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Beneficial effects of a long-term oral L-arginine treatment added to a hypocaloric diet and exercise training program in obese, insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic patients.  


Because chronic L-arginine supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and endothelial function in nonobese type 2 diabetic patients, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a long-term oral L-arginine therapy on adipose fat mass (FM) and muscle free-fat mass (FFM) distribution, daily glucose levels, insulin sensitivity, endothelial function, oxidative stress, and adipokine release in obese type 2 diabetic patients with insulin resistance who were treated with a combined period of hypocaloric diet and exercise training. Thirty-three type 2 diabetic patients participated in a hypocaloric diet plus an exercise training program for 21 days. Furthermore, they were divided into two groups in randomized order: the first group was also treated with L-arginine (8.3 g/day), and the second group was treated with placebo. Although in the placebo group body weight, waist circumference, daily glucose profiles, fructosamine, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment index significantly decreased, L-arginine supplementation further decreased FM (P < 0.05) and waist circumference (P < 0.0001), preserving FFM (P < 0.03), and improved mean daily glucose profiles (P < 0.0001) and fructosamine (P < 0.03). Moreover, change in area under the curve of cGMP (second messenger of nitric oxide; P < 0.001), superoxide dismutase (index of antioxidant capacity; P < 0.01), and adiponectin levels (P < 0.02) increased, whereas basal endothelin-1 levels (P < 0.01) and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (P < 0.05) decreased in the L-arginine group. Long-term oral L-arginine treatment resulted in an additive effect compared with a diet and exercise training program alone on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, it improved endothelial function, oxidative stress, and adipokine release in obese type 2 diabetic patients with insulin resistance. PMID:16772327

Lucotti, Pietro; Setola, Emanuela; Monti, Lucilla D; Galluccio, Elena; Costa, Sabrina; Sandoli, Emilia P; Fermo, Isabella; Rabaiotti, Giovanni; Gatti, Roberto; Piatti, PierMarco



Oral L-Arginine Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion to Improve Glucose Tolerance in Male Mice.  


Pharmacological and surgical interventions that increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) action are effective to improve glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In light of this, nutritional strategies to enhance postprandial GLP-1 secretion, particularly in the context of diet-induced obesity, may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. Importantly, recent evidence suggests the amino acid l-arginine, a well-known insulin secretagogue, can also stimulate release of GLP-1 from isolated rat intestine. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral l-arginine acts as a GLP-1 secretagogue in vivo, to augment postprandial insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance. To test this, we administered l-arginine or vehicle by oral gavage, immediately prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in lean and diet-induced obese mice. In both lean and obese mice oral l-arginine increased plasma GLP-1 and insulin and substantially improved glucose clearance. To directly assess the contribution of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-signaling to these improvements, l-arginine was given to Glp1r knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. In this experiment oral l-arginine significantly augmented insulin secretion and improved glucose clearance in WT mice, but not in Glp1r knockout littermates. Taken together these findings identify l-arginine as a GLP-1 secretagogue in vivo and demonstrate that improvement of glucose tolerance by oral l-arginine depends on GLP-1R-signaling. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that l-arginine-based nutritional and/or pharmaceutical therapies may benefit glucose tolerance by improving the postprandial GLP-1 response in obese individuals. PMID:23959939

Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P; Woods, Stephen C; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Seeley, Randy J; D'Alessio, David A; Ryan, Karen K



Oral L-arginine supplementation in cystic fibrosis patients: a placebo-controlled  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is decreased in cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of oral L- arginine, the precursor of enzymatic nitric oxide (NO) formation, on airway NO in patients with CF was studied. In a pilot study, oral L-arginine was given in a single dose of 200 mg?kg-1 body weight to eight healthy controls and eight CF patients. Subsequently, the

H. Grasemann; C. Grasemann; F. Kurtz; G. Tietze-Schillings; U. Vester; F. Ratjen


Effect of oral L-arginine on oxidant stress, endothelial dysfunction, and systemic arterial pressure in young cardiac transplant recipients.  


Oral L-arginine therapy reverses endothelial dysfunction and attenuates high blood pressure in hypertensive cardiac transplant recipients. L-arginine corrects derangements in the vascular endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-dependent signaling pathway. Our data support the concept that cardiac transplant recipients use excess endogenous NO from L-arginine supplementation to buffer increased vascular oxidant stress. PMID:15374803

Lim, D Scott; Mooradian, Stephen J; Goldberg, Caren S; Gomez, Carlen; Crowley, Dennis C; Rocchini, Albert P; Charpie, John R



Oral health in long-term care  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an investigation designed to compare extant models of delivering oral health and dental services to the institutionalized elderly revealed that structural variables explained very little of the difference between effective and ineffective programs, secondary analytic techniques were employed to consider alternative explanations. The original study was a program evaluation based on a comparative case study of 12 long-term care

Sally E. Thorne; Arminee Kazanjian; Michael I. MacEntee



Effect of oral l-arginine on blood pressure and symptoms and endothelial function in patients with systemic hypertension, positive exercise tests, and normal coronary arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen hypertensive patients with microvascular angina were studied before and after receiving oral l-arginine (4 weeks, 2 g, 3 times daily). l-arginine significantly improved angina class, systolic blood pressure at rest, and quality of life. Maximal forearm blood flow, plasma l-arginine, l-arginine:asymmetric dimethyl arginine ratio, and cyclic guanylate monophosphate increased significantly after treatment. In medically treated hypertensive patients with micro-vascular

Altin Palloshi; Gabriele Fragasso; PierMarco Piatti; Lucilla D. Monti; Emanuela Setola; Giampiero Valsecchi; Elena Galluccio; Sergio L. Chierchia; Alberto Margonato



Oral L-arginine supplementation impacts several reproductive parameters during the postpartum period in mares.  


L-arginine is an amino acid which can alter pituitary function and increase blood flow to the reproductive tract. The objective was to determine the effect of supplementing 100g of L-arginine on plasma arginine concentrations, follicular dynamics and ovarian and uterine artery blood flow during the estrus that occurs subsequent to foaling. In Experiment 1, mares were fed 100g L-arginine for 1 day during the last 3 weeks of pregnancy and plasma samples taken for every hour for the first 4h and every other hour until 12h.L-arginine supplementation elevated plasma arginine concentrations from 1 to 8h post feeding; arginine peaked at 6h (arginine: 515±33?mol/L; control: 80±33?mol/L). In Experiment 2, mares received either 100g L-arginine or control diets beginning 21 d before the expected foaling date and continued for 30 d postpartum. The reproductive tract was evaluated by transrectal Doppler ultrasonography from Day 1 postpartum through Day 30. There were no differences in ovarian follicular dynamics, ovarian or uterine resistance indices between groups. Vascular perfusion of the F1 follicular wall was greater in L-arginine supplemented mares (37.3±2.6%) than controls (25.4±2.7%; P<0.05). L-arginine supplemented mares had a smaller uterine body and horns and accumulated less uterine fluid than controls (P<0.05). The combination of reducing uterine fluid accumulation, while not altering follicular development, raises the possible use of L-arginine supplementation as a breeding management tool during the postpartum period to increase reproductive success. PMID:23523236

Kelley, Dale E; Warren, Lori K; Mortensen, Christopher J



Oral Supplementation of L-Arginine Prevents Chronic Cyclosporine Nephrotoxicity in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to evaluate the effect of L-arginine (L-Arg) on the prevention of chronic cyclosporine (CsA) nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats pair-fed a low-salt diet (0.05%) were given CsA (15 mg\\/kg\\/day s.c.), CsA and L-Arg (L-Arg group, 1.25 g\\/l water), CsA and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME group, 70 mg\\/l water) or vehicle. After 28 days, the L-Arg group had

Chul Woo Yang; Yong Soo Kim; Jin Kim; Young Ok Kim; So Youn Min; Euy Jin Choi; Byung Kee Bang



The acute effects of a low and high dose of oral L-arginine supplementation in young active males at rest.  


L-arginine (2-amino-5-guanidinovaleric acid) is a conditionally essential amino acid. Intravenous (IV) administration of l-arginine invokes a large metabolic (nitrate/nitrite (NO(x))) and hormonal (growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin) response; however, research examining oral l-arginine supplementation is conflicting, potentially owing to dose. The purpose of this study was examine a low and high dose of oral l-arginine on blood l-arginine, NO(x), GH, IGF-1, and insulin response. Fourteen physically active males (age: 25 ± 5 years; weight: 78.0 ± 8.5 kg; height: 179.4 ± 4.7 cm) volunteered to be in a randomized, double-blind, repeated-measures study. Following an overnight fast, an IV catheter was placed in a forearm vein and a resting blood sample was drawn at ?0800 hours. Each subject was then provided 1 of 3 treatment conditions (placebo, low (0.075 g·kg(-1) of body mass), or high (0.15 g·kg(-1) of body mass of l-arginine)). Blood samples were drawn at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min after consumption. l-arginine plasma concentrations significantly increased (p < 0.001) to a similar level at any time point in both the low- and high-dose conditions; there was no change over time in the placebo condition. There was no significant difference between conditions for NO(x), GH, IGF-1, or insulin. Based on these findings, a low dose of l-arginine was just as effective at increasing plasma l-arginine concentrations as a high dose; however, neither dose was able to promote a significant increase in NO(x), GH, IGF-1, or insulin at rest. PMID:21574873

Forbes, Scott C; Bell, Gordon J



Long-Term Outcome of Individuals Treated With Oral Insulin  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the long-term intervention effects of oral insulin on the development of type 1 diabetes and to assess the rate of progression to type 1 diabetes before and after oral insulin treatment was stopped in the Diabetes Prevention Trial–Type 1 (DPT-1). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The follow-up included subjects who participated in the early intervention of oral insulin (1994–2003) to prevent or delay type 1 diabetes. A telephone survey was conducted in 2009 to determine whether diabetes had been diagnosed and, if not, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and autoantibody levels were obtained on all subjects who agreed to participate. RESULTS Of 372 subjects randomized, 97 developed type 1 diabetes before follow-up; 75% of the remaining 275 subjects were contacted. In the interim, 77 subjects had been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and 54 of the remainder have had an OGTT; 10 of these were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, subsequently. Among individuals meeting the original criteria for insulin autoantibodies (IAAs) (?80 nU/mL), the overall benefit of oral insulin remained significant (P = 0.05). However, the hazard rate in this group increased (from 6.4% [95% CI 4.5–9.1] to 10.0% [7.1–14.1]) after cessation of therapy, which approximated the rate of individuals treated with placebo (10.2% [7.1–14.6]). CONCLUSIONS Overall, the oral insulin treatment effect in individuals with confirmed IAA ?80 nU/mL appeared to be maintained with additional follow-up; however, once therapy stopped, the rate of developing diabetes in the oral insulin group increased to a rate similar to that in the placebo group.

Vehik, Kendra; Cuthbertson, David; Ruhlig, Holly; Schatz, Desmond A.; Peakman, Mark; Krischer, Jeffrey P.



Increase in fasting vascular endothelial function after short-term oral L-arginine is effective when baseline flow-mediated dilation is low: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous trials suggest that oral L-arginine adminis- tration affects endothelial function. However, most of these studies were small, the conclusions were inconsistent, and the precise ef- fects are therefore debatable. Objective: The objective was to assess the effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on endothelial function, as measured with the use of fasting flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Design: We conducted a

Yongyi Bai; Lan Sun; Tao Yang; Kai Sun; Jingzhou Chen; Rutai Hui


Correction of endothelial dysfunction in chronic heart failure: additional effects of exercise training and oral L-arginine supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe aim of this study was to analyze whether L-arginine (L-arg.) has comparable or additive effects to physical exercise regarding endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).BACKGROUNDEndothelial dysfunction in patients with CHF can be corrected by both dietary supplementation with L-arg. and regular physical exercise.METHODSForty patients with severe CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction 19 ± 9%) were randomized

Rainer Hambrecht; Lutz Hilbrich; Sandra Erbs; Stephan Gielen; Eduard Fiehn; Nina Schoene; Gerhard Schuler





... provider. Chest pain associated with coronary artery disease (angina pectoris). Taking L-arginine seems to decrease symptoms and ... loss of effect of nitroglycerin in people with angina pectoris. Problems with erections of the penis (erectile dysfunction). ...


Improving oral care practice in long-term care.  


At Deer Lodge Centre, oral care practice for adult dependent patients often included the use of sponge swabs and liquid mouth rinse, but the facility had no formal policy outlining best practice. The authors sought to develop such a policy by answering two main questions: Are sponge swabs effective in cleaning the oral cavity? What oral care is required for individuals with dysphagia and those who depend on others for oral care? After a review of the literature for pertinent guidance, a new protocol for oral care, based on tooth brushing and use of antibacterial gel, was implemented for one care unit. Patients showed improvements in oral health, specifically reductions in tartar, swollen and bleeding gums, ulcerations, debris and severe halitosis. Staff members were initially resistant to change, but resistance declined as they witnessed the benefits of tooth brushing. The use of sponge swabs also declined. This intervention confirmed that tooth brushing is appropriate as the gold standard of good oral care and showed that sponge swabs are ineffective for removing plaque. These principles have become the foundation of oral care policies and care plans at this facility. PMID:23193758

Dyck, Daryl; Bertone, Mary; Knutson, Kim; Campbell, Amy



Changes in carbohydrate tolerance during long-term oral contraception.  


An intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT) was given to 116 women--82 nondiabetic subjects (NDS) and 34 diabetes suspects--before they received Ovulen for oral contraception. Subjects were followed for 1 to 4 years during Ovulen therapy. Twenty women using an intrauterine device showed no changes in glucose tolerance. Prompt, significant decline in tolerance was noted in NDS, persisting for the duration of the study. At least one abnormal test, indicating chemical diabetes, was noted in 13 per cent of the NDS. Similarly, prompt decline in tolerance, although not statistically significant, was observed in the suspect group. Fifteen per cent of suspects had at least one abnormal test. Chemical diabetes persisted during Ovulen therapy in suspects but not in NDS. No overt diabetes occurred. Based on greater concern regarding suspects, a procedure for monitoring carbohydrate tolerance is proposed for this group. PMID:1163574

Posner, N A; Silverstone, F A; Tobin, E H; Breuer, J



Prevention of oral disease for long-term care and homebound elderly.  


Despite the fact that many oral diseases afflicting the long-term care or homebound elderly are preventable or treatable, many older people do not seek available treatment, or their oral health care needs are not being met. The dental profession must, therefore, increase the preventative dental awareness of elders and make preventative and treatment services more accessible to this population. Interdisciplinary training and collaborative efforts among the dental profession, medical profession and caregivers are necessary in preventing oral disease for this geriatric population, which would improve not just oral health, but overall systemic health as well, thereby improving their quality of life. PMID:21053641

Lambert, Nicole Madison; Tepper, Lynn M


L-Arginine Supplementation in Peripheral Arterial Disease No Benefit and Possible Harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—L-Arginine is the precursor of endothelium-derived nitric oxide, an endogenous vasodilator. L-Arginine supplementation improves vascular reactivity and functional capacity in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in small, short-term studies. We aimed to determine the effects of long-term administration of L-arginine on vascular reactivity and functional capacity in patients with PAD. Methods and Results—The Nitric Oxide in Peripheral Arterial Insufficiency (NO-PAIN) study

Andrew M. Wilson; Randall Harada; Nandini Nair; Naras Balasubramanian; John P. Cooke



Long-Term Safety of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate for Breakthrough Cancer Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This open-label study evaluated the long-term safety and tolerability of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) in ambulatory cancer patients with breakthrough pain undergoing cancer care at 32 university- or community-based practices. Patients had participated in a previous short-term titration trial of OTFC, were experiencing at least one episode per day of breakthrough pain, and had achieved relief of their breakthrough

Richard Payne; Paul Coluzzi; Lowell Hart; Mary Simmonds; Alan Lyss; Richard Rauck; Robert Berris; Michael A Busch; Earl Nordbrook; Diane B Loseth; Russell K Portenoy



Long-term effects of transdermal and oral hormone replacement therapy on postmenopausal bone loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is now an accepted form of treatment, but the long-term skeletal effects have not been assessed. Sixty-six early postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either transdermal HRT (continuous 17ß-oestradiol 0.05 mg\\/day, with 0.25 mg\\/day of norethisterone acetate added for 14 days of each 28-day cycle) or oral HRT (continuous conjugated equine oestrogens 0.625 mg\\/day, with

T. C. Hillard; S. J. Whitcroft; M. S. Marsh; M. C. Ellerington; B. Lees; M. I. Whitehead; J. C. Stevenson



l-Arginine stimulates intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte functions and immune response in chickens orally immunized with live intermediate plus strain of infectious bursal disease vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) continues to pose potential threat to poultry industry all over the world. The disease can spell disaster not only through its infection but also by break of immunity in chickens vaccinated for other diseases. l-Arginine, a ubiquitous, semi-essential amino acid has emerged as an imunostimulant from variety of human and animal studies. In the present study,

Chandrakant Tayade; Madhuri Koti; S. C. Mishra



Hormone excretion patterns during and ater the long-term administration of oral contraceptives.  


Hormone assay studies were conducted in 5 29-42 year old women receiving long-term oral contraceptive therapy with progestogen-estrogen mixtures and in 1 38-year-old subject receiving a progestogen along. The assays were made on 24-, 48-, or 72-hour pools of urine, and the results were expressed per 24-hour sample. Urinary estriol, estrone, estradiol, and prenganediol were determined. Urinary human pituitary gonadotropin (HPS) was determined, and the results were expressed in human menopausal gonadotropin units per 24 hours. In 5 subjects, assays of estrogens, preganediol, and HPG were performed; in the sixth subject, estrogen estimations were not conducted. The results, which confirmed those of a previous investigation, showed that pituitary inhibition was not produced despite long-term treatment and that, following medication withdrawal, the cycles reverted to an ovulatory pattern. In at least 2 women, the pattern of urinary steriod in the first cycle after treatment was atypical. PMID:5897062

Loraine, J A; Bell, E T; Harkness, R A; Mears, E; Jackson, M C



Racial differences in long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic drug therapy: a longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence to oral antidiabetic medications is often suboptimal. Adherence differences may contribute to health disparities for black diabetes patients, including higher microvascular event rates, greater complication-related disability, and earlier mortality. Methods In this longitudinal retrospective cohort study, we used 10 years of patient-level claims and electronic medical record data (1/1/1992–12/31/2001) to assess differences in short- and long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic medication among 1906 newly diagnosed adults with diabetes (26% black, 74% white) in a managed care setting in which all members have prescription drug coverage. Four main outcome measures included: (1) time from diabetes diagnosis until first prescription of oral antidiabetic medication; (2) primary adherence (time from first prescription to prescription fill); (3) time until discontinuation of oral antidiabetic medication from first prescription; and (4) long-term adherence (amount dispensed versus amount prescribed) over a 24-month follow-up from first oral antidiabetic medication prescription. Results Black patients were as likely as whites to initiate oral therapy and fill their first prescription, but experienced higher rates of medication discontinuation (HR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) and were less adherent over time. These black-white differences increased over the first six months of therapy but stabilized thereafter for patients who initiated on sulfonylureas. Significant black-white differences in adherence levels were constant throughout follow-up for patients initiated on metformin therapy. Conclusion Racial differences in adherence to oral antidiabetic drug therapy persist even with equal access to medication. Early and continued emphasis on adherence from initiation of therapy may reduce persistent racial differences in medication use and clinical outcomes.

Trinacty, Connie M; Adams, Alyce S; Soumerai, Stephen B; Zhang, Fang; Meigs, James B; Piette, John D; Ross-Degnan, Dennis



Skin necrosis during oral anticoagulant long-term treatment: an atypical side.  


The effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism, with regards to both acute phase and long term prophylaxis, in patients with recurrent deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and persistence of risk factors, has been confirmed by many studies. However, it is not free of complications such as hemorrhage or, more rarely, skin necrosis. The patient, observed by us since 1994, was treated with oral vitamin K antagonists: he was affected by post-thrombotic syndrome and deficiency of congenital procoagulant factors (factor II heterozygote and MTHFR positive heterozygote) and secondary deficiency of procoagulant factors due to the consumption of protein C, with appearance of skin necrosis that occurred after many years of oral anticoagulant treatment. The change of therapy from oral anticoagulant to low molecular weight heparin and the use of local dressing, led to the resolution of the clinical symptoms and on to healing. PMID:19190562

Antignani, P L; Schacther, I; Allegra, C



Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Combination of L-Arginine Glutamate and Yohimbine Hydrochloride: A New Oral Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The goal of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover, randomized clinical trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of the combination of 6g of L-arginine glutamate and 6mg of yohimbine hydrochloride (AY) with that of 6mg of yohimbine hydrochloride (YP) alone and that of placebo (PP) alone, for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED).Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients were

Thierry Lebret; Jean-Marie Hervé; Philippe Gorny; Manuel Worcel; Henry Botto



Long-term effect of chronic oral anticoagulation: focus on coronary artery disease.  


Coronary artery disease remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a disease burden that does not seem to have decreased significantly over time. Since their developments, oral drugs that are able to reduce the coagulation properties of blood (i.e., oral anticoagulants such as warfarin or dicoumarol) have been tested in thousands of patients with, or suspected with, coronary artery disease, however they have yielded disparate and conflicting results. The advent of oral antiplatelet agents has further put into a niche the apparent role of oral anticoagulant therapy in subjects with established coronary artery disease (i.e., in the setting of secondary prevention). However, the current and future role of oral anticoagulants in the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease remains very important, as testified to by the ongoing research by several major companies and investigators focusing on the development of novel oral anticoagulants. This review provides a succinct and updated appraisal of the long-term effects of chronic oral anticoagulation in the setting of coronary artery disease. PMID:19450052

Lotrionte, Marzia; Castagno, Davide; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Abbate, Antonio; Sangiorgi, Giuseppe; Sheiban, Imad; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe G L



Effect of Long-term Smoking on Whole-mouth Salivary Flow Rate and Oral Health  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Change in the resting whole-mouth salivary flow rate (SFR) plays a significant role in patho-genesis of various oral conditions. Factors such as smoking may affect SFR as well as the oral and dental health. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of smoking on SFR, and oral and dental health. Materials and methods One-hundred smokers and 100 non-tobacco users were selected as case and control groups, respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data and smoking habits. A previously used questionnaire about dry mouth was also employed. Then, after a careful oral examination, subjects’ whole saliva was collected in the resting condition. Data was analyzed by chi-square test using SPSS 15. Results The mean (±SD) salivary flow rate were 0.38 (± 0.13) ml/min in smokers and 0.56 (± 0.16) ml/min in non-smokers. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.00001). Also, 39% of smokers and 12% of non-smokers reported experiencing at least one xerostomia symptom, with statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.0001). Oral lesions including cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus and halitosis were significantly higher in smokers. Conclusion Our findings indicated that long-term smoking would significantly reduce SFR and increase oral and dental disorders associated with dry mouth, especially cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus, and halitosis.

Rad, Maryam; Kakoie, Shahla; Niliye Brojeni, Fateme; Pourdamghan, Nasim



Pilot program provides oral health services to long term care facility residents through service learning and community partnership.  


Old Dominion University School of Dental Hygiene in Norfolk, Virginia, created an innovative preventive oral health program at Lake Taylor Transitional Care Hospital, a long term care facility located in coastal Virginia. The program had two main short-term goals: to increase the number of residents who receive preventive and therapeutic oral health services and to enhance future dental hygienists' learning experience with this diverse vulnerable population through service learning. The anticipated long-term goals are to improve quality of oral health care and overall health of long term care residents, to prevent potential disease, and to reproduce this model at other long term care facilities to improve access to care. PMID:23375477

Lemaster, Margaret



Long-term improvement of musician's dystonia after stereotactic ventro-oral thalamotomy.  


OBJECTIVE: Musician's dystonia is a task-specific movement disorder that causes twisting or repetitive abnormal finger postures and movements, which tend to occur only while playing musical instruments. Such a movement disorder will probably lead to termination of the careers of affected professional musicians. Most of the currently available treatments have yet to provide consistent and satisfactory results. We present the long-term follow-up results of ventro-oral thalamotomy for 15 patients with musician's dystonia. METHODS: Between October 2003 and September 2010, 15 patients with medically intractable task-specific focal hand dystonia that occurred only while playing musical instruments underwent ventro-oral thalamotomy. We used Tubiana's musician's dystonia scale to evaluate the patients' pre- and postoperative neurological conditions. RESULTS: All patients except 1 (93%) experienced dramatic improvement of dystonic symptoms immediately after ventro-oral thalamotomy. The mean follow-up period was 30.8 months (range?=?4-108 months). None of the patients experienced recurrence or deterioration of symptoms during the follow-up periods. INTERPRETATION: Ventro-oral thalamotomy remarkably improved musician's dystonia, and the effect persisted for a long duration. Ann Neurol 2013. PMID:23463596

Horisawa, Shiro; Taira, Takaomi; Goto, Shinichi; Ochiai, Taku; Nakajima, Takeshi



Long term results of sentinel lymph node biopsy in early oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to evaluate the long term results of the sentinel node (SN) biopsy technique in the management of the clinically negative (N0) neck in patients with early oral squamous cell carcinoma (T1–T2). Patients with positive SN underwent neck dissection. A sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was performed on 31 consecutive patients. Six of the 31 patients were upstaged by the results of the SLN biopsy. The SLN biopsy allowed the identification of node metastasis in 100% of the cases with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 100%, and negative predictive value of 100%. There was a mean follow-up of 59 months. The neck control rate was 100% in the SLN negative group and two SLN positive patients developed subsequent neck disease (neck control rate of 88%). One SLN patient presented at the follow-up with a second primary tumor, 18 months later treated successfully by chemoradiotherapy. The overall survival rate was 100% in both groups. The promising reported short-term results have been sustained by long term follow-up. Patients with negative SLN achieved an excellent neck control rate. The neck control rate in SN negative patients was superior to that in SLN positive patients, but not statistically different.

Dequanter, Didier; Shahla, Mohammad; Paulus, Pascal; Lothaire, Philippe



Hepatocellular carcinoma coexisting with hepatic adenoma. Incidental discovery after long-term oral contraceptive use.  


In March 1989, ultrasonography revealed a hepatic mass in a 40 year old nulliparous woman who was then referred to the University of Southern California--Los Angeles (UCLA) Liver Unit. She exhibited no symptoms of a liver condition. From 19-28 years old, she took the combined oral contraceptive (OC) Ovulen 21 for irregular menses. After a brief period of taking Ortho Novum 1/80, she took Demulen 1/35-24 between ages 28-34. Her physician diagnoses endometriosis at 34. He stopped OC therapy and prescribed the progestin Norlutate. She had no history of hepatitis, toxin exposure, and previous liver disease. Further no one in her family had had liver disease or neoplasms. Computer tomography identified a 6.5 cm x 3.5 cm mass in the right lobe of the liver which matched a cold defect on a liver scan using technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. The mass selectively took up gallium. Arteriography revealed the mass to be a vascular tumor, but it did not exhibit a typical vascular pattern of an adenoma or the neovascularity of hepatocellular carcinoma. Physicians at UCLA used peritoneoscopy to take percutaneous needle biopsies of the right lobe which confirmed a hepatic adenoma. they then removed the right lobe of the liver. The remaining part of the liver was normal. Histologic examinations of the removed section showed features of a well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. Further tumor cells had invaded normal hepatic parenchyma. The physicians believed that hepatic adenoma was in the process of transforming into hepatocellular carcinoma in this patient. They thought that long term OC use, and possibly long term progestin use, may have contributed to the formation of the liver neoplasms. They emphasized the need for a pilot study to develop guidelines on surveillance ultrasonography of women taking OCs over a long period. PMID:1663298

Korula, J; Yellin, A; Kanel, G; Campofiori, G; Nichols, P



Long-term effectiveness of a prefabricated oral appliance for myofascial pain.  


The long-term effectiveness of a prefabricated oral appliance (R) was compared with a stabilisation appliance (S) in patients with myofascial pain. Sixty-five patients diagnosed with myofascial pain at two centres for Stomatognathic Physiology in Sweden and Finland were included in a randomised controlled trial using Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, with history questionnaires and clinical examinations performed by blinded examiners at baseline and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Patients were randomly assigned either to the R or the S group. Treatment outcome was measured according to IMMPACT for four chronic pain outcome domains: pain intensity, overall improvement, physical functioning and emotional functioning. Physical functioning was classified for Graded Chronic Pain severities and assessed by the Jaw Functional Limitation scale. Emotional functioning composed of scores of non-specific physical symptoms and depression. There were no differences between groups at baseline. At both follow-ups, all outcome domains showed significant within-group improvement, without significant differences between groups. At 12 months, 72% of all patients reported a 30% reduction in worst pain and 63% of the patients a 50% reduction in worst pain. Overall improvement 'better' to 'symptom-free' was observed in 81% in the R and 64% in the S group at the 12-month follow-up. Graded Chronic Pain, Functional Limitation of the Jaw, non-specific physical symptoms and depression showed statistically significant reduction at 12-month follow-up. Results support the hypothesis that the effectiveness of the prefabricated appliance is similar to that of the stabilisation appliance in the long-term when treating patients with myofascial pain. PMID:21985440

Doepel, M; Nilner, M; Ekberg, E; LE Bell, Y



Oral care for frail elders: knowledge, attitudes, and practices of long-term care staff.  


The University of British Columbia Geriatric Dentistry Program (GDP) offers dental services and provides a comprehensive in-service education program for nursing and residential care-aide (RCA) staff in the provision of daily mouth care for elders in various long-term care (LTC) facilities in Vancouver. This study examined the general impact of the education initiative at one LTC site. A survey (N=90), semi-structured open-ended interviews (N=26), and product audits were conducted to 1) examine the impact of the GDP education initiative on the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of RCAs and nursing staff regarding the provision of daily mouth care; 2) identify the enablers and barriers that influenced the provision of daily mouth care practices, policies, and protocols using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model of health promotion research; and 3) assess the self-perceptions of RCAs and nursing staff members regarding their oral health. A knowledge gap was evident in some key areas pertaining to prevention of dental diseases. Twenty-five percent of residents were missing toothbrushes and toothpaste for daily mouth care. Residents who exhibit resistance to mouth care tended not to receive regular care, while issues such as time, increased workload, limited staff, and the lack of an accountability structure are disenabling factors for provision of daily mouth care. Results suggest that the impact of educational interventions is affected by the quality of in-service education, an absence of identified predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors, and a strong commitment among LTC staff to the provision of daily mouth care for frail elders. PMID:19433533

Dharamsi, Shafik; Jivani, Khairun; Dean, Charmaine; Wyatt, Chris



Biological half-time and body burden of cadmium in dogs after a long-term oral administration of cadmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the kinetic behavior of cadmium, we conducted a long-term oral administration experiment, using beagle dogs.\\u000a The experimental animals were given a commercial diet and pelleted food containing 1, 3, 10, 50, and 100 mg of cadmium per\\u000a day in the form of cadmium chloride for 8 yr. A single injection of cadmium (as CdCl2) into dogs was also

Koji Matsuno; Yasushi Kodama; Kenzaburo Tsuchiya



[The guideline Oral Health Care for dependent residents in long term care facilities, 2007: dire necessity!  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral health status of residents in Dutch nursing homes is rather poor, especially of those depending on caregivers for their oral health care. Moreover, when care dependency is rising, the provision of good oral health care becomes more difficult. With more elderly people still having (parts of) their natural teeth, the need for good oral health care is increasing

GJ van der Putten; L De Visschere; J. van Obbergen; J. G. J. H. Schols; C. de Baat



Improving the oral health of older people in long-term residential care: a review of the literature.  


Background.? Unrefutable evidence now links poor oral health with the development of preventable systemic illnesses and debilitating conditions that threaten quality of life and life itself. This is especially significant for an increasing older population who are dependent on others for care. Aims and objectives.? The majority of studies analysing the oral health of older dependent people in long-term residential care have been undertaken by dental professionals. This critical literature review examines the issue from a nursing perspective because nursing care providers have a fundamental role in daily oral health provision for dependent residents. Conclusions.? Multiple barriers were found to negatively impact on daily oral healthcare provision, including lack of care provider education, oral health values, availability of resources, implementation of supportive policies, documentation and oral health assessment tools. Relevance to clinical practice.? The nursing profession, at all levels, must become pro-active in removing financial, political and workforce barriers that impact negatively on oral health outcomes. A multi-faceted approach is required to address these barriers, including development and implementation of oral health education programmes, assessment screening tools, care plans, documentation, supply of oral hygiene aids and the appointment of oral care 'champions'. PMID:20925809

Miegel, Karen; Wachtel, Tracey



Cholera toxin adjuvant promotes long-term immunological memory in the gut mucosa to unrelated immunogens after oral immunization.  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate whether cholera toxin (CT), used as a mucosal adjuvant, would promote the development in mice of immunological memory to unrelated antigens administered by the oral route. We found that oral priming immunizations with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) in combination with CT adjuvant induced long-term, at least 22 months and perhaps lifelong, immunological memory in the intestinal lamina propria (LP). In contrast, oral priming immunizations with KLH alone failed to stimulate immunological memory. Moreover, memory responses in the KLH plus CT-immunized mice were elicited by antigen alone, i.e. without CT adjuvant, suggesting that once immunological memory is established in the intestinal mucosa, e.g. by oral vaccination, elicitation of secondary-type responses does not require the presence of CT and thus could result from re-encounter with specific bacterial or viral antigens in the intestine. We also found that a single priming-dose of KLH plus CT adjuvant was sufficient to stimulate long-term, antigen-specific memory in the intestinal mucosa. Finally, the ability of CT to induce immunological memory in the gut mucosa required the whole toxin and could not be achieved by using the toxoid, the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), which lacks the adenylate cyclase/cAMP-activating property of the whole molecule. The results support the view that mucosal adjuvants, incorporated into oral vaccines, might be an effective means to achieve long-term immunological memory and protection against pathogenic micro-organisms at mucosal surfaces.

Vajdy, M; Lycke, N Y



L-Arginine and Nitric Oxide in CNS Function and Neurodegenerative Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main functions of L-arginine (ARG) is the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). NO is an important regulator of physiological processes in the central nervous system (CNS). NO promotes optimal cerebral blood flow, consolidates memory processes, facilitates long term potentiation, maintains sleep-wake cycles, and assists in normal olfaction. However, at pathological levels, NO adversely affects brain function producing

Mayur Virarkar; Lini Alappat; Peter G. Bradford; Atif B. Awad



Effects of long-term oral administration of DDT on nonhuman primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of reports on tumorigenic activity in different animal species exposed to DDT a decision was made in 1969 to evaluate\\u000a the long-term effects of DDT on 24 cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys. DDT (20?mg\\/kg) was given in the diet for 130?months, followed\\u000a by an observation period that ended in 1994. The two cases of malignant tumor detected in the DDT

Shozo Takayama; Susan M. Sieber; Dan W. Dalgard; Unnur P. Thorgeirsson; Richard H. Adamson



Olfactory stimulation using black pepper oil facilitates oral feeding in pediatric patients receiving long-term enteral nutrition.  


Patients with severe neurological disorders often require enteral nutrition (EN). Since long-term EN can cause multiple complications, reinstating the oral intake of food is beneficial. Olfactory stimulation using black pepper oil (BPO), a strong appetite stimulant, was reported to facilitate swallowing in older people. Therefore, the effects of olfactory stimulation with BPO were investigated in pediatric patients receiving long-term EN due to neurological disorders. The effects of scenting with BPO for 1 min immediately before every meal were evaluated in ten patients: 4 boys and 6 girls, aged 19-97 months (51 +/- 26 months). The neurological disorders included periventricular leukomalacia (3 patients), hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (3), Costello syndrome (1), Russell-Silver syndrome (1), Miller-Dieker syndrome (1), and cerebral palsy of unknown etiology (1). In eight of these patients, BPO intervention was continued for 3 months. Five of these eight patients showed increases in the amount of oral intake with desirable effects including facilitated swallowing movement, although complete elimination of the need for EN was not achieved. In the other three patients, BPO intervention was not effective; severe cerebral tissue loss, profound malformation or intractable seizures seemed to reduce the efficacy of BPO. In two cases, BPO intervention was discontinued due to cough or because the odor of BPO was unbearable to the family. In conclusion, olfactory stimulation with BPO facilitated oral intake in a subset of patients on long-term EN. BPO stimulation may be useful for facilitating oral intake when used in combination with conventional methods. PMID:18441508

Munakata, Mitsutoshi; Kobayashi, Kaori; Niisato-Nezu, Junko; Tanaka, Souichiro; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Ebihara, Takae; Ebihara, Satoru; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Onuma, Akira



A novel approach for long-term oral drug administration in animal research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of pharmacological research, the oral consumption of anastrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, when added to an animal's drinking water is hindered by poor drug palatability and environmental loss of drug solution. To overcome these caveats, we developed a novel approach for the oral delivery of anastrozole mixed in a solid hydration gel matrix that functions as a replacement

Cassia R. Overk; Jeffrey A. Borgia; Elliott J. Mufson



Effects of long-term oral administration of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on the immune functions of young rats.  


Natural killer (NK) cells have many functional activities, including cytotoxicity and the capacity to produce cytokines and chemokines. NK cell activity is regulated partly by eicosanoids, which are produced from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term therapy with ARA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the cytotoxic effects of the NK cells of young rats, which were fed on a nonfish oil diet for two generations. Control oil, ARA (240 mg/kg BW/day) or DHA (240 mg/kg BW/day) were orally administrated to the rats for 13 weeks before determining the cytotoxic activity of NK cells from the spleen against YAC-1 mouse lymphoma cell line, as well as the plasma levels of docosanoids or eicosanoids and inflammatory cytokines. Long-term ARA administration significantly suppressed the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Moreover, ARA administration significantly increased the plasma levels of ARA, prostaglandin (PG) E2, and PGD2. However, DHA administration did not produce any different effects compared with those in the control rats. Furthermore, the inflammatory cytokine levels were not affected by the administration of ARA or DHA. These results suggest that long-term ARA administration has an inhibitory effect on the tumor cytotoxicity of NK cells in rat spleen lymphocytes owing to the enhanced synthesis of PGE2 and PGD2 from ARA because of the elevated plasma ARA levels in young rats. PMID:23760060

Juman, Sachiko; Hashimoto, Michio; Katakura, Masanori; Inoue, Takayuki; Tanabe, Yoko; Arita, Makoto; Miki, Tomohiro; Shido, Osamu



Effects of Long-Term Oral Administration of Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Immune Functions of Young Rats  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells have many functional activities, including cytotoxicity and the capacity to produce cytokines and chemokines. NK cell activity is regulated partly by eicosanoids, which are produced from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term therapy with ARA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the cytotoxic effects of the NK cells of young rats, which were fed on a nonfish oil diet for two generations. Control oil, ARA (240 mg/kg BW/day) or DHA (240 mg/kg BW/day) were orally administrated to the rats for 13 weeks before determining the cytotoxic activity of NK cells from the spleen against YAC-1 mouse lymphoma cell line, as well as the plasma levels of docosanoids or eicosanoids and inflammatory cytokines. Long-term ARA administration significantly suppressed the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Moreover, ARA administration significantly increased the plasma levels of ARA, prostaglandin (PG) E2, and PGD2. However, DHA administration did not produce any different effects compared with those in the control rats. Furthermore, the inflammatory cytokine levels were not affected by the administration of ARA or DHA. These results suggest that long-term ARA administration has an inhibitory effect on the tumor cytotoxicity of NK cells in rat spleen lymphocytes owing to the enhanced synthesis of PGE2 and PGD2 from ARA because of the elevated plasma ARA levels in young rats.

Juman, Sachiko; Hashimoto, Michio; Katakura, Masanori; Inoue, Takayuki; Tanabe, Yoko; Arita, Makoto; Miki, Tomohiro; Shido, Osamu



Long-term oral nitrate therapy is associated with adverse outcome in diabetic patients following elective percutaneous coronary intervention  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the impact of long-term oral nitrate therapy on clinical outcome following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with type II diabetes. Methods The incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) following elective PCI for stable coronary artery disease was evaluated in 108 patients with type II diabetes (age 64.6 ± 10.5 years, 67.7% men). Major adverse cardiovascular events were defined as the need for revascularization, non-fatal myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of MACEs by clinical characteristics and the prescription of long-term nitrate therapy. Results Isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) was prescribed to 46 patients with an average dose of 44.3 ± 15.2 mg/day. After a mean follow up of 25.3 ± 25 months, 16 patients developed MACEs. Patients who received ISMN were more likely to suffer from MACEs (26.1% vs. 6.5%, P = 0.01), mainly driven by a higher rate of acute coronary syndrome (13.0 vs 0%, P = 0.01). Average daily dose of nitrate and other cardiovascular medication was not associated with MACEs. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that prescription of only ISMN (Hazard Ratio 3.09, 95% CI 1.10-10.21, P = 0.04) was an independent predictor for the development of MACEs. Conclusion Long-term oral nitrate therapy was associated with MACEs following elective coronary artery revascularization by PCI in patients with type II diabetes.



Long-term oral baclofen treatment in a child with cerebral palsy: electroencephalographic changes and clinical adverse effects.  


Baclofen is widely used to control spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. Several publications described clinical adverse effects of baclofen oral treatment, but the effect of baclofen on seizure potentiation is still controversial. We describe a 10-year-old female patient with cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and mental retardation who developed clinical adverse effects (confusion, agitated state, insomnia, diffuse hypotonia, and hyporeflexia) and electroencephalographic (EEG) changes (quasiperiodic, generalized burst of sharp waves that take up >50% of standard EEG) during long-term oral baclofen treatment, after gradually increasing the dosage but still within the therapeutic dose. Our case showed clearly that the EEG changes in our patient, with a history of epilepsy in good control, have been induced by the baclofen increase, and we describe the possible mechanisms that could explain proconvulsive effect of baclofen. PMID:20139400

De Rinaldis, Marta; Losito, Luciana; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio



Long-term oral intake through a salivary bypass tube with chronic pharyngocutaneous fistula.  


Pharyngocutaneous fistulae (PCFs) are a common complication after total laryngectomy. Patients with persistent PCFs are often kept nil by mouth and are dependent on feedings via a gastric tube. Our patient is a 65-year-old man who presented to our clinic in 2008 having a persistent PCF after a total laryngectomy who failed numerous attempts at reconstruction. We inserted a salivary bypass tube as a method of spanning the PCF and advanced his oral diet. He has been able to tolerate a regular diet 30 months postoperatively with no dysphagia and has gained weight. This is a demonstration of salivary bypass tubes as a useful adjunct to maintain oral intake in the presence of a persistent PCF. PMID:22673096

Gooi, Zhen; Richmon, Jeremy



Effects of oral amino acid supplementation on long-term-care-acquired infections in elderly patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The very high general infection rate (IRI) observed in our Geriatric Intensive Rehabilitation Center (GIRC) led us to investigate whether patient supplementation with essential amino acids (EAAs), modulators of immuno-competence, could reduce IRI. Eighty elderly patients admitted to our GIRC (n=40; age 79.5±7.71; male\\/female 14\\/26) or placebo (n=40; age 82.13±6.15; male\\/female 13\\/27) were allocated to an 8g\\/day oral EAAs group

Roberto Aquilani; Ginetto Carlo Zuccarelli; Francesco Saverio Dioguardi; Paola Baiardi; Antonio Frustaglia; Carla Rutili; Elena Comi; Michele Catani; Paolo Iadarola; Simona Viglio; Annalisa Barbieri; Luca D’Agostino; Manuela Verri; Evasio Pasini; Federica Boschi



Long-term effectiveness of oral vanadyl sulphate in streptozotocin-diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Recent studies have demonstrated the insulin-like effects of oral vanadyl sulphate in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat, including the amelioration of hyperglycaemia and the prevention of diabetes-related cardiac and adipose tissue dysfunction. However, the possibility that vanadyl treatment, routinely initiated at 3 days after the induction of diabetes, had prevented the full cytotoxic destruction of the beta cell, and thus accounted for

M. C. Cam; R. A. Pederson; R. W. Brownsey; J. H. McNeill



A study of the long-term efficacy and tolerability of oral nicardipine in hypertensive patients.  


This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of oral nicardipine in 91 patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension over a period of 12 months. All patients started on a fixed nicardipine dose of 30 mg three times daily which was adjusted in the range 10-40 mg three times daily, where necessary to achieve a target diastolic blood pressure less than 95 mm Hg. At 6 weeks, blood pressure (mean +/- s.e. mean) was reduced from an average of 190 +/- 22/112 +/- 8 to 167 +/- 23/96 +/- 11 mm Hg supine and from 180 +/- 21/113 +/- 7 to 154 +/- 17/95 +/- 11 mm Hg standing and remained controlled in all patients throughout the study. A total of 96 unwanted experiences were reported by 49 patients (54%); 17 (19%) reported a single symptom once and two (2%) reported a single symptom more than once. The most frequently reported adverse experiences were peripheral oedema in 27 (28%) and headaches in 15 patients (16%). The majority of the adverse experiences occurred in the first 3 months of treatment. Ten patients (11%) withdrew from the study during this time and eight (9%) in the subsequent 9 months because of drug-related side effects; five others (5%) withdrew for unrelated reasons. The incidence of adverse experiences was dose-related. Three patients reported unwanted effects on 10 mg three times daily, eight on 20 mg three times daily, 36 on 30 mg three times daily, and 12 on 40 mg three times daily oral nicardipine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3940158

Taylor, S H; Frais, M A; Lee, P; Verma, S P; Jackson, N; Reynolds, G; Silke, B



Disabled patients and oral health in Rome, Italy: long-term evaluation of educational initiatives  

PubMed Central

Summary This study is concerned with the educational intervention layout proposed as a possible answer for the disparities in healthcare services for disabled persons. Material and methods The data sampling was performed on individuals in Rome, affected by psychophysical disabilities, living in residential care facilities. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: Study and Control Group, consisting of patients who did or did not participate in the Educational Phase. All the caregivers participated in an educational course. Screening period: September 2008 – March 2009. Examinations were performed using Visible Plaque Index (VPI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Microbiological Analysis. Results The total number of patients utilized for the study was 36 (18 in each group). The final sample amounted to 70% (14/20) in the Study Group and to 75% (15/20) in the Control Group. In both examined groups Oral Hygiene, Gingival Health State and Microbiological Analysis show an overall improvement of the indices, compared with the initial status, mostly at a follow-up after 4 weeks. However, Study Group show a significantly better improvement. Conversely, after 6 months the overall clinical indices worsened again. Conclusion The difference in the significant improvements of the groups, even if only over a short-time evaluation, endorses that the participation of the patients as well as tutors in the educational phase is an effective strategy for the short-term.

Avenali, Laura; Guerra, Fabrizio; Cipriano, Luigi; Corridore, Denise; Ottolenghi, Livia



Effect of L-arginine supplement on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to be a key mediator in hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. NO is the oxidative metabolite of L-arginine, and is produced by a family of enzymes, collective termed nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Thus, administration of L-arginine might enhance liver regeneration after a hepatectomy. Another amino acid, L-glutamine, which plays an important role in catabolic states and is a crucial factor in various cellular and organ functions, is widely known to enhance liver regeneration experimentally. Thus, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of an L-arginine supplement on liver regeneration, and to compared this with supplementation with L-glutamine and L-alanine (the latter as a negative control), using a rat partial hepatectomy model. Methods Before and after a 70% hepatectomy, rats received one of three amino acid solutions (L-arginine, L-glutamine, or L-alanine). The effects on liver regeneration of the administered solutions were examined by assessment of restituted liver mass, staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and total RNA and DNA content 24 and 72 hours after the operation. Results At 72 hours after the hepatectomy, the restituted liver mass, the PCNA labeling index and the DNA quantity were all significantly higher in the L-arginine and L-glutamine groups than in the control. There were no significant differences in those parameters between the L-arginine and L-glutamine groups, nor were any significant differences found between the L-alanine group and the control. Conclusion Oral supplements of L-arginine and L-glutamine enhanced liver regeneration after hepatectomy in rats, suggesting that an oral arginine supplement can clinically improve recovery after a major liver resection.



The Effect of Resistance Exercise to Augment Long-Term Benefits of Intradialytic Oral Nutritional Supplementation in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective We tested the hypothesis that long-term resistance exercise combined with intradialytic oral nutrition (IDON) supplementation will improve markers of muscle mass and strength further compared to IDON alone in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Outpatient Dialysis Unit at an academic center. Main outcome measure Lean body mass (LBM). Muscle strength and other nutritional parameters were measured as secondary outcomes. Patients Thirty-two participants (age 43±13 yrs, 21 male) on CHD Design Subjects were randomly assigned to IDON plus resistance exercise (NS+EX) or IDON (NS) alone for 6 months. IDON consisted of a lactose-free formula consisting of protein, carbohydrate and fat. Three sets of 12 repetitions of leg-press were completed prior to each dialysis session in the NS+EX arm. Results 22 out of 32 participants completed the 6-month intervention. There were no statistically significant differences between the study interventions with respect to changes in LBM and body weight when comparing NS+EX to NS. There were also no statistically significant differences in any of the secondary outcomes measured in the study. Body weight (80.3±16.6 kg, 81.1±17.5 kg and 80.9±18.2 kg at baseline, month 3 and month 6, respectively, P=0.02) and 1-Repetition Maximum (468±148 lb, 535±144 lb, 552±142 lb, respectively, P=0.001) increased statistically significantly during the study for all patients combined. Conclusion This study did not show further benefits of additional resistance exercise on long-term somatic protein accretion above and beyond nutritional supplementation alone. When both treatments groups were combined, body weight and muscle strength improved during the study.

Dong, Jie; Sundell, Mary B.; Pupim, Lara B.; Wu, Pingsheng; Shintani, Ayumi; Ikizler, T. Alp



Point-of-Care International Normalized Ratio (INR) Monitoring Devices for Patients on Long-term Oral Anticoagulation Therapy  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Subject of the Evidence-Based Analysis The purpose of this evidence based analysis report is to examine the safety and effectiveness of point-of-care (POC) international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring devices for patients on long-term oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Long-term OAT is typically required by patients with mechanical heart valves, chronic atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or peripheral arterial occlusion. It is estimated that approximately 1% of the population receives anticoagulation treatment and, by applying this value to Ontario, there are an estimated 132,000 patients on OAT in the province, a figure that is expected to increase with the aging population. Patients on OAT are regularly monitored and their medications adjusted to ensure that their INR scores remain in the therapeutic range. This can be challenging due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin and variation in individual responses. Optimal INR scores depend on the underlying indication for treatment and patient level characteristics, but for most patients the therapeutic range is an INR score of between 2.0 and 3.0. The current standard of care in Ontario for patients on long-term OAT is laboratory-based INR determination with management carried out by primary care physicians or anticoagulation clinics (ACCs). Patients also regularly visit a hospital or community-based facility to provide a venous blood samples (venipuncture) that are then sent to a laboratory for INR analysis. Experts, however, have commented that there may be under-utilization of OAT due to patient factors, physician factors, or regional practice variations and that sub-optimal patient management may also occur. There is currently no population-based Ontario data to permit the assessment of patient care, but recent systematic reviews have estimated that less that 50% of patients receive OAT on a routine basis and that patients are in the therapeutic range only 64% of the time. Overview of POC INR Devices POC INR devices offer an alternative to laboratory-based testing and venipuncture, enabling INR determination from a fingerstick sample of whole blood. Independent evaluations have shown POC devices to have an acceptable level of precision. They permit INR results to be determined immediately, allowing for more rapid medication adjustments. POC devices can be used in a variety of settings including physician offices, ACCs, long-term care facilities, pharmacies, or by the patients themselves through self-testing (PST) or self-management (PSM) techniques. With PST, patients measure their INR values and then contact their physician for instructions on dose adjustment, whereas with PSM, patients adjust the medication themselves based on pre-set algorithms. These models are not suitable for all patients and require the identification and education of suitable candidates. Potential advantages of POC devices include improved convenience to patients, better treatment compliance and satisfaction, more frequent monitoring and fewer thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications. Potential disadvantages of the device include the tendency to underestimate high INR values and overestimate low INR values, low thromboplastin sensitivity, inability to calculate a mean normal PT, and errors in INR determination in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies with certain instruments. Although treatment satisfaction and quality of life (QoL) may improve with POC INR monitoring, some patients may experience increased anxiety or preoccupation with their disease with these strategies. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions 1. Effectiveness Does POC INR monitoring improve clinical outcomes in various settings compared to standard laboratory-based testing? Does POC INR monitoring impact patient satisfaction, QoL, compliance, acceptability, convenience compared to standard laboratory-based INR determination? Settings include primary care settings with use of POC INR dev



Oral toxicity of 1,2-dichloropropane: Acute, short-term, and long-term studies in rats  

SciTech Connect

The investigation characterized the acute and short- and long-term toxic potency of orally administered 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP). In the acute and short-term studies, male rats of 250-300 g were gavaged with 0, 100, 250, 500, or 1000 mg DCP/kg in corn oil once daily for up to 10 consecutive days. Although ingestion of DCP caused body weight loss and CNS depression, few other toxic effects were manifest 24 hr after a single dose of the chemical. Morphological changes were limited to liver centrilobular cells in 500 and 1000 mg/kg rats. Similarly, elevated activity of some serum enzymes occurred only at these two highest dose levels. Hepatic nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPS) levels were decreased and renal NPS levels increased at 24 hr. In the short-term study resistance developed to DCP hepatotoxicity over the 10 consecutive days of exposure, as reflected by progressively lower serum enzyme levels and by decreases in the severity and incidence of toxic hepatitis and periportal vacuolization. Nucleolar enlargement in hepatocytes, however, was observed at all dosage levels at 5 and 10 days. There were a number of manifestations of hemolytic anemia, including erythrophagocytosis in the liver, splenic hemosiderosis and hyperplasia of erythropoietic elements of the red pulp, renal tubular cell hemosiderosis, and hyperbilirubinemia.

Bruckner, J.V.; MacKenzie, W.F.; Ramanathan, R.; Muralidhara, S.; Kim, H.J.



Atorvastatin but not l-arginine improves endothelial function in type I diabetes mellitus: a double-blind study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESWe sought to determine the effects of oral l-arginine and the hexamethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor atorvastatin on endothelial function in young patients with type I diabetes mellitus (DM).BACKGROUNDEndothelial dysfunction, a key early event in atherosclerosis, occurs in young patients with type I DM, and its reversal may benefit the progression of vascular disease. Cholesterol reduction in l-arginine improve endothelial

Michael J. Mullen; David Wright; Ann E. Donald; Sara Thorne; Hyeyoung Thomson; John E. Deanfield



Effects of dietary L-arginine intake on cardiorespiratory and metabolic adaptation in athletes.  


To assess the effect of diet enrichment with L-arginine or supplementation at high doses on physiological adaptation during exercise, 9 athletes followed 3 different diets, each over 3 consecutive days, with a wash-out period of 4 d between training sessions: control diet (CD), 5.5 +/- 0.3 g/d of L-arginine; Diet 1 (rich in L-arginine food), 9.0 +/- 1.1 g/d of L-arginine; and Diet 2 (the same as CD but including an oral supplement of 15 g/d), 20.5 +/- 0.3 g/d of L-arginine. Plasma nitrate levels of each participant were determined on the day after each treatment. Participants performed a submaximal treadmill test (initial speed 10-11 km/hr, work increments 1 km/hr every 4 min until 85-90% VO2max, and passive recovery periods of 2 min). Oxygen uptake and heart rate were monitored throughout the test. Blood lactate concentration ([La-]b) was determined at the end of each stage. Repeated-measures ANOVA and paired Student's t tests were used to compare the various physiological parameters between diets. The level of significance was set at p < .05. [La-]b showed a significant effect at the 5-min time point between CD and Diet 2 (CD 3.0 +/- 0.5 mM, Diet 2 2.5 +/- 0.5 mM, p = .03), but this tendency was not found at higher exercise intensities. No significant differences were observed in any of the cardiorespiratory or plasma nitrate levels. In conclusion, dietary L-arginine intake on the days preceding the test does not improve physiological parameters during exercise. PMID:19827461

Bescós, Raul; Gonzalez-Haro, Carlos; Pujol, Pere; Drobnic, Franchek; Alonso, Eulalia; Santolaria, Maria Luisa; Ruiz, Olga; Esteve, Marc; Galilea, Pedro



Elevated l-Arginine\\/Dimethylarginine Ratio Contributes to Enhanced Systemic NO Production by Dietary l-Arginine in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary supplementation of L-arginine, the precursor of endogenous NO, has been shown to enhance endothelial function in the cholesterol-fed rabbits. However, the mechanism by which dietary L-arginine accomplishes these effects has been unclear. In the present study we have assessed the plasma concentrations of L-arginine and of asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), a known endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase, in cholesterol-fed rabbits

Stefanie M. Bode-Böger; Rainer H. Böger; Sven Kienke; Wolfgang Junker; Jürgen C. Frölich



[A case of advanced gastric cancer acquired long-term response two years or more by treatment with oral anticancer drug TS-1].  


A 66-year-old male with massive ascites was diagnosed as advanced gastric scirrhous cancer at Musashino Red Cross Hospital. We detected the adenomatous cancer cells from his ascites, and an X-ray photograph of his stomach showed less capability of expansion in the upper gastrointestinal series. We attempted treatment with oral anticancer drug TS-1 with the patient's consent and achieved a long-term response of two years or more. PMID:15628765

Itakura, Jun; Izumi, Namiki; Inoue, Kazunari; Nishimura, Miyuki; Ueda, Ken; Tsuchiya, Kaoru; Hamano, Kousei; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Osamu; Uchihara, Masakatsu; Miyake, Syozou



L-arginine and nitric oxide in CNS function and neurodegenerative diseases.  


One of the main functions of L-arginine (ARG) is the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). NO is an important regulator of physiological processes in the central nervous system (CNS). NO promotes optimal cerebral blood flow, consolidates memory processes, facilitates long-term potentiation, maintains sleep-wake cycles, and assists in normal olfaction. However, at pathological levels, NO adversely affects brain function producing nitroxidative stress and promoting development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and other disorders of the CNS. This review summarizes current knowledge of the role of NO in the CNS and the role of diet in regulating the levels of NO. PMID:24007420

Virarkar, Mayur; Alappat, Lini; Bradford, Peter G; Awad, Atif B



Long-Term Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Oral Appliance Therapy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Long-term trials are needed to capture information regarding the persistence of efficacy and loss to follow-up of both mandibular advancement device (MAD) therapy and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare these treatment aspects between MAD and nasal CPAP (nCPAP) in a 1-year follow-up. Methods:Forty-three mild\\/moderate obstructive sleep apnea patients (52.2

Ghizlane Aarab; Frank Lobbezoo; Martijn W. Heymans; Hans L. Hamburger; Machiel Naeije



Treatment with l-Arginine improves neuropsychological disorders in a child with Creatine transporter defect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine transporter deficit (CT1) is an inherited metabolic disorder that causes mental retardation, epilepsy, speech, language and behavioral deficits. Until now, no treatment has been proven to be successful for this condition. We describe 1-year follow-up study of a child, aged 9.6 years, with CT1 defect, on oral supplementation with l-arginine, a precursor of creatine synthesis. Under supplementation, he showed

Anna Chilosi; Vincenzo Leuzzi; Roberta Battini; Michela Tosetti; Giovanni Ferretti; Alessandro Comparini; Manuela Casarano; Elena Moretti; M. Grazia Alessandrì; M. Cristina Bianchi; Giovanni Cioni



Anti-stress and Adaptogenic Activity of l-Arginine Supplementation  

PubMed Central

In the present study, oral supplementation of l-arginine in rats was evaluated for its anti-stress and adaptogenic activity using the cold (5°C)–hypoxia (428 mmHg)–restraint (C-H-R) animal model. A dose-dependent study of l-arginine was carried out at doses of 12.5, 25.0, 50.0, 100.0, 200.0 and 500.0 mg/kg body weight, administered orally 30 min prior to C-H-R exposure. The time taken by the rat to attain a rectal temperature of 23°C (Trec 23°C) during C-H-R exposure and its recovery to Trec 37°C at normal atmospheric pressure and 32 ± 1°C were used as biomarkers of anti-stress and adaptogenic activity. Biochemical parameters related to lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidants, cell membrane permeability, nitric oxide and stress, with and without administration of the least effective l-arginine dose, were measured in rats on attaining Trec 23°C and Trec 37°C. The least effective adaptogenic dose of l-arginine was 100.0 mg/kg body weight. The C-H-R exposure of control rats, on attaining Trec 23°C, resulted in a significant increase in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and a decrease in blood catalase (CAT) and plasma testosterone levels. On recovery (Trec 37°C) of control rats, there was a further decrease in CAT and plasma testosterone, and an increase in LDH. l-Arginine supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in plasma MDA, an increase in blood superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT levels maintained at control values and a lower increase in LDH compared with controls (45.3 versus 58.5% and 21.5 versus 105.2%) on attaining Trec 23°C during C-H-R exposure and on recovery to Trec 37°C. The results suggested that l-arginine possesses potent anti-stress activity during C-H-R exposure and recovery from C-H-R-induced hypothermia.



Long-Term Oral Administration of Capsicum baccatum Extracts Does Not Alter Behavioral, Hematological, and Metabolic Parameters in CF1 Mice  

PubMed Central

Our group showed that crude ethanol (CE) and butanol (BUT) extracts of Capsicum baccatum presented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the flavonoid and total phenolic contents were positively correlated with both of these properties observed for C. baccatum extracts. The present study demonstrated that 60 days of oral administration of CE and BUT (200?mg/kg) in mice did not cause significant differences in the following parameters evaluated: hematological profile, body weight and relative weight of visceral organs, systemic lipid profile, glucose homeostasis (GTT), kidney and hepatic biochemical markers, and spontaneous locomotion and anxiety-like behavior. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time that the long-term oral administration of C. baccatum extracts does not affect specific aspects of CF1 mice physiology, suggesting their safety, building up the venue to test their efficacy in animal models underlying persistent activation of oxidative and inflammatory pathways.

Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Leonardi, Bianca; Kalinine, Eduardo; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Gosmann, Grace



Effects of l-arginine treatment on symptoms and bladder nitric oxide levels in patients with interstitial cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in host defense reactions, and NO production is elevated in various inflammatory disorders. We have found very high levels of luminal NO in the urinary bladder of patients with interstitial cystitis. Oral treatment with low doses of l-arginine, the substrate for NO production, has been reported to alleviate symptoms in patients with interstitial cystitis.

Ingrid Ehrén; J. O. N. Lundberg; Jan Adolfsson; N. Peter Wiklund



L-arginine and Vitamin D Adjunctive Therapies in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin D (vitD) and L-arginine have important antimycobacterial effects in humans. Adjunctive therapy with these agents has the potential to improve outcomes in active tuberculosis (TB). Methods In a 4-arm randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial trial in adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Timika, Indonesia, we tested the effect of oral adjunctive vitD 50,000 IU 4-weekly or matching placebo, and L-arginine 6.0 g daily or matching placebo, for 8 weeks, on proportions of participants with negative 4-week sputum culture, and on an 8-week clinical score (weight, FEV1, cough, sputum, haemoptysis). All participants with available endpoints were included in analyses according to the study arm to which they were originally assigned. Adults with new smear-positive PTB were eligible. The trial was registered at NCT00677339. Results 200 participants were enrolled, less than the intended sample size: 50 received L-arginine + active vitD, 49 received L-arginine + placebo vit D, 51 received placebo L-arginine + active vitD and 50 received placebo L-arginine + placebo vitD. According to the factorial model, 99 people received arginine, 101 placebo arginine, 101 vitamin D, 99 placebo vitamin D. Results for the primary endpoints were available in 155 (4-week culture) and 167 (clinical score) participants. Sputum culture conversion was achieved by week 4 in 48/76 (63%) participants in the active L-arginine versus 48/79 (61%) in placebo L-arginine arms (risk difference ?3%, 95% CI ?19 to 13%), and in 44/75 (59%) in the active vitD versus 52/80 (65%) in the placebo vitD arms (risk difference 7%, 95% CI ?9 to 22%). The mean clinical outcome score also did not differ between study arms. There were no effects of the interventions on adverse event rates including hypercalcaemia, or other secondary outcomes. Conclusion Neither vitD nor L-arginine supplementation, at the doses administered and with the power attained, affected TB outcomes. Registry Registry number: NCT00677339

Ralph, Anna P.; Waramori, Govert; Pontororing, Gysje J.; Kenangalem, Enny; Wiguna, Andri; Tjitra, Emiliana; Sandjaja; Lolong, Dina B.; Yeo, Tsin W.; Chatfield, Mark D.; Soemanto, Retno K.; Bastian, Ivan; Lumb, Richard; Maguire, Graeme P.; Eisman, John; Price, Ric N.; Morris, Peter S.; Kelly, Paul M.; Anstey, Nicholas M.



Long-Term Changes in Human Colonic Bifidobacterium Populations Induced by a 5-Day Oral Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid Treatment  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to assess the possible modifications due to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) treatment on total bacteria and on Bifidobacterium species balance in human colonic microbiota. Eighteen healthy volunteers (19 to 36 years old) were given a 875/125 mg dose of AMC twice a day for 5 days. Fecal samples were obtained before and after antibiotic exposure. After total DNA extraction, total bacteria and bifidobacteria were specifically quantified using real-time PCR. Dominant species were monitored over time using bacterial and bifidobacterial Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE). At the end of AMC exposure, total bacterial concentrations as well as bifidobacteria concentrations were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure:10.7±0.1 log10 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 11.1±0.1 log10 (p?=?0.003) and 8.1±0.5 log10 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 9.4±0.3 log10 (p?=?0.003), respectively. At the same time, the mean similarity percentages of TTGE bacteria and TTGE bifidobacteria profiles were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure: 51.6%±3.5% vs 81.4%±2.1% and 55.8%±7.6% vs 84.5%±4.1%, respectively. Occurrence of B. adolescentis, B. bifidum and B. pseudocatenulatum/B. catenulatum species significantly decreased. Occurrence of B. longum remained stable. Moreover, the number of distinct Bifidobacterium species per sample significantly decreased (1.5±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3; p?=?0.01). Two months after AMC exposure, the mean similarity percentage of TTGE profiles was 55.6% for bacteria and 62.3% for bifidobacteria. These results clearly demonstrated that a common antibiotic treatment may qualitatively alter the colonic microbiota. Such modifications may have potential long-term physiological consequences.

Mangin, Irene; Leveque, Christophe; Magne, Fabien; Suau, Antonia; Pochart, Philippe



The oral health of long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a comparison of three treatment modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-eight children who were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) prior to age 5 years and treated with chemotherapy alone, chemotherapy plus 1800 cGy cranial irradiation (RT), or chemotherapy plus 2400 cGy RT were assessed clinically for overall dental health. All patients were at least 60 months in continuous remission. Dental caries were assessed by NIDR diagnostic criteria, oral hygiene

A. L. Sonis; D. P. Waber; S. Sallan; N. J. Tarbell



Long-term oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a controlled study on temporomandibular side effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess variations in the occurrence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and the risk\\u000a of developing pain and function impairment of the temporomandibular complex in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients\\u000a treated with either an oral appliance (mandibular advancement device) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in a 2-year\\u000a follow-up study. In addition, we assessed

Michiel H. J. Doff; Steffanie K. B. Veldhuis; Aarnoud Hoekema; James J. R. Huddleston Slater; P. J. Wijkstra; Lambert G. M. de Bont; Boudewijn Stegenga


Academic-practice partnerships to promote evidence-based practice in long-term care: oral hygiene care practices as an exemplar.  


Learning in practice disciplines suffers when gaps exist between classroom instruction and students' observations of routine clinical practices.(1) Academic institutions, therefore, have a strong interest in fostering the rapid and effective translation of evidence-based care techniques into routine practice. Long-term care (LTC) practice sites are particularly vulnerable to gaps between classroom teaching and how daily care is implemented, owing to the recent rapid advances in the scientific bases of care for frail older adults, the relative isolation of most LTC sites from academic settings,(2) and the relatively small number of registered nurses (RNs) available in LTC settings who can facilitate translation of research-based practices into care.(3) The aim of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and value of an academic practice partnership to implement evidence-based approaches to solving resident care problems in LTC, as many scientifically proven practices hold promise for improving resident outcomes yet adoption is often slow.(4) We developed and implemented a clinical practice improvement process, based on diffusion of innovations theory and research,(5-8) to serve as a new model of academic-practice collaboration between a university school of nursing, LTC facility management and direct-care staff, as a means of developing high quality clinical sites for student rotations. The goal was to implement a sustainable evidence-based oral care program as an exemplar of how scientific evidence can be translated into LTC practice. This project focused on oral hygiene because the staff was dissatisfied with their existing resident oral care program, and an evidence-base for oral care in LTC existed that had not yet been incorporated into care routines. This article describes a systematic, replicable process for linking advanced practice registered nurse expertise with staff insights about care systems to reduce the gap between teaching and practice in long-term care settings. Our experience demonstrates that translation of research on oral care practices into LTC practice through academic-practice partnerships is feasible, is associated with positive resident outcomes, and illustrates a process that has broader applicability to other common problems in LTC, where incomplete implementation of an extant research base for practice may inhibit student learning. PMID:17386313

McConnell, Eleanor Schildwachter; Lekan, Deborah; Hebert, Catherine; Leatherwood, Lisa


Morphine and morphine-glucuronide concentrations in plasma and CSF during long-term administration of oral morphine.  

PubMed Central

Concentrations of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were measured by h.p.l.c. in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 16 patients with cancer receiving oral (controlled-release) morphine. There was a close correlation between plasma and CSF morphine concentrations (r = 0.94, P = 0.0001) and both correlated with drug dosage (r = 0.61, P = 0.013 and r = 0.74, P = 0.0001, respectively). M3G and M6G in plasma and CSF were correlated (r = 0.81 and r = 0.82, both P = 0.0001). No relationship was apparent between M plus M6G concentrations in the CSF and pain scores.

van Dongen, R T; Crul, B J; Koopman-Kimenai, P M; Vree, T B



The utility of Nitroderm TTS in angina pectoris: long-term treatment after switching from long-acting oral isosorbide dinitrate.  


Long-acting oral isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) was replaced by Nitroderm TTS, and the utility of this drug in long-term treatment was assessed in 69 patients with angina pectoris. The frequency of attacks (p < 0.001) and the consumption of sublingual nitrate tablets (p < 0.01) were found to be significantly lower at 2 weeks to 6 months than in the observation period in patients who experienced attacks or received sublingual tablets during the observation period. On the other hand, no significant time-lapse changes from the observation period were noted in patients who experienced no attacks or received no sublingual tablets during the observation period. The symptoms of adverse effects were mild. The improvement rates (improved) of subjective symptoms and electrocardiogram (ECG) in Group A were about 50% after 6 months. On the other hand, the improvement rates (not aggravated) of subjective symptoms and ECG in Group B were more than 90%. Nitroderm TTS is considered a useful plaster preparation which can be used for sufficiently extended periods of time because its efficacy was as high as, or higher than, that of oral ISDN when this drug was administered over a long period of time after a switch from long-acting oral ISDN in angina pectoris patients. PMID:8149680

Hayashi, H; Ito, T; Matsubara, T; Watanabe, T; Kuzuya, F; Mizuno, Y; Sotohata, I; Fujinami, T; Toyama, J; Yamada, K



Long-Term Follow-Up of Oral Administration of Flavonoids, Centella asiatica and Melilotus, for Diabetic Cystoid Macular Edema Without Macular Thickening.  


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate long-term follow-up of the orally administered combination of flavonoids with Centella asiatica and Melilotus for treatment of diabetic cystoid macular edema (CME) without macular thickening. Methods: Seventy consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes and CME without macular thickening at optical coherence tomography (OCT) were prospectively and randomly enrolled in two groups of 35 subjects each (treatment and control groups). Patients in the treatment group were treated with an oral combination of diosmin (300?mg/day), with C. asiatica (15?mg/day) and Melilotus (160?mg/day). All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, OCT (Spectralis HRA-OCT), and central microperimetry (SD-SLO/OCT) at baseline, month 3, month 6, month 12, month 24, and month 36. Results: No differences in HbAc1 percentage, blood pressure, microalbuminuria, visual acuity, mean central retinal thickness, and stability of fixation were present between the two groups during follow up (p>0.05). Retinal sensitivity reduced in the control group only from month 6 until month 36 (p<0.001). In the treatment group, a greater retinal sensitivity was present at month 12, month 24, and month 36 (p=0.001). No side effects of treatment were observed. Conclusion: Oral administration of flavonoids, C. asiatica and Melilotus, in patients with CME without macular thickening provided preservation of retinal sensitivity during 36 months of follow up when compared with untreated patients. PMID:23844756

Forte, Raimondo; Cennamo, Gilda; Bonavolontà, Paola; Pascotto, Arduino; de Crecchio, Giuseppe; Cennamo, Giovanni



Responses of dairy cattle to long-term and short-term supplementation with oral selenium and vitamin E  

SciTech Connect

In a two-lactation-gestation cycle experiment, 152 Holstein cows with low serum Se and vitamin E were fed total mixed rations and assigned at parturition to four groups (1, control; 2, 500 IU vitamin E/d; 3, 2 mg Se/d; 4, 500 IU vitamin E plus 2 mg Se/d). Supplements were not fed during dry periods. Serium Se and vitamin E were increased within 1 mo by oral supplements. Maximal mean serum Se in cycles 1 and 2 occurred in groups 3 and 4, respectively. Maximal mean serum vitamin E in cycle 1 and 2 occurred in groups 4 and 2, respectively. Selenium treatment of the dams increased Se in colostrum and in serum of presuckle calves. Vitamin E supplementation of dams did not affect vitamin E in serum of presuckled calves. Reproductive performance was not affected by supplement. In an 8-wk study, 24 lactating cows with low serum Se were assigned (6/group) to 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg supplemental Se/d. Maximal mean serum Se concentrations of 23, 56, 71, and 79 ng/ml were attained by wk 4 in the above respective groups. These data indicate that 2 to 2.5 mg supplemental Se/cow per d were inadequate for desirable serum Se concentrations and support recent changes in allowed Se supplementation for dairy cattle.

Stowe, H.D.; Thomas, J.W.; Johnson, T.; Marteniuk, J.V.; Morrow, D.A.; Ullrey, D.E. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))



Long-Term Oral Anticoagulant Therapy in Patients With Unstable Angina or Suspected Non-Q-Wave Myocardial Infarction Organization to Assess Strategies for Ischemic Syndromes (OASIS) Pilot Study Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Patients with acute ischemic syndromes (AIS) suffer high rates of recurrent ischemic events despite aspirin treatment. Long-term therapy with oral anticoagulants in addition to aspirin may reduce this risk. We studied the effects of long-term warfarin at 2 intensities in patients with AIS without ST elevation in 2 consecutive randomized controlled studies. Methods and Results—In phase 1, after the cessation

Sonia S. Anand; Salim Yusuf; Janice Pogue; Jeffrey I. Weitz; Marcus Flather


Effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine and L-arginine on regional cerebral blood flow in the cat.  

PubMed Central

1. We studied the effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA), a potent inhibitor of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway, and L-arginine, the precursor of nitric oxide, on regional cerebral blood flow, electrocortical activity and ex vivo cerebrovascular reactivity in the cat. Flow was measured via radiolabelled microspheres, and vascular responses were studied by measuring isometric tension of isolated middle cerebral arterial rings. 2. NOLA (30 mg kg-1 bolus followed by 1 mg kg-1 min-1 infusion) caused an approximately 40 mmHg elevation in the mean arterial blood pressure, a regionally heterogenous increase of the regional cerebrovascular resistance and a decrease in the regional cerebral blood flow 15 and 40 min after the start of its administration. In contrast L-arginine (30 mg kg-1 bolus followed by 10 mg kg-1 min-1 infusion) did not alter blood pressure, cerebrovascular resistance nor regional cerebral blood flow 15 min after the start of its administration. The NOLA-induced changes in tissue flow were the most pronounced in the cerebellum, pituitary and medulla oblongata, whereas there was no decrease in the flow of the cortex and white matter. 3. NOLA caused characteristic changes in total fronto-occipital EEG power and in power spectra which were unlikely to have been due to cerebral ischaemia. In addition, the ex vivo reactivity of the middle cerebral arteries showed signs of impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthesis: there were enhanced noradrenaline-induced contractions and N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1)-induced relaxations and markedly attenuated acetylcholine- and ATP-induced relaxations after NOLA treatment. 4. The present data indicate that resting cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular resistance are regulated by nitric oxide derived from L-arginine in a regionally heterogenous way and that exogenous L-arginine availability is not a limiting factor in this nitric oxide generation. Possibly, both the vascular endothelium and the neurons contribute to this basal nitric oxide release.

Kovach, A G; Szabo, C; Benyo, Z; Csaki, C; Greenberg, J H; Reivich, M



Impacts of HIV infection and long-term use of antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of oral human papilloma virus type 16  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The objectives of this study were to determine i) the prevalence and the copy numbers of oral human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) in HIV-infected subjects compared with non-HIV controls, and ii) the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and its duration on the virus. METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed in HIV-infected subjects with and without ART, and non-HIV individuals. Saliva samples were collected and the DNA extracted from those samples was used as a template to detect HPV-16 E6 and E7 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Student t-test and ANOVA test were performed to determine the prevalence rates among groups. RESULTS Forty-nine HIV-infected subjects; 37 on ART (age range 23–54 yr, mean 37 yr), 12 not on ART (age range 20–40 yr, mean 31 yr), and 20 non-HIV controls (age range 19–53 yr, mean 31 yr) were enrolled. The prevalence of oral HPV-16 infection and the copy numbers of the virus were significantly higher in HIV-infected subjects than non-HIV controls when using E6 assay (geometric mean =10,696 vs. 563 copies/105 cells, p<0.001), but not E7 assay. No significant difference was observed between those who were and were not on ART. Long-term use of ART did not significantly change the prevalence of oral HPV-16 infection and the copy numbers of the virus (p=0.567). CONCLUSION We conclude that the prevalence of oral HPV-16 infection and the copy numbers of the virus are increased by HIV infection. Neither the use of ART nor its duration significantly affected the virus.

Amornthatree, Korntip; Sriplung, Hutcha; Mitarnun, Winyou; Nittayananta, Wipawee



l-Arginine is a Radioprotector for Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells  

PubMed Central

l-Arginine is shown to protect hematopoietic progenitor (32D cl 3) cells from death due to exposure to ? radiation (137Cs). Some of the other intermediates in the urea cycle, namely ornithine and citrulline, plus urea itself, were not found to have any significant impact on cell survival after irradiation. Intriguingly, supplementation of irradiated cells with l-arginine results in decreased production of peroxynitrite, suggesting that suppression of superoxide generation by nitric oxide synthase in one or more microenvironments is an important factor in the observed radioprotection. The absence of any radioprotective effect of l-arginine in cells at 3% oxygen also confirms the involvement of one or more oxygen-derived species. Knockdown experiments with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) siRNAs in cells and NOS knockout animals confirm that the observed radioprotection is associated with nNOS (NOS-1). l-Arginine also ameliorates the transient inhibition of the electron-transport chain complex I that occurs within 30 min of completing the dose (10 Gy) and that appears to be a functional marker for postirradiation mitochondrial oxidant production.

Pearce, Linda L.; Zheng, Xichen; Martinez-Bosch, Sandra; Kerr, Patrick P.; Khlangwiset, Pornsri; Epperly, Michael W.; Fink, Mitchell P.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Peterson, Jim



A Prospective Study Comparing the Long-term Effectiveness of Injectable Risperidone Long-acting Therapy and Oral Aripiprazole in Patients with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To test the hypothesis that long-term maintenance with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy is superior to oral daily aripiprazole in stable patients with schizophrenia. Design: This two-year, rater-blinded, open-label, multicenter study (NCT00299702) randomized subjects to injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (25–50mg, injected every 2 weeks) or oral aripiprazole (5–30mg/day), with study visits every two weeks. Subjects who met relapse criteria or discontinued study drug could remain in the study. Setting: Clinical trial. Participants: Stable subjects with schizophrenia not adequately benefiting from current treatment who experienced two or more relapses in the past two years. If recently relapsed, subjects were stabilized (per clinician judgment) for two or more months before entry. Measurements: Primary endpoints: time to relapse and time in remission. Safety assessments included adverse event reporting. Results: Of 355 subjects randomized, 349 were in the intent-to-treat analysis set. Data inspection revealed that 53 (14.9%) randomized subjects deviated from inclusion/exclusion criteria, most commonly not meeting stability requirements. At baseline, mean (standard deviation [SD]) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score was 68.9 (14.6); 115 (33.0%) intent-to-treat subjects met remission criteria. Approximately 29 percent in each group discontinued the study before completing two years. No significant between-group differences were noted in time to relapse or time in remission. No new tolerability issues were identified. Conclusion: Results failed to demonstrate superiority with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy versus oral aripiprazole. The study design did not allow for valid conclusions of equivalence or noninferiority. Although this study attempted to mimic a real-world treatment setting for stable patients, the broad study population, the lack of patient selection for nonadherence, biweekly visits, regular assessments, and other design issues limited generalizability and interpretation relative to the study hypothesis.

Macfadden, Wayne; Ma, Yi-Wen; Thomas Haskins, J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.



Client satisfaction among participants in a randomized trial comparing oral methadone and injectable diacetylmorphine for long-term opioid-dependency  

PubMed Central

Background Substitution with opioid-agonists (e.g., methadone) has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic long-term opioid dependency. Patient satisfaction with treatment has been associated with improved addiction treatment outcomes. However, there is a paucity of studies evaluating patients' satisfaction with Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST). In the present study, participants' satisfaction with OST was evaluated at 3 and 12 months. We sought to test the relationship between satisfaction and patients' characteristics, the treatment modality received and treatment outcomes. Methods Data from a randomized controlled trial, the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI), conducted in Vancouver and Montreal (Canada) between 2005-2008, was analyzed. The NAOMI study compared the effectiveness of oral methadone vs. injectable diacetylmorphine over 12 months. A small sub-group of patients received injectable hydromorphone on a double blind basis with diacetylmorphine. The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) was used to measure satisfaction with treatment. CSQ-8 scores, as well as retention and response to treatment, did not differ between those receiving hydromorphone and diacetylmorphine at 3 or 12 months assessments; therefore, these two groups were analyzed together as the 'injectable' treatment group. Results A total of 232 (92%) and 237 (94%) participants completed the CSQ-8 at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Participants in both groups were highly satisfied with treatment. Independent of treatment group, participants satisfied with treatment at 3 months were more likely to be retained at 12 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that satisfaction was greater among those randomized to the injection group after controlling for treatment effectiveness. Participants who were retained, responded to treatment, and had fewer psychological symptoms were more satisfied with treatment. Finally, open-ended comments were made by 149 (60.3%) participants; concerns about the randomization process and the study ending were most commonly reported by participants receiving the oral and injectable medications, respectively. Conclusions The higher satisfaction among those receiving medically prescribed injectable diacetylmorphine (or hydromorphone) supports current evidence regarding the attractiveness of this treatment for long-term, opioid-dependent individuals not benefiting sufficiently from other treatments. In addition, the measurement of treatment satisfaction provides valuable information about participants at risk of relapse and in need of additional services. Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00175357



Oral health-related quality of life and depression\\/anxiety in long-term recurrence-free patients after treatment for advanced oral squamous cell cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report focuses on the association between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and depression\\/anxiety of a homogeneous group of cancer patients who were recurrence-free for 8 years after treatment for advanced oral squamous cell.Participants were 24 patients (mean age 55 years, 75% men) treated with neoadjuvant concurrent radiochemotherapy followed by surgery with a mean recurrence-free period of 95 months

Alexander J. Hassel; Daniel Danner; Kolja Freier; Christof Hofele; Kirsten Becker-Bikowski; Michael Engel


Oxymatrine ameliorates L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.  


The aim of this study was to determine whether oxymatrine has a protective effect against acute pancreatitis (AP) in a rat model of L-arginine-induced AP. AP was induced by two intraperitoneal injections of L-arginine (250 mg/100 g) at a 1-h interval. Oxymatrine (50 mg/kg) was administered every 6 h after the induction of AP. Oxymatrine significantly reduced the plasma amylase, D-lactic acid and tumor necrosis factor alpha concentration, serum diamine oxidase and lipase activity, and pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, which were increased in AP rats (P?L-arginine-induced AP and attenuating AP-associated intestinal barrier injury by up-regulation of claudin-1. PMID:21633783

Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yanqing; Dong, Ming; Cui, Jianchun; Rong, Daqing; Dong, Qi



The Effect of L-Arginine and Creatine on Vascular Function and Homocysteine Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Studies with L-arginine supplementation have shown inconsistent effects on endothelial function. The generation of guanidinoacetate (GAA) from L-arginine with subsequent formation of creatine and homocysteine and consumption of methionine may reduce the pool of L-arginine available for nitric oxide generation. Experimental studies suggest that creatine supplementation might block this pathway. We sought to determine the effects of L-arginine, creatine, or the combination on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and homocysteine metabolism in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods Patients with coronary artery disease were randomized to L-arginine (9gm/day), creatine (21gm/day), L-arginine plus creatine, or placebo for 4 days (n=26–29/group). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and plasma levels of L-arginine, creatine, homocysteine, methionine, and GAA were measured at baseline and follow up. Results L-arginine and creatine supplementation had no effects on vascular function. L-arginine alone increased GAA (P<0.01) and the ratio of homocysteine to methionine (P<0.01) suggesting increased methylation demand. The combination of creatinine and L-arginine did not suppress GAA production or prevent the increase in homocysteine-to-methionine ratio. Unexpectedly, creatine supplementation (alone or in combination with L-arginine) was associated with an 11 to 20% increase in homocysteine concentration (P<0.05), which was not attributable to worsened renal function, providing evidence against an effect of creatine on decreasing methylation demand. Conclusion The present study provides no evidence that L-arginine supplementation improves endothelial function and suggests that L-arginine may increase methylation demand. Creatine supplementation failed to alter the actions of L-arginine on vascular function or suppress methylation demand. The unexpected increase in homocysteine levels following creatine supplementation could have adverse effects and merits further study, since creatine is a commonly used dietary supplement.

Jahangir, Eiman; Vita, Joseph A.; Handy, Diane; Holbrook, Monica; Palmisano, Joseph; Beal, Ryan; Loscalzo, Joseph; Eberhardt, Robert T.



Long-term safety, efficacy and palatability of oral meloxicam at 0.01–0.03 mg\\/kg for treatment of osteoarthritic pain in cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis is a chronic, painful condition that is now recognised as affecting a large proportion of cats. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have proven efficacy in dogs and humans but there are limited published data on the use of NSAIDs in the long-term management of this condition in cats. This prospective study aimed to assess the long-term safety and palatability of

Marcus N. Gunew; Victor H. Menrath; Rhett D. Marshall



Long Term Quadrotor Stabilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work of this thesis focuses on the IMU and getting the best performance possible out of the IMU to achieve better long term stability and a better navigation solution. This is done in two ways. First, the IMU accelerometer output is examined to determ...

N. Hamilton



Interactions between L-arginine/L-arginine derivatives and lysozyme and implications to their inhibition effects on protein aggregation.  


L-arginine (Arg), L-homoarginine (HArg), L-arginine ethylester (ArgEE) and L-arginine methylester (ArgME) were found effective in inhibiting protein aggregation, but the molecular mechanisms are not clear. Herein, stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry and mass spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the folding kinetics of lysozyme and the interactions of the additives with lysozyme. It was found that the interactions of ArgME and ArgEE with lysozyme were similar to that of guanidine hydrochloride, and were much stronger than those of Arg and HArg. The binding forces were all mainly hydrogen bonding and cation-? interaction from the guanidinium group, but their differences in molecular states led to the significantly different binding strengths. The additives formed molecular clusters in an increasing order of ArgEE, ArgME, HArg and Arg. Arg and HArg mainly formed annular clusters with head-to-tail bonding, while ArgME and ArgEE formed linear clusters with guanidinium groups stacking. The interactions between the additives and lysozyme were positively related to the monomer contents. That is, the monomers were the primary species that participated in the direct interactions due to their intact guanidinium groups and small sizes, while the clusters performed as barriers to crowd out the protein-protein interactions for aggregation. Thus, it is concluded that the effects of Arg and its derivatives on protein aggregation stemed from the direct interactions by the monomers and the crowding effects by the clusters. Interplay of the two effects led to the differences in their inhibition effects on protein aggregation. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2013. PMID:23737098

Gao, Ming-Tao; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan



L-Arginine Analogs - Inactive Markers or Active Agents in Atherogenesis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethylated L-arginine analogs have been attracting the attention of both basic researchers and clinicians for 15 years since 1992 when Vallance et al. were first to observe several fold elevations of asymmetric and symmetric dimethyl-L-arginine levels (ADMA and SDMA, respectively) in plasma of hemodialyzed patients. ADMA - in contrast to SDMA - competes with L-arginine at the level of NO

Andrzej Surdacki



Synthesis of Ferrocenoyl L-Arginine Derivatives by Homogeneous Catalytic Carbonylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferrocene–labeled arginine derivatives with different structures were synthesized via homogeneous catalytic carbonylation. Aminocarbonylation of iodoferrocene in the presence of L-arginine methyl ester or N?-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester as N-nucleophiles led to triacyl derivatives as the main products. The formation of diacyl compounds was also observed, but no monoacyl derivative could be isolated from the reaction mixture of iodoferrocene and L-arginine methyl

János Balogh; Zoltán Berente; Dávid Frigyes; László Kollár; Rita Skoda-Földes



L-Arginine Infusion Increases Basal but not Activated Cerebral Blood Flow in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator. Infusion of its precursor, L-arginine, results in increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in experimental animals. We examined the effects of L-arginine infusion on CBF in humans using positron emission tomography and the quantitative H215O method. Six subjects received 500 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution, and six subjects received an infusion of L-arginine (16.7 mg\\/kg\\/min;

David C. Reutens; Michael D. McHugh; Paule-Joanne Toussaint; Alan C. Evans; Albert Gjedde; Ernst Meyer; Duncan J. Stewart



Pharmacokinetics of L-Arginine in Adults with Moderately Severe Malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe malaria is associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and low plasma concentrations of L-arginine, the substrate for NO synthase. Supplementation with L-arginine has the potential to improve NO bioavailability and outcomes. We developed a pharmacokinetic model for L-arginine in moderately severe malaria to explore the concentration-time profile and identify important covariates. In doses of 3, 6, or 12

Tsin W. Yeo; Indri Rooslamiati; Retno Gitawati; Emiliana Tjitra; Daniel A. Lampah; Enny Kenangalem; Yvette R. McNeil; Richard N. Price; Nicholas M. Anstey; Stephen B. Duffull



Long-Term Antihypertensive Efficacy and Safety of the Oral Direct Renin Inhibitor Aliskiren A 12Month Randomized, Double-Blind Comparator Trial With Hydrochlorothiazide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Diuretics are recommended as first-line agents for the treatment of hypertension. This randomized, double-blind, multicenter study assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren in comparison with the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide in patients with essential hypertension. Methods and Results—After a 2- to 4-week placebo run-in, 1124 patients (mean sitting diastolic blood pressure (BP) 95 to 109 mm

Roland E. Schmieder; Thomas Philipp; Javier Guerediaga; Manuel Gorostidi; Beverly Smith; Nicole Weissbach; Mojdeh Maboudian; Jaco Botha; Hein van Ingen


[Theoretical conformational analysis of methylamide N-acetyl-L-arginine].  


The spatial structure of methylamide N-acetyl-L-argine was studied taking into account the non-valent and electrostati interactions, the torsion energy, and the distorsion of valency angles. Calculation of the favourable conformations of the molecule was carried out with the use of all the combinations of angles phi, psi, chi1 divided by chi4 as an intital approximation. These correspond to the low energy forms of the main chain and to the minima of the torsion potentials of the side chain. Conformational possibilities of arginine and lysine were compared. The calculated stable conformation of N-acetyl-L-arginine-methylamide are compared with the geometry of arginine residues in the proteins with known structure. PMID:1214809

Zhorov, B S; Popov, E M; Govyrin, V A


Long-term treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid improves exercise-induced vasodilation in patients with coronary artery disease.  


We have previously shown that long-term treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the atherosclerotic arteries in both animals and humans. The aim of the present study was to examine whether EPA treatment also improves metabolic vasodilation evoked by exercise in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by strain gauge plethysmography in 10 patients with stable CAD, before and 3 months after oral treatment with EPA (1,800 mg/kg). FBF was measured at rest and during intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside, before and after intra-arterial infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis). A rhythmic handgrip exercise was also performed for 3 min before and after L-NMMA, and FBF was measured for 3 min just after the handgrip exercise. These protocols were repeated after the long-term treatment with EPA for 3 months. The long-term treatment with EPA significantly improved the FBF responses to acetylcholine (p < 0.01), which was significantly reduced by acute administration of L-NMMA (p < 0.01). By contrast, the EPA treatment did not affect the endothelium-independent responses to sodium nitroprusside. Metabolic increases in FBF caused by the handgrip exercise were not significantly decreased by L-NMMA before the EPA treatment. The EPA treatment significantly augmented the exercise-induced increases in FBF (p < 0.05) and L-NMMA acutely abolished this augmentation (p < 0.01). These results indicate that long-term treatment with EPA improves both endothelium-dependent and exercise-induced forearm vasodilations in patients with CAD and that NO is substantially involved in the EPA-induced improvement of the FBF responses in patients with CAD. PMID:12484504

Tagawa, Tatsuya; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Hironaga, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Koji; Oyama, Jun-ichi; Takeshita, Akira



Antioxidant activity of simvastatin prevents L-arginine-induced acute toxicity of pancreas  

PubMed Central

L-arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that found naturally in food. It has been shown that administration of large doses of L-arginine can induce acute pancreatitis. In the present study, we evaluated if simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) inhibitor, might prevent acute pancreatitis induced by L-arginine. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups. Groups were: DMSO, saline, simvastatin, L-arginine, and simvastatin with L-arginine. Twenty four hours after the last dose, rats were sacrificed and their blood was collected from heart for biochemical analysis. Pancreatic tissues were obtained for analysis of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione s-transferase (GST), lipid peroxide levels (MDA) and histology analysis was examined for pancreas. Results indicated that treatment with simvastatin significantly enhanced levels of GPx and GST and decreased lipid peroxide levels induced by L-arginine compared to the vehicle. Moreover, histopathological analysis further confirmed that administration of simvastatin relatively prevented pancreatic acinar cell damage compared to those animals received L-arginine alone. These findings pointed out the protective role of simvastatin against acute pancreatitis induced by high doses of L-arginine.

Matalka, Ismail I; Mhaidat, Nizar M; Fatlawi, Lina A



Use of nitric oxide producer L-arginine during infusion therapy of experimental hemorrhagic shock.  


Experiments on rats showed that infusion of NO precursor L-arginine before bleeding enhanced their tolerance to hemorrhagic shock. When infused after blood loss as a component of saline solution, L-arginine improved efficiency of infusion therapy for hemorrhagic shock and increased survival rate of the animals. PMID:23484189

Grishina, G V; Gerbut, K A; Remizova, M I; Selivanov, E A



L-arginine for testing endothelium-dependent vascular functions in health and disease.  


The objective of this study was to assess the role of L-arginine, the natural precursor of nitric oxide, for testing endothelial function in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In an initial study of 20 healthy subjects, mean blood pressure decreases in response to increasing doses of L-arginine (1, 2, 3, and 5 g) were 1.1 +/- 1.3, 2.6 +/- 1.5, 7.6 +/- 1.3, and 7.7 +/- 2 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01. The enantiomer D-arginine (3 g) did not produce any change in mean blood pressure and platelet aggregation (n = 10), whereas the infusion of the L-arginine analog NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (6 mg/min) reduced by 70% the vascular effects of L-arginine. In the whole population of 52 healthy subjects, there was an inverse correlation between age and blood pressure or platelet aggregation changes after L-arginine. Compared with matched controls (n = 20), the changes in mean blood pressure and platelet aggregation after L-arginine were significantly lower in non-insulin-dependent diabetic (n = 20) and hypercholesterolemic (n = 16), but not in hypertensive (n = 20), subjects. Changes in blood viscosity were significantly lower only in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Our findings suggest that an intravenous bolus of 3 g L-arginine may be a simple and useful tool to assess the endothelial control of blood pressure and platelet activity in health and disease. PMID:9316452

Giugliano, D; Marfella, R; Verrazzo, G; Acampora, R; Nappo, F; Ziccardi, P; Coppola, L; D'Onofrio, F



Cost-effectiveness of oral alitretinoin in patients with severe chronic hand eczema - a long-term analysis from a Swiss perspective  

PubMed Central

Background The impact on patients suffering from chronic hand eczema (CHE) is enormous, as no licensed systemic treatment option with proven efficacy for CHE is available. Alitretinoin is a novel agent which showed high clinical efficacy in patients with severe, refractory CHE. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of alitretinoin for CHE patient treatment from a Swiss third party payer perspective. A further objective of this study was to determine the burden of disease in Switzerland. Methods A long-term Markov cohort simulation model was used to estimate direct medical costs (€) and clinical effectiveness (quality adjusted life years, QALYs) of treating severe CHE patients with alitretinoin. Comparison was against the standard treatment of supportive care (optimised emollient therapy). Information on response rates were derived from a randomized controlled clinical trial. Costs were considered from the perspective of the Swiss health system. Swiss epidemiological data was derived from official Swiss Statistic institutions. Results Annual costs of alitretinoin treatment accounted for €2'212. After a time horizon of 22.4 years, average remaining long-term costs accounted for €42'208 or €38'795 in the alitretinoin and the standard treatment arm, respectively. Compared with the standard therapy, the addition of alitretinoin yielded an average gain of 0.230 QALYs at the end of the simulation. Accordingly, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio resulted in €14'816/QALY gained. These results were robust to changes in key model assumptions. Conclusion The therapy for CHE patients is currently insufficient. In our long-term model we identified the treatment with alitretinoin as a cost-effective alternative for the therapy of CHE patients in Switzerland.



Long-Term Memory Improvement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests Piaget's interpretation of long-term memory improvement among 82 five- and six-year-old children. Concludes that there is little evidence for long-term memory improvement or for Piaget's theory of memory. (Author/RH)

Maurer, Daphne; And Others



Malaria-Associated L-Arginine Deficiency Induces Mast Cell-Associated Disruption to Intestinal Barrier Defenses against Nontyphoidal Salmonella Bacteremia.  


Coinfection with malaria and nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can cause life-threatening bacteremia in humans. Coinfection with malaria is a recognized risk factor for invasive NTS, suggesting that malaria impairs intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated mechanisms and strategies for prevention of coinfection pathology in a mouse model. Our findings reveal that malarial-parasite-infected mice, like humans, develop l-arginine deficiency, which is associated with intestinal mastocytosis, elevated levels of histamine, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Prevention or reversal of l-arginine deficiency blunts mastocytosis in ileal villi as well as bacterial translocation, measured as numbers of mesenteric lymph node CFU of noninvasive Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the latter of which is naturally invasive in mice. Dietary supplementation of malarial-parasite-infected mice with l-arginine or l-citrulline reduced levels of ileal transcripts encoding interleukin-4 (IL-4), a key mediator of intestinal mastocytosis and macromolecular permeability. Supplementation with l-citrulline also enhanced epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the ilea of coinfected mice. These data suggest that increasing l-arginine bioavailability via oral supplementation can ameliorate malaria-induced intestinal pathology, providing a basis for testing nutritional interventions to reduce malaria-associated mortality in humans. PMID:23690397

Chau, Jennifer Y; Tiffany, Caitlin M; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Lawrence, Jessica A; Pakpour, Nazzy; Mooney, Jason P; Lokken, Kristen L; Caughey, George H; Tsolis, Renee M; Luckhart, Shirley



Bioinformatic evaluation of L-arginine catabolic pathways in 24 cyanobacteria and transcriptional analysis of genes encoding enzymes of L-arginine catabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: So far very limited knowledge exists on L-arginine catabolism in cyanobacteria, although six major L-arginine-degrading pathways have been described for prokaryotes. Thus, we have performed a bioinformatic analysis of possible L-arginine-degrading pathways in cyanobacteria. Further, we chose Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 for a more detailed bioinformatic analysis and for validation of the bioinformatic predictions on L-arginine catabolism with a

Sarah Schriek; Christian Rückert; Dorothee Staiger; Elfriede K Pistorius; Klaus-Peter Michel



Long-term testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.


Effect of nitrate and L-arginine therapy on nitric oxide levels in serum, heart, and aorta of fetal hypothyroid rats.  


Reduced nitric oxide availability and a heterogeneous pattern of nitric oxide synthase activity in some tissues have been reported in hypothyroidism. This study aimed at determining the effects of oral nitrate and L-arginine administration on serum, heart, and aorta nitric oxide metabolite concentrations in fetal hypothyroid rats. In an experimental study, pregnant Wistar rats were administrated tap water or 0.02 % of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil in drinking water during pregnancy and their male pups were followed (n?=?8/group). In adult progeny, serum, heart, and aorta nitric oxide metabolite concentrations were measured by the Griess method after 1-week administration of sodium nitrate (500 mg/L) or L-arginine (2 %) in drinking water. Serum thyroid hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were also measured. Compared to controls, fetal hypothyroid progeny had significantly lower nitric oxide metabolite concentrations in heart (0.32?±?0.07 vs. 0.90?±?0.14 nmol/mg protein, p?=?0.004) and aorta (2.98±0.56 vs. 6.15±0.74 nmol/mg protein, p?=?0.011) tissues. Nitrate therapy restored heart nitric oxide metabolite levels decreased by fetal hypothyroidism, while L-arginine administration further decreased aorta nitric oxide metabolite levels. Sodium nitrate increased and L-arginine decreased serum nitric oxide metabolite levels in both control and fetal hypothyroid animals. In conclusion, nitrate therapy restores decreased heart nitric oxide metabolite levels, whereas L-arginine decreases aorta nitric oxide metabolite levels even further in fetal hypothyroid rats, findings relevant to the cardiovascular consequences of congenital hypothyroidism in adulthood. PMID:23568620

Ghasemi, Asghar; Mehrazin, Fatemeh; Zahediasl, Saleh



l-arginine ameliorates experimental autoimmune myocarditis by maintaining extracellular matrix and reducing cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

It was previously shown that administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) aggravated murine viral myocarditis by increasing myocardial virus titres. Experimental autoimmune myocarditis in mice and rats mimics human fulminant myocarditis. The effects of l-arginine, a precursor of nitric oxide, upon heart failure in experimental autoimmune myocarditis were evaluated. Dietary l-arginine (l-arginine group) and l-arginine plus NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-arginine + l-NAME group) were administered to C57BL/6 mice immunized with porcine cardiac myosin over 3 weeks. An untreated myocarditis group was prepared. Cardiac damage was less in the l-arginine group compared with the other two groups, as was incidence of heart failure. In addition, extracellular matrix change was less prominent in the l-arginine group. Plasma concentrations of nitric oxide were elevated in the l-arginine group. Cytotoxic activities of lymphocytes were lower in l-arginine group than in other two groups. l-arginine treatment may be effective in preventing the development of heart failure in experimental myocarditis by maintaining extracellular matrix and reducing the cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes.

Okabe, Taka-aki; Hattori, Miki; Yuan, Zuyi; Kishimoto, Chiharu



The effect of long-term use of a dentifrice containing zinc citrate and a non-ionic agent on the oral flora.  


The effect on the oral ecology of daily use, for seven months, of a dentifrice containing 0.5% (w/w) zinc citrate and a non-ionic agent, i.e., 0.2% (w/w) Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether), has been monitored on 13 adult volunteers. Plaque and saliva were sampled monthly and the bacterial flora analyzed. Twenty-six volunteers used a placebo dentifrice as part of their normal oral hygiene for four months to establish the baseline microbial flora. The volunteers were then split into two equal groups: One group continued to use the placebo dentifrice; the other used the dentifrice containing zinc citrate and Triclosan. There was no evidence that seven months' use of a dentifrice containing 0.5% zinc citrate and 0.2% Triclosan caused shifts in the oral microbial ecology, nor was there any evidence of developing bacterial resistance to Triclosan. PMID:11039044

Jones, C L; Ritchie, J A; Marsh, P D; Van der Ouderaa, F



l-Arginine currents in rat cardiac ventricular myocytes  

PubMed Central

l-Arginine (l-Arg) is a basic amino acid that plays a central role in the biosynthesis of nitric oxide, creatine, agmantine, polyamines, proline and glutamate. Most tissues, including myocardium, must import l-Arg from the circulation to ensure adequate intracellular levels of this amino acid. This study reports novel l-Arg-activated inward currents in whole-cell voltage-clamped rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Ion-substitution experiments identified extracellular l-Arg as the charge-carrying cationic species responsible for these currents, which, thus, represent l-Arg import into cardiac myocytes. This result was independently confirmed by an increase in myocyte nitric oxide production upon extracellular application of l-Arg. The inward movement of Arg molecules was found to be passive and independent of Na2+, K2+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. The process displayed saturation and membrane potential (Vm)-dependent kinetics, with a K0.5 for l-Arg that increased from 5 mm at hyperpolarizing Vm to 20 mm at +40 mV. l-Lysine and l-ornithine but not d-Arg produced currents with characteristics similar to that activated by l-Arg indicating that the transport process is stereospecific for cationic l-amino acids. l-Arg current was fully blocked after brief incubation with 0.2 mmN-ethylmaleimide. These features suggest that the activity of the low-affinity, high-capacity CAT-2A member of the y2+ family of transporters is responsible for l-Arg currents in acutely isolated cardiomyocytes. Regardless of the mechanism, we hypothesize that a low-affinity arginine transport process in heart, by ensuring substrate availability for sustained NO production, might play a cardio-protective role during catabolic states known to increase Arg plasma levels severalfold.

Peluffo, R Daniel



Improved Neurodevelopmental Outcomes following Long-Term High-Dose Oral Acyclovir Therapy in Infants with Central Nervous System and Disseminated Herpes Simplex Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Infants with neonatal herpes, classified as central nervous system or disseminated disease, have a high incidence of moderate and severe neurologic deficits despite standard acute therapy.STUDY DESIGN:Following completion of parenteral therapy, infants with central nervous system and\\/or disseminated disease received 2 years of continuous oral acyclovir therapy. Target minimum peak serum acyclovir concentrations were >2 ?g\\/ml for the first three

K F Tiffany; D K Benjamin; P Palasanthiran; K O'Donnell; L T Gutman



L-Arginine and melatonin interaction in rat intestinal ischemia--reperfusion.  


We investigated the combinative effects of L-arginine and melatonin on the contractile responses of terminal ileum after the intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), in vivo. Male rats were subjected to mesenteric ischemia (30 min) followed by reperfusion (180 min). We have observed a dramatic decrease in spontaneous basal activity and Ach-induced contractile response. Our data clearly showed that the contractility decrease was ameliorated by L-arginine but not by L-NAME. Melatonin has reversed the inhibition of contractility caused by I/R injury in part. We did not observe an augmentation in the contractility of ileum when we use melatonin and L-arginine in combination, in fact, melatonin decreased the protective effect of L-arginine in intestinal I/R injury. PMID:16176331

Arslan, S Oktay; Gelir, Ethem; Sayan, Hale; Ozacmak, V Haktan



Reduced nitric oxide production by l-arginine deficiency in lysinuric protein intolerance exacerbates intravascular coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) results in low serum l-arginine, hyperammonemia, mental retardation, thrombocytopenia, and an increased frequency of bowel movements. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of low serum l-arginine, the essential substrate for reactions catalyzed by nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), on the serum nitric oxide (NO) level and coagulation activity in a patient with LPI. A 37-year-old Japanese

Yoshiro Kayanoki; Sumio Kawata; Eiji Yamasaki; Shin-ichi Kiso; Satoshi Inoue; Shinji Tamura; Naoyuki Taniguchi; Yuji Matsuzawa



Enhanced transfection efficiency of PAMAM dendrimer by surface modification with l-arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed a novel type of arginine-rich dendrimer, with a structure based on the well-defined dendrimer, polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM). Further characterization was performed to prove that the polymer is a potent nonviral gene delivery carrier. The primary amines located on the surface of PAMAM were conjugated with l-arginine to generate an l-arginine-grafted-PAMAM dendrimer (PAMAM-Arg). For comparison, an l-lysine-grafted-PAMAM dendrimer (PAMAM-Lys)

Joon Sig Choi; Kihoon Nam; Jong-yeun Park; Jung-Bin Kim; Ja-Kyeong Lee; Jong-sang Park



L-Arginine Reactivity in Cerebral Vessels After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Objectives Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes an early reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF). The purpose was to study cerebrovascular endothelial function by examining the reactivity of cerebral vessels to L-arginine. Methods Fifty-one patients with severe TBI were prospectively studied by measuring cerebral hemodynamics before and after the administration of L-arginine, 300 mg/kg at 12 hrs and at 48 hrs after injury. These hemodynamic measurements, using transcranial Doppler techniques, included internal carotid flow volume as an estimate of hemispheric cerebral blood flow, flow velocity in intracranial vessels, CO2 reactivity, and dynamic pressure autoregulation using thigh cuff deflation and carotid compression methods. Changes in the hemodynamics with L-arginine administration were analyzed using a general linear mixed model. Results L-arginine produced no change in mean arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, or brain oxygenation. Overall, L-arginine induced an 11.3% increase in internal carotid artery flow volume (p= .0190). This increase was larger at 48 hrs than at 12 hrs (p= .0045), and tended to be larger in the less injured hemisphere at both time periods. The response of flow velocity in the intracranial vessels was similar, but smaller differences with administration of L-arginine were observed. There was a significant improvement in CO2 reactivity with L-arginine, but no change in dynamic pressure autoregulation. Discussion The low response of the cerebral vessels to L-arginine at 12 hrs post-injury with improvement at 48hrs suggests that dysfunction of cerebrovascular endothelium plays a role in the reduced CBF observed after TBI.

Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Ahmed, Osama; Goodman, J. Clay; Gopinath, Shankar; Valadka, Alex; Robertson, Claudia



Thermal, FT-IR and SHG efficiency studies of L-arginine doped KDP crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) is a well known nonlinear optical (NLO) material with different applications. Since most\\u000a of the amino acids exhibit NLO property, it is of interest to dope them in KDP. In the present study, amino acid L-arginine\\u000a was doped in KDP. The doping of L-arginine was confirmed by FT-IR and paper chromatography. Thermogravimetry suggested that\\u000a as the

K. D. Parikh; D. J. Dave; B. B. Parekh; M. J. Joshi



Local L-Arginine Delivery After Balloon Angioplasty Reduces Monocyte Binding and Induces Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Local administration of L-arginine after balloon angioplasty has been shown to enhance NO generation and inhibit lesion formation. In this study, we assessed the mechanisms by which local delivery of L-arginine inhibits lesion formation. Methods and Results—New Zealand White rabbits (n 556) were fed a 1% cholesterol diet. After 1 week, both iliac arteries were balloon-denuded, and a local drug

Josef Niebauer; Severin P. Schwarzacher; Motoya Hayase; Bingyin Wang; Robert S. Kernoff; John P. Cooke; Alan C. Yeung



Long-term environmental stewardship.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

Nagy, Michael David



Oral Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette–Guérin Expressing HIV1 Antigens as a Freeze-Dried Vaccine Induces Long-Term, HIVSpecific Mucosal and Systemic Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of HIV-1-specific immune responses was evaluated using a recombinant BCG (rBCG) vector-based vaccine expressing HIV-1 Env V3 peptide (rBCG-pSOV3J1). rBCG-pSOV3J1 was manufactured as a freeze-dried preparation based on good laboratory practice guidelines. Guinea pigs were immunized with the freeze-dried rBCG vaccine by oral administration to test the effectiveness of what is generally considered the most convenient and practical route

Mamoru Kawahara; Akira Hashimoto; Ichiro Toida; Mitsuo Honda



Presynaptic long-term plasticity  

PubMed Central

Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity.

Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole



The effects on sexual response and mood after sterilization of women taking long-term oral contraception: results of a double-blind cross-over study.  


Twenty women using oral contraception for a minimum of 2 years with no side effects volunteered to take part in this experiment which commenced after they had undergone laparoscopic sterilization. In a double-blind cross-over design, patients were administered either 1.0 mg ethynodiol diacetate + 0.1 mg mestranol ("Ovulen") each day for 21 days or an identical-looking placebo for the same number of days. The following month the alternative (cross-over) tablet was given. On days 12 and 25 of each cycle the women completed a modified form of Pitt's Depression Index and a short Sexual Response Score. The result indicated that the active pill ("Ovulen") was associated with a decreased sexual response, but with no increase in the depression index (relative to placebo). The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to previous work, the methodology of the study and hormone-behaviour experiments. PMID:369515

Leeton, J; McMaster, R; Worsley, A



Adjuvant therapy with oral sodium clodronate in locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer: long-term overall survival results from the MRC PR04 and PR05 randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Bisphosphonates might modulate the development of symptomatic bone metastases in men with prostate cancer. The Medical Research Council (MRC) PR05 and PR04 randomised controlled trials assessed the use of sodium clodronate, an oral, first-generation bisphosphonate. We report the final analyses of long-term survival data with additional follow-up in both trials. Methods 311 men with metastatic disease were recruited to PR05 between 1994 and 1998, and 508 men with non-metastatic disease were recruited to PR04 from 1994 to 1997. All men were treated according to the recruiting site's standard practice at the time: for metastatic disease, all men were starting or responding to long-term hormone therapy; for non-metastatic disease, most men had radiotherapy, hormone therapy, or both. Men were randomly assigned to take four tablets per day of sodium clodronate (2080 mg) or matching placebo for up to 3 years (metastatic disease) or 5 years (non-metastatic). Long-term overall survival was assessed on an intention-to-treat basis in all men at sites in England and Wales using data from the National Health Service Information Centre, which held data for 278 of 311 men in the PR05 trial and 471 of 508 men in the PR04 trial. These studies are registered International Standardised Randomised Controlled Trials, numbers ISRCTN38477744 (PR05) and ISRCTN61384873 (PR04). Findings Of the 278 men with metastatic disease, 258 (93%) were reported to have died. Evidence of a benefit for those with metastatic disease from use of sodium clodronate compared with placebo was seen in overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0·77, 95% CI 0·60–0·98; p=0·032). Of the 471 men with non-metastatic disease, 281 (60%) were reported to have died, with no evidence of improvement in overall survival with clodronate compared with placebo (HR 1·12, 0·89–1·42; p=0·94). Interpretation Long-term data from these trials show that a first-generation bisphosphonate, sodium clodronate, improves overall survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer who are starting hormone therapy, but there is no evidence of an effect in men with non-metastatic prostate cancer. Funding UK MRC; and an education grant and free drug from Roche Products Ltd.

Dearnaley, David P; Mason, Malcolm D; Parmar, Mahesh KB; Sanders, Karen; Sydes, Matthew R



Transplantation-associated long-term immunosuppression promotes oral colonization by potentially opportunistic pathogens without impacting other members of the salivary bacteriome.  


Solid-organ transplant recipients rely on pharmacological immunosuppression to prevent allograft rejection. The effect of such chronic immunosuppression on the microflora at mucosal surfaces is not known. We evaluated the salivary bacterial microbiome of 20 transplant recipients and 19 nonimmunosuppressed controls via 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Alpha-diversity and global community structure did not differ between transplant and control subjects. However, principal coordinate analysis showed differences in community membership. Taxa more prevalent in transplant subjects included operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of potentially opportunistic Gammaproteobacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acinetobacter species, Vibrio species, Enterobacteriaceae species, and the genera Acinetobacter and Klebsiella. Transplant subjects also had increased proportions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species, Enterobacteriaceae species, and Enterococcus faecalis, among other OTUs, while genera with increased proportions included Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus. Furthermore, in transplant subjects, the dose of the immunosuppressant prednisone positively correlated with bacterial richness, while prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil doses positively correlated with the prevalence and proportions of transplant-associated taxa. Correlation network analysis of OTU relative abundance revealed a cluster containing potentially opportunistic pathogens as transplant associated. This cluster positively correlated with serum levels of C-reactive protein, suggesting a link between the resident flora at mucosal compartments and systemic inflammation. Network connectivity analysis revealed opportunistic pathogens as highly connected to each other and to common oral commensals, pointing to bacterial interactions that may influence colonization. This work demonstrates that immunosuppression aimed at limiting T-cell-mediated responses creates a more permissive oral environment for potentially opportunistic pathogens without affecting other members of the salivary bacteriome. PMID:23616410

Diaz, Patricia I; Hong, Bo-Young; Frias-Lopez, Jorge; Dupuy, Amanda K; Angeloni, Mark; Abusleme, Loreto; Terzi, Evimaria; Ioannidou, Effie; Strausbaugh, Linda D; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna



A tea/vanadate decoction delivered orally over 14 months to diabetic rats induces long-term glycemic stability without organ toxicity.  


Vanadium can induce potent hypoglycemic effects in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus animals, but toxic adverse effects have inhibited the translation of these findings. Administration of vanadate in a black tea decoction has shown impressive hypoglycemic effects without evidence of toxicity in short-term studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic action and the toxic adverse effects of a tea/vanadate (T/V) decoction in diabetic rats over a 14-month treatment period. Streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus rats were orally gavaged with 40 mg sodium vanadate in a black tea decoction only when blood glucose levels were greater than 10 mmol/L. Glycemic status and liver and kidney function were monitored over 14 months. All of the diabetic rats in this treatment group (n = 25) required treatment with the T/V decoction at the start of the study to reduce blood glucose levels to less than 10 mmol/L. Diarrhea was uncommon among the T/V-treated animals during the first week of T/V treatment and was absent thereafter. There was no evidence of liver or kidney dysfunction or injury. From 2 to 6 months, fewer animals required the T/V treatment to maintain their blood glucose levels. After 9 months of treatment, none of the diabetic animals required any T/V to maintain their blood glucose levels at less than 10 mmol/L. Oral administration of a T/V decoction provides safe, long-acting hypoglycemic effects in type 1 diabetes mellitus rats. The typical glycemic signs of diabetes were absent for the last 5 months of the study. PMID:22146096

Clark, Tod A; Heyliger, Clayton E; Kopilas, Melanie; Edel, Andrea L; Junaid, Asad; Aguilar, Floribeth; Smyth, Donald D; Thliveris, James A; Merchant, Michele; Kim, Hae K; Pierce, Grant N



Effects of manganese forms on biogenic amines in the brain and behavioral alterations in the mouse: Long-term oral administration of several manganese compounds  

SciTech Connect

This work has identified the relative toxicity of four forms of manganese, using biogenic amine levels, tissue retention, weight gain, and activity scores as criteria. Male mice were chronically treated with four forms of manganese administered orally, mixed with the diet, for 12 months. The Mn levels were higher in some parts of brain after feeding insoluble salts than after the soluble salts. The concentration of manganese was significantly increased in the liver and spleen of the manganese carbonate-exposed group, compared with the concentration in the control group. Manganese dioxide feeding lowered dopamine and increased homovanilic acid. Since manganese dioxide is a powerful oxidizing agent in organic chemistry, it possibly enhanced the oxidative metabolite of dopamine. Accumulation of manganese in the brain correlated with reduced hypothalamic dopamine levels in the manganese acetate-exposed group; and the amount of manganese accumulated correlated with the intensity of suppression of motor activity. These findings indicate that manganese dioxide is more toxic than divalent manganese. Of the divalent manganese compounds, manganese acetate seemed to have the greatest toxic effect.

Komura, Junko; Sakamoto, Michiko (Hokuriku Univ., Kanazawa (Japan))



Increased symmetrical dimethylarginine in ischemic acute kidney injury as a causative factor of renal L-arginine deficiency.  


Availability of L-arginine, the exclusive substrate for nitric oxide synthases, plays an important role in kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury. The endogenous L-arginine derivatives asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA) block cellular L-arginine uptake competitively, thereby inhibiting the production of nitric oxide. ADMA also blocks nitric oxide synthase activity directly. Here, we investigate the pathomechanistic impact of ADMA and SDMA on ischemic acute kidney injury. Rats were subject to bilateral renal ischemia (60 minutes)/reperfusion (24 hours) injury. Impairment of renal function was determined with inulin clearance (glomerular filtration rate) and para-aminohippurate (PAH) clearance (renal plasma flow). L-arginine, ADMA, and SDMA levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. L-arginine was extracted from renal tissue and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and protein and messenger RNA expressions were determined by Western blot and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Renal function deteriorated severely after ischemia/reperfusion injury, as demonstrated by inulin and PAH clearance. Serum ADMA and SDMA increased, but tissue expression of specific ADMA or SDMA synthesizing and metabolizing enzymes (protein arginine methyltransferases and dimethyl arginine dimethylaminohydrolases) did not alter. Serum L-arginine increased as well, whereas intracellular L-arginine concentration diminished. Renal messenger RNA expression of cationic amino acid transporters, which mediate L-arginine uptake, remained unchanged. In serum, the ratio of L-arginine to ADMA did not alter after ischemia/reperfusion injury, whereas the ratios of L-arginine to SDMA and ADMA to SDMA decreased. A marked increase in serum SDMA, especially when accompanied by a diminished L-arginine-to-SDMA ratio, might reflect competitive inhibition of cellular L-arginine uptake by SDMA. As a consequence, a pathologic renal L-arginine deficiency in ischemic acute kidney injury results. PMID:23707198

Betz, Boris; Möller-Ehrlich, Kerstin; Kress, Tobias; Kniepert, Joachim; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Böger, Rainer H; Wanner, Christoph; Sauvant, Christoph; Schneider, Reinhard



L-arginine causes amelioration of cerebrovascular dysfunction and brain inflammation during experimental heatstroke.  


Cerebrovascular dysfunction ensuing from severe heatstroke includes intracranial hypertension, cerebral hypoperfusion, and brain inflammation. We attempted to assess whether L-arginine improves survival during experimental heatstroke by attenuating these reactions. Anesthetized rats, 70 min after the start of heat stress (43 degrees C), were divided into two major groups and given the following: vehicle solution (1 mL/kg body weight) or L-arginine (50-250 mg/kg body weight) intravenously. Another group of rats was exposed to room temperature (24 degrees C) and used as normothermic controls. Their physiological and biochemical parameters were continuously monitored. When the vehicle-treated rats underwent heat stress, their survival time values were found to be 20 to 26 min. Treatment with i.v. doses of L-arginine significantly improved the survival rate during heatstroke (54-245 min). As compared with those of normothermic controls, all vehicle-treated heatstroke animals displayed higher levels of core temperature, intracranial pressure, and NO metabolite, glutamate, glycerol, lactate-pyruvate ratio, and dihydroxybenzoic acid in hypothalamus. In addition, hypothalamic levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were elevated after heatstroke onset. In contrast, all vehicle-treated heatstroke animals had lower levels of MAP, cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow, and brain partial pressure of oxygen. Administration of L-arginine immediately after the onset of heatstroke significantly reduced the intracranial hypertension and the increased levels of NO metabolite, glutamate, glycerol, lactate-pyruvate ratio, and dihydroxybenzoic acid in the hypothalamus that occurred during heatstroke. The heatstroke-induced increased levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in the hypothalamus were suppressed by L-arginine treatment. In contrast, the hypothalamic levels of IL-10 were significantly elevated by L-arginine during heatstroke. The results suggest that L-arginine may cause attenuation of heatstroke by reducing cerebrovascular dysfunction and brain inflammation. PMID:17693925

Chen, Yen-Chia; Liu, Yu-Chi; Yen, David Hung-Tsang; Wang, Lee-Min; Huang, Chun-I; Lee, Chen-Hsen; Lin, Mao-Tsun



Macrophage oxidation of L-arginine to nitrite and nitrate: nitric oxide is an intermediate  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that murine macrophages immunostimulated with interferon ..gamma.. and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide synthesize NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and citrulline from L-arginine by oxidation of one of the two chemically equivalent guanido nitrogens. The enzymatic activity for this very unusual reaction was found in the 100,000g supernatant isolated from activated RAW 264.7 cells and was totally absent in unstimulated cells. This activity requires NADPH and L-arginine and is enhanced by Mg/sup 2 +/. When the subcellular fraction containing the enzyme activity was incubated with L-arginine, NADPH, and Mg/sup 2 +/, the formation of nitric oxide was observed. Nitric oxide formation was dependent on the presence of L-arginine and NADPH and was inhibited by the NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesis inhibitor N/sup G/-monomethyl-L-arginine. Furthermore, when incubated with L-(guanido-/sup 15/N/sub 2/)arginine, the nitric oxide was /sup 15/N-labeled. The results show that nitric oxide is an intermediate in the L-arginine to NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and citrulline pathway. L-Arginine is required for the activation of macrophages to the bactericidal/tumoricidal state and suggests that nitric oxide is serving as an intracellular signal for this activation process in a manner similar to that very recently observed in endothelial cells, where nitric oxide leads to vascular smooth muscle relaxation.

Marletta, M.A.; Yoon, P.S.; Iyengar, R.; Leaf, C.D.; Wishnok, J.S.



Short- and long-term effect of oral administration of micellized natural vitamin E (D-?-tocopherol) on oxidative status in race horses under intense training.  


This study tested the effect of micellized vitamin E (D-?-tocopherol; 1,400 IU/d) administered 12 and 1 h orally before training for 1 d (ST-VitE) or 8 d (LT-VitE) compared with an unsupplemented control (CONTROL) on plasma ?-tocopherol, thiobarbithuric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), total glutathione (GSHt), and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in 10 race horses. Different sampling times [immediately before training (BEF) and after intense training (END) or 8 h after recovery (+8h)] were investigated. Plasma ?-tocopherol concentration was greater in the ST-VitE group than the CONTROL group at +8h (P < 0.05). Natural vitamin E supplementation increased plasma ?-tocopherol (P < 0.001) in the LT-VitE group by approximately 1.6-fold at BEF, END, and +8h. In all groups, TBARS tended to be slightly greater (P = 0.087) immediately after training when compared with values BEF or +8h and the lowest TBARS values were observed at +8h in LT-VitE. Vitamin E supplementation did not affect the GSHt concentrations at BEF, END, or +8h. The TEAC values were modified by the vitamin E administration (P = 0.010). The greatest TEAC was found in the LT-VitE group at all sampling times and similar concentrations were reached in the ST-VitE group at +8h. The CONTROL group was not able to maintain TEAC after training (P < 0.001), indicating consumption of antioxidants (mainly vitamin E) and consequently oxidative stress because of the antioxidant system being overwhelmed by a reduced antioxidant supply. In conclusion, micellized natural vitamin E at 1,400 IU/d for 8 d efficiently increased plasma ?-tocopherol concentration of race horses undergoing intense training conditions and maintained the general oxidative status. PMID:23296828

Rey, A I; Segura, J; Arandilla, E; López-Bote, C J



Patients undergoing long-term treatment with antihypertensive eye drops responded positively with respect to their ocular surface disorder to oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential fatty acids  

PubMed Central

Background Glaucoma and dry eye disorders (DEDs) are frequent comorbidities. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied in relation to eye diseases. Objective Our objective was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with a combined formulation of antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of cytokines and chemokines in tears from patients with DEDs or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods Participants (n = 97) were distributed into three groups: (1) individuals with nonsevere DEDs (DEDG), (2) individuals with nonadvanced POAG (POAGG), and (3) healthy controls. These groups were randomized into two subgroups: one received a daily antioxidant and essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (two pills) for 3 months (+S), and the other did not (?NS). Participants were interviewed and ophthalmologically examined. Concentrations of specific cytokines and chemokines in reflex tears were determined by multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry. The data were analyzed statistically (SPSS version 15.0). Results Comparison of the results from the DEDG and POAGG patients showed significant differences in tear expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P = 0.008), tumor necrosis factor ? (P = 0.005), vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.038), interleukin-4 (P = 0.030), and interleukin-6 (P = 0.044). The main signs and symptoms of dry eyes such as dryness, burning, photophobia, eye heaviness, and blurred vision, as well as positive changes in eyelashes, hair, nails and skin, were significantly improved in DEDG +S and POAGG +S patients relative to unsupplemented patients. Conclusion Inflammation biomarkers were differentially expressed in glaucomatous tears, but the differences changed upon antioxidant/essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. Chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops must be considered for integrating protocols to glaucoma standards of care.

Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Pinazo-Duran, Maria D; Cantu-Dibildox, Jorge; Marco-Ramirez, Carla; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel; Benitez-del-Castillo, Javier



Prophylactic administration of L-arginine improves the intestinal barrier function after mesenteric ischaemia.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) of the intestine causes mucosal injury associated with a high death rate in rats. AIM: To investigate whether nitric oxide (NO) might be implicated in the recovery of the intestinal mucosa after ischaemic insult. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to mesenteric artery occlusion for 90 minutes. The animals were given either L-arginine, the substrate of NO synthase, or molsidomine, a NO donor. The controls received casein hydrolysate. The compounds were administered by gavage 19, 16, and 1.5 hours before ischaemia. Mucosal barrier permeability and cGMP content were determined 24 hours after ischaemia. RESULTS: Survival after I/R was 50% in the control group. Animals treated with L-arginine or molsidomine exhibited a higher survival rate (70% and 83% respectively). Mucosal barrier permeability was decreased in rats receiving L-arginine or molsidomine compared with controls (4.0 (0.9) and 2.6 (0.6) v 11.2 (1.6) 14C-PEG pmol/segment, p < 0.05). Increased cGMP content was seen in the mucosa of the L-arginine group. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that pretreatment with L-arginine or molsidomine ameliorates survival after intestinal I/R and improves mucosal barrier function.

Schleiffer, R; Raul, F



Mechanism of Allosteric Inhibition of N-Acetyl-L-glutamate Synthase by L-Arginine  

SciTech Connect

N-Acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) catalyzes the first committed step in L-arginine biosynthesis in plants and micro-organisms and is subject to feedback inhibition by L-arginine. This study compares the crystal structures of NAGS from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ngNAGS) in the inactive T-state with L-arginine bound and in the active R-state complexed with CoA and L-glutamate. Under all of the conditions examined, the enzyme consists of two stacked trimers. Each monomer has two domains: an amino acid kinase (AAK) domain with an AAK-like fold but lacking kinase activity and an N-acetyltransferase (NAT) domain homologous to other GCN5-related transferases. Binding of L-arginine to the AAK domain induces a global conformational change that increases the diameter of the hexamer by {approx}10 {angstrom} and decreases its height by {approx}20{angstrom}. AAK dimers move 5{angstrom} outward along their 2-fold axes, and their tilt relative to the plane of the hexamer decreases by {approx}4{sup o}. The NAT domains rotate {approx}109{sup o} relative to AAK domains enabling new interdomain interactions. Interactions between AAK and NAT domains on different subunits also change. Local motions of several loops at the L-arginine-binding site enable the protein to close around the bound ligand, whereas several loops at the NAT active site become disordered, markedly reducing enzymatic specific activity.

Min, Li; Jin, Zhongmin; Caldovic, Ljubica; Morizono, Hiroki; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel; Shi, Dashuang (GUW); (Maryland); (GWU); (Georgia)



Cerebrovascular reactivity to l-arginine in the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation in migraine patients.  


OBJECTIVE?- Cerebral infarction preferentially affects the posterior cerebral artery distribution in migraine patients. The results obtained from the few known studies that have compared the anterior and posterior cerebral endothelial function are contradictory. To the best of our knowledge, cerebrovascular reactivity to L-arginine (CVR), measured by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), has not been previously used to determine the posterior cerebral endothelial function in migraine patients with (MwA) and without aura (MwoA). MATERIALS AND METHODS?-? Forty migraine patients without comorbidities (20?MwA, 20?MwoA) and 20 healthy subjects were included. By employing strict inclusion criteria, we avoided the possible vascular risk factors. Mean arterial velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) was measured by TCD before and after infusion of L-arginine, and CVR to L-arginine was then calculated. RESULTS?-?All migraine patients had lower CVR to L-arginine in PCA (P = 0.002) and similar in MCA (P = 0.29) compared to healthy subjects. This difference was also present in MwA and MwoA compared to healthy subjects (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS?-? Lower CVR to L-arginine in PCA in migraine patients could associate migraine and cerebral infarcts that are more common in the posterior cerebral artery distribution. PMID:21198449

Perko, D; Pretnar-Oblak, J; Sabovi?, M; Zvan, B; Zaletel, M



AMP-activated protein kinase regulates L-arginine mediated cellular responses  

PubMed Central

Background Our prior study revealed the loss in short-term L-Arginine (ARG) therapeutic efficacy after continuous exposure; resulting in tolerance development, mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) down-regulation, secondary to oxidative stress and induced glucose accumulation. However, the potential factor regulating ARG cellular response is presently unknown. Method Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with 100 ?M ARG for 2 h in buffer (short-term or acute), or for 7 days in culture medium and challenged for 2 h in buffer (continuous or chronic), in the presence or absence of other agents. eNOS activity was determined by analyzing cellular nitrite/nitrate (NO2–/NO3–), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity was assayed using SAMS peptide. 13C6 glucose was added to medium to measure glucose uptake during cellular treatments, which were determined by LC-MS/MS. Cellular glucose was identified by o-toluidine method. Superoxide (O2•–) was identified by EPR-spin-trap, and peroxynitrite (ONOO–) was measured by flow-cytometer using aminophenyl fluorescein dye. Results Short-term incubation of cells with 100 ?M ARG in the presence or absence of 30 ?M L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 30 ?M AMPK inhibitor (compound C, CMP-C) increased cellular oxidative stress and overall glucose accumulation with no variation in glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), or AMPK activity from control. The increase in total NO2–/NO3– after 2 h 100 ?M ARG exposure, was suppressed in cells co-incubated with 30??M CMP-C or L-NAME. Long-term exposure of ARG with or without CMP-C or L-NAME suppressed NO2–/NO3–, glucose uptake, GLUT-1, AMPK expression and activity below control, and increased overall cellular glucose, O2•– and ONOO–. Gluconeogenesis inhibition with 30 ?M 5-Chloro-2-N-2,5-dichlorobenzenesulfonamido-benzoxazole (CDB) during ARG exposure for 2 h maintained overall cellular glucose to control, but increased cellular glucose uptake. Continuous co-incubation with CDB and ARG increased NO2–/NO3–, glucose uptake, GLUT-1, AMPK expression and activity, and maintained overall cellular glucose, O2•– and ONOO– to control conditions. Conclusion The present study provides the fundamental evidence for AMPK as the primary modulator of ARG cellular responses and for regulating the mode of glucose accumulation during short-term and continuous ARG treatments.



Growth and characterization of sulphate mixed L-arginine phosphate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate/potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our investigations on the growth of the mixed crystals of L-arginine phosphate sulphate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate/potassium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP/KDP) are presented. The structural, mechanical, electrical and optical properties of L-arginine phosphate (LAP) and L-arginine phosphate sulphate (LAPS) crystals are discussed. Pure and mixed crystals of KDP and ADP have been grown on KDP seeds for the entire range of compositions.

Ravi, G.; Srinivasan, K.; Anbukumar, S.; Ramasamy, P.



L-arginine decreases the infiltration of the kidney by macrophages in obstructive nephropathy and puromycin-induced nephrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-arginine decreases the infiltration of the kidney by macrophages in obstructive nephropathy and puromycin-induced nephrosis. We examined the effect of 1% L-arginine in the drinking water on the infiltration of the kidney by macrophages in rats with puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephrosis (PAN) and in rats with bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO) of 24 hours duration. Rats given L-arginine in the drinking water

Alvaro A Reyes; Beatriz H Porras; Fred I Chasalow; Saulo Klahr



Differential impact of L-arginine deprivation on the activation and effector functions of T cells and macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of the amino acid L- arginine is emerging as a crucial mechanism for the regulation of immune responses. Here, we charac- terized the impact of L-arginine deprivation on T cell and macrophage (M) effector functions: We show that whereas L-arginine is required uncondi- tionally for T cell activation, M can up-regulate activation markers and produce cytokines and che-

B.-S. Choi; I. Clara Martinez-Falero; C. Corset; M. Munder; M. Modolell; I. Muller; P. Kropf



L-arginine enhances cell proliferation and reduces apoptosis in human endometrial RL95-2 cells  

PubMed Central

Background L-arginine is considered to be one of the most versatile amino acids due to the fact that it serves as a precursor for many important molecules in cellular physiology. When supplemented in the diet, L-arginine can increase the number of implantation sites in mice and rats, suggesting an effect at the level of the endometrium. To this end, this study determined the effect that L-arginine has on apoptosis and cell proliferation in human endometrial RL95-2 cells. Results L-arginine at physiological (200 micromol/L) and supra-physiological (800 micromol/L) concentrations increased cell proliferation at days 2 and 4 post-treatment with a dose-dependent effect being observed on day 2. Additionally, inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase and arginase, which are responsible for the conversion of L-arginine to NO and polyamines, respectively, reduced the proliferative effect of L-arginine. L-arginine also decreased the proportion of cells with TUNEL positive nuclei and increased the ratio of cells with healthy mitochondria compared to cells with a disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that L-arginine prevents mitochondrial mediated apoptosis in endometrial RL95-2 cells. Furthermore, exposure to L-arginine did not affect total BAD protein expression; however, L-arginine increased the abundance of phosphorylated BAD protein. Conclusions In summary, L-arginine added to the culture media at physiological (200 micromol/L) and supraphysiological concentrations (800 micromol/L) enhanced endometrial RL95-2 cell proliferation through mechanisms mediated by NO and polyamine biosynthesis. In addition, L-arginine reduced endometrial RL95-2 mitochondrial mediated apoptosis through increased phosphorylation of BAD protein.



L-arginine metabolism and its impact on host immunity against Leishmania infection  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease found in many countries worldwide. The causative agent of the disease, Leishmania spp., lives as an obligate intracellular parasite within mammalian hosts. Since tissue macrophages are major target cells for parasite replication, the outcome of infection depends largely on the activation status of these cells. L-arginine is a crucial amino acid required for both nitric oxide (NO)-mediated parasite killing and polyamine-mediated parasite replication. This review highlights the significance of L-arginine as a factor determining the outcomes of Leishmania infection in vitro and its influences on host immune responses in vivo. Various therapeutic approaches targeting L-arginine metabolic pathways during infections with Leishmania are also discussed.

Wanasen, Nanchaya



Synthesis, thermal and nonlinear optical characterization of L-arginine semi-oxalate single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically good quality L-arginine semi-oxalate, an organic nonlinear optical crystal, has been synthesized from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the synthesized L-arginine semi-oxalate crystal possesses triclinic structure with unit cell dimensions as a=5.05A?, b=9.73A?, c=13.12A?, ?=111.030, ?=92.790 and ?=91.910. The Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy was analyzed and the presence of functional groups of L-arginine semi-oxalate was confirmed. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies show that the material is thermally stable up to 1460C and the melting point is 1500C. Kurtz and Perry powder technique confirms that the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency is 0.32 times that of standard organic materials urea and KDP.

Vasudevan, P.; Gokulraj, S.; Sankar, S.



Competitive metabolism of L-arginine: arginase as a therapeutic target in asthma?  

PubMed Central

Exhaled breath nitric oxide (NO) is an accepted asthma biomarker. Lung concentrations of NO and its amino acid precursor, L-arginine, are regulated by the relative expressions of the NO synthase (NOS) and arginase isoforms. Increased expression of arginase I and NOS2 occurs in murine models of allergic asthma and in biopsies of asthmatic airways. Although clinical trials involving the inhibition of NO-producing enzymes have shown mixed results, small molecule arginase inhibitors have shown potential as a therapeutic intervention in animal and cell culture models. Their transition to clinical trials is hampered by concerns regarding their safety and potential toxicity. In this review, we discuss the paradigm of arginase and NOS competition for their substrate L-arginine in the asthmatic airway. We address the functional role of L-arginine in inflammation and the potential role of arginase inhibitors as therapeutics.

Bratt, Jennifer M.; Zeki, Amir A.; Last, Jerold A.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.



Optical properties of L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) exhibits superior nonlinear-optical properties and it has been exploited for variety of applications. Single crystals of organic nonlinear optical material of pure and L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) were grown by slow evaporation technique from its aqueous solution. The crystal structures of the grown crystals were determined using powder XRD. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns indicated a single phase with the unit cell parameters being unaltered by doping. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies were employed to study the active doping of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals with L-arginine amino acid. IR absorption spectra confirmed that the successful doping of L-arginine was achieved by exhibiting the presence of vibrational lines at 1401 cm-1, 1637 cm-1, 1716 cm-1 and 3127 cm-1. This affirmation is supported with more evidences from FT-Raman measurements

Govani, Jayesh; Manciu, Felicia; Joshi, Mihir; Parikh, Ketan; Dave, Dipak



The Metabolism of L-Arginine and Its Significance for the Biosynthesis of Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor: Cultured Endothelial Cells Recycle L- Citrulline to L-Arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the mechanism by which cultured endothelial cells generate L-arginine (L-Arg), the substrat for the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. When Arg-depleted endothelial cells were incubated in Krebs' solution for 60 min, L-Arg levels were significantly (9.7-fold) elevated. The generation of L-Arg coincided with a substantial decrease (90%) in intracellular L-glutamine (L-Gln), whereas all other amino acids were

Markus Hecker; William C. Sessa; Hayley J. Harris; Erik E. Anggard; John R. Vane



Tissue injury caused by deposition of immune complexes is L-arginine dependent.  


Nitric oxide (NO.), a free radical that is generated from L-arginine by stimulated endothelial cells, neutrophils, activated macrophages, and other cell types, reacts with superoxide anion (O2.-) to form peroxynitrite, which itself may be tissue toxic or can then react further to form the highly reactive and toxic hydroxyl radical (HO.). Because vascular injury produced by tissue deposition of immune complexes is linked to formation of toxic products derived from activated neutrophils, we have assessed whether immune complex-induced injury of rat lung and dermal vasculature is arginine dependent. The arginine analogue, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (N-MeArg), which blocks NO. formation, protects against immune complex-induced vascular injury in rats. The protective effects of N-MeArg are reversed by the presence of L-arginine but not D-arginine. Additionally, in the absence of N-MeArg, injury is enhanced by the presence of L-arginine but not by D-arginine. Protection by N-MeArg is not associated with diminished recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from animals undergoing immune complex deposition in lung contain the decomposition products of NO.--namely, nitrite and nitrate. In the presence of N-MeArg these products are greatly diminished. These data suggest that immune complex-induced injury of rat lung and skin is L-arginine dependent. These data also suggest that in vivo metabolic products of L-arginine, such as NO(.), are directly or indirectly linked to immune complex-induced tissue injury. PMID:1648737

Mulligan, M S; Hevel, J M; Marletta, M A; Ward, P A



Infrared Spectroscopy and Thermal Studies of AsGrown L-Arginine Phosphate Monohydrate Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystals of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) ( C6H14N4O2·H3PO4·H2O) were successfully grown from aqueous solution of L-arginine and phosphoric acid at an ambient temperature of 28.5° C for different pH values ranging from 2.1 to 5.04. As-grown single crystals were characterized by chemical analysis, density measurement and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses

Aditi Mazumder; Tanusree Kar; Siba Prasad Sen Gupta



A novel sensor based on electropolymerization of ?-cyclodextrin and L-arginine on carbon paste electrode for determination of fluoroquinolones.  


An electrochemical sensor for fluoroquinolones (FQs) based on polymerization of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and L-arginine (L-arg) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) (P-?-CD-L-arg/CPE) was built for the first time. Synergistic effect of L-arg and ?-CD was used to construct this sensor for quantification of these important antibiotics. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image shows that polymer of ?-CD and L-arg has been successfully modified on electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammograms (CV) further indicate that polymer of ?-CD and L-arg efficiently decreased the charge transfer resistance value of electrode and improved the electron transfer kinetic between analyte and electrode. Under the optimized conditions, this modified electrode was utilized to determine the concentrations of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and gatifloxacin. The differential pulse voltammogram (DPV) exhibits the oxidation peak currents were linearly proportional to their concentration in the range of 0.05-100 ?M for ciprofloxacin, 0.1-100 ?M for ofloxacin, 0.1-40 ?M for norfloxacin and 0.06-100 ?M for gatifloxacin, respectively. This method was also successfully used to detect the concentrations of each drug in pharmaceutical formulations and human serum samples. In addition, this proposed fluoroquinolones sensor exhibited good reproducibility, long-term stability and fast current response. PMID:23498686

Zhang, Fenfen; Gu, Shuqing; Ding, Yaping; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Li



Long Term Illness and Wages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.



? Carinae long-term variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of our analysis on the long-term variations observed in the optical spectrum of the LBV star ? Carinae. Based on the hydrogen line profiles, we conclude that the physical parameters of the primary star did not change in the last 15 years.

Damineli, Augusto; Teodoro, Mairan; Corcoran, Michael F.; Groh, Jose H.



Effects of the cationic protein poly-L-arginine on airway epithelial cells in vitro.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is associated with an increased number of eosinophils in the airway wall. Eosinophils secrete cationic proteins, particularly major basic protein (MBP). AIM: To investigate the effect of synthetic cationic polypeptides such as poly-L-arginine, which can mimic the effect of MBP, on airway epithelial cells. METHODS: Cultured airway epithelial cells were exposed to poly-L-arginine, and effects were determined by light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Poly-L-arginine induced apoptosis and necrosis. Transmission electron microscopy showed mitochondrial damage and changes in the nucleus. The tight junctions were damaged, as evidenced by penetration of lanthanum. Scanning electron microscopy showed a damaged cell membrane with many pores. Microanalysis showed a significant decrease in the cellular content of magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and chlorine, and an increase in calcium. Plakoglobin immunoreactivity in the cell membrane was decreased, indicating a decrease in the number of desmosomes CONCLUSIONS: The results point to poly-L-arginine induced membrane damage, resulting in increased permeability, loss of cell-cell contacts and generalized cell damage.

Shahana, Shahida; Kampf, Caroline; Roomans, Godfried M



Effects of L-Arginine on the Reproductive System of Male Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-arginine is an amino acid, which serves as the sole substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis with the concomitant formation of L-citrulline in biologic system. NO has been demonstrated to be involved in smooth muscle relax - ation and vasodilation, immune regulation and neurotransmission. It also has an important function as both intercellular and intracellular signals in many physiological systems,

Sukardi S; Yaakub H; Ganabadi S; Cheng LH


Determining the structure of L-arginine and other organic molecules.  


The time is now: Very real opportunities that now exist for determining the crystal structures of organic molecules using sophisticated techniques for the analysis of powder X-ray diffraction data are highlighted herein. The application of these techniques has recently led to the first crystal structure determination reported for L-arginine. PMID:22689477

Thomas, John M



Ground-based experiments on the growth and characterization of L-arginine phosphate crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-Arginine Phosphate (LAP) is a new nonlinear optical material with higher efficiency for harmonic generation compared to KDP. Crystals of LAP were grown in the laboratory from supersaturated solutions by temperature lowering technique. Investigations revealed the presence of large dislocation densities inside the crystals which are observed to produce refractive index changes causing damage at high laser powers. This is

S. M. Rao; C. Cao; Ashok K. Batra; Ravindra B. Lal; Tripty K. Mookherji



Activation of L -arginine transport in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in chronic renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of LL-arginine, the precursor for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, has been investigated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy volunteers and chronic renal failure patients. Chronic renal failure patients were either on treatment by haemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Saturable influx of L-arginine in PBMCs was mediated by the cationic amino acid transport systems

T. M. C. Brunini; N. Roberts; M. Yaqoob; P. Reis; J. Ellory; G. Mann; A. Mendes-Ribeiro



Angiotensin II and L-arginine in tissue fibrosis: More than blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiotensin II and L-arginine in tissue fibrosis: More than blood pressure. Angiotensin II (Ang II) blockade and restriction of dietary protein are thought to retard progression of renal disease primarily by reducing glomerular capillary pressure and thereby reducing injury to renal tissues. Relatively recent data suggest that both of these therapies may also act through pressure-independent mechanisms to reduce repair

Harm Peters; Nancy A Noble



Diamond turning of L-arginine phosphate, a new organic crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated that single point diamond turning can be used to generate high optical quality finished surfaces on a new organic nonlinear crystal, L-arginine phosphate (LAP). The proper choice of cutting conditions can produce surfaces with >5-A rms local roughness. Local softening or melting near the cutting tool tip may play a key role in the machining process by

Baruch A. Fuchs; Chol K. Syn; Stephan P. Velsko



Long-term data archiving  

SciTech Connect

Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web Consortium, an independent standards body) as a new data interchange tool is being investigated and implemented. In order to facilitate data archiving, Raman data needs calibration as well as some other kinds of data treatment. Figure 1 illustrates schematically the present situation for Raman data calibration in the world-wide Raman spectroscopy community, and presents some of the terminology used.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Effects of an Acute Dose of L-Arginine during Coronary Angiography in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Contrast media (CM) are nephrotoxic and might further worsen renal function in patients with chronic renal failure. L-Arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide, protects kidney function and may improve endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. Hypothesis: Acute administration of L-arginine in a subset of patients with combined coronary artery disease and impaired kidney function during coronary angiography

Hylton I. Miller; Avi Dascalu; Tovy A. Rassin; Y. Wollman; T. Chernichowsky; A. Iaina



l-Arginine stimulates immune response in chickens immunized with intermediate plus strain of infectious bursal disease vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious bursal disease continues to pose an important threat to the commercial poultry industry, especially after the emergence of virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). l-Arginine, a ubiquitous, basic amino acid is used as an immunostimulant in variety of human and animal studies with great success in immunosuppressed hosts. In the present study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of l-arginine

Chandrakant Tayade; T. N. Jaiswal; S. C. Mishra; Madhuri Koti



Growth and characterization of L-arginine sulphate: A new nanocrystal with non linear optical behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-arginine combines with a variety of salts and acids to form a potential non-linear optical material. Nano crystals of L-arginine-Sulphate (LAS) have been grown from solution by the slow evaporation technique for the first time. The single phase formation has been verified by XRD studies. TEM studies confirm the formation of nanocrystallites of particle size of about 34nm. The optical absorption studies shows presence of a sharp UV cut-off region at 239.57nm. Further the presence of wide transparency window in the entire visible region shows its use for optoelectronic applications. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) confirms the presence of potassium and sulphur in the grown nanocrystal of LAS. Fungus growth has been avoided by subjecting the solution to pre-heat treatment. Preliminary studies indicate presence of non-linear optical (NLO) response.

Khandpekar, M. M.; Patil, Smita S.



Synthesis and characterization of nonlinear optical L-arginine semi-oxalate single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-arginine semi-oxalate single crystals have been synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses has been made to confirm the triclinic structure with non-centrosymmetric space group P1. The presence of functional groups of L-arginine semi-oxalate crystals was identified and confirmed by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Molecular structure of the grown crystal was analyzed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR studies. Optical absorption studies carried out in wavelength range from 250 nm to 1200 nm have revealed that the material is completely transparent for the entire wavelength range studied. Thermal characterization using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry studies show that the crystal is thermally stable up to 146 °C. The presence of second harmonic generation of the grown crystal was tested and its efficiency was determined by using Kurtz and Perry powder technique.

Vasudevan, P.; Gokul Raj, S.; Sankar, S.



Protective effect of lawsone on L-Arginine induced acute pancreatitis in rats.  


The efficacy of lawsone against L-arginine induced acute pancreatitis was determined at 24 h by determination of serum levels of amylase, lipase and proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, C-reactive proteins and interleukin (IL)], pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], nitrate/nitrite levels, and the wet weight/body weight ratio. Lawsone and methylprednisolone treatments significantly attenuated the L-arginine- induced increases in pancreatic wet weight/body weight ratio, and decreased the serum levels of amylase and lipase, and TNF-alpha and IL-6 and significantly lowered pancreatic levels of MPO, TBARS, and nitrate/nitrite. The histoimmunological findings further proved the amelioration of pancreatic injury by lawsone and further proved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent property of lawsone. PMID:23678547

Biradar, Sandeep; Veeresh, B



Rapid, one-pot synthesis of highly-soluble carbon nanotubes functionalized by L-arginine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a necessary step to exploit their valuable properties. Due to having several steps and especially acid treatment, most of current methods of functionalization result in irrecoverable defects on CNTs structure. Here, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with L-arginine in a simple, one-pot and rapid microwave-assisted technique without any acid treatment step. The CNT functionalities were analyzed with infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results confirmed the covalent functionalization of L-arginine with very low defects on CNTs. Also it is found that increase of input powers of microwave in the range 500-900 W, monotonically increase the degree of functionalization. The maximum dispersibility of MWCNT was found ˜1.03 mg/mL corresponding to 900 W irradiation. Accounting considerable low treatment time, the method may be applied for large-scale solubilization of MWCNTs in an industrial scale.

Ghiadi, Behnam; Baniadam, Majid; Maghrebi, Morteza; Amiri, Ahmad



Apocynin but Not l-Arginine Prevents and Reverses Dexamethasone-Induced Hypertension in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dexamethasone (Dex)–hypertension in rats is associated with increased oxidative stress. We investigated effects of the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin and the nitric oxide (NO) precursor L-arginine on Dex-hypertension to determine the relative roles of NAD(P)H oxidase and uncoupling in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and hypertension.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10\\/group) received Dex (20 ?g\\/kg\\/day subcutaneously) or

Lexian Hu; Yi Zhang; Pek S. Lim; Yuchun Miao; Chrismin Tan; Christopher G. Schyvens; Judith A. Whitworth



Effects of L-arginine on atherogenesis and endothelial dysfunction due to secondhand smoke.  


Secondhand smoke (SHS) and hypercholesterolemia increase cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that L-arginine, the precursor of nitric oxide (NO), might protect against atherogenesis and endothelial dysfunction caused by SHS. The effects of L-arginine supplementation (2.25% solution ad libitum) and SHS (smoking chambers for 10 weeks) were examined in 32 hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Eight normal rabbits served as controls. Acetylcholine- and nitroglycerin-induced vasorelaxation was assessed in aortic rings precontracted with norepinephrine. Hypercholesterolemia increased intimal lesion area (P=0.012), reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation (P=0.009), and reduced basal (P=0.005) and stimulated (P<0.0005) production of NOs. SHS increased intimal lesion area (P=0. 01) norepinephrine-induced contraction (P=0.001) and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation (P=0.02). SHS-induced increase in norepinephrine contraction was abolished by the inhibition of NO synthase and removal of endothelium. L-Arginine improved endothelium-dependent relaxation (P=0.001) and attenuated SHS-induced endothelial dysfunction (P=0.007) and atherogenesis (P=0. 001). Basal production of nitrogen oxides correlated inversely with intimal lesion area (r=-0.66; P<0.0005) and stimulated production of NOs correlated with endothelium-dependent relaxation (r=-0.66; P<0. 001). SHS causes endothelial dysfunction and increased adrenergic responsiveness and atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Chronic dietary supplementation with the NO precursor L-arginine mitigates these effects. The adverse vascular consequences of SHS appear to be mediated via deleterious effects on endothelial function. PMID:10406822

Hutchison, S J; Sudhir, K; Sievers, R E; Zhu, B Q; Sun, Y P; Chou, T M; Chatterjee, K; Deedwania, P C; Cooke, J P; Glantz, S A; Parmley, W W



L Arginine Uptake and Metabolism following in vivo Silica Exposure in Rat Lungs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary inflammation increases nitric oxide (NO) produc- tion via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). This study was performed to determine some of the factors that affect the availability of the NOS substrate, L -arginine ( L -arg), in the in- tact lung subjected to silica-induced inflammation. Nitrate production, as an index of NO production, was significantly greater in silica-exposed lungs

Leif D. Nelin; Gary S. Krenz; Louis G. Chicoine; Christopher A. Dawson; Ralph M. Schapira


Optical properties of L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) exhibits superior nonlinear-optical properties and it has been exploited for variety of applications. Single crystals of organic nonlinear optical material of pure and L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) were grown by slow evaporation technique from its aqueous solution. The crystal structures of the grown crystals were determined using powder XRD. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns

Jayesh Govani; Felicia Manciu; Mihir Joshi; Ketan Parikh; Dipak Dave



Arginine deiminase uses an active-site cysteine in nucleophilic catalysis of L-arginine hydrolysis.  


Arginine deiminase (EC catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-arginine to citrulline and ammonium ion, which is the first step of the microbial l-arginine degradation pathway. The deiminase conserves the active-site Cys-His-Asp motif found in several related enzymes that catalyze group-transfer reactions from the guanidinium center of arginine-containing substrates. For each of these enzymes, nucleophilic catalysis by the conserved Cys has been postulated but never tested. In this communication we report the results from rapid quench studies of single-turnover reactions carried out with recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa arginine deiminase and limiting [14C-1]l-arginine. The citrulline-formation and arginine-decay curves measured at 25 degrees C were fitted to yield apparent rate constants k = 3.6 +/- 0.1 s-1 and k = 4.2 +/- 0.1 s-1, respectively. The time course for the formation (k =13 s-1) and decay (k = 6.5 s-1) of 14C-labeled enzyme defined a kinetically competent intermediate. Under the same reaction conditions, the Cys406Ser mutant failed to form the 14C-labeled enzyme intermediate. These results, along with the recently reported enzyme X-ray structure (Galkin, A.; Kulakova, L.; Sarikaya, E.; Lim, K.; Howard, A.; Herzberg, O. J. Biol. Chem. 2004, 279, 14001-14008, evidence a reaction pathway in which l-arginine deimination proceeds via a covalent enzyme intermediate formed by ammonia displacement from the arginine guanidinum carbon by the active-site Cys406. PMID:15113205

Lu, Xuefeng; Galkin, Andrey; Herzberg, Osnat; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra



Pharmacokinetics safety and effects on exercise performance of L-arginine -ketoglutarate in trained adult men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective: We evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of L-arginine -ketoglutarate (AAKG) in trained adult men. Methods: Subjects participated in two studies that employed a randomized, double-blind, con- trolled design. In study 1, 10 healthy men (30?50 y old) fasted for 8 h and then ingeste d4go f time-released or non?timed-released AAKG. Blood samples,were,taken for 8 h after AAKG

Rodney Bowden; Chris Rasmussen; Mike Greenwood; Richard Kreider


Supplementation with apple enriched with L-arginine may improve metabolic control and survival rate in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  


Supplementation with L-arginine or fresh food with high content of this amino acid is associated with favorable effects in the metabolic control of diabetes. We aimed to determine whether supplementation with apples enriched with L-arginine offer additional benefits compared to L-arginine by itself in a preclinical study of diabetes. This study combines food-engineer technologies with in vivo and in vitro analysis. In vitro experiments show that cells derived from non-diabetic animals and exposed to high glucose (25 mM, 12 H) and cells isolated from alloxan-induced diabetic animals exhibited a reduction (?50%) in the L-arginine uptake. This effect was reverted by L-arginine pretreatment (12 H) in both the normal and diabetes-derived cells. In preclinical studies, normoglycemic (n = 25) and diabetic groups (n = 50) were divided into subgroups that received either L-arginine (375 mg/kg per 10 days) or apple enriched with L-arginine or vehicle (control). In a preliminary analysis, supplementation with L-arginine by itself (50%) or apple enriched with L-arginine (100%) improve survival rate in the diabetic group compared to control (0%) at the end of the follow up (17 days). This phenomenon was associated with a partial but sustained high plasma level of L-arginine, as well as plasma concentration of nitrites and insulin in the L-arginine or apple + L-arginine groups after supplementation. Apple + L-arginine supplementation in diabetic animals induced the highest and longest effects in the level of these three markers among the studied groups. Therefore, apple enriched by L-arginine offers more benefits than L-arginine by itself in this preclinical study. © 2013 BioFactors 39(5):564-574, 2013. PMID:23553786

Escudero, Andrea; Petzold, Guillermo; Moreno, Jorge; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Junod, Julio; Aguayo, Claudio; Acurio, Jesenia; Escudero, Carlos



Long Term Care: Early Planning Pays Off  


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One-Pot Green Synthesis and Bioapplication of l-Arginine-Capped Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-soluble l-arginine-capped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using a one-pot and green method. Nontoxic, renewable and inexpensive reagents including FeCl3, l-arginine, glycerol and water were chosen as raw materials. Fe3O4 nanoparticles show different dispersive states in acidic and alkaline solutions for the two distinct forms of surface binding l-arginine. Powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the structure of Fe3O4 nanocrystals. The products behave like superparamagnetism at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 49.9 emu g-1 and negligible remanence or coercivity. In the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride, the anti-chloramphenicol monoclonal antibodies were connected to the l-arginine-capped magnetite nanoparticles. The as-prepared conjugates could be used in immunomagnetic assay.

Lai, Yongchao; Yin, Weiwei; Liu, Jinting; Xi, Rimo; Zhan, Jinhua



The Effects of Yohimbine Plus L-arginine Glutamate on Sexual Arousal in Postmenopausal Women with Sexual Arousal Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of the nitric oxide-precursor L-arginine combined with the a2-blocker yohimbine on subjective and physiological sexual arousal in postmenopausal women with Female Sexual Arousal Disorder. Twenty-four women participated in three treatment sessions in which self-report and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmograph) sexual responses to erotic stimuli were measured following treatment with either L-arginine glutamate (6 g) plus yohimbine

Cindy M. Meston; Manuel Worcel



Atomic force microscopy studies on growth mechanisms of LAP crystals grown in solution containing excessive amount of l-arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to investigate the growth mechanisms of the l-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystal grown from the aqueous solution containing excessive amount of l-arginine molecules. Under this condition, the LAP crystals grow by both 2D nucleation mechanism and spiral dislocation mechanism. 2D nucleation growth is the intrinsical growth mechanism owing to the crystal structure of

Y. L. Geng; D. Xu; D. L. Sun; W. Du; H. Y. Liu; G. H. Zhang; X. Q. Wang



Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase-Dependent Cerebral Blood Flow Augmentation by L-Arginine After Chronic Statin Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide, a product of nitric oxide synthase activity, relaxes vascular smooth muscle and elevates brain blood flow. We evaluated the importance of eNOS to cerebral blood flow augmentation after L-arginine infusion and increases in flow after eNOS upregulation in SV-129 mice. Blood flow was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry before and after L-arginine infusion (450 mg\\/kg during a 15-minute period)

Masaru Yamada; Zhihong Huang; Turgay Dalkara; Matthias Endres; Ulrich Laufs; Christian Waeber; Paul L. Huang; James K. Liao; Michael A. Moskowitz



Phase III Multi-Institutional Trial of Adjuvant Chemotherapy With Paclitaxel, Estramustine, and Oral Etoposide Combined With Long-Term Androgen Suppression Therapy and Radiotherapy Versus Long-Term Androgen Suppression Plus Radiotherapy Alone for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Toxicity Analysis of RTOG 99-02  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Long-term androgen suppression plus radiotherapy (AS+RT) is standard treatment of high-risk prostate cancer. A randomized trial, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 9902, was undertaken to determine whether adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel, estramustine, and etoposide (TEE) plus AS+RT would improve disease outcomes with acceptable toxicity. Methods and Materials: High-risk (prostate-specific antigen 20-100 ng/mL and Gleason score {>=}7; or Stage T2 or greater, Gleason score 8, prostate-specific antigen level <100 ng/mL) nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients were randomized to AS+RT (Arm 1) vs. AS+RT plus four cycles of TEE (Arm 2). TEE was delivered 4 weeks after RT. AS continued for 2 years for both treatment arms. RT began after 8 weeks of AS began. Results: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9902 trial opened January 11, 2000. Excess thromboembolic toxicity was noted, leading to study closure October 4, 2004. A total of 397 patients were accrued, and the data for 381 were analyzable. An acute and long-term toxicity analysis was performed. The worst overall toxicities during treatment were increased for Arm 2. Of the 192 patients, 136 (71%) on Arm 2 had RTOG Grade 3 or greater toxicity compared with 70 (37%) of 189 patients on Arm 1. Statistically significant increases in hematologic toxicity (p < 0.0001) and gastrointestinal toxicity (p = 0.017) but not genitourinary toxicity (p = 0.07) were noted during treatment. Two Grade 5 complications related to neutropenic infection occurred in Arm 2. Three cases of myelodysplasia/acute myelogenous leukemia were noted in Arm 2. At 2 and 3 years after therapy completion, excess long-term toxicity was not observed in Arm 2. Conclusion: TEE was associated with significantly increased toxicity during treatment. The toxicity profiles did not differ at 2 and 3 years after therapy. Toxicity is an important consideration in the design of trials using adjuvant chemotherapy for prostate cancer.

Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Center, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); Sutter Cancer Center, Roseville, CA (United States)], E-mail:; Bae, Kyoungwha [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pienta, Kenneth J. [Division of Medical Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sobczak, Mark L. [Section of Radiation Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH (Lebanon); Asbell, Sucha O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rajan, Raghu [Department of Medical Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, QB (Canada); Kerlin, Kevin J. [Wayne Radiation Oncology Center, Goldsboro, NC (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)



Long-term corrosion studies  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application.

Gdowski, G.



Different effects of L-arginine on morphine tolerance in sham and ovariectomized female mice*  

PubMed Central

Objective: The roles of gonadal hormones and nitric oxide (NO) on the analgesic effects of morphine, tolerance to morphine, and their interactions have been widely investigated. In the present study, the effect of L-arginine (an NO precursor) on morphine tolerance in sham and ovariectomized (OVX) female mice was investigated. Methods: Forty mice were divided into sham and OVX groups. On the first day, a hot plate test ((55±0.2) °C; cut-off 30 s) was carried out as a base record 15 min before injection of morphine (10 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)) and was repeated every 15 min after injection. The sham group was then divided into two subgroups: sham-tolerance-L-arginine (Sham-Tol-LA) and sham-tolerance-saline (Sham-Tol-Sal) which received either L-arginine 50 mg/kg (intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or saline 10 ml/kg (i.p.), respectively, three times in a day for three consecutive days. Morphine tolerance was induced in animals by injecting 30 mg/kg morphine (s.c.) three times/day for three days. This treatment was also used for OVX subgroups. On the fifth day, the hot plate test was repeated. The analgesic effect of morphine was calculated as the maximal percent effect (MPE). The results were compared using repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: There was no significant difference in MPE between the OVX and sham groups. The MPEs in both the Sham-Tol-Sal and OVX-Tol-Sal groups were lower than those in both the sham and OVX groups (P<0.01). The MPE in the OVX-Tol-Sal group was greater than that in the Sham-Tol-Sal group (P<0.01). The MPE in the Sham-Tol-LA group was higher than that in the Sham-Tol-Sal group (P<0.01). However, there was no significant difference between the Sham-Tol-LA and sham groups or between the OVX-Tol-LA and OVX-Tol-Sal groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that repeated administration of morphine causes tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. L-Arginine could prevent tolerance to morphine but its effect was different in the presence of ovarian hormones.

Karami, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Khodabandehloo, Fatimeh; Khatami, Leila; Taiarani, Zahra



Growth and characterization of NLO based L-arginine maleate dihydrate single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of L-arginine maleate dihydrate (LAMD) were successfully grown from aqueous solution by solvent evaporation technique. As-grown crystals were analyzed by different instrumentation techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and UV-vis near infrared (NIR) transmittance spectra. Thermal behavior has been studied with TGA/DTA analyses. The optical second harmonic generation (SHG) conversion efficiency of LAMD was determined using Kurtz powder technique and found to be 1.5 times that of KDP.

Baraniraj, T.; Philominathan, P.



Multistage Optimization for Long-term Investors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-stage simulation and optimization models are effective for solving long-term financial planning problems. Prominent examples include: asset-liability management for pension plans, integrated risk management for insurance companies, and long-term planning for individuals. Several applications will be briefly mentioned. A multi-stage framework provides advantages over single-period myopic approaches. First, the investor gains an understanding of the risks that a long-term goal

John M. Mulvey



Microsoft Academic Search

The parallel-plate loading mechanism (ASTM D2412 standard test method) was used for investigating the long-term pipe stiffness values of HDPE, PVC and ABS pipes. Both conventional and accelerated test procedures were used. The nominal inside diameters of the test pipes were 300 and 400mm. S-type long-term deflection curves were observed for the test plastic pipes on a semi-log scale. Long-term

Chiwan Wayne Hsieh; Chien-Chih Huang; Jau-Bih Wang


Long-term correlations in earth sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we review the occurrence and consequences of long-term memory in geophysical records like climate and seismic records, and describe similarities with financial data sets. We review several methods to detect linear and nonlinear long-term correlations, also in the presence of external trends, and show how external trends can be detected in data with long-term memory. We show as well that long-term correlations lead to a natural clustering of extreme events and discuss the implications for several geophysical data sets.

Bunde, Armin; Lennartz, Sabine



Spectroscopic and thermal studies of L-arginine doped Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used IR transmission and Raman spectroscopy to study the active doping of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with L-arginine amino acid. In the present investigation, pure and doped KDP crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution method. Although the dominant bands observed in the infrared absorption spectra correspond to KDP crystals, the existence of vibrational lines at 1401 cm-1 (CH2), 1637 cm-1 (COO^-), 1716 cm-1 (NH3^+), and 3127 cm-1 (NH3^+) indicate that successful doping was achieved. This affirmation is further corroborated by the FT-Raman data, where strong lines are observed in the 2800 cm-1 -- 3100 cm-1 region, which is associated with C-H stretching modes of amino acids. The crystal structure and the thermal stability of the samples were also examined by powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric techniques, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrates a decrease of the thermal stability with increasing doping amount. An increase of second harmonic generation efficiency was found with more L-Arginine doping.

Govani, Jayesh; Manciu, Felicia; Joshi, Mihir; Parikh, Ketan; Dave, Dipak



Nitric-oxide supplementation for treatment of long-term complications in argininosuccinic aciduria.  


Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is required for the synthesis and channeling of L-arginine to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for nitric oxide (NO) production. Congenital ASL deficiency causes argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), the second most common urea-cycle disorder, and leads to deficiency of both ureagenesis and NO production. Subjects with ASA have been reported to develop long-term complications such as hypertension and neurocognitive deficits despite early initiation of therapy and the absence of documented hyperammonemia. In order to distinguish the relative contributions of the hepatic urea-cycle defect from those of the NO deficiency to the phenotype, we performed liver-directed gene therapy in a mouse model of ASA. Whereas the gene therapy corrected the ureagenesis defect, the systemic hypertension in mice could be corrected by treatment with an exogenous NO source. In an ASA subject with severe hypertension refractory to antihypertensive medications, monotherapy with NO supplements resulted in the long-term control of hypertension and a decrease in cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, the NO therapy was associated with an improvement in some neuropsychological parameters pertaining to verbal memory and nonverbal problem solving. Our data show that ASA, in addition to being a classical urea-cycle disorder, is also a model of congenital human NO deficiency and that ASA subjects could potentially benefit from NO supplementation. Hence, NO supplementation should be investigated for the long-term treatment of this condition. PMID:22541557

Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Campeau, Philippe M; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Premkumar, Muralidhar H; Guse, Kilian; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Chen, Yuqing; Sun, Qin; Tang, Yaoping; Palmer, Donna; Reddy, Anilkumar K; Li, Li; Slesnick, Timothy C; Feig, Daniel I; Caudle, Susan; Harrison, David; Salviati, Leonardo; Marini, Juan C; Bryan, Nathan S; Erez, Ayelet; Lee, Brendan



Effects of Chronic Treatment With L-Arginine on Atherosclerosis in ApoE Knockout and ApoE\\/Inducible NO Synthase Double-Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—L-Arginine serves as a substrate for the formation of NO by the NO synthase (NOS) enzymes. In some studies, dietary supplementation of L-arginine reduces atherosclerosis through the restoration of NO release and improvement in endothelial function. In the present study, we investigate the effect of L-arginine supplementation on the development of atherosclerosis in a mouse model. Methods and Results—Apolipoprotein E

Jiqiu Chen; Peter Kuhlencordt; Fumi Urano; Hiroshi Ichinose; Joshua Astern; Paul L. Huang


Arginase Activity in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines: Nv-Hydroxy-L-arginine Selectively Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-Arginine is the common substrate for two enzymes, arginase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Arginase converts L-arginine to L-ornithine, which is the precursor of polyamines, which are essential components of cell proliferation. NOS converts L-arginine to produce NO, which inhibits proliferation of many cell lines. Various human breast cancer cell lines were initially screened for the presence of arginase and

Rajan Singh; Shehla Pervin; Ardeshir Karimi; Stephen Cederbaum; Gautam Chaudhuri


L-Arginine Treatment Alters the Kinetics of Nitric Oxide and Superoxide Release and Reduces Ischemia\\/Reperfusion Injury in Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) may produce species involved in ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R) injury: NO in the presence of sufficient L-arginine and superoxide at the diminished local L-arginine concentration accompanying I\\/R. Methods and Results During hindlimb I\\/R (2.5 hours\\/2 hours), in vivo NO was continuously monitored (porphyrinic sensor), and L-arginine (chromatography), superoxide (chemiluminescence), and I\\/R injury were measured intermittently. Normal

Igor Huk; Joseph Nanobashvili; Christoph Neumayer; Andreas Punz; Markus Mueller; Kaweh Afkhampour; Martina Mittlboeck; Udo Losert; Peter Polterauer; Erich Roth; Stephen Patton; Tadeusz Malinski



Financing long-term care in Canada.  


Financial policies relating to long-term care in Canada are changing rapidly in response to demands for health care reform. This chapter focuses on the financial structure of institutional care, primarily nursing homes, in the western provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. Community-based long-term care is discussed briefly. PMID:10169492

Jacobs, P; Mills, C; Hollander, M



Long-Term Results After Pancreas Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advances in technique and immunosupression, not only the short- but the long-term outcomes of pancreas transplantation have improved significantly. This retrospective study describes the long-term outcomes of simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplants, pancreas after kidney (PAK), and pancreas transplants alone (PTA). An overall analysis was performed for all deceased donor (DD) primary pancreas transplants performed in the

D. E. R. Sutherland; A. C. Gruessner



Long-term marriages: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research guidelines are proposed for the study of long-term marriages based on a critical review of existing studies. Current problems in the collection and analysis of the data include the lack of agreement about the minimum length of a “long-term” relationship, the failure to make couple comparisons, or to follow samples longitudinally. In addition, the response rate is uniformly low

Michael J. Sporakowski; Leland V. Axelson



Paying for Long-term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Policy Brief aims to present information on the current picture of (public and private) expenditure on long-term care (LTC) for older people and discuss the challenges of financing care. It also reviews the rationale for public funding of long-term care needs, since the funding is currently relatively low in most European countries when compared to other social protection areas.

Ricardo Rodrigues; Andrea Schmidt



Veterans Affairs Benefits (Long-Term Care)  


... to obtain information about services available in your area. LTC PathFinder Long-term care is a big topic. Use the PathFinder to get to the information most relevant and useful to you now. Please fill out all questions How old are you? Less than 50 51-64 65+ Do you currently require long-term ...


Real World Pricing of Long Term Contracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long dated contingent claims are relevant in insurance, pension fund management and derivative pricing. This paper proposes a paradigm shift in the valuation of long term contracts, away from classical no-arbitrage pricing towards pricing under the real world probability measure. In contrast to risk neutral pricing, the long term excess return of the equity market, known as the equity premium,

Eckhard Platen



Virtual Models of Long-Term Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.




Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor.

Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck



Paying for long-term care.  

PubMed Central

Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage.

Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T



Diamond turning of L-arginine phosphate, a new organic nonlinear crystal.  


We have demonstrated that single point diamond turning can be used to generate high optical quality finished surfaces on a new organic nonlinear crystal, L-arginine phosphate (LAP). The proper choice of cutting conditions can produce surfaces with <5-A rms local roughness. Local softening or melting near the cutting tool tip may play a key role in the machining process by ensuring that material is removed by ductile cutting rather than brittle fracture. At the same time, the low melting temperature of LAP makes lubrication and cooling especially important to prevent extensive melting and tool fouling. In spite of the presence of a weak cleavage plane in LAP, the surface quality is relatively insensitive to crystallographic orientation. Tool wear is apparently negligible, so that surface flatness is governed by the stability of the diamond turning machine. These results suggest that it may be possible to fabricate large aperture LAP harmonic converters for use in inertial confinement fusion lasers. PMID:20555896

Fuchs, B A; Syn, C K; Velsko, S P



Diamond turning of L-arginine phosphate, a new organic crystal  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated that single point diamond turning can be used to generate high optical quality finished surfaces on a new organic nonlinear crystal, L-arginine phosphate (LAP). The proper choice of cutting conditions can produce surfaces with {lt}5-A rms local roughness. Local softening or melting near the cutting tool tip may play a key role in the machining process by ensuring that material is removed by ductile cutting rather than brittle fracture. At the same time, the low melting temperature of LAP makes lubrication and cooling especially important to prevent extensive melting and tool fouling. In spite of the presence of a weak cleavage plane in LAP, the surface quality is relatively insensitive to crystallographic orientation. Tool wear is apparently negligible, so that surface flatness is governed by the stability of the diamond turning machine. These results suggest that it may be possible to fabricate large aperture LAP harmonic converters for use in inertial confinement fusion lasers.

Fuchs, B.A.; Syn, K.; Velsko, S.P. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (US))



Bioanalytical profile of the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway and its evaluation by capillary electrophoresis?  

PubMed Central

This review briefly summarizes recent progress in fundamental understanding and analytical profiling of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway. It focuses on key analytical references of NO actions and on the experimental acquisition of these references in vivo, with capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) comprising one of the most flexible and technologically promising analytical platform for comprehensive high-resolution profiling of NO-related metabolites. Second aim of this review is to express demands and bridge efforts of experimental biologists, medical professionals and chemical analysis-oriented scientists who strive to understand evolution and physiological roles of NO and to develop analytical methods for use in biology and medicine.

Boudko, Dmitri Y.




PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Nighttime sleep disruption is characteristic of long-term care residents, is typically accompanied by daytime sleepiness and may be caused by a multitude of factors. Causal factors include medical and psychiatric illness, medications, circadian rhythm abnormalities, sleep disordered breathing and other primary sleep disorders, environmental factors and lifestyle habits. There is some suggestion that these factors are amenable to treatment; however, further research on the implementation of treatments within the long-term care setting is needed. Additional work is also needed to understand the administrative and policy factors that might lead to systemic changes in how sleep is viewed and sleep problems are addressed in long-term care settings. A growing number of older adults reside in long-term care facilities. In this setting, residents commonly suffer from nighttime sleep disruption, which is often accompanied by daytime sleepiness and may be caused by a multitude of factors. Importantly, sleep disturbance is associated with negative health outcomes, including risk for falling, and elevated mortality risk among long-term care residents. A number of factors contribute to sleep disturbance in the long-term care setting including medical and psychiatric illness, medications, circadian rhythm abnormalities, sleep disordered breathing and other primary sleep disorders, environmental conditions (e.g., noise and light) and lifestyle habits. Based on research with older adults in the community and work conducted within long-term care settings, there is some suggestion that these factors are amenable to nonpharmacological treatments. Further research on the broad implementation of treatments for sleep problems within the long-term care setting is still needed. Additional work is also needed to understand the administrative and policy factors that might lead to systemic changes in how sleep is viewed and sleep problems are addressed in long-term care settings.

Martin, Jennifer L.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia



Long Term Dissolution Testing of Mine Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reports the results of long term laboratory studies to examine the dissolution of abandoned mine wastes and the consequent drainage quality. The objectives of the study were to provide a description of longer term dissolution of mine wastes,...

K. Lapakko J. Wessels D. Antonson



The Long Term Care Questionnaire and Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to describe an experimental data gathering activity designed to provide information on the utilization of long-term care facilities in western South Dakota. The report describes Western Health Systems, the organization doing ...

D. O. Mueller



Long-Term Corrosion Testing Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and var...

F. D. Wall N. R. Brown



Modeling long-term collider performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model for the SSC arcs is described with multipole lattice field errors agglomerated into 32 lattice points, and with first order lattice errors and modulation provided by discrete transfer elements. Numerical solutions for long term dynamic aperture st...

D. Ritson



Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning  


... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...


Long-term results of endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to review the long-term results of endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) according to\\u000a our experience as well as to evaluate potential prognostic factors for long-term outcomes. The files of 165 patients who underwent\\u000a endonasal DCR at a tertiary referral centre between 1991 and 2001 were retrospectively assessed. Furthermore, these cases\\u000a were clinically evaluated at least

Johannes Zenk; Alexander D. Karatzanis; George Psychogios; Katrin Franzke; Michael Koch; Joachim Hornung; George A. Velegrakis; Heinrich Iro



Long-term preservation of anammox bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques.\\u000a The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox\\u000a biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass was frozen or lyophilized at two different freezing temperatures (?60°C and in liquid\\u000a nitrogen (?200°C)) in skim milk media

Michael J. Rothrock Jr; Matias B. Vanotti; Ariel A. Szögi; Maria Cruz Garcia Gonzalez; Takao Fujii



Microsoft Academic Search

Garlic contains many sulfhydryl compounds that act as antioxidants. However, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in inflammation is controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible protective effect of garlic against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats, as well as the probable modulatory effect of L- arginine (NO precursor) on garlic activity. Intra-rectal inoculation of




Structural basis for the erythro-stereospecificity of the L-arginine oxygenase VioC in viomycin biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Summary The non-heme iron oxygenase VioC from Streptomyces vinaceus catalyzes Fe(II)- and ?-ketoglutarate-dependent C?-hydroxylation of L-arginine during the biosynthesis of the tuberactinomycin antibiotic viomycin. Crystal structures of VioC were determined in complexes with the cofactor Fe(II), the substrate L-arginine, the product (2S,3S)-hydroxyarginine (hArg), and the coproduct succinate at 1.1–1.3 Å resolution. The overall structure reveals a ?-helix core fold with two additional helical subdomains common to nonheme iron oxygenases of the CAS-like (CSL) superfamily. In contrast to other CAS-like oxygenases, which catalyze the formation of threo diastereomers, VioC produces the erythro diastereomer of C?-hydroxylated L-arginine. This unexpected stereospecificity is caused by conformational control of the bound substrate, which enforces a gauche(?) conformer for ?1 instead of the trans conformers observed for the asparagine oxygenase AsnO and other members of the CSL superfamily. Additionally, the substrate specificity of VioC was investigated. The sidechain of the L-arginine substrate projects outward from the active site by making mainly interactions with the C-terminal helical subdomain. Accordingly, VioC exerts broadened substrate specificity by accepting the analogues L-homoarginine and L-canavanine for C?-hydroxylation.

Helmetag, Verena; Samel, Stefan A.; Thomas, Michael G.; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Essen, Lars-Oliver



Accumulation of endogenous inhibitors for nitric oxide synthesis and decreased content of L-arginine in regenerated endothelial cells.  

PubMed Central

1. We examined regeneration of endothelial cells (ECs), neointima formation, decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) and changes in the contents of L-arginine, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), asymmetrical NG, NG-dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetrical NG,NG-dimethylarginine (SDMA) in the regenerated ECs, 6 weeks after balloon denudation of the rabbit carotid artery. 2. Regeneration of ECs was completed in 6 weeks and a significant neointima formation accompanied by the decreased EDR was observed. 3. L-NMMA and ADMA contents in the regenerated ECs (23.5 +/- 4.3 and 21.2 +/- 2.0 pmol mg-1 DNA, respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) higher than those in the control ECs (8.8 +/- 3.0 and 7.4 +/- 1.9 pmol mg-1 DNA, respectively), whereas L-arginine was significantly (P < 0.005) decreased in the regenerated ECs (31,470 +/- 1,050 pmol mg-1 DNA) as compared to that in the control ECs (47,870 +/- 1,890 pmol mg-1 DNA). SDMA content was below the assay limits. 4. L-NMMA and ADMA, but not SDMA, inhibited the EDR induced by acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition with L-NMMA and ADMA was prevented by an addition of L-arginine, but not by D-arginine. 5. These results suggest that the accumulation of endogenous inhibitors for nitric oxide synthesis and decreased L-arginine content are associated with decreased NO production/release from regenerated ECs and neointima formation.

Azuma, H.; Sato, J.; Hamasaki, H.; Sugimoto, A.; Isotani, E.; Obayashi, S.



Nitric oxide inhibits ACTH-induced cortisol production in near-term, long-term hypoxic ovine fetal adrenocortical cells.  


We previously reported that in the sheep fetus, long-term hypoxia (LTH) resulted in elevated basal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH(1- 39)) whereas the cortisol levels were not different from normoxic controls. We also showed that LTH enhances endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in the fetal adrenal. This study was designed to determine the effect of NO on cortisol production in adrenocortical cells from LTH fetal sheep. Ewes were maintained at high altitude (3820 m) from ?40 days' gestation (dG) to near term. Between 138 and 141 dG, fetal adrenal glands were collected from LTH and age-matched normoxic control fetuses. Adrenal cortical cells were pretreated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP), nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), L-arginine, or diethyleneamine NO (DETA-NO) and then challenged with 10 nmol/L ACTH. Cortisol responses were compared after 1 hour. Adrenocorticotropic hormone -induced cortisol secretion was significantly higher in LTH versus control (P < .01). Enhancement of NO with L-arginine resulted in a significant reduction of ACTH-mediated cortisol production in the LTH group. DETA-NO also caused a significant decrease in ACTH-mediated cortisol production (P < .05). Inhibition of NOS with L-NAME significantly increased cortisol production in the LTH group (P < .05 compared to ACTH alone), whereas the effect on the control group was not significant. Nitric oxide synthase activity was significantly higher in the LTH group compared to control, but this difference was eliminated following ACTH treatment. These data indicate that LTH enhances adrenal cortical sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of NO on cortisol production. Nitric oxide may, therefore, play an important role in regulating ACTH-induced cortisol production in the LTH fetal adrenal. PMID:20713972

Monau, Tshepo R; Vargas, Vladimir E; Zhang, Lubo; Myers, Dean A; Ducsay, Charles A



Relationship between short- and long-term memory and short- and long-term extinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the acquisition and the extinction of memories leave short- and long-term mnemonic traces. Here, we show that in male Wistar rats, the short-term memory for a step-down inhibitory avoidance task (IA) is resistant to extinction, and that its expression does not influence retrieval or extinction of long-term memory. It has been known for some time that short- and long-term

Martín Cammarota; Lia R. M. Bevilaqua; Janine I. Rossato; Maria Ramirez; Jorge H. Medina; Iván Izquierdo



Perceptual Correlates of Nociceptive Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength are ubiquitous mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, but their functional relevance in humans remains obscure. Here we report that a long-term increase in perceived pain to electrical test stimuli was induced by high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) (5 1 sec at 100 Hz) of peptidergic cutaneous afferents (27% above baseline, undiminished for3

Thomas Klein; Walter Magerl; Hanns-Christian Hopf; Jurgen Sandkuhler; Rolf-Detlef Treede



The effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors nitro-L-arginine and 7-nitroindazole on spatial learning and motor functions in Lurcher mutant and wild type mice.  


Nitric oxide (NO) is an intercellular messenger that, among other things, plays an important role in the nervous system as a gaseous neurotransmitter, modulating long-term potentiation (LTP) induction of synaptic transmission. LTP has been suggested to be the basis of memory formation. On the other hand NO also participates in excitotoxic processes which play an important role in many neuropathological states. The aim of this work was to observe the effect of two NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors (N omega-Nitro-L-arginine, NA; 7-nitroindazole, NI) on spontaneous behaviour, spatial learning and motor functions in Lurcher (+/Lc) and wild type (+/+) mice, derived from the B6CBA strain. Heterozygous Lurcher mutant mice represent a natural model of the olivocerebellar degeneration. They suffer from postnatal, practically total, extinction of cerebellar Purkinje cells (due to the excitotoxic apoptosis) and a partial decrease of granule cells and inferior olive neurons (ION) because of the lost target of their axons. +/+ animals are healthy littermates of +/Lc. NA is a nonselective NOS inhibitor which influences, except neuronal (n), also endothelial (e) NOS with an impact on blood pressure, NI is a selective nNOS inhibitor without any circulatory effect. The adult animals of both types (+/Lc; +/+) were influenced by acute administration of both inhibitors (25 mg/kg i.p. 30 min. before experiments) and newborns only by both acute and long-term administration of NI (1 month, starting from postnatal day 2, P2). Control solutions - saline or solvents of both NA and NI inhibitors--diluted 1M HCl and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) respectively, were given at a relevant volume in the same way. The effect of both inhibitors and control solutions on motor functions was tested using four standard procedures (horizontal wire, slanting ladder, rotating cylinder, foot-bridge); in newborns at the age of 14 days. Spatial learning ability was examined in five-day long procedure in the Morris water maze (MWM) (in newborns started on P21). Spontaneous behaviour was studied only in adult animals (after acutely influencing them) employing the open field method. The results showed, that neither the Lurcher mutant, nor wild type mice derived from the B6CBA strain were significantly affected by NOS inhibitors NA and NI in spatial learning after both the acute and long-term application. Only significant decrease of swimming speed was found in both types of mice after the acute administration of NI and in the wild type animals after the acute administration of NA. Motor functions were significantly negatively affected only in the Lurcher mutants after both the acute and chronic application of NI. PMID:19097389

Markvartová, V; Vozeh, F



Long-term measurement of tremor.  


To account for the fluctuating and context-dependent nature of tremor, the method of ambulatory long-term electromyography (EMG) was developed for quantification of this symptom. It is based on successive evaluation of 15-s intervals by using a fast Fourier transformation (FFT). The standard results obtained are (a) tremor occurrence, a measure of how many intervals contain tremor; (b) mean tremor intensity; and (v) mean tremor frequency. This new method fulfills the so-called "test criteria" such as reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity for tremor quantification in essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, we developed a method of determining the antagonist activation pattern by using cross-correlation analysis, also based on the long-term approach. This allows differentiation between ET and PD with a high sensitivity and a high interrater reliability. We conclude that long-term EMG is useful for both quantification and differentiation of tremor. PMID:9827600

Spieker, S; Boose, A; Breit, S; Dichgans, J



Health of long term benzodiazepine users  

PubMed Central

The physical and psychological health of long term (over one year) users of benzodiazepines in one general practice was assessed by patients' self reporting of illness and by general practitioners' records. Of 3741 patients registered with the practice, 82 had been prescribed a benzodiazepine, and 64 of these agreed to enter the study. All but five of these patients were over 40 years of age, nearly a third (19) were given a diagnosis related to depression by interviewers, and between a third and a half reported a current physical illness. Long term treatment with benzodiazepines is not necessarily optimum management but may reflect the realities of general practice.

Rodrigo, E K; King, M B; Williams, P



Long Term Changes in Marine Fisheries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Issue focuses on a research article by Barange (2003) that was published in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. The article discusses long-term (inter-decadal and longer) patterns of change in marine species in the context of over-exploitation of marine fisheries. BarangeÃÂs emphasis is use of ecosystem-based management practice to move us towards sustainable fisheries. However, he questions whether we know enough about patterns and causes of long term change in marine ecosystems to develop such practices.

D'Avanzo, Charlene



Transitions in long-term care.  


This article examines transitions between the community and nursing homes among the private pay and the Medicaid eligible older (65+) persons. Discrete-time hazard functions were estimated to determine factors associated with the probability of these transitions. The analysis shows that recent hospitalizations for stroke, dementia, or hip fractures, while strongly predictive of nursing home admissions among the Medicaid elderly, were not significant (except for dementia) predictors for the private pay population. The results are of particular relevance in designing long-term care insurance, and more broadly, long-term care policy. PMID:7750776

Temkin-Greener, H; Meiners, M R



Long-term consequences of foodborne infections.  


Foodborne infections with Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, Toxoplasma gondii, and other pathogens can result in long-term sequelae to numerous organ systems. These include irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, chronic kidney disease, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, neurological disorders from acquired and congenital listeriosis and toxoplasmosis, and cognitive and developmental deficits due to diarrheal malnutrition or severe acute illness. A full understanding of the long-term sequelae of foodborne infection is important both for individual patient management by clinicians, as well as to inform food safety and public health decision making. PMID:24011832

Batz, Michael B; Henke, Evan; Kowalcyk, Barbara



Valuing a long-term care facility.  


The business valuation industry generally uses at least one of three basic approaches to value a long-term care facility: the cost approach, sales comparison approach, or income approach. The approach that is chosen and the resulting weight that is applied to it depend largely on the circumstances involved. Because a long-term care facility is a business enterprise, more weight usually is given to the income approach which factors into the estimate of value both the tangible and intangible assets of the facility. PMID:10145686

Mellen, C M



L-Arginine induces protein aggregation and transformation of supramolecular structures of the aggregates.  


Protein misfolding, self-assembly, and aggregation are an essential problem in cell biology, biotechnology, and biomedicine. The protein aggregates are very different morphologically varying from soluble amorphous aggregates to highly ordered amyloid-like fibrils. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the amino acid L-arginine (Arg), a widely used suppressor of protein aggregation, in the regulation of transformations of soluble aggregation-prone proteins into supramolecular structures of higher order. However, a striking potential of Arg to govern the initial events in the process of protein aggregation has been revealed under environment conditions where the protein aggregation in its absence was not observed. Using dynamic light scattering we have demonstrated that Arg (10-100 mM) dramatically accelerated the dithiothreitol-induced aggregation of acidic model proteins. The inhibitory effect on the protein aggregation was revealed at higher concentrations of Arg. Using atomic force microscopy it was shown that aggregation of ?-lactalbumin from bovine milk induced upon addition of Arg reached a state of formation of supramolecular structures of non-fibrillar species profoundly differing from those of the individual protein in type, size, and shape. The interaction of another positively charged amino acid L-lysine with ?-lactalbumin also resulted in profound acceleration of the aggregation process and transformation of supramolecular structures of the aggregates. PMID:23744402

Smirnova, Ekaterina; Safenkova, Irina; Stein-Margolina, Bita; Shubin, Vladimir; Gurvits, Bella



Oxidation of N-hydroxy-l-arginine by hypochlorous acid to form nitroxyl (HNO).  


Recent research has shown that nitroxyl (HNO) has important and unique biological activity, especially as a potential alternative to current treatments of cardiac failure. HNO is a reactive molecule that undergoes efficient dimerization and subsequent dehydration to form nitrous oxide (N(2)O), making its detection in solution or biologically relevant preparations difficult. Due to this limitation, HNO has not yet been observed in vivo, though several pathways for its endogenous generation have been postulated. Here, we investigate the oxidation of N-hydroxy-l-arginine (NOHA) by hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which is generated in vivo from hydrogen peroxide and chloride by the heme enzyme, myeloperoxidase. NOHA is an intermediate in the enzymatic production of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthases, and has been shown previously to be chemically oxidized to either HNO or NO, depending on the oxidant employed. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry and standard N(2)O analysis by gas chromatography, we find that NOHA is oxidized by excess HOCl to form HNO-derived N(2)O. In addition, we also observe the analogous production of HNO from the HOCl oxidation of hydroxylamine, hydroxyurea, and (to a lesser extent) acetohydroxamic acid. PMID:23102772

Cline, Meredith R; Chavez, Tyler A; Toscano, John P



Effects of trimetazidine in acute pancreatitis induced by L-arginine  

PubMed Central

Background In acute pancreatitis, oxygen free radicals (OFRs) and cytokines have been shown to play a role in the failure of pancreatic microcirculation and the development of local tissue damage. We studied the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ), a potent antioxidant and anti-ischemic agent, on acute pancreatitis. Methods Rats were randomized into 3 groups: a control group (n = 15), a study group (n = 15) in which acute pancreatitis was induced with with L-arginine, and a treatment group (n = 15) in which pancreatitis was induced and treated with TMZ intraperitoneally. The rats were followed for 24 hours. At the 24th hour we determined serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), amylase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), interleukin 1-? (IL-1?), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and the pancreatic tissues were analyzed histopathologically. Results The AST (p < 0.001), ALT (p < 0.01), amylase (p < 0.001), LDH (p < 0.01), TNF-? (p < 0.01), IL-1? (p < 0.001) and IL-6 (p < 0.001) levels, and pancreatic tissue edema (p < 0.01), hemorrhage (p < 0.05), acinar cell necrosis (p < 0.001) and level of perivascular inflammation (p < 0.01), were significantly lower in the treatment group than the study group. Conclusion Trimetazidine markedly decreases biochemical and histopathologic changes during the early stages of acute pancreatitis, thus preserving the pancreas histologically.

Yenicerioglu, Akan; Cetinkaya, Ziya; Girgin, Mustafa; Ustundag, Bilal; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanefi; Ayten, Refik; Kanat, Burhan Hakan



L-arginine improves cerebral blood perfusion and vasomotion of microvessels following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  


The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of L-arginine (L-Arg) on cerebral blood perfusion and vasomotion (perfusion motion) in microvessels following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Rat noncraniotomy SAH models were used and animals were divided into sham-operated, saline-treated, and L-Arg-treated groups. L-Arg was injected intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the operation and repeated every 6 hours, with a single dose of 0.5 g/kg bw. Dynamic changes in regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vasomotion within 24 hours were measured using a laser Doppler flow-meter probe. Serum nitric oxide (nitrite/nitrate) and plasma endothelin-1 levels were also measured at different time points within 24 hours. Morphologic changes in neurons in the hippocampus CA1 region were examined. SAH gave rise to an immediate and persistent decrease in CBF in saline-treated rats. Abnormal vasomotions with decreased frequency and amplitude were observed. Serum nitric oxide decreased, while plasma endothelin-1 increased significantly. Neurons in the hippocampus CA1 region were severely damaged. The above pathological alterations in the L-Arg-treated group were alleviated. It was concluded that L-Arg, which increases cerebral blood perfusion and improves vasomotions of microvessels by enhancing nitric oxide levels and decreasing endothelin-1 levels in blood, exerts a protective effect on secondary cerebral ischemic injury following experimental SAH. PMID:14724366

Sun, Bao-Liang; Zhang, Su-Ming; Xia, Zuo-Li; Yang, Ming-Feng; Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Jian; Xiu, Rui-Juan



Prevention of pro-depressant effect of l-arginine in the forced swim test by N G -nitro- l-arginine and [1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that l-arginine, the precursor of nitric oxide, has a dual effect (antidepressant and pro-depressant) in the forced swim test. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether nitric oxide-cGMP pathway was involved in this dual effect. Porsolt swim test was conducted to resemble the symptomatology of major depressive disorder. An open field locomotor activity

Yusuf Ergün; Ufuk Güney Özer Ergün



Long Term Capability Requirements as derived from the Long Term Requirements Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the 38 Long Term Capability Requirements indentified by NATO in the 2009 Long Term Requirements Study, at least four can be directly applied to waterside security research and technology. First, Area Access Control, the capability of controlling access to designated unattended areas and borders, denying or allowing access to appropriate personnel and equipment. It must be capable of monitoring

J. Brownlee



Structure of N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase/kinase from Maricaulis maris with the allosteric inhibitor L-arginine bound.  


Maricaulis maris N-acetylglutamate synthase/kinase (mmNAGS/K) catalyzes the first two steps in L-arginine biosynthesis and has a high degree of sequence and structural homology to human N-acetylglutamate synthase, a regulator of the urea cycle. The synthase activity of both mmNAGS/K and human NAGS are regulated by L-arginine, although L-arginine is an allosteric inhibitor of mmNAGS/K, but an activator of human NAGS. To investigate the mechanism of allosteric inhibition of mmNAGS/K by L-arginine, we have determined the structure of the mmNAGS/K complexed with L-arginine at 2.8 Å resolution. In contrast to the structure of mmNAGS/K in the absence of L-arginine where there are conformational differences between the four subunits in the asymmetric unit, all four subunits in the L-arginine liganded structure have very similar conformations. In this conformation, the AcCoA binding site in the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) domain is blocked by a loop from the amino acid kinase (AAK) domain, as a result of a domain rotation that occurs when L-arginine binds. This structural change provides an explanation for the allosteric inhibition of mmNAGS/K and related enzymes by L-arginine. The allosterically regulated mechanism for mmNAGS/K differs significantly from that for Neisseria gonorrhoeae NAGS (ngNAGS). To define the active site, several residues near the putative active site were mutated and their activities determined. These experiments identify roles for Lys356, Arg386, Asn391 and Tyr397 in the catalytic mechanism. PMID:23850694

Zhao, Gengxiang; Haskins, Nantaporn; Jin, Zhongmin; M Allewell, Norma; Tuchman, Mendel; Shi, Dashuang



L-arginine trifluoroacetate salt bridges in its solid state compound: the low-temperature three dimensional structural determination of L-arginine bis(trifluoroacetate) crystal and its vibrational spectral analysis.  


Structural varieties of L-arginine trifluoroacetate (abbreviated as LATF) and L-arginine bis(trifluoroacetate), LABTF, in the solid state compounds were observed and analyzed by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The guanidinium-carboxylate interaction plays an important role involving in the crystal structure construction. Conformational changes of L-Arg(+) and L-Arg(2+) cations result from the intrinsic structural difference by hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. The low-temperature structure of its crystalline salt, L-arginine bis(trifluoroacetate), was determined to describe the hydrogen bonding interactions. In comparison with the crystal structure at room temperature, the low-temperature L-Arg(2+) cations present tiny conformational difference and the rotational disorder of CF(3) group disappears. FT-IR and Raman spectra were investigated and hydrogen bonding interactions were analyzed on the basis of its vibrational spectra. Results indicate that this type interaction is greatly contributive to the structural features and vibrational spectral properties. PMID:21893427

Sun, Z H; Sun, W M; Chen, C T; Zhang, G H; Wang, X Q; Xu, D




Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an attempt is made to establish design procedures for the CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) monitor based on the statistical evaluation of long-term reliability considering the delayed fracture of the glass that has the scatters and size effect in the strength. The four-point flexure tests are carried out by use of the glass specimens for the examination of

Y. Omoto; S. Tani; S. Ohsugi; T. Karita


Long Term Care Aide. Course Outline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course outline is intended to assist the instructor in the development of a curriculum for a long-term care aide program by specifying one component of the curriculum--the objectives. These objectives, or competencies expected as outcomes for student performance on completion of the program, describe the capabilities an individual must…

Wilbee, Judy



EPA Science Inventory

LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...


Long Term Strength of Structural Adhesive Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term static strength of adhesive joints is analyzed in terms of a modified Prot method and sustained load tests. Data from the failure times under different loading rates are used to predict the static stress that an adhesive joint will withstand for an infinite time, i.e., the endurance limit. Despite theoretical shortcomings, the method is found to give

Armand F. Lewis; Raymond A. Kinmonth; Robert P. Kreahling



Long-Term Memory and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

Crossland, John



Long-term solar-terrestrial observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the fall of 1985, the Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) created a panel to study the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data. The panel comprised specialists in all four areas that constitute solar-ter...



Long-term fixed income market structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term fixed income market securities present a strong positive correlation in daily returns. By using a metrical approach and considering ``modified'' time series, I show how it is possible to show a more complex structure which depends strictly on the maturity date.

Grilli, Luca



Adding Long-Term Care to Medicare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rancor accompanying the repeal of most of the 1988 Medicare Catastrophic Act reflects both the national need to improve health and long-term care benefits for the elderly and the political obstacles to finding new sources of financing for such benefits. Neither the need nor the obstacles will go away, but policymakers are now likely to look for lower-cost, efficient,

Walter N. Leutz; Merwyn Greenlick; Sam Ervin; Eli Feldman; Joelyn Malone



Long-term outcome after coronary stenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review assesses the data on long-term outcome after coronary stenting. Histological, angiographical and intravascular imaging data have shown that the insertion of stents constitutes only a transient stimulus to lumen renarrowing, that this process is almost complete at 6 months and that a certain degree of neointima regression is also possible after this time. Clinical data have confirmed

Adnan Kastrati; Donald Hall; Albert Schömig



Predictors of Long-term Weight Maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate available variables of a long-term weight maintenance study to investigate possible factors predisposing to weight regain after a period of weight loss.Research Methods and Procedures: The Maastricht Weight Maintenance Study is an ongoing longitudinal study of healthy men and women (29 men and 62 women; 18 to 65 years of age;

Neeltje Vogels; Kristel Diepvens; Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga



Are retrotransposons long-term hitchhikers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transposable elements represent a large fraction of the genomes of eukaryotes, and yet we know little of their origins or stability. Striking examples of cross-species transfer have been discovered among mariner elements (transposable elements that are widespread in insects and other animals), confirming the impression that horizontal transfers are essential to the long-term success of transposable elements. We show that

William D. Burke; Harmit S. Malik; Warren C. Lathe; Thomas H. Eickbush



Ethics Environment in Long-Term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses three hypotheses regarding a long-term care facility’s ethics environment and the relationships between ethics environment, employees’ work features, and residents’ outcomes. Validated questionnaires measure ethics environment, work satisfaction, managing disagreement, goal attainment, care and work opinion including retention, and mental health status among full-time employees (N = 110; 53%) and residents (N = 139; 57%) who volunteered

Charlotte McDaniel; James K. Roche; Emir Veledar



Long-term use of potassium perchlorate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of Graves' disease with potassium perchorate for 22 years without ill effect is described. Thyrotoxicosis recurred 4 weeks after the medication was withdrawn, suggesting that euthyroidism had been maintained by chronic use of the drug. As toxicity of perchlorate is probably dose related, it is suggested that long-term use of low dose perchlorate may be no more hazardous

J. M. Connell



Long-term opioid therapy reconsidered.  


In the past 20 years, primary care physicians have greatly increased prescribing of long-term opioid therapy. However, the rise in opioid prescribing has outpaced the evidence regarding this practice. Increased opioid availability has been accompanied by an epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose. The rate of opioid addiction among patients receiving long-term opioid therapy remains unclear, but research suggests that opioid misuse is not rare. Recent studies report increased risks for serious adverse events, including fractures, cardiovascular events, and bowel obstruction, although further research on medical risks is needed. New data indicate that opioid-related risks may increase with dose. From a societal perspective, higher-dose regimens account for the majority of opioids dispensed, so cautious dosing may reduce both diversion potential and patient risks for adverse effects. Limiting long-term opioid therapy to patients for whom it provides decisive benefits could also reduce risks. Given the warning signs and knowledge gaps, greater caution and selectivity are needed in prescribing long-term opioid therapy. Until stronger evidence becomes available, clinicians should err on the side of caution when considering this treatment. PMID:21893626

Von Korff, Michael; Kolodny, Andrew; Deyo, Richard A; Chou, Roger



Long-Term Breastfeeding: Nourishment or Nurturance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mothers frequently describe the primary benefit of breastfeeding beyond a year as providing comfort rather than nourishment. Little is known about the effect of extended breastfeeding on the growth or nutritional status of children in the United States. Data collected on 38 long-term breastfeeding children (12 to 43 months old) included growth measurements, breastfeeding patterns, and dietary intake obtained through

Kathleen M. Buckley



Long-term course of anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no predictable or normative long-term course associated with anorexia nervosa. Some Individuals achieve complete recovery; others are ravaged by a chronic disorder; and some die from it. Predicting course and outcome of anorexia nervosa is complicated by the intrinsic complexity of the disorder; a lack of shared terminology in studying the disorder; and a paucity of controlled clinical

Kathleen M. Pike



Evaluating Long-Term Disability Insurance Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report analyzes the factors involved in reviewing benefits and services of employer-sponsored group long-term disability plans for higher education institutions. Opening sections describe the evolution of disability insurance and its shape today. Further sections looks at the complex nature of "value" within a plan, relationship between plan…

Powell, Jan



Long-Term Monitoring of Polars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present long-term observations of magnetic cataclysmic variables AM Her, AN UMa, AR UMa, DP Leo, and V1309 Ori obtained with the ROTSEIIId telescope. All data have been analysed and preliminary results indicate periods of 170 days, 217 days, and 180 days for AM Her, AN UMa, and AR UMa, respectively.

Kalomeni, B.



Long-Term Care -- Actuarial Cost Estimates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The areas covered by this paper, which is designed to help Congress in its deliberations on changes in existing programs, include: (1) the demand for long-term health and social services; (2) the existing supply of the services; and (3) the cost of certai...



Long Term Consequences Of Early Childhood Malnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of preschool malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects - instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought “shocks” are used to identify differences in preschool nutritional status across siblings. Improvements in height-for-age in preschoolers are associated with increased

Harold Alderman; John Hoddinott; Bill Kinsey



Pulmonary complications after long term amiodarone treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Amiodarone hydrochloride is an antiarrhythmic agent useful in arrhythmias refractory to standard therapy. Although interstitial pneumonitis is known to be its most serious side effect, several aspects of amiodarone lung toxicity are still controversial. METHODS: Pulmonary side effects were examined in a sample of 61 symptomless patients (mean (SD) age 55 (7) years) who had had long term treatment

J Roca; M Heras; R Rodriguez-Roisin; J Magriñà; A Xaubet; G Sanz




EPA Science Inventory

National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...


Costs and How to Pay (Long-Term Care)  


... Expand Long-term Care Insurance Costs Expand Using Life Insurance to Pay for Long-term Care Expand Paying ... long-term care insurance , personal income and savings, life insurance, annuities and reverse mortgages to ensure they can ...


Effect of L-arginine on systemic and renal haemodynamics in salt-sensitive patients with essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a high sodium (Na+) intake, salt-sensitive patients with hypertension retain more Na+ and manifest a greater rise in arterial pressure than salt-resistant patients. Because there is limited information regarding the role of nitric oxide (NO) in salt-sensitivity we examined the effects of L-arginine (500 mg\\/kg, i.v. for 30 min) on mean arterial pressure and renal haemodynamics in

VM Campese; M Amar; C Anjali; T Medhat; A Wurgaft



Relative contribution of different l-arginine sources to the substrate supply of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.  


In certain cases of endothelial dysfunction l-arginine becomes rate-limiting for NO synthesis in spite of sufficiently high plasma concentrations of the amino acid. To better understand this phenomenon, we investigated routes of substrate supply to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Our previous data with human umbilical vein (HUVEC) and EA.hy.926 endothelial cells demonstrated that eNOS can obtain its substrate from the conversion of l-citrulline to l-arginine and from protein breakdown. In the present study, we determined the quantitative contribution of proteasomal and lysosomal protein degradation and investigated to what extent extracellular peptides and l-citrulline can provide substrate to eNOS. The RFL-6 reporter cell assay was used to measure eNOS activity in human EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Individual proteasome and lysosome inhibition reduced eNOS activity in EA.hy926 cells only slightly. However, the combined inhibition had a pronounced reducing effect. eNOS activity was fully restored by supplementing either l-citrulline or l-arginine-containing dipeptides. Histidine prevented the restoration of eNOS activity by the dipeptide, suggesting that a transporter accepting both, peptides and histidine, mediates the uptake of the extracellular peptide. In fact, the peptide and histidine transporter PHT1 was expressed in EA.hy926 cells and HUVECs (qRT/PCR). Our study thus demonstrates that l-citrulline and l-arginine-containing peptides derived from either intracellular protein breakdown or from the extracellular space seem to be good substrate sources for eNOS. PMID:21839088

Karbach, Susanne; Simon, Alexandra; Slenzka, Anita; Jaenecke, Isabel; Habermeier, Alice; Martiné, Ursula; Förstermann, Ulrich; Closs, Ellen I



Effect of l-arginine infusion on airway NO in cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airway nitric oxide concentrations in patients with cystic fibrosis or primary ciliary dyskinesia syndrome have been shown to be lower than in healthy subjects. Decreased NO concentrations may contribute to impaired ciliary clearance, respiratory tract infections, or obstructive lung disease in these conditions. Nasal and exhaled NO concentrations were compared before and after infusion of 500 L-arginine, the substrate

H. Grasemann; S. S. Gärtig; H. G. Wiesemann; H. Teschler; N. Konietzko; F. Ratjen



N G-nitro-l-arginine Methyl Ester Reduces Stress-Related Feeding in the Rat Tail-Pinch Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in stress-related feeding was investigated in male rats using the tail-pinch (TP) model, in within-subjects experimental designs. An initial experiment demonstrated a dose-related reduction in TP-induced solid food intake over a 10-min test period with increasing dose (10, 25, and 50 mg\\/kg SC) of the NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), reaching

D. A Czech; A. E Klosterman; K. T Le Sueur



Enhanced Monocyte Tissue Factor Response After Experimental Balloon Angioplasty in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit: Inhibition With Dietary L-Arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—There is evidence that tissue factor (TF) is a major contributor to the thrombogenicity of a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque. Nitric oxide (NO) has antiatherogenic and antithrombotic properties. We investigated whether L-arginine (L-arg), the endogenous precursor of NO, might affect the ability of monocytes to produce TF. Methods and Results—We studied TF expression in 18 rabbits with atherosclerosis induced by bilateral

Delphine Corseaux; Isabelle Six; Michael D. Ezekowitz; Eugene P. Mc Fadden; Thibaud Meurice; Philippe Asseman; Christophe Bauters; Brigitte Jude



Continuous production of L-arginine using immobilized growing Serratia marcescens cells: Effectiveness of supply of oxygen gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immobilized growing cell system using Serratia marcescens was applied to continuous L-arginine production. From the determination of oxygen uptake rate, it was shown that the cells entrapped in carrageenan gel were in an oxygen-limited state due to the diffusion barrier to oxygen transport created by the gel layer. This limited state in gel was relieved by supply of oxygen-enriched

Motoki Fujimura; Jyoji Kato; Tetsuya Tosa; Ichiro Chibata



Prolonged inhibition of brain nitric oxide synthase by short-term systemic administration of nitro- l -arginine methyl ester  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the dose-response characteristics and the temporal profile of inhibition of brain nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) elicited by i.v. administration of the NOS inhibitor nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). L-NAME was administered i.v. in awake rats equipped with a venous cannula. L-NAME was injected in cumulative doses of 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg\\/kg and rats were sacrificed 30

Costantino Iadecola; Xiaohong Xu; Fangyi Zhang; Jingru Hu; Esam E. El-Fakahany



L-arginine increases UVA cytotoxicity in irradiated human keratinocyte cell line: potential role of nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human fibroblasts and keratinocytes possess nitric oxide synthases (NOS), which metab- olize L-arginine (L-Arg) for producing nitric oxide (NO•). This report delineates the relations between NOand UVA in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. NOS activity was stimulated by exposure of cells to L-Arg just after irradiation. L-Arg (5 mM) supply led to an increase in UVA (25.3 J\\/cm2) cytotoxicity



Treatment of muscle mechanoreflex dysfunction in hypertension: effects of L-arginine dialysis in the nucleus tractus solitarii.  


The blood pressure response to exercise is exaggerated in hypertension. Recent evidence suggests that an overactive skeletal muscle mechanoreflex contributes significantly to this augmented circulatory responsiveness. Sensory information from the mechanoreflex is processed within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of the medulla oblongata. Normally, endogenously produced nitric oxide within the NTS attenuates the increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by mechanoreflex stimulation. Thus, it has been suggested that decreases in NO production in the NTS underlie the generation of mechanoreflex dysfunction in hypertension. Supporting this postulate, it has been shown that blocking NO production within the NTS of normotensive rats reproduces the exaggerated pressor response elicited by mechanoreflex activation in hypertensive animals. What is not known is whether increasing NO production within the NTS of hypertensive rats mitigates mechanoreflex overactivity. In this study, the mechanoreflex was selectively activated by passively stretching hindlimb muscle before and after the dialysis of 1 and 10 ?m l-arginine (an NO precursor) within the NTS of decerebrate normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Stretch induced larger elevations in MAP in SHRs compared with WKY rats. In both groups, dialysis of 1 ?m l-arginine significantly attenuated the pressor response to stretch. However, at the 10 ?m dose, l-arginine had no effect on the MAP response to stretch in WKY rats, while it enhanced the response in SHRs. The data demonstrate that increasing NO availability within the NTS using lower doses of l-arginine partly normalizes mechanoreflex dysfunction in hypertension, whereas higher doses do not. The findings could prove valuable in the development of treatment options for mechanoreflex overactivity in this disease. PMID:23771911

Leal, Anna K; Mitchell, Jere H; Smith, Scott A



Decrease in Tetrahydrobiopterin Content Promotes L-Arginine-Induced Elevation of Cytosolic Calcium Concentration in Insulin-Secreting Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the role of endogenous tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced increase in cytosolic calcium concentration ((Ca 2+ )i) in the ?-cell line, HIT-T15 cells. HIT-T15 cells contain a large amount of BH4 with a high expression of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) mRNA compared with mouse brain microvas- cular endothelial cells and bovine aortic endothelial cells. 2,4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), a selec-

Tatsuya Watabe; Masakazu Ishii; Yasuo Mori; Shunichi Shimizu; Yuji Kiuchi



The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N W-Nitro-L-Arginine methylester attenuates brain catalase activity in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide has been implicated in mediating the neurotoxic effects of ischemia in the brain. However, studies of the effects of nitric oxide inhibition with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors have provided controversial results. One of the reasons for the controversy may be related to the specificity of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, such as Nw-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), which has recently

S Rotzinger; C. M. G Aragon; F Rogan; S Amir; Z Amit



Effects of l-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with l-arginine (l-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and

Yun Liu; Yun Yang; Feng Wu



Attenuation of acetylcholine-induced vasoconstriction by L-arginine is related to the progression of atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if L-arginine, a precursor of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor, restores endothelium-dependent dilation in human coronary arteries, we studied 21 patients in whom the lumina of the coronary arteries were angiographically smooth or slightly irregular and in whom there was a constrictor response to acetylcholine (ACh) in the left anterior descending coronary artery or the circumflex coronary artery. We

Satoru Otsuji; Osamu Nakajima; Sachiko Waku; Shigeyuki Kojima; Hiroshi Hosokawa; Isao Kinoshita; Tomoyuki Okubo; Shigemi Tamoto; Kiyoshi Takada; Ishihara Tadashi; Nakaaki Osawa



Potential ergogenic effects of l-arginine against oxidative and inflammatory stress induced by acute exercise in aging rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we report protective effects of dietary l-arginine (l-Arg) supplementation against oxidative stress and inflammation in aging rats during exhaustive exercise. Thirty 18-month-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC); sedentary control with l-Arg treatment (SC+Arg); exhaustive exercise (E); and exhaustive exercise with l-Arg treatment (E+Arg). Rats in groups SC+Arg and E+Arg received

Chi-Chang Huang; Shiow-Chwen Tsai; Wan-Teng Lin



Protective effects of L-arginine on pulmonary oxidative stress and anti-oxidant defenses during exhaustive exercise in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To assess the effects of L-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation on pulmonary oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in rats after exhaustive exercise.Methods:Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary control with L-Arg treatment (SC+Arg), exhaustive exercise with control diet (E) and exhaustive exercise with L-Arg treatment (E+Arg). Rats in groups SC+Arg and E+Arg received a 2% L-Arg diet. Rats

Wan-teng Lin; Suh-ching Yang; Kung-tung Chen; Chi-chang Huang; Ning-yuean Lee



Protective Effects of L-Arginine Supplementation Against Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Young Rat Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we showed that L-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation could attenuate acute exercise- induced oxidative and inflammatory stress in aging rats. In this study, we investigate whether L-Arg supplementation protects cellular oxidative stress, inflammation, or the mitochondrial DNA 4834-bp large deletion (mtDNA4834 deletion) in 14-week-old young rats tissues during exhaustive exercise. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC); SC

Chi-Chang Huang; Tien-Jen Lin; Yi-Fa Lu; Chun-Chieh Chen; Chih-Yang Huang; Wan-Teng Lin


Dietary l-arginine and ?-tocopherol reduce vascular oxidative stress and preserve endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits via different mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular oxidative stress brought about by superoxide radicals and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) is a major factor contributing to decreased NO-dependent vasodilator function in hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. We investigated whether chronic administration of l-arginine (2% in drinking water) or of ?-tocopherol (300 mg\\/day) improves endothelium-dependent vasodilator function and systemic NO production, reduces vascular oxidative stress, and reduces the progression of

Rainer H. Böger; Stefanie M. Bode-Böger; Laddaval Phivthong-ngam; Ralf P. Brandes; Edzard Schwedhelm; Andreas Mügge; Michael Böhme; Dimitrios Tsikas; Jürgen C. Frölich



Molsidomine, a nitric oxide donor and l-arginine protects against rhabdomyolysis-induced myoglobinuric acute renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhabdomyolysis-induced myoglobinuric acute renal failure accounts for about 10–40% of all cases of acute renal failure (ARF). Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of myoglobinuric acute renal failure (ARF). This study was designed to investigate the effect of molsidomine and l-arginine in glycerol induced ARF in rats. Six groups of rats were employed

Vikas Chander; Kanwaljit Chopra



L-Arginine Availability Is Not Limiting for Nitric Oxide Generation from Recombinant Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-Arginine (L-Arg) may be limiting for inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and under certain circumstances, such as increased concentrations of a NOS inhibitor, may also be limiting for endothelial NOS activity. It is unknown if L-Arg is limiting for recombinant eNOS activity in the vascular wall after adenoviral mediated gene transfer. Our aim was to examine, if L-Arg is

Tibor Mohacsi; Geza Mozes; Jun’ichi Sato; Peter Gloviczki; Zvonimir Katusic; Timothy O’Brien



Applied nutritional investigation Pharmacokinetics, safety, and effects on exercise performance of L-arginine -ketoglutarate in trained adult men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of L-arginine -ketoglutarate (AAKG) in trained adult men. Methods: Subjects participated in two studies that employed a randomized, double-blind, con- trolled design. In study 1, 10 healthy men (30-50 y old) fasted for 8 h and then ingeste d4go f time-released or non-timed-released AAKG. Blood samples were taken for 8 h after

Bill Campbell; Mike Roberts; Chad Kerksick; Colin Wilborn; Brandon Marcello; Lem Taylor; Erika Nassar; Brian Leutholtz; Rodney Bowden; Chris Rasmussen; Mike Greenwood; Richard Kreider


Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N G-nitro- l-arginine methyl ester on spatial and cued leaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made of the effects of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) on the acquisition and retention of two operantly conditioned discrimination tasks. Twenty Long–Evans rats were conditioned to approach one of two spatial locations that was either held constant across trials (spatial task) or was associated with a visual cue (illuminated lamp) that was

B. R Knepper; D. D Kurylo



Evidence for down-regulation of GABA receptors following long-term gamma-butyrolactone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term oral administration (12 weeks) of ?-butyrolactone (GBL) to mice resulted in pharmacological and neurochemical changes which may be interpreted as a decrease in GABA-mediated synaptic activity. The depression in motor activity produced by the GABA-mimetic muscimol was reduced following long-term GBL. The binding of GABA to its putative receptor was reduced in the GBL group as evidenced by a

G. Gianutsos; P. D. Suzdak



Effects of Long-Term Bosentan in Children With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES This study investigated the long-term outcome of children with pulmonary arterial hyper- tension (PAH) treated with bosentan therapy, with or without concomitant prostanoid therapy. BACKGROUND Bosentan, an oral endothelin ETA\\/ETB receptor antagonist, improves hemodynamics and exercise capacity in adults with PAH; however, limited data are available on its long-term effects in children. METHODS In this retrospective study, 86 children

Erika Berman Rosenzweig; D. Dunbar Ivy; Allison Widlitz



Parenteral Administration of l-Arginine Prevents Fetal Growth Restriction in Undernourished Ewes12  

PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major health problem worldwide that currently lacks an effective therapeutic solution. This study was conducted with an ovine IUGR model to test the hypothesis that parenteral administration of l-arginine (Arg) is effective in enhancing fetal growth. Beginning on d 28 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% (control-fed) or 50% (underfed) of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements. Between d 60 of gestation and parturition, underfed ewes received i.v. infusions of saline or 155 ?mol Arg-HCl/kg body weight 3 times daily, whereas control-fed ewes received only saline. The birth weights of lambs from saline-infused underfed ewes were 23% lower (P < 0.01) than those of lambs from control-fed dams. Administration of Arg to underfed ewes increased (P < 0.01) concentrations of Arg (69%), ornithine (55%), proline (29%), methionine (37%), leucine (36%), isoleucine (35%), cysteine (19%), and FFA (43%) in maternal serum, decreased maternal circulating levels of ammonia (18%) and triglycerides (32%), and enhanced birth weights of lambs by 21% compared with saline-infused underfed ewes. There was no difference in birth weights of lambs between the control-fed and the Arg-infused underfed ewes. These novel results indicate that parenteral administration of Arg to underfed ewes prevented fetal growth restriction and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans. The findings also lay a new framework for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of Arg in regulating conceptus growth and development.

Lassala, Arantzatzu; Bazer, Fuller W.; Cudd, Timothy A.; Datta, Sujay; Keisler, Duane H.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Spencer, Thomas E.; Wu, Guoyao



Intracoronary L-arginine during reperfusion improves endothelial function and reduces infarct size.  


We tested the hypothesis that intracoronary administration of L-arginine (L-Arg), the physiological nitric oxide (NO) precursor, during reperfusion would attenuate postischemic damage by L-Arg NO-pathway mechanisms. Open-chest, anesthetized dogs underwent 60 min of left anterior descending coronary arterial (LAD) occlusion followed by 270 min of reperfusion. Dogs received intracoronary 10 mM L-Arg (n = 9 dogs), intracoronary 10 mM D-arginine (D-Arg, n = 7), or saline vehicle (Veh, n = 10) in the LAD during the first 120 min of reperfusion using an extracorporeal system. After 270 min of reperfusion, segmental systolic and diastolic function were comparably impaired in all three groups. Infarct size (triphenyltetrazolium chloride) expressed as a percentage of the area at risk (An/Ar) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in the L-Arg group (17.7 +/- 3.2%) compared with the Veh group (34.8 +/- 2.4%); D-Arg reversed this cardioprotection (48.8 +/- 5.2%, P < 0.05 vs. L-Arg, Veh). Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, an index of neutrophil accumulation (U/100 mg tissue), was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the necrotic tissue of the L-Arg group (0.88 +/- 0.26) than in the Veh group (2.46 +/- 0.38). Furthermore, responses to endothelium-dependent vasodilators acetylcholine and A23187 in isolated ischemic-reperfused LAD rings were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in the L-Arg group than in the other two groups. We conclude that intracoronary infusion of L-Arg during the early phase of reperfusion reduced neutrophil accumulation and infarct size and the infusion preserved endothelial function, possibly by increasing NO release or production by the endothelium. PMID:1336313

Nakanishi, K; Vinten-Johansen, J; Lefer, D J; Zhao, Z; Fowler, W C; McGee, D S; Johnston, W E



The role of L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in bacterial translocation.  


This study investigated the nitric oxide (NO) role as a mediator of arginine on bacterial translocation (BT) and gut damage in mice after intestinal obstruction (IO). The effects of pretreatment with arginine with or without NO inhibition on the systemic and local immunological response were also assessed. Mice were categorized into four groups. Group ARG received chow containing 2 % arginine, while group ARG + L-NAME received the same diet plus L-NAME (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) by gavage. The IO and Sham groups were fed standard chow. After 7 days, animals were gavaged with radiolabeled Escherichia coli, anesthetized and subjected to IO, except the Sham group. Animals were euthanized after 18 h, and BT was evaluated in the mesenteric lymph nodes, blood, liver, spleen and lungs. In another experiment, the intestinal injury was assessed regarding intestinal permeability and ileum histological analyses. Intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels, serum IFN-? and IL-10 cytokines were assessed. Arginine reduced BT, but NO inhibition enhanced BT compared with the ARG group (p < 0.05). Intestinal permeability in the ARG and ARG + L-NAME groups was similar but decreased when compared with the IO group (p < 0.05). Histological preservation was observed. Arginine treatment increased IL-10 and sIgA levels when compared with the Sham and IO groups (p < 0.05). The cytokines and sIgA concentrations were similar in the ARG + L-NAME and Sham groups. Arginine appeared to reduce BT and its effects on the modulation of cytokines and secretory IgA in mice after IO are mediated by NO production. PMID:23864434

Viana, Mirelle Lomar; Dos Santos, Rosana das Graças Carvalho; Generoso, Simone de Vasconcelos; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Martins, Flaviano Dos Santos; Nogueira-Machado, José Augusto; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento



Beneficial effects of Emblica officinalis in L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.  


Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is characterized by focal macroscopic or diffuse necrosis, hemorrhage, and vascular thrombosis of the pancreas. Current treatment options are limited to supportive and symptomatic interventions. A large amount of experimental work is ongoing to identify novel therapeutic agents for acute pancreatitis. The present study was carried out to explore the beneficial effects of Emblica officinalis, a medicinal plant of India, on acute pancreatitis. Ascorbic acid is one of the major chemical components of E. officinalis, so a vitamin C group was included for comparison. Acute pancreatitis was induced by L-arginine. Rats were divided into the following groups: control (saline), arginine?+?saline, arginine?+?E. officinalis, and arginine?+?vitamin C. Animals in each group were sacrificed at 24 hours and 3, 14, and 28 days after pancreatitis induction for determination of biochemical parameters and histological examination. For rate of DNA synthesis and immunohistochemical studies, animals were sacrificed on Day 3 and Day 7. Drug administration was started 2 hours after the last arginine injection and continued until the day of sacrifice. E. officinalis treatment was found to be beneficial for treating acute pancreatitis. Serum levels of lipase and interleukin-10 were significantly lower than in the arginine group. Nucleic acid content, rate of DNA synthesis, pancreatic proteins, and pancreatic amylase content were significantly improved. Histopathological examination showed significantly lower total scores in the Emblica group. Vitamin C was found to be less efficacious than E. officinalis for all outcome parameters. Thus E. officinalis treatment was found to be beneficial in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. PMID:21138365

Sidhu, Shabir; Pandhi, Promila; Malhotra, Samir; Vaiphei, Kim; Khanduja, Kundal Lal



Pancreatic changes elicited by chronic administration of excess L-arginine.  


Male rats were injected daily ip (350 mg/100 g body weight) with L-arginine from 1 to 4 weeks. Weekly changes were assessed by glucose tolerance, pancreatic insulin, histology, immunohistochemistry, ultrastructure, and quantification of insulin mRNA by in situ hybridization. Following Week 1, light microscopy revealed areas of focal acinar cell degeneration and incipient disaggregation of exocrine cytoarchitecture. Ultrastructural changes revealed initial attenuation in endoplasmic reticulum and condensation and clumping of nuclear chromatin. Some mitochondria appeared swollen and the plasma membrane showed areas of focal disintegration. Islets appeared normal, although pancreatic insulin levels were lower than controls as was the quantified signal for insulin mRNA. At the end of Week 2, acinar necrosis was evident throughout most pancreatic lobules. Increasing numbers of acinar cells underwent progressive degeneration with further loss of plasma membrane integrity, the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, increased cytoplasmic debris, and mitochondrial disruption. At Week 4, only isolated single acinar cells remained within a fibrous connective tissue matrix contiguous with ducts, blood vessels, intrapancreatic nerves, and islets. Immunohistochemistry of islets and nerves revealed normal endocrine and neural components. Although nonfasted, arginine-treated rats were normoglycemic and no further significant changes in pancreatic insulin and mRNA were found between Weeks 2 and 4, some impairment of glucose tolerance was present throughout the 4-week period. Data support the hypothesis that excess arginine selectively destroys acinar cells. It is suggested that necrosis arises from attenuation in nucleoprotein synthesis which may result from amino acid imbalance and/or toxicity. Excess arginine-treated animals may serve as a model for the study of acute and chronic pancreatitis. PMID:8070543

Weaver, C; Bishop, A E; Polak, J M



Acute l-arginine supplementation increases muscle blood volume but not strength performance.  


l-Arginine (L-arg) is an amino acid precursor to nitric oxide (NO). Dietary supplements containing L-arg have been marketed with the purpose of increasing vasodilation, thereby elevating blood flow to the exercising muscle and enhancing the metabolic response to exercise. Our goal was to identify the acute effect of L-arg supplementation on biceps strength performance, indicators of NO production (nitrite and nitrate - NOx), and muscle blood volume (Mbv) and oxygenation (Mox) during recovery from 3 sets of resistance exercise. Fifteen males participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. After withdrawing resting blood samples, the subjects were supplemented with 6 g of L-arg (ARG) or placebo (PLA). Monitoring of Mbv and Mox with near-infrared spectroscopy began 30 min after supplementation and lasted for 60 min. The exercise protocol (3 sets of 10 maximal voluntary contractions of isokinetic concentric elbow extension at 60°·s(-1), 2-min rest between sets) was initiated 80 min after supplementation. Blood samples were drawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after supplementation. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that Mbv significantly (p ? 0.05) increased in ARG compared with the PLA during the recovery period of each set of resistance exercise. NOx, Mox, peak torque, total work, and set total work were not significantly different between groups. We found that acute L-arg supplementation increases Mbv during recovery from sets of resistance exercise with no increase in strength performance. It is still premature to recommend nutritional supplements containing L-arg as an ergogenic aid to increase muscle strength during resistance training in healthy subjects. PMID:22251130

Alvares, Thiago Silveira; Conte, Carlos Adam; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Silva, Joab Trajano; Meirelles, Cláudia de Mello; Bhambhani, Yagesh N; Gomes, Paulo Sergio Chagas



ADMA, SDMA, L-Arginine and nitric oxide in allergic pediatric bronchial asthma.  


Published data regarding asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), L-arginine (L-ARG) and nitric oxide fraction in exhaled air (FeNO) in pediatric bronchial asthma are limited. Many question remain open about plasma concentration of these substances. The aim of this study is to evaluate ADMA, SDMA, L-ARG and FeNO concentration in allergic pediatric mild asthmatic patients in respect to healthy subjects. In this case-control study 60 children (50 asthmatics and 10 healthy) underwent a complete clinical visit, baseline respiratory function, allergy tests and biochemical analyses. The statistical significance of the different concentrations between the two groups were studied using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean plasma ADMA (0.58 vs 0.68 micromol/L), SDMA (0.40 vs 0.45 micromol/L) and L-ARG (52.2 vs 74.13 micromol/L) concentration were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) in the asthmatic patients in respect to healthy subjects (control group). The concentration of FeNO was significantly higher in the asthmatic subjects in respect to the control group (9.18 vs 4.2 micromol/L; p less than 0.001). Low plasma concentrations of ADMA, SDMA, L-ARG and high concentration of FeNO are associated with bronchial asthma and indicate an important role in airway disease through NO metabolism. PMID:23034276

Riccioni, G; Bucciarelli, V; Verini, M; Consilvio, N P; Gallina, S; Martini, F; Aceto, A; Scotti, L; Bucciarelli, T


Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces abdominal fat content by modulating lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.  


This study investigated the effects of different levels of dietary L-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation on the abdominal fat pad, circulating lipids, hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expression, gene expression related to fatty acid ?-oxidation, and the performance of broiler chickens. We tested whether the dietary L-Arg levels affected the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in order to reduce body fat deposition. A total of 192 broiler chickens (Cobb 500) aged 21 days with an average BW of 920 ± 15 g were randomly assigned to four groups (six broilers per replicate and eight replicates per treatment). The control group was fed a basal diet, whereas the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 0.25%, 0.50%, or 1.00% L-Arg for 3 weeks. The average daily feed intake, average daily gain and feed : gain ratio were not affected by the dietary L-Arg levels. However, chickens supplemented with L-Arg had lower abdominal fat content, plasma triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) concentrations, hepatic FAS mRNA expression and increased heart carnitine palmitoyl transferase1 (CPT1) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (3HADH) mRNA expression. These findings suggest that the addition of 0.25% L-Arg may reduce the plasma TC concentration by decreasing hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA expression. This may lower the plasma TG and abdominal fat content by suppressing hepatic FAS mRNA expression and enhancing CPT1 and 3HADH (genes related to fatty acid ?-oxidation) mRNA expression in the hearts of broiler chickens. PMID:23472611

Fouad, A M; El-Senousey, H K; Yang, X J; Yao, J H



L-arginine Supplementation Improves Responses to Injury and Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium Colitis  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), results in substantial morbidity and is difficult to treat. New strategies for adjunct therapies are needed. One candidate is the semi-essential amino acid, L-arginine (L-Arg), a complementary medicine purported to be an enhancer of immunity and vitality in the lay media. Using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) as a murine colonic injury and repair model with similarities to human UC, we assessed the effect of L-Arg, as DSS induced increases in colonic expression of the y+ cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) and L-Arg uptake. L-Arg supplementation improved the clinical parameters of survival, body weight loss, and colon weight, and reduced colonic permeability and the number of myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils in DSS colitis. Luminex-based multi-analyte profiling demonstrated that there was a marked reduction in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression with L-Arg treatment. Genomic analysis by microarray demonstrated that DSS-treated mice supplemented with L-Arg clustered more closely with mice not exposed to DSS than to those receiving DSS alone, and revealed that multiple genes that were upregulated or downregulated with DSS alone exhibited normalization of expression with L-Arg supplementation. Additionally, L-Arg treatment of mice with DSS colitis resulted in increased ex vivo migration of colonic epithelial cells, suggestive of increased capacity for wound repair. Because CAT2 induction was sustained during L-Arg treatment and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) requires uptake of L-Arg for generation of NO, we tested the effect of L-Arg in iNOS?/? mice and found that its benefits in DSS colitis were eliminated. These preclinical studies indicate that L-Arg supplementation could be a potential therapy for IBD, and that one mechanism of action may be functional enhancement of iNOS activity.

Coburn, Lori A.; Gong, Xue; Singh, Kshipra; Asim, Mohammad; Scull, Brooks P.; Allaman, Margaret M.; Williams, Christopher S.; Rosen, Michael J.; Washington, M. Kay; Barry, Daniel P.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Casero, Robert A.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Zhao, Zhongming; Wilson, Keith T.



Role of long term antibiotics in chronic respiratory diseases.  


Antibiotics are commonly used in the management of respiratory disorders such as cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis, asthma and COPD. In those conditions long-term antibiotics can be delivered as nebulised aerosols or administered orally. In CF, nebulised colomycin or tobramycin improve lung function, reduce number of exacerbations and improve quality of life (QoL). Oral antibiotics, such as macrolides, have acquired wide use not only as anti-microbial agents but also due to their anti-inflammatory and pro-kinetic properties. In CF, macrolides such as azithromycin have been shown to improve the lung function and reduce frequency of infective exacerbations. Similarly macrolides have been shown to have some benefits in COPD including reduction in a number of exacerbations. In asthma, macrolides have been reported to improve some subjective parameters, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation; however have no benefits on lung function or overall asthma control. Macrolides have also been used with beneficial effects in less common disorders such as diffuse panbronchiolitis or post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. In this review we describe our current knowledge the use of long-term antibiotics in conditions such as CF, non-CF bronchiectasis, asthma and COPD together with up-to-date clinical and scientific evidence to support our understanding of the use of antibiotics in those conditions. PMID:23522403

Suresh Babu, K; Kastelik, J; Morjaria, J B



Long term survival in primary pulmonary hypertension.  


The mean survival of patients with severe primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is < 3 years without appropriate treatment. There are no long term reports on the spontaneous course of mild PPH over a longer period. Stable long term follow up is described of a 39 year old patient with PPH without treatment over a 30 year period. PPH had been diagnosed 30 years previously after right heart catheterisation (mean pulmonary artery pressure 35 mm Hg) and 30 years later, repeated measurements showed nearly unchanged haemodynamic parameters. Further examinations confirmed the diagnosis of PPH. It is suggested that PPH with modestly limited physical activity (New York Heart Association functional class II) does not always seem to coincide with progression of the disease and, therefore, it may be feasible to withhold treatment while closely monitoring these patients. PMID:15201266

Halank, M; Marx, C; Hoeffken, G



[Bariatric surgery - significance, risks, long term consequences].  


In recent years the number of bariatric surgery has markedly increased in industrial nations. Surgery provides a more rapid decrease of body weight than conservative approach. However a long term conservative follow up therapy is mandatory to stabilize reduced weight. Due to increasing knowledge from long term follow up of surgically treated obese patients there is a growing body of evidence that frequently there is necessity of reoperations and of substitution both of trace elementsand of minerals or vitamins due to their hampered enteral resorption. Additionally therapy of surgery induced endocrine alterations not seldom is necessary.These insights are of outstanding importance because meanwhile an enlargement of the indications for bariatric surgery as a therapeutic option for metabolic disorders is being discussed. This review refers to the recent internationally published papers concerning consequences of bariatric surgery. PMID:23678666

Schubert, T; Jahn, U; Eben, E; Deuber, H J



Case presentation: long-term treatment.  


Abstract The long-term (14 years) psychodynamic psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of a depressed, suicidal, self-mutilating female patient is described. Her diagnoses included Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Recurrent Major Depression. Treatment was punctuated with repeated hospitalizations for self-mutilation (cutting) and suicidal ideation. A major determinant for her psychopathology was sexual abuse by her father from ages 6 to 14. This resulted in feelings of guilt and rage that she repressed and acted out through self-mutilating and suicidal behavior. A prolonged negative transference gradually became ambivalent, then positive. This was associated with her internalization of the healing qualities of the therapeutic relationship. She also gained insight into the reasons for her need to punish herself. Her initial self-representation as unworthy and bad was transformed into perceiving herself as a worthwhile, loving person. This case illustrates the role of long-term treatment for a complex, life-threatening, psychiatric disorder. PMID:24001161

Glucksman, Myron L



Peer Mentoring in Long-Term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes two successful peer-mentoring programs designed to improve the quality of care in nursing homes and retention rates among direct care staff. The first program, “Growing Strong Roots,” examined CNA retention rates and the second program, “Peer Mentoring for Long Term Charge Nurses,” examined RN and LPN retention rates. These programs include a training component, an on-the-job mentoring

Carol Hegeman; Debi Hoskinson; Heather Munro; Patricia Maiden; Karl Pillemer



Long-term study measures radon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results from a long-term study of indoor radon levels will be presented on Tuesday, May 19, at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md. The study, which is still in progress, has already pointed to some possible links between levels of radon gas in homes and local geology and home construction, according to Douglas Mose and George Mushrush of George Mason University (Fairfax, Va.).

Katzoff, Judith A.


Quantal analysis and long-term potentiation.  


Quantal analysis is useful for assessing the pre- and/or post-synaptic locus of the expression of long-term tetanic potentiation with the condition, however, that the studied synaptic potentials have been evoked by single cell stimulations, as is the case with paired recordings of identified neurons. The application of this methodology, primarily with indirect criteria, has produced conclusions which dance back and forth across the synaptic cleft. PMID:9759330

Korn, H; Faber, D S


Rotator cuff repair. Long-term results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. – To evaluate the results of rotator cuff repair and to look for preoperative and\\/or intraoperative predictors of long-term outcomes.Patients and methods. – All patients who underwent open rotator cuff repair surgery for a full-thickness tear between 1990 and 1996 and who were subsequently followed-up for at least 4 years were contacted. The surgical technique and postoperative rehabilitation program

Daniel Van Linthoudt; Jacques Deforge; Laurent Malterre; Harry Huber



Emotional behavior in long-term marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction.

Laura L. Carstensen; John M. Gottman; Robert W. Levenson



Nominal Shocks and Long-Term Contracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes how nominal shocks affect the terms of long-term con- tracts. If the price level is measured with delay, renegotiation-proof contracts do not yield full insurance against nominal risk. The focus is on the impulse response of wages and investment to nominal shocks. In the model a risk-neutral firm employs a risk-averse worker whose eff ort it can-

Boyan Jovanovic



Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.  


Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof



Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos De B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor



Long-term sequelae of electrical injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event.

Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John



Anemia in Long-Term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term care refers to a heterogeneous spectrum of facilities and health-related services that range from home nursing services\\u000a to residential care and skilled nursing facilities, so-called nursing homes. Although the services eligible for Medicare coverage\\u000a are defined by CMS, the clinical and demographic mix in facilities, even of the same level of care, is highly variable. The\\u000a shifting health care

Andrew S. Artz; Miriam Rodin



Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development of signal processing algo- rithms for UMTS Long Term Evolution (LTE) requires a realistic, exible, and standard-compliant simulation en- vironment. To facilitate comparisons with work of other research groups such a simulation environment should ideally be publicly available. In this paper, we present a MATLAB-based down- link physical-layer simulator for LTE. We identify dier- ent research applications

Christian Mehlfuhrer; Martin Wrulich; Josep Colom Ikuno; Dagmar Bosanska; Markus Rupp


MTA Solubility: A Long Term Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this long-term study was to assess the amount of soluble material released by Mineral Trioxide Aggregate to a water medium, to determine if the solubility differences between specimens of various water\\/powder ratio, as demonstrated in a previous study, would be maintained over time, and to measure the pH of the water that was in contact with the

Marcela Fridland; Rafael Rosado



Long-term management of building stocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The built environment is composed of buildings, infrastructures and cultural landscapes (stocks). These man-made artefacts constitute a complex capital (natural, man-made, human, social and cultural) and its evolution is a crucial parameter in sustainable development. Their composition and dynamics can be modelled as flows or as capitals or combinations of the two. Examples of the modelling of the long-term behaviour

Niklaus Kohler; Wei Yang



Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated stimulation of hippocampal neurons can induce an immediate and prolonged increase in synaptic strength that is called long-term potentiation (LTP)-the primary cellular model of memory in the mammalian brain1. An early phase of LTP (lasting less than three hours) can be dissociated from late-phase LTP by using inhibitors of transcription and translation2-8. Because protein synthesis occurs mainly in the

Uwe Frey; Richard G. M. Morris



Long-Term Results of Anterior Sphincteroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE This study was designed to evaluate the outcome of anterior sphincteroplasty in a large series with ten-year follow-up. METHODS The long-term results in 191 consecutive patients who were a median of ten years from sphincteroplasty were assessed. A questionnaire was administered to assess current bowel function, degree of incontinence, and quality of life as measured by the Fecal Incontinence

Alberto Bravo Gutierrez; Robert D. Madoff; Ann C. Lowry; Susan Congilosi Parker; W. Donald Buie; Nancy N. Baxter



Long-Term Morbidity of PCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome, economic burden, healthcare cost, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, metabolic\\u000a syndrome, endometrial cancer The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results in a number of immediate and long-term morbidities\\u000a that are associated with a significant impact on quality of life and on economic costs. Immediate morbidities include menstrual\\u000a dysfunction and abnormal uterine bleeding, subfertility and infertility, and androgen excess-related

Ricardo Azziz


Numerical evaluation of long-term stability  

SciTech Connect

The problem of predicting long-term particle loss in 4D betatronic motion is considered. A phenomenological scenario is derived through numerical tools based on tracking and frequency analysis. A three-parameter formula to interpolate the dynamic aperture versus the number of turns is proposed. The agreement with tracking data is excellent, and the extrapolation for very high number of turns agrees with the onset of chaos evaluated through the Lyapunov method.

Giovannozzi, M.; Todesco, E. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics, Via Irnerio 46, 40126, Bologna (Italy); Scandale, W. [CERN, SL. Division, CH 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)



Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects--instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought shocks are used to identify differences in pre-school nutritional status across siblings. Improvements in height-for-age in pre-schoolers are associated with increased height as

Harold Alderman; John Hoddinott; Bill Kinsey



Long-term health consequences of PCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance\\/diabetes and\\/or uterine pathology appears to be increased in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although more outcome studies are necessary to determine incidence. Data pertaining to some of the potential long-term health consequences associated with PCOS are summarized. Medline, Current Contents and PubMed were searched for studies from the time of our

Robert A. Wild



Atrial fibrillation in long term care.  


Increasing age is a potent risk factor for the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), as well as for incident stroke in patients with AF. The prevalence of AF in long term care facilities ranges from 7.5% to 17%, and such patients often present management challenges due to heightened risk for both stroke and bleeding complications related to thromboprophylaxis. This article reviews the diagnosis and management of AF in long term care. In general, patients with minimal symptoms can be managed with rate-control medications and anticoagulation. Patients with persistent symptoms and impaired quality of life despite adequate rate-control should be considered for cardioversion and antiarrhythmic drug therapy aimed at maintaining sinus rhythm. A small percentage of patients who do not respond to rate-control or rhythm-control interventions may be candidates for a catheter-based or surgical ablative procedure. In most older adults, the benefits of systemic anticoagulation in reducing the risk of stroke outweigh the risk of serious bleeding; therefore, anticoagulation is indicated in the majority of older AF patients, including nursing home residents. Although warfarin remains the preferred agent for stroke prophylaxis in the long term care setting, primarily due to very limited experience with the newer agents dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, it is likely that the use of these newer drugs will increase as additional data accumulate documenting their safety and efficacy in AF patients of advanced age. PMID:22889728

Rich, Michael W



L-Arginine and L-Glutamic Acid Capped-Gold Nanoparticles at Physiological pH: Synthesis and Characterization using Agarose Gel Electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of amino-acid capped gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and their characterization using agarose gel electrophoresis are reported. The GNPs were capped with L-Arginine and L-Glutamic acids at different pH. At the physiological pH, the results obtained revealed that the interactions between L-Arginine, L-Glutamic acid and GNPs were of the electrostatic and covalent\\/coordinate types, respectively. The capped-GNPs possessing free amine\\/carboxylic groups

Davood Zare; Azim Akbarzadeh; Mohammad Barkhi; Kamyar Khoshnevisan; Nasim Bararpour; Masumeh Noruzi; Meisam Tabatabaei



L-Arginine and L-Glutamic Acid Capped Gold Nanoparticles at Physiological pH: Synthesis and Characterization Using Agarose Gel Electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of amino-acid-capped gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and their characterization using agarose gel electrophoresis are reported. The GNPs were capped with L-Arginine and L-Glutamic acids at different pH. At the physiological pH, the results obtained revealed that the interactions between L-Arginine, L-Glutamic acid, and GNPs were of the electrostatic and covalent\\/ coordinate types, respectively. The capped GNPs possessing free amine\\/carboxylic

Davood Zare; Azim Akbarzadeh; Mohammad Barkhi; Kamyar Khoshnevisan; Nasim Bararpour; Masumeh Noruzi; Meisam Tabatabaei



Does Acute Improvement of Endothelial Dysfunction in Coronary Artery Disease Improve Myocardial Ischemia? A Double-Blind Comparison of Parenteral D- and L-Arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Parenteral L-arginine will improve myocardial isch- emia in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. Background. Endothelial dysfunction causes coronary arterial constriction during stress, and L-arginine improves endothelial dysfunction. Methods. Twenty-two patients with stable coronary artery disease and exercise-induced ST-segment depression underwent assessment of forearm endothelial function with acetylcholine and symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing during dextrose 5% infusion and after



Effect of Native and Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein on Endothelial Nitric Oxide and Superoxide Production Key Role of L-Arginine Availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

lipoprotein concentrations on endothelial NO and superoxide (O22) production. We investigated where lipoproteins may affect the L-arginine-NO pathway by pretreating cells with L-arginine, L-N-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and superoxide dismutase. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed for 1 hour to increasing concentrations of n-LDL (from 0 to 240 mg cholesterol\\/dL) and ox-LDL (from 0 to 140 mg cholesterol\\/dL). A stimulated

Luciana Vergnani; Stefan Hatrik; Franco Ricci; Angelina Passaro; Nadia Manzoli; Giovanni Zuliani; Viktor Brovkovych; Renato Fellin; Tadeusz Malinski


Interactions between L-arginine and L-glutamine change endothelial NO production. An effect independent of NO synthase substrate availability.  

PubMed Central

The effect of extracellular L-arginine and L-glutamine on nitric oxide (NO) release was studied in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells and in rabbit aortic rings. Increasing L-arginine (0.01 to 10 mM) did not alter NO release from cultured endothelial cells or modify endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine in isolated vessels. L-Glutamine (0.6 and 2 mM) inhibited NO release from cultured cells (in response to bradykinin) and from aortic rings (in response to acetylcholine or ADP). L-Arginine (0.1-10 mM) dose-dependently reversed the L-glutamine inhibition of receptor-stimulated NO release in both models. In contrast to its inhibitory response to receptor-mediated stimuli, glutamine alone slightly potentiated NO release in both models when the calcium ionophore, A23187, was added. Furthermore, cultured cells incubated with L-arginine (0.01-10 mM), in the presence or absence of glutamine, released similar amounts of NO in response to A23187. L-Glutamine did not affect intracellular L-arginine levels. Neither D-glutamine nor D-arginine affected NO release or endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation. L-Glutamine had no effect on the activity of endothelial NOS assessed by L-arginine to L-citrulline conversion. These findings show that in the absence of L-glutamine, manipulating intracellular L-arginine levels over a wide range does not affect NO release. L-Glutamine in concentrations circulating in vivo may tonically inhibit receptor-mediated NO release by interfering with signal transduction. One mechanism by which L-arginine may enhance NO release is via reversal of the inhibitory effect of L-glutamine, but apparently independently of enhancing NO synthase substrate. Images

Arnal, J F; Munzel, T; Venema, R C; James, N L; Bai, C L; Mitch, W E; Harrison, D G



Links between short and long term tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the quest for understanding the rheology of the lithosphere a central question that can be addressed is the existence of a parameterisation of the rheology, which could reflect both the response of the lithosphere over the large time scale (10's Myr) and the time scale of earthquakes and faulting. The gap existing between these observational time scales is mainly due to modelling approximations which in each separate fields permit to fit the data but which rely on simplification of the physics, the rheology and set of boundary conditions which are not always compatible one with each other. The long-term community, i.e. the geodynamics community, tend to use Mohr-Coulomb non-associated plasticity to model self-consistent shear zone localisation. This type of rheology corresponds, in the limit of a discrete fault plan, to a slip weakening/hardening formulation in which weakening rate depends on fault plan orientation. The short term community, i.e. the earthquake community, has stopped using this kind of formulation and rather uses the rate and state formulation to model the activity of faults. Rate and State is limited because it cannot self-consistently generate an earthquake, the triggering, i.e. the initial slip acceleration must be imposed. This contribution is a synthesis of several geological case studies at different length-scale, in which we suspects a strong link between long term geodynamic processes and current seismological and geodetic observations. We make use of these case studies together with quantitative numerical models to understand how the seismic and inter-seismic behaviour reflects the rather long-term geodynamic setting than the internal rheological properties of faults. After briefly revisiting the different modelling approaches from geodynamic seismologic and geodetic communities, we show how modelling results obtained with the long term modelling approach brings new insights and alternative models for both the seismological and geodetic behaviour of active faults. The first example will concern the seismic activity on low angle normal faults focussing on the case of the Gulf of Corinth. Then focusing on strike slip tectonic, I will compare data from active and exhumed strike slip faults and discuss how a single model can explain their behaviour. The last example will focus on the creeping segment of the San Andreas Fault to discuss how heterogeneities in the long-term tectonic loading (in that instance flexure of the lithosphere) may influence the seismic behaviour of strike slip fault.

Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Traoré, Nafissatou; Lecomte, Emmanuel; Saleeby, Jason



N sup G -methyl-L-arginine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced hypotension: Implications for the involvement of nitric oxide  

SciTech Connect

Clinical assessment of the activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) against human cancer has been limited by a dose-dependent cardiovascular toxicity, most frequently hypotension. TNF is also thought to mediate the vascular collapse resulting from bacterial endotoxin. The present studies address the mechanism by which TNF causes hypotension and provide evidence for elevated production of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator initially characterized as endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nitric oxide is synthesized by several cell types, including endothelial cells and macrophages, from the guanidino nitrogen of L-arginine; the enzymatic pathway is competitively inhibited by N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine. The authors found that hypotension induced in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs by TNF was completely reversed within 2 min following administration of N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine. In contrast, N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine failed to reverse the hypotensive response to an equivalent depressor dose of nitroglycerin, a compound that acts by forming nitric oxide by a monenzymatic, arginine-independent mechanism. The effect of N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine on TNF-induced hypotension was antagonized, and the hypotension restored, by administration of excess L-arginine findings suggest that excessive nitric oxide production mediates the hypotensive effect of TNF.

Kilbourn, R.G.; Adams, J. (Univ. of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA)); Gross, S.S.; Griffith, O.W.; Levi, R. (Cornell Univ. Medical College, New York, NY (USA)); Jubran, A.; Lodato, R.F. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston (USA))



eNOS mediates L-arginine-induced inhibition of thick ascending limb chloride flux.  


We recently reported that the rat thick ascending limb (THAL) possesses an active isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) that is substrate-limited in vitro. NO produced by THAL NOS inhibits chloride flux. Protein and transcript for each of the primary NOS isoforms-endothelial (eNOS), inducible (iNOS), and neuronal (nNOS)-have been demonstrated in THALs. However, the NOS isoform that mediates NO-induced inhibition of chloride flux is unknown. We hypothesized that NO produced from eNOS in the THAL inhibits NaCl transport. THALs from male eNOS, iNOS, and nNOS knockout mice and C57BL/6J wild-type controls were perfused in vitro and the response of transepithelial chloride flux (J(Cl)) to L-arginine (L-Arg), the substrate for NOS, and spermine NONOate (SPM), an NO donor was measured. We first tested whether isolated mouse THALs could synthesize NO and whether this NO inhibits transport. Addition of 0. 5 mmol/L L-Arg to the bath decreased J(Cl) from 105.8+/-17.5 to 79. 2+/-15.8 pmol/mm per minute (P<0.01) in C57BL/6J wild-type mice, whereas addition of D-Arginine had no effects on J(Cl.) In contrast, addition of 0.5 mmol/L L-Arg to the bath did not alter J(Cl) of THALs from eNOS knockout mice. When 10 micromol/L SPM was added to the bath of eNOS knockout THALs, J(Cl) decreased from 89.1+/-8.6 to 74.8+/-7.5 pmol/mm/min (P<0.05). Thus the lack of responsiveness of eNOS knockout THALs to L-Arg was not due to an inability to respond to NO. We next evaluated the role of iNOS and nNOS in the response to L-Arg. Addition of 0.5 mmol/L L-Arg to the bath decreased J(Cl) in THALs from iNOS and nNOS knockout mice by 37.7+/-6.4% (P<0.05) and 31.8+/-8.3% (P<0.01), respectively. We conclude that eNOS is the active isoform of NOS in the THAL under basal conditions. Mouse THAL eNOS responds to exogenous L-Arg by increasing NO production, which, in turn, inhibits J(Cl). PMID:10642318

Plato, C F; Shesely, E G; Garvin, J L



The growth and characterization of L-arginine phosphate microcrystals in a silica sol gel matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silica sol-gel has proven to be a versatile material that can host a number of inorganic and organic dopant molecules, providing an environment in which they may retain their activity. This dissertation studies the relationship between crystallization and gelation in a system consisting of L-arginine phosphate (LAP), an organic non-linear optical crystal, in an inorganic silica sol-gel matrix. The objectives of this research are to investigate the mechanisms of crystal nucleation and growth in a silica sol-gel matrix. Complex impedance measurements were used to determine the solubility of LAP in sol-gel as a function of temperature, the induction times for crystallization of LAP, and the overall rate of LAP precipitation. Analysis of the induction times was performed to determine the interfacial energies, surface entropy factors, and nucleation and growth mechanisms of LAP in sol-gel over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Nucleation and growth of LAP in sol-gel was found to follow a model of primary nucleation followed by spiral growth (5°C to 20°C) or normal growth (25°C to 40°C) for LAP concentrations high enough that nucleation occurs in the sol. For lower LAP concentrations, heterogeneous nucleation occurs on sample interfaces or electrodes. The solubility of LAP in silica sol-gel was found to follow an Arrhenius relationship, with an enthalpy of solution of 0.68 eV. The enthalpy of solution for LAP in sol-gel is comparable to that in aqueous solutions, while the pre-exponential factor is about 8 times smaller in sol-gel than in water. The interfacial energies of LAP in sol-gel are close to, but slightly larger than, those in aqueous solution. The interfacial energies decrease with increasing temperature at about the same rate in sol-gel as in aqueous solution. Conductivity of LAP in sol-gel is primarily through proton conduction and follows an Arrhenius relationship with an activation energy for conduction of 0.26 eV and a pre-exponential factor that depends upon the square root of the LAP concentration.

Faltens, Tanya Anne


Hip fracture prevention strategies in long-term care  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To garner Canadian physicians’ opinions on strategies to reduce hip fractures in long-term care (LTC) facilities, focusing on secondary prevention. DESIGN A cross-sectional survey using a mailed, self-administered, written questionnaire. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS Family physician members of the Ontario Long-Term Care Association (n = 165) and all actively practising geriatricians registered in the Canadian Medical Directory (n = 81). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The strength of recommendations for fracture-reduction strategies in LTC and barriers to implementing these strategies. RESULTS Of the 246 physicians sent the questionnaire, 25 declined study materials and were excluded. Of the 221 remaining, 120 responded for a response rate of 54%. About two-thirds of respondents were family physicians (78 of 120) and the rest were mostly geriatricians. Most respondents strongly recommended the following secondary prevention strategies for use in LTC after hip fracture: calcium, vitamin D, oral aminobisphosphonates, physical therapy, and environmental modification (such as handrails). Most respondents either did not recommend or recommended limited use of etidronate, intravenous bisphosphonates, calcitonin, raloxifene, testosterone (for hypogonadal men), and teriparatide. Postmenopausal hormone therapy was discouraged or not recommended by most respondents. Support was mixed for the use of hip protectors, B vitamins, and folate. Barriers to implementation identified by most respondents included a lack of strong evidence of hip fracture reduction (for B vitamins and folate, cyclic etidronate, and testosterone), side effects (for postmenopausal hormone therapy), poor compliance (for hip protectors), and expense (for intravenous bisphosphonates and teriparatide). Some respondents cited side effects or poor compliance as barriers to using calcium and potent oral bisphosphonates. CONCLUSION Canadian physicians favour the use of calcium, vitamin D, potent oral bisphosphonates, physical therapy, and evironmental modifications for LTC residents after hip fracture. Further study at the clinical and administrative levels is required to find ways to overcome the specific barriers to implementation and effectiveness of these interventions.

Sawka, Anna M.; Ismaila, Nofisat; Raina, Parminder; Thabane, Lehana; Straus, Sharon; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Gafni, Amiram; Papaioannou, Alexandra



Postoperative hemorrhagic complications after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients receiving long-term anticoagulant therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  Among patients on long-term anticoagulant therapy who undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), bleeding complications have\\u000a not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate postoperative bleeding complications\\u000a prospectively in patients on chronic oral anticoagulation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  In the period of January 2002 to December 2007, 44 patients on long-term anticoagulation with warfarin, an oral anticoagulant

Metin Ercan; Erdal B. Bostanci; Ilter Ozer; Murat Ulas; Yusuf B. Ozogul; Zafer Teke; Musa Akoglu



Long Term Analysis for the BAM device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Algorithms aimed at the evaluation of critical quantities are based on models with many parameters, which values are estimated from data. The knowledge, with high accuracy, of these values and the control of their temporal evolution are important features. In this work, we focus on the latter subject, and we show a proposed pipeline for the BAM (Basic Angle Monitoring) Long Term Analysis, aimed at the study of the calibration parameters of the BAM device and of the Basic Angle variation, searching for unwanted trends, cyclic features, or other potential unexpected behaviours.

Bonino, D.; Gardiol, D.



Quantifying long-term scientific impact.  


The lack of predictability of citation-based measures frequently used to gauge impact, from impact factors to short-term citations, raises a fundamental question: Is there long-term predictability in citation patterns? Here, we derive a mechanistic model for the citation dynamics of individual papers, allowing us to collapse the citation histories of papers from different journals and disciplines into a single curve, indicating that all papers tend to follow the same universal temporal pattern. The observed patterns not only help us uncover basic mechanisms that govern scientific impact but also offer reliable measures of influence that may have potential policy implications. PMID:24092745

Wang, Dashun; Song, Chaoming; Barabási, Albert-László



Long term thermoelectric module testing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period.

D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy



The Long-Term Hemispheric Sunspot Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sunspot activity is usually represented by either sunspot numbers (SN) or sunspot areas (SA). The smoothed monthly mean SA and SN in the northern and southern hemispheres from 1945 January to 2008 March are used to investigate the characteristics of long-term hemispheric sunspot activity. Although sunspot activity (SA and SN) is found to begin one month earlier in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere on the average of the considered time interval, the shift is so small that no long-term systematic phase shift is statistically acceptable as a first-order effect, as suggested by White & Trotter. Sunspot activity never peaks at the same time in the two hemispheres. Although the Schwabe cycle appears in hemispheric sunspot activity, its period length slightly varies during the considered time interval and seems to be longer in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere on the average. Sunspot activity is asymmetrically distributed in the hemispheres, but the largest hemispheric diversity usually does not appear around the maximum time of a cycle. The diversity of SA, respectively, in the northern and southern hemispheres runs on the Sun similarly and synchronously as the diversity of SN does. Sunspot activity is slightly asynchronous in the hemispheres.

Li, K. J.; Gao, P. X.; Zhan, L. S.; Shi, X. J.



Coats' syndrome: long term follow up  

PubMed Central

AIM—To increase the understanding of the long term results in pseudo-retinoblastoma eyes with infantile Coats' syndrome.?METHODS—This study design was a retrospective case review. 10 patients were analysed who were initially referred with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma but had Coats' syndrome on the basis of ocular oncological evaluation. Vision, fundus photography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography scans were obtained and evaluated. Changes in vision and retinal status were measured.?RESULTS—The initial age at presentation was 2.4 years (range 0.25-4 years). All patients had retinal detachment at diagnosis. Nine of 10 retinas were reattached after various treatments. Reattached retinas had closure of peripheral telangiectasia and visible intraretinal crystals. Vision was dismal. At last follow up (mean 8.8 years), only two patients had 20/400 or better visual acuities. Five eyes had no light perception despite early treatment to reattach the retina. Nine of 10 eyes remain cosmetically acceptable. One patient wore a cosmetic shell.?CONCLUSIONS—Long term results indicate that these eyes can be salvaged and the retina reattached but the visual outcome is poor.??

Char, D.



Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation  

PubMed Central

Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as ‘storage’. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation—which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes—with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent



Long term stability of Earth Trojans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the long-term stability of Earth Trojans by using a chaos indicator, the Frequency Map Analysis. We find that there is an extended stability region at low eccentricity and for inclinations lower than about even if the most stable orbits are found at . This region is not limited in libration amplitude, contrary to what found for Trojan orbits around outer planets. We also investigate how the stability properties are affected by the tidal force of the Earth-Moon system and by the Yarkovsky force. The tidal field of the Earth-Moon system reduces the stability of the Earth Trojans at high inclinations while the Yarkovsky force, at least for bodies larger than 10 m in diameter, does not seem to strongly influence the long-term stability. Earth Trojan orbits with the lowest diffusion rate survive on timescales of the order of years but their evolution is chaotic. Their behaviour is similar to that of Mars Trojans even if Earth Trojans appear to have shorter lifetimes.

Marzari, F.; Scholl, H.



Effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and oxidative status in platelets.  


Several studies have suggested an increase of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk on periodontitis patients. An enhancement has been demonstrated on both platelet activation and oxidative stress on periodontitis patients, which may contribute for this association. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway and oxidative status in platelets. A total of eight periodontitis patients and eight controls were included in this study. Clinical, laboratory and experimental evaluations were performed on baseline and 90 days after periodontal treatment (except for western blot analysis). The clinical periodontal evaluation included measurements of probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), % of sites with plaque and % of sites with bleeding on probing. We evaluated: l-[(3)H]arginine influx; nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and arginase enzymes activity and expression; expression of guanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase-5 enzymes; cGMP levels; platelet aggregation; oxidative status through superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The initial results showed an activation of both l-arginine influx and via system y?(+?)L associated with reduced intraplatelet cGMP levels in periodontitis patients and increased systemic levels of CRP. After periodontal treatment, there was a significant reduction of the % of sites with PPD 4-5mm, % of sites with CAL 4-5?mm, and an enhancement in cGMP levels and SOD activity. Moreover, CRP levels were reduced after treatment. Therefore, alterations in the intraplatelet l-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway and oxidant-antioxidant balance associated with a systemic inflammatory response may lead to platelet dysfunction, which may contribute to a higher risk of CVD in periodontitis. PMID:23918883

Siqueira, Mariana Alves de Sá; Fischer, Ricardo Guimarães; Pereira, Natália Rodrigues; Martins, Marcela Anjos; Moss, Monique Bandeira; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio Cláudio; Figueredo, Carlos Marcelo da Silva; Brunini, Tatiana Marlowe Cunha



Influence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on vagally induced gastric relaxation in the anaesthetized rat.  

PubMed Central

1. The influence of the nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on the gastric relaxation induced by peripheral vagal stimulation was investigated in the anaesthetized rat. 2. Peripheral vagal stimulation (10 Hz, 10 V, 1 ms for 20 s) induced a reproducible biphasic response: a short-lasting increase followed by a more pronounced decrease in intragastric pressure. This response also occurred in reserpinized animals (5 mg kg-1, i.p., 24 h before the experiment) while atropine (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) abolished the initial increase in intragastric pressure. 3. L-NAME (1-30 mg kg-1, i.v.) induced an increase in arterial blood pressure. L-NAME (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) had no influence on the vagally induced gastric response while L-NAME (10 and 30 mg kg-1 i.v.) significantly changed it: the initial increase in intragastric pressure was enhanced while the decrease in intragastric pressure was reduced or abolished. NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 10 mg kg-1, i.v.) had the same effect. 4. An i.v. infusion of phenylephrine (10 micrograms kg-1 min-1) inducing a pressor response similar to that produced by L-NAME (30 mg kg-1, i.v.) did not influence the vagal gastric response. Infusion of L-arginine (300 mg kg-1 bolus, then 100 mg kg-1 h-1) starting 30 min beforehand, reduced the pressor effect and prevented the influence of L-NAME (10 mg kg-1, i.v.) on the vagal gastric response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Lefebvre, R. A.; Hasrat, J.; Gobert, A.



Amelioration of age associated neuroinflammation on long term bacosides treatment.  


Bacopa monnieri (L.) is a revered medicinal plant of traditional Indian system of medicine effective against cognitive impairment in ageing and SDAT. In our previous study, long term administration of bacosides was found to exhibit remarkable anti ageing effect, ameliorate age associated neurochemical and neurobehavioral deficits and prevent hippocampal neuronal degeneration in middle aged and aged rat brain cortex. In continuation to the previous study, the present study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of bacosides against age related chronic neuroinflammation in Wistar rat brain on 3 months treatment. Recently, neuroinflammation has gained considerable interest in age associated neurodegeneration and pathologies like SDAT due to its slow onset and chronic nature. The results of the present study demonstrated the significant attenuation of age dependant elevation of pro inflammatory cytokines, iNOS protein expression, total nitrite and lipofuscin content in middle aged and aged rat brain cortex on long term oral administration of bacosides. Thus, the present results suggest that bacosides possess immense potential to act as a neuroprotective agent due to its pleiotropic action for the prevention of ageing complications and SDAT progression. PMID:22198697

Rastogi, Manisha; Ojha, Rudra P; Devi, B Parimala; Aggarwal, Aabha; Agrawal, Aruna; Dubey, G P



Oral Contraceptives Reduce Long-Term Risk of Ovarian Cancer

Since they were first licensed nearly 50 years ago, birth control pills containing estrogen have prevented some 200,000 cases of ovarian cancer world-wide, estimate the authors of a study published January 26, 2008, in The Lancet.


Long-term complication: Florida's death certification process and long-term care.  


This article discusses the medical-legal aspects of death certification in Florida long-term care settings based on an examination of relevant Florida laws and federal guidelines and a comparison of those laws and guidelines to actual medical practice. A review of the health care literature and Florida law, supplemented by interviews with key informants, supports the conclusion that Florida statutes provide a clear protocol for efficient death certification, but do not ensure the accuracy of death certificates. The death certification process in Florida long term care settings could be improved through increased physician training, the development of quality controls, and the expanded use of electronic patient medical records. PMID:22020394

Williams, Leah; Dewey, Hayley; Kapp, Marshall B



Long term performance of radon mitigation systems  

SciTech Connect

Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.



Technology for long-term care.  


Severe staff shortages in long-term care (LTC) make it difficult to meet the demands of the growing aging population. Further, technology-savvy Baby Boomers are expected to reshape the current institutional environments toward gaining more freedom and control in their care and lives. Voices from business, academia, research, advocacy organizations, and government bodies suggest that innovative technological approaches are the linchpin that may prepare society to cope with these projected demands. In this article, we review the current state of aging-related technology, identify potential areas for efficacy testing on improving the quality of life of LTC residents in future research, and discuss barriers to implementation of LTC technology. Finally, we present a vision of future technology use that could transform current care practices. PMID:20128544

Tak, Sunghee H; Benefield, Lazelle E; Mahoney, Diane Feeney



The long-term evolution project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Long-Term Evolution Project (LTEP), realized in collaboration by the IAS-Reparto di Planetologia (Rome, Italy ) and the Astronomical Institute of SAV (Bratislava, Czechoslovakia), has been developed with the aim of giving a general insight into the dynamical evolution of short-period comets. The motion of all the known short-period comets has been investigated over a long time span (over 800 years) taking care, as far as possible, to eliminate the sources of possible discrepancies within the computations. An internally consistent data-set and an atlas of orbital evolutions are the first outputs of this project. The main characteristics of the LTEP are discussed, together with some general remarks on its importance for cometary studies, its limitations and future developments.

Carusi, A.; Perozzi, E.; Valsecchi, G. B.; Kresak, L.


Neurotoxicity testing during long-term studies.  


Several tests and methods for the investigation of neurotoxicity were performed with female Wistar rats for up to 187 days. The methods were validated by testing 10 rats treated with beta,beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) and 10 control rats. Cage side observation of the animals revealed signs of altered behavior and motor dysfunction of the IDPN-treated rats. Results of a neuromuscular screen indicated changes in gait, righting reflex, grip strength and performance of the negative geotropism test. Investigation of the animals in activity monitors and on the accelerating rotarod showed changes of several parameters. The motor nerve conduction velocity, measured 6 months after the first treatment, was reduced by 6.7 meters per second in the IDPN group compared to controls. From the results of the tests it can be concluded that the methods chosen can be used during long-term studies but may be most useful for animals not older than 12 months. PMID:2255308

Ivens, I


Long-term U. S. energy outlook  

SciTech Connect

Each year Chase Econometrics offers its clients a brief summary of the assumptions underlying the long-term energy forecast for the U.S. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they choose to compare forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Particular emphasis is placed on Scenario B, which is the mid-range reference case. As the introduction to the supplement emphasizes, the NEPP projections should not be considered a statement of the policy goals of the Reagan Administration. They represent an analysis of the possible evolution of U.S. energy markets, given current information and existing policies. The purpose of providing Scenario B as a reference case as well as Scenarios A and C as alternate cases is to show the sensitivity of oil price projections to small swings in energy demand.

Friesen, G.



Long-term monitoring for closed sites  

SciTech Connect

A procedure is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The initial task in this procedure is to collect the available information on the legal/regulatory requirements, site and area characteristics, source term, pathway analysis, and prior monitoring results. This information is coupled with parameters such as half-life and retardation factors to develop a monitoring program. As examples, programs are presented for a site that has had little or no waste migration, and for sites where waste has been moved by suface water, by ground water, and by air. Sampling techniques and practices are discussed relative to how a current program would be structured and projections are made on techniques and practices expected to be available in the future. 8 refs., 2 figs.

Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J.; Veluri, V.R.



Reducing long-term reservoir performance uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir performance is one of the key issues that have to be addressed before going ahead with the development of a geothermal field. In order to select the type and size of the power plant and design other surface installations, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the production wells and of the produced fluids, and to predict the changes over a 10--30 year period. This is not a straightforward task, as in most cases the calculations have to be made on the basis of data collected before significant fluid volumes have been extracted from the reservoir. The paper describes the methodology used in predicting the long-term performance of hydrothermal systems, as well as DOE/GTD-sponsored research aimed at reducing the uncertainties associated with these predictions. 27 refs., 1 fig.

Lippmann, M.J.



Gazprom outlines long term Soviet gas plan  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the U.S.S.R.'s Gazprom Konstern has drawn up a comprehensive, long term plan for the Soviet natural gas industry, Eastern Bloc Energy (EBE) reports. EBE is a publication of Eastern Bloc Research Ltd., Newton Kyme, England. Gazprom, responsible for more than 90% of Soviet gas production, predicts Soviet gas production will continue to increase beyond 2030 and expects the resource base ultimately will total more than 330 trillion cu m, EBE the. Soviet Central Asia will begin to decline as a major source of gas during the early years of the next century, but western Siberian production will continue to grow after 2030. The continental shelf, mainly the Barents Sea, will eventually become a very large supplier of gas, EBE reported. Gazprom the development potential of the Soviet gas industry is not constrained by geological factors, only by economic and technical problems.

Not Available



Energy medicine for long-term disabilities.  


Energy medicine techniques derive from traditional Chinese medicine and are based upon the concept that health and healing are dependent upon a balance of vital energy, a still mind, and controlled emotions. Physical dysfunctions result from disordered patterns of energy of long standing and reversal of the physical problem requires a return to balanced and ordered energy. Qi Gong (Chi Kung) is a system which teaches an individual to live in a state of energy balance. Shen Qi is a sophisticated form of Qi Gong which relies on no external physical interventions but rather relies on mind control to prevent illness, heal existing physical and emotional problems, and promote health and happiness. This paper will describe the use of these techniques with people who have long-term physical disabilities. PMID:10381239

Trieschmann, R B


Long-term dynamics of Typha populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

Grace, J. B.; Wetzel, R. G.



Nitric oxide control of steroidogenesis: Endocrine effects of N sup G -nitro-L-arginine and comparisons to alcohol  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) may regulate hormone biosynthesis and secretion. This was tested by treating male rats with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NAME), a NO synthase inhibitor, and measuring serum and testicular interstitial fluid testosterone and serum corticosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL). The effect of N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine (NA), a less-soluble form of the same NO synthase inhibitor, on the reproductive suppressant actions of alcohol was also examined. NAME increased testosterone and corticosterone secretion dose-dependently without affecting LH and PRL secretion. The alcohol-induced suppression of testosterone or LH secretion was not altered by treatment with NA. Although effects of NAME and NA on other systems may be involved, these results indicate that testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis are negatively regulated by endogenous NO and that NO does not regulate LH and PRL secretion or inhibit the testicular steroidogenic pathway in the same way as alcohol.

Adams, M.L.; Nock, B.; Truong, R.; Cicero, T.J. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))



Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with L-arginine ( L-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for L-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.

Liu, Yun; Yang, Yun; Wu, Feng



Nitric Oxide Facilitates Long-Term Potentiation, But Not Long-Term Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition prevents the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) have been controver- sial. Recent evidence suggests that NO may help to regulate the threshold for LTP induction. We have tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of stimulus frequency and train dura- tion on synaptic plasticity in the presence of either NO donors or NOS

Peter L. Malen; Paul F. Chapman



Financing Long Term Care. Selected Topics in Long Term Care. Volume 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, one in a series developed to provide technical assistance to 22 Long-Term Care Gerontology Centers, is designed to be a financial resource guide. Current major funding sources are detailed, followed by an examination of the issues and problems associated with current financing systems. Programmatic issues associated with Medicare…

Greenberg, Jay; Doth, David


Long Term Power System Dynamics. Volume II. Long-Term Power System Dynamics Simulation Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the Long-Term Dynamic Simulation program (LOTDYS) as it was developed for this project. It is both a programmer's guide and a user's guide for LOTDYS. It contains a list and description of the program variables, the program itself and...



Dehydration among Long-Term Care Elderly Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Long-term care (LTC) residents, especially the orally fed with dysphagia, are prone to dehydration. The clinical consequences of dehydration are critical. The validity of the common laboratory parameters of hydration status is far from being absolute, especially so in the elderly. However, combinations of these indices are more reliable. Objective: Assessment of hydration status among elderly LTC residents with

A. Leibovitz; Y. Baumoehl; E. Lubart; A. Yaina; N. Platinovitz; R. Segal



Early tooth loss due to cyclic neutropenia: long-term follow-up of one patient.  


In young patients with abnormal loosening of teeth and periodontal breakdown, dental professionals should consider a wide range of etiological factors/diseases, analyze differential diagnoses, and make appropriate referrals. The long-term oral and dental follow-up of a female patient diagnosed in early infancy with cyclic neutropenia is reviewed, and recommendations for care are discussed. PMID:11203896

da Fonseca, M A; Fontes, F


Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases  


... Term Control Medications Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases Long-term control medications are taken daily ... RN, MSN, CNS, AE-C (December, 2012). Related Lung Disease Information About Asthma About COPD Respiratory Treatment ...


Where Can You Receive Care? (Long-Term Care)  


... may need. Share page: Where Can You Receive Care? Most long-term care is provided at home. ... in long-term care facilities. Examples of home care services include: An unpaid caregiver who may be ...


Alzheimer's: Consider Options for Long-Term Care  


... use only. Alzheimer's: Consider options for long-term care By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ... Sign up Alzheimer's: Consider options for long-term care Eventually, most people who have Alzheimer's need outside ...


Ecological lessons from long-term studies in experimental forests ...  


Experimental forests provide places for long-term science and management ... They also provide an incredible wealth of records and knowledge of ... long-term research, methods-of-cutting studies, old-growth, ponderosa pine, spacing studies.


Long-term portal hypertension increases the vasodilator response to acetylcholine in rat aorta: role of prostaglandin I2.  


In the present study, we have analysed both the effect of long-term portal hypertension on the vasomotor response to acetylcholine in rat aorta and the mechanism involved in this response. For this purpose, sham-operated rats and rats with pre-hepatic PH (portal hypertension; triple partial portal vein ligation) were used at 21 months after surgery. The participation of NO and COX (cyclo-oxygenase) derivatives in the vasodilator response elicited by acetylcholine after incubation with L-NAME (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), indomethacin, SC-560, NS-398, tranylcypromine and furegrelate, was analysed. NO, TXB2 (thromboxane B2) and 6-keto PGF1alpha (prostaglandin F1alpha) release were measured. In addition, SNP (sodium nitroprusside), U-46619, PGI2 and forskolin vasomotor responses were analysed. COX-1 and COX-2 expression was also determined. The acetylcholine-induced vasodilating response was higher in rats with PH. TXA2 and NO release, and SNP and U-46619 sensitivity were similar in both groups. PGI2 release was not modified by portal hypertension, but vasodilator responses to this prostanoid and to forskolin were higher in rats with PH. COX-1 and COX-2 expression remained unmodified by surgery. In conclusion, increased vasodilation to acetylcholine is maintained in long-term PH. Although the participation of endothelial NO remained unmodified, the COX-2 derivative PGI2 does participate through an increased vasodilator response. PMID:19331646

Blanco-Rivero, Javier; Aller, Ma Angeles; Arias, Jaime; Ferrer, Mercedes; Balfagón, Gloria



78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1327 RIN 0985-AA08 State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program AGENCY: Administration...Older Americans Act, the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman program. This proposed rule...compliance in carrying out the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program functions. This...



Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh-environment surveyor (RHES) is a robotic platform with SCADA capabilities equipped with a sonar-imaging scanner, a high-resolution color CCD camera, and various combinations of sensors. The RHES is controlled remotely via a PC. This paper will discuss the development and application of this system. (authors)

Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso [Florida International University, Miami, Florida (United States)




SciTech Connect

Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart sensors housed in anti-fouling sensor chambers. The monitoring network is highly versatile and can be applied to a variety of subsurface sensing scenarios in different media. However, the current project focused on monitoring water quality parameters of pH, oxidation-reduction potential, conductivity, and temperature in groundwater.

Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck



Long-term Changes in Tropospheric Ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric ozone measurements from a selected network of surface and ozonesonde sites are used to give a broad geographic picture of long-term variations. The picture of long-term tropospheric ozone changes is a varied one in terms of both the sign and magnitude of trends and in the possible causes for the changes. At mid latitudes of the S.H. three time series of ~20 years in length agree in showing increases that are strongest in the austral spring (August-October). Profile measurements show this increase extending through the mid troposphere but not into the highest levels of the troposphere. In the N.H. in the Arctic a period of declining ozone in the troposphere through the 1980s into the mid 1990s has reversed and the overall change is small. The decadal-scale variations in the troposphere in this region are related in part to changes in the lowermost stratosphere. At mid latitudes in the N.H., continental Europe and Japan showed significant increases in the 1970s and 1980s. Over North America rises in the 1970s are less than those seen in Europe and Japan, suggesting significant regional differences. In all three of these mid latitude, continental regions tropospheric ozone amounts appear to have leveled off or in some cases declined in the more recent decades. Over the North Atlantic three widely separated sites show significant increases since the late 1990s that may have peaked in recent years. In the N.H. tropics both the surface record and the ozonesondes in Hawaii show a significant increase in the autumn months in the most recent decade compared to earlier periods that drives the overall increase seen in the 30 year record. This appears to be related to a shift in the transport pattern during this season with more frequent flow from higher latitudes in the latest decade. The pattern of change, with the largest increases in the N.H. coming prior to the mid 1980s, suggests that increased positive radiative forcing due to tropospheric ozone was felt most significantly in the period from the 1950s through the 1980s and has not been spread uniformly over the period since the industrial revolution.

Oltmans, S.; Lefohn, A.; Galbally, I.; Scheel, E.; Bodeker, G.; Brunke, E.; Claude, H.; Tarasick, D.; Simmonds, P.; Anlauf, K.; Schmidlin, F.; Akagi, K.; Redondas, A.



L-arginine mediated renaturation enhances yield of human, ?6 Type IV collagen non-collagenous domain from bacterial inclusion bodies.  


The anti-angiogenic, carboxy terminal non-collagenous domain (NC1) derived from human Collagen type IV alpha 6 chain, [?6(IV)NC1] or hexastatin, was earlier obtained using different recombinant methods of expression in bacterial systems. However, the effect of L-arginine mediated renaturation in enhancing the relative yields of this protein from bacterial inclusion bodies has not been evaluated. In the present study, direct stirring and on-column renaturation methods using L-arginine and different size exclusion chromatography matrices were applied for enhancing the solubility in purifying the recombinant ?6(IV)NC1 from bacterial inclusion bodies. This methodology enabled purification of higher quantities of soluble protein from inclusion bodies, which inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. Thus, the scope for L-arginine mediated renaturation in obtaining higher yields of soluble, biologically active NC1 domain from bacterial inclusion bodies was evaluated. PMID:22512648

Gunda, Venugopal; Boosani, Chandra Shekhar; Verma, Raj Kumar; Guda, Chittibabu; Sudhakar, Yakkanti Akul



Economic efficiency, IRPs and long term contracts  

SciTech Connect

There is no market failure that warrants utility regulation of the construction of new generating plants, the supply of energy efficiency or the purchase of fuel under contract. The natural monopoly problem applies to the distribution of electricity and gas, not to generation, energy conservation, or gas purchases. Utility regulation magnifies a market failure, which is the principal agent problem. Regulatory allowance of utilities signing long term fixed price contracts and undertaking conservation measures result in costs and risks being shifted to ratepayers that would not occur under competitive market conditions. Economic efficiency would be enhanced if cost of service regulation of electric and gas utilities were replaced by a competitive market process for the construction of new power plants, utility conservation programs and contracts to purchase fuel. Conservation measures could be supplied by energy service companies. Gas merchants could provide gas and energy conservation directly to ultimate customers, if they had access to LDC pipelines. With a competitive market established to sell gas and energy services, contracts and conservation measures would not require cost-of- service regulation.

Sutherland, R.J.



Secondary effluent disinfection: PAA long term efficiency.  


The paper summarizes the results of a bench-scale study to evaluate the long-term disinfection efficiency of peracetic acid (PAA). Bacterial counts were repeated 5, 24, and 29 h after the end of the disinfection test, to simulate real re-growth conditions (no residual quenching) and, for the 5 h interval, the potential re-growth (quenching of residual PAA). Fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) were enumerated by traditional plate count technique; THB were also enumerated by cytometry. After disinfection, the residual PAA concentration became negligible in about 5 to 11 h, depending on the tested doses. Microbial counts showed that no appreciable re-growth took place after 29 h for coliform group bacteria. For THB, the previously cited enumeration techniques gave different results in re-growth tests, especially for the lowest PAA doses. Indeed plate count technique evaluates the ability to form colonies, while cytometry enumerates intact membrane cells. No regrowth took place, even when no residual disinfectant was present, suggesting that bacteria are unable, even at the lowest doses, to repair damage caused by the PAA disinfecting action. PAA was found to be an efficient disinfecting agent, not only as a bacteriostatic, but also as a bactericide. PMID:16913137

Antonelli, M; Rossi, S; Mezzanotte, V; Nurizzo, C



Long term visual outcome in amblyopia treatment  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate long term visual outcome of treatment for amblyopia. Methods: In a previous study, 44 children with unilateral amblyopia caused by strabismus or anisometropia were enrolled in a prospective study investigating the results of treatment. All children were regularly examined up to at least 8 years of age and outcome was evaluated. All subjects were invited to a re-examination and in total 26 subjects attended. Two of these were excluded because of insufficient records. The final sample consists of 24 subjects. Mean follow up time was 10.4 (SD 1.9) years. Results: For the amblyopic eyes, 17% deteriorated in visual acuity, 50% were stable, and 33% gained in visual acuity. For the non-amblyopic eyes, 8% lost one line in visual acuity, 38% were stable, and 54% gained in visual acuity. No eye in any subject shifted more than 0.2 logMAR units. The increase in visual acuity for the non-amblyopic eyes was significant, while the increase for the amblyopic eyes was not. All straight eyed anisometropic amblyopes showed a distinct decrease in magnitude of anisometropia. Conclusions: Visual acuity was essentially stable in the amblyopic eyes 10 years after cessation of treatment in the studied population.

Ohlsson, J; Baumann, M; Sjostrand, J; Abrahamsson, M



Long-term potentiation: Peeling the onion.  


Since the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP), thousands of papers have been published on this phenomenon. With this massive amount of information, it is often difficult, especially for someone not directly involved in the field, not to be overwhelmed. The goal of this review is to peel away as many layers as possible, and probe the core properties of LTP. We would argue that the many dozens of proteins that have been implicated in the phenomenon are not essential, but rather modulate, often in indirect ways, the threshold and/or magnitude of LTP. What is required is NMDA receptor activation followed by CaMKII activation. The consequence of CaMKII activation is the rapid recruitment of AMPA receptors to the synapse. This recruitment is independent of AMPA receptor subunit type, but absolutely requires an adequate pool of surface receptors. An important unresolved issue is how exactly CaMKII activation leads to modifications in the PSD to allow rapid enrichment. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity'. PMID:23439383

Nicoll, Roger A; Roche, Katherine W



Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.  

PubMed Central

Forty commercial saturation divers, mean age 34.9 (range 24-49) years, were examined one to seven years after their last deep dive (190-500 metres of seawater). Four had by then lost their divers' licence because of neurological problems. Twenty seven (68%) had been selected by neurological examination and electroencephalography before the deep dives. The control group consisted of 100 men, mean age 34.0 (range 22-48) years. The divers reported significantly more symptoms from the nervous system. Concentration difficulties and paraesthesia in feet and hands were common. They had more abnormal neurological findings by neurological examination compatible with dysfunction in the lumbar spinal cord or roots. They also had a larger proportion of abnormal electroencephalograms than the controls. The neurological symptoms and findings were highly significantly correlated with exposure to deep diving (depth included), but even more significantly correlated to air and saturation diving and prevalence of decompression sickness. Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show more abnormal findings in the divers. Four (10%) divers had had episodes of cerebral dysfunction during or after the dives; two had had seizures, one had had transitory cerebral ischaemia and one had had transitory global amnesia. It is concluded that deep diving may have a long term effect on the nervous system of the divers.

Todnem, K; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Svihus, R; Rinck, P; Kambestad, B K; Riise, T; Aarli, J A



Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts  

SciTech Connect

An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs.

Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Guenther, C.D. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)



Transuranic waste: long-term planning  

SciTech Connect

Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Young, K.C.



Long-term corrosion testing plan.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)



Long-term corrosion testing pan.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)



Long-term stability of horseshoe orbits.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike Trojans, horseshoe coorbitals are not generally considered to be long-term stable (Dermott and Murray, 1981; Murray and Dermott, 1999). As the lifetime of Earth's and Venus's horseshoe coorbitals is expected to be about a Gyr, we investigated the possible contribution of late-escaping inner planet coorbitals to the lunar Late Heavy Bombardment. Contrary to analytical estimates, we do not find many horseshoe objects escaping after first 100 Myr. In order to understand this behaviour, we ran a second set of simulations featuring idealized planets on circular orbits with a range of masses. We find that horseshoe coorbitals are generally long lived (and potentially stable) for systems with primary-to-secondary mass ratios larger than about 1200. This is consistent with results of Laughlin and Chambers (2002) for equal-mass pairs or coorbital planets and the instability of Jupiter's horseshoe companions (Stacey and Connors, 2008). Horseshoe orbits at smaller mass ratios are unstable because they must approach within 5 Hill radii of the secondary. In contrast, tadpole orbits are more robust and can remain stable even when approaching within 4 Hill radii of the secondary.

Cuk, M.; Hamilton, D. P.; Holman, M. J.



Long-term stability of horseshoe orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike Trojans, horseshoe co-orbitals are not generally considered to be long-term stable. As the lifetime of Earth's and Venus's horseshoe co-orbitals is expected to be about a Gyr, we investigated the possible contribution of late-escaping inner planet co-orbitals to the lunar Late Heavy Bombardment. Contrary to analytical estimates, we do not find many horseshoe objects escaping after the first 100 Myr. In order to understand this behaviour, we ran a second set of simulations featuring idealized planets on circular orbits with a range of masses. We find that horseshoe co-orbitals are generally long lived (and potentially stable) for systems with primary-to-secondary mass ratios larger than about 1200. This is consistent with the results of Laughlin & Chambers for equal-mass pairs of co-orbital planets and the instability of Jupiter's horseshoe companions. Horseshoe orbits at smaller mass ratios are unstable because they must approach within 5 Hill radii of the secondary. In contrast, tadpole orbits are more robust and can remain stable even when approaching within 4 Hill radii of the secondary.

?uk, Matija; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Holman, Matthew J.



Long-term oxygen therapy: battling breathlessness.  


Approximately 1 million of the 1.4 million Americans (71%) receiving long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) are Medicare beneficiaries, confirming that LTOT is most often prescribed for individuals 65 years of age or older. Although several conditions create a need for supplemental oxygen, the majority of patients have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). People with healthy lungs can extract the oxygen from air, while those with damaged lungs need higher oxygen concentrations. They can supplement their oxygen using one of three options: high-pressure oxygen tanks, liquid oxygen, or oxygen concentrators. The multicenter Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial and the smaller Medical Research Council study identified LTOT as an intervention that improved survival in patients with COPD or chronic respiratory failure, approximately doubling survival at 19 months in patients who were adherent to oxygen. Despite its advantages, LTOT is plagued with problems: compliance with clinical guidelines, patient adherence, and cost. Fires associated with smoking in the vicinity of supplemental oxygen are the leading cause of residential fire deaths in the United States. PMID:23229070

Wick, Jeannette Y



A comparison of the association between glomerular filtration and L-arginine status in HIV-infected and uninfected African men: the SAfrEIC study.  


Hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease worldwide, is increasing significantly in urbanised South Africans. Impaired glomerular filtration is a potential contributor to hypertension. Although HIV infection is widespread, little is known regarding its contribution to diminished estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and, in turn, hypertension in Africans. We compared eGFRs and cardiovascular profiles of newly identified HIV infected African men (N=53) not yet undergoing anti-retroviral therapy, and uninfected African men of similar age and anthropometry. The aim of the study was to determine whether eGFR is diminished in treatment naive HIV infected individuals and whether eGFR is associated with a potential modulator of hypertension, namely serum L-arginine. Cardiovascular risk factor profiles of HIV infected and uninfected men were similar. In men with healthy eGFRs >90?ml?min(-1) per 1.73?m(2), eGFR was significantly lower with HIV infection (114 (90; 147)) compared with that in uninfected men: (120 (91; 168)), P=0.043. Despite the absence of clinically-diagnosed renal dysfunction, eGFR associated significantly with serum L-arginine only in HIV infected men (R(2)=0.277, ?=-0.299, P=0.034), whereas L-arginine did not stay in the model for uninfected men. This difference suggests that the fate of L-arginine as a substrate for nitric oxide generation may be altered in HIV infected individuals. Subsequently this is likely to escalate endothelial dysfunction, contributing to later hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Our findings show that while glomerular filtration rate is not associated with L-arginine in uninfected men, it is diminished and significantly negatively associated with serum L-arginine in HIV infected men. PMID:23448845

Glyn, M C; Van Rooyen, J M; Schutte, R; Huisman, H W; Böger, R H; Schwedhelm, E; Lüneburg, N; Mels, C M C; Schutte, A E



The metabolism of L-arginine and its significance for the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor: L-glutamine inhibits the generation of L-arginine by cultured endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism by which L-glutamine (L-Gln) inhibits the release of endothelium-derived factor from bovine aortic cultured endothelial cells was investigated. The intracellular concentration of L-arginine (L-Arg) in Arg-depleted endothelial cells was inversely related to the level of L-Gln. Removal of L-Gln from the culture medium (usually containing L-Gln at 2 mM) abolished the inhibitory effect of the culture medium on L-Arg generation. L-Gln (0.2 and 2 mM) but not D-Gln inhibited the generation of L-Arg by both Arg-depleted and nondepleted endothelial cells. L-Gln did not interfere with the uptake of L-Arg or the metabolism of L-Arg-L-Phe to L-Arg but inhibited the formation of L-Arg from L-citrulline (L-Cit), L-Cit-L-Phe, and N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine. L-Gln also inhibited the conversion of L-({sup 14}C)Cit to L-({sup 14}C)Arg by Arg-depleted endothelial cells. However, L-Gln did not inhibit the conversion of L-argininosuccinic acid to L-Arg by endothelial cell homogenates. Thus, L-Gln interferes with the conversion of L-Cit to L-Arg probably by acting on argininosuccinate synthetase rather than argininosuccinate lyase. L-Gln also inhibited the generation of L-Arg by the monocyte-macrophage cell line J774 but had no effect on the conversion of L-Cit to L-Arg by these cells. As the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor from cultured and non-cultured endothelial cells is limited by the availability of L-Arg, endogenous L-Gln may play a regulatory role in the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor.

Sessa, W.C.; Hecker, M.; Mitchell, J.A. Vane, J.R. (William Harvey Research Inst., London (England))



Long-term care coverage: the need is now.  


As the world population steadily ages, the future of America's long-term healthcare system is facing a major crisis. By the year 2050, approximately 22 percent of the United States population is expected to be over the age of 65 and more than 19 million Americans will require long-term care. Long-term care financing will be increasingly important, since nursing home care can lead to financial catastrophe. The key to preventing this catastrophe for the elderly is appropriate third-party coverage. Although more insurance companies are offering long-term care policies today, three major obstacles to the success of such insurance remain: lack of knowledge about the extent of public funding for long-term care, denial of the need for such insurance, and lack of public awareness of potential liabilities inherent in financing long-term care. Congress is supporting the development of long-term care insurance, and states are placing long-term care legislation at the top of their agendas. Tax incentives have been proposed in the form of tax-free individual retirement accounts to finance long-term care, individual medical accounts, tax credits for policyholders, and favorable tax treatment for employers who offer long-term care benefits. But only coordination of public and private financiers will ensure adequate protection for all consumers of long-term care services. PMID:10312281

Constable, J F; Wong, S A



Effect of supplementation during pregnancy with L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins in medical food on pre-eclampsia in high risk population: randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that a relative deficiency in L-arginine, the substrate for synthesis of the vasodilatory gas nitric oxide, may be associated with the development of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk. Design Randomised, blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial. Setting Tertiary public hospital in Mexico City. Participants Pregnant women with a history of a previous pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia, or pre-eclampsia in a first degree relative, and deemed to be at increased risk of recurrence of the disease were studied from week 14-32 of gestation and followed until delivery. Interventions Supplementation with a medical food—bars containing L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins, antioxidant vitamins alone, or placebo—during pregnancy. Main outcome measure Development of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Results 222 women were allocated to the placebo group, 228 received L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins, and 222 received antioxidant vitamins alone. Women had 4-8 prenatal visits while receiving the bars. The incidence of pre-eclampsia was reduced significantly (?2=19.41; P<0.001) in women randomised to L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins compared with placebo (absolute risk reduction 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.21). Antioxidant vitamins alone showed an observed benefit, but this effect was not statistically significant compared with placebo (?2=3.76; P=0.052; absolute risk reduction 0.07, 0.005 to 0.15). L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins compared with antioxidant vitamins alone resulted in a significant effect (P=0.004; absolute risk reduction 0.09, 0.05 to 0.14). Conclusions Supplementation during pregnancy with a medical food containing L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins reduced the incidence of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk of the condition. Antioxidant vitamins alone did not have a protective effect for prevention of pre-eclampsia. Supplementation with L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins needs to be evaluated in a low risk population to determine the generalisability of the protective effect, and the relative contributions of L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins to the observed effects of the combined treatment need to be determined. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00469846.



Long-term outcome in Susac syndrome.  


Susac syndrome is characterized by the clinical triad of encephalopathy, hearing loss, and retinal artery branch occlusions, mostly in young women. To our knowledge, long-term outcome and impact of pregnancy have not been specifically addressed. We report a series of 9 patients (7 female, 2 male) followed at the same institution, with special emphasis on clinical outcome including pregnancy and long-term sequelae. Clinical, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), funduscopy, retinal angiography, and audiogram data were recorded every 3-12 months. We also analyzed the 92 previously reported cases of Susac syndrome. Mean follow-up was 6.4 years. Age at onset was 30.4 years. The first symptom occurred between April and September in 7 of 9 patients in the current study, and in 68% of all patients. The complete triad at onset was clinically obvious in only 1 of 9 patients. Brain involvement was heralded by headache and symptoms of encephalopathy. Cerebrospinal fluid was abnormal in 5 patients showing pleocytosis (mean, 24.6; range, 6-85 cells/mL) and elevated protein level (mean, 210; range, 113-365 mg/dL). Over time, quantitative brain MRI analysis showed that the number of lesions diminished and did not parallel clinical flares, and MRI never normalized. At the end of follow-up, no patient had severe impairment, and all but 1 returned to work. Inner ear involvement was present at onset in 2 patients and occurred in others with a mean delay of 11 months. Initially unilateral in 3, it became bilateral in all. Mean hearing loss was 34 dB (range, 15-70 dB). Hearing loss never improved, either spontaneously or under treatment. The eye was involved at onset in 8 patients, and after 3 years in 1. All had multiple bilateral retinal artery branch occlusions and/or dye leakage with hyperfluorescence of the arterial wall on fluorescein angiography. Over time, angiography normalized in 3 patients. In others, it was still abnormal at the end of follow-up (range, 1.5-10 yr). On late findings, fluorescein leakage was more frequent than true arterial occlusion. Eye involvement was mostly asymptomatic, unilateral, peripheral, and resumed spontaneously to remit in other sites over time. Corticosteroids were efficient to treat encephalopathy, with relapses occurring when the dosage was tapered. Steroid treatment did not improve hearing loss or prevent new retinal arteriolar occlusions. Anticoagulation had a role in treating encephalopathy and retinal arteriolar occlusions. Three patients had 4 pregnancies. Two pregnancies needed induced abortion. One pregnancy was uneventful. One pregnancy was complicated with Susac disease flare in the early postpartum period. In conclusion, at the end of follow-up, most patients had returned to work and none had severe impairment. Pregnancy may affect the course of Susac syndrome, with relapse of encephalopathy postpartum. Our main finding was that the course of Susac syndrome is not self-limited as previously thought, since isolated retinal arteriolar involvement may occur as a very late manifestation. PMID:17435589

Aubart-Cohen, Fleur; Klein, Isabelle; Alexandra, Jean-François; Bodaghi, Bahram; Doan, Serge; Fardeau, Christine; Lavallée, Philippa; Piette, Jean-Charles; Hoang, Phuc Le; Papo, Thomas



Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Reactive joint complications triggered by salmonella gastroenteritis are increasingly reported, but the outcome and long term prognosis of the patients is incompletely known. This study looked at the prognosis of salmonella arthritis in patients hospitalised in 1970-1986.?METHODS—Hospital records from two hospitals in southern Finland were screened for patients with the discharge diagnosis of salmonellosis or reactive, postinfectious arthritis or Reiter's disease. For the patients with confirmed diagnosis of reactive salmonella arthritis, data about the acute disease were collected from the hospital records. A follow up study was performed.?RESULTS—There were 63 patients (28 women, 35 men, mean age 36.5 years) with salmonella arthritis. Urethritis occurred in 27%, eye inflammation in 13%, and low back pain in 44% of the patients. HLA-B27 was present in 88%. More men than women were HLA-B27 positive. HLA-B27 positive patients had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mean 80.9 v 46.5 mm 1st h, p = 0.0180). Also, extra-articular features and radiological sacroiliitis were seen only in HLA-B27 positive patients. A follow up study was performed on 50 patients mean 11.0 (range 5-22 years) later. Twenty patients had recovered completely. Ten patients had mild joint symptoms, 11 patients had had a new acute transient arthritis, and five acute iritis. Eight patients had developed chronic spondyloarthropathy. Radiological sacroiliitis was seen in six of 44 patients, more frequently in male than in female patients (32% v 0%; p = 0.0289). Recurrent or chronic arthritis, iritis or radiological sacroiliitis developed only in HLA-B27 positive patients.?CONCLUSION—Joint symptoms are common after reactive salmonella arthritis. HLA-B27 contributes to the severity of acute disease and to the late prognosis.??

Leirisalo-Repo, M; Helenius, P; Hannu, T; Lehtinen, A; Kreula, J; Taavitsainen, M; Koskimies, S



Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.  


Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones. PMID:14722779

Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G



Short- and long-term effects of ferulic acid on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  


Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is a phenolic compound contained in rice bran and other plants. The effect of ferulic acid on blood pressure (BP) was investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). After oral administration of ferulic acid (1 to 100 mg/kg) to SHR, systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. When oral ferulic acid (50 mg/kg) was administered to SHR, BP was lowest at 1 h and returned to basal levels at 6 h. There was a significant correlation between SHR plasma ferulic acid and changes in the SBP of the tail artery, suggesting that absorbed ferulic acid reduces BP. When 7-week-old SHR were given 10 and 50 mg/kg/d of ferulic acid for 6 weeks, increases in BP were significantly attenuated compared to SHR on the control diet. Intravenous injection of ferulic acid dose dependently reduced carotid arterial pressure in anesthetized SHR. Furthermore, the depressor effect of intravenous ferulic acid (1 mg/kg) was significantly attenuated by pretreatment of SHR with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 3 mg/kg, administered intravenously). These data suggest that the hypotensive effect of ferulic acid in SHR is associated with NO-mediated vasodilation. PMID:11991222

Suzuki, Atsushi; Kagawa, Daiji; Fujii, Akihiko; Ochiai, Ryuji; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Saito, Ikuo



Efficacy of ibandronate: a long term confirmation  

PubMed Central

Data deriving from randomized clinical trials, observational studies and meta-analyses, including treatment regimens unlicensed for use in clinical practice, clearly support that 150 mg once-monthly oral and 3 mg quarterly i.v. doses of ibandronate are associated with efficacy, safety and tolerability; notably both these marketed regimens, which largely correspond to ACE ?10.8 mg, may in addition provide a significant efficacy on non-vertebral and clinical fracture (Fx) efficacy. The MOBILE and the DIVA LTE studies confirmed a sustained efficacy of monthly oral and quarterly i.v. regimens respectively, over 5 years. Furthermore, improved adherence rates with monthly ibandronate, deriving from studies evaluating large prescription databases, promise to enhance fracture protection and decrease the social and economic burden of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Di Munno, Ombretta; Delle Sedie, Andrea



Extremely high damage threshold of a new nonlinear crystal L-arginine phosphate and its deuterium compound  

SciTech Connect

L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) and deuterated LAP (DLAP) are new organic nonlinear optical materials useful for higher harmonics of radiation from high-power lasers. We measured the bulk laser damage threshold of these crystals using light from a 1.05 {mu}m laser with 1 and 25 ns pulse widths and 0.53 {mu}m laser light with 0.6 and 20 ns pulse widths. In every case, these crystals show much higher thresholds than potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and fused silica. These crystals are very interesting not only as a frequency converter but also as other optical components of high-power lasers, because of their extremely high damage threshold.

Yokotani, A.; Sasaki, T.; Yoshida, K.; Nakai, S. (Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565, Japan (JP))



Effect on dyspnoea and hypoxaemia of inhaled N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in hepatopulmonary syndrome.  


Hepatopulmonary syndrome--a complication of chronic liver disease-is characterised by hypoxaemia, which results from widespread intrapulmonary vascular dilatations. Amplified production of pulmonary nitric oxide is thought to be important in development of this disorder in patients with liver cirrhosis. Here, we report a 64-year-old man with hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with hepatitis-C-virus-related cirrhosis. We gave the patient nebulised N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthesis, which enhanced oxygenation (arterial oxygen pressure increased from 6.98 to 9.45 kPa). After L-NAME, the distance the patient could walk in 6 min rose by 92 m. Administration of L-NAME by aerosol might offer a new approach to treatment of hepatopulmonary syndrome. PMID:12853200

Brussino, L; Bucca, C; Morello, M; Scappaticci, E; Mauro, M; Rolla, G



Effect of hexadimethrine bromide on plasma kinin formation, hydrolysis of p-tosyl-l-arginine methyl ester and fibrinolysis  

PubMed Central

The antiheparin agent hexadimethrine bromide, in concentrations of 20 to 200 ?g/ml., inhibited the activation by active Hageman factor of the plasma enzyme which releases kinin from substrate. Once activated, this kinin-forming enzyme was not consistently inhibited by hexadimethrine in a concentration of 1 mg/ml. Surfaces which induce kinin formation by activating Hageman factor in plasma (glass, kaolin, celite, barium carbonate and carboxymethylcellulose) were inactivated by bathing in aqueous solutions of hexadimethrine. The effects of hexadimethrine on Hageman factor and on glass were not abolished by amounts of heparin which neutralize most other actions of hexadimethrine. Hexadimethrine prevented the activation by kaolin, but not by streptokinase, of p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester-splitting and fibrinolytic factors in plasma; once these enzymes were activated by kaolin, they could not be inhibited by hexadimethrine. Hexadimethrine, given locally or intravenously into guinea-pigs, reduced the increase in capillary permeability produced by intracutaneous injections of kaolin suspensions.

Eisen, V.



Inhibition of hypoxia-induced relaxation of rabbit isolated coronary arteries by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine but not glibenclamide.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, tetrodotoxin and glibenclamide on hypoxia-induced coronary artery relaxation, induced by bubbling Krebs solution with 95% N2 and 5% CO2 instead of 95% O2 and 5% CO2, were assessed by measuring the changes in isometric tension in isolated epicardial coronary artery rings of the rabbit. In addition, the effects of glibenclamide on the relaxation induced by adenosine were investigated. 2. Hypoxia caused a transient relaxation of 38 +/- 3% (P < 0.01) and 17 +/- 2% (P < 0.01) in endothelium-intact or -denuded arteries respectively. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (30 and 100 microM) inhibited the relaxation in endothelium-intact rings to 31 +/- 2% (P < 0.05) and 16 +/- 2% (P < 0.01) respectively and slightly but significantly attenuated the relaxation in endothelium-denuded rings to 15 +/- 1% and 13 +/- 1% (P < 0.05) respectively. 3. Glibenclamide, a potassium channel inhibitor, did not significantly after the hypoxia-induced relaxation. 4. Incubation with tetrodotoxin (3 and 10 microM) for 30 min reduced the relaxation to 31 +/- 3% (P < 0.05) and 14 +/- 2% (P < 0.01), and 14 +/- 2% (P < 0.05) and 11 +/- 1% (P < 0.05) in endothelium-intact and -denuded rings respectively. However, indomethacin (10 microM), atropine (1 microM), propranolol (10 microM) and phentolamine (10 microM) did not significantly affect the relaxation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Jiang, C.; Collins, P.



Nitric oxide can acutely modulate its biosynthesis through a negative feedback mechanism on l-arginine transport in cardiac myocytes  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) plays a central role as a cellular signaling molecule in health and disease. In the heart, NO decreases the rate of spontaneous beating and the velocity and extent of shortening and accelerates the velocity of relengthening. Since the cationic amino acid l-arginine (l-Arg) is the substrate for NO production by NO synthases (NOS), we tested whether the transporters that mediate l-Arg import in cardiac muscle cells represent an intervention point in the regulation of NO synthesis. Electrical currents activated by l-Arg with low apparent affinity in whole cell voltage-clamped rat cardiomyocytes were found to be rapidly and reversibly inhibited by NO donors. Radiotracer uptake studies performed on cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles revealed the presence of high-affinity/low-capacity and low-affinity/high-capacity components of cationic amino acid transport that were inhibited by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-dl-penicillamine. NO inhibited uptake in a noncompetitive manner with Ki values of 275 and 827 nM for the high- and low-affinity component, respectively. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that millimolar concentrations of l-Arg initially promoted and then inhibited the release of endogenous NO in cardiomyocytes. Likewise, l-Arg currents measured in cardiac myocytes voltage clamped in the presence of 460 nM free intracellular Ca2+, a condition in which a Ca-CaM complex should activate endogenous NO production, showed fast activation followed by inhibition of l-Arg transport. The NOS inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, but not blockers of downstream reactions, specifically removed this inhibitory component. These results demonstrate that NO acutely regulates its own biosynthesis by modulating the availability of l-Arg via cationic amino acid transporters.

Zhou, Jiaguo; Kim, David D.



Dravet syndrome: the long-term outcome.  


Few studies focused on the long-term outcome of Dravet syndrome in adulthood are available in the literature, but all are concordant. In this article, we consider the outcomes of 24 patients followed at the Centre Saint-Paul, Marseille, up to the age of 50, and compare them to the patients reported in the literature. Five patients (20.8%) died, at a mean age of 24.8 years, one by status epilepticus, three by sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), and one of unknown cause. Epileptic seizures tend to become less frequent and less severe after childhood. Fever sensitivity (temperature variations) persists throughout the clinical course of DS, but its impact on seizure frequency and severity is milder than in infancy. Generalized convulsive seizures, mostly reported as generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), were the only seizure type observed in almost all of the patients, often with a focal onset. They are less frequent than in childhood and mostly nocturnal. Some of these major convulsive seizures have less typical aspects, for example, bilateral or asymmetric tonic posturing, followed in some cases by a tonic vibratory state or clonic movements (Oguni et al., Brain Dev 2001;23:736-748; Akiyama et al., Epilepsia 2010;51:1043-1052). Other seizures like myoclonic seizures, atypical absences, and complex partial seizures (CPS) are less common in adulthood: Among our 24 patients, only 6 had atypical absences, and one myoclonic and one complex focal seizures. Electroencephalography (EEG) also changes with age but is still multiple and heterogenous, interictally and ictally. Photosensitivity and pattern sensitivity also showed a tendency to disappear before the age of 20. Motor abnormalities are common. Cerebellar features, including ataxia, dysarthria, intention tremor, and eye movement disorder, become more prominent. Walking is markedly impaired, often due to orthopedic signs such as kyphosis, kyphoscoliosis, flat feet, or claw feet. This symptomatology was minor during childhood and worsened during and after adolescence, despite physiotherapy. Mental retardation ranged from moderate to severe, with predominance of language impairment, and some patients had a major personality disorder, labeled autistic or psychotic. Dependency in adulthood is nearly constant: Only 3 of our 24 adult patients lived independently. PMID:21463279

Genton, Pierre; Velizarova, Reana; Dravet, Charlotte



Preterm birth in rats produced by the synergistic action of a nitric oxide inhibitor (N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) and an antiprogestin (onapristone)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis would affect the action of an antiprogesterone to provoke preterm labor. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant rats were continuously infused with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester starting on day 16 of gestation. On day 17 of gestation groups of animals were injected subcutaneously with a single dose of either

Chandrasekhar Yallampalli; Irina Buhimschi; Kristof Chwalisz; Robert E. Garfield; Yuan-Lin Dong



The contribution of L-arginine to the neurotoxicity of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator following cerebral ischemia: a review of rtPA neurotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alteplase is the only drug licensed for acute ischemic stroke, and in this formulation, the thrombolytic agent recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is stabilized in a solution of L-arginine. Improved functional outcomes after alteplase administration have been shown in clinical trials, along with improved histological and behavioral measures in experimental models of embolic stroke. However, in animal models of mechanically

George W J Harston; Brad A Sutherland; James Kennedy; Alastair M Buchan



L-Arginine Does Not Improve Cortical Perfusion or Histopathological Outcome in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Subjected to Distal Middle Cerebral Artery Photothrombotic Occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of nitric oxide (NO) to influence positively or negatively the outcome of mechanically induced focal cerebral ischemia is still controversial. Recent evidence suggests that NO of vascular origin, whether synthesized from exogenously administered L-arginine (L-Arg) or from NO donor compounds, is beneficial but that of neuronal origin is not. However, the therapeutic potential of NO to ameliorate stroke

Ricardo Prado; Brant D. Watson; Weizhao Zhao; Hiroshi Yao; Raul Busto; W. Dalton Dietrich; Myron D. Ginsberg



Endotoxin-Induced L-Arginine Pathway Produces Nitric Oxide and Modulates the Ca2+Activated K+ Channel in Cultured Human Dermal Papilla Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endotoxin induces an enzyme that synthesizes nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine (NO synthase) in vascular smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts, leading to the release of NO. We evaluated the release of NO and its intracellular action on the Ca2+-activated K+ channel (Kca channel) in cultured human dermal papilla cells by use of the electron paramagnetie response (EPR) spin trapping

Yumiko Nameda; Hirokazu Miyoshi; Koichiro Tsuchiya; Yutaka Nakaya; Seiji Arase



Reduced l-Arginine Transport and Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells from Intrauterine Growth Restriction Pregnancies is Not Further Altered by Hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with chronic fetal hypoxia, altered placental vasodilatation and reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from pregnancies complicated with IUGR (IUGR cells) and in HUVEC from normal pregnancies (normal cells) cultured under hypoxia l-arginine transport is reduced; however, the mechanisms leading to this dysfunction are unknown. We

P. Casanello; B. Krause; E. Torres; V. Gallardo; M. González; C. Prieto; C. Escudero; M. Farías; L. Sobrevia



Long-term interest rates and inflation: a Fisherian approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

n recent years, Federal Reserve (Fed) policymakers have come to rely on long-term bond yields to measure the public'slong-term inflationary expectations. The long-term bond rate plays a central role in Goodfriend's (1993) narrative account of Fed behavior, 1979-1992, which links policy- related movements in the federal funds rate to changes in the yield on long-term U.S. Treasury bonds. According to

Peter N. Ireland



Long term physical sequelae after adult-onset cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  With two thirds of cancer patients living for at least 5 years, clinical research has increasingly focused on the long-term\\u000a health of cancer survivors. Contrary to the amount of knowledge on long-term consequences observations on late effects after\\u000a childhood cancer in adult-onset cancer are sparse. Only limited literature is available recommending guidelines for long-term\\u000a follow-up of cancer patients and their implementation

Sophie D. Fosså; Rena Vassilopoulou-Sellin; Alv A. Dahl



Long-term ozone monitoring from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global monitoring of ozone is important since ozone shields the biosphere from the harmful effects of solar radiation by absorbing the ultraviolet radiation below 320 nanometers (UV-B wavelength regions). By absorbing UV, visible, and infrared radiation, ozone also heats the stratosphere and affects the circulation of air masses and dynamics of the upper atmosphere. Ozone also plays an important role in the chemical cycles of the other trace gases. In the last two decades a number of sensors have been flown on satellites to monitor ozone from space. Daily global ozone maps of total column ozone were obtained from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments flown on the Nimbus-7, Meteor-3, Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) and Earth Probe (EP) satellites, and from the Global Ozone Monitoring experiment (GOME) onboard the second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2). The high quality measurements of the first TOMS instrument (flown on Nimbus-7 in 1978) played an instrumental role in the detection of a small but steady ozone decline since the early 1980s. This has led to investigation of the cause of ozone depletion in an effort to quantify how much of this could be attributed to human made processes as opposed to natural processes. The significance of this issue was underscored by the signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 restricting the production of ozone destroying chemicals. Furthermore, in September 1991, the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was launched containing a comprehensive suite of instruments designed to collectively determine the impact of chemical, dynamic and energy input processes on ozone creation and destruction. The continuity of ozone, other trace species, and solar UV measurements will be provided with the launch of the Aura spacecraft in early 2004. Standard ozone products from a series of TOMS missions, UARS sensors, Nimbus-4 Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectrometer (BUV), and Nimbus-7 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community ( Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user ( This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.

Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.


Long-term Ozone monitoring from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global monitoring of ozone is important since ozone shields the biosphere from the harmful effects of solar radiation by absorbing the ultraviolet radiation below 320 nanometers (UV-B wavelength regions). By absorbing UV, visible, and infrared radiation, ozone also heats the stratosphere and affects the circulation of air masses and dynamics of the upper atmosphere. Ozone also plays an important role in the chemical cycles of the other trace gases. In the last two decades a number of sensors have been flown on satellites to monitor ozone from space. Daily global ozone maps of total column ozone were obtained from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments flown on the Nimbus-7, Meteor-3, Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) and Earth Probe (EP) satellites, and from the Global Ozone Monitoring experiment (GOME) onboard the second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2). The high quality measurements of the first TOMS instrument (flown on Nimbus-7 in 1978) played an instrumental role in the detection of a small but steady ozone decline since the early 1980s. This has led to investigation of the cause of ozone depletion in an effort to quantify how much of this could be attributed to human made processes as opposed to natural processes. The significance of this issue was underscored by the signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 restricting the production of ozone destroying chemicals. Furthermore, in September 1991, the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was launched containing a comprehensive suite of instruments designed to collectively determine the impact of chemical, dynamic and energy input processes on ozone creation and destruction. The continuity of ozone, other trace species, and solar UV measurements will be provided with the launch of the Aura spacecraft in early 2004. Standard ozone products from a series of TOMS missions, UARS sensors, Nimbus-4 Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectrometer (BUV), and Nimbus-7 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community ( Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user ( This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.

Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.



PubMed Central

Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that viral administration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (AdGDNF), one week prior to a controlled cortical impact (CCI) over the forelimb sensorimotor cortex of the rat (FL-SMC) is neuroprotective, but does not significantly enhance recovery of sensorimotor function. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that although protected, neurons may not have been functional due to enduring metabolic deficiencies. Additionally, metabolic events following TBI may interfere with expression of therapeutic proteins administered to the injured brain via gene therapy. The current study focused on enhancing the metabolic function of the brain by increasing cerebral blood flow (CBF) with L-arginine in conjunction with administration of AdGDNF immediately following CCI. An adenoviral vector harboring human GDNF was injected unilaterally into FL-SMC of the rat immediately following a unilateral CCI over the FL-SMC. Within 30 min of the CCI and AdGDNF injections, some animals were injected with L-arginine (i.v.). Tests of forelimb function and asymmetry were administered for 4 weeks post-injury. Animals were sacrificed and contusion size and GDNF protein expression measured. This study demonstrated that rats treated with AdGDNF and L-arginine post-CCI had a significantly smaller contusion than injured rats who did not receive any treatment, or injured rats treated with either AdGDNF or L-arginine alone. Nevertheless, no amelioration of behavioral deficits was seen. These findings suggest that AdGDNF alone following a CCI was not therapeutic and although combining it with L-arginine decreased contusion size, it did not enhance behavioral recovery.

DeGeorge, M.L.; Marlowe, D.; Werner, E.; Soderstrom, K.E.; Stock, M.; Mueller, A.; Bohn, M.C.; Kozlowski, D.A.



Amino Acid Transport and Metabolism in Mycobacteria: Cloning, Interruption, and Characterization of an l-Arginine/?-Aminobutyric Acid Permease in Mycobacterium bovis BCG  

PubMed Central

Genes encoding l-arginine biosynthetic and transport proteins have been shown in a number of pathogenic organisms to be important for metabolism within the host. In this study we describe the cloning of a gene (Rv0522) encoding an amino acid transporter from Mycobacterium bovis BCG and the effects of its deletion on l-arginine transport and metabolism. The Rv0522 gene of BCG was cloned from a cosmid library by using primers homologous to the rocE gene of Bacillus subtilis, a putative arginine transporter. A deletion mutant strain was constructed by homologous recombination with the Rv0522 gene interrupted by a selectable marker. The mutant strain was complemented with the wild-type gene in single copy. Transport analysis of these strains was conducted using 14C-labeled substrates. Greatly reduced uptake of l-arginine and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) but not of lysine, ornithine, proline, or alanine was observed in the mutant strain compared to the wild type, grown in Middlebrook 7H9 medium. However, when the strains were starved for 24 h or incubated in a minimal salts medium containing 20 mM arginine (in which even the parent strain does not grow), l-[14C]arginine uptake by the mutant but not the wild-type strain increased strongly. Exogenous l-arginine but not GABA, lysine, ornithine, or alanine was shown to be toxic at concentrations of 20 mM and above to wild-type cells growing in optimal carbon and nitrogen sources such as glycerol and ammonium. l-Arginine supplied in the form of dipeptides showed no toxicity at concentrations as high as 30 mM. Finally, the permease mutant strain showed no defect in survival in unactivated cultured murine macrophages compared with wild-type BCG.

Seth, Anjali; Connell, Nancy D.



Fusion energy in context: its fitness for the long term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term limits to growth in energy will be imposed not by inability to expand supply, but by the rising environmental and social costs of doing so. These costs will therefore be cental issues in choosing long-term options. Fusion, like solar energy, is not one possibility but many, some with very attractive environmental characteristics and others perhaps little better in these

J. P. Holdren



Day Care as a Long-Term Care Service Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Day care is a growing service in the field of long-term care, increasing the options available to the impaired elderly. To study the development of adult day care centers in southeastern New England, and to identify the relationship of day care centers to the long term care network of services, the 11 day care centers in the catchment area of the…

Zaki, Gamel; Zaki, Sylvia


Long-Term Retention of Electronic Theses and Dissertations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the increasing trend of universities to pursue electronic thesis and dissertation (ETD) programs. Although the goal of most programs is similar, procedural variations impact a program's long-term success. As primary research generators, responsibility for providing long-term access to unique materials must be borne by universities.…

Teper, Thomas H.; Kraemer, Beth



[Developing the core competencies of long-term care professionals].  


Longer average life expectancies and an ageing society have made long-term care an urgent and important issue in Taiwan. Although the implementation of Long-Term Care Ten-year Project four years ago has begun showing success in terms of assessing Taiwan's needs in terms of long-term care services and resources, there has been little forward progress in terms of training, recruiting and maintaining more competent professionals in the long-term care sector. This paper explores the current state of long-term care competency in Taiwan and educational strategies in place to improve the competency of long-term care professionals. Results indicate that the term geriatric competency embraces sub-competencies in direct care, communication, assessment, teamwork, cultural sensitivities and career care competencies. The term long-term care competency embraces the sub-competencies of supervision, management, information technology, resource management, and organizational skill. As a main contributor to effective long-term care, the nursing profession must employ effective strategies to develop competency-based education. Also, the profession must have an adequate supply of competent manpower to effectively respond to Taiwan's aging society. PMID:23212250

Chen, Huey-Tzy; Lee, Kuang-Ting



Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term research can guide agricultural development by identifying the effects of management practices on agronomic performance and soil quality. Long-term experiments on crop rotation, tillage, residue management and fertilization were initiated at the Pendleton Experiment Station in 1931. Whea...


Federal Government's Long-Term Fiscal Outlook, Spring 2013 Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1992, GAO has published long-term fiscal simulations showing federal deficits and debt under different sets of policy assumptions. GAO developed its long-term model in response to a bipartisan request from members of Congress concerned about the lon...



Long-Term Memory, Neurogenesis, and Signal Novelty  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to our suggested hypothesis, long-term memory is a collection of “gnostic units,” selectively tuned to past events. The formation of long-term memory occurs with the involvement of constantly appearing new neurons which differentiate from stem cells during the process of neurogenesis, in particular in adults. Conversion of precursor neurons into “gnostic units” selective in relation to ongoing events, supplemented

E. N. Sokolov; N. I. Nezlina




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term cropping systems research provides critical information to producers regarding the sustainability of management practices. Fixed cropping sequences in long-term cropping systems research, while useful from the standpoint of understanding specific crop rotation effects on agronomic and env...


Influenza vaccination in Alberta long-term care facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization recom- mends that both staff and residents of long-term care facilities be vaccinated against influenza. This paper describes the influenza vaccination policies and programs, as well as vaccination rates, for staff and residents of long-term care institutions in Alberta. Such data have not previously been reported. Methods: Data were collected by means of

Margaret L. Russell



Monitoring the performance of timber bridges over the long term  


Source: Proceedings of the 2007 Mid-Continent Transportation Research ... Description: Timber bridges are often viewed by engineers as less durable than steel or concrete ... Knowledge of their long-term performance characteristics will allow ... This paper will discuss long-term data collection goals, overview current work, ...


Ethics committees in long-term care facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomedical ethical dilemmas occur in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), particularly in the absence of residents' advance directives. Ethics committees are required in hospitals and long-term care facilities accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), but many LTCFs do not have JCAHO accreditation. A survey of LTCFs in one county in a Southwestern state found that only

Mildred O. Hogstel; Linda C. Curry; Charles A. Walker; Paulette G. Burns



Private Financing of Long-Term Care for the Elderly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report focuses on private financing strategies to supplement government funding of long-term care for the elderly. It describes the characteristics of elderly people who need long-term care and how these characteristics will change as the population a...



Key Issues in Long Term Care - A Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The progress report identifying key issues in long term care was presented by the Long Term Care Committee for discussion at the December 1979 Council meeting. The report includes a history of the process leading to the identification of key issues, a def...



The Long Term Biological Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term psychiatric and psychological outcome of the anorexia nervosa (AN) has been well described. Less is known about the long-term physiological effects of the illness and this article reviews the findings to date. Having a history of AN does not appear to increase the risk of infertility, but may increase the risk of birth complications and of having a

Kelly A Gendall; Cynthia M Bulik



Broad Band Long Term Monitoring of X-Ray Bursters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have analysed the BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) long term monitoring data of X-ray bursters. We generated the long-term light-curves of several X-ray bursters and studied their spectral evolution and compared them with black hole X-ray ...

S. N. Zhang



Storability Investigations of Water, Long-Term Storage Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to gather data that will permit the Air Force to assess the long term storage characteristics of water particularly with regard to formation of particulate matter, so that the feasibility of long-term storage of water for ...

E. M. Vander Wall G. R. Janser



Visualizing Long-Term Patterns of Water Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term patterns in river water temperature are relevant to questions pertaining to fish welfare and hydroelectric dam operations. Yet, in fish biology and watershed hydrology, the typical ways in which river water temperature data are displayed do not readily and easily show the long-term patterns in the data. We use different styles of displaying such data so that changes of

Ronald N. Kickert; Dennis D. Dauble



Infrastructuring for the Long-Term: Ecological Information Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper foregrounds the long-term perspective and the role of information management in creating infrastructure to support collaborative ecological research. The case study of the Long-Term Ecological Research Network is an ongoing research collaboration that integrates ethno- graphic and action research approaches. We describe three interdependent elements of science, data and tech- nology for which information management provides sup- port,

Helena Karasti; Karen S. Baker



Long Term Outcome of Severe Anaemia in Malawian Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSevere anaemia is a common, frequently fatal, condition in African children admitted to hospital, but its long term outcome is unknown. Early reports that survivors may be at risk of additional late morbidity and mortality may have significant implications for child survival in Africa. We assessed the short and long term outcome of severe anaemia in Malawian children and identified

Kamija S. Phiri; Job C. J. Calis; Brian Faragher; Ernest Nkhoma; Kondwani Ng'oma; Bridget Mangochi; Malcolm E. Molyneux; Michaël Boele van Hensbroek; Erik von Elm



Tolerability and Efficacy of Almotriptan in the Long-Term Treatment of Migraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Almotriptan is a highly specific 5-HT1B\\/1D receptor agonist, which acts selectively on blood vessels of the brain. Short-term studies have demonstrated that almotriptan provides rapid, effective and reliable relief of migraine attacks, while offering excellent tolerability. Purpose: To assess the long-term tolerability and efficacy of oral almotriptan 12.5 mg administered for every migraine attack over a 1-year period. Methods:

J. Pascual; R. Falk; R. Docekal; A. Prusinski; J. Jelencsik; X. Cabarrocas; X. Segarra; X. Luria; P. Ferrer



Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Maintains Long-Term Normocalcemia in Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcimimetics increase the sensitivity of parathyroid calci- um-sensingreceptorstoextracellularcalcium,therebyreduc- ing PTH secretion. This multicenter, randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the ability of the oral calcimimetic cinacalcet HCl to achieve long-term reductions in serum calcium and PTH concentrations in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Patients (n 78) were randomized to cinacalcet or placebo. Cinacalcet was titrated from 30-50 mg twice daily

Munro Peacock; John P. Bilezikian; Preston S. Klassen; Matthew D. Guo; Stewart A. Turner; Dolores Shoback


Long-Term Administration of Green Tea Catechins Improves Spatial Cognition Learning Ability in Rats1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green tea catechins confer potent biological properties including antioxidation and free-radical scavenging. We investigated the effect of long-term oral administration of green tea catechins (PolyphenonR E, PE: EGCG 63%; EC 11%; EGC 6%; ECG 6%) mixed with water on the spatial cognition learning ability of young rats. The learning ability of rats administered PE (0%, 0.1%, 0.5%) for 26 wk

Abdul M. Haque; Michio Hashimoto; Masanori Katakura; Yoko Tanabe; Yukihiko Hara; Osamu Shido


Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance  

SciTech Connect

Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

Kristofferson, Keith



National Long-term Care Channeling Demonstration. Community Services and Long-term Care: Issues of Negligence and Liability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Channeling agencies operating under the National Long-Term Care Channeling Demonstration Program had complex assignments to assess the needs of older people requiring long-term care, to determine what services met such needs and to arrange for the deliver...

E. S. Cohen L. S. Staroscik



Abstracts 1987. New Horizons in Long Term Care: A Report on the Long Term Care Research and Demonstration Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet provides a description of 14 projects which were awarded funds during fiscal year 1987 for collaborative research in long-term care to find new ways to treat long-term care patients in Illinois nursing homes. It includes the organization or institution receiving the award, an abstract of the research proposal, and the name of the…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Aid, Springfield.


Prolonged treatment with N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine restores gonadal function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.  


Nitric oxide (NO) plays a wide spectrum of biological actions including a positive role in oocyte maturation and ovulation. Free radicals levels have been shown elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and therefore would be responsible for quenching NO that, in turn, would play a role in determining oligo- or amenorrhea connoting PCOS. Eight patients with PCOS displaying oligo-amenorrhea from at least 1 yr underwent a combined treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (1200 mg/die) plus L-arginine (ARG) (1600 mg/die) for 6 months. Menstrual function, glucose and insulin levels, and, in turn, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index were monitored. Menstrual function was at some extent restored as indicated by the number of uterine bleedings under treatment (3.00, 0.18-5.83 vs 0.00, 0.00-0.83; p<0.02). Also, a well-defined biphasic pattern in the basal body temperature suggested ovulatory cycles. The HOMA index decreased under treatment (2.12, 1.46-4.42 vs 3.48, 1.62-5.95; p<0.05). In conclusion, this preliminary, open study suggests that prolonged treatment with NAC+ARG might restore gonadal function in PCOS. This effect seems associated to an improvement in insulin sensitivity. PMID:19494711

Masha, A; Manieri, C; Dinatale, S; Bruno, G A; Ghigo, E; Martina, V



Role of N-Nitro-L-Arginine-Methylester as anti-oxidant in transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Previous reports assessing the neuroprotective role of nonselective Nitric Oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME) following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion are contradictory. The aim of this work was to examine the potential benefits of L-NAME on rats subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Methods The study involved 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups 10 rats in each: First group was sham-operated and served as a control, a ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group of rats infused with 0.9% normal saline intraperitoneally 15?minutes prior to 30?minutes of left common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion and a test group infused with L-NAME intraperitoneally 15?minutes prior to ischemia. Neurobehavioral assessments were evaluated and quantitative assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in both serum and the affected cerebral hemisphere were achieved. Results Rats’ neurological deficit and TAC were significantly decreased while NO and MDA were significantly increased in the I/R compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Alternatively in the L-NAME group, neurological deficit and TAC were significantly improved while NO and MDA were significantly decreased compared to I/R group (P < 0.001). Conclusions L-NAME pretreatment for rats undergoing cerebral ischemia/reperfusion significantly improves neurological deficit while reducing oxidative stress biomarkers in the affected cerebral hemisphere.



L-Arginine and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Are Early Predictors for Survival in Septic Patients with Acute Liver Failure  

PubMed Central

Dysfunctions of the L-arginine (L-arg)/nitric-oxide (NO) pathway are suspected to be important for the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in septic shock. Therefore plasma concentrations of L-arg and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were measured in 60 patients with septic shock, 30 surgical patients and 30 healthy volunteers using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Plasma samples from patients with septic shock were collected at sepsis onset, and 24?h, 4?d, 7?d, 14?d and 28?d later. Samples from surgical patients were collected prior to surgery, immediately after the end of the surgical procedure as well as 24?h later and from healthy volunteers once. In comparison to healthy volunteers and surgical patients, individuals with septic shock showed significantly increased levels of ADMA, as well as a decrease in the ratio of L-arg and ADMA at all timepoints. In septic patients with an acute liver failure (ALF), plasma levels of ADMA and L-arg were significantly increased in comparison to septic patients with an intact hepatic function. In summary it can be stated, that bioavailability of NO is reduced in septic shock. Moreover, measurements of ADMA and L-arg appear to be early predictors for survival in patients with sepsis-associated ALF.

Brenner, Thorsten; Fleming, Thomas H.; Rosenhagen, Claudia; Krauser, Ute; Mieth, Markus; Bruckner, Thomas; Martin, Eike; Nawroth, Peter P.; Weigand, Markus A.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Hofer, Stefan



Detrimental effects of Bartonella henselae are counteracted by l-arginine and nitric oxide in human endothelial progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

The recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might have a beneficial effect on the clinical course of several diseases. Endothelial damage and detachment of endothelial cells are known to occur in infection, tissue ischemia, and sepsis. These detrimental effects in EPCs are unknown. Here we elucidated whether human EPCs internalize Bartonella henselae constituting a circulating niche of the pathogen. B. henselae invades EPCs as shown by gentamicin protection assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dil-Ac-LDL/lectin double immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of EPCs revealed EPC bioactivity after infection with B. henselae. Nitric oxide (NO) and its precursor l-arginine (l-arg) exert a plethora of beneficial effects on vascular function and modulation of immune response. Therefore, we tested also the hypothesis that l-arg (1–30 mM) would affect the infection of B. henselae or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in EPCs. Our data provide evidence that l-arg counteracts detrimental effects induced by TNF or Bartonella infections via NO (confirmed by DETA-NO and L-NMMA experiments) and by modulation of p38 kinase phosphorylation. Microarray analysis indicated several genes involved in immune response were differentially expressed in Bartonella-infected EPCs, whereas these genes returned in steady state when cells were exposed to sustained doses of l-arg. This mechanism may have broad therapeutic applications in tissue ischemia, angiogenesis, immune response, and sepsis.

Salvatore, Paola; Casamassimi, Amelia; Sommese, Linda; Fiorito, Carmela; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Rossiello, Raffaele; Avallone, Bice; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Costa, Valerio; Rienzo, Monica; Colicchio, Roberta; Williams-Ignarro, Sharon; Pagliarulo, Caterina; Prudente, Maria Evelina; Abbondanza, Ciro; Lamberti, Florentia; Baroni, Adone; Buommino, Elisabetta; Farzati, Bartolomeo; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Ignarro, Louis Joseph; Napoli, Claudio



Ibandronate increases cortical bone density in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus on long-term glucocorticoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The purpose of this research is to assess the effects of oral ibandronate on bone microarchitecture by using high-resolution\\u000a peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) taking a long-term\\u000a glucocorticoid.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this double-blind placebo-controlled study, 40 Chinese female SLE patients taking prednisolone were randomly assigned to\\u000a receive either monthly oral ibandronate (150 mg) or placebo

Edmund K Li; Tracy Y Zhu; Vivian Y Hung; Anthony W Kwok; Vivian W Lee; Kenneth K Lee; James F Griffith; Martin Li; Kong Chiu Wong; Ping Chung Leung; Ling Qin; Lai Shan Tam



Long-term Outcome of Lung Transplantation in Previous Intravenous Drug Users With Talc Lung Granulomatosis.  


Talc lung granulomatosis results from the intravenous use of medication intended for oral use. Talc (magnesium silicate) acts as filler in some oral medications; when injected intravenously, it deposits in the lungs leading to airflow obstruction and impaired gas exchange. Allocation of donor lungs to previous intravenous drug users is controversial. After a careful selection process, 19 patients with talc lung granulomatosis have received lung allografts inour program. Long-term survival for these patients is excellent and our results suggest the previous use of intravenous drugs should not necessarily preclude lung transplantation. PMID:23473657

Weinkauf, J G; Puttagunta, L; Nador, R; Jackson, K; Labranche, K; Kapasi, A; Mullen, J; Modry, D L; Stewart, K C; Thakrar, M; Doucette, K; Lien, D C



Long-term creep of copper at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Presents preliminary data on the long-term creep behavior of oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper at 77K through a facility especially designed for long-term stability at cryogenic temperatures of both temperature and strain measurement. Uses a constant load lever arm creep machine, a vacuum thermally isolated cryostat that is cooled by a low rate of cryogen flow, and a tensile testing insert to transmit the load onto the specimen. Concludes that long-term creep testing (about 100 hrs) is necessary to study creep behavior of materials at very low temperatures.

Yen, C.T.; Roth, L.D.; Tien, J.K.; Wells, J.M.



Long-term functional outcomes in children with Currarino syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The aim of the study was to review the degree to which the long-term outcome and ongoing morbidity in Currarino syndrome (CS)\\u000a has been established.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Analysis of previously published reports that have included long-term outcome data in CS and review of five additional patients\\u000a with CS.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Overall, long-term outcomes of children born with CS are not well described. Malignancy has

Atsushi Yoshida; Kiki Maoate; Russell Blakelock; Stephen Robertson; Spencer Beasley



The metabolism of L-arginine and its significance for the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor: cultured endothelial cells recycle L-citrulline to L-arginine.  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the mechanism by which cultured endothelial cells generate L-arginine (L-Arg), the substrate for the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. When Arg-depleted endothelial cells were incubated in Krebs' solution for 60 min, L-Arg levels were significantly (9.7-fold) elevated. The generation of L-Arg coincided with a substantial decrease (90%) in intracellular L-glutamine (L-Gln), whereas all other amino acids were virtually unaffected. Changes in calcium, pH, or oxygen tension had no effect on L-Arg generation, which was, however, prevented when the cells were incubated in culture medium containing L-Gln. L-Arg generated by endothelial cells labeled with L-[14C]Arg was derived from an unlabeled intracellular source, for the specific activity of the intracellular L-Arg pool decreased substantially (8.8-fold) over 60 min. Arg-depleted endothelial cells did not form urea or metabolize L-ornithine but converted L-citrulline (L-Cit) to L-Arg possibly via formation of L-argininosuccinic acid. Nondepleted cells stimulated with the calcium ionophore A23187 showed only a transient accumulation of L-Cit, indicating that L-Cit is recycled to L-Arg during the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. The generation of L-Arg by Arg-depleted endothelial cells was partially (45%) blocked by protease inhibitors, and various Arg-containing dipeptides were rapidly cleaved to yield L-Arg. Thus, cultured endothelial cells recycle L-Cit to L-Arg and possibly liberate peptidyl L-Arg. The Arg-Cit cycle appears to be the equivalent in the endothelial cell to the formation of urea by the liver. The biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor may, therefore, not only produce a powerful vasodilator but also relieve the endothelial cell of excess nitrogen.

Hecker, M; Sessa, W C; Harris, H J; Anggard, E E; Vane, J R



Ni(2+), a double-acting inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase interfering with L-arginine binding and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent enzyme activation.  


Ni(2+), a toxic and carcinogenic pollutant and one of the leading causes of contact dermatitis, is shown to inhibit neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in a competitive, reversible manner with respect to the substrate l-arginine (K(i) = 30 +/- 4 microM). The IC(50) values were dependent on calmodulin (CaM) concentration, but proved independent of Ca(2+), tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and other essential cofactors. Ni(2+) also inhibited CaM-dependent cytochrome c reduction, NADPH oxidation, and H(2)O(2) production by nNOS. Overall, the action profile of Ni(2+) was suggestive of an unusual, double-acting inhibitor of nNