 28, 90 and 180 days and were desiccated again. Sorption and solubility (µg/mm3) were calculated based on ISO 4049. The data were submitted to multifactor analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Tukey's HSD test for media comparisons (?=0.05). Results: Sorption was higher after immersion in LA (p<0.05) and increased significantly with time (p<0.05). Sorption was influenced by the activation mode: Ch>D (p<0.05). The lowest solubility was presented by R (p<0.05). Conclusions: Lactic acid increased the degradation of resin-based cements. Moreover, the physical component of activation, i.e., light-activation, contributed to a low degradation of resin-based cements. PMID:23857651

da SILVA, Eduardo Moreira; NORONHA-FILHO, Jaime Dutra; AMARAL, Cristiane Mariote; POSKUS, Laiza Tatiana; GUIMARAES, Jose Guilherme Antunes



l-Arginine Supplementation and Metabolism in Asthma  

PubMed Central

l-Arginine, the amino acid substrate for nitric oxide synthase, has been tested as a therapeutic intervention in a variety of chronic diseases and is commonly used as a nutritional supplement. In this study, we hypothesized that a subset of moderate to severe persistent asthma patients would benefit from supplementation with l-arginine by transiently increasing nitric oxide levels, resulting in bronchodilation and a reduction in inflammation. The pilot study consisted of a 3 month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of l-arginine (0.05 g/kg twice daily) in patients with moderate to severe asthma. We measured spirometry, exhaled breath nitric oxide, serum arginine metabolites, questionnaire scores, daily medication use and PEFR with the primary endpoint being the number of minor exacerbations at three months. Interim analysis of the 20 subjects showed no difference in the number of exacerbations, exhaled nitric oxide levels or lung function between groups, though participants in the l-arginine group had higher serum l-arginine at day 60 (2.0 ± 0.6 × 10?3 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 × 10?3 ?mol/L, p < 0.05), ornithine at day 30 (2.4 ± 0.9 vs. 1.2 ± 0.3 ?mol/L serum, p < 0.05) and ADMA at day 30 (6.0 ± 1.5 × 10?1 vs. 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10?1 ?mol/L serum, p < 0.05) on average compared to the placebo group. The study was terminated prematurely. Supplementing asthma subjects with l-arginine increases plasma levels; whether subgroups might benefit from such supplementation requires further study.

Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Last, Michael; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Kwan, Vivian W.; O'Roark, Erin; Linderholm, Angela



Long-term response and postsurgical complete remissions after treatment with sunitinib malate, an oral multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.  


Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and significantly extended survival in these patients. Sunitinib is an oral multitargeted inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs-1, -2, and -3), platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs-? and -?), stem-cell factor receptor (KIT), FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor (REarranged during Transfection; RET). Sunitinib is approved multinationally for the treatment of advanced RCC, and is considered the reference standard of care for first-line treatment. In clinical trials, sunitinib has been associated with a consistent, distinct profile of adverse events. Here we describe three cases that show that it is possible to manage adverse events occurring during sunitinib therapy, and thus allow patients with mRCC to receive an effective dose of sunitinib in order to achieve long-term disease control. These cases also show that surgical resection, performed whenever possible, can help to improve control of metastatic disease and so avoid the unnecessary toxicity and high costs of prolonged antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:21469976

Ayllon, Jorge; Beuselinck, Benoit; Morel, Alexandre; Barrascout, Eduardo; Medioni, Jacques; Scotte, Florian; Oudard, Stéphane



Effects of Adenosine Monophosphate Used in Combination with L-Arginine on Female Rabbit Corpus Cavernosum Tissue  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sexual dysfunction is significantly more prevalent in women than in men. However, to date, no satisfactory oral treatment is yet available. Aim The aim of this study was to study the effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) alone or its combination with L-Arginine on the relaxation of the female rabbit corpus cavernosum. Methods Cylinder strips from the corporal body of the excised clitoris from female New Zealand White rabbits were incubated in Krebs solution. Phenylephrine (PE) precontraction was achieved, then the drugs AMP and L-Arginine were administered either independently or in sequential combinations to the strips under precontracted conditions. Main Outcome Measures Contraction percentages were compared. Results When precontraction was induced by PE 8 ?M or 20 ?M, AMP was shown to induce relaxation up to 25% in a dose-dependent manner. The relaxation induced by L-Arginine reached 15.6% at 5.10?4 M vs. 16.5% at AMP 5.10?4 M under the same experimental conditions. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine strongly inhibited the relaxing effect provoked by AMP, suggesting that the action mechanism of this nucleotide is related to the NO pathway. The combination of L-Arginine at 5.10?4 M with AMP at different doses ranging from 5.10?4 M to 10?3 M significantly amplified the relaxing response up to 40.7% and 58%, respectively. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that AMP induces a relaxing effect on the female rabbit corpora. They also show that L-Arginine and AMP can potentiate each other and that a synergistic effect can be obtained by their combined use. Because only slight differences exist between both sexes in response to NO donors and/or nucleotide purines or in their use together, it is very likely that close biochemical mechanisms, although not to the same degree and not quite similar, are involved in the engorgement of the penis and the clitoris of New Zealand White rabbits. Stücker O, Pons C, Neuzillet Y, Laemmel E, and Lebret T. Original research-sexual medicine: Effects of adenosine monophosphate used in combination with L-Arginine on female rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue. Sex Med 2014;2:1–7. PMID:25356295

Stucker, Olivier; Pons, Catherine; Neuzillet, Yann; Laemmel, Elisabeth; Lebret, Thierry



Identification of a Specific Transport System for L-Arginine in Human Platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study demonstrates that human platelets possess a specific L-arginine transport system able to provide adequate amounts of L-arginine for endogenous nitric oxide production. L-arginine uptake takes place through a saturable high affinity carrier-mediated Na+-independent process which is significantly inhibited by L-ornithine, L-lysine and N?-methyl-L-arginine. The high affinity of the transport process and the pattern of inhibition are consistent

V. Vasta; E. Meacci; M. Farnararo; P. Bruni



L-arginine supplementation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits normalizes leukocyte adhesion to non-endothelial matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-arginine slows the development of atheromatous lesions, improves endothelium-dependent relaxation, and reduces the vascular superoxide anion production in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. These beneficial effects have been attributed to L-arginine-dependent formation of nitric oxide within the endothelial layer; a direct effect of L-arginine on other cells, however, has not been investigated. We hypothesised that in hypercholesterolemia L-arginine also specifically acts via a

Ralf P. Brandes; Stefanie Brandes; Rainer H. Böger; Stefanie M. Bode-Böger; Andreas Mügge



Intracellular L-arginine concentration does not determine NO production in endothelial cells: Implications on the 'L-arginine paradox'  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our findings provide a possible solution to the 'L-arginine paradox'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular L-arginine concentration is the major determinant of NO production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular L-arginine action is limited by cellular ARG transport, not the K{sub m} of NOS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explain how L-arginine supplementation can work to increase endothelial function. -- Abstract: We examined the relative contributory roles of extracellular vs. intracellular L-arginine (ARG) toward cellular activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were incubated with different concentrations of {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG, ARG, or L-arginine ethyl ester (ARG-EE) for 2 h. To modulate ARG transport, siRNA for ARG transporter (CAT-1) vs. sham siRNA were transfected into cells. ARG transport activity was assessed by cellular fluxes of ARG, {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG, dimethylarginines, and L-citrulline by an LC-MS/MS assay. eNOS activity was determined by nitrite/nitrate accumulation, either via a fluorometric assay or by{sup 15}N-nitrite or estimated {sup 15}N{sub 3}-citrulline concentrations when {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG was used to challenge the cells. We found that ARG-EE incubation increased cellular ARG concentration but no increase in nitrite/nitrate was observed, while ARG incubation increased both cellular ARG concentration and nitrite accumulation. Cellular nitrite/nitrate production did not correlate with cellular total ARG concentration. Reduced {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG cellular uptake in CAT-1 siRNA transfected cells vs. control was accompanied by reduced eNOS activity, as determined by {sup 15}N-nitrite, total nitrite and {sup 15}N{sub 3}-citrulline formation. Our data suggest that extracellular ARG, not intracellular ARG, is the major determinant of NO production in endothelial cells. It is likely that once transported inside the cell, ARG can no longer gain access to the membrane-bound eNOS. These observations indicate that the 'L-arginine paradox' should not consider intracellular ARG concentration as a reference point.

Shin, Soyoung; Mohan, Srinidi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Fung, Ho-Leung, E-mail: [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)



Long Term Ecological Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze data on temperature and precipitation collected from 26 different Long Term Ecological Research sites and compare them with annual net primary productivity. The students then form an ecological rule to explain their results.

Cooper, Scott


Long Term Prognosis  


... TERM PROGNOSIS The long-term outlook of pediatric cardiomyopathy continues to be unpredictable because it occurs with ... a child also depends on the type of cardiomyopathy and the stage the disease is first diagnosed. ...


Consequences of long-term oral administration of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ to wild-type mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondria-targeted quinone MitoQ protects mitochondria in animal studies of pathologies in vivo and is being developed as a therapy for humans. However, it is unclear whether the protective action of MitoQ is entirely due to its antioxidant properties, because long-term MitoQ administration may alter whole-body metabolism and gene expression. To address this point, we administered high levels of MitoQ

Sergio Rodriguez-Cuenca; Helena M. Cochemé; Angela Logan; Irina Abakumova; Tracy A. Prime; Claudia Rose; Antonio Vidal-Puig; Anthony C. Smith; David C. Rubinsztein; Ian M. Fearnley; Bruce A. Jones; Simon Pope; Simon J. R. Heales; Brian Y. H. Lam; Sudeshna Guha Neogi; Ian McFarlane; Andrew M. James; Robin A. J. Smith; Michael P. Murphy



Long-term blockade of nitric oxide synthesis in rats modulates coronary capillary network remodeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term blockade of nitric oxide synthesis with N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induces cardiac perivascular fibrosis in rats. Its relationship to expression of angiogenic\\u000a growth factors and capillary network remodeling is not understood. This study was designed to determine whether capillary\\u000a proliferation and angiogenic growth factor regulation occur in response to L-NAME. Three groups of rats were studied: C, control;\\u000a L1,

Daisuke Goto; Satoshi Fujii; A. K. M. Tarikuz Zaman; Ichiro Sakuma; Ming Gao; Tomiyasu Koyama; John Mitchell; Janet Woodcock-Mitchell; Burton E. Sobel; Akira Kitabatake



L-Arginine Metabolism in Dog Kidney and Isolated Nephron Segments Olivier Levillain1  

E-print Network

- 1 - L-Arginine Metabolism in Dog Kidney and Isolated Nephron Segments Olivier Levillain1 , Daniel Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H2L 4M1, Canada short title : L-Arginine Metabolism in Dog Kidney the pivotal role of L-arginine and L-ornithine in several metabolic pathways and the fact that the dog

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Cost-effectiveness of oral alitretinoin in patients with severe chronic hand eczema - a long-term analysis from a Swiss perspective  

PubMed Central

Background The impact on patients suffering from chronic hand eczema (CHE) is enormous, as no licensed systemic treatment option with proven efficacy for CHE is available. Alitretinoin is a novel agent which showed high clinical efficacy in patients with severe, refractory CHE. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of alitretinoin for CHE patient treatment from a Swiss third party payer perspective. A further objective of this study was to determine the burden of disease in Switzerland. Methods A long-term Markov cohort simulation model was used to estimate direct medical costs (€) and clinical effectiveness (quality adjusted life years, QALYs) of treating severe CHE patients with alitretinoin. Comparison was against the standard treatment of supportive care (optimised emollient therapy). Information on response rates were derived from a randomized controlled clinical trial. Costs were considered from the perspective of the Swiss health system. Swiss epidemiological data was derived from official Swiss Statistic institutions. Results Annual costs of alitretinoin treatment accounted for €2'212. After a time horizon of 22.4 years, average remaining long-term costs accounted for €42'208 or €38'795 in the alitretinoin and the standard treatment arm, respectively. Compared with the standard therapy, the addition of alitretinoin yielded an average gain of 0.230 QALYs at the end of the simulation. Accordingly, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio resulted in €14'816/QALY gained. These results were robust to changes in key model assumptions. Conclusion The therapy for CHE patients is currently insufficient. In our long-term model we identified the treatment with alitretinoin as a cost-effective alternative for the therapy of CHE patients in Switzerland. PMID:20579358



The influence of a novel pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, on N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester and L-arginine effects on stomach mucosa integrity and blood pressure.  


The known effects of a novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC157 (10 microg or 10 ng/kg), namely its salutary activity against ethanol (96%, i.g.)-induced gastric lesions (simultaneously applied i.p.) and in blood pressure maintenance (given i.v.), were investigated in rats challenged with a combination of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) (5 mg/kg i.v.), a competitive inhibitor of endothelium nitric oxide (NO)-generation and NO precursor, L-arginine (200 mg/kg i.v.) (D-arginine was ineffective). In the gastric lesions assay, NO agents were given 5 min before ethanol injury and BPC 157 medication. Given alone, BPC157 had an antiulcer effect, as did L-arginine, but L-NAME had no effect. L-NAME completely abolished the effect of L-arginine, whereas it only attenuated the effect of BPC 157. After application of the combination of L-NAME + L-arginine, the BPC157 effect was additionally impaired. In blood pressure studies, compared with L-arginine, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (without effect on basal normal values) had both a mimicking effect (impaired L-NAME-blood pressure increase, when applied prophylactically and decreased already raised L-NAME values, given at the time of the maximal L-NAME-blood pressure increase (i.e., 10 min after L-NAME)) and preventive activity (L-arginine-induced moderate blood pressure decrease was prevented by BPC 157 pretreatment). When BPC 157 was given 10 min after L-NAME + L-arginine combination, which still led to a blood pressure increase, its previously clear effect (noted in L-NAME treated rats) disappeared. In vitro, in gastric mucosa from rat stomach tissue homogenates, BPC 157, given in the same dose (100 microM) as L-arginine, induced a comparable generation of NO. But, BPC 157 effect could not be inhibited by L-NAME, even when L-NAME was given in a tenfold (100 versus 1000 microM) higher dose than that needed for inhibition of the L-arginine effect. NO synthesis was blunted when the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and L-arginine were combined. In summary, BPC 157 could interfere with the effects of NO on both gastric mucosal integrity and blood pressure maintenance in a specific way, especially with L-arginine, having a more prominent and/or particularly different effect from that of NO. PMID:9298922

Sikiri?, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevi?, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagi?, V; Turkovi?, B; Rotkvi?, I; Mise, S; Zorici?, I; Konjevoda, P; Perovi?, D; Jurina, L; Separovi?, J; Hanzevacki, M; Artukovi?, B; Bratuli?, M; Tisljar, M; Gjurasin, M; Mikli?, P; Stanci?-Rokotov, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Jelovac, N; Marovi?, A



Bioinformatic evaluation of L-arginine catabolic pathways in 24 cyanobacteria and transcriptional analysis of genes encoding enzymes of L-arginine catabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

PubMed Central

Background So far very limited knowledge exists on L-arginine catabolism in cyanobacteria, although six major L-arginine-degrading pathways have been described for prokaryotes. Thus, we have performed a bioinformatic analysis of possible L-arginine-degrading pathways in cyanobacteria. Further, we chose Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 for a more detailed bioinformatic analysis and for validation of the bioinformatic predictions on L-arginine catabolism with a transcript analysis. Results We have evaluated 24 cyanobacterial genomes of freshwater or marine strains for the presence of putative L-arginine-degrading enzymes. We identified an L-arginine decarboxylase pathway in all 24 strains. In addition, cyanobacteria have one or two further pathways representing either an arginase pathway or L-arginine deiminase pathway or an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway. An L-arginine amidinotransferase pathway as a major L-arginine-degrading pathway is not likely but can not be entirely excluded. A rather unusual finding was that the cyanobacterial L-arginine deiminases are substantially larger than the enzymes in non-photosynthetic bacteria and that they are membrane-bound. A more detailed bioinformatic analysis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 revealed that three different L-arginine-degrading pathways may in principle be functional in this cyanobacterium. These are (i) an L-arginine decarboxylase pathway, (ii) an L-arginine deiminase pathway, and (iii) an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway. A transcript analysis of cells grown either with nitrate or L-arginine as sole N-source and with an illumination of 50 ?mol photons m-2 s-1 showed that the transcripts for the first enzyme(s) of all three pathways were present, but that the transcript levels for the L-arginine deiminase and the L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase were substantially higher than that of the three isoenzymes of L-arginine decarboxylase. Conclusion The evaluation of 24 cyanobacterial genomes revealed that five different L-arginine-degrading pathways are present in the investigated cyanobacterial species. In Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 an L-arginine deiminase pathway and an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway represent the major pathways, while the L-arginine decarboxylase pathway most likely only functions in polyamine biosynthesis. The transcripts encoding the enzymes of the two major pathways were constitutively expressed with the exception of the transcript for the carbamate kinase, which was substantially up-regulated in cells grown with L-arginine. PMID:18045455

Schriek, Sarah; Ruckert, Christian; Staiger, Dorothee; Pistorius, Elfriede K; Michel, Klaus-Peter



Malaria-Associated l-Arginine Deficiency Induces Mast Cell-Associated Disruption to Intestinal Barrier Defenses against Nontyphoidal Salmonella Bacteremia  

PubMed Central

Coinfection with malaria and nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can cause life-threatening bacteremia in humans. Coinfection with malaria is a recognized risk factor for invasive NTS, suggesting that malaria impairs intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated mechanisms and strategies for prevention of coinfection pathology in a mouse model. Our findings reveal that malarial-parasite-infected mice, like humans, develop l-arginine deficiency, which is associated with intestinal mastocytosis, elevated levels of histamine, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Prevention or reversal of l-arginine deficiency blunts mastocytosis in ileal villi as well as bacterial translocation, measured as numbers of mesenteric lymph node CFU of noninvasive Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the latter of which is naturally invasive in mice. Dietary supplementation of malarial-parasite-infected mice with l-arginine or l-citrulline reduced levels of ileal transcripts encoding interleukin-4 (IL-4), a key mediator of intestinal mastocytosis and macromolecular permeability. Supplementation with l-citrulline also enhanced epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the ilea of coinfected mice. These data suggest that increasing l-arginine bioavailability via oral supplementation can ameliorate malaria-induced intestinal pathology, providing a basis for testing nutritional interventions to reduce malaria-associated mortality in humans. PMID:23690397

Chau, Jennifer Y.; Tiffany, Caitlin M.; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Lawrence, Jessica A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Mooney, Jason P.; Lokken, Kristen L.; Caughey, George H.; Tsolis, Renee M.



Naringenin adds to the protective effect of L-arginine in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats: favorable modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation and nitric oxide.  


The present study was directed to investigate the possible modulatory effect of naringenin when co-administered with L-arginine in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg). L-arginine (500 mg/kg) and naringenin (50 mg/kg) were orally administered daily, alone and in combination, for 3 weeks. Mean arterial blood pressure, electrocardiography and echocardiography were then recorded and rats were sacrificed and serum was separated for determination of total nitrate/nitrite level. Right ventricles and lungs were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, total nitrate/nitrite and transforming growth factor-beta. Myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities in addition to endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression were also determined. Moreover, histological analysis of pulmonary arteries and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area was performed. Combined therapy provided a significant improvement in L-arginine protective effect toward preserving hemodynamic changes and alleviating oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers induced by monocrotaline treatment. Furthermore, combined therapy prevented monocrotaline-induced changes in endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression as well as histological analysis compared with either treatment alone. In conclusion, naringenin significantly adds to the protective effect of L-arginine in pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline in rats. PMID:24878387

Ahmed, Lamiaa A; Obaid, Al Arqam Z; Zaki, Hala F; Agha, Azza M



Effects of L-arginine in rat adrenal cells: involvement of nitric oxide synthase.  


The effects of L-arginine on corticosterone production, cGMP, and nitrite levels were examined in zona fasciculata adrenal cells. L-Arginine significantly decreased both basal and ACTH-stimulated corticosterone production. This effect was still evident when steroidogenesis was induced by 8-bromo-cAMP and 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, but not in the presence of exogenously added pregnenolone. L-Arginine increased cGMP and nitrite levels,; these effects were blocked by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester. Transport of L-[3H]arginine was rapid, saturable, and monophasic, with an apparent Km of 163+/-14 microM and a maximum velocity of 53+/-6 pmol/min x 10(5) cells. The basic amino acids L-lysine and L-ornithine, but not D-arginine or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, impaired L-arginine uptake. Taken together, these results suggest that steroidogenesis in zona fasciculata adrenal cells may be negatively modulated by L-arginine-derived nitric oxide. PMID:10385387

Cymeryng, C B; Dada, L A; Colonna, C; Mendez, C F; Podestá, E J



L-Arginine and its metabolites in kidney and cardiovascular disease.  


L-Arginine is a semi essential amino acid synthesised from glutamine, glutamate and proline via the intestinal-renal axis in humans and most mammals. L-Arginine degradation occurs via multiple pathways initiated by arginase, nitric-oxide synthase, Arg: glycine amidinotransferase, and Arg decarboxylase. These pathways produce nitric oxide, polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine and agmatine with each having enormous biological importance. Several disease are associated to an L-arginine impaired levels and/or to its metabolites: in particular various L-arginine metabolites may participate in pathogenesis of kidney and cardiovascular disease. L-Arginine and its metabolites may constitute both a marker of pathology progression both the rationale for manipulating L-arginine metabolism as a strategy to ameliorate these disease. A large number of studies have been performed in experimental models of kidney disease with sometimes conflicting results, which underlie the complexity of Arg metabolism and our incomplete knowledge of all the mechanisms involved. Moreover several lines of evidence demonstrate the role of L-arg metabolites in cardiovascular disease and that L-arg administration role in reversing endothelial dysfunction, which is the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. This review will discuss the implication of the mains L-arginine metabolites and L-arginine-derived guanidine compounds in kidney and cardiovascular disease considering the more recent literature in the field. PMID:25161088

Popolo, Ada; Adesso, Simona; Pinto, Aldo; Autore, Giuseppina; Marzocco, Stefania



Antioxidant activity of simvastatin prevents L-arginine-induced acute toxicity of pancreas  

PubMed Central

L-arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that found naturally in food. It has been shown that administration of large doses of L-arginine can induce acute pancreatitis. In the present study, we evaluated if simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) inhibitor, might prevent acute pancreatitis induced by L-arginine. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups. Groups were: DMSO, saline, simvastatin, L-arginine, and simvastatin with L-arginine. Twenty four hours after the last dose, rats were sacrificed and their blood was collected from heart for biochemical analysis. Pancreatic tissues were obtained for analysis of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione s-transferase (GST), lipid peroxide levels (MDA) and histology analysis was examined for pancreas. Results indicated that treatment with simvastatin significantly enhanced levels of GPx and GST and decreased lipid peroxide levels induced by L-arginine compared to the vehicle. Moreover, histopathological analysis further confirmed that administration of simvastatin relatively prevented pancreatic acinar cell damage compared to those animals received L-arginine alone. These findings pointed out the protective role of simvastatin against acute pancreatitis induced by high doses of L-arginine. PMID:23750308

Matalka, Ismail I; Mhaidat, Nizar M; Fatlawi, Lina A



Effect of anion channel blockers on L-arginine action in spermatozoa from asthenospermic men.  


In earlier studies, we have established that l-arginine enhances motility and metabolic rate in spermatozoa of goat, bull and mouse. In the present study this work was extended to human sperm cells obtained from the semen samples of asthenospermic patients, which are characterised by low motility. The metabolic rate was followed by monitoring the glucose consumption (1-(13)C glucose as substrate) and the production of lactate in sperm cells, using (13)C NMR. The stimulatory effect of l-arginine was neutralised on adding an NO-synthase inhibitor like N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. On the other hand, the inactive d-enantiomorph did not affect the stimulatory effect of l-arginine. This strongly suggests that L-arginine acts through the NO signal pathway. We also demonstrated that the stimulatory effect of L-arginine was inhibited in the presence of anion channel inhibitors like 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid, 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Furthermore, bicarbonate supplementation was found to be essential for the action of L-arginine. These observations indicate that L-arginine induces NO synthesis and stimulates motility and metabolism only when an active anion transport system is present. PMID:20384796

Srivastava, S; Agarwal, A



L-Arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2 independent pathway.  


In cases of arginine depletion, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and CD3? chain expression are all diminished. In addition to myeloid suppressor cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) also exert T-cell immune suppressive effects through arginase-induced l-arginine depletion, especially during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated how arginase/l-arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the neonatal plasma l-arginine level was lower than in adults (48·1 ± 11·3 versus 86·5 ± 14·6 ?m; P = 0·003). Neonatal PMN had a greater abundance of arginase I protein than adult PMN. Both transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation were responsible for the higher arginase I expression of neonatal PMN. Exogenous l-arginine enhanced neonate lymphocyte proliferation but not that of adult cells. The RNA-binding protein HuR was important but was not the only modulation factor in l-arginine-regulated neonatal T-cell proliferation. l-Arginine-mediated neonatal lymphocyte proliferation could not be blocked by interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibodies. These results suggest that the altered arginase/l-arginine cascade may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to altered neonatal immune responses. Exogenous l-arginine could enhance neonate lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2-independent pathway. PMID:24697328

Yu, Hong-Ren; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Li-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Yang, Kuender D; Ou, Chia-Yo; Hsu, Te-Yao



Agmatine (decarboxylated L-arginine): physiological role and therapeutic potential.  


Agmatine, a cationic amine formed by decarboxylation of l-arginine by the mitochondrial enzyme arginine decarboxylase (ADC), is widely but unevenly distributed in mammalian tissues. Agmatine in the tissues originates from cellular enzymatic de novo synthesis and from agmatine absorbed from the lumen of the gut. Absorption from the gut and accumulation in the tissues and cells must occur via a specific carrier mechanism because the compound is charged at physiologic pH and, hence, biological membranes are almost completely impermeable to the organic cation in the absence of an uptake system. Agmatine initially attracted attention as an endogenous ligand at imidazoline receptors and ?(2)-adrenoceptors. However, independent of binding to those receptors, agmatine induces a variety of physiological and pharmacological effects exhibiting a great therapeutic potential of the compound. Although the precise function of endogenous agmatine is presently still unclear, this review summarizes the current knowledge concerning the physiological and pathophysiological function of agmatine. PMID:22212617

Molderings, Gerhard J; Haenisch, Britta



Characterization of casein and Poly-L-arginine Multilayer Films  

E-print Network

Thin films containing casein appear to be a promising material for coatings used in the medical area to promote biomineralization. alfa- and beta-casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films were formed by the layer-by layer technique and their thickness and mass were analyzed by ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). We investigated the effect of the type of casein used for the film formation and of the polyethyleneimine anchoring layer on the thickness and mass of adsorbed films. The analysis of the mass of films during their post-treatment with the solutions of various ionic strength and pH provided the information concerning films stability, while the XPS elemental analysis confirmed binding of calcium ions by the casein embedded in the multilayers.

Lilianna Szyk Warszynska; Katarzyna Kilan; Robert P. Socha



Characterization of casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films.  


Thin films containing casein appear to be a promising material for coatings used in the medical area to promote biomineralization. ?- and ?-casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films were formed by the layer-by layer technique and their thickness and mass were analyzed by ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). (PLArg/casein) films deposited in 0.15M NaCl exhibit fast (exponential-like) growth of the film thickness with the number of layers. The resulting films were c.a. 10 times thicker than obtained for poly-L-arginine and natural polyanions. We investigated the effect of the type of casein used for the film formation, finding that films with ?-casein were slightly thicker than ones with ?-casein. The effect of polyethylene imine anchoring layer on the thickness and mass of adsorbed films was similar as for linear polyelectrolyte pairs. Thickness of "wet" films was c.a. two times larger than measured after drying that suggests their large hydration. The analysis of the mass of films during their post-treatment with the solutions of various ionic strength and pH provided the information concerning films stability. Films remain stable in the neutral and weakly basic conditions that includes HEPES buffer, which is widely used in cell culture and biomedical experiments. At the conditions of high ionic strength films swell but their swelling is reversible. Films containing caseins as polyanion appear to be more elastic and the same time more viscous than one formed with polyelectrolyte pairs. XPS elemental analysis confirmed binding of calcium ions by the casein embedded in the multilayers. PMID:24703671

Szyk-Warszy?ska, Lilianna; Kilan, Katarzyna; Socha, Robert P



Long-Term Outcome of Oral Language and Phonological Awareness Intervention with Socially Disadvantaged Preschoolers: The Impact on Language and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early intervention aims to prevent poor literacy outcomes associated with social disadvantage. This study examined whether the short-term positive effect of a preschool classroom-based oral language and phonological awareness (PA) programme was maintained and transferred to literacy 2 years later. The vocabulary knowledge, grammatical skill,…

Henning, Caroline; McIntosh, Beth; Arnott, Wendy; Dodd, Barbara



Methylglyoxal (MG) and Cerebro-Renal Interaction: Does Long-Term Orally Administered MG Cause Cognitive Impairment in Normal Sprague-Dawley Rats?  

PubMed Central

Methylglyoxal (MG), one of the uremic toxins, is a highly reactive alpha-dicarbonyl compound. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated the close associations of cognitive impairment (CI) with plasma MG levels and presence of kidney dysfunction. Therefore, the present study aims to examine whether MG is a direct causative substance for CI development. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two groups: control (n = 9) and MG group (n = 10; 0.5% MG in drinking water), and fed a normal diet for 12 months. Cognitive function was evaluated by two behavioral tests (object exploration test and radial-arm maze test) in early (4–6 months of age) and late phase (7–12 months of age). Serum MG was significantly elevated in the MG group (495.8 ± 38.1 vs. 244.8 ± 28.2 nM; p < 0.001) at the end of study. The groups did not differ in cognitive function during the course of study. No time-course differences were found in oxidative stress markers between the two groups, while, antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly increased in the MG group compared to the control. Long-term MG administration to rats with normal kidney function did not cause CI. A counter-balanced activation of the systemic anti-oxidant system may offset the toxicity of MG in this model. Pathogenetic significance of MG for CI requires further investigation. PMID:24402234

Watanabe, Kimio; Okada, Kana; Fukabori, Ryoji; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Asahi, Koichi; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Nakayama, Masaaki



Long-term oral intake of aluminium or zinc does not accelerate Alzheimer pathology in A?PP and A?PP/tau transgenic mice.  


Whether or not the oral intake of metals such as aluminium (Al) and zinc (Zn) is a risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been a matter of controversy. Lack of AD pathology in patients with Al encephalopathy indicates Al does not cause AD. On the other hand, some epidemiological studies have suggested high Al increases the occurrence of AD. Our purpose is to test if high Al in drinking water is a risk factor for AD. We administered Al and Zn in drinking water to Tg2576, a transgenic mouse model for amyloid ?-protein (A?) deposition with the A? precursor protein (A?PP) mutations (K670N/M671L), and Tg2576/tau(P301L), a model for A? and tau deposition. Deionized water was given to the control Tg2576 and Tg2576/tau. After administration for 4-10 months of approximately 100?mg/kg body weight Al or Zn per day, we were not able to find by quantitative immunohistochemical analyses differences in the deposition of A? and tau between the treated and untreated groups. Nor did the Al or Zn treatment affect the amount of soluble A? and A?*56, an A? oligomer, measured by ELISA or immunoblot. The oral intake of excess Al or Zn does not accelerate AD pathology in the transgenic mouse models for A? and tau accumulation. Such results do not seem to support the notion that excessive oral intake of Al or Zn is a risk factor for AD. PMID:22118300

Akiyama, Haruhiko; Hosokawa, Masato; Kametani, Fuyuki; Kondo, Hiromi; Chiba, Momoko; Fukushima, Masako; Tabira, Takeshi



Long-term exposure to oral methylphenidate or dl-amphetamine mixture in peri-adolescent rhesus monkeys: effects on physiology, behavior, and dopamine system development.  


The stimulants methylphenidate and amphetamine are used to treat children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder over important developmental periods, prompting concerns regarding possible long-term health impact. This study assessed the effects of such a regimen in male, peri-adolescent rhesus monkeys on a variety of cognitive/behavioral, physiological, and in vivo neurochemical imaging parameters. Twice daily (0900 and 1200 hours), for a total of 18 months, juvenile male monkeys (8 per group) consumed either an unadulterated orange-flavored solution, a methylphenidate solution, or a dl-amphetamine mixture. Doses were titrated to reach blood/plasma levels comparable to therapeutic levels in children. [¹¹C]MPH and [¹¹C]raclopride dynamic PET scans were performed to image dopamine transporter and D?-like receptors, respectively. Binding potential (BP(ND)), an index of tracer-specific binding, and amphetamine-induced changes in BP(ND) of [¹¹C]raclopride were estimated by kinetic modeling. There were no consistent differences among groups on the vast majority of measures, including cognitive (psychomotor speed, timing, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility), general activity, physiological (body weight, head circumference, crown-to-rump length), and neurochemical (ie, developmental changes in dopamine transporter, dopamine D? receptor density, and amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release were as expected). Cytogenetic studies indicated that neither drug was a clastogen in rhesus monkeys. Thus, methylphenidate and amphetamine at therapeutic blood/plasma levels during peri-adolescence in non-human primates have little effect on physiological or behavioral/cognitive development. PMID:22805599

Soto, Paul L; Wilcox, Kristin M; Zhou, Yun; Kumar, Anil; Ator, Nancy A; Riddle, Mark A; Wong, Dean F; Weed, Michael R



Long-Term Exposure to Oral Methylphenidate or dl-Amphetamine Mixture in Peri-Adolescent Rhesus Monkeys: Effects on Physiology, Behavior, and Dopamine System Development  

PubMed Central

The stimulants methylphenidate and amphetamine are used to treat children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder over important developmental periods, prompting concerns regarding possible long-term health impact. This study assessed the effects of such a regimen in male, peri-adolescent rhesus monkeys on a variety of cognitive/behavioral, physiological, and in vivo neurochemical imaging parameters. Twice daily (0900 and 1200?hours), for a total of 18 months, juvenile male monkeys (8 per group) consumed either an unadulterated orange-flavored solution, a methylphenidate solution, or a dl-amphetamine mixture. Doses were titrated to reach blood/plasma levels comparable to therapeutic levels in children. [11C]MPH and [11C]raclopride dynamic PET scans were performed to image dopamine transporter and D2-like receptors, respectively. Binding potential (BPND), an index of tracer-specific binding, and amphetamine-induced changes in BPND of [11C]raclopride were estimated by kinetic modeling. There were no consistent differences among groups on the vast majority of measures, including cognitive (psychomotor speed, timing, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility), general activity, physiological (body weight, head circumference, crown-to-rump length), and neurochemical (ie, developmental changes in dopamine transporter, dopamine D2 receptor density, and amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release were as expected). Cytogenetic studies indicated that neither drug was a clastogen in rhesus monkeys. Thus, methylphenidate and amphetamine at therapeutic blood/plasma levels during peri-adolescence in non-human primates have little effect on physiological or behavioral/cognitive development. PMID:22805599

Soto, Paul L; Wilcox, Kristin M; Zhou, Yun; Ator, Nancy A; Riddle, Mark A; Wong, Dean F; Weed, Michael R



Long-term testing  

SciTech Connect

Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000--10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

Ferber, M.; Graves, G.A. Jr.



Long-term testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.


A simple method to identify patients on long-term warfarin who may derive the most benefit from new oral anticoagulants.  


In many countries, new oral anticoagulants are only covered for patients with suboptimal anticoagulation control on vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). The quality of VKA management is often reported using the time in therapeutic range (TTR). We sought to predict a TTR 65% or less using a surrogate measure [number of changes in VKA dose and number of international normalized ratio (INR) tests] that could be easily determined by primary care physicians. This cross-sectional study included consecutive patients whose VKA therapy was managed in a specialized anticoagulation clinic. Patients were dichotomized according to their TTR in the past 6 months (TTR > or ?65%). The ability of the number of INR tests and VKA dose changes to predict TTR group was assessed using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. The analyses included 1381 patients with a median age of 63 years. The mean TTR was 81% (interquartile range 70-90) and 17.4% of patients had a TTR 65% or more. Based on the ROC curve, patients were stratified according to whether they had either 3 or more dose changes or 9 or more INR tests within the last 6 months. The sensitivity to identify patients with TTR 65% or less was 87% and the specificity was 63%. The number of dose changes and the number of INR tests might be used as indicators of TTR; they could offer a simple way for clinicians to identify patients who are good candidates for the new oral anticoagulants. However, external validation studies in different clinical settings are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24914740

Carrier, Marc; Kimpton, Miriam; Wells, Philip S; Langlois, Nicole; Kherani, Shemina; Le Gal, Gregoire



Patients undergoing long-term treatment with antihypertensive eye drops responded positively with respect to their ocular surface disorder to oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential fatty acids  

PubMed Central

Background Glaucoma and dry eye disorders (DEDs) are frequent comorbidities. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied in relation to eye diseases. Objective Our objective was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with a combined formulation of antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of cytokines and chemokines in tears from patients with DEDs or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods Participants (n = 97) were distributed into three groups: (1) individuals with nonsevere DEDs (DEDG), (2) individuals with nonadvanced POAG (POAGG), and (3) healthy controls. These groups were randomized into two subgroups: one received a daily antioxidant and essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (two pills) for 3 months (+S), and the other did not (?NS). Participants were interviewed and ophthalmologically examined. Concentrations of specific cytokines and chemokines in reflex tears were determined by multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry. The data were analyzed statistically (SPSS version 15.0). Results Comparison of the results from the DEDG and POAGG patients showed significant differences in tear expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P = 0.008), tumor necrosis factor ? (P = 0.005), vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.038), interleukin-4 (P = 0.030), and interleukin-6 (P = 0.044). The main signs and symptoms of dry eyes such as dryness, burning, photophobia, eye heaviness, and blurred vision, as well as positive changes in eyelashes, hair, nails and skin, were significantly improved in DEDG +S and POAGG +S patients relative to unsupplemented patients. Conclusion Inflammation biomarkers were differentially expressed in glaucomatous tears, but the differences changed upon antioxidant/essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. Chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops must be considered for integrating protocols to glaucoma standards of care. PMID:23818768

Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Pinazo-Duran, Maria D; Cantu-Dibildox, Jorge; Marco-Ramirez, Carla; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel; Benitez-del-Castillo, Javier



Beneficial effects of dietary L-arginine supplementation to diabetic rats  

E-print Network

Diabetic rats exhibit decrease in plasma arginine, NO synthesis and tetrahydrobiopterin in endothelial cells (EC). Treatment with L-arginine may be beneficial for enhancing NO synthesis in diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction. However...

Kohli, Ripla



Long-term environmental stewardship.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

Nagy, Michael David



Supplemental l-arginine during cardioplegic arrest and reperfusion avoids regional postischemic injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unenhanced hypothermic cardioplegia does not prevent postischemic endothelial and contractile dysfunction in hearts subjected to antecedent regional or global ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that supplementing blood cardioplegic solution and reperfusion with the nitric oxide precursor l-arginine would preserve endothelial function, reduce infarct size, and reverse postcardioplegia regional contractile dysfunction by the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. In 23 anesthetized dogs,

Hiroki Sato; Zhi-Qing Zhao; D. Scott McGee; Mark W. Williams; John W. Hammon; J. Vinten-Johansen



Effects of inhaled L-arginine administration in a murine model of acute asthma.  


Increased arginase activity in the airways decreases L-arginine and causes deficiency of bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory nitric oxide (NO) in asthma. As, it is suggested that L-arginine may have therapeutic potential in asthma treatment, we aimed to investigate the effects of inhaled L-arginine on oxygen saturation (SaO2) and airway histology in a murine model of acute asthma. Twenty eight BALB/c mice were divided into four groups; I, II, III and IV (control). All groups except the control were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. After establishement of acute asthma attack by metacholine administration, the mice were treated with inhaled L-arginine (Group I), saline (Group II) and budesonide (Group III), respectively. SaO2 was measured by pulse oximeter just before and 5 min after methacholine. A third measurement of SaO2 was also obtained 15 min after drug administration in these study groups. Inflammation in the lung tissues of the sacrificed animals were scored to determine the effects of the study drugs. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was determined. The results indicated that inflammatory scores significantly improved in groups receiving study drugs when compared with placebo and L-arginine was similar in decreasing scores when compared with budesonide. SaO2 had a tendency to increase after L-arginine administration after acute asthma attack and this increase was statistically significant (p=0.043). Eosinophilia in BAL significantly reduced in group receiving L-arginine when compared with placebo (p<0.05). Thus in this study we demonstrated that L-arginine improved SaO2 and inflammatory scores in an acute model of asthma. PMID:25150072

Arikan-Ayyildiz, Zeynep; Karaman, Meral; Firinci, Fatih; Kiray, Muge; Bagriyanik, Alper; Yilmaz, Osman; Uzuner, Nevin; Karaman, Ozkan



The effects of chronic L-arginine treatment on vascular responsiveness of streptozotocin-diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the protective effects of L-arginine treatment in vivo on vascular reactivity of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced 12-week-old diabetic rats were examined. Loss of weight, polydipsia, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and elevated levels of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride were observed in diabetic rats. L-arginine treatment (1 mg\\/mL in drinking water) did not significantly affect these metabolic and biochemical abnormalities. Plasma malondialdehyde

A. Tanju Özçelikay; Aydin Tay; Deniz Dinçer; Suna Meral; Nuray Yildizo?lu-Ari; V. Melih Altan



Macrophage Cytotoxicity: Role for L-Arginine Deiminase and Imino Nitrogen Oxidation to Nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that cytotoxic activated macrophages cause inhibition of DNA synthesis, of mitochondrial respiration, and of aconitase activity in tumor target cells. An L-arginine-dependent biochemical pathway synthesizing L-citrulline and nitrite, coupled to an effector mechanism, is now shown to cause this pattern of metabolic inhibition. Murine cytotoxic activated macrophages synthesize L-citrulline and nitrite in the presence of L-arginine

John B. Hibbs; Read R. Taintor; Zdenek Vavrin



L-Arginine supplementation improves antioxidant defenses through L-arginine/nitric oxide pathways in exercised rats.  


l-Arginine (l-Arg) supplementation has been shown to enhance physical exercise capacity and delay onset of fatigue. This work investigated the potential beneficial mechanism(s) of l-Arg supplementation by examining its effect on the cellular oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways in the exercised rats. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into six groups: sedentary control; sedentary control with l-Arg treatment; endurance training (daily swimming training for 8 wk) control; endurance training with l-Arg treatment; an exhaustive exercise (one time swimming to fatigue) control; and an exhaustive exercise with l-Arg treatment. l-Arg (500 mg/kg body wt) or saline was given to rats by intragastric administration 1 h before the endurance training and the exhaustive swimming test. Expression levels and activities of the l-Arg/nitric oxide (NO) pathway components and parameters of the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense capacity were investigated in l-Arg-treated and control rats. The result show that the l-Arg supplementation completely reversed the exercise-induced activation of NO synthase and superoxide dismutase, increased l-Arg transport capacity, and increased NO and anti-superoxide anion levels. These data demonstrate that l-Arg supplementation effectively reduces the exercise-induced imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant defense capacity, and this modulation is likely mediated through the l-Arg/NO pathways. The findings of this study improved our understanding of how l-Arg supplementation prevents elevations of reactive oxygen species and favorably enhances the antioxidant defense capacity during physical exercise. PMID:23950164

Shan, Lingling; Wang, Bin; Gao, Guizhen; Cao, Wengen; Zhang, Yunkun



Macrophage oxidation of L-arginine to nitrite and nitrate: nitric oxide is an intermediate  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that murine macrophages immunostimulated with interferon ..gamma.. and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide synthesize NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and citrulline from L-arginine by oxidation of one of the two chemically equivalent guanido nitrogens. The enzymatic activity for this very unusual reaction was found in the 100,000g supernatant isolated from activated RAW 264.7 cells and was totally absent in unstimulated cells. This activity requires NADPH and L-arginine and is enhanced by Mg/sup 2 +/. When the subcellular fraction containing the enzyme activity was incubated with L-arginine, NADPH, and Mg/sup 2 +/, the formation of nitric oxide was observed. Nitric oxide formation was dependent on the presence of L-arginine and NADPH and was inhibited by the NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesis inhibitor N/sup G/-monomethyl-L-arginine. Furthermore, when incubated with L-(guanido-/sup 15/N/sub 2/)arginine, the nitric oxide was /sup 15/N-labeled. The results show that nitric oxide is an intermediate in the L-arginine to NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and citrulline pathway. L-Arginine is required for the activation of macrophages to the bactericidal/tumoricidal state and suggests that nitric oxide is serving as an intracellular signal for this activation process in a manner similar to that very recently observed in endothelial cells, where nitric oxide leads to vascular smooth muscle relaxation.

Marletta, M.A.; Yoon, P.S.; Iyengar, R.; Leaf, C.D.; Wishnok, J.S.



NO mediates antifibrotic actions of L-arginine supplementation following induction of anti-thy1 glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

NO mediates antifibrotic actions of L-arginine supplementation following induction of anti-thy1 glomerulonephritis.BackgroundL-Arginine plays a complex role in renal matrix expansion, involving endogenous metabolism into nitric oxide (NO), polyamines, L-proline and agmatine. Supplementing dietary L-arginine intake has been shown to limit transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 overproduction and matrix accumulation in rats with induced anti-thy1 glomerulonephritis (GN). The present study tests the

Harm Peters; Ute Daig; Sebastian Martini; Matthias Rückert; Frank Schäper; Lutz Liefeldt; Stephanie Krämer; Hans-H. Neumayer



Decreased systemic bioavailability of L-arginine in patients with cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background L-arginine is the common substrate for nitric oxide synthases and arginases. Increased arginase levels in the blood of patients with cystic fibrosis may result in L-arginine deficiency and thereby contribute to low airway nitric oxide formation and impaired pulmonary function. Methods Plasma amino acid and arginase levels were studied in ten patients with cystic fibrosis before and after 14 days of antibiotic treatment for pulmonary exacerbation. Patients were compared to ten healthy non-smoking controls. Results Systemic arginase levels measured by ELISA were significantly increased in cystic fibrosis with exacerbation compared to controls (17.3 ± 12.0 vs. 4.3 ± 3.4 ng/ml, p < 0.02). Arginase levels normalized with antibiotic treatment. Plasma L-arginine was significantly reduced before (p < 0.05) but not after treatment. In contrast, L-ornithine, proline, and glutamic acid, all downstream products of arginase activity, were normal before, but significantly increased after antibiotic therapy. Bioavailability of L-arginine was significantly reduced in cystic fibrosis before and after exacerbation (p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion These observations provide further evidence for a disturbed balance between the L-arginine metabolic pathways in cystic fibrosis. PMID:16764721

Grasemann, Hartmut; Schwiertz, Raphael; Grasemann, Corinna; Vester, Udo; Racké, Kurt; Ratjen, Felix



Mechanism of Allosteric Inhibition of N-Acetyl-L-glutamate Synthase by L-Arginine  

SciTech Connect

N-Acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) catalyzes the first committed step in L-arginine biosynthesis in plants and micro-organisms and is subject to feedback inhibition by L-arginine. This study compares the crystal structures of NAGS from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ngNAGS) in the inactive T-state with L-arginine bound and in the active R-state complexed with CoA and L-glutamate. Under all of the conditions examined, the enzyme consists of two stacked trimers. Each monomer has two domains: an amino acid kinase (AAK) domain with an AAK-like fold but lacking kinase activity and an N-acetyltransferase (NAT) domain homologous to other GCN5-related transferases. Binding of L-arginine to the AAK domain induces a global conformational change that increases the diameter of the hexamer by {approx}10 {angstrom} and decreases its height by {approx}20{angstrom}. AAK dimers move 5{angstrom} outward along their 2-fold axes, and their tilt relative to the plane of the hexamer decreases by {approx}4{sup o}. The NAT domains rotate {approx}109{sup o} relative to AAK domains enabling new interdomain interactions. Interactions between AAK and NAT domains on different subunits also change. Local motions of several loops at the L-arginine-binding site enable the protein to close around the bound ligand, whereas several loops at the NAT active site become disordered, markedly reducing enzymatic specific activity.

Min, Li; Jin, Zhongmin; Caldovic, Ljubica; Morizono, Hiroki; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel; Shi, Dashuang (GUW); (Maryland); (GWU); (Georgia)



Synthesis, thermal and nonlinear optical characterization of L-arginine semi-oxalate single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically good quality L-arginine semi-oxalate, an organic nonlinear optical crystal, has been synthesized from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the synthesized L-arginine semi-oxalate crystal possesses triclinic structure with unit cell dimensions as a=5.05Å, b=9.73Å, c=13.12Å, ?=111.030, ?=92.790 and ?=91.910. The Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy was analyzed and the presence of functional groups of L-arginine semi-oxalate was confirmed. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies show that the material is thermally stable up to 1460C and the melting point is 1500C. Kurtz and Perry powder technique confirms that the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency is 0.32 times that of standard organic materials urea and KDP.

Vasudevan, P.; Gokulraj, S.; Sankar, S.



Competitive metabolism of L-arginine: arginase as a therapeutic target in asthma?  

PubMed Central

Exhaled breath nitric oxide (NO) is an accepted asthma biomarker. Lung concentrations of NO and its amino acid precursor, L-arginine, are regulated by the relative expressions of the NO synthase (NOS) and arginase isoforms. Increased expression of arginase I and NOS2 occurs in murine models of allergic asthma and in biopsies of asthmatic airways. Although clinical trials involving the inhibition of NO-producing enzymes have shown mixed results, small molecule arginase inhibitors have shown potential as a therapeutic intervention in animal and cell culture models. Their transition to clinical trials is hampered by concerns regarding their safety and potential toxicity. In this review, we discuss the paradigm of arginase and NOS competition for their substrate L-arginine in the asthmatic airway. We address the functional role of L-arginine in inflammation and the potential role of arginase inhibitors as therapeutics. PMID:23554705

Bratt, Jennifer M.; Zeki, Amir A.; Last, Jerold A.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.



The Metabolism of L-Arginine and Its Significance for the Biosynthesis of Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor: Cultured Endothelial Cells Recycle L- Citrulline to L-Arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the mechanism by which cultured endothelial cells generate L-arginine (L-Arg), the substrat for the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. When Arg-depleted endothelial cells were incubated in Krebs' solution for 60 min, L-Arg levels were significantly (9.7-fold) elevated. The generation of L-Arg coincided with a substantial decrease (90%) in intracellular L-glutamine (L-Gln), whereas all other amino acids were

Markus Hecker; William C. Sessa; Hayley J. Harris; Erik E. Anggard; John R. Vane



Long Term Illness and Wages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.



A novel sensor based on electropolymerization of ?-cyclodextrin and L-arginine on carbon paste electrode for determination of fluoroquinolones.  


An electrochemical sensor for fluoroquinolones (FQs) based on polymerization of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and L-arginine (L-arg) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) (P-?-CD-L-arg/CPE) was built for the first time. Synergistic effect of L-arg and ?-CD was used to construct this sensor for quantification of these important antibiotics. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image shows that polymer of ?-CD and L-arg has been successfully modified on electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammograms (CV) further indicate that polymer of ?-CD and L-arg efficiently decreased the charge transfer resistance value of electrode and improved the electron transfer kinetic between analyte and electrode. Under the optimized conditions, this modified electrode was utilized to determine the concentrations of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and gatifloxacin. The differential pulse voltammogram (DPV) exhibits the oxidation peak currents were linearly proportional to their concentration in the range of 0.05-100 ?M for ciprofloxacin, 0.1-100 ?M for ofloxacin, 0.1-40 ?M for norfloxacin and 0.06-100 ?M for gatifloxacin, respectively. This method was also successfully used to detect the concentrations of each drug in pharmaceutical formulations and human serum samples. In addition, this proposed fluoroquinolones sensor exhibited good reproducibility, long-term stability and fast current response. PMID:23498686

Zhang, Fenfen; Gu, Shuqing; Ding, Yaping; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Li



The protective effects of long-term oral administration of marine collagen hydrolysate from chum salmon on collagen matrix homeostasis in the chronological aged skin of Sprague-Dawley male rats.  


To investigate the long-term effects of marine collagen hydrolysate (MCH) from Chum Salmon skin on the aberrant collagen matrix homeostasis in chronological aged skin, Sprague-Dawley male rats of 4-wk-old were orally administrated with MCH at the diet concentrations of 2.25% and 4.5% for 24 mo. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that MCH had the potential to inhibit the collagen loss and collagen fragmentation in chronological aged skin. Based on immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, collagen type I and III protein expression levels in MCH-treated groups significantly increased as compared with the aged control group. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis showed MCH was able to increase the expressions of procollagen type I and III mRNA (COL1A2 and COL3A1) through activating Smad signaling pathway with up-regulated TGF-?RII (T?RII) expression level. Meanwhile, MCH was shown to inhibit the age-related increased collagen degradation through attenuating MMP-1 expression and increasing tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, MCH could alleviate the oxidative stress in chronological aged skin, which was revealed from the data of superoxide dismutase activity and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level in skin homogenates. Therefore, MCH was demonstrated to have the protective effects on chronological skin aging due to the influence on collagen matrix homeostasis. And the antioxidative property of MCH might play an important role in the process. PMID:21535500

Liang, Jiang; Pei, Xinrong; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Nan; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong



Long-term data archiving  

SciTech Connect

Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web Consortium, an independent standards body) as a new data interchange tool is being investigated and implemented. In order to facilitate data archiving, Raman data needs calibration as well as some other kinds of data treatment. Figure 1 illustrates schematically the present situation for Raman data calibration in the world-wide Raman spectroscopy community, and presents some of the terminology used.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory



L-arginine stimulates immune response in chickens immunized with intermediate plus strain of infectious bursal disease vaccine.  


Infectious bursal disease continues to pose an important threat to the commercial poultry industry, especially after the emergence of virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). L-arginine, a ubiquitous, basic amino acid is used as an immunostimulant in variety of human and animal studies with great success in immunosuppressed hosts. In the present study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of L-arginine on humoral and cellular immune response in chickens immunized with live intermediate plus (IP) strain of IBDV vaccine. Chickens vaccinated with IP strain and supplemented with 2% L-arginine showed 100% protection after challenge with virulent IBDV compared to 80% protection induced by IP strain alone. IP strain vaccine elicited good antibody titres in both the groups, IP + L-arginine and IP alone, however, the antibody titres in IP + L-arginine group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than IP vaccinated chickens. Mitogenic response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to specific IBDV antigen stimulation was significantly higher in IP + L-arginine group (P < 0.05). Peripheral blood lymphocytes were able to rapidly clear the suppressive effects of IP strain and virulent challenge virus in IP + L-arginine group. These results strongly suggest that l-arginine plays a vital role in modulation of protective immune response against IBDV. PMID:16168528

Tayade, Chandrakant; Jaiswal, T N; Mishra, S C; Koti, Madhuri



NMDA-Independent Long-Term Depression of Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus: Mechanisms of Induction and Effects of Nootropic Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In studies on transversal slices of the rat dorsal hippocampus, we found that low-frequency tetanic stimulation of the medial perforant pathway (2 sec-1, 7.5 min) results in long-term depression (LTD) of field EPSP of granular cells in the dentate gyrus. This synaptic plasticity phenomenon was weakened by calmodulin, nitric oxide synthase, and protein kinase C inhibitors, trifluoperazine (1 µM), N-nitro-L-arginine

I. I. Abramets; Yu. V. Kuznetsov; I. M. Samoi'lovich



Enhanced transfection efficiency of PAMAM dendrimer by surface modification with l-arginine  

E-print Network

Enhanced transfection efficiency of PAMAM dendrimer by surface modification with l-arginine Joon to native PAMAM dendrimer and PAMAM-Lys. The cytotoxicity and transfection efficiencies for 293, HepG2, and Neuro 2A cells were measured by comparison with PEI and PAMAM. In addition, transfection experiments

Park, Jong-Sang


Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces fat mass in diet-induced obese rats  

E-print Network

-96% compared to the low-fat diet. Concentrations of serum cholesterol as well as lipids in skeletal muscle and liver were higher in obese rats than in lean rats. L-Arginine supplementation reduced white adipose tissue mass by 20-40% while increasing brown...

Jobgen, Wenjuan Shi



Regulation of Porcine Conceptus Survival and Growth by L-arginine  

E-print Network

kg of a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.0%, 0.4%, or 0.8% L-arginine (w/w) between d 0 and 25 of gestation (Experiment 1) or between d 14 and 25 of gestation (Experiments 2 and 3). At d 25 (Experiment 1 and 2) or d 60 (Experiment...

Li, Xilong



Effects of methimazole in the early and established phases of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hypertension.  


In the present study we evaluated the effects of methimazole, an antithyroid drug, on blood pressure and other variables in the early and established phases of hypertension induced by the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis with the oral administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 75 mg/100 ml in the drinking water. Moreover, we also evaluated the acute pressor effect of L-NAME on systemic blood pressure in control and rats treated chronically with methimazole, administered via drinking water (30 mg/100 ml). Oral administration of methimazole maintained the blood pressure of L-NAME-treated rats at normal levels 25 days after induction of hypertension. However, after 25 days of methimazole treatment in rats made hypertensive with L-NAME (for 25 days), high blood pressure was similar in methimazole-treated and non-treated L-NAME rats, despite the fact that a hypothyroid state had been achieved in the methimazole-treated rats. Acute intravenous injection of L-NAME caused a similar increase in mean arterial pressure in control and methimazole-treated rats at the lowest dose; however, smaller pressor responses were observed with increasing doses in hypothyroid rats. These results clearly demonstrate that hypothyroidism induced by methimazole prevents, but does not reverse, L-NAME hypertension and reduces the acute pressor responsiveness to L-NAME administration. PMID:8921835

Vargas, F; Fernandez-Rivas, A; Osuna, A



Nanoscale characterization of effect of L-arginine on Streptococcus mutans biofilm adhesion by atomic force microscopy.  


A major aetiological factor of dental caries is the pathology of the dental plaque biofilms. The amino acid L-arginine (Arg) is found naturally in saliva as a free molecule or as a part of salivary peptides and proteins. Plaque bacteria metabolize Arg to produce alkali and neutralize glycolytic acids, promoting a less cariogenous oral microbiome. Here, we explored an alternative and complementary mechanism of action of Arg using atomic force microscopy. The nanomechanical properties of Streptococcus mutans biofilm extracellular matrix were characterized under physiological buffer conditions. We report the effect of Arg on the adhesive behaviour and structural properties of extracellular polysaccharides in S. mutans biofilms. High-resolution imaging of biofilm surfaces can reveal additional structural information on bacterial cells embedded within the surrounding extracellular matrix. A dense extracellular matrix was observed in biofilms without Arg compared to those grown in the presence of Arg. S. mutans biofilms grown in the presence of Arg could influence the production and/or composition of extracellular membrane glucans and thereby affect their adhesion properties. Our results suggest that the presence of Arg in the oral cavity could influence the adhesion properties of S. mutans to the tooth surface. PMID:24763427

Sharma, Shivani; Lavender, Stacey; Woo, JungReem; Guo, Lihong; Shi, Wenyuan; Kilpatrick-Liverman, LaTonya; Gimzewski, James K



Long Term Potentiation, Navigation & Dynamic Progamming Peter Dayan  

E-print Network

. Preference: Oral Category: Theory and Analysis; Learning and Memory 1 #12;Long Term Potentiation, Navigation, the weights are given by: (3) where models the timecourse for LTP. This implies that the order in which states Category: Theory and Analysis; Learning and Memory BA also treat a different method for extracting based

Baveja, Satinder Singh


Supplementation with apple enriched with L-arginine may improve metabolic control and survival rate in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  


Supplementation with L-arginine or fresh food with high content of this amino acid is associated with favorable effects in the metabolic control of diabetes. We aimed to determine whether supplementation with apples enriched with L-arginine offer additional benefits compared to L-arginine by itself in a preclinical study of diabetes. This study combines food-engineer technologies with in vivo and in vitro analysis. In vitro experiments show that cells derived from non-diabetic animals and exposed to high glucose (25 mM, 12 H) and cells isolated from alloxan-induced diabetic animals exhibited a reduction (?50%) in the L-arginine uptake. This effect was reverted by L-arginine pretreatment (12 H) in both the normal and diabetes-derived cells. In preclinical studies, normoglycemic (n = 25) and diabetic groups (n = 50) were divided into subgroups that received either L-arginine (375 mg/kg per 10 days) or apple enriched with L-arginine or vehicle (control). In a preliminary analysis, supplementation with L-arginine by itself (50%) or apple enriched with L-arginine (100%) improve survival rate in the diabetic group compared to control (0%) at the end of the follow up (17 days). This phenomenon was associated with a partial but sustained high plasma level of L-arginine, as well as plasma concentration of nitrites and insulin in the L-arginine or apple + L-arginine groups after supplementation. Apple + L-arginine supplementation in diabetic animals induced the highest and longest effects in the level of these three markers among the studied groups. Therefore, apple enriched by L-arginine offers more benefits than L-arginine by itself in this preclinical study. PMID:23553786

Escudero, Andrea; Petzold, Guillermo; Moreno, Jorge; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Junod, Julio; Aguayo, Claudio; Acurio, Jesenia; Escudero, Carlos



A Randomized Pilot Study of L-Arginine Infusion in Severe Falciparum Malaria: Preliminary Safety, Efficacy and Pharmacokinetics  

PubMed Central

Background Decreased nitric oxide (NO) and hypoargininemia are associated with severe falciparum malaria and may contribute to severe disease. Intravenous L-arginine increases endothelial NO in moderately-severe malaria (MSM) without adverse effects. The safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of L-arginine or other agents to improve NO bioavailability in severe malaria have not been assessed. Methods In an open-label pilot study of L-arginine in adults with severe malaria (ARGISM-1 Study), patients were randomized to 12 g L-arginine hydrochloride or saline over 8 hours together with intravenous artesunate. Vital signs, selected biochemical measures (including blood lactate and L-arginine) and endothelial NO bioavailability (using reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry [RH-PAT]) were assessed serially. Pharmacokinetic analyses of L-arginine concentrations were performed using NONMEM. Results Six patients received L-arginine and two saline infusions. There were no deaths in either group. There were no changes in mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or other vital signs with L-arginine, although a transient but clinically unimportant mean maximal decrease in SBP of 14 mmHg was noted. No significant changes in mean potassium, glucose, bicarbonate, or pH were seen, with transient mean maximal increases in plasma potassium of 0.3 mmol/L, and mean maximal decreases in blood glucose of 0.8 mmol/L and bicarbonate of 2.3 mEq/L following L-arginine administration. There was no effect on lactate clearance or RH-PAT index. Pharmacokinetic modelling (n?=?4) showed L-arginine concentrations 40% lower than predicted from models developed in MSM. Conclusion In the first clinical trial of an adjunctive treatment aimed at increasing NO bioavailability in severe malaria, L-arginine infused at 12 g over 8 hours was safe, but did not improve lactate clearance or endothelial NO bioavailability. Future studies may require increased doses of L-arginine. Trial Registration NTC00616304 PMID:23922746

Yeo, Tsin W.; Lampah, Daniel A.; Rooslamiati, Indri; Gitawati, Retno; Tjitra, Emiliana; Kenangalem, Enny; Price, Ric N.; Duffull, Stephen B.; Anstey, Nicholas M.



Long-term oxygen therapy.  


This article provides an overview of the status of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). In the United States, payment cutbacks are occurring as a result of congressionally mandated competitive bidding and capped rental programs. These Medicare programs are discussed. These legislative and regulatory changes may result in reduced patient access to appropriate oxygen-delivery systems that meet medical needs, including optimal ambulation. Prescribing LTOT is addressed in this article, as is the need for adequate patient education. The importance of appropriate monitoring and reassessment is presented. The use of an LTOT collaborative care model is discussed. Although the new intermittent flow oxygen-delivery systems have potential benefits, there is consensus that each patient should be tested on the specific device because of variability in delivery and patient response. Feasible locations for patient education and monitoring are identified. PMID:21285057

Christopher, Kent L; Porte, Phillip



Effects of oral cilostazol 100 mg BID on long-term patency after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in patients with femoropopliteal disease undergoing hemodialysis: A retrospective chart review in Japanese patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for femoropopliteal lesions in peripheral artery disease has been performed in patients undergoing hemodialysis as well as in the general population. Cilostazol, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 3, has been reported to reduce target lesion revascularization after PTA for femoropopliteal lesions in the general population.Objective: This study investigated the effects of cilostazol use on long-term

Hideki Ishii; Yoshitake Kumada; Takanobu Toriyama; Toru Aoyama; Hiroshi Takahashi; Miho Tanaka; Daisuke Kamoi; Yoshihiro Kawamura; Shigeki Yamada; Mutsuharu Hayashi; Yoshinari Yasuda; Yukio Yuzawa; Shoichi Maruyama; Seiichi Matsuo; Tatsuaki Matsubara; Toyoaki Murohara



Synthesis and characterization of nonlinear optical L-arginine semi-oxalate single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-arginine semi-oxalate single crystals have been synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses has been made to confirm the triclinic structure with non-centrosymmetric space group P1. The presence of functional groups of L-arginine semi-oxalate crystals was identified and confirmed by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Molecular structure of the grown crystal was analyzed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR studies. Optical absorption studies carried out in wavelength range from 250 nm to 1200 nm have revealed that the material is completely transparent for the entire wavelength range studied. Thermal characterization using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry studies show that the crystal is thermally stable up to 146 °C. The presence of second harmonic generation of the grown crystal was tested and its efficiency was determined by using Kurtz and Perry powder technique.

Vasudevan, P.; Gokul Raj, S.; Sankar, S.



Macrophage oxidation of L-arginine to nitrite and nitrate: nitric oxide is an intermediate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that murine macrophages immunostimulated with interferon ..gamma.. and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide synthesize NOâ⁻, NOâ⁻, and citrulline from L-arginine by oxidation of one of the two chemically equivalent guanido nitrogens. The enzymatic activity for this very unusual reaction was found in the 100,000g supernatant isolated from activated RAW 264.7 cells and was totally absent in unstimulated cells.

Michael A. Marletta; Poksyn S. Yoon; Radha Iyengar; Cynthia D. Leaf; John S. Wishnok



Interaction of l-arginine with dihexadecylphosphate unilamellar liposomes: the effect of the lipid phase organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of l-arginine with unilamellar liposomes of dihexadecylphosphate sodium salt (DHP-Na) has been investigated using calorimetric, light scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy and zeta-potential techniques. Heating from room temperature, the bilayer exhibits a phase transition from a subgel (Lc) to the gel (L??) phase as well as a pre-transition (L??–P??), which is followed by the main lipid phase transition (P??–L?). Direct

Ioannis Tsogas; Dimitris Tsiourvas; Constantinos M. Paleos; Sarantis Giatrellis; George Nounesis



Metabolomic analysis of the response of growing pigs to dietary l -arginine supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arginine plays an important role regulating nutrient metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study\\u000a was conducted to determine the effect of dietary arginine supplementation on the metabolome in serum of growing pigs using\\u000a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixteen 120-day-old pigs (48 ± 1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two groups,\\u000a representing supplementation with 0 or 1.0% l-arginine

Qinghua He; Xiangfeng Kong; Guoyao Wu; Pingping Ren; Huiru Tang; Fuhua Hao; Ruilin Huang; Tiejun Li; Bie Tan; Peng Li; Zhiru Tang; Yulong Yin; Yongning Wu



Ascorbic acid or l-arginine improves cutaneous microvascular function in chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

We sought to determine whether oxidative stress or a relative deficit of l-arginine plays a role in reducing cutaneous vasodilation in response to local heating in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Eight patients with stage 3–4 CKD and eight age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects were instrumented with four microdialysis (MD) fibers for the local delivery of 1) Ringers solution (R), 2) 20 mM ascorbic acid (AA), 3) 10 mM l-arginine (l-Arg), and 4) 10 mM NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). Red blood cell (RBC) flux was measured via laser Doppler flowmetry. A standardized nonpainful local heating protocol (42°C) was used. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as RBC flux/MAP and all data were expressed as a percentage of the maximum CVC at each site (28 mM sodium nitroprusside, Tloc = 43°C). The plateau %CVCmax was attenuated in CKD (CKD: 76 ± 4 vs. HC: 91 ± 2%CVCmax; P < 0.05) and the NO contribution to the plateau was lower in CKD (CKD: 39 ± 7, HC: 54 ± 5; P < 0.05). The plateau %CVCmax in the CKD group was significantly greater at the AA and l-Arg sites compared with R (AA: 89 ± 2; l-Arg: 90 ± 1; R: 76 ± 4; P < 0.05) and did not differ from HC. Initial peak %CVCmax was also significantly attenuated at the R and l-Arg sites in CKD (P < 0.05) but did not differ at the AA site. These results suggest that cutaneous microvascular function is impaired in stage 3–4 CKD and that oxidative stress and a deficit of l-arginine play a role in this impairment. PMID:21885796

DuPont, Jennifer J.; Farquhar, William B.; Townsend, Raymond R.



Urotensin-II activates l-arginine\\/nitric oxide pathway in isolated rat aortic adventitia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urotensin-II (U-II), a cyclic peptide widely expressed in blood vessels, has diverse vascular actions that range from potent vasoconstriction to vasodilation. Although, U-II-induced vasodilation has been shown to be partially dependent on nitric oxide (NO), the involvement of vascular adventitia-derived NO, remains unknown. The present study aimed to elucidate the activation of U-II on l-arginine\\/NO pathway in isolated rat aortic

Li Lin; Wen-Hui Ding; Wei Jiang; Yong-Gang Zhang; Yong-Fen Qi; Wen-Jun Yuan; Chao-Shu Tang



Excess L-arginine restores endothelium-dependent relaxation impaired by monocrotaline pyrrole  

SciTech Connect

The pyrrolizidine alkaloid plant toxin monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP) causes pulmonary hypertension in experimental animals. The present study aimed to examine the effects of MCTP on the endothelium-dependent relaxation. We constructed an in vitro disease model of pulmonary hypertension by overlaying MCTP-treated bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPAEs) onto pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell-embedded collagen gel lattice. Acetylcholine (Ach) induced a relaxation of the control CPAEs-overlaid gels that were pre-contracted with noradrenaline, and the relaxation was inhibited by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). In contrast, when MCTP-treated CPAEs were overlaid, the pre-contracted gels did not show a relaxation in response to Ach in the presence of 0.5 mM L-arginine. Expression of endothelial NOS protein, Ach-induced Ca{sup 2+} transients and cellular uptake of L-[{sup 3}H]arginine were significantly smaller in MCTP-treated CPAEs than in control cells, indicating that these changes were responsible for the impaired NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. Since cellular uptake of L-[{sup 3}H]arginine linearly increased according to its extracellular concentration, we hypothesized that the excess concentration of extracellular L-arginine might restore NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. As expected, in the presence of 10 mM L-arginine, Ach showed a relaxation of the MCTP-treated CPAEs-overlaid gels. These results indicate that the impaired NO production in damaged endothelial cells can be reversed by supplying excess L-arginine.

Cheng Wei [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan); Oike, Masahiro [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Hirakawa, Masakazu [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan); Ohnaka, Keizo [Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan); Koyama, Tetsuya [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan); Ito, Yushi [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan)



L-Arginine-Dependent Production of a Reactive Nitrogen Intermediate by Macrophages of a Uricotelic Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

resulted in significant nitrite production, while maximum levels of nitrite production were obtained using ?'0.5 ?i.g\\/ml LPS and ?0.4 mM L-argmnmne. These results indicate that chicken macrophages can produce RNIs. This production is dependent upon activation and is influenced by local L-arginine concentration. Moreover, because the chicken does not possess the abilityto synthesize arginine and has an absolute nutritional requirement

Yen-Jen Sung; Joseph H. Hotchkiss; Richard E. Austic; Rodney R. Dietert



Involvement of Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals in L-Arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at an assessment of the role of oxygen-derived free radicals in the pathogenesis of L-arginine (Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis in rat, by measuring the levels of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (Mn- and Cu,Zn-SOD) in the pancreatic tissue, and evaluating the protective effect of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. Acute pancreatitis was

Laszlo Czako; Tamas Takacs; Ilona Sz. Varga; Laszlo Tiszlavicz; Do Quy Hai; Peter Hegyi; Bela Matkovics; Janos Lonovics



The pathogenesis of L-arginine-induced acute necrotizing pancreatitis: Inflammatory mediators and endogenous cholecystokinin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at an assessment of the role of oxygen-derived free radicals, cytokines and endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) in the pathogenesis of L-arginine (Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis in rat. We measured the levels of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and superoxide dismutase (Mn- and Cu, Zn-SOD) in pancreatic tissue, the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6

László Czakó; Tamás Takács; Ilona Sz Varga; Do Quy Hai; László Tiszlavicz; Péter Hegyi; Yvette Mándi; Béla Matkovics; János Lonovics



Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control  


... Control Health Issues Listen Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic versions of hormones produced ... form, they are used exclusively for long-term control; they are not very effective for acute symptoms. ...


Self-interaction of native and denatured lysozyme in the presence of osmolytes, l-arginine and guanidine hydrochloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmolyte molecules such as betaine and trehalose are protein stabilizers while l-arginine (Arg) and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) are the most widely used aggregation suppressor in protein refolding. We have herein studied the effects of the osmolyte molecules and l-arginine together with GdnHCl (0–6mol\\/L) on the intermolecular interaction of native and denatured lysozyme by self-interaction chromatography. The self-interaction is characterized in

Xiao-Yan Dong; Jian-Hua Liu; Fu-Feng Liu; Yan Sun



Biomimetic oxidation of l-arginine with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by the resin-supported iron (III) porphyrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the supported iron (III) porphyrin catalyzed biomimetic oxidation of l-arginine with hydrogen peroxide. The result showed that the supported catalyst was efficient for the release of nitric oxide (NO) and citrulline formation on the oxidation of l-arginine with hydrogen peroxide. Alkyl peroxide such as tert-butyl hydroperoxide and cumene hydroperoxide were not effective oxygen donors in this catalytic

Monalisa Mukherjee; Alok R. Ray



Production of angiogenic activity by human monocytes requires an L-arginine/nitric oxide-synthase-dependent effector mechanism.  

PubMed Central

Human monocytes (M phi) require stimulation with substances such as bacterial endotoxin [LPS (lipopolysaccharide)] to produce angiogenic activity. In this study, we report that stimulation of M phi with LPS (5 micrograms/ml) in the absence of L-arginine greatly reduced their production of angiogenic activity, as assessed in vivo in rat corneas and in vitro by chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HU-VECs). D-Arginine did not substitute for L-arginine in the production of angiogenic activity. The nitric oxide synthase (NO synthase, EC 1.14-13.39) inhibitors NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) both inhibited the production of angiogenic activity by LPS-stimulated M phi in the presence of L-arginine, suggesting the involvement of this enzyme in the pathway that generates angiogenic activity. Neither of these substances directly inhibited the M phi-derived angiogenic activity. LPS-induced production of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) was not significantly reduced when M phi were incubated in the absence of L-arginine. Similarly, L-NMMA and L-NAME did not significantly reduce the LPS-induced production of these cytokines by M phi in the presence of L-arginine. These results suggest that the LPS-stimulation-dependent generation of angiogenic activity by M phi requires an L-arginine-dependent NO-synthase effector mechanism that may be independent of the generation of TNF-alpha and IL-8. Images PMID:7514298

Leibovich, S J; Polverini, P J; Fong, T W; Harlow, L A; Koch, A E



The Effects of Yohimbine Plus L-arginine Glutamate on Sexual Arousal in Postmenopausal Women with Sexual Arousal Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of the nitric oxide-precursor L-arginine combined with the a2-blocker yohimbine on subjective and physiological sexual arousal in postmenopausal women with Female Sexual Arousal Disorder. Twenty-four women participated in three treatment sessions in which self-report and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmograph) sexual responses to erotic stimuli were measured following treatment with either L-arginine glutamate (6 g) plus yohimbine

Cindy M. Meston; Manuel Worcel



Early prevention by L-Arginine attenuates coronary atherosclerosis in a model of hypercholesterolemic animals; no positive results for treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. ED is also a reversible disorder, and nitric oxide donors like L-arginine may promote this process. Despite the positive results from several studies, there are some studies that have shown that L-arginine administration did not improve endothelium-dependent dilation or the inflammatory state of patients. In this study the early

Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard; Mehdi Nematbakhsh; Mohammad Hosein Sanei



Long-term corrosion studies  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application.

Gdowski, G.



Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.



Prevention of muscle fibers atrophy during gravitational unloading: The effect of L-arginine administration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational unloading results in pronounced atrophy of m.soleus. Probably, the output of NO is controlled by the muscle activity. We hypothesized that NO may be involved in the protein metabolism and increase of its concentration in muscle can prevent atrophic changes induced by gravitational unloading. In order to test the hypothesis we applied NO donor L-arginine during gravitational unloading. 2.5-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 220-230g were divided into sedentary control group (CTR, n=7), 14-day hindlimb suspension (HS, n=7), 14 days of hindlimb suspension+ L-arginine (HSL, n=7) (with a daily supplementation of 500 mg/kg wt L-arginine) and 14 days of hindlimb suspension+ L-NAME (HSN, n=7) (90 mg/kg wt during 14 days). Cross sectional area (CSA) of slow twitch (ST) and fast twitch (FT) soleus muscle fibers decreased by 45% and 28% in the HS group ( p<0.05) and 40% and 25% in the HSN group, as compared to the CTR group ( p<0.05), respectively. CSA of ST and FT muscle fibers were 25% and 16% larger in the HSL group in comparison with the HS group ( p<0.05), respectively. The atrophy of FT muscle fibers in the HSL group was completely prevented since FT fiber CSA had no significant differences from the CTR group. In HS group, the percentage of fibers revealing either gaps/disruption of the dystrophin layer of the myofiber surface membrane increased by 27% and 17%, respectively, as compared to the controls (CTR group, p<0.05). The destructions in dystrophin layer integrity and reductions of desmin content were significantly prevented in HSL group. NO concentration decreased by 60% in the HS group (as well as HSN group) and at the same time no changes were detectable in the HSL group. This fact indicates the compensation of NO content in the unloaded muscle under L-arginine administration. The levels of atrogin-1 mRNA were considerably altered in suspended animals (HS group: plus 27%, HSL group: minus 13%) as compared to the control level. Conclusion: L-arginine administration allows maintaining NO concentration in m.soleus at the level of cage control group, prevents from dystrophin layer destruction, decreases the atrogin mRNA concentration in the muscle and atrophy level under gravitational unloading.

Kartashkina, N.; Lomonosova, Y.; Shevchenko, T. F.; Bugrova, A. E.; Turtikova, O. V.; Kalamkarov, G. R.; Nemirovskaya, T. L.



Effects of L-arginine supplementation on glucose and nitric oxide (NO) levels and activity of NO synthase in corticosterone-challenged broiler chickens (Gallus gallus).  


In the present study, three experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of oral supplementation of l-arginine (ARG) on the disposal of glucose in stressed-broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). In all the three experiments, the broiler chickens were randomly subjected to one of the four treatments at the beginning of the experiments: oral administration of saline, glucose (2.0g/kg body weight, BW), l-arginine (0.5g/kg BW) or mixed solution (2.0g glucose+0.5g arginine/kg BW). Immediately after the oral treatment, the experimental chickens were subcutaneously injected with corn oil (Experiment 1), corticosterone (CORT, 4mg/kg BW, Experiment 2) or insulin (1U/kg BW, Experiment 3), respectively. Blood samples were obtained at the beginning (0-h), 0.5-, 1- and 2-h time points after injection and the levels of plasma glucose, urate, nitric oxide (NO) and activity of NO synthase (NOS) were measured. The results showed that plasma NO levels and NOS activity were significantly suppressed while glucose and insulin concentrations were increased by CORT treatment. In contrast, insulin administration improved the circulating level of NO and activity of NOS. ARG supplementation could not improve the circulating levels of NO and NOS activity in CORT-challenged chickens and, in turn, the glucose disposal. The result suggests that NO is involved in insulin-mediated glucose transport in chickens, as well as that in mammals. The reduced circulating level of NO resulted from the suppressed activity of NOS rather than the reduced substrate concentration. PMID:19615465

Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Song, Z G; Lin, H



Nitric-Oxide Supplementation for Treatment of Long-Term Complications in Argininosuccinic Aciduria  

PubMed Central

Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is required for the synthesis and channeling of L-arginine to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for nitric oxide (NO) production. Congenital ASL deficiency causes argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), the second most common urea-cycle disorder, and leads to deficiency of both ureagenesis and NO production. Subjects with ASA have been reported to develop long-term complications such as hypertension and neurocognitive deficits despite early initiation of therapy and the absence of documented hyperammonemia. In order to distinguish the relative contributions of the hepatic urea-cycle defect from those of the NO deficiency to the phenotype, we performed liver-directed gene therapy in a mouse model of ASA. Whereas the gene therapy corrected the ureagenesis defect, the systemic hypertension in mice could be corrected by treatment with an exogenous NO source. In an ASA subject with severe hypertension refractory to antihypertensive medications, monotherapy with NO supplements resulted in the long-term control of hypertension and a decrease in cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, the NO therapy was associated with an improvement in some neuropsychological parameters pertaining to verbal memory and nonverbal problem solving. Our data show that ASA, in addition to being a classical urea-cycle disorder, is also a model of congenital human NO deficiency and that ASA subjects could potentially benefit from NO supplementation. Hence, NO supplementation should be investigated for the long-term treatment of this condition. PMID:22541557

Nagamani, Sandesh C.S.; Campeau, Philippe M.; Shchelochkov, Oleg A.; Premkumar, Muralidhar H.; Guse, Kilian; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Chen, Yuqing; Sun, Qin; Tang, Yaoping; Palmer, Donna; Reddy, Anilkumar K.; Li, Li; Slesnick, Timothy C.; Feig, Daniel I.; Caudle, Susan; Harrison, David; Salviati, Leonardo; Marini, Juan C.; Bryan, Nathan S.; Erez, Ayelet; Lee, Brendan



Long-term kidney transplant survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

With improvements in short-term kidney graft survival, focus has shifted towards long-term survival. There has also been a substantial improvement in long-term survival as measured by kidney half-life. Long-term graft failure is secondary to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), recurrent disease, and death with a functioning graft. CAN is secondary to a combination of chronic rejection, chronic cyclosporine toxicity, and\\/or donor

Sundaram Hariharan



Long-term solar-terrestrial observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.



Long-term correlations in earth sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we review the occurrence and consequences of long-term memory in geophysical records like climate and seismic records, and describe similarities with financial data sets. We review several methods to detect linear and nonlinear long-term correlations, also in the presence of external trends, and show how external trends can be detected in data with long-term memory. We show as well that long-term correlations lead to a natural clustering of extreme events and discuss the implications for several geophysical data sets.

Bunde, Armin; Lennartz, Sabine



Different effects of L-arginine on morphine tolerance in sham and ovariectomized female mice*  

PubMed Central

Objective: The roles of gonadal hormones and nitric oxide (NO) on the analgesic effects of morphine, tolerance to morphine, and their interactions have been widely investigated. In the present study, the effect of L-arginine (an NO precursor) on morphine tolerance in sham and ovariectomized (OVX) female mice was investigated. Methods: Forty mice were divided into sham and OVX groups. On the first day, a hot plate test ((55±0.2) °C; cut-off 30 s) was carried out as a base record 15 min before injection of morphine (10 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)) and was repeated every 15 min after injection. The sham group was then divided into two subgroups: sham-tolerance-L-arginine (Sham-Tol-LA) and sham-tolerance-saline (Sham-Tol-Sal) which received either L-arginine 50 mg/kg (intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or saline 10 ml/kg (i.p.), respectively, three times in a day for three consecutive days. Morphine tolerance was induced in animals by injecting 30 mg/kg morphine (s.c.) three times/day for three days. This treatment was also used for OVX subgroups. On the fifth day, the hot plate test was repeated. The analgesic effect of morphine was calculated as the maximal percent effect (MPE). The results were compared using repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: There was no significant difference in MPE between the OVX and sham groups. The MPEs in both the Sham-Tol-Sal and OVX-Tol-Sal groups were lower than those in both the sham and OVX groups (P<0.01). The MPE in the OVX-Tol-Sal group was greater than that in the Sham-Tol-Sal group (P<0.01). The MPE in the Sham-Tol-LA group was higher than that in the Sham-Tol-Sal group (P<0.01). However, there was no significant difference between the Sham-Tol-LA and sham groups or between the OVX-Tol-LA and OVX-Tol-Sal groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that repeated administration of morphine causes tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. L-Arginine could prevent tolerance to morphine but its effect was different in the presence of ovarian hormones. PMID:22135151

Karami, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Khodabandehloo, Fatimeh; Khatami, Leila; Taiarani, Zahra



X-ray radiation of poly-L-arginine hydrochloride and multilayered DNA-coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to determine the chemical changes induced in thin films of the dry polypeptide poly-L-arginine hydrochloride and its mixture with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) during 5 h of soft X-ray exposure. The physical and chemical effects of the soft X-ray irradiation were studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Analysis of O1 s, N1 s and C1 s features in XPS spectra reveals the existence of several routes of radiation-induced decomposition and shows quantitative and qualitative changes.

Stypczy?ska, Agnieszka; Nixon, Tony; Mason, Nigel



l-Arginine increases the solubility of unfolded species of hen egg white lysozyme  

PubMed Central

l-Arginine (l-Arg) has been widely used as an enhancer of protein renaturation. The mechanism behind its action is still not fully understood. Using hen egg white lysozyme as a model protein, we present data that clearly demonstrate the suppression of the aggregation of denatured protein by l-Arg. By chemical modification of free cysteines, a series of unfolded lysozyme species were obtained that served as models for unfolded and intermediate states during the process of oxidative refolding. An increased equilibrium solubility of unfolded species and intermediates in the presence of l-Arg seems to be its major mechanism of action. PMID:15741330

Reddy K., Ravi Charan; Lilie, Hauke; Rudolph, Rainer; Lange, Christian



No effect of an L-arginine-enriched medical food (HeartBars) on endothelial function and platelet aggregation in subjects with hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Providing l-arginine as a precursor for nitric oxide has been proposed to improve endothelial function in populations at high risk for cardiovascular events. We studied the effects of dietary l-arginine supplementation with HeartBars (a medical food rich in L-arginine, Cooke Pharma, Belmont, Calif) on flow-mediated dilation and markers of endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Methods We randomly assigned

Abdelhamed I. Abdelhamed; Steven E. Reis; David C. Sane; K. Bridget Brosnihan; Robert B. Preli; David M. Herrington



L-Arginine Treatment Alters the Kinetics of Nitric Oxide and Superoxide Release and Reduces Ischemia\\/Reperfusion Injury in Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) may produce species involved in ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R) injury: NO in the presence of sufficient L-arginine and superoxide at the diminished local L-arginine concentration accompanying I\\/R. Methods and Results During hindlimb I\\/R (2.5 hours\\/2 hours), in vivo NO was continuously monitored (porphyrinic sensor), and L-arginine (chromatography), superoxide (chemiluminescence), and I\\/R injury were measured intermittently. Normal

Igor Huk; Joseph Nanobashvili; Christoph Neumayer; Andreas Punz; Markus Mueller; Kaweh Afkhampour; Martina Mittlboeck; Udo Losert; Peter Polterauer; Erich Roth; Stephen Patton; Tadeusz Malinski



Arginase Activity in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines: Nv-Hydroxy-L-arginine Selectively Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-Arginine is the common substrate for two enzymes, arginase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Arginase converts L-arginine to L-ornithine, which is the precursor of polyamines, which are essential components of cell proliferation. NOS converts L-arginine to produce NO, which inhibits proliferation of many cell lines. Various human breast cancer cell lines were initially screened for the presence of arginase and

Rajan Singh; Shehla Pervin; Ardeshir Karimi; Stephen Cederbaum; Gautam Chaudhuri


Supplementation of bovine embryo culture medium with L-arginine improves embryo quality via nitric oxide production.  


Nitric oxide (NO) is a cell-signaling molecule that regulates a variety of molecular pathways. We investigated the role of NO during preimplantation embryonic development by blocking its production with an inhibitor or supplementing in vitro bovine embryo cultures with its natural precursor, L-arginine, over different periods. Endpoints evaluated included blastocyst rates, development kinetics, and embryo quality. Supplementation with the NO synthase inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) from Days 1 to 8 of culture decreased blastocyst (P?L-arginine decreased blastocyst rates (P?L-arginine improved embryo hatching rates (P?L-arginine favors preimplantation development of bovine embryos. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 81: 918-927, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25236163

Santana, Priscila Di Paula Bessa; Silva, Thiago Velasco Guimarães; da Costa, Nathália Nogueira; da Silva, Bruno Barauna; Carter, Timothy Frederick; Cordeiro, Marcela da Silva; da Silva, Bruno José Martins; Santos, Simone do Socorro Damasceno; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Adona, Paulo Roberto; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio; Miranda, Moysés Dos Santos



Long-term clinical effectiveness of oral implants in the treatment of partial edentulism. Seven-year life table analysis of a prospective study with ITI dental implants system used for single-tooth restorations.  


One hundred and eight-seven ITI implants were prospectively followed from November 1992 to July 2000, in order to evaluate the clinical efficiency and the long-term prognosis in 109 partially edentulous patients (69 women and 40 men; average age 41.3 years). Of these 187 implants, 69.5% were placed in the mandible and 30.5% in the maxilla. After a healing period that ranged from three to six months, the osseointegrated implants (n = 184) were restored with single crowns. Three implants were extracted prior to loading the fixture and were considered early failures. Each implant was reassessed on a yearly basis, both clinically and radiographically. The results of the investigation, which were evaluated according to predefined success criteria, were reviewed in accordance with a life table method. During the follow-up, six cases were deemed to be late failures. In each of these cases, a suppurative infection of the peri-implant tissue was diagnosed: in one implant, the infection could not be eradicated and the implant was removed. When 11 drop-outs were included in the analysis, the cumulative survival and success rates for the whole sample group were 96.77% and 93.6%, respectively. When only prosthetically loaded implants were considered, the results increased to 99.35% for the cumulative survival rate and 96.18% for the cumulative success rate. The analysis on disaggregated data showed better results for maxillary restorations (survival rate 100%) in comparison to mandible restorations (survival rate 95.11%). It was concluded that, under standard anatomic conditions (bone site height > 8 mm, thickness > 6 mm), prosthetic restoration of partially edentulous patients with the ITI system can be described as a reliable and efficient therapy in the long term. PMID:11952733

Romeo, Eugenio; Chiapasco, M; Ghisolfi, M; Vogel, G



Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  


Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program (OAA, Title VII, Chapter 2, Sections 711/712) The Purpose of the Program and How it ... Services Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2011 indicate that ...


Role of L-arginine in the biological effects of blue light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid, and metabolites of arginine exert multiple biological effects. It has been known that arginine causes the release of various hormones such as insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, prolactin, and adrenal catecholamines. Arginine infusion also produces vasodilation, and in the kidney increased plasma flow accompanied by increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Recent studies have showed that blue and red light irradiation in vitro and in vivo can increase production of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, and related reactive oxygen species (ROS). These then can modulate the production and secretion of several cytokines and other mediators and play an important role as regulatory mediators in signaling processes which can then modulate the production, mobilization and homing of stem cells. It is proposed that some of the therapeutic effects of light can be considered to be due to the changes in the metabolism of L-arginine. The regulation of L-arginine turnover by the use of light at blue wavelengths between 400nm and 510nm can be the explanation for some of the observed effects of blue light: lowering of blood pressure, pain killing effect, regulating insulin production, anti-inflammatory action, and possible effects on the release and homing of stem cells.

Makela, Anu M.



l-Arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin, but not sodium nitrite partially restored erectile dysfunction in aged rats.  


Abstract Aging is associated with erectile dysfunction (ED), in which nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NO bioavailability are reduced due to deficiencies of NOS cofactor (tetrahydrobiopterin, BH4) and substrate (l-arginine). We determined whether the prolonged treatment with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) as a storage form of NO ameliorates ED in aged rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided: younger, aged and NaNO2-treated (20?mg/kg per day) aged groups. The erectile (intracavernosal pressure [ICP]/mean arterial pressure [MAP]) and corpus cavernous (CC) responses were evaluated after 12 weeks. The ICP/MAP in aged rats was lower than in young controls, which was not improved by the NaNO2 treatment. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for endothelial NOS and collagen deposition was performed. We assayed NO indirectly by measuring the level of its stable end products, nitrite/nitrate, using the Griess reagent. The relaxations to ACh and EFS in the aged group were considerably less than in the younger group, which were normalized by acute incubations of l-arginine or BH4 of aged CC. In conclusion, NaNO2 treatment did not restore erectile response while nitrate levels were enhanced in aged penis. The cofactor or substrate administrations, but not chronic exogenous modulation of NO system may be beneficial in aged men with ED. PMID:24898570

Un, Ozge; Yilmaz, Didem; Bayatli, Nur; Kaya, Ecem; Gur, Serap



L-Citrulline, but not L-arginine, prevents diabetes mellitus-induced glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria in rat.  


Diabetes mellitus–induced oxidative stress causes increased renal oxygen consumption and intrarenal tissue hypoxia. Nitric oxide is an important determinant of renal oxygen consumption and electrolyte transport efficiency. The present study investigates whether l-arginine or l-citrulline to promote nitric oxide production prevents the diabetes mellitus–induced kidney dysfunction. Glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, in vivo oxygen consumption, tissue oxygen tension, and proteinuria were investigated in control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats with and without chronic l-arginine or l-citrulline treatment for 3 weeks. Untreated and l-arginine–treated diabetic rats displayed increased glomerular filtration rate (2600±162 versus 1599±127 and 2290±171 versus 1739±138 ?L/min per kidney), whereas l-citrulline prevented the increase (1227±126 versus 1375±88 ?L/min per kidney). Filtration fraction was increased in untreated diabetic rats because of the increase in glomerular filtration rate but not in l-arginine– or l-citrulline–treated diabetic rats. Urinary protein excretion was increased in untreated and l-arginine–treated diabetic rats (142±25 versus 75±7 and 128±7 versus 89±7 ?g/min per kidney) but not in diabetic rats administered l-citrulline (67±7 versus 61±5 ?g/min per kidney). The diabetes mellitus–induced tissue hypoxia, because of elevated oxygen consumption, was unaltered by any of the treatments. l-citrulline administered to diabetic rats increases plasma l-arginine concentration, which prevents the diabetes mellitus–induced glomerular hyperfiltration, filtration fraction, and proteinuria, possibly by a vascular effect. PMID:24866144

Persson, Patrik; Fasching, Angelica; Teerlink, Tom; Hansell, Peter; Palm, Fredrik



The acute effects of L-arginine on hormonal and metabolic responses during submaximal exercise in trained cyclists.  


L-arginine may enhance endurance performance mediated by two primary mechanisms including enhanced secretion of endogenous growth hormone (GH) and as a precursor of nitric oxide (NO); however, research in trained participants has been equivocal. The purpose was to investigate the effect of acute L-arginine ingestion on the hormonal and metabolic response during submaximal exercise in trained cyclists. Fifteen aerobically trained men (age: 28 ± 5 y; body mass: 77.4 ± 9.5 kg; height: 180.9 ± 7.9 cm; VO2max: 59.6 ± 5.9 ml·kg- 1·min-1) participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Subjects consumed L-arginine (ARG; 0. 075 g·kg-1 body mass) or a placebo (PLA) before performing an acute bout of submaximal exercise (60 min at 80% of power output achieved at ventilatory threshold). The ARG condition significantly increased plasma L-arginine concentrations (~146%), while no change was detected in the PLA condition. There were no differences between conditions for GH, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), lactate, glucose, VO2, VCO2, RER, CHO oxidation, and NOx. There was reduced fat oxidation at the start of exercise (ARG: 0.36 ± 0.25 vs. PLA: 0.42 ± 0.23 g·min-1, p < .05) and an elevated plasma glycerol concentrations at the 45-min time point (ARG: 340.3 vs. PLA: 288.5 ?mol·L-1, p < .05) after L-arginine consumption. In conclusion, the acute ingestion of L-arginine did not alter any hormonal, metabolic, or cardio-respiratory responses during submaximal exercise except for a small but significant increase in glycerol at the 45-min time point and a reduction in fat oxidation at the start of exercise. PMID:23319437

Forbes, Scott C; Harber, Vicki; Bell, Gordon J



Solubility and dissolution kinetics of calcium oxalate renal calculi in solutions containing L-arginine: In-vitro experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of dissolution of calcium oxalate (CaOX) calculi in physiological solutions containing L-arginine at different concentrations were studied using the change in the Archimedean weight of samples immersed in the solution. It was faound that arginine, which is a normal constituent of human urine, acts at increased concentrations as a dissolving agent with respect to CaOX calculi. The possible effect of L-arginine as a natural regulator of CaOX supersaturation and crystalization in human urine is also disscused.

Atanassova, S.




PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Nighttime sleep disruption is characteristic of long-term care residents, is typically accompanied by daytime sleepiness and may be caused by a multitude of factors. Causal factors include medical and psychiatric illness, medications, circadian rhythm abnormalities, sleep disordered breathing and other primary sleep disorders, environmental factors and lifestyle habits. There is some suggestion that these factors are amenable to treatment; however, further research on the implementation of treatments within the long-term care setting is needed. Additional work is also needed to understand the administrative and policy factors that might lead to systemic changes in how sleep is viewed and sleep problems are addressed in long-term care settings. A growing number of older adults reside in long-term care facilities. In this setting, residents commonly suffer from nighttime sleep disruption, which is often accompanied by daytime sleepiness and may be caused by a multitude of factors. Importantly, sleep disturbance is associated with negative health outcomes, including risk for falling, and elevated mortality risk among long-term care residents. A number of factors contribute to sleep disturbance in the long-term care setting including medical and psychiatric illness, medications, circadian rhythm abnormalities, sleep disordered breathing and other primary sleep disorders, environmental conditions (e.g., noise and light) and lifestyle habits. Based on research with older adults in the community and work conducted within long-term care settings, there is some suggestion that these factors are amenable to nonpharmacological treatments. Further research on the broad implementation of treatments for sleep problems within the long-term care setting is still needed. Additional work is also needed to understand the administrative and policy factors that might lead to systemic changes in how sleep is viewed and sleep problems are addressed in long-term care settings. PMID:18035230

Martin, Jennifer L.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia



Pharmaceutical Services in Long Term Care Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information pertinent to the development of policies and procedures for pharmaceutical services in long-term care facilities in the State of Washington is presented. Topics to be included in policy and procedures manuals are outlined, with references to a...



Long Term TOA - M Data and Information  

... 30 years to date.   The proposed project utilizes knowledge gained in the last 10 years through CERES data analyses and apply the knowledge to existing data to develop long-term (nearly 30 years) consistent ...



Long-term care in international perspective  

PubMed Central

The findings of a study of long-term care policies in 18 countries are reported in this article. Initial data were collected by a questionnaire survey under the auspices of the International Social Security Association. These data were supplemented by published documents and government statistics obtained while researching long-term care for the International Social Security Association and, subsequently, for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The principal focus is a cross-national comparison of institutionalization rates for the elderly. Differences in use rates for medically oriented facilities are less than those for nonmedical residential long-term care facilities. Only a small amount of variation is related to demographic differences, such as older or more female elderly populations in those countries with higher institutionalization rates. Included also is a description of the modes of financing long-term care. PMID:10312969

Doty, Pamela



Long-term care and the elderly  

E-print Network

Long-term care expenditures represent one of the largest uninsured financial risks facing the elderly. Medicaid provides incomplete insurance against these costs: unlimited nursing home benefits with a deductible equal to ...

Coe, Norma B



Long-term outcome after coronary stenting  

PubMed Central

The present review assesses the data on long-term outcome after coronary stenting. Histological, angiographical and intravascular imaging data have shown that the insertion of stents constitutes only a transient stimulus to lumen renarrowing, that this process is almost complete at 6 months and that a certain degree of neointima regression is also possible after this time. Clinical data have confirmed the sustained benefit of stenting in the long term. Careful selection of optimal stent designs and application of the recent advances in adjunctive pharmacological therapy are currently effective strategies to improve both short-and long-term results with coronary stenting. However, further efforts are needed and are ongoing to combat restenosis, a process that counters the excellent short-term results of stenting in the long term. PMID:11714409

Kastrati, Adnan; Hall, Donald; Schomig, Albert



Long-Term Outcome of Fetal Hydrocephaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term outcome of 25 fetuses with ventriculomegaly diagnosed before delivery who survived the neonatal period up to school age was examined at 10.1 (standard deviation, 2.6) years of age. Twelve children had normal motor and mental development, seven were severely handicapped, and six showed intermediate outcome. The fetuses with severe handicaps on long-term follow-up had more severe ventricular dilation than

Pertti Kirkinen; Willy Serlo; Pentti Jouppila; Markku Ryynänen; Anneli Martikainen



Long-term solar activity predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for long term solar activity predictions is addressed. The spatial organization of solar activity is described including applications for predictions, and ancient evidence for solar variability. Methods of predicting sunspot numbers are discussed. The inherent accuracy of the methods varies considerably, but a typical error bar 20%. The accuracy of sunspot cycle predictions is considered along with long term predictions of great solar events.

Mcintosh, P. S.; Brown, G. M.; Buhmann, R.; Clark, T.; Fougere, P. F.; Hunter, H.; Lincoln, J. V.; Sargent, H. H., III; Timothy, J. G.; Lin, Y. Z.



Does L-arginine availability during the early pregnancy alters the immune response of Trypanosoma cruzi infected and pregnant Wistar rats?  


Chagas disease induces a strong immune response and L-arginine is an essential amino acid which plays an important role in homeostasis of the immune system. The aims of this study were to evaluate parasitemia, corticosterone levels, production of nitric oxide (NO), fetal morphological measurements, and histology of heart and placenta. Twenty pregnant Wistar rats (180-220 g) were grouped in: pregnant control (PC), pregnant control and L-arginine supplied (PCA), pregnant infected (PI), pregnant infected and L-arginine supplied (PIA). Females were infected with 1×10(5) trypomastigotes of the Y strain (3rd day of pregnancy). Animals were supplied with 21 mg of L-arginine/kg/day during 14 days. PIA showed significant decreased levels of corticosterone and parasitemia. For control groups, any alteration in NO production was found with L-arginine supplementation; for PIA, enhanced nitrite concentrations were observed as compared to PI. Weights and lengths of fetuses were higher in L-arginine treated and infected pregnant rats as compared to untreated ones. Placental weight from the PIA group was significantly increased when compared to PI. In L-arginine treated animals, cardiac tissue showed reduced amastigote burdens. PIA and PI displayed similar placental parasitism. Based on these results, L-arginine supplementation may be potentially useful for the protection against Trypanosoma cruzi during pregnancy. PMID:24786713

da Costa, Cássia Mariana Bronzon; de Freitas, Murilo Rodrigues Barbosa; Brazão, Vânia; dos Santos, Carla Domingues; Sala, Miguel Angel; do Prado Júnior, José Clovis; Abrahão, Ana Amélia Carraro



Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516



The role of L-arginine in inclusion complexes of omeprazole with cyclodextrins.  


In this study, we investigate how the effect of L-arginine (ARG) and cyclodextrins upon omeprazole (OME) stability and solubility. The effect of the presence of ARG on the apparent stability constants (K(1:1)) of the inclusion complexes formed between OME and each cyclodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD), and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) is studied by phase solubility diagrams and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The interaction of OME with those cyclodextrins, in the presence of ARG, is characterized using NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. ARG significantly increases the drug solubility and complex stability, in comparison to inclusion complexes formed in its absence. The effect is more pronounced for the OME:betaCD complex. ARG also contributes to a larger stability of OME when free in aqueous solution. The combination of ARG with cyclodextrins can represent an important tool to develop stable drug formulations. PMID:20135244

Figueiras, Ana; Sarraguça, Jorge M G; Pais, Alberto A C C; Carvalho, Rui A; Veiga, J Francisco



Role of Renal Nerves in the Treatment of Renovascular Hypertensive Rats with L-Arginine  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to determine the role of renal nerves in mediating the effects of antihypertensive treatment with L-arginine in a renovascular hypertension model. The 2K1C (two-kidney one-clip model) hypertensive rats were submitted to bilateral surgical-pharmacological renal denervation. The animals were subdivided into six experimental groups: normotensive control rats (SHAM), 2K1C rats, 2K1C rats treated with L-arginine (2K1C?+?L-arg), denervated normotensive (DN) rats, denervated 2K1C (2K1C?+?DN) rats, and denervated 2K1C?+?L-arg (2K1C?+?DN?+?L-arg) rats. Arterial blood pressure, water intake, urine volume, and sodium excretion were measured. The 2K1C rats exhibited an increase in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) (from 106 ± 3 to 183 ± 5.8?mmHg, P < 0.01), whereas L-arg treatment induced a reduction in the MAP (143 ± 3.4?mmHg) without lowering it to the control level. Renal nerve denervation reduced the MAP to normotensive levels in 2K1C rats with or without chronic L-arg treatment. L-arg and denervation induced increases in water intake and urine volume, and L-arg caused a significant natriuretic effect. Our results suggest that renal sympathetic activity participates in the genesis and the maintenance of the hypertension and also demonstrate that treatment with L-arg alone is incapable of normalizing the MAP and that the effect of such treatment is not additive with the effect of kidney denervation. PMID:25349722

Gouvea, Sonia Alves; Tiradentes, Renata V.; Santuzzi, Cintia H.; Mengal, Vinícius; Futuro Neto, Henrique de A.; Silva, Nyam F.; Abreu, Gláucia R.



Type 1 diabetes: can exercise impair the autoimmune event? The L-arginine/glutamine coupling hypothesis.  


Prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires early intervention in the autoimmune process directed against beta-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, which is believed to result from a disorder of immunoregulation. According to this concept, a T-helper lymphocyte of type 1 (Th1) subset of T-lymphocytes and their cytokine products, the type 1 cytokines [e.g. interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor beta (TNF-beta)] prevail over immunoregulatory (anti-inflammatory) Th2 subset and its cytokine products, i.e. type 2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10). This allows type 1 cytokines to initiate a cascade of immune/inflammatory processes in the islet (insulitis), culminating in beta-cell destruction. Activation of sympathetic-corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) axis by psychological stress induces specifically Th1 cell overactivity that determines enhanced glutamine utilization and consequent poor L-arginine supply for nitric oxide (NO)-assisted insulin secretion. This determines the shift of intraislet glutamate metabolism from the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) to that of L-arginine, leading to a redox imbalance that activates nuclear factor kappaB exacerbating inflammation and NO-mediated cytotoxicity. Physical exercise is capable of inducing changes in the pattern of cytokine production and release towards type 2 class and to normalize the glutamine supply to the circulation, which reduces the need for glutamate, whose metabolic fate may be restored in the direction of GSH synthesis and antioxidant defence. Also, the 70-kDa heat shock protein (hsp70), which is immunoregulatory, may modulate exercise-induced anti-inflammation. In this work, we envisage how exercise can intervene in the mechanisms involved in the autoimmune process against beta-cells and how novel therapeutic approaches may be inferred from these observations. PMID:18383559

Krause, Maurício da Silva; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem



Structural basis for the erythro-stereospecificity of the L-arginine oxygenase VioC in viomycin biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Summary The non-heme iron oxygenase VioC from Streptomyces vinaceus catalyzes Fe(II)- and ?-ketoglutarate-dependent C?-hydroxylation of L-arginine during the biosynthesis of the tuberactinomycin antibiotic viomycin. Crystal structures of VioC were determined in complexes with the cofactor Fe(II), the substrate L-arginine, the product (2S,3S)-hydroxyarginine (hArg), and the coproduct succinate at 1.1–1.3 Å resolution. The overall structure reveals a ?-helix core fold with two additional helical subdomains common to nonheme iron oxygenases of the CAS-like (CSL) superfamily. In contrast to other CAS-like oxygenases, which catalyze the formation of threo diastereomers, VioC produces the erythro diastereomer of C?-hydroxylated L-arginine. This unexpected stereospecificity is caused by conformational control of the bound substrate, which enforces a gauche(?) conformer for ?1 instead of the trans conformers observed for the asparagine oxygenase AsnO and other members of the CSL superfamily. Additionally, the substrate specificity of VioC was investigated. The sidechain of the L-arginine substrate projects outward from the active site by making mainly interactions with the C-terminal helical subdomain. Accordingly, VioC exerts broadened substrate specificity by accepting the analogues L-homoarginine and L-canavanine for C?-hydroxylation. PMID:19490124

Helmetag, Verena; Samel, Stefan A.; Thomas, Michael G.; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Essen, Lars-Oliver



The effect of L-arginine treatment on Doppler measurements in pregnant women with gestational hypertension and hypotrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Gestational hypertension and following fetal hypotrophy are associated with elevated prenatal mortality and morbidity. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-arginine administration on the Doppler measurements in pregnancies complicated by hypotrophy and gestational hypertension. Methods: The study was undertaken at Pozna? Medical University, Department of Perinatology and Gynecology. The study group included 101



Evaluation of the Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Rates of Oral Antidiabetic Prescribing in Accordance with Guidelines and Manufacturer Recommendations in Type 2 Diabetic Patients within a Long-Term Care Setting  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study assessed the prevalence of moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) among nursing home (NH) residents with type 2 diabetes. The pattern of oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) use and their concordance with the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guideline and prescribing information (PI) was also assessed. About half (47%) of diabetic residents had moderate to severe CKD. A little over a quarter of the 186 residents using OADs received at least one NKF-discordant OAD prescription. Metformin was the most commonly misused OAD. PI nonconcordance was observed in 58.6% of residents and was highest in glipizide and metformin users. With the high prevalence of moderate to severe CKD in NH residents with diabetes, physicians should consider residents' renal function when choosing treatment plans and review treatments regularly to check compliance with the NKF guidelines or PIs. PMID:24719761

Wu, Ning; Greene, Mallik; Oderda, Gary



Perceptual Correlates of Nociceptive Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength are ubiquitous mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, but their functional relevance in humans remains obscure. Here we report that a long-term increase in perceived pain to electrical test stimuli was induced by high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) (5 1 sec at 100 Hz) of peptidergic cutaneous afferents (27% above baseline, undiminished for3

Thomas Klein; Walter Magerl; Hanns-Christian Hopf; Jurgen Sandkuhler; Rolf-Detlef Treede



Long-term outcomes in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis.  


Most clinical studies in subjects with toenail onychomycosis end with a final assessment at 48-52 weeks. This fails to take full account of the physiology of toenail growth, as toenails can take up to 12-18 months to grow out fully. Accurate assessment of long-term outcomes therefore requires follow-up of at least 2 years after completion of the study. We have evaluated long-term outcomes of treatment in the patients whom we contributed to two multicentre studies of oral therapy for toenail onychomycosis caused by dermatophyte infection. In the first, a dose-finding study for terbinafine (Lamisil), the high rates of mycological and clinical cure achieved by terbinafine at week 48 were maintained more than 2 years after completion of the study. In the second, a comparative study between terbinafine and itraconazole (Sporanox), the excellent mycological and clinical cure rates achieved by terbinafine at week 48 were again maintained more than 2 years after completion of the study. By contrast, the failure and relapse rates seen with itraconazole were much higher. Other studies undertaken in recent years have confirmed these positive findings with respect to terbinafine, and have demonstrated its superiority over itraconazole in maintaining mycological and clinical cure over long periods. These long-term benefits of terbinafine probably relate to its primarily fungicidal action against dermatophytes, compared to the fungistatic action of itraconazole and other triazole agents. Future clinical studies should therefore incorporate at least 2 years' follow-up. PMID:10730909

De Cuyper, C; Hindryckx, P H



Long Term Changes in Marine Fisheries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Issue focuses on a research article by Barange (2003) that was published in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. The article discusses long-term (inter-decadal and longer) patterns of change in marine species in the context of over-exploitation of marine fisheries. BarangeÃÂs emphasis is use of ecosystem-based management practice to move us towards sustainable fisheries. However, he questions whether we know enough about patterns and causes of long term change in marine ecosystems to develop such practices.

D'Avanzo, Charlene



Scenarios for long-term analysis  

SciTech Connect

Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis of High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments data is described and summarized in this talk. The summary covers information presented at the First Workshop on Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis. Experiments representing e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions (LEP, B Factories and CLEO), ep collisions (H1 and ZEUS), p{bar p} collisions (CDF and D0) and others presented interesting information related to utilizing the large datasets collected over many years at these HEP facilities. Many questions and issues remain to be explored.

Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab



Influence of long-term beta receptor stimulation with prenalterol on intrinsic heart rate in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Previous studies have shown that the intrinsic heart rate (IHR) may undergo changes, e.g., decrease after long-term endurance training. The mechanism for this adaptation is not known. In this study, rats were subjected to long-term oral treatment with the beta receptor stimulating drug prenalterol. During the treatment period heart rates at rest and during submaximal exercise were measured. Heart rate

Eva Nylander; Ulf Dahlström



Structure of N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase/kinase from Maricaulis maris with the allosteric inhibitor L-arginine bound.  


Maricaulis maris N-acetylglutamate synthase/kinase (mmNAGS/K) catalyzes the first two steps in L-arginine biosynthesis and has a high degree of sequence and structural homology to human N-acetylglutamate synthase, a regulator of the urea cycle. The synthase activity of both mmNAGS/K and human NAGS are regulated by L-arginine, although L-arginine is an allosteric inhibitor of mmNAGS/K, but an activator of human NAGS. To investigate the mechanism of allosteric inhibition of mmNAGS/K by L-arginine, we have determined the structure of the mmNAGS/K complexed with L-arginine at 2.8 Å resolution. In contrast to the structure of mmNAGS/K in the absence of L-arginine where there are conformational differences between the four subunits in the asymmetric unit, all four subunits in the L-arginine liganded structure have very similar conformations. In this conformation, the AcCoA binding site in the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) domain is blocked by a loop from the amino acid kinase (AAK) domain, as a result of a domain rotation that occurs when L-arginine binds. This structural change provides an explanation for the allosteric inhibition of mmNAGS/K and related enzymes by L-arginine. The allosterically regulated mechanism for mmNAGS/K differs significantly from that for Neisseria gonorrhoeae NAGS (ngNAGS). To define the active site, several residues near the putative active site were mutated and their activities determined. These experiments identify roles for Lys356, Arg386, Asn391 and Tyr397 in the catalytic mechanism. PMID:23850694

Zhao, Gengxiang; Haskins, Nantaporn; Jin, Zhongmin; M Allewell, Norma; Tuchman, Mendel; Shi, Dashuang



Structure of N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase/kinase from Maricaulis maris with the allosteric inhibitor L-arginine bound  

PubMed Central

Maricaulis maris N-acetylglutamate synthase/kinase (mmNAGS/K) catalyzes the first two steps in L-arginine biosynthesis and has a high degree of sequence and structural homology to human N-acetylglutamate synthase, a regulator of the urea cycle. The synthase activity of both mmNAGS/K and human NAGS are regulated by L-arginine, although L-arginine is an allosteric inhibitor of mmNAGS/K, but an activator of human NAGS. To investigate the mechanism of allosteric inhibition of mmNAGS/K by L-arginine, we have determined the structure of the mmNAGS/K complexed with L-arginine at 2.8 Å resolution. In contrast to the structure of mmNAGS/K in the absence of L-arginine where there are conformational differences between the four subunits in the asymmetric unit, all four subunits in the L-arginine liganded structure have very similar conformations. In this conformation, the AcCoA binding site in the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) domain is blocked by a loop from the amino acid kinase (AAK) domain, as a result of a domain rotation that occurs when L-arginine binds. This structural change provides an explanation for the allosteric inhibition of mmNAGS/K and related enzymes by L-arginine. The allosterically regulated mechanism for mmNAGS/K differs significantly from that for Neisseria gonorrhoeae NAGS (ngNAGS). To define the active site, several residues near the putative active site were mutated and their activities determined. These experiments identify roles for Lys356, Arg386, Asn391 and Tyr397 in the catalytic mechanism. PMID:23850694

Zhao, Gengxiang; Haskins, Nantaporn; Jin, Zhongmin; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel; Shi, Dashuang



3, 12491280, 2006 Long-term impacts  

E-print Network

and in particular developments in water storage in reservoirs and consumption for irrigation, drinking water System Sciences Detecting the long-term impacts from climate variability and increasing water consumption-use and water consumption can have profound effects on river runoff. There is an increasing demand to study

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Attachment style and long-term singlehood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how long-term single people satisfy their attachment and sexual needs. A community sample of single and coupled adults (N ¼ 142) located in the United States completed measures of attachment style, attachment figures, loneliness, depression, anxiety, quality of relationships with parents, and sexual behavior. In a structured interview, they answered questions about their childhoods and managing attachment,





EPA Science Inventory

LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...


Long-term treatment with recombinant  

E-print Network

Long-term treatment with recombinant nerve growth factor for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy and significantly im- proved pain symptoms. However, there was no improvement of neuropathy severity as assessed antiretroviral zal- citabine, didanosine, and stavudine is associated with a toxic neuropathy clinically similar

Steinbach, Joe Henry


Long-term stabilization of assay components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable long-term stabilization of immunoassay components is beneficial in many applications. Stabilization and storage of components are important for effective workflows not only for performing large numbers of ELISA but also for medium and small numbers of ELISA. This article deals with the state of the art - particularly with regard to food, veterinary or clinical diagnostics. Clinical immuno diagnostics

Tobias Polifke; Peter Rauch


Long-term Silvicultural & Ecological Studies  

E-print Network

Long-term Silvicultural & Ecological Studies Results for Science and Management: Volume 2 Ann E & Ecological Studies Results for Science and Management: Volume 2 Ann E. Camp Yale School of Forestry LTER Glenn Patrick Juday 31 The Rosie Creek Fire Tree Regeneration Installation: A Large White Spruce


Neonatal desensitization allows long-term  

E-print Network

to achieve long-term survival of human neural grafts in the adult mammalian brain, based on desensitizing in Table 1. All experimental and surgical procedures were conducted under the UK Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, and subject to local ethical review and the relevant personal, project and institution

Cai, Long


Understanding long-term environmental risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

How well we manage long-term environmental risks depends on how well we understand them. Whether the risk managers are experts or laypeople, that understanding is typically limited. As a result, people must rely on judgment when making decisions about risks. Estimating how big risks are and how much reducing them is worth is an intellectual skill. After reviewing the behavioral

Baruch Fischhoff



Long-Term Stability of Social Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo



Medication error reporting in long term care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Medication errors are common causes of medical error in the long-term care (LTC) setting. Despite their frequency and potential clinical impact, most medication errors in LTC facilities remain unreported. Before better reporting systems can be developed to reduce clinically significant medication errors, it is necessary to understand how current medication error reporting systems function.

Steven M. Handler; David A. Nace; Stephanie A. Studenski; Douglas B. Fridsma



Factors in Long-Term Marriages  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few empirical studies of the factors involved in long-term marriages. The present study involves a nonrandom sample of 351 couples who have been married 15 years or more. Differences were found in the reported reasons for staying together between happy, unhappy, and mixed (one partner happy and one unhappy) marriages. For happy couples, the most frequently mentioned reason




Long-Term Impacts of Educational Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school accountability movement has led to a marked increase in the use of standardized test scores to measure school and teacher productivity, yet little is known about the correlation between test score gains and improvements in long-term outcomes. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I study the impact of a school choice policy in…

Deming, David James




Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation (LTP), a relatively long-lived increase in synaptic strength, remains the most popular model for the cellular process that may underlie information storage within neural systems. The strongest arguments for a role of LTP in memory are theoretical and involve Hebb's Postulate, Marr's theory of hippocampal function, and neural network theory. Considering LTP research as a whole, few studies

Joe L. Martinez; Brian E. Derrick



Titanium for long-term tritium storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing




Long-Term Perspectives on Giant Earthquakes  

E-print Network

Long-Term Perspectives on Giant Earthquakes and Tsunamis at Subduction Zones Kenji Satake1. Such variation in rupture mode, known from written history at a few subduction zones, is also characteristic, Cascadia, Hokkaido Abstract Histories of earthquakes and tsunamis, inferred from geological ev- idence, aid


Protein Phosphorylation and Long-term Synaptic  

E-print Network

Protein Phosphorylation and Long-term Synaptic Plasticity A Barria, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, USA V Derkach,Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, USA TR Soderling,Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, USA Learning and memory are complex

Malinow, Roberto


Long-term consequences of severe infections.  


There are convincing data to show that the consequences of a severe infection extend well beyond the first month following it. During the first year after severe sepsis or infection, the survival of sepsis patients is guarded compared with matched control groups. Their quality of life is impaired, and they suffer from rapid degradation in cognition and functional capacity. We could postulate three explanations for the long-term bad outcomes of severe infections and sepsis (or a combination of the three): (i) sepsis usually happens in the elderly and sick, and it causes deterioration in life expectancy and functional status as an acute, non-specific event; (ii) an interaction between specific mechanisms of sepsis and underlying disorders; or (iii) long-term complications directly related to infection. If the second or third explanations are true, then management of the original infection/sepsis might have an influence on long-term outcomes. Elderly survivors of severe infections should be carefully assessed for whether they need intermediate care for recuperation and re-conditioning when leaving hospital. We need prospective, observational studies to define which are the factors that most influence long-term outcomes, and especially management of the acute infection. The investigation of long-term outcomes in trials of treatment modalities for sepsis or severe infections should be encouraged. The true answer for whether one treatment is better than another in severe infections or sepsis lies in the people trajectory in the year following the infection, and not only on 4-6 weeks outcome. PMID:23397980

Leibovici, L



The influence of a novel pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, on N G-nitro- l-arginine methylester and l-arginine effects on stomach mucosa integrity and blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The known effects of a novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC157 (10 ?g or 10 ng\\/kg), namely its salutary activity against ethanol (96%, i.g.)-induced gastric lesions (simultaneously applied i.p.) and in blood pressure maintenance (given i.v.), were investigated in rats challenged with a combination of NG-nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-NAME) (5 mg\\/kg i.v.), a competitive inhibitor of endothelium nitric oxide (NO)-generation and NO precursor,

Predrag Sikiri?; Sven Seiwerth; Željko Grabarevi?; Rudolf Ru?man; Marijan Petek; Vjekoslav Jagi?; Branko Turkovi?; Ivo Rotkvi?; Stjepan Miše; Ivan Zori?i?; Paško Konjevoda; Darko Perovi?; Ljubica Jurina; Jadranka Šeparovi?; Miro Hanževa?ki; Branka Artukovi?; Mirna Bratuli?; Marina Tišljar; Miro Gjurašin; Pavao Mikli?; Dinko Stan?i?-Rokotov; Zoran Slobodnjak; Nikola Jelovac; Anton Marovi?



Evidence that L-Arginine inhibits glycation of human serum albumin (HSA) in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Previous work by Brownlee has shown that glycation of bovine serum albumin can be reduced in the presence of aminoguanidine (AG). Presumably, the guanidinium group on AG interferes with further rearrangement of amadori products to advanced glycosylated end products (AGE). Since L-arginine (ARG) also contains a guanidinium group, its ability to inhibit the formation of AGE products was investigated. HSA was incubated at 37{degrees}C in the presence or absence of glucose; with glucose and fructose; or with sugars in the presence or absence of ARG or AG. A tracer amount of U-{sup 14}C-glucose was added to each tube containing sugars. Protein bound glucose was separated from unreacted glucose by gel filtration. Radioactivity, total protein, fluorescence, and glucose concentration were measured. Preliminary data show enhanced binding of {sup 14}C-glucose to HSA with fructose at all time points. A 30-40% decrease in {sup 14}C-glucose incorporation was observed when ARG or AG as present. ARG and AG were equally effective in inhibiting incorporation of {sup 14}C-glucose. FPLC analysis is in progress to determine the type and degree of HSA crosslinking during the 2 week incubation period.

Servetnick, D.A.; Wiesenfeld, P.L.; Szepesi, B. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))



Antiviral and Virucidal Activities of N?-Cocoyl-L-Arginine Ethyl Ester  

PubMed Central

Various amino acid-derived compounds, for example, N?-Cocoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (CAE), alkyloxyhydroxylpropylarginine, arginine cocoate, and cocoyl glycine potassium salt (Amilite), were examined for their virucidal activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), influenza A virus (IAV), and poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in comparison to benzalkonium chloride (BKC) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a cationic and anionic control detergent and also to other commercially available disinfectants. While these amino acid-derived compounds were all effective against HSV-1 and HSV-2, CAE and Amilite were the most effective. These two compounds were, however, not as effective against IAV, another enveloped virus, as against HSV. Cytotoxicity of CAE was weak; at 0.012%, only 5% of the cells were killed under the conditions, in which 100% cells were killed by either SDS or BKC. In addition to these direct virucidal effects, CAE inhibited the virus growth in the HSV-1- or PV-1-infected cells even at 0.01%. These results suggest a potential application of CAE as a therapeutic or preventive medicine against HSV superficial infection at body surface. PMID:22312346

Yamasaki, Hisashi; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Ikeda, Keiko; Suzuki, Yukiko; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Koyama, A. Hajime



Altered functions of natural killer cells in response to L-Arginine availability.  


L-Arginine (L-Arg) availability is crucial in the regulation of immune response. Indeed, L-Arg deficiency induces T-cell dysfunction and could modulate the properties of natural killer (NK) cells involved in the early host defense against infections and tumors. We explored the impact of L-Arg depletion on NK cell functions using two models - an NK-92 cell line and isolated human blood NK cells. Below 5mg/L of L-Arg, NK-92 cell proliferation was decreased and a total L-Arg depletion reduced NK-92 cell viability. NK cell cytotoxicity was significantly inhibited in presence of low L-Arg concentration (2.5 mg/L). L-Arg depletion reduced the expression of NK-92 activating receptors, NKp46 and NKp30, the expression of NK ? chain and the NK-92 intracellular production of IFN-?. Whatever the L-Arg concentrations tested, no significant variation in the gene expression of transporters and enzymes involved in L-Arg metabolism was found. Thus, L-Arg availability modulates the phenotypic and functional properties of NK cells. PMID:23399839

Lamas, Bruno; Vergnaud-Gauduchon, Juliette; Goncalves-Mendes, Nicolas; Perche, Olivier; Rossary, Adrien; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Farges, Marie-Chantal



Non-invasive measurement of the haemodynamic effects of inhaled salbutamol, intravenous L-arginine and sublingual nitroglycerin  

PubMed Central

AIMS To examine the effects of salbutamol and L-arginine, two compounds acting largely on the endothelium, and the endothelium-independent agent nitroglycerin on blood pressure, arterial compliance, cardiac function and vascular resistance. METHODS Continuous radial pulse wave analysis, whole-body impedance cardiography, and plethysmographic blood pressure from fingers in the supine position and during head-up tilt were recorded in nine healthy subjects. Data were captured before and after L-arginine (10 mg mg?1 min?1) or saline infusion, salbutamol (400 µg) or placebo inhalation, and sublingual nitroglycerin (0.25 mg) or placebo resoriblet. RESULTS The results of all measurements were comparable before drug administration. The effects of inhaled salbutamol were apparent in the supine position: systemic vascular resistance (?9.2 ± 2.6%) and augmentation index (?4.0 ± 1.5%) decreased, and heart rate (8.6 ± 2.5%) and cardiac output (8.8 ± 3.1%) increased. L-arginine had no clear effects on supine haemodynamics, but during head-up tilt blood pressure was moderately decreased and reduction in aortic reflection time prevented, indicating improved large arterial compliance. Nitroglycerin reduced supine vascular resistance (?6.7 ± 1.8%) and augmentation index (?7.4 ± 1.6%), and increased cardiac output (+9.2 ± 2.7%). During head-up tilt, nitroglycerin increased cardiac output (+10.6 ± 5.6%) and heart rate (+40 ± 7.5%), decreased vascular resistance (?7.8 ± 5.8%) and augmentation index (?18.7 ± 3.2%), and prevented the decrease in aortic reflection time. CONCLUSIONS Inhaled salbutamol predominantly changed supine haemodynamics, whereas the moderate effects of L-arginine were observed during the head-up tilt. In contrast, small doses of nitroglycerin induced major changes in haemodynamics both supine and during the head-up tilt. Altogether, these results emphasize the importance of haemodynamic measurements in both the supine and upright positions. PMID:19660000

Tahvanainen, Anna; Leskinen, Miia; Koskela, Jenni; Ilveskoski, Erkki; Alanko, Juha; Kahonen, Mika; Koobi, Tiit; Lehtimaki, Lauri; Moilanen, Eeva; Mustonen, Jukka; Porsti, Ilkka



Applied nutritional investigation Pharmacokinetics, safety, and effects on exercise performance of L-arginine -ketoglutarate in trained adult men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of L-arginine -ketoglutarate (AAKG) in trained adult men. Methods: Subjects participated in two studies that employed a randomized, double-blind, con- trolled design. In study 1, 10 healthy men (30-50 y old) fasted for 8 h and then ingeste d4go f time-released or non-timed-released AAKG. Blood samples were taken for 8 h after

Bill Campbell; Mike Roberts; Chad Kerksick; Colin Wilborn; Brandon Marcello; Lem Taylor; Erika Nassar; Brian Leutholtz; Rodney Bowden; Chris Rasmussen; Mike Greenwood; Richard Kreider


Validated Method for Simultaneous Determination of Cefepime and L?Arginine in Cefepime for Injection by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and accurate capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method is described for simultaneous determination of cefepime and L?arginine in cefepime for injection. Best results were achieved with the background electrolyte (BGE) prepared by titrating 40 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate with phosphoric acid to pH 2.3 and an applied voltage of 30 kV in a bare fused?silica capillary. The capillary temperature was 30°C

Hao Liu; V. Bruce Sunderland



Continuous production of L-arginine using immobilized growing Serratia marcescens cells: Effectiveness of supply of oxygen gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immobilized growing cell system using Serratia marcescens was applied to continuous L-arginine production. From the determination of oxygen uptake rate, it was shown that the cells entrapped in carrageenan gel were in an oxygen-limited state due to the diffusion barrier to oxygen transport created by the gel layer. This limited state in gel was relieved by supply of oxygen-enriched

Motoki Fujimura; Jyoji Kato; Tetsuya Tosa; Ichiro Chibata




PubMed Central

The blood pressure response to exercise is exaggerated in hypertension. Recent evidence suggests that an overactive skeletal muscle mechanoreflex contributes significantly to this augmented circulatory responsiveness. Sensory information from the mechanoreflex is processed within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of the medulla oblongata. Normally, endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) within the NTS attenuates the increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by mechanoreflex stimulation. Thus, it has been suggested that decreases in NTS-NO production underlie the generation of mechanoreflex dysfunction in hypertension. Supporting this postulate, it has been shown that blocking NO production within the NTS of normotensive rats reproduces the exaggerated pressor response elicited by mechanoreflex activation in hypertensive animals. What is not known is whether increasing NO production within the NTS of hypertensive rats mitigates mechanoreflex overactivity. In this study, the mechanoreflex was selectively activated by passively stretching hindlimb muscle before and after the dialysis of 1 and 10 ?M L-arginine (a NO precursor) within the NTS of decerebrate normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Stretch induced larger elevations in MAP in SHR compared to WKY. In both groups, dialysis of 1 ?M L-arginine significantly attenuated the pressor response to stretch. However, at the 10 ?M dose, L-arginine had no effect on the MAP response to stretch in WKY while it enhanced the response in SHR. The data demonstrate that increasing NO availability within the NTS using lower doses of L-arginine partially normalizes mechanoreflex dysfunction in hypertension whereas higher doses do not. The findings could prove valuable in the development of treatment options for mechanoreflex overactivity in this disease. PMID:23771911

Leal, Anna K.; Mitchell, Jere H.; Smith, Scott A.



[Bariatric surgery - significance, risks, long term consequences].  


In recent years the number of bariatric surgery has markedly increased in industrial nations. Surgery provides a more rapid decrease of body weight than conservative approach. However a long term conservative follow up therapy is mandatory to stabilize reduced weight. Due to increasing knowledge from long term follow up of surgically treated obese patients there is a growing body of evidence that frequently there is necessity of reoperations and of substitution both of trace elementsand of minerals or vitamins due to their hampered enteral resorption. Additionally therapy of surgery induced endocrine alterations not seldom is necessary.These insights are of outstanding importance because meanwhile an enlargement of the indications for bariatric surgery as a therapeutic option for metabolic disorders is being discussed. This review refers to the recent internationally published papers concerning consequences of bariatric surgery. PMID:23678666

Schubert, T; Jahn, U; Eben, E; Deuber, H J



Local Suppression of T Cell Responses by Arginase-Induced L-Arginine Depletion in Nonhealing Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

The balance between T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cell responses is a major determinant of the outcome of experimental leishmaniasis, but polarized Th1 or Th2 responses are not sufficient to account for healing or nonhealing. Here we show that high arginase activity, a hallmark of nonhealing disease, is primarily expressed locally at the site of pathology. The high arginase activity causes local depletion of L-arginine, which impairs the capacity of T cells in the lesion to proliferate and to produce interferon-?, while T cells in the local draining lymph nodes respond normally. Healing, induced by chemotherapy, resulted in control of arginase activity and reversal of local immunosuppression. Moreover, competitive inhibition of arginase as well as supplementation with L-arginine restored T cell effector functions and reduced pathology and parasite growth at the site of lesions. These results demonstrate that in nonhealing leishmaniasis, arginase-induced L-arginine depletion results in impaired T cell responses. Our results identify a novel mechanism in leishmaniasis that contributes to the failure to heal persistent lesions and suggest new approaches to therapy. PMID:19597544

Modolell, Manuel; Choi, Beak-San; Ryan, Robert O.; Hancock, Maggie; Titus, Richard G.; Abebe, Tamrat; Hailu, Asrat; Muller, Ingrid; Rogers, Matthew E.; Bangham, Charles R. M.; Munder, Markus; Kropf, Pascale



Mass spectrometric quantification of L-arginine and its pathway related substances in biofluids: the road to maturity.  


The amino acid L-arginine together with its metabolites and related substances is in the center of many biologically important pathways, especially the urea cycle and the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Therefore, the concentrations of these substances in various biological fluids are of great interest as predictive markers for health and disease. Yet, they provide major analytical difficulties as they are very polar in nature and therefore not easily to be separated on standard reversed phase HPLC stationary phases. Furthermore, as endogenous substances, no analyte-free matrix is available, a fact that results in complicated calibration procedures. This review evaluates the analytical literature for the determination of L-arginine, symmetric dimethylarginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, monomethylarginine, L-citrulline, L-ornithine, L-homoarginine, agmatine and dimethylguanidinovaleric acid in biological fluids. Papers are discussed, which were published since 2007 and describe methods applying capillary electrophoresis (CE), gas chromatography (GC), reversed phase HPLC or polar phase HPLC, coupled to mass spectrometric quantification. Nowadays, many carefully developed and validated methods for L-arginine and its related substances are available to the scientific community. The use of stable isotope labeled internal standards enables high precision and accuracy in mass spectrometry-based quantitative analysis. PMID:24210895

Martens-Lobenhoffer, Jens; Bode-Böger, Stefanie M



Growth and characterization of L-arginine fluro phosphate—a new additive for fluent growth microbes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-arginine phosphate monohydrate is a promising nonlinear organic crystal for higher harmonic generation in place of the conventional potassium dihydrogen phosphate and is a challenging material for laser fusion experiments. The major and inevitable drawback is the formation of microbes for growing bulk single crystals. In this work, L-arginine fluoro phosphate was synthesized by adding 0.25 and 0.75 molar concentrations of HF and ortho phosphoric acids in L-arginine. The inherent properties of microbes and photo-induced decomposition were successfully prohibited for more than 50 days due to the presence of fluorine. No microbes were observed when the solution was kept at open atmosphere. The same solution was used for the growth; crystals of identical morphology were obtained. In addition, no tapering effect and coloration were seen. The characterizations like powder XRD, FTIR, UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and TG/DTA were carried out. The second-harmonic generation efficiency was confirmed by using Kurtz and Perry method.

Shanmugavadivu, R.; Ravi, G.; Jayavel, R.; Mohankumar, R.; Nixon Azariah, A.



Impact of the L-arginine-Nitric Oxide Pathway and Oxidative Stress on the Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The discovery of the physiological roles of nitric oxide has revolutionized the understanding of regulation of vascular tone, platelet adhesion and aggregation, and immune activation. Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of nitric oxide (NO) is that it is a gas that, in the absence of receptors, can regulate both normal physiological events and mediate cytotoxicity under pathological conditions. NO is produced from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOS), yielding L-citrulline and NO. The regulation of L-arginine pathway activity occurs at the level of NO production. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia, a common basis of cardiovascular disease. It occurs in genetically susceptible individuals with environmental influences and has serious economic and social consequences. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies should be individualized and targeted to normalize its alterations of blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose values. Despite the increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the last decades, there has been little progress in the understanding of the precise mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this syndrome and its complications. Emerging evidence is available that NO, inflammation and oxidative stress play important roles in the physiopathology of this syndrome. This review summarizes and evaluates the participation of the L-arginine-NO pathway and oxidative stress in the physiopathology of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events at the systemic level, as well as the effects of exercise on this syndrome. PMID:18949082

Assumpcao, C.R; Brunini, T.M.C; Matsuura, C; Resende, A.C; Mendes-Ribeiro, A.C



Burnout Among Long-Term Care Staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the influence of workload, role conflict, role ambiguity, and stress on burnout among long-term care staff. A cross-sectional design was used to collect data through a self-administered questionnaire from 363 staff members of four nursing homes and five assisted living facilities. Regression analysis revealed that after controlling for demographic variables, workload, role conflicts, and stress contributed to

Gauri S. Rai



Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor



Long term results of inflatable mammary implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this retrospective study, the long term results of 167 inflatable mammary implants in 77 patients who underwent either breast reconstruction or augmentation between 1972 and 1990 were evaluated. All inflatable implants were manufactured by Heyer-Schulte\\/Mentor company, and were equipped with a posterior leaf valve (style 1800). The mean follow-up was 9 years (SD = 4.3).Complete deflation was found in

A. Worseg; R. Kuzbari; G. Tairych; K. Korak; J. Holle



LOP - Long-Term Orbit Predictor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-Term Orbit Preditor (LOP) trajectory-propagation computer program is useful tool in analysis of lifetime of orbiting spacecraft. Suitable for studying planetary-orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Includes sample data for study of drift cycle of geosynchronous station, strategy for radar mapping of Venus, frozen orbit about Mars, and orbit characterized by repeating ground trace. Executed faster than such programs based on Cowell's method. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Kwok, Johnny H.



Long?term Performance of Greek IPOs  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractWe analyse the long?run performance of 254 Greek IPOs that were listed during the period 1994–2002, computing buy?and?hold abnormal returns (BHAR) and cumulative abnormal returns (CAR) over 36 months of secondary market performance. The empirical results differ from international evidence and reveal long?term overperformance that continues for a substantial interval after listing. Measuring these returns in calendar time, we find

Stavros Thomadakis; Christos Nounis; Dimitrios Gounopoulos



Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects--instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought shocks are used to identify differences in pre-school nutritional status across siblings. Improvements in height-for-age in pre-schoolers are associated with increased height as

Harold Alderman; John Hoddinott; Bill Kinsey



Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated stimulation of hippocampal neurons can induce an immediate and prolonged increase in synaptic strength that is called long-term potentiation (LTP)-the primary cellular model of memory in the mammalian brain1. An early phase of LTP (lasting less than three hours) can be dissociated from late-phase LTP by using inhibitors of transcription and translation2-8. Because protein synthesis occurs mainly in the

Uwe Frey; Richard G. M. Morris



Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.  


Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof



Long-term solar-terrestrial observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fall of 1985, the Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) created a panel to study the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data. The panel comprised specialists in all four areas that constitute solar-terrestrial science: the sun, interplanetary medium, magnetosphere-thermosphere-ionosphere, and upper atmosphere. It interviewed many individuals from the solar-terrestrial monitoring and data archiving communities, along with administrators and directors from appropriate government agencies. It circulated nearly 500 questionnaires to obtain information and opinions from the broader community to learn which observational data should be considered essential over the long term to support the operational and research needs of solar-terrestrial science. This report summarizes the panel's principal findings, and the panel's recommendations follow. A separate section listing the critical observational needs by area is presented together with the scientific rationale for each area. The recommendations are defended in terms of this explicit scientific rationale and the multifold uses of current and long-term solar-terrestrial observations for continued operational solar-terrestrial forecasts and services.


Titanium for long-term tritium storage  

SciTech Connect

Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

Heung, L.K.



Links between short and long term tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the quest for understanding the rheology of the lithosphere a central question that can be addressed is the existence of a parameterisation of the rheology, which could reflect both the response of the lithosphere over the large time scale (10's Myr) and the time scale of earthquakes and faulting. The gap existing between these observational time scales is mainly due to modelling approximations which in each separate fields permit to fit the data but which rely on simplification of the physics, the rheology and set of boundary conditions which are not always compatible one with each other. The long-term community, i.e. the geodynamics community, tend to use Mohr-Coulomb non-associated plasticity to model self-consistent shear zone localisation. This type of rheology corresponds, in the limit of a discrete fault plan, to a slip weakening/hardening formulation in which weakening rate depends on fault plan orientation. The short term community, i.e. the earthquake community, has stopped using this kind of formulation and rather uses the rate and state formulation to model the activity of faults. Rate and State is limited because it cannot self-consistently generate an earthquake, the triggering, i.e. the initial slip acceleration must be imposed. This contribution is a synthesis of several geological case studies at different length-scale, in which we suspects a strong link between long term geodynamic processes and current seismological and geodetic observations. We make use of these case studies together with quantitative numerical models to understand how the seismic and inter-seismic behaviour reflects the rather long-term geodynamic setting than the internal rheological properties of faults. After briefly revisiting the different modelling approaches from geodynamic seismologic and geodetic communities, we show how modelling results obtained with the long term modelling approach brings new insights and alternative models for both the seismological and geodetic behaviour of active faults. The first example will concern the seismic activity on low angle normal faults focussing on the case of the Gulf of Corinth. Then focusing on strike slip tectonic, I will compare data from active and exhumed strike slip faults and discuss how a single model can explain their behaviour. The last example will focus on the creeping segment of the San Andreas Fault to discuss how heterogeneities in the long-term tectonic loading (in that instance flexure of the lithosphere) may influence the seismic behaviour of strike slip fault.

Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Traoré, Nafissatou; Lecomte, Emmanuel; Saleeby, Jason



Hippocampal long-term depression and long-term potentiation encode different aspects of novelty acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hippocampus is required for encoding spatial information. Little is known however, about how different attributes of learning are related to different types of synaptic plasticity. Here, we investigated the association between long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation, both cellular models for learning, and novelty exploration. We found that exploration of a new environment containing unfamiliar objects and\\/or familiar objects

Anne Kemp; Denise Manahan-Vaughan



l-Lysine Catabolism Is Controlled by l-Arginine and ArgR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1?  

PubMed Central

In comparison to other pseudomonads, Pseudomonas aeruginosa grows poorly in l-lysine as a sole source of nutrient. In this study, the ldcA gene (lysine decarboxylase A; PA1818), previously identified as a member of the ArgR regulon of l-arginine metabolism, was found essential for l-lysine catabolism in this organism. LdcA was purified to homogeneity from a recombinant strain of Escherichia coli, and the results of enzyme characterization revealed that this pyridoxal-5-phosphate-dependent decarboxylase takes l-lysine, but not l-arginine, as a substrate. At an optimal pH of 8.5, cooperative substrate activation by l-lysine was depicted from kinetics studies, with calculated Km and Vmax values of 0.73 mM and 2.2 ?mole/mg/min, respectively. Contrarily, the ldcA promoter was induced by exogenous l-arginine but not by l-lysine in the wild-type strain PAO1, and the binding of ArgR to this promoter region was demonstrated by electromobility shift assays. This peculiar arginine control on lysine utilization was also noted from uptake experiments in which incorporation of radioactively labeled l-lysine was enhanced in cells grown in the presence of l-arginine but not l-lysine. Rapid growth on l-lysine was detected in a mutant devoid of the main arginine catabolic pathway and with a higher basal level of the intracellular l-arginine pool and hence elevated ArgR-responsive regulons, including ldcA. Growth on l-lysine as a nitrogen source can also be enhanced when the aruH gene encoding an arginine/lysine:pyruvate transaminase was expressed constitutively from plasmids; however, no growth of the ldcA mutant on l-lysine suggests a minor role of this transaminase in l-lysine catabolism. In summary, this study reveals a tight connection of lysine catabolism to the arginine regulatory network, and the lack of lysine-responsive control on lysine uptake and decarboxylation provides an explanation of l-lysine as a poor nutrient for P. aeruginosa. PMID:20833801

Chou, Han Ting; Hegazy, Mohamed; Lu, Chung-Dar



Oral Contraceptives Reduce Long-Term Risk of Ovarian Cancer

Since they were first licensed nearly 50 years ago, birth control pills containing estrogen have prevented some 200,000 cases of ovarian cancer world-wide, estimate the authors of a study published January 26, 2008, in The Lancet.


N sup G -methyl-L-arginine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced hypotension: Implications for the involvement of nitric oxide  

SciTech Connect

Clinical assessment of the activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) against human cancer has been limited by a dose-dependent cardiovascular toxicity, most frequently hypotension. TNF is also thought to mediate the vascular collapse resulting from bacterial endotoxin. The present studies address the mechanism by which TNF causes hypotension and provide evidence for elevated production of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator initially characterized as endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nitric oxide is synthesized by several cell types, including endothelial cells and macrophages, from the guanidino nitrogen of L-arginine; the enzymatic pathway is competitively inhibited by N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine. The authors found that hypotension induced in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs by TNF was completely reversed within 2 min following administration of N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine. In contrast, N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine failed to reverse the hypotensive response to an equivalent depressor dose of nitroglycerin, a compound that acts by forming nitric oxide by a monenzymatic, arginine-independent mechanism. The effect of N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine on TNF-induced hypotension was antagonized, and the hypotension restored, by administration of excess L-arginine findings suggest that excessive nitric oxide production mediates the hypotensive effect of TNF.

Kilbourn, R.G.; Adams, J. (Univ. of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA)); Gross, S.S.; Griffith, O.W.; Levi, R. (Cornell Univ. Medical College, New York, NY (USA)); Jubran, A.; Lodato, R.F. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston (USA))



Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats  

SciTech Connect

Molecular hydrogen, which reacts with the hydroxyl radical, has been considered as a novel antioxidant. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by giving two intraperitoneal injections of L-Arg, each at concentrations of 250 mg/100 g body weight, with an interval of 1 h. Hydrogen-rich saline (>0.6 mM, 6 ml/kg) or saline (6 ml/kg) was administered, respectively, via tail vein 15 min after each L-Arg administration. Severity of AP was assessed by analysis of serum amylase activity, pancreatic water content and histology. Samples of pancreas were taken for measuring malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase. Apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cell was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling technique (TUNEL). Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) were detected with immunohistochemistry. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of L-Arg-induced AP by ameliorating the increased serum amylase activity, inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, lipid oxidation and pancreatic tissue edema. Moreover, hydrogen-rich saline treatment could promote acinar cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis and NF-{kappa}B activation. These results indicate that hydrogen treatment has a protective effect against AP, and the effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit oxidative stress, apoptosis, NF-{kappa}B activation and to promote acinar cell proliferation.

Chen, Han; Sun, Yan Ping; Li, Yang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu, Wen Wu [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xiang, Hong Gang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Fan, Lie Ying [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai East Hospital, Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200120 (China)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai East Hospital, Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200120 (China); Sun, Qiang [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xu, Xin Yun [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Cai, Jian Mei [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ruan, Can Ping; Su, Ning; Yan, Rong Lin [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Sun, Xue Jun, E-mail: [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)



Administering the Optimum Dose of l-Arginine in Regional Tumor Therapy.  


The purpose of this study is optimizing the l-arginine (l-Arg) doses on the basis of chemical structure in regional accessible tumor therapy to settle down a new protocol for the treatment of cancer. (3)H-thymidine-based cell proliferation assay was performed in vitro on tumor cell lines of fibrosarcoma (FS), lymphosarcoma-ascitic and on normal cell line of NIH 3T3 after treatment with different concentrations of l-Arg in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The cultures were harvested after 22 h and the incorporated radioactivity was counted to identify their histologic grades as described in earlier studies. In vivo therapy of murine tumors was conducted where FS cells injected subcutaneously at ventro-lateral position of mice. Various drug delivery schedules were injected into the centre of tumor base, once a day for 4 days. Tumor diameter and survivals were monitored where the day of sacrifice was considered for monitoring the survival period. By identifying the histologic grades of the treated cultures in vitro and in vivo by different concentrations of l-Arg, the corresponding energy of such concentrations were determined. An efficient model with a good fit (R(2) = 0.98) was established to describe the energy yield by l-Arg dose. The equivalence between the tumor histologic grade and energy of the l-Arg dose delivered in saline (PBS) environment is the optimum condition for regional tumor therapy achieves higher survival rate. The selective cytotoxicity to tumor cells with minimal damage to normal cells by l-Arg due to its chemical structure suggests to be considered the most promising drug for regional therapy of the accessible tumors like breast cancers of early stage with no distant metastasis. PMID:25298625

Moawad, Emad Y



Long term differential consequences of miglustat therapy on intestinal disaccharidases.  


Miglustat is an oral medication for treatment of lysosomal storage diseases such as Gaucher disease type I and Niemann Pick disease type C. In many cases application of Miglustat is associated with symptoms similar to those observed in intestinal carbohydrate malabsorption. Previously, we have demonstrated that intestinal disaccharidases are inhibited immediately by Miglustat in the intestinal lumen. Nevertheless, the multiple functions of Miglustat hypothesize long term effects of Miglustat on intracellular mechanisms, including glycosylation, maturation and trafficking of the intestinal disaccharidases. Our data show that a major long term effect of Miglustat is its interference with N-glycosylation of the proteins in the ER leading to a delay in the trafficking of sucrase-isomaltase. Also association with lipid rafts and plausibly apical targeting of this protein is partly affected in the presence of Miglustat. More drastic is the effect of Miglustat on lactase-phlorizin hydrolase which is partially blocked intracellularly. The de novo synthesized SI and LPH in the presence of Miglustat show reduced functional efficiencies according to altered posttranslational processing of these proteins. However, at physiological concentrations of Miglustat (?50 ?M) a major part of the activity of these disaccharidases is found to be still preserved, which puts the charge of the observed carbohydrate maldigestion mostly on the direct inhibition of disaccharidases in the intestinal lumen by Miglustat as the immediate side effect. PMID:24863482

Amiri, Mahdi; Naim, Hassan Y



A long-term climatology of medicanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medicanes, intense and destructive mesoscale cyclones exhibiting several similarities with tropical hurricanes, are known to struck occasionally the Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to a high-resolution dynamical downscaling effort, we are able to study for the first time the long-term climatology of those rare storms in a systematic way. The distribution of medicanes frequency in space and time is discussed, and the environmental factors responsible for their formation are investigated. We find that medicanes develop in those areas of the Mediterranean region where intrusions of cold air in the upper troposphere can produce configurations of thermodynamical disequilibrium of the atmosphere similar to those associated with the formation of tropical cyclones.

Cavicchia, Leone; von Storch, Hans; Gualdi, Silvio



Long-term space flights - personal impressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a final 4-month stage of a 1-year space flight of cosmonauts Titov and Manarov, a physician, Valery Polyakov was included on a crew for the purpose of evaluating their health, correcting physical status to prepare for the spacecraft reentry and landing operations. The complex program of scientific investigations and experiments performed by the physician included an evaluation of adaptation reactions of the human body at different stages of space mission using clinicophysiological and biochemical methods; testing of alternative regimes of exercise and new countermeasures to prevent an unfavourable effect of long-term weightlessness.

Polyakov, V. V.


Long-Term Solar Irradiance Variability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the solar energy throughout the solar spectrum and understanding its variability provide important information about the physical processes and structural changes in the solar interior and in the solar atmosphere...The aim of this paper is to discuss the solar-cycle-related long-term changes in solar total and UV irradiances. The spaceborne irradiance observations are compared to ground-based indices of solar magnetic activity, such as the Photometric Sunspot Index, full disk magnetic flux, and the Mt. Wilson Magnetic Plage Strength Index.

Pap, J. M.



Long term thermoelectric module testing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period.

D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy



Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.



Deficient long-term memory and long-lasting long-term potentiation in mice with a targeted  

E-print Network

. However, consistent with the long-term memory defects, the long-lasting LTP at the same synapses essential for hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal long-lasting LTPDeficient long-term memory and long-lasting long-term potentiation in mice with a targeted deletion

Smith, Desmond J.


An unusual long-term complication of transobturator polypropylene mesh.  


Serious complications associated with surgical mesh for transvaginal repair of POP, as infections, vaginal mesh exposure, painful mesh shrinkage and dyspareunia, are not rare. A 48-year-old woman underwent the Perigee procedure because of a stage 3 anterior wall prolapse. Eleven months after surgery, the patient became suddenly unable to walk because of a strong pain to the left thigh root after running. The MRI revealed an external obturator left muscle hyperintensity consistent with muscular oedema; the patient was treated with oral corticosteroids with a complete resolution of the pain. We could hypothesize that the posterior arm of the mesh caused a laceration of the muscles of the obturator space with consequent oedema and pain. The use of the meshes in prolapse surgery can cause unexpected long-term complications. PMID:25022558

Sartore, Andrea; Zennaro, Floriana; Banco, Rubina



L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic and control rats. Under these findings, we suggest that targeting of eNOS and Nrf2 signaling by L-arginine supplementation could be used as a potential treatment method to alleviate the late diabetic complications.

Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)] [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)



Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.  


Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by <15% decrease in DMY and <30 days until return to normal (n?=?5), and 'long inflammation', characterized by >15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands. PMID:24906501

Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel



Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.  


Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source. PMID:15923465

Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P



Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation  

PubMed Central

Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as ‘storage’. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation—which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes—with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent



Eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a young girl – long term remission under Montelukast  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are an emerging disease entity characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. Oral steroids can be still considered as first line treatment. Unfortunately relapses are quite common. Usually long term low-dose prednisone or immunosuppressive therapy is required, which is especially problematic in young patients. Thus a reliable steroid sparing agent with low side effects suitable

Ivo Quack; Lorenz Sellin; Nikolaus J Buchner; Dirk Theegarten; Lars C Rump; Bernhard F Henning



Long term use of metformin leading to vitamin B 12 deficiency.  


Metformin is a commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agent worldwide. Gastrointestinal side effects and lactic acidosis related to metformin usage are commonly recognized. However, the associated vitamin B12 deficiency is less well known. We present a case of long term metformin use resulting in vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:24674102

Tung, Moon Ley; Tan, Lip Kun



L-arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease.  


Diminished levels of L-arginine and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling through deficiency of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) may contribute to endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the effect of L-arginine and BH(4) administration on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). Forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance and CAD. Forearm ischemia was induced for 20 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. The patients received a 15 min intra-brachial infusion of L-arginine (20 mg/min) and BH(4) (500 microg/min) or 0.9% saline starting at 15 min of ischemia on two separate study occasions. Compared with pre-ischemia the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) induced by acetylcholine was significantly reduced at 15 and 30 min of reperfusion when saline was infused (P<0.001), but not following L-arginine and BH(4) infusion. EDV was also significantly less reduced at 15 and 30 min of reperfusion following L-arginine and BH(4) infusion, compared to saline infusion (P<0.02). Endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EIDV) induced by nitroprusside was unaffected by I/R. Venous total biopterin levels in the infused arm increased from 37+/-7 at baseline to 6644+/-1240 nmol/l during infusion of L-arginine and BH(4) (P<0.0001), whereas there was no difference in biopterin levels during saline infusion. In conclusion L-arginine and BH(4) supplementation reduces I/R-induced endothelial dysfunction, a finding which may represent a novel treatment strategy to limit I/R injury in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD. PMID:18849028

Settergren, M; Böhm, F; Malmström, R E; Channon, K M; Pernow, J



Dietary L-arginine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in broiler chickens.  


In the present study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation on the inflammatory response and innate immunity of broiler chickens. Expt 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n 8 cages/treatment; n 6 birds/cage) with three dietary Arg concentrations (1.05, 1.42 and 1.90%) and two immune treatments (injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline) given at an interval of 48 h between 14 and 21 d of age. In Expt 2, correlation between dietary Arg concentration (0.99, 1.39, 1.76, 2.13 or 2.53%) and percentage of circulating B cells (percentage of circulating lymphocytes) was determined. In Expt 1, LPS injection decreased body-weight gain and feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio of the challenged broilers (14-21 d; P< 0.05). LPS injection suppressed (P< 0.05) the percentages of splenic CD11+ and B cells (percentages of splenic lymphocytes) and phagocytic activity of splenic heterophils and macrophages; Arg supplementation linearly decreased the percentages of CD11+, CD14+ and B cells in the spleen (P< 0.10). LPS injection increased (P< 0.05) the expression of IL-1? and IL-6 mRNA in the spleen and caecal tonsils. Arginine supplementation decreased (P< 0.05) the expression of IL-1?, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and PPAR-? mRNA in the spleen and IL-1?, IL-10, TLR4 and NF-?B mRNA in the caecal tonsils. In Expt 2, increasing dietary Arg concentrations linearly and quadratically reduced the percentage of circulating B cells (P< 0.01). Collectively, Arg supplementation attenuated the overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines probably through the suppression of the TLR4 pathway and CD14+ cell percentage. Furthermore, excessive Arg supplementation (1.76%) suppressed the percentages of circulating and splenic B cells. PMID:24330949

Tan, Jianzhuang; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Yuming; Applegate, Todd J; Eicher, Susan D



Managing soils for long-term productivity  

PubMed Central

Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil erosion accentuates the often very low inherent fertility of many soils in the tropics. An integrated approach involving inorganic and organic inputs is required where animal and plant residues are returned, as far as practicable. Chemical fertilizers alone cannot achieve long-term productivity on many soils and organic material inputs are required to maintain soil organic matter levels and crop productivity. A major research effort is required to develop improved strategies for halting and reversing soil degradation if long-term productivity is to be secured.

Syers, J. K.



L-arginine improves endothelial function, independently of arginine uptake, in aortas from chronic renal failure female rats.  


Endothelial cell dysfunction (ECD) is a common feature of chronic renal failure (CRF). Defective nitric oxide (NO) generation due to decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity is a crucial parameter characterizing ECD. Decreased activity of cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT-1), the selective arginine transporter of eNOS, has been shown to inhibit eNOS in uremia. Recently, we failed to demonstrate a decrease in glomerular arginine transport in uremic female rats (Schwartz IF, Grupper A, Soetendorp H, Hillel O, Laron I, Chernichovski T, Ingbir M, Shtabski A, Weinstein T, Chernin G, Shashar M, Hershkoviz R, Schwartz D. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 303: F396-F404, 2012). The current experiments were designed to determine whether sexual dimorphism which characterizes glomerular arginine transport system in uremia involves the systemic vasculature as well and to assess the effect of L-arginine in such conditions. Contractile and vasodilatory responses, ultrastructural changes, and measures of the L-arginine-NO system were performed in thoracic aortas of female rats subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy. The contractile response to KCl was significantly reduced, and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was significantly impaired in aortas from CRF dames compared with healthy rats. Both of these findings were prevented by the administration of arginine in the drinking water. The decrease in both cGMP generation, a measure of eNOS activity, and aortic eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS abundance observed in CRF rats was completely abolished by l-arginine, while arginine transport and CAT-1 protein were unchanged in all experimental groups. Arginine decreased both serum levels of advanced glycation end products and the asymmetrical dimethylarginine/arginine ratio and restored the endothelial ultrastructure in CRF rats. In conclusion. arginine administration has a profound beneficial effect on ECD, independently of cellular arginine uptake, in CRF female rats. PMID:24338824

Nesher, Nachum; Frolkis, Inna; Schwartz, Doron; Chernichovski, Tamara; Levi, Sharon; Pri-Paz, Yael; Chernin, Gil; Shtabsky, Alexander; Ben-Gal, Yanai; Paz, Yossi; Schwartz, Idit F



NG-hydroxy-L-arginine prevents the haemodynamic effects of nitric oxide synthesis inhibition in the anaesthetized rat.  

PubMed Central

1. We have investigated the effects of L-hydroxy-L-arginine (L-HOArg), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine (L-Arg), on the haemodynamic effects (systemic blood pressure and renal blood flow) of the NO synthesis inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in the anaesthetized rat. 2. L-Arg or L-HOArg (3 mg kg-1 min-1), but not D-arginine (D-Arg) or NG-hydroxy-D-arginine (D-HOArg), elicited a slight but significant increase in total renal blood flow (RBF) of 11 +/- 2% and 11 +/- 1%. Since mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) did not change this dose of L-Arg or L-HOArg resulted in a reduced renal vascular resistance (RVR) of the same magnitude. 3. Bolus injections of L-NAME, at 0.3 or 1 mg kg-1 i.v., produced a significant fall in RBF of 11 +/- 2% and 32 +/- 5% and an increase in MAP of 7 +/- 3 mmHg and 22 +/- 5 mmHg, respectively. Consequently, RVR was elevated by 21 +/- 5% and 52 +/- 10%. 4. L-Arg or L-HOArg (3 mg kg-1 min-1) reduced the L-NAME-induced (0.3 or 1 mg kg-1) falls in RBF and increases in RVR by more than 65%. Neither D-Arg nor D-HOArg (3 mg kg-1 min-1) had any significant effect on the changes in RBF or RVR induced by L-NAME.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1422593

Walder, C. E.; Thiemermann, C.; Vane, J. R.



Reducing long-term reservoir performance uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir performance is one of the key issues that have to be addressed before going ahead with the development of a geothermal field. In order to select the type and size of the power plant and design other surface installations, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the production wells and of the produced fluids, and to predict the changes over a 10--30 year period. This is not a straightforward task, as in most cases the calculations have to be made on the basis of data collected before significant fluid volumes have been extracted from the reservoir. The paper describes the methodology used in predicting the long-term performance of hydrothermal systems, as well as DOE/GTD-sponsored research aimed at reducing the uncertainties associated with these predictions. 27 refs., 1 fig.

Lippmann, M.J.



Networking: a long-term management strategy.  


As we face a changing health-care landscape of mergers and acquisitions during these tough economic times, it is more important than ever to cultivate a network of individuals who can assist you in your career development efforts. How do you manage your career in a shrinking economy? What is networking and how can you use it to enhance your career and professional competencies? Many myths surround the networking process; this article clarifies those misperceptions and tells you the truth about networking and the positive results you can achieve. Networking can be used to get a new job, but it has much wider application as a long-term career management strategy. Learn how you can manage your own career while building professional relationships and coaching your employees. PMID:12813955

Gumbus, Andra



Long-term control of root growth  

SciTech Connect

A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin. 7 figs.

Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.



Long-term control of root growth  


A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

Burton, Frederick G. (West Richland, WA); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Richland, WA)



Long-term monitoring for closed sites  

SciTech Connect

A procedure is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The initial task in this procedure is to collect the available information on the legal/regulatory requirements, site and area characteristics, source term, pathway analysis, and prior monitoring results. This information is coupled with parameters such as half-life and retardation factors to develop a monitoring program. As examples, programs are presented for a site that has had little or no waste migration, and for sites where waste has been moved by suface water, by ground water, and by air. Sampling techniques and practices are discussed relative to how a current program would be structured and projections are made on techniques and practices expected to be available in the future. 8 refs., 2 figs.

Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J.; Veluri, V.R.



Gazprom outlines long term Soviet gas plan  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the U.S.S.R.'s Gazprom Konstern has drawn up a comprehensive, long term plan for the Soviet natural gas industry, Eastern Bloc Energy (EBE) reports. EBE is a publication of Eastern Bloc Research Ltd., Newton Kyme, England. Gazprom, responsible for more than 90% of Soviet gas production, predicts Soviet gas production will continue to increase beyond 2030 and expects the resource base ultimately will total more than 330 trillion cu m, EBE the. Soviet Central Asia will begin to decline as a major source of gas during the early years of the next century, but western Siberian production will continue to grow after 2030. The continental shelf, mainly the Barents Sea, will eventually become a very large supplier of gas, EBE reported. Gazprom the development potential of the Soviet gas industry is not constrained by geological factors, only by economic and technical problems.

Not Available



Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1992 by the Kentucky General Assembly, the Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center is dedicated to helping the Bluegrass State "act as a catalyst to change the way decisions are made in government." Their research has proved seminal to the state's advancement, and interested parties can learn about their publications, conferences, and other work on this site. First-time visitors should start by looking over some of their work in the "Publications" area. Here they will find full-length reports, their "Policy Notes" series, and PowerPoint presentations created by staff members. There are several hundred publications here, which can be viewed by topics, which range from "aging population" to "workforce development". The "Videos" section is quite good as well, and it features talks with 43 persons of interest from across the state, including journalist Betty Winston Baye and the mayor of Madisonville, Karen Cunningham.


Long-term outcome after respiratory rehabilitation.  

PubMed Central

To determine the long-term effect of respiratory rehabilitation, we followed up for 6 months after discharge 31 consecutive patients enrolled in a multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation program lasting 4 to 6 weeks. Of the 31, 24 showed improvement in quality of life (as measured with a previously validated questionnaire) and in functional exercise capacity (as measured with the 6-minute walk test) 2 weeks after discharge. The improvement was sustained for 6 months in 11 of the 24. Other investigators have found higher response rates than those that we report. The differences are likely due to our enrolment of consecutive patients, the length and completeness of follow-up, and the objective measurement of quality of life by an interviewer not associated with the rehabilitation program. Controlled trials of respiratory rehabilitation measuring both costs and benefits are warranted. In the meantime, strategies to maintain the initial improvement seen after rehabilitation should be developed and studied. PMID:3676969

Guyatt, G H; Berman, L B; Townsend, M



High fat feeding and dietary l -arginine supplementation differentially regulate gene expression in rat white adipose tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary l-arginine (Arg) supplementation reduces white-fat gain in diet-induced obese rats but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.\\u000a This study tested the hypothesis that Arg treatment affects expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in adipose tissue.\\u000a Four-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 15 weeks. Thereafter, lean or obese\\u000a rats continued to be fed

Wenjuan Jobgen; Wenjiang J. Fu; Haijun Gao; Peng Li; Cynthia J. Meininger; Stephen B. Smith; Thomas E. Spencer; Guoyao Wu



Long-term prognosis of schizophrenia.  


The question of determining prognostically relevant features for schizophrenia was approached with multivariate statistical methods applied to the data from the Bonn longitudinal study of 502 schizophrenic patients. In this study, personal interviews according to a clinical classification scheme allowed every patient to be ranked within each of three different outcome classes: psychopathological remission, occupational remission, and course type. Our multivariate analysis encompassed a total of 50 items pertinent to the time up to and including the first 6 months after the first psychotic manifestation. Despite the introduction of mathematical methods considerably more sophisticated than those employed in earlier studies, no satisfactory solution could be found to the problem of predicting end states of schizophrenia. Reliable predictions could be made only for 'extreme' end states (i.e. full remission versus (1) characteristic residues in the narrower sense; (2) total unemployment, or (3) surging or simple courses to mixed residues or to typical schizophrenic defect psychoses). Accordingly, sufficiently reliable assertions applied only to a minority of about 1/3 of patients, whereas for the majority of 2/3, no generalizable prognostication was possible (67-71% true-positive predictions on 36-63% of total population in extreme states). By contrast, our analyses have clearly uncovered a fundamental problem of investigations into the long-term prognosis of schizophrenia: the extreme dependence of results on the clinical definition of end states. The further the phenomenon 'end state' is qualitatively subdivided, the poorer and less reproducible is the mutual discrimination between intermediate states and the less reliable are allocations of patients to these intermediate states by means of multivariate classifiers. Furthermore, our analyses have also demonstrated the usefulness of multivariate, adaptive procedures for investigations into the structural properties of long-term courses, so that predictions might be considerably improved if more reliable definitions of schizophrenic end states are available. PMID:1754643

Schmid, G B; Stassen, H H; Gross, G; Huber, G; Angst, J



Long term results of pneumatic retinopexy  

PubMed Central

Background Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a commonly encountered retinal problem where rapid treatment can prevent irreversible vision loss. Pneumatic retinopexy (PR) is a simple, minimally invasive procedure for retinal reattachment. Purpose This study aimed to assess the long-term anatomical and functional outcome of pneumatic retinopexy in primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Patients and methods A prospective interventional study was performed. Subjects with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent pneumatic retinopexy from May 2006 to May 2007 at Menoufiya University Hospital were included in this study with at least 3 years follow-up. Results A total of 40 cases were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 44.25 ± 10.85 years. Reattachment of the retina was achieved in 100% of cases. In 75% of cases, the primary intervention was successful. However, the retina redetached in 20% of these during the first 6 months, requiring reinjection or another procedure. Three years after the first intervention, follow-up measurement of the mean visual acuity of the eyes without reoperation was 0.40 ± 0.21 while the mean visual acuity of the eyes which needed additional operations was 0.22 ± 0.13. Conclusion Sixty percent of the cases obtained long-term retinal reattachment with a single operation success (SOS), with good visual recovery and less morbidity than other more invasive procedures like scleral buckling or pars plana vitrectomy, translating to higher productivity for the patient. This procedure, being quicker than the alternatives, also saves the surgeon’s time, making PR a good choice for managing primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in developing countries. PMID:22275808

Ellakwa, Amin F



Effect of Long-Term Castration and Long-Term Androgen Treatment on Sexually Dimorphic  

E-print Network

be modified by steroid hormone manipulation. We castrated male whiptail lizards for 1 week (short term) or 6 weeks (long term). We also gonadectomized female whiptails and implanted them with either a Silastic capsule con- taining testosterone or an empty capsule. At the end of that time all implants were removed

Crews, David


Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective  

PubMed Central

Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke. PMID:21779718

Bliss, Timothy V.P.; Cooke, Sam F



Nitric Oxide Facilitates Long-Term Potentiation, But Not Long-Term Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition prevents the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) have been controver- sial. Recent evidence suggests that NO may help to regulate the threshold for LTP induction. We have tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of stimulus frequency and train dura- tion on synaptic plasticity in the presence of either NO donors or NOS

Peter L. Malen; Paul F. Chapman



Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases  


... Term Control Medications Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases Long-term control medications are taken daily to control and prevent lung disease symptoms. These medicines should be taken every day ...


17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity...UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...



40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29 Section 52.29 Protection... § 52.29 Visibility long-term strategies. (a) Plan disapprovals...and revision of visibility long-term strategies. Specific disapprovals are...



40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...strategy. (1) A long-term strategy is a 10- to 15-year § 51.300(a). This strategy will cover any existing impairment...appropriate, the long-term strategies developed for each visibility...3) During the long-term strategy review process, the...



Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh-environment surveyor (RHES) is a robotic platform with SCADA capabilities equipped with a sonar-imaging scanner, a high-resolution color CCD camera, and various combinations of sensors. The RHES is controlled remotely via a PC. This paper will discuss the development and application of this system. (authors)

Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso [Florida International University, Miami, Florida (United States)



Crystal growth, structural, thermal and mechanical behavior of L-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of L-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) have been grown successfully from the solution of L-arginine and 4-nitrophenol. Slow evaporation of solvent technique was adopted to grow the bulk single crystals. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the grown crystal has monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis shows the good crystalline nature. The crystalline perfection of the grown single crystals was analyzed by HRXRD by employing a multicrystal X-ray diffractometer. The functional groups were identified from proton NMR spectroscopic analysis. Linear and nonlinear optical properties were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Kurtz powder technique respectively. It is found that the grown crystal has no absorption in the green wavelength region and the SHG efficiency was found to be 2.66 times that of the standard KDP. The Thermal stability of the crystal was found by obtaining TG/DTA curve. The mechanical behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by Vicker's microhardness method.

Mahadevan, M.; Ramachandran, K.; Anandan, P.; Arivanandhan, M.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Hayakawa, Y.



Crystal growth, structural, thermal and mechanical behavior of l-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) single crystals.  


Single crystals of l-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) have been grown successfully from the solution of l-arginine and 4-nitrophenol. Slow evaporation of solvent technique was adopted to grow the bulk single crystals. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the grown crystal has monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis shows the good crystalline nature. The crystalline perfection of the grown single crystals was analyzed by HRXRD by employing a multicrystal X-ray diffractometer. The functional groups were identified from proton NMR spectroscopic analysis. Linear and nonlinear optical properties were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Kurtz powder technique respectively. It is found that the grown crystal has no absorption in the green wavelength region and the SHG efficiency was found to be 2.66 times that of the standard KDP. The Thermal stability of the crystal was found by obtaining TG/DTA curve. The mechanical behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by Vicker's microhardness method. PMID:24967545

Mahadevan, M; Ramachandran, K; Anandan, P; Arivanandhan, M; Bhagavannarayana, G; Hayakawa, Y



Long-term safety and efficacy of continuous intrathecal baclofen.  


Long-term continuous intrathecal baclofen (CITB) infusion is a treatment option used to manage otherwise intractable spasticity and is delivered via an implantable pump. The purpose of this single-center multidisciplinary review was to report on the long-term safety and efficacy of CITB in the treatment of 21 children with intractable severe spasticity of cerebral origin. Nineteen recipients had spastic quadriplegia and two had spastic diplegia. Seven recipients had level IV severity on the Gross Motor Functional Classification System and 14 had level V. Median age at implantation was 12 years (range 4 to 20). Fifteen recipients were male, 6 were female. Seventeen recipients were alive at the end of the follow-up period (31 to 78 months; mean 53, SD 4). The Ashworth scale showed a substantial decrease in spasticity in the upper and lower extremities at 6 months and at the most recent follow-up. The Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory showed no functional change. Most treatment goals were at least partly achieved. Caregivers reported a reduction in use of oral medication for spasticity, and improvements in comfort, function, and ease of care. Caregiver satisfaction was high. During 80 recipient-years of pump operation, 153 treatment-associated adverse events occurred: 27 of these were device-related. There were four deaths unrelated to CITE, including one from acute pancreatitis. Our findings might assist in establishing patient selection criteria and treatment goals, improving patient follow-up, and monitoring adverse events. PMID:12418790

Campbell, William M; Ferrel, Anne; McLaughlin, John F; Grant, Gerald A; Loeser, John D; Graubert, Catherine; Bjornson, Kristie



Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.  

PubMed Central

Forty commercial saturation divers, mean age 34.9 (range 24-49) years, were examined one to seven years after their last deep dive (190-500 metres of seawater). Four had by then lost their divers' licence because of neurological problems. Twenty seven (68%) had been selected by neurological examination and electroencephalography before the deep dives. The control group consisted of 100 men, mean age 34.0 (range 22-48) years. The divers reported significantly more symptoms from the nervous system. Concentration difficulties and paraesthesia in feet and hands were common. They had more abnormal neurological findings by neurological examination compatible with dysfunction in the lumbar spinal cord or roots. They also had a larger proportion of abnormal electroencephalograms than the controls. The neurological symptoms and findings were highly significantly correlated with exposure to deep diving (depth included), but even more significantly correlated to air and saturation diving and prevalence of decompression sickness. Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show more abnormal findings in the divers. Four (10%) divers had had episodes of cerebral dysfunction during or after the dives; two had had seizures, one had had transitory cerebral ischaemia and one had had transitory global amnesia. It is concluded that deep diving may have a long term effect on the nervous system of the divers. PMID:2025592

Todnem, K; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Svihus, R; Rinck, P; Kambestad, B K; Riise, T; Aarli, J A



Long-term adequacy of metal resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although the earth's crust contains vast quantities of metals, extraction technologies and associated costs are inextricably bound to three fundamental geological factors - the amount of metal available in the earth's crust in each range of grades, the mineralogical form and chemical state of the metal, and the spatial distribution of the metal. The energy required to recover a given amount of metal increases substantially as grade declines. Most metal is produced from sulphide or oxide minerals, whereas most metal in the crust may be locked in the structures of the more refractory silicates. Recovery from silicate minerals could require orders of magnitude more energy than that used at present as also could exploitation of small, widely scattered or thin, deeply buried deposits. Although specific information on the fundamental factors is not available, each factor must in turn tend to further restrict exploitation. Independence of average grade and tonnage for many deposit types further reduces the availability of rock as a source of metal. In the long term, effects of these factors will be large increases in price for many metals. ?? 1977.

Singer, D.A.



Economic efficiency, IRPs and long term contracts  

SciTech Connect

There is no market failure that warrants utility regulation of the construction of new generating plants, the supply of energy efficiency or the purchase of fuel under contract. The natural monopoly problem applies to the distribution of electricity and gas, not to generation, energy conservation, or gas purchases. Utility regulation magnifies a market failure, which is the principal agent problem. Regulatory allowance of utilities signing long term fixed price contracts and undertaking conservation measures result in costs and risks being shifted to ratepayers that would not occur under competitive market conditions. Economic efficiency would be enhanced if cost of service regulation of electric and gas utilities were replaced by a competitive market process for the construction of new power plants, utility conservation programs and contracts to purchase fuel. Conservation measures could be supplied by energy service companies. Gas merchants could provide gas and energy conservation directly to ultimate customers, if they had access to LDC pipelines. With a competitive market established to sell gas and energy services, contracts and conservation measures would not require cost-of- service regulation.

Sutherland, R.J.



Long-term acoustic surveying of bats.  


Increasing concern about decline in biodiversity has created a demand for population surveys. Long-term unmanned automatic monitoring may provide unique unbiased data from a whole season, but the large amount of data presents serious challenges for automatic processing. A two-month study of echolocating bats at 500 kHz sampling rate provided 236 GiB of data at full bandwidth. We used a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classier based on a combination of temporal and spectral analyses to classify events into bat calls and non-bat events. Duration, energy, bandwidth, and entropy were used to identify bat calls and reject short noise pulses, e.g., from rain. The SVM classifier reduced our dataset to 162 MiB of candidate bat calls with an estimated accuracy of 96% for dry nights and 70% when it was raining. The automatic survey revealed correlation between bat activity and rain, temperature, and sunset/sunrise. There were calls from two species new to the area, as well as an unexpected abundance of social calls. Future applications aim at higher accuracy in classifying bat calls and using trajectory-tracking to determine flight paths to correct for the bias toward loud bats inherent in acoustic surveying. PMID:25235391

Surlykke, Annemarie; Andreassen, Tórur; Hallam, John



Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.  


Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. PMID:11607658

Sykes, L R



Long-term cerebral consequences of sepsis.  


Sepsis is a potentially fatal whole-body inflammatory state caused by severe infection, in which a maladaptive, system-wide inflammatory response follows initial attempts to eliminate pathogens, leading to a dangerous and often fatal increase in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. These changes in the blood-brain barrier might lead to a major symptom of sepsis, sepsis-associated encephalopathy, which manifests as confusion with a rapid decline in cognitive functions, especially memory, or coma. Once presumed to be entirely reversible, research suggests that sepsis-associated encephalopathy could lead to permanent neurocognitive dysfunction and functional impairments, even after the patient has recovered. Sepsis might act as a major inflammatory hit and potentially increase the brain's susceptibility to neurodegenerative disease, further deterioration of cognitive ability, and risk of developing dementia in later life. Key opportunities for neuroprotective interventions and after-care for people who have survived sepsis might be lost because the long-term neurocognitive and functional consequences of sepsis are not fully characterised. PMID:24849863

Widmann, Catherine N; Heneka, Michael T



[Long term adherence to HAART in Senegal].  


Adherence is one of the main predictors of antiretroviral treatment success. A governmental initiative was launched in 1998 for HIV-infected patients in Senegal to provide access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Adherence measurements, defined as pills taken/pills prescribed, were assessed between November 1999 and June 2010 using a pill count along with a questionnaire for 330 patients. Predictors of adherence and identification of adherence trajectories were explored through latent class mixed model. We also performed a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard model. Three adherence behaviours were revealed as well as a better adherence for women. A third of patients had a high adherence trajectory over time and a third had an intermediate one. Male gender and low adherence behaviour over time were independently associated with a higher mortality rate. This study shows that an overall good adherence can be obtained in the long term in Senegal, suggests a better adherence for women and points out a large subsample of patients with intermediate level of adherence behaviour who are at risk for developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:24615434

Bastard, M; Fall, M Basty Koita



Long-term sequelae of fasciotomy wounds.  


A retrospective study of patients admitted to an Orthopaedic Trauma Unit over an 8-year period requiring fasciotomies, of either upper or lower limb, to reduce the risk of compartment syndrome was performed. Sixty patients were studied, of which 49 had an underlying fracture. The long-term morbidity of the wounds was studied. Ongoing symptoms such as pain related to the wound occurred in six patients (10%) and altered sensation within the margins of the wound occurred in 46 patients (77%). Examination revealed 24 patients (40%) with dry scaly skin, 20 patients (33%) with pruritus, 18 patients (30%) with discoloured wounds, 15 patients (25%) with swollen limbs, 16 patients (26%) with tethered scars, eight patients (13%) with recurrent ulceration, eight patients (13%) with muscle herniation and four patients (7%) with tethered tendons. The appearance of the scars affected patients such that 14 (23%) kept the wound covered, 17 (28%) changed hobbies and seven (12%) changed occupation. This study reveals a significant morbidity associated with fasciotomy wounds. In light of these findings, further consideration should be given to techniques that reduce both the symptoms and examination findings mentioned above and the aesthetic insult to the affected limb. PMID:11090326

Fitzgerald, A M; Gaston, P; Wilson, Y; Quaba, A; McQueen, M M



Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.  

PubMed Central

Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

Sykes, L R



Long term outcome of neonatal meningitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To quantify long term impairment after neonatal meningitis. Design: Longitudinal case-control study over 9–10 years. Subjects and methods: A total of 111 children who had suffered neonatal meningitis were seen and compared with 113 matched controls from their birth hospital and 49 controls from general practices. Assessments included the WISC IIIUK , movement assessment battery for children (mABC), audiometry, vision testing, and social and medical data. Statistical analysis was by multiple regression, analysis of variance, and ?2 tests. Results: Some 10.8% of cases had a severe and 9% a moderate overall outcome compared with 0% and 1.8% for the hospital controls. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of the cases (88.8) was significantly less than that of the hospital controls (99.4) or the GP controls (99.6) . The mABC score was significantly worse for the cases (7.08) than the hospital (5) or GP (4) controls. Some 3.6% of cases had sensorineural hearing loss, 2.7% had persisting hydrocephalus; no controls did. Some 5.4% of cases and 1.7% of hospital controls had treatment for seizures. Conclusions: Severe neurodisability and milder motor and psychometric impairment result from neonatal meningitis. Both clinical follow up and comprehensive developmental assessment are needed after this disease. PMID:12719389

Stevens, J; Eames, M; Kent, A; Halket, S; Holt, D; Harvey, D



Alterations in the liver histology and markers of metabolic syndrome associated with inflammation and liver damage in L-arginine exposed female Wistar albino rats.  


Metabolic Syndrome (MES), a cluster of metabolic disorders, is pandemic and more prevalent in females. It was associated with inflammation, liver damage and reduced nitric oxide concentration. Since L-arginine (ARG) may enhance nitric oxide synthesis, this study investigated the effect of ARG on the liver histology and selected serum markers of MES related to inflammation and liver damage. Two groups (n = 8) of female Wistar albino rats were exposed to 60 mg kg(-1) b. wt. of ARG and 3 mL kg(-1) b.wt. of distilled water, respectively as treated and control groups. Per oral exposure to ARG for twenty eight days caused a non-significant increase (p > 0.05) in the neutrophils count (22.50 +/- 10.35%, representing 38.46%) but a decrease (p > 0.05) in the lymphocytes count (77.50 +/- 10.35%, representing 8.82%) and in the total bilirubin concentration (0.40 +/- 0.19 mg/100 mL, representing 52.38%) of the rats, suggesting non-treatment related influence on these parameters. However, the exposure elicited a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity (66.47 +/- 0.37 IU L(-1), representing 18.55%) and in the total White Blood Cell (WBC) count (2.73 +/- 0.75 x 10(9) L(-1), representing 43.24%), suggesting absence of inflammation and liver damage. ALT had a significant positive correlation with WBC (r = 0.01), while the liver histology revealed possible benefit in the ARG-fed rats, seeminlgly confirming benefit on these markers of inflammation and liver damage that could improve related MES features in the rats. Further studies using ARG rich nuts are required to harness insight gained from this study. PMID:24498813

Egbuonu, A C C; Ezeanyika, L U S; Ijeh, I I



The neuronal response at extended timescales: long-term correlations without long-term memory  

PubMed Central

Long term temporal correlations frequently appear at many levels of neural activity. We show that when such correlations appear in isolated neurons, they indicate the existence of slow underlying processes and lead to explicit conditions on the dynamics of these processes. Moreover, although these slow processes can potentially store information for long times, we demonstrate that this does not imply that the neuron possesses a long memory of its input, even if these processes are bidirectionally coupled with neuronal response. We derive these results for a broad class of biophysical neuron models, and then fit a specific model to recent experiments. The model reproduces the experimental results, exhibiting long term (days-long) correlations due to the interaction between slow variables and internal fluctuations. However, its memory of the input decays on a timescale of minutes. We suggest experiments to test these predictions directly. PMID:24744724

Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron



Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage estuaries below by removing all incoming freshwater. At Toolik Lake, long-term experiments of removing top predators from the good web of lakes showed dramatic alterations of lake populations of small fish and zooplankton. In New Mexico, LTER research on small mammal populations is successfully predicting rodent increases and the potential for increased zoonotic diseases such as Hantavirus and bubonic plague. This ability to forecast based on El Nino prediction is being used to increase scientific awareness and public health awareness through media based communication with the public. In Oregon, the Andrews Forest LTER program has had long, strong links with natural resource policy and management. Basic understanding of forest-stream interactions, characteristics of old-growth forests, roles of woody debris in temperate forest ecosystems, invertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function have been incorporated in management guidelines, plans and regulations for public and private lands throughout the Pacific Northwest. Other examples of the values of long-term research and monitoring will be presented.

Gosz, J.



NMDA Receptor-Dependent Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression (LTP/LTD)  

PubMed Central

Long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTP/LTD) can be elicited by activating N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, typically by the coincident activity of pre- and postsynaptic neurons. The early phases of expression are mediated by a redistribution of AMPA-type glutamate receptors: More receptors are added to potentiate the synapse or receptors are removed to weaken synapses. With time, structural changes become apparent, which in general require the synthesis of new proteins. The investigation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these forms of synaptic plasticity has received much attention, because NMDA receptor–dependent LTP and LTD may constitute cellular substrates of learning and memory. PMID:22510460

Luscher, Christian; Malenka, Robert C.



Asymmetric relationships between homosynaptic long-term potentiation and heterosynaptic long-term depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

All synaptically-based neuropsychological theories of learning postulate that there are changes resulting from neural activity which are long-lasting and confined to specific sets of synapses1-3. In the past decade a form of synaptic strengthening known as long-term potentiation (LTP) has been found which results from high-frequency neural activity and is of sufficient duration to model as a learning mechanism4,5. Some

W. C. Abraham; G. V. Goddard



Nitric oxide is associated with long-term zinc tolerance in Solanum nigrum.  


Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as a signal molecule that interplays with reactive oxygen species in response to heavy metal stresses. Roles of NO in regulating cadmium toxicity and iron deficiency have been proposed; however, the function of NO in zinc (Zn) tolerance in plants remains unclear. Here, we investigated NO accumulation and its role in plant Zn tolerance. Zn-induced NO production promoted an increase in reactive oxygen species accumulation in Solanum nigrum roots by modulating the expression and activity of antioxidative enzymes. Subsequently, programmed cell death (PCD) was observed in primary root tips. Inhibiting NO accumulation by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (a specific NO scavenger) or N(G)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (a NO synthase inhibitor) prevented the increase of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide as well as the subsequent cell death in the root tips, supporting the role of NO in Zn-induced PCD in the root tips. Zn-induced NO production affected the length of primary roots, the number of lateral roots, and root hair growth and thereby modulated root system architecture and activity. Investigation of metal contents in Zn-treated roots suggests that NO is required for metal (especially iron) uptake and homeostasis in plants exposed to excess Zn. Taken together, our results indicate that NO production and the subsequent PCD in root tips exposed to excess Zn are favorable for the S. nigrum seedling response to long-term Zn toxicity by modulating root system architecture and subsequent adaptation to Zn stress. PMID:20855519

Xu, Jin; Yin, Hengxia; Li, Yulong; Liu, Xiaojing



Nitric Oxide Is Associated with Long-Term Zinc Tolerance in Solanum nigrum1[W  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as a signal molecule that interplays with reactive oxygen species in response to heavy metal stresses. Roles of NO in regulating cadmium toxicity and iron deficiency have been proposed; however, the function of NO in zinc (Zn) tolerance in plants remains unclear. Here, we investigated NO accumulation and its role in plant Zn tolerance. Zn-induced NO production promoted an increase in reactive oxygen species accumulation in Solanum nigrum roots by modulating the expression and activity of antioxidative enzymes. Subsequently, programmed cell death (PCD) was observed in primary root tips. Inhibiting NO accumulation by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (a specific NO scavenger) or NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (a NO synthase inhibitor) prevented the increase of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide as well as the subsequent cell death in the root tips, supporting the role of NO in Zn-induced PCD in the root tips. Zn-induced NO production affected the length of primary roots, the number of lateral roots, and root hair growth and thereby modulated root system architecture and activity. Investigation of metal contents in Zn-treated roots suggests that NO is required for metal (especially iron) uptake and homeostasis in plants exposed to excess Zn. Taken together, our results indicate that NO production and the subsequent PCD in root tips exposed to excess Zn are favorable for the S. nigrum seedling response to long-term Zn toxicity by modulating root system architecture and subsequent adaptation to Zn stress. PMID:20855519

Xu, Jin; Yin, Hengxia; Li, Yulong; Liu, Xiaojing



Long-Term Outcomes of Retractile Testis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Retractile testis is considered to be a variant of normal testis in prepubertal boys. There is no agreed-upon management of retractile testis. The aim of this study was to provide data on the long-term outcomes of patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods This study retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 43 boys who were referred for suspected undescended or retractile testis and were finally diagnosed with retractile testis between January 2001 and December 2008. All boys were biannually examined by a pediatric urologist to evaluate the presence of retractile, descended, or undescended testis and testicular volume. Results Of 43 boys, there were 22 boys with unilateral retractile testis (51.1%) and 21 boys with bilateral retractile testis (48.9%). Their mean age was 3.0±2.7 years and the follow-up duration was 4.4±1.7 years. Of 64 retractile testes, 29 (45.3%) succeeded in descending, 26 (40.6%) remained retractile, and 9 (14.1%) became undescended testis or of a decreased size requiring orchiopexy. The mean initial diagnostic age of the patients who underwent orchiopexy was 1.3±0.9 years; meanwhile, the mean initial diagnostic age of those who went on to have normal testis was 4.3±3.3 years (p=0.009). The mean follow-up duration was 3.6±1.5 years in the orchiopexy group, 4.0±1.4 years in the descended testis group, and 5.1±1.8 years in group with remaining retractile testis. Conclusions Retractile testis has a risk of requiring orchiopexy. The risk is higher in the population diagnosed at a younger age. Boys with retractile testis should be observed periodically until the testis is descended in the normal position. PMID:23061004

Bae, Jae Jun; Kim, Bum Soo



Long-term evolution is surprisingly predictable in lattice proteins  

PubMed Central

It has long been debated whether natural selection acts primarily upon individual organisms, or whether it also commonly acts upon higher-level entities such as lineages. Two arguments against the effectiveness of long-term selection on lineages have been (i) that long-term evolutionary outcomes will not be sufficiently predictable to support a meaningful long-term fitness and (ii) that short-term selection on organisms will almost always overpower long-term selection. Here, we use a computational model of protein folding and binding called ‘lattice proteins’. We quantify the long-term evolutionary success of lineages with two metrics called the k-fitness and k-survivability. We show that long-term outcomes are surprisingly predictable in this model: only a small fraction of the possible outcomes are ever realized in multiple replicates. Furthermore, the long-term fitness of a lineage depends only partly on its short-term fitness; other factors are also important, including the ‘evolvability’ of a lineage—its capacity to produce adaptive variation. In a system with a distinct short-term and long-term fitness, evolution need not be ‘short-sighted’: lineages may be selected for their long-term properties, sometimes in opposition to short-term selection. Similar evolutionary basins of attraction have been observed in vivo, suggesting that natural biological lineages will also have a predictive long-term fitness. PMID:23466559

Palmer, Michael E.; Moudgil, Arnav; Feldman, Marcus W.




NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. Lotus 1-2-3 is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corporation. MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

Kwok, J. H.




Microsoft Academic Search

L-arginine is a substrate of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase for production of nitric oxide (NO), which has an influence in reproductive physiology, while fish oil inhibits the production of NO. Therefore, an study was performed about the effects of a supplement (for 3 d) of L-arginine (A) (for 3 d) and fish oil (AC) on the onset of estrus

Gerónimo Bulbarela-García; Arturo Pro-Martínez; C. Miguel Becerril-Pérez; Pablo Díaz-Rivera; Adalberto Rosendo-Ponce; Jaime Gallegos-Sánchez



Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces Methotrexate-induced intestinal mucosal injury in rat  

PubMed Central

Background Arginine (ARG) and nitric oxide maintain the mucosal integrity of the intestine in various intestinal disorders. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of oral ARG supplementation on intestinal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis following methotrexate (MTX)-induced intestinal damage in a rat. Methods Male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Control rats, CONTR-ARG rats, were treated with oral ARG given in drinking water 72 hours before and 72 hours following vehicle injection, MTX rats were treated with a single dose of methotrexate, and MTX-ARG rats were treated with oral ARG following injection of MTX. Intestinal mucosal damage, mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 72 hours following MTX injection. RT-PCR was used to determine bax and bcl-2 mRNA expression. Results MTX-ARG rats demonstrated greater jejunal and ileal bowel weight, greater ileal mucosal weight, greater ileal mucosal DNA and protein levels, greater villus height in jejunum and ileum and crypt depth in ileum, compared to MTX animals. A significant decrease in enterocyte apoptosis in the ileum of MTX-ARG rats (vs MTX) was accompanied by decreased bax mRNA and protein expression and increased bcl-2 protein levels. Conclusions Treatment with oral ARG prevents mucosal injury and improves intestinal recovery following MTX- injury in the rat. PMID:22545735



Agmatine, a metabolite of L-arginine, reverses scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment in rats.  


Agmatine (l-amino-4-guanidino-butane), a metabolite of L-arginine through the action of arginine decarboxylase, is a novel neurotransmitter. In the present study, effects of agmatine on cognitive functions have been evaluated by using one trial step-down passive avoidance and three panel runway task. Agmatine (20, 40, 80 mg/kg i.p.) was administered either in the presence or absence of a cholinergic antagonist, scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.). Scopolamine significantly impaired learning and memory in both passive avoidance and three panel runway test. Agmatine did not affect emotional learning, working and reference memory but significantly improved scopolamine-induced impairment of learning and memory in a dose dependent manner. Our results indicate that agmatine, as an endogenous substance, may have an important role in modulation of learning and memory functions. PMID:22796489

Utkan, Tijen; Gocmez, Semil S; Regunathan, Soundararajan; Aricioglu, Feyza



Diagnosis, management, and long-term outcomes of rectovaginal endometriosis  

PubMed Central

Rectovaginal endometriosis is the most severe form of endometriosis. Clinically, it presents with a number of symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, dyschezia, and rectal bleeding. The gold standard for diagnosis is laparoscopy with histological confirmation; however, there are a number of options for presurgical diagnosis, including clinical examination, transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imagining, colonoscopy, and computed tomography colonography. Treatment can be medical or surgical. Medical therapies include birth control pills, oral progestins, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, danazol, and injectable progestins. Analgesics are often used as well. Surgery improves up to 70% of symptoms. Surgery is either ablative or excisional, and is conducted via transvaginal, laparoscopic, laparotomy, or combined approaches. Common surgical techniques involve shaving of the superficial rectal lesion, laparoscopic anterior discoid resection, and low anterior bowel resection and reanastomosis. Outcomes are generally favorable, but postoperative complications may include intra-abdominal bleeding, anastomotic leaks, rectovaginal fistulas, strictures, chronic constipation, and the need for reoperation. Recurrence of rectal endometriosis is a possibility as well. Other outcomes are improved pain-related symptoms and fertility. Long-term outcomes vary according to the management strategy used. This review will provide the most recent approaches and techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis. PMID:24232977

Moawad, Nash S; Caplin, Andrea



Diagnosis, management, and long-term outcomes of rectovaginal endometriosis.  


Rectovaginal endometriosis is the most severe form of endometriosis. Clinically, it presents with a number of symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, dyschezia, and rectal bleeding. The gold standard for diagnosis is laparoscopy with histological confirmation; however, there are a number of options for presurgical diagnosis, including clinical examination, transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imagining, colonoscopy, and computed tomography colonography. Treatment can be medical or surgical. Medical therapies include birth control pills, oral progestins, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, danazol, and injectable progestins. Analgesics are often used as well. Surgery improves up to 70% of symptoms. Surgery is either ablative or excisional, and is conducted via transvaginal, laparoscopic, laparotomy, or combined approaches. Common surgical techniques involve shaving of the superficial rectal lesion, laparoscopic anterior discoid resection, and low anterior bowel resection and reanastomosis. Outcomes are generally favorable, but postoperative complications may include intra-abdominal bleeding, anastomotic leaks, rectovaginal fistulas, strictures, chronic constipation, and the need for reoperation. Recurrence of rectal endometriosis is a possibility as well. Other outcomes are improved pain-related symptoms and fertility. Long-term outcomes vary according to the management strategy used. This review will provide the most recent approaches and techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis. PMID:24232977

Moawad, Nash S; Caplin, Andrea



Nitric oxide can acutely modulate its biosynthesis through a negative feedback mechanism on l-arginine transport in cardiac myocytes  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) plays a central role as a cellular signaling molecule in health and disease. In the heart, NO decreases the rate of spontaneous beating and the velocity and extent of shortening and accelerates the velocity of relengthening. Since the cationic amino acid l-arginine (l-Arg) is the substrate for NO production by NO synthases (NOS), we tested whether the transporters that mediate l-Arg import in cardiac muscle cells represent an intervention point in the regulation of NO synthesis. Electrical currents activated by l-Arg with low apparent affinity in whole cell voltage-clamped rat cardiomyocytes were found to be rapidly and reversibly inhibited by NO donors. Radiotracer uptake studies performed on cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles revealed the presence of high-affinity/low-capacity and low-affinity/high-capacity components of cationic amino acid transport that were inhibited by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-dl-penicillamine. NO inhibited uptake in a noncompetitive manner with Ki values of 275 and 827 nM for the high- and low-affinity component, respectively. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that millimolar concentrations of l-Arg initially promoted and then inhibited the release of endogenous NO in cardiomyocytes. Likewise, l-Arg currents measured in cardiac myocytes voltage clamped in the presence of 460 nM free intracellular Ca2+, a condition in which a Ca-CaM complex should activate endogenous NO production, showed fast activation followed by inhibition of l-Arg transport. The NOS inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, but not blockers of downstream reactions, specifically removed this inhibitory component. These results demonstrate that NO acutely regulates its own biosynthesis by modulating the availability of l-Arg via cationic amino acid transporters. PMID:20505044

Zhou, Jiaguo; Kim, David D.



PKMf Maintains Spatial, Instrumental, and Classically Conditioned Long-Term  

Microsoft Academic Search

How long-term memories are stored is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The first molecular mechanism for long-term memory storage in the brain was recently identified as the persistent action of protein kinase Mzeta (PKMf), an autonomously active atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform critical for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP). PKMf maintains aversively conditioned associations, but what general form

Eugenia L. Friedman; Jana Kenney; Stephen M. Taubenfeld; Joshua M. Zimmerman; John Hanna; Cristina Alberini; Ann E. Kelley; Stephen Maren; Jerry W. Rudy; Jerry C. P. Yin; Todd C. Sacktor; Andre A. Fenton


Long term physical sequelae after adult-onset cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  With two thirds of cancer patients living for at least 5 years, clinical research has increasingly focused on the long-term\\u000a health of cancer survivors. Contrary to the amount of knowledge on long-term consequences observations on late effects after\\u000a childhood cancer in adult-onset cancer are sparse. Only limited literature is available recommending guidelines for long-term\\u000a follow-up of cancer patients and their implementation

Sophie D. Fosså; Rena Vassilopoulou-Sellin; Alv A. Dahl



Long-term Durability of Dentin Bonds Made with a Self-etching Primer, in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term durability of bonds between adhesive resins and dentin is of significant importance for the longevity of bonded restorations. We carried out an in vivo one-year study to evaluate the durability of resin-dentin bonds in the oral cavity, as well as to test the hypothesis that the adhesive interface would show morphological changes in vivo over time. Very shallow

H. Sano; T. Yoshikawa; P. N. R. Pereira; N. Kanemura; M. Morigamui; J. Tagami; D. H. Pashley



Root Surface Caries and Periodontal Disease in Long-term Alloxan Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caries, periodontal disease, and occlusal wear were studied in rats with short-term (one month) and long-term (12 months) untreated alloxan diabetes and in age-matched control rats. Standard laboratory diet and water were given ad libitum. Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli were naturally occurring inhabitants of the oral bacterial flora. In short-term diabetic rats, there was less dental plaque in the gingival

C.-O. Reuterving; E. Haggz; G. T. Gustafson



Influence of L-arginine on expression of HSP70 and p-53 proteins - early biomarkers of cellular danger in renal tubular cells. Immunohistochemical assessment  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the present study was to investigate expression of HSP70 and p-53 proteins as mechanisms of protection of the renal tubular epithelial cells from l-arginine that induces cellular stress. Material and methods The study material consisted of 16 white Wistar female rats. The rats were divided into 2 equal groups. The rats in the experimental group received L-arginine 40 mg/kg body weight per capita every other day for 2 weeks and were decapitated after 3 weeks of the experiment. After decapitation, specimens from the kidney were collected, fixed in 10% formalin, and then embedded in paraffin blocks. Proteins HSP70 and p-53 on slides were detected using the standard three-step immunohistochemical method. Results The quantitative evaluation of HSP70 and p-53 expression showed that the area occupied with positive HSP70 and p-53 reaction in the rat renal tubular cells of the experimental group (p-53: 2835.44 ±254.72 µm2; HSP70: 24111.42 ±4290.88 µm2) was more statistically significant than the control group (p-53: 1882.05 ±466.43 µm2; HSP70: 11388.63 ±1455.24 µm2). In the present study, the dose of L-arginine was similar to the one that was used in the gestosis treatment of pregnant women. Conclusions The renal epithelial cells responded to L-arginine therapy, increasing expression of HSP70 and p-53 proteins. The study showed that L-arginine as a donor of exogenous nitric oxide has a disruptive effect on the renal tubular cells of rat kidneys. Thus it is going to be a subject of the author's future investigations. PMID:24049535

Siermontowski, Piotr



Assessment of long-term quality of life after cavotricuspid isthmus ablation for typical atrial flutter  

PubMed Central

Background Cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) ablation is the treatment of choice in preventing recurrences of typical atrial flutter (AFl). However, little is known about long-term quality of life (QoL) after CTI ablation. Methods and results From 01/2003 to 05/2005, 94 patients who consecutively underwent typical AFl ablation were included in the study. An SF-36 health questionnaire was self-administered before ablation and at follow-up. Transformed scores were calculated, adjusted for age and sex and then normalized and standardized for the Spanish population. Additionally, the minimal important differences (MID) were calculated to assess the smallest change in QoL that patients perceived as positive. A linear regression model was constructed to assess long-term QoL predictors. All SF-36 scales were lower than Spanish population scores. After a mean (SD) follow-up of 6.25 (0.5) years, all scales, except Bodily Pain, were higher than baseline. There was a significant difference for Physical Role (46.4 vs. 38.6, p?oral anticoagulation were predictors of long-term QoL. Conclusion CTI ablation provides a significant improvement in long-term QoL for the dimensions of Physical Role, Vitality and Mental Health, although the smallest positive change that patients perceive as positive was only observed for Physical Role. Previous diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, oral anticoagulation, basal QoL and AFl recurrence were determinants of a worse long-term QoL. PMID:24708680



Long-term complications related to the modified Indiana pouch  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo describe a single-institution, single-surgeon experience with 125 modified Indiana pouches performed during a period of 14 years and their long-term complications. The modified Indiana pouch is a widely accepted and often used form of continent urinary diversion. Few studies have established the long-term complication rates associated with the procedure.

Daniel G Holmes; J. Brantley Thrasher; Gerald Y Park; Deborah C Kueker; John W Weigel



Improving students' long-term knowledge retention through personalized review  

E-print Network

Improving students' long-term knowledge retention through personalized review Robert V. Lindsey Je., Shroyer, J. D., Pashler, H., & Mozer, M. C. (2014). Improving students' long-term knowledge retention of knowledge and skills. However, students at every educational level are challenged by an evergrowing amount


Long-term outcome after resection for bronchial carcinoid tumorsq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We sought to determine the long-term survival of patients treated for bronchial carcinoid tumors and whether lesser resections have had an effect on outcomes. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, multi-institutional review of patients treated surgically for primary bronchial carcinoid tumors since 1980. Operative approach, pathologic stage, histology, surgical complications, tumor recurrence, and long- term survival were assessed. Results: There

Mark K. Fergusona; Rodney J. Landreneaub; Stephen R. Hazelriggc; Nasser K. Altorkid; Keith S. Naunheime; Joseph B. Zwischenbergerf; Michael Kentd; Anthony P. C. Yimg


Long-term outcomes five years after selective dorsal rhizotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a well accepted neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity interfering with motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The goal is to improve function, but long-term outcome studies are rare. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term functional outcomes, safety and side effects during five postoperative years in

Eva Nordmark; Annika Lundkvist Josenby; Jan Lagergren; Gert Andersson; Lars-Göran Strömblad; Lena Westbom



Long term gate dielectric stress -- a timely method?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long term stresses and their benefits in assessing gate dielectric reliability are reviewed. Stress times up to three years have been reached and surprising results besides model verification are presented. Reported time saving workarounds and their limitations are considered. Finally future application and challenges of long term stress are discussed. The post-first-breakdown behavior is given as an application example

R.-P. Vollertsen; T. Pompl; R. Duschl; A. Kerber; M. Kerber; M. Rohner; R. Schwab



Long-term effectiveness and side effects of laser resurfacing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser resurfacing have been used for treatment of photoaged facial skin since 1994. Very few long-term follow-up studies regarding the effectiveness and side effects of the laser resurfacing exist. We investigated the long-term effectiveness and side effects of laser resurfacing in our patients who underwent this procedure since our pioneering invention.

Manuskiatti, Woraphong; Fitzpatrick, Richard E.; Goldman, Mitchel P.; Krejci-Papa, Niels



Long-term Ecological Monitoring in Schools and Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value and difficulties of long-term ecological monitoring studies undertaken in schools and colleges are reviewed. Rookeries, stream ecology, sand dune succession, fish population, and seed production and survival are presented as examples of successful studies. This is followed by a discussion of points to consider when setting up a long-term…

Doberski, Julian; Brodie, Iain D. S.



Page 1 of 5 Long-term Student Loan application  

E-print Network

charges (international students only) · holiday expenses · any debt incurred before enrollingPage 1 of 5 Long-term Student Loan application General information If you are enrolled as a Monash University student at an Australian campus, you may be eligible to receive a long- term interest-free student

Albrecht, David


Helping People Make Better Long-Term-Care Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative online system to support long-term-care decision making. Design and Methods: The Long-Term Care Choices tool is a web-based system that uses expert opinion and structures decision making. Results: The system has been well accepted, and most users find it easy to use. Implications:…

Kane, Robert L.; Boston, Krista; Chilvers, Mary



A New Functional Role for Cerebellar Long Term Depression  

E-print Network

A New Functional Role for Cerebellar Long Term Depression PROGRESS IN BRAIN RESEARCH 114: 529 of Antwerp - UIA, B2610 Antwerp, Belgium Abstract Long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory synaptic-Albus-Ito theories (Schreurs and Alkon, 1993). I will first review and criticize the Marr-Albus-Ito theories

De Schutter, Erik


SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE MR observations of long-term musculotendon remodeling  

E-print Network

to investigate long-term changes in muscle and tendon morphology following a hamstring strain injury. Materials have arisen as a result of the previous injury. Hamstring muscle and tendon­scar volumes were evidence of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury. Additionally, many

Wisconsin at Madison, University of


Management and long-term prognosis of Dieulafoy lesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Dieulafoy lesion is an important cause of gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage. Optimal treatment and long-term outcome are unknown. This study aimed to characterize the presentation of the Dieulafoy lesion and to summarize the results and report the long-term outcome of endoscopic therapy. Methods: Data regarding diagnosis, treatment and outcomes were derived from our GI Bleed Team database, patient records

Ian D. Norton; Bret T. Petersen; Darius Sorbi; Rita K. Balm; Glenn L. Alexander; Christopher J. Gostout



Long-term oscillations in grassland productivity induced by drought  

E-print Network

REPORT Long-term oscillations in grassland productivity induced by drought Nick M. Haddad,1,2 David, USA Abstract Disturbances such as drought have immediate impacts on ecosystem functioning, but little is known about long-term dynamic consequences of disturbance. Here, we show that a major drought perturbed

Minnesota, University of


Descriptive Characteristics of Long-Term Private Practice Psychotherapy Clients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from public and private sectors reveal that few persons stay in psychotherapy long enough to be classified as "long-term" clients. Those who do remain in psychotherapy for a long time are rarely studied because attention has generally been focused on terminators. Demographic, treatment, and psychometric characteristics of 64 long-term…

Koss, Mary P.


Fusion energy in context: its fitness for the long term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term limits to growth in energy will be imposed not by inability to expand supply, but by the rising environmental and social costs of doing so. These costs will therefore be cental issues in choosing long-term options. Fusion, like solar energy, is not one possibility but many, some with very attractive environmental characteristics and others perhaps little better in these

J. P. Holdren



Long-term follow-up of patients with adult-onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.  


Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare infectious central nervous system disease with a poor prognosis. Nineteen patients, 18 males and one female, ranging in age from 18 to 22, mean 19.6+/-1.5 years with SSPE were evaluated. We treated 9 patients with oral isoprinosine and 10 patients with alpha-interferon plus oral isoprinosine and followed up for 16 to 160 months. Of the 9 patients treated with oral isoprinosine, 7 (77.7%) died, one stabilized, and one showed progression. Seven (70%) of 10 patients treated with alpha-interferon plus oral isoprinosine died, one showed progression, and stabilization was observed in two patients. Thus, we suggest that isoprinosine alone or in combination with intraventricular interferon did not change the prognosis in long-term follow-up periods. PMID:18783800

Eroglu, Erdal; Gokcil, Zeki; Bek, Semai; Ulas, Umit H; Ozdag, Mehmet F; Odabasi, Zeki



The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

Older Women's League, Washington, DC.


Insulin secretion stimulated by l-arginine and its metabolite l-ornithine depends on G?i2.  


Bordetella pertussis toxin (PTx), also known as islet-activating protein, induces insulin secretion by ADP-ribosylation of inhibitory G proteins. PTx-induced insulin secretion may result either from inactivation of G?o proteins or from combined inactivation of G?o, G?i1, G?i2, and G?i3 isoforms. However, the specific role of G?i2 in pancreatic ?-cells still remains unknown. In global (G?i2 (-/-)) and ?-cell-specific (G?i2 (?cko)) gene-targeted G?i2 mouse models, we studied glucose homeostasis and islet functions. Insulin secretion experiments and intracellular Ca(2+) measurements were used to characterize G?i2 function in vitro. G?i2 (-/-) and G?i2 (?cko) mice showed an unexpected metabolic phenotype, i.e., significantly lower plasma insulin levels upon intraperitoneal glucose challenge in G?i2 (-/-) and G?i2 (?cko) mice, whereas plasma glucose concentrations were unchanged in G?i2 (-/-) but significantly increased in G?i2 (?cko) mice. These findings indicate a novel albeit unexpected role for G?i2 in the expression, turnover, and/or release of insulin from islets. Detection of insulin secretion in isolated islets did not show differences in response to high (16 mM) glucose concentrations between control and ?-cell-specific G?i2-deficient mice. In contrast, the two- to threefold increase in insulin secretion evoked by l-arginine or l-ornithine (in the presence of 16 mM glucose) was significantly reduced in islets lacking G?i2. In accord with a reduced level of insulin secretion, intracellular calcium concentrations induced by the agonistic amino acid l-arginine did not reach control levels in ?-cells. The presented analysis of gene-targeted mice provides novel insights in the role of ?-cell G?i2 showing that amino acid-induced insulin-release depends on G?i2. PMID:25205820

Leiss, Veronika; Flockerzie, Katarina; Novakovic, Ana; Rath, Michaela; Schönsiegel, Annika; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Schürmann, Annette; Harteneck, Christian; Nürnberg, Bernd



Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance  

SciTech Connect

Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

Kristofferson, Keith



Space ventures and society long-term perspectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

Brown, W. M.



[Problems and trends of long-term ecological research].  


Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) has been focused on the monitoring and controlling the factors that influence the ecological process in a long period. The results are also the basis for the ecological assessment and management. Referring to the experiences of long-term research in international perspectives, this paper attempts to elucidate the problems, research contents, research trends and solutions of LTER with the expansion of temporal and spatial scales. It also has an instructive role in the long-term research, the construction of ecological research network and the terrestrial assessment in China. PMID:12222058

Fu, Bojie; Liu, Shiliang



Long-term functional outcomes in children with Currarino syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The aim of the study was to review the degree to which the long-term outcome and ongoing morbidity in Currarino syndrome (CS)\\u000a has been established.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Analysis of previously published reports that have included long-term outcome data in CS and review of five additional patients\\u000a with CS.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Overall, long-term outcomes of children born with CS are not well described. Malignancy has

Atsushi Yoshida; Kiki Maoate; Russell Blakelock; Stephen Robertson; Spencer Beasley



CREB and the formation of long-term memory.  


Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB)-responsive transcription plays a central role in the formation of long-term memory in Drosophila, Aplysia and mice. Agents that disrupt the activity of CREB specifically block the formation of long-term memory, whereas agents that increase the amount or activity of the transcription factor accelerate the process. These results have led to the recent hypothesis that CREB is pivotal in the switch from short-term (protein synthesis independent) to long-term (protein synthesis dependent) memory. PMID:8725970

Yin, J C; Tully, T



Long-term safety and efficacy of budesonide in the treatment of ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, relapsing, and remitting inflammatory disease involving the large intestine (colon). Treatment seeks to break recurrent inflammation episodes by inducing and maintaining remission. Historically, oral systemic corticosteroids played an important role in inducing remission of this chronic disease; however, their long-term use is limited and can lead to adverse events. Budesonide is a synthetic steroid with potent local anti-inflammatory effects and low systemic bioavailability due to high first-pass hepatic metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated oral budesonide’s usefulness in treating active mild to moderate ileocecal Crohn’s disease and microscopic colitis and in an enema formulation for left sided UC. However, there is limited information regarding oral budesonide’s efficacy in UC. A novel oral budesonide formulation using a multimatrix system (budesonide-MMX) to extend drug release throughout the colon has been developed recently and seems to be an effective treatment in active left sided UC patients. This article summarizes budesonide’s long-term safety and efficacy in treating UC. PMID:24523594

Iborra, Marisa; Alvarez-Sotomayor, Diego; Nos, Pilar



Treatment and long-term outcome of chronic radiation esophagitis after radiation therapy for head and neck tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural history of chronic radiation esophagitis occuring in previously normal esophagus is still unknown. We describe here the long-term outcome of chronic esophagitis arising after neck irradiation for oropharynx and larynx carcinomas in 13 consecutive adult patients. The first clinical signs of radiation esophagitis were dysphagia or impossibility of oral intake, which appeared within 26 months (range 2–120 months)

Christine Silvain; Thierry Barrioz; Isabelle Besson; Philippe Babin; Jean Pierre Fontanel; Alain Daban; Claude Matuchansky; Michel Beauchant



Spotlight on "Long-Term English Language Learners": Characteristics and Prior Schooling Experiences of an Invisible Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents qualitative research findings about the characteristics and prior schooling experiences of "long-term English language learners" (LTELLs), who have attended U.S. schools for 7 years or more, and about whom there is little empirical research, despite their significant numbers. Findings indicate that these students are orally…

Menken, Kate; Kleyn, Tatyana; Chae, Nabin



Role of N-Nitro-L-Arginine-Methylester as anti-oxidant in transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Previous reports assessing the neuroprotective role of nonselective Nitric Oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME) following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion are contradictory. The aim of this work was to examine the potential benefits of L-NAME on rats subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Methods The study involved 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups 10 rats in each: First group was sham-operated and served as a control, a ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group of rats infused with 0.9% normal saline intraperitoneally 15?minutes prior to 30?minutes of left common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion and a test group infused with L-NAME intraperitoneally 15?minutes prior to ischemia. Neurobehavioral assessments were evaluated and quantitative assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in both serum and the affected cerebral hemisphere were achieved. Results Rats’ neurological deficit and TAC were significantly decreased while NO and MDA were significantly increased in the I/R compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Alternatively in the L-NAME group, neurological deficit and TAC were significantly improved while NO and MDA were significantly decreased compared to I/R group (P < 0.001). Conclusions L-NAME pretreatment for rats undergoing cerebral ischemia/reperfusion significantly improves neurological deficit while reducing oxidative stress biomarkers in the affected cerebral hemisphere. PMID:23289587



China and the Korean peninsula: Playing for the long term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halting North Korea's nuclear program is not the ultimate end that China hopes to achieve. China's calculations, interests, and goals are more long term and complicated, comprising a hierarchy of these six objectives.

David Shambaugh



Insuring Long-Term Care in the United States  

E-print Network

Long-term care expenditures constitute one of the largest uninsured financial risks facing the elderly in the United States and thus play a central role in determining the retirement security of elderly Americans. In this ...

Finkelstein, Amy


Office of Disability, Aging and Long-Term Care Policy  


... Office of Disability, Aging, and Long-Term Care Policy (DALTCP) is charged with developing, analyzing, evaluating, and coordinating HHS policies and programs which support the independence, productivity, health, ...


Long-term memories in online users' selecting activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the long-term memory effect in the behavior of online users. Two user-oriented online movie systems are used in this study. Due to the short length of the series, the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy approach is used to evaluate scaling-invariance in selecting activities of users in the two online movie systems. Our results indicate that persistence (long-term memory) exists widely in the movie selecting series. However, there is generally significant difference between a user's objective and subjective behaviors. Additionally, statistically, the long-term memory depends on activity levels, as results show that the much more active a users' group, the stronger the long-term memory will be. These findings provide a new criterion for constructing reasonable models, and can help understand how individuals' behaviors form a collective behavior of an online society.

Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie



22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.  

...DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Commodity and Service Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity...



Long-term Career Goals for Professional Women in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encourages the formation of long-term career goals for women in agronomy. Offers perspectives and practical suggestions for obtaining positions, maintaining professional credentials, and managing personal and career related obligations. (ML)

Klepper, Betty



Assessments of long-term uranium supply availability  

E-print Network

The future viability of nuclear power will depend on the long-term availability of uranium. A two-form uranium supply model was used to estimate the date at which peak production will occur. The model assumes a constant ...

Zaterman, Daniel R



Informed Consent to Research in Long-Term Care Settings  

PubMed Central

Informed consent to nursing home research is a two-tiered process that begins with obtaining the consent of a long-term care community at the institutional level and progresses to the engagement of individuals in the consent process. Drawing on a review of the literature and the authors’ research experiences and institutional review board service, this paper describes the practical implications of nurse investigators’ obligation to ensure informed consent among participants in long-term care research. Recommendations focus on applying a community consent model to long-term care research, promoting an evidence-based approach to the protection of residents with decisional impairment, and increasing investigators’ attention to ethical issues involving long-term care staff. PMID:20078005

Jablonski, Rita A.; Bourbonniere, Meg; Kolanowski, Ann



Examining Long-Term Global Climate Change on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a web-based, inquiry-oriented activity that enables students to examine long-term global climate change. Supports instruction in other topics such as population growth. (Contains 34 references.) (DDR)

Huntoon, Jacqueline E.; Ridky, Robert K.



The Long-Term Effects of a Preschool Program.  

E-print Network

??This study considered high-quality preschool programs, what has happened in Kentucky preschool programs and the long-term effects children receive from attending a preschool program. Research… (more)

Holloman, Kerry



Endowments and New Institutions for Long-Term Observation  

E-print Network

An ever-increasing volume of publications on the changing ocean environment underscores the requirement for long-term observations to understand and predict ocean and climate change. Such observations must be globally ...

Baker, D. James



Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi variants in long-term carriers.  


Long-term typhoid carriers can simultaneously excrete Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi variants with considerable genetic differences, a situation that complicates the interpretation of the subtyping data used in outbreak investigations and disease surveillance. PMID:23241373

Chiou, Chien-Shun; Wei, Hsiao-Lun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Liao, Ying-Shu; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Tsao, Chi-Sen; Wang, Shu-Chuan



Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007  

SciTech Connect

This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

T. Haney



The market for long-term care services.  


Although a large literature has established the importance of market and regulatory forces within the long-term care sector, current research in this field is limited by a series of data, measurement, and methodological issues. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these issues with an emphasis on identifying initiatives that will increase the volume and quality of long-term care research. Recommendations include: the construction of standard measures of long-term care market boundaries, the broader dissemination of market and regulatory data, the linkage of survey-based data with market measures, the encouragement of further market-based studies of noninstitutional long-term care settings, and the standardization of Medicaid cost data. PMID:18524292

Grabowski, David C



7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...workpapers must document that he/she: (a) Confirmed RUS, FFB, and RTB debt to the appropriate confirmation schedule (RUS Form 690, Confirmation Schedule Obligation to the FFB as of: or Form 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term...



European energy markets: Short and long term perspectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper deals with short and long term perspectives of the European energy markets. The perspectives reflect two alternatives: the first one in which the pure and unadulterated economic forces prevail where competition dominates over environmental conce...

D. Woning




Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines the impact of preschool malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects - instrumental variables (MFE - IV) estimator with a long - term panel data set Representations of civil war and drought \\

Harold Alderman; John Hoddinott; Bill Kinsey



Long-term trends in Antarctic winter hydroxyl temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen year observational record of hydroxyl temperatures in AntarcticaMeasurement of solar cycle response and long-term linear trendExamination of the influence of planetary waves and other dynamical indices

W. John R. French; A. R. Klekociuk



Amphoteric, prevailingly cationic L-arginine polymers of poly(amidoamino acid) structure: synthesis, acid/base properties and preliminary cytocompatibility and cell-permeating characterizations.  


A linear amphoteric poly(amidoamino acid), L-ARGO7, is prepared by Michael-type polyaddition of L-arginine with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. Chain-extension of acrylamide end-capped L-ARGO7 oligomers with piperazine leads to high-molecular-weight copolymers in which L-arginine maintains its absolute configuration. Acid/base properties of L-ARGO7 polymers show isolectric points of ? 10 and positive net average charges per repeating unit at pH = 7.4 from 0.25 to 0.40. These arginine-rich synthetic polymers possibly share some of the unique biological properties of polyarginine cell-permeating peptides. In vitro tests with mouse embryo fibroblasts balb/3T3 clone A31 show that L-ARGO7 polymers are endowed with effective cell internalization ability combined with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:24821667

Ferruti, Paolo; Mauro, Nicolò; Falciola, Luigi; Pifferi, Valentina; Bartoli, Cristina; Gazzarri, Matteo; Chiellini, Federica; Ranucci, Elisabetta



Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq·m-3 (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq·m-3 (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can

H. Hötzl; R. Winkler



Long-term correlation structure of wave loads using simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new method for combining the lifetime wave-induced sectional forces and moments that are acting on the ship structure. The method is based on load simulation and can be used to determine the exceedance probabilities of any linear and nonlinear long-term load combination. It can also be used to determine the long-term correlation structure between these loads

Martin Petricic; Alaa E. Mansour



Does a Long-Term Relationship Kill Romantic Love?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the possibility that romantic love (with intensity, engagement, and sexual interest) can exist in long-term relationships. A review of taxonomies, theory, and research suggests that romantic love, without the obsession component typical of early stage romantic love, can and does exist in long-term marriages, and is associated with marital satisfaction, well-being, and high self-esteem. Supporting the separate

Bianca P. Acevedo; Arthur Aron



Long-term outcome after resection for bronchial carcinoid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We sought to determine the long-term survival of patients treated for bronchial carcinoid tumors and whether lesser resections have had an effect on outcomes. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, multi-institutional review of patients treated surgically for primary bronchial carcinoid tumors since 1980. Operative approach, pathologic stage, histology, surgical complications, tumor recurrence, and long-term survival were assessed. Results: There were

Mark K Ferguson; Rodney J Landreneau; Stephen R Hazelrigg; Nasser K Altorki; Keith S Naunheim; Joseph B Zwischenberger; Michael Kent; Anthony P. C Yim



Long-term Clinical Outcome of Open Meniscal Allograft Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Meniscal allograft transplantation is an accepted treatment for the symptomatic postmeniscectomized knee in younger patients; however, long-term data are scarce on clinical outcome.Hypothesis: Cryopreserved meniscal allograft transplantations can, in the long term, be a good alternative for the symptomatic postmeniscectomized knee in younger patients.Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.Methods: Sixty-three meniscal allografts (40 lateral and 23 medial)

Robert Jan Peter van der Wal; Bregje Josephina Wilhelmina Thomassen; Ewoud Rijkert Adriaan van Arkel



Long-term experimental testing of a-silicon modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term stability of photovoltaic module electrical performance is critically important to the economic viability of PV in large-scale energy-generation applications. Equally important is having the means to conclusively demonstrate long life to potential users; this requires proven test methods that accurately predict field peformance trends. To assess the long-term stability of a-Si modules and the usefulness of existing crystalline-Si test

R. G. Ross; R. S. Sugimura



Long-Term Ice Variability in Arctic Marginal Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of records of fast ice thickness (1936-2000) and ice extent (1900-2000) in the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, and Chukchi Seas provide evidence that long-term ice thickness and extent trends are small and generally not statistically significant, while trends for shorter records are not indicative of the long-term tendencies due to large-amplitude low-frequency variability. The ice variability in these seas

Igor V. Polyakov; Genrikh V. Alekseev; Roman V. Bekryaev; Uma S. Bhatt; Roger Colony; Mark A. Johnson; Valerii P. Karklin; David Walsh; Alexander V. Yulin



Long-Term Options for Municipal Water Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water conservation measures initiated by municipalities have usually been short-term efforts to minimize the effects of a drought or other temporary water shortage. Now, because of increasing demands on limited water resources, water conservation measures are being reassessed as long-term methods of reducing municipal water use. Long-term measures require a somewhat different planning approach than do short-term measures. Municipalities can

Alice Grisham; William M. Fleming



Chronic renal lesions following long-term treatment with lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic renal lesions following long-term treatment with lithium. Fourteen patients receiving long-term treatment with lithium carbonate for manic-depressive disease were referred to a nephrological department because of acute lithium intoxication or lithiuminduced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Renal biopsy specimens from each of these patients showed only insignificant acute lesions. In thirteen of the specimens, however, a pronounced degree of focal nephron

Jytte Hestbech; Hans Erik Hansen; Amdi Amdisen; Steen Olsen



Long term culture of tumour-specific cytotoxic T cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

MANY investigators have been successful in the maintenance of long term tissue culture of human bone marrow-derived (B) cells. These cell lines have been established from both normal subjects1 and from patients with lymphoproliferative disorders2. In most cases, long term B-cell lines have been shown to harbour the Epstein-Barr virus genome which some investigators feel is required for establishment and

Steven Gillis; Kendall A. Smith



Cost effectiveness of wound management in long-term care.  


Today's healthcare environment -- and the economic environment in general -- necessitate efforts to lower healthcare costs, both for patients and for providers. This need is especially relevant to long-term care facilities, where residents' healthcare problems are a daily and expensive certainty. Both pressure ulcers and venous ulcers are common in long-term facilities, and the aging of our citizens means managing these facilities will be an increasingly significant concern for providers. PMID:12116751

Lyder, Courtney



Long-term evaluation of pylorus preservation during pancreaticoduodenectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although pyloric preservation can be performed during pancreaticoduodenectomy without increased morbidity or mortality or decreased survival, the long-term benefit of this technique remains unproven. In this study, the functional status of patients recovered from pyloric-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was evaluated by comparing 6 long-term survivors of the standard Whipple procedure (1–7 years postoperative; mean, 4.7 yr) to a similar group of 6

Aaron S. Fink; Luis R. DeSouza; Emeran A. Mayer; Randall Hawkins; William P. Longmire



Retrograde messengers, long-term potentiation and memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation has been involved in certain forms of learning and memory. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, long-term potentiation (LTP) is triggered postsinaptically and, at least in part, it expression depends on presynaptic mechanisms. Therefore, a retrograde messenger that is released from the postsynaptic dendrite and diffuses back across the synapse to increase neurotransmitter release has been proposed.

Jorge H. Medina; Ivan Izquierdo



Segmented vs conventional numerals: legibility and long term retention  

E-print Network

SEGMENTED VS CONVENTIONAL NUMERALS: LEGIBILITY AND LONG TERM RETENTION A Thesis by STEVE EDGAR HILL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1971 Ma]or Subject: Industrial Engineering SEGMENTED VS CONVENTIONAL NUMERALS: LEGIBILITY AND LONG TERM RETENTION A Thesis STEVE EDGAR HILL Approved as to style and content by: Elias Chairman of Committee) r. A. W. ortham (Head...

Hill, Steve Edgar



Common Medication Errors in Long-Term Care Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Medication management in long-term care settings is a complex process. The infrastructure, staffing and limited accessibility\\u000a to pharmaceutical and medical resources in long-term care facilities create an environment of high risk with the potential\\u000a for medication errors to occur. There is some evidence to suggest that at each step along the continuum from prescription\\u000a to medication delivery to the resident,

Catherine Edgar; Penny Harvey


Long term repetition effects during massed, serial, and random practice  

E-print Network

LONG TERM REPETITION EFFECTS DURING MASSED, SERIAL, AND RANDOM PRACTICE A Thesis by MARIANNE ELIZABETH GOEN Submitted to Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved... as to style and content by: 'd Wright (Ch of Committee) rgia Frey (Member) ck Nation ember) Jack Wilmore ead of Department) December 1998 Major Subject: Kinesiology ABSTRACT Long Term Repetition Effects During Massed, Serial, and Random Practice...

Goen, Marianne Elizabeth



Long-term gelation of laponite aqueous dispersions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of the long-term gelation of clay suspensions was recently questioned. We have investigated this problem by looking at the chemical stability of the laponite solid particles as a function of the preparation, the long-term storage, and the age of the suspensions. Under ambient atmosphere, Mg2+ is released from the laponite, suggesting that carbon dioxide from the atmosphere promotes

A. Mourchid; P. Levitz



Long-term memory motion-compensated prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term memory motion-compensated prediction extends the spatial displacement vector utilized in block-based hybrid video coding by a variable time delay permitting the use of more frames than the previously decoded one for motion compensated prediction. The long-term memory covers several seconds of decoded frames at the encoder and decoder. The use of multiple frames for motion compensation in most cases

Thomas Wiegand; Xiaozheng Zhang; Bernd Girod



Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents  

PubMed Central

We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan



Management of Severe Scleroderma with Long-Term Extracorporeal Photopheresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The management of systemic sclerosis remains unsatisfactory. Thus far, the action of extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) in severe systemic scleroderma has been evaluated in short-term studies, and only limited experience has been obtained with long-term application. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate prospectively the long-term effect of ECP in a group of 16 patients suffering from

K. Krasagakis; E. Dippel; J. Ramaker; M. Owsianowski; C. E. Orfanos



Long-Term Ecological Research Network in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network of sites with long-term ecological research (LTER) in Lithuania was initiated and organised by the Institute of Ecology of Vilnius University in 2004. Scientists from several research institutes and universities are engaged in implementing the scientific program of the network. The site-based long-term multidisciplinary ecological research has a central role in the network. The key research topics cover

Saulius Švažas; Meèislovas Žalakevi?ius; Mindaugas Dagys



Subjective social status predicts long-term smoking abstinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The relationship between subjective social status (SSS), a person's perception of his\\/her relative position in the social\\u000a hierarchy, and the ability to achieve long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt is unknown. The purpose\\u000a of this study was to examine the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence among 421 racially\\/ethnically diverse\\u000a smokers undergoing a specific quit attempt, as

Lorraine R Reitzel; Michael S Businelle; Darla E Kendzor; Yisheng Li; Yumei Cao; Yessenia Castro; Carlos A Mazas; Ludmila Cofta-Woerpel; Paul M Cinciripini; David W Wetter



Trend and abrupt changes in long-term geomagnetic indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced statistical methods are employed to analyze three long-term time series of geomagnetic activity indices (aa, IHV, and IDV) together with sunspot number (Rz) to examine whether or not the aa index can realistically represent long-term variations of geomagnetic activity. We make use of a decomposition method called STL, which is a time domain filtering procedure that decomposes a time series into trend, cyclic, and residual components using nonparametric regression. A Bayesian change point analysis is also applied to the geomagnetic indices, as well as to sunspot number, to detect abrupt changes that may be caused by either instrumental changes, calibration errors, or sudden changes in solar activity. Our analysis shows that all three long-term geomagnetic indices share a similar centennial-scale variation that resembles the long-term trend of sunspot number Rz. The amplitude ratio between the centennial-scale variation and 11-year cycle of aa and IHV are closely comparable. Overall, our analysis suggests that the majority of the changes in the aa index are controlled by solar activity. Instrumental change or site relocation has only a limited effect on the long-term trend of aa. This is in good agreement with those previous studies which have shown aa to be a reliable long-term index.

Lu, Hua; Li, Yun; Clilverd, Mark A.; Jarvis, Martin J.



Private Financing Options for Long-term Care  

PubMed Central

Private financing for long-term care now comes almost exclusively from out-of-pocket payments. Long-term-care costs quickly impoverish most elderly, resulting in Medicaid dependency. The consequences are profound for the western Sun Belt with its rapidly growing elderly population. Key private financing options are long-term-care individual retirement accounts (LTC/IRAs), home equity conversion, social-health maintenance organizations and long-term-care insurance. Study of data from the past half century suggests that the LTC/IRA approach would prove unsatisfactory for the purpose despite the intuitive appeal of this mechanism. Experience with home equity conversions is still very limited, and unresolved questions limit this approach to the role of a reserve option for now. While promising, social-health maintenance organizations are still in the experimental stages and not yet commercially available. Long-term-care insurance is currently sold on a thin market and emphasizes nursing home coverage. New approaches to private financing through long-term-care insurance seem to offer the best approach for immediate implementation. PMID:3118576

Brody, Barbara L.; Simon, Harold J.; Smallwood, Dennis E.



Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging to the study of effects of age and dietary l-arginine on aortic lesion composition in cholesterol-fed rabbits  

PubMed Central

Diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions in the descending thoracic segment of rabbit aorta were analysed ex vivo by micro-attenuated total reflection (ATR)–Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging. The distribution and chemical character of lipid deposits within the arterial wall near intercostal branch ostia were assessed in histological sections from immature and mature rabbits fed cholesterol with or without l-arginine supplements. Previous studies have shown that both these properties change with age in cholesterol-fed rabbits, putatively owing to changes in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) from l-arginine. Immature animals developed lesions at the downstream margin of the branch ostium, whereas lipid deposition was observed at the lateral margins in mature animals. Dietary l-arginine supplements had beneficial effects in mature rabbit aorta, with overall disappearance of the plaques; on the other hand, they caused only a slight decrease of the lipid load in lesions at the downstream margin of the ostium in immature rabbits. ATR–FTIR imaging enabled differences in the lipid to protein density ratio of atherosclerotic lesions caused by age and diet to be visualized. Lipid deposits in immature rabbits showed higher relative absorbance values of their characteristic spectral bands compared with those in immature l-arginine-fed rabbits and mature rabbits. The multivariate methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) were employed, and relevant chemical and structural information were obtained. Two distinct protein constituents of the intima–media layer at different locations of the wall were identified using the method of FA. This approach provides a valuable means of investigating the structure and chemistry of complex heterogeneous systems. It has potential for in vivo diagnosis of pathology. PMID:18986964

Palombo, Francesca; Cremers, Stephanie G.; Weinberg, Peter D.; Kazarian, Sergei G.



Involvement of the nitric oxide\\/L-arginine and sympathetic nervous systems on the vasodepressor action of human urotensin II in anesthetized rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined if the nitric oxide (NO)\\/L-arginine pathway participates in and if the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the depressor action of human urotensin II. I.V. bolus injections of human urotensin II (0.1–30 nmol\\/kg) caused dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP, EC50 = 2.09 ± 0.8 nmol\\/kg; Emax = ?18 ± 3 mmHg ) and increases in heart rate.

Aly M. Abdelrahman; Catherine C. Y. Pang



Fabrication of a biodegradable polysaccharide hydrogel with riboflavin, vitamin B2, as a photo-initiator and L-arginine as coinitiator upon UV irradiation.  


The objective of this study is to develop a completely natural material based photo-initiation system for fabricating biologically compatible hydrogels, that is, free of any synthetic materials like conventional synthetic photo-initiators. The resulting biodegradable hydrogels would be completely free of conventional toxic synthetic substances. Dextran-based precursor was used as a model system for this study. The natural material based photo-initiation system used riboflavin (vitamin B2) as photo-initiator and L-arginine as a coinitiator. Dextran-methacrylate precursor was prepared to introduce photosensitive unsaturated moieties into dextran for subsequent photo-induced gel formation. Riboflavin alone could not initiate the photo-crosslinking reaction of the dextran methacrylate solution upon UV irradiation. L-arginine, which can act as an electron donor in the photo-initiation process, was used as a coinitiator. The optimum gel formulation conditions in terms of the concentrations of riboflavin and L-arginine as well as different pH media were extensively investigated. The dextran-methacrylate hydrogels were formed well and fast at low riboflavin concentration range (0.2-1 wt %), and L-arginine promoted the photo-initiation at all concentrations. The gelation was promoted most in the neutral pH and the least in the alkaline pH. The turbidity of the dextran-methacrylate hydrogel precursor solution affected the polymerization because UV penetration was significantly hindered as the opacity of the solution increased. The swelling property and structural visualization of the prepared hydrogels were also investigated. PMID:19517533

Kim, Sin-Hee; Chu, Chih-Chang



Effect of supplementation during pregnancy with L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins in medical food on pre-eclampsia in high risk population: randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To test the hypothesis that a relative deficiency in L-arginine, the substrate for synthesis of the vasodilatory gas nitric oxide, may be associated with the development of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk. Design Randomised, blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial. Setting Tertiary public hospital in Mexico City.Participants Pregnant women with a history of a previous pregnancy complicated by

Felipe Vadillo-Ortega; Otilia Perichart-Perera; Salvador Espino; Marco Antonio Avila-Vergara; Isabel Ibarra; Roberto Ahued; Myrna Godines; Samuel Parry; George Macones; Jerome F Strauss



Comparative study on the protective role of vitamin C and L-arginine in experimental renal ischemia reperfusion in adult rats  

PubMed Central

Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is a main cause of transplanted kidney dysfunction and rejection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a causal role in cellular damage induced by I/R. Antioxidant vitamins and Nitric oxide (NO) were postulated to play renoprotective effects against I/R. This study compares the protective effects of vitamin C with that of the nitric oxide donor, L-arginine, on renal I/R injury in adult rats. The study was performed on 50 adult Wistar rats of both sexes, divided into 5 groups: I: Control group, receive daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline for 3 days. II: Renal I/R group, received i.p saline for 3 days and subjected to renal I/R. III: L-arginine Pretreated, 400 mg/kg/day i.p. for 3 days prior to I/R. IV: Vitamin C Pretreated, 500 mg/kg/day i.p. 24 hours prior to I/R. V: combined L-arginine and Vitamin C Pretreated, exposed to Renal I/R group. At the end of the experiment, plasma urea and creatinine were determined. Kidney tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), NO, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured and kidneys were examined histologically. Results: I/R group showed significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine, and renal MDA, and a significant decrease in renal catalase with marked necrotic epithelial cells and infiltration by inflammatory cells in kidney section compared to the control group. All the treated groups showed significant decrease in urea, creatinine, and MDA, and a significant increase in catalase with less histopathological changes in kidney sections compared to I/R group. However, significant improvements in urea, MDA, and catalase were found in vitamin C pretreated and combined treated groups than L-arginine pretreated group. Conclusion: Oxidative stress is the primary element involved in renal I/R injury. So, antioxidants play an important renoprotective effects than NO donors. PMID:25349638

Mohamed, Abd El-Hamid A; Lasheen, Noha N



N?-Nitro-L-Arginine, a Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor, Antagonizes Quinolinic Acid-Induced Neurotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat Striatal Slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) is a potential contributor to neurotoxicity following overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In this work we investigated the effect of N?-nitro-L-arginine (L-NARG 25, 50, or 100 ?M), a selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) -the synthetic enzyme of NO- on quinolinic acid (QUIN 100 ?M)-induced neurotoxicity (measured as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage) in rat striatal slices.

Daniel Santamaría; Velia Espinoza-González; Camilo Ríos; Abel Santamaría



Endothelium-Dependent and Independent Perfusion Reserve and the Effect of L-arginine on Myocardial Perfusion in Patients With Syndrome X  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Impaired vasodilatation capacity in patients with angina pectoris and a normal coronary arteriogram (syndrome X (SX)) has been reported. Most studies report on the response in epicardial vessels. This does not necessarily reflect compromised myocardial microcirculation. Lack of the NO precursor L-arginine has been suggested as a possible cause. Methods and Results—Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured, using PET, at

Morten Bøttcher; Hans Erik; Helle Sonne; Torsten Toftegaard Nielsen; Johannes Czernin


Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging to the study of effects of age and dietary L-arginine on aortic lesion composition in cholesterol-fed rabbits.  


Diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions in the descending thoracic segment of rabbit aorta were analysed ex vivo by micro-attenuated total reflection (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging. The distribution and chemical character of lipid deposits within the arterial wall near intercostal branch ostia were assessed in histological sections from immature and mature rabbits fed cholesterol with or without l-arginine supplements. Previous studies have shown that both these properties change with age in cholesterol-fed rabbits, putatively owing to changes in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) from l-arginine. Immature animals developed lesions at the downstream margin of the branch ostium, whereas lipid deposition was observed at the lateral margins in mature animals. Dietary l-arginine supplements had beneficial effects in mature rabbit aorta, with overall disappearance of the plaques; on the other hand, they caused only a slight decrease of the lipid load in lesions at the downstream margin of the ostium in immature rabbits. ATR-FTIR imaging enabled differences in the lipid to protein density ratio of atherosclerotic lesions caused by age and diet to be visualized. Lipid deposits in immature rabbits showed higher relative absorbance values of their characteristic spectral bands compared with those in immature l-arginine-fed rabbits and mature rabbits. The multivariate methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) were employed, and relevant chemical and structural information were obtained. Two distinct protein constituents of the intima-media layer at different locations of the wall were identified using the method of FA. This approach provides a valuable means of investigating the structure and chemistry of complex heterogeneous systems. It has potential for in vivo diagnosis of pathology. PMID:18986964

Palombo, Francesca; Cremers, Stephanie G; Weinberg, Peter D; Kazarian, Sergei G



Effects of L- Arginine Supplementation on Antioxidant Status and Body Composition in Obese Patients with Pre-diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of present study was to determine effects of L-Arginine supplementation on antioxidant status and body composition in obese patients with prediabetes. Methods: A double-blind randomized control trial was performed on 46 (24 men, 22 women) obese patients with prediabetes. They were divided randomly into two groups. Patients in intervention (n = 23) and control group (n=23) received 3 gr/day L-arginine and placebo, respectively for 8 weeks. Anthropometric indices, dietary intake and biochemical measurements ((serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)) were performed at the baseline and after 8-week intervention. Results: The mean age and BMI of participants were 44.29±8.65 years old and 28.14±1.35 kg/m2, respectively. At the end of study, in both intervention and control group, percentage of carbohydrate decreased and %fat intake increased compared to the baseline (P<0.05). After adjusting for dietary intake, no significant difference was observed in Fat Mass (FM) and Fat Free Mass (FFM) between two groups (P>0.05). Among measured biochemical factors, only serum TAC level showed significant differences at the end of study in the intervention group compared to the control group (pv<0.01). Conclusion: 3gr/day L-Arginine supplementation increased TAC level in obese patients with prediabetes. PMID:25364661

Fazelian, Siavash; Hoseini, Mostafa; Namazi, Nazli; Heshmati, Javad; Sepidar Kish, Mehdi; Mirfatahi, Maryam; Some Olia, Ahmad Saedi



NMDA Receptors and the L-Arginine-Nitric Oxide-Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Pathway Are Implicated in the Antidepressant-Like Action of the Ethanolic Extract from Tabebuia avellanedae in Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Bark infusion of Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb is consumed in tropical America folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases, including depressive disorders. It was recently demonstrated that the extract from this plant has antidepressant properties. The present study was aimed at investigating the contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the L-arginine–nitric oxide (NO)–cyclic guanosine 3?5?-monophosphate (cGMP) pathway to the antidepressant-like action of the ethanolic extract from T. avellanedae (EET) in the tail suspension test (TST). The anti-immobility effect of the extract (30?mg/kg, orally [p.o.]) was prevented by pretreatment of mice with NMDA (0.1 pmol/site, intracerebroventicular [i.c.v.]), L-arginine (750?mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]), and sildenafil (5?mg/kg, i.p.). Additionally, the combination of MK-801 (0.01?mg/kg, p.o.), 7-nitroindazole (25?mg/kg, i.p.), and 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) (30 pmol/site, i.c.v.) with a subeffective dose of EET (1?mg/kg, p.o.) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the TST, without causing significant alterations in the locomotor activity. Moreover, the administration of an effective dose of EET (30?mg/kg, p.o.) produced a reduction in NOx levels in the cerebral cortex. Conversely, a subeffective dose of EET (1?mg/kg, p.o.) caused no changes in the cortical NOx levels. Results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of EET in the TST is dependent on a blockade of NMDA receptor activation and inhibition of NO-cGMP synthesis, significantly extending literature data about the antidepressant-like action of this plant and reinforcing the notion that this plant may be useful in the management of depressive disorders. PMID:24236576

Freitas, Andiara E.; Moretti, Morgana; Budni, Josiane; Balen, Grasiela O.; Fernandes, Sinara C.; Veronezi, Patricia O.; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo A.; Pizzolatti, Moacir G.



Influence of Initial Treatment Modality on Long-Term Control of Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a common cutaneous disorder but the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical features, and the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control. Methods and Results 641 CIU patients were enrolled from the allergy clinic in a tertiary referral hospital. Disease duration, aggravating factors and treatment modality at each visit were evaluated. Times required to reach a controlled state were analyzed according to initial treatment modality, using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the Cox proportional-hazards model, and propensity scores. Female to male ratio was 1.7: 1; mean age at onset was 40.5 years. The most common aggravating factors were food (33.5%), stress (31.5%) and fatigue (21.6%). Most patients (82.2%) used H1-antihistamines alone as initial treatment while 17% used a combination treatment with oral corticosteroids. There was no significant difference in the time taken to reach a controlled state between patients treated with single vs multiple H1-antihistamines or between those who received H1-antihistamine monotherapy vs. a combination therapy with oral corticosteroids. Conclusion The time required to control CIU is not reduced by use of multiple H1-antihistamines or oral corticosteroids in the initial treatment. PMID:23935990

Kim, Sujeong; Baek, Seunghee; Shin, Bomi; Yoon, Sun-young; Park, So Young; Lee, Taehoon; Lee, Yoon Su; Bae, Yun-Jeong; Kwon, Hyouk Soo; Cho, You Sook; Moon, Hee-Bom; Kim, Tae-Bum



Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

Kowalewski, Matthew



An Exotic Long-Term Pattern in Stock Price Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Background To accurately predict the movement of stock prices is always of both academic importance and practical value. So far, a lot of research has been reported to help understand the behavior of stock prices. However, some of the existing theories tend to render us the belief that the time series of stock prices are unpredictable on a long-term timescale. The question arises whether the long-term predictability exists in stock price dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we analyze the price reversals in the US stock market and the Chinese stock market on the basis of a renormalization method. The price reversals are divided into two types: retracements (the downward trends after upward trends) and rebounds (the upward trends after downward trends), of which the intensities are described by dimensionless quantities, and , respectively. We reveal that for both mature and emerging markets, the distribution of either retracements or rebounds shows two characteristic values, 0.335 and 0.665, both of which are robust over the long term. Conclusions/Significance The methodology presented here provides a way to quantify the stock price reversals. Our findings strongly support the existence of the long-term predictability in stock price dynamics, and may offer a hint on how to predict the long-term movement of stock prices. PMID:23284734

Wei, Jianrong; Huang, Jiping



L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and symmetric dimethylarginine in plasma and synovial fluid of patients with knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in osteoarthritis (OA). Material/Methods The study groups consisted of 32 patients with knee OA and 31 healthy controls. In peripheral venous blood samples (from the OA patients and the controls) and in synovial fluid samples (from the OA patients), the concentrations of L-arginine (ARN), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were evaluated. In plasma samples, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were also measured. Results Plasma ARN concentrations were lower in the OA patients than in controls (53.55±16.37 vs. 70.20±25.68 ?mol/l) (P<0.05), while plasma ADMA concentrations were similar. Accordingly, the ARN/ADMA ratio was lower in the OA patients than in the control group (80.85±29.58 vs. 110.51±30.48, P<0.05). Plasma SDMA and TBARS concentrations were higher in the OA patients than in controls (0.69±0.15 vs. 0.60±0.10 ?mol/l, P<0.05 and 1.21±0.29 vs. 0.55±0.12, respectively) (P<0.001). In the OA patients, ADMA concentrations were significantly higher in the synovial fluid than in plasma (0.75±0.09 vs. 0.69±0.14 ?mol/l, P<0.05), as were ARN concentrations (76.96±16.73 vs. 53.55±16.73 ?mol/l) (P<0.00001). Conclusions These results indicate a poor availability of NO in the synovial fluid of the OA patients, which may contribute to the progression of OA. The decreased ARN/ADMA ratio and the increased SDMA and TBARS in the plasma of the OA patients suggest an impairment of endothelial function in these subjects. PMID:24276564

Pascale, Valerio; Pascale, Walter; Lavanga, Vito; Sansone, Valerio; Ferrario, Paolo; De Gennaro Colonna, Vito



Perfusion pressure and volume status determine the microvascular response of the rat kidney to NG-monomethyl-L-arginine.  


This study investigated the role of volume status and perfusion pressure on the hemodynamic response of cortical and medullary renal capillaries to systemic inhibition of nitric oxide. NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) was infused intravenously (15-mg/kg bolus and infusion), and blood flow in cortical capillaries (QCC) and in descending (QDVR) and ascending vasa recta (QAVR) was measured by fluorescence videomicroscopy in euvolemic and volume-expanded anesthetized Munich-Wistar rats. L-NMMA in euvolemic rats decreased vasa recta blood flow (delta QDVR, 3.97 +/- 0.80 nL/min [P < .01]; delta QAVR, 1.90 +/- 0.39 nL/min [P < .01]; n = 6) and QCC (delta QCC, 0.57 +/- 0.15 nL/min [P < .01]; n = 7) despite increases in renal perfusion pressure (RPP). Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) remained unchanged. In volume-expanded rats, L-NMMA decreased vasa recta blood flow when RPP increased (delta QDVR, 1.42 +/- 0.79 nL/min [P = .05]; delta QAVR, 1.95 +/- 0.34 nL/min [P < .001]; n = 9) or was held constant by partial aortic occlusion (delta QDVR, 1.19 +/- 0.45 nL/min [P < .05]; delta QAVR, 1.44 +/- 0.40 nL/min [P < .01]; n = 8). QCC was unchanged by L-NMMA when RPP increased (delta QCC, 0.27 +/- 0.20 nL/min; n = 8) but decreased significantly by 0.61 +/- 0.11 nL/min (P < .01, n = 8) when increases in RPP were prevented. FENa increased when RPP increased (delta FENa, 2.47 +/- 0.51%; P < .001) and was held constant (delta FENa, 2.64 +/- 0.46%; P < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7923628

Lockhart, J C; Larson, T S; Knox, F G



Long-term Internship through Cooperative Education with Regional Industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long term internship is one of special educational programs for graduate students of Graduate School of Engineering in University of Fukui. This is a collaborative program between university and industries where selected post-graduate students are dispatched to companies for a long term and educated in real business environments. It is the final goal of the program to develop sophisticated specialists who would be able to catch the business strategy in industries and solve any problems by themselves. The program is managed in a semester (6 months) and contains 1.5 month prior education of preliminary special knowledge, ethics and secrecy, about 3 month dispatch with long-term internship, and 1.5 month post-education for complementary education and presentation. This paper presents the effect of this program which has been evolving since 2005.

Takahashi, Kenzo; Hase, Hiroyuki


Viability of long-term gene therapy in the cochlea.  


Gene therapy has been investigated as a way to introduce a variety of genes to treat neurological disorders. An important clinical consideration is its long-term effectiveness. This research aims to study the long-term expression and effectiveness of gene therapy in promoting spiral ganglion neuron survival after deafness. Adenoviral vectors modified to express brain derived neurotrophic factor or neurotrophin-3 were unilaterally injected into the guinea pig cochlea one week post ototoxic deafening. After six months, persistence of gene expression and significantly greater neuronal survival in neurotrophin-treated cochleae compared to the contralateral cochleae were observed. The long-term gene expression observed indicates that gene therapy is potentially viable; however the degeneration of the transduced cells as a result of the original ototoxic insult may limit clinical effectiveness. With further research aimed at transducing stable cochlear cells, gene therapy may be an efficacious way to introduce neurotrophins to promote neuronal survival after hearing loss. PMID:24751795

Atkinson, Patrick J; Wise, Andrew K; Flynn, Brianna O; Nayagam, Bryony A; Richardson, Rachael T



Viability of Long-Term Gene Therapy in the Cochlea  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy has been investigated as a way to introduce a variety of genes to treat neurological disorders. An important clinical consideration is its long-term effectiveness. This research aims to study the long-term expression and effectiveness of gene therapy in promoting spiral ganglion neuron survival after deafness. Adenoviral vectors modified to express brain derived neurotrophic factor or neurotrophin-3 were unilaterally injected into the guinea pig cochlea one week post ototoxic deafening. After six months, persistence of gene expression and significantly greater neuronal survival in neurotrophin-treated cochleae compared to the contralateral cochleae were observed. The long-term gene expression observed indicates that gene therapy is potentially viable; however the degeneration of the transduced cells as a result of the original ototoxic insult may limit clinical effectiveness. With further research aimed at transducing stable cochlear cells, gene therapy may be an efficacious way to introduce neurotrophins to promote neuronal survival after hearing loss. PMID:24751795

Atkinson, Patrick J.; Wise, Andrew K.; Flynn, Brianna O.; Nayagam, Bryony A.; Richardson, Rachael T.



Long-term Use of Opioids for Complex Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

Increased opioid prescribing for back pain and other chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions has been accompanied by dramatic increases in prescription opioid addiction and fatal overdose. Opioid-related risks appear to increase with dose. While short-term randomized trials of opioids for chronic pain have found modest analgesic benefits (a one-third reduction in pain intensity on average), the long-term safety and effectiveness of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain is unknown. Given the lack of large, long-term randomized trials, recent epidemiologic data suggests the need for caution when considering long-term use of opioids to manage chronic musculoskeletal pain, particularly at higher dosage levels. Principles for achieving more selective and cautious use of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain are proposed. PMID:24315147

Von Korff, Michael R.



Data Analysis in the LOFAR Long Term Archive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LOFAR Long Term Archive (LTA) is a distributed information system that provides integrated services for data analysis as well as long term preservation of astronomical datasets and their provenance. The data analysis capabilities are provided by a federated system that integrates a central catalog and client user interfaces provided by Astro-Wise with processing pipelines running on Grid based and University HPC clusters. The framework used for data analysis ensures that proper authorization and access rules are applied and that generated data products are ingested into the storage part of the Long Term Archive. The ingest process includes information about data provenance. This paper presents the architecture of the processing framework of the LTA.

Holties, H. A.; van Diepen, G.; van Dok, D.; Dijkstra, F.; Loose, M.; Renting, G. A.; Schrijvers, C.; Vriend, W.-J.



Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.



Long term evolution of photogravitational N-body problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract: We consider Photogravitational N-body problem and find long term integration using symplectic map method. The first and higher order symplectic codes in CUDA C are used for long term evolution for fix and variable time steps in High Performance Computing(HPC) Workstation with an NVIDIA Tesla K20 C Graphics Processing Unit(GPU). It is seen that error in total energy remains bounded for long time, whereas, variable time steps take less number of steps for integration which increases the performance. We also obtain long term evolution of our inner and outer solar systems by taking actual initial conditions (masses, positions and velocities) and found that whole solar systems is chaotic. Keywords: Photogravitational; N-Body Problem; Symplectic map;CUDA C; GPU; HPC.

Kushvah, Badam Singh


Evidence for long-term memory in sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

and attribution of anthropogenic climate change signals in sea level rise (SLR) has experienced considerable attention during the last decades. Here we provide evidence that superimposed on any possible anthropogenic trend there is a significant amount of natural decadal and multidecadal variability. Using a set of 60 centennial tide gauge records and an ocean reanalysis, we find that sea levels exhibit long-term correlations on time scales up to several decades that are independent of any systematic rise. A large fraction of this long-term variability is related to the steric component of sea level, but we also find long-term correlations in current estimates of mass loss from glaciers and ice caps. These findings suggest that (i) recent attempts to detect a significant acceleration in regional SLR might underestimate the impact of natural variability and (ii) any future regional SLR threshold might be exceeded earlier/later than from anthropogenic change alone.

Dangendorf, Sönke; Rybski, Diego; Mudersbach, Christoph; Müller, Alfred; Kaufmann, Edgar; Zorita, Eduardo; Jensen, Jürgen



Forecasting demand for long-term care services.  

PubMed Central

This article analyzes three methods used to forecast the transition of long-term care clients through a variety of possible home and facility placements and levels of care. The test population (N = 1,653) is derived from the larger population of clients admitted in 1978 to British Columbia's newly established Long-Term Care program. The investigators have accumulated 5 years of service-generated data on moves, discharges, and deaths of these clients. Results show that the first-order Markov chain with stationary transition probabilities yields a superior forecast to state-by-state moving average growth and state-by-state regression analyses. The results of these analyses indicate that the Markov method should receive serious consideration as a tool for resource planning and allocation in long-term care. PMID:3932260

Lane, D; Uyeno, D; Stark, A; Kliewer, E; Gutman, G



Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems  

SciTech Connect

A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield.

Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J. [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Parque Cientifico Universitat de Valencia, Poligono 'La Coma' s/n, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Departamento de Comunicaciones, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo - ICMUV, Universitat de Valencia c/ Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Comunicaciones, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Parque Cientifico Universitat de Valencia, Poligono 'La Coma' s/n, 46980 Paterna (Spain)



Sexuality and physical intimacy in long-term care.  


Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long-term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long-term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders, it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long-term care, and presents two case examples. A semistructured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing the needs for protection with the needs for autonomy. PMID:24354331

Lichtenberg, Peter A



Genetic Testing For Alzheimer's And Long-Term Care Insurance  

PubMed Central

A genetic marker known as apolipoprotein E provides a clear signal of a person’s risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and thus that person’s future need for long-term care. People who find that they have the variant of the trait that increases Alzheimer’s disease risk are more likely to purchase long-term care insurance after receiving this information. If the information is widely introduced into the insurance market, coverage rates could be affected in different ways, depending on who possesses that information. Policymakers will eventually need to confront the issue of the use of this and other markers in the pricing of long-term care insurance. PMID:20048367

Taylor, Donald H.; Cook-Deegan, Robert M.; Hiraki, Susan; Roberts, J. Scott; Blazer, Dan G.; Green, Robert C.



Anxiety Disorders in Long-Term Survivors of Adult Cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the prevalence of anxiety disorders among long-term survivors of adult cancers. Using data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R), we compared rates of anxiety disorders between long-term cancer survivors and individuals without a history of cancer. Methods A nationally representative sample of 9,282 adults participated in a household survey to assess the prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, a subset of whom also answered questions about medical comorbidities, including cancer. Long-term survivors were defined as those who received an adult cancer diagnosis at least five years before the survey. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between cancer history and anxiety disorders in the past year. Results The NCS-R sample consisted of 225 long-term cancer survivors and 5,337 people without a history of cancer. Controlling for socio-demographic variables, long-term cancer survivors were more likely to have an anxiety disorder (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.04-2.13), including specific phobia (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.06-2.44) and medical phobia (OR: 3.45, 95% CI: 1.15-10.0), during the past 12 months compared to those without cancer histories. Rates for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion Long-term survivors of adult cancers were more likely to have an anxiety disorder diagnosis, namely specific phobia, in the past 12 months compared with the general public. Further longitudinal study is needed to clarify the timing and course of anxiety relative to the cancer diagnosis. PMID:21907059

Greer, Joseph A.; Solis, Jessica M.; Temel, Jennifer S.; Lennes, Inga T.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Pirl, William F.



Viability Issues for Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Systems  

SciTech Connect

To date, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has strived to understand the scope of long-term stewardship at DOE facilities. This paper identifies several challenges and needed innovations to provide cost-effective long-term subsurface monitoring. These challenges are significant, as DOE has identified greater than 100 candidate sites that may require subsurface monitoring for long-term stewardship. This enormous stewardship mortgage may be reducible through (1) cost-effective application of high-quality emplacement techniques for state-of-the-art monitoring systems and (2) the development of improved or completely new approaches for monitoring the subsurface environment that demonstrate the data produced are equally representative of the subsurface conditions and comparable over the long term. Currently, and for the near future, the only reliable subsurface/groundwater plume monitoring and assessment technique is sample collection and analysis via wells. At present, no geophysical technique can replace this approach and in situ sensors are just beginning to augment, not substitute conventional sampling. Long-term performance of wells and/or monitoring systems relies on: (1) access consistent with a zone of interest and (2) delivering samples representative of that zone for measurement. Well designs must anticipate the future behavior of the aquifer, as well as maintain chemical and physical stability. Long-term well-based network vulnerabilities can be subdivided into various categories, such as changes in the groundwater level and/or flow; subsurface heterogeneities; biological, chemical or physical reactions between the well screen or filter pack and the aquifer; changes in up-gradient and down-gradient relationships; and catastrophic events. Given the expense of accommodating such changes, site-wide (large-scale) hydraulic management of the aquifer may become cost-effective.




A basic strategy for financing long term care.  


As pressure mounts to contain Medicaid long term care spending, short-range "quick fixes" must be avoided. Three such false solutions in particular have shortcomings that may actually exacerbate long term care's financial dilemma because they are based on inadequate definitions of the problem. Two of these proposals--legislation to broaden family responsibility toward institutionalized elders on Medicaid and expanded state power to put liens on such elders' real property--err by trying to mandate "caring" and are predicated on a misunderstanding of the "spend-down" problem. The other proposal--to provide tax incentives to family members who care for elders--requires a large administrative apparatus, assumes an elasticity of supply that may not exist, and could disrupt the "gift relationship" on which family exchanges are often based. What is needed is a strategy with short term, intermediate, and long term objectives that move toward an insurance approach. The short term plan should lay the groundwork for intermediate strategy and control costs by changing rate-setting methods and putting limits on facility construction. The intermediate plan should change the problem's definition from one of merely controlling Medicaid long term care expenditures to one of efficiently managing state resources for the elderly through the development of state financing and local delivery systems that target older persons in greatest need. An effective means of doing this is through the creation of social/HMOs, which have five key features: integration of service responsibility and authority; flexibility in organizational design; balanced clientele; pooled prepaid funding; and financial risk for the provider organization. Finally, the long term strategy should transfer much of the long term care financial burden from individuals and state Medicaid agencies to insurance mechanisms. Many individuals would thus avoid impoverishment caused by health care spending and Medicaid would greatly reduce its caseload. Insurance coverage is an appropriate funding mechanism, moreover, in that relatively few persons will ever incur high costs. PMID:10310445

Greenberg, J A; Leutz, W N



Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment.  


The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa. PMID:2340495

Genescà, A; Caballín, M R; Miró, R; Benet, J; Bonfill, X; Egozcue, J



Instrumentation of bridges for long-term performance monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the state of the art in bridge design is advancing toward the performance-based design, it becomes increasingly important to monitor and evaluate the long-term structural performance of bridges, including strains in critical structural members, soil pressures on the abutment back walls and footings, accelerations on the decks and bents, etc. Such information is essential in developing new performance criteria for design. In this research, sensor systems for long-term structural performance monitoring have been installed on two new highway bridges on Orange County, California: the Jamboree Road Overcrossing and the West Street On-Ramp.

Feng, Maria Q.; Kim, Doo-Kie; Sheng, Li-Hong; Fiji, Leonard M.; Kim, Yoo J.



New devices for very long-term ECG monitoring.  


Present day 24-h Holter monitors have been shown to miss many arrhythmias that may occur infrequently or under specific circumstances. The advancement in electronic and adhesive technologies have enabled the development of first generation wearable long-term 14-day patch ECG monitors that attach directly to the skin and require no electrodes and wires to operate. This new technology is unobtrusive to the patients and offers them unprecedented mobility. It enables very long-term monitoring of critical patients while they are carrying out daily activities. The monitors are waterproof, offer good adhesion to the skin and can operate as either recorders or wireless streaming devices. PMID:22461060

Lobodzinski, S Suave; Laks, Michael M



The effect of chronic long-term intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on bone mineral density in rats: role of nitric oxide.  


Intermittent hypoxia is the most common pattern of hypoxic exposure in humans. The effect of chronic long-term intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CLTIHH) on bone metabolism is not investigated. We examined the effect of CLTIHH on bone metabolism and the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this process. The rats were divided into three groups in this study. The animals in groups I and II have been exposed to CLTIHH. The animals in group II were also treated with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. To obtain CLTIHH, rats were placed in a hypobaric chamber (430 mm Hg; 5 h/day, 5 days/week, 5 weeks). The group III (control) rats breathed room air in the same environment. At the begining of the experiments, bone mineral density (BMD) of the animals were measured, and blood samples were collected from the tail vein. After the 5-week CLTIHH period, the same measurements were repeated. Parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP), NO, interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were determined. The cytokines, NO levels, and BMD in CLTIHH-induced rats were higher compared with baseline and control values. The cytokines, b-ALP, and BMD increased while NO levels decreased in the group II compared with baseline values. BMD values of group II were lower than group I but higher than control group. Our results suggested that CLTIHH has positive effects on bone density. Intermittent hypoxia protocols may be developed for treatment and prevention of osteopenia and osteoporosis. PMID:23771686

Guner, Ibrahim; Uzun, Duygu D; Yaman, Muhittin O; Genc, Habibe; Gelisgen, Remisa; Korkmaz, Gulcan G; Hallac, Metin; Yelmen, Nermin; Sahin, Gulderen; Karter, Yesari; Simsek, Gonul




EPA Science Inventory

A Joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/Army project is in progress to produce a Long-term (2.5-hr), Self-contained, Chemical Protective Ensemble (LSCPE) with a NIOSH-certified breathing apparatus. The LSCPE provides the wearer with a combination of assets including mo...


Long-Term English Learners Writing Their Stories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school teacher C. Lynn Jacobs noted that the long-term English language learners in her class had improved in reading comprehension but still lacked writing skills. Inspired by a state humanities project, she worked with the students to publish a collection of stories and poems. Writing about their lives provided the motivation, and writing…

Jacobs, C. Lynn



Embryonic Stem Cell Therapy Shows Long-Term Effectiveness, Safety  


... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Embryonic Stem Cell Therapy Shows Long-Term Effectiveness, Safety In small ... 15, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Macular Degeneration Stem Cells TUESDAY, Oct. 14, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A new ...


Long-term monitoring for East Africa: rangeland monitoring  

E-print Network

soils vs. red soils on steep slopes, vs. red on flat land) 2. Assessment: current status relative · Demonstrate value of management for wildlife, water, soil erosion, etc... · ??? #12;Hills 1. Site: is management having desired long-term effects (e.g. on plant species composition, production, soil erosion


Going Solar Yields Long-Term Economical, Educational Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Going solar is not an easy decision, but a long-term investment with a potentially substantial up-front cost. While some schools have enough capital in reserve, can raise bond money, or can solicit sufficient donations, many schools rely on creative financial programs to make a solar energy system economically feasible. Thinking about going solar…

von Moos, Brian




Microsoft Academic Search

From an analysis of cosmic-ray intensities recorded it Mt. Washington, ; Mt. Norikura, and Huancayo from 1954 to 1958, the long-term variation of ; intensity is interpreted as occurring in several sudden decreases rather than ; gradually. The largest changes of cosmic-ray intensity and in the ratios of ; intensities recorded by the three detectors followed the occurrence of large

J. A. Lockwood



Long-Term Potentiation--A Decade of Progress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is the leading experimental model for the synaptic changes that may underlie learning and memory. This review presents a current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this long-lasting increase in synaptic strength and describes a simple model that unifies much of the data that previously were viewed as contradictory.

Robert C. Malenka; Roger A. Nicoll



Long-Term Care: Common Issues and Unknowns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All industrialized countries are grappling with a common problem--how to provide assistance of various kinds to their rapidly aging populations. The problem for countries searching for models of efficient and high-quality long-term care (LTC) policies is that fewer than a dozen countries have government-organized, formal LTC policies. Relatively…

Swartz, Katherine; Miake, Naoko; Farag, Nadine



Gender Relations, Family Relations and Long-Term Youth Unemployment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between long-term youth unemployment and family relationships and that between youth unemployment and courtship and marriage patterns were examined in a study conducted in two towns in South Wales. Thirty-seven young men and 26 young women between the ages of 18 and 25 who had been unemployed for 6 months or longer were…

Jenkins, Richard; Hutson, Susan


Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and 2006); and…

Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.



Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.



Diet and long-term health: an African Diaspora perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life-stage approach, which views the behaviours and exposures of an individual from the preconceptual situation of the parent through pregnancy, infancy, childhood and adolescence, and into the advancing years through adulthood, is the basis of analysis of strategies to improve long-term health. Among the behaviours of note is the dietary selection pattern, conditioning our exposure to nutrients and dietary

Noel W Solomons



Long-term ageing characteristics of Hastelloy alloy X  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission electron microscopy and diffraction were used to characterize the microstructural changes which occur in Hastelloy alloy X after long-term ageing (up to 16 000 h) at various temperatures in the range 540 to 870° C. The corresponding effects on mechanical properties were determined. It was found that the alloy age hardens at temperatures in the range of 650 to

H. M. Tawancy



A univariate model for long-term streamflow forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper, the first in a series of two, employs the principle of maximum entropy (POME) via maximum entropy spectral analysis (MESA) to develop a univariate model for long-term streamflow forecasting. Three cases of streamflow forecasting are investigated: forward forecasting, backward forecasting (or reconstruction) and intermittent forecasting (or filling in missing records). Application of the model is discussed in the second paper.

Krstanovic, P. F.; Singh, V. P.



Search for long term variations of the interplanetary magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical study is made of the long term variations of the interplanetary magnetic field parameters collected in the years 1964 to 1973 by 12 spacecraft (IMP's, Pioneers and HEOS). Although temporal fluctuations are observed on field components and magnitudes no clear solar cycle variation is found. The same conclusion holds for the statistical distributions and variances of these parameters.

F. Mariani; L. Diodato; G. Moreno



A Guide Through the Maze of Long-term Care  

PubMed Central

Complicated requirements regarding eligibility and coverage as well as variations in the availability of programs confuse even the most diligent physicians trying to advise elderly patients about health care services. Nevertheless, awareness of such government and community resources is critical because physicians play an essential role in assisting the elderly to receive maximum health care benefits, particularly during long-term illness. PMID:6801867

Kane, Robert L.; Kane, Rosalie A.



1Crossing Divides Archaeology as Long-Term History  

E-print Network

1Crossing Divides Archaeology as Long-Term History Mark D. Mitchell and Laura L. Scheiber Few growing body of archaeological knowledge about the ways in which the processes of European colo- nialism for the course of post-1500 culture change continue to be given. American Indians and First Nations peoples

Scheiber, Laura L.


Long-term effects of neurofeedback treatment in autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in the same group of children with ASD after 12 months. The

Mirjam E. J. Kouijzer; Jan M. H. de Moor; Berrie J. L. Gerrits; Jan K. Buitelaar; Hein T. van Schie



Acquiring firm long-term performance and governance characteristics  

E-print Network

I examine the market reaction to merger announcements and the long-term post-merger stock price performance of newly merged firms. For a sample of 484 acquiring firms completing mergers between 1993 and 2000, the average value-weighted abnormal...

Breazeale, Jonathan Paul



Lessons From Geriatric Psychiatry in the Long Term Care Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all long term care settings, the nursing home has served as the most productive laboratory for the study of the mental health problems of late life. Lessons from geriatric psychiatry research and practice in the nursing home have relevance to general psychiatry and to other health care settings, informing us about (a) psychiatric disorders in medically ill and disabled

Joel E. Streim; David Oslin; Ira R. Katz; Patricia A. Parmelee




Microsoft Academic Search

A new measurement technology for automated long term measurement evaluations of photovoltaic (PV) modules has been invented by IWES. The measuring card ISET-mpp meter (Figure 1) not only allows the measurement of the main module parameters but also enables the complete I-V characteristics of the modules to be measured. Especially for newly developed modules this approach offers great potential for

Thomas Glotzbach; Jörg Kirchhof


The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.




Microsoft Academic Search

tudies showing the possibility that the effect of entrepreneurs hip is long-term in nature are called for. The primary contribution of this article is that the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) employed here has a long-time effect on perceived performance. Another contribution, when controlling for past EO, is that this variable has implications for all three performance measures (perceived performance compared to

Einar Lier Madsen


Long-term creep-rate changes and their causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) We discuss measurements of the long-term creep rate from the San Juan Bautista section of the San Andreas fault. These observations of aseismic slip span a period of approximately half a century making it the longest creep record ever measured along an active fault zone. The records show systematic changes in creep rate over time scales of tens of

Göetz H. R. Bokelmann; Robert L. Kovach



Infection Control in the Long Term Care Facility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to increase the awareness of persons working in long-term care facilities regarding the danger of infectious disease and the ways in which it can be spread. Materials in this booklet include: (1) a brief discussion of historical events in the study of microorganisms; (2) information about how microorganisms cause infection…

Morris, Sara


Grit: Perseverance and Passion for Long-Term Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of intellectual talent to achievement in all professional domains is well established, but less is known about other individual differences that predict success. The authors tested the importance of 1 noncognitive trait: grit. Defined as perseverance and passion for long-term goals, grit accounted for an average of 4% of the variance in success outcomes, including educational attainment among

Angela L. Duckworth; Christopher Peterson; Michael D. Matthews; Dennis R. Kelly



Long-Term Considerations on Wind Power's Environmental Impact  

E-print Network

Long-Term Considerations on Wind Power's Environmental Impact Presentation at Risø International-of-the-art wind power system Mapping current trends of wind power technologies and concepts Expert panel brainstorm on future wind technology Delphi survey on future wind technology Scenarios of future wind power


Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin



Long-Term Objectives for Government Debt Alan J. Auerbach  

E-print Network

Long-Term Objectives for Government Debt Alan J. Auerbach University of California, Berkeley use national debt and the budget deficit as measures of fiscal position. But what should government paths. #12;1. Introduction Governments use current levels of national debt, typically scaled

Sadoulet, Elisabeth


Application of long-term microdialysis in circadian rhythm research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our laboratory has pioneered long-term microdialysis to monitor pineal melatonin secretion in living animals across multiple circadian cycles. There are numerous advantages of this approach for rhythm analysis: (1) we can precisely define melatonin onset and offset phases; (2) melatonin is a reliable and stable neuroendocrine output of the circadian clock (versus behavioral output which is sensitive to stress or

Jimo Borjigin; Tiecheng Liu



Technological Advancement and Long-Term Economic Growth in Asia  

E-print Network

4 Technological Advancement and Long-Term Economic Growth in Asia Jeffrey D. Sachs and John W. Mc technological advance, the Soviet Union, as well as to Latin America, a region that has also generally paid insufficient heed to the importance of technological advance. Section 4.3 dis- cusses the distinct processes


Optimizing Long-Term Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis  

E-print Network

Optimizing Long-Term Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Systematic Documentation K. M. Simonic- toid arthritis. They not only experience pain, but during the course of the disease their mobility for treatment optimization and as a measure for the quality of patient outcome. Graphical data acquisition

Hammerton, James


Osteomalacia with Long-term Anticonvulsant Therapy in Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation and treatment of osteomalacia are described in four patients with epilepsy treated with long-term anticonvulsant therapy. It is suggested that drug-mediated enzyme induction may be the mechanism responsible by causing a greatly increased inactivation of vitamin D in these patients.

C. E. Dent; A. Richens; D. J. F. Rowe; T. C. B. Stamp




E-print Network

SCENARIOS TO EVALUATE LONG TERM WILDFIRE RISK IN CALIFORNIA: New wildfire risk in California on a 1/8degree latitude/longitude grid at a monthly time step, using statistical models of wildfire activity and parameterizations of uncertainties related to residential


Ethics and Long-Term Care: A Catalogue of Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Those who plan or provide long-term care cannot avoid complicated ethical issues. Indeed, piecemeal discussions of some of these issues regularly appear in the popular press as well as in the professional literature. Rather than permitting the ethical age...

R. A. Kane



Long-Term Sodium Chloride Retention in a Rural Watershed  

E-print Network

Long-Term Sodium Chloride Retention in a Rural Watershed: Legacy Effects of Road Salt% of the input. Road salt use in the watershed did not increase during the study include road salt, oil field brine, water softeners, septic and sewage effluent, natural salt deposits

Weathers, Kathleen C.


Long-term changes in the surface conditions of PLT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term changes in the surface conditions of the PLT vacuum vessel wall have been monitoried by the periodic analysis of a variety of sample substrates (stainless steel, alumina, silicon), exposed to PLT discharges for periods of up to several months and subsequently removed for analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA), ion backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, secondary ion

S. A. Cohen; H. F. Dylla; S. M. Rossnagel; S. T. Picraux; J. A. Borders; C. W. Magee



Long-term stability of membrane transducers for proximity sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the long-term stability of micromachined silicon membrane resonators for ultrasound based object detection and proximity sensing. The proximity sensor system measures distances up to 10 cm using either a phase or an acoustic Fabry-Perot measurement method. In these applications the transducer elements are continuously excited at their fundamental resonance using the thermomechanical excitation principle. The success of

Mark Hornung; Oliver Brand; Oliver Paul; Henry Baltes



Long-term module testing at Wyle Laboratories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented for a current set of accelerated long-term endurance tests on crystalline silicon module of various constructions. Cell materials include single crystal, semicrystal, EFG ribbon, and dendritic web ribbon. The latest data set is for the equivalent of 20-year life and showed satisfactory performance.

Otth, D. H.



Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term: Overview August 28, 2007  

E-print Network

Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term: Overview 277 August 28, 2007 SECTION 4, MANAGING ASTHMA LONG is to control asthma by (Evidence A): -- Reducing impairment Prevent chronic and troublesome symptoms (e) Meet patients' and families' expectations of and satisfaction with asthma care -- Reducing risk

Levin, Judith G.


Long-Term Psychosomatic Effects of Biofeedback vs. Relaxation Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences were compared in the short-term and long-term responses of subjects with headache, insomnia, or hypertension to biofeedback training, relaxation, or a combination of both. Headache sufferers, insomniacs, and hypertensives were randomly assigned in equal numbers to biofeedback, relaxation training or a record-keeping control. Over 2…

Nowlis, David P.; Borzone, Ximena C.


The long-term dynamical evolution of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamical evolution of the solar system once the planets have acquired most of their material and settled into nearly circular, nearly coplanar orbits is traced. A brief review of those aspects of the dynamics of the Hamiltonian systems relevant to the gravitational N-body problem is presented, with emphasis on recent developments which pertain to the long-term evolution of orbits.

Martin J. Duncan; Thomas Quinn



The long-term psychological effects of child sexual abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work on the long-term mental health sequels of child sexual abuse in Britain and Canada, in relation to family context, is reviewed. It is argued that the Canadian data show that sexual abuse in childhood is quite prevalent for both males and females, and is particularly prevalent in dysfunctional families. Such abuse often has a negative impact on self-esteem, and

Christopher Bagley



Evolutionary Finance Simulation of Long Term Equity Portfolio Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the application of evolutionary finance to long-term equity portfolio management. Based on Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and the associated theory of natural selection, evolutionary finance offers a promising third paradigm after traditional finance and behavioural finance. From an evolutionary finance perspective, capital markets are made up by investors who use their portfolio strategies that interact

Vincent C S Lee; Ting Yean Tan; Terence Kwok



Long-Term Adaptation to Institutionalization in Dementia Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Longitudinal research in dementia has acknowledged the importance of transitions during the course of family caregiving. However, long-term adaptation to institutionalization has received little attention. This study attempts to describe caregivers' adaptation (changes in stress, well-being, and psychosocial resources) to placement up to…

Gaugler, Joseph E.; Pot, Anne Margriet; Zarit, Steven H.



Why Are There So Many Long Term Sick in Britain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the upward trend of numbers in receipt of Invalidity Benefit (the major contributory benefit for the long-term sick) in Britain since 1971. Possible explanations include the rising level of unemployment through much of the period; the heightened link between ill-health and early retirement; changes in the real level of benefits; and changes in the composition of the

Richard Disney; Steven Webb



Lacunar Stroke: Transoesophageal Echocardiographic Factors Influencing Long-Term Prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Since little is known concerning factors which may influence long-term prognosis of patients presenting with lacunar stroke, we conducted a longitudinal study of this stroke subtype. Variables likely to affect outcome were assessed at baseline, including those from transoesophageal echocardiographic studies. Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with first-ever lacunar stroke underwent diagnostic workup that included brain CT or MRI, carotid

S. Kazui; C. R. Levi; E. F. Jones; L. Quang; P. Calafiore; G. A. Donnan



Long-Term Effects of International Educational Youth Exchange  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a research study of the long-term effects of a high school home-stay experience for German and American students who participated in the Youth For Understanding program in the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. With emphasis on the German sample, this paper (1) briefly describes the study's methodology, (2) provides an overview…

Bachner, David; Zeutschel, Ulrich



Perceptions of Abuse in the Long-Term Care Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although elder abuse has received much attention in recent years, little is known about long-term care staff perceptions of active and passive abuse. Health care professionals (N=72) responsible for direct care of patients within a 275-bed skilled nursing facility completed questionnaires on elder abuse. Responses were from physicians (N=6),…

Gupta, D.; And Others


Expansion of Long-Term Care in the Prison System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the United States, departments of corrections are experiencing increases in their inmate populations. More specifically, the number of aging inmates is increasing and will continue to grow as younger prisoners who have long sentences with no possibility of parole age in prison. In addition, the number of younger inmates with illnesses such as AIDS has increased. Although long-term care

Cynthia Massie Mara



Consolidation of Long-Term Memory: Evidence and Alternatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory loss in retrograde amnesia has long been held to be larger for recent periods than for remote periods, a pattern usually referred to as the Ribot gradient. One explanation for this gradient is consolidation of long-term memories. Several computational models of such a process have shown how consolidation can explain characteristics of…

Meeter, Martijn; Murre, Jaap M. J.



Comorbid psychiatric diagnosis and long-term drinking outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study of alcoholics investigated which psychiatric comorbidities among alcoholics would predict very long-term drinking outcome. Previous research has yielded inconsistent findings. We hypothesized that antisocial personality characteristics alone among psychiatric comorbidities would show an association with poorer drinking outcome. The use of multiple measures of psychopathology, a relatively large sample size, and an absence of systematic treatment matching

Edward E. Hunter; Barbara J. Powell; Elizabeth C. Penick; E. Jeanne Nickel; Barry I. Liskow; Peggy J. Cantrell; Jennifer F. Landon



Understanding the long-term effects of species invasions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the ecological and evolutionary processes that modulate the effects of invasive species over time, and argue that such processes are so widespread and important that ecologists should adopt a long-term perspective on the effects of invasive species. These processes (including evolution, shifts in species composition, accumulation of materials and interactions with abiotic variables) can increase, decrease, or

David L. Strayer; Valerie T. Eviner; Jonathan M. Jeschke; Michael L. Pace



Psychosocial Mediators of Long-Term Abstinence Following Smoking Cessation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well known that many smokers who quit during cessation programs relapse soon after leaving treatment. To investigate the relationship of health locus of control, social support, nonsmoking areas, and objecting to another person's smoking to relapse and long-term maintenance of nonsmoking, male (N=70) and female (N=149) subjects participated…

Horwitz, Michael B.; And Others


The Long-Term Outcome of Medical Therapy for BPH  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe lack of cure with medical therapy implies life-long treatment emphasising the need for a thorough understanding of the long-term outcome. We review the natural history, markers for progression, placebo effect, efficacy, pharmacoeconomic aspects, and preventive measures.

Stephan Madersbacher; Martin Marszalek; Jakob Lackner; Peter Berger; Georg Schatzl



Long-term effects of international migration: Lessons from Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper shows that characteristics of immigrants at the time of immigration affect both long-term occupational achievements and income at the end of the labor force career, after age 59. Data representing 174,000 Jewish males 60 and older from a 1985 survey by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics are analyzed to show how the timing of immigration, the number

Moshe Hartman; Harriet Hartman



Long-term outcome in 134 patients with galactosaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a retrospective study 134 galactosaemic patients, born between 1955 and 1989 in the Federal Republic of Germany were traced and their long-term outcome evaluated. We investigated 83 galactosaemic patients (78 homozygotes, 5 compound heterozygotes) by clinical, psychometric and laboratory testing; 31 patients were evaluated by medical history, the remaining 20 patients had died due to sequelae of the underlying

S. Schweitzer; Y. Shin; C. Jakobs; J. Brodehl



The Basics of Long-Term Debt Issuance and Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issuing long-term debt can be a complex, multifaceted process. Although the process varies by stare, typically the school business official and the district solicitor work with the financing ream, which includes a financial adviser, bond counsel, underwriter, raring agency, and possibly a bond insurance agent, paying agent, and architect.…

Van Meter, Christine M.



A crop profitability analysis for long-term crop investments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Crop Profitability Analysis (CPA) computer program is designed to help agricultural producers make long-run cropping decisions. CPA uses previously generated enterprise budgets to establish a base from which producers can analyze the potential profitability of perennial crops with establishment periods, such as orchard, berry, and vineyard crops, or the feasibility of long-term crop rotations. CPA permits up to a

Clark Seavert; Herbert Hinman; Karen Klonsky



Long-Term Feasibility of Agriculture in Zambia  

E-print Network

Long-Term Feasibility of Agriculture in Zambia Julio Herrera Estrada1, Prof. Eric Wood2, Prof on Agriculture Climate change is having impacts on many meteorological variables and characteristics to these changes, especially those related to rain. Agriculture is crucial for developing countries both

Petta, Jason


Welfare Reform and the Long-Term Care Workforce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported in this paper examined the role of welfare reform in increasing the availability of entry-level workers to meet the rising demand for long-term care employees. Findings from national and statewide evaluations of welfare programs show mixed results in the extent to which beneficiaries could be shifted from welfare caseloads to…

Filinson, Rachel; Cone, Donna; Ray, Eileen



BDA conferenceLong term periodontal problems – the chemotherapeutic aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the fourth article in a series written by a selection of experts who willl be speaking at this year's National Dental Conference: Best Practice 2001. In this issue, Professor R. M. Palmer explores what we should be telling our patients about long-term periodontal problems.

R M Palmer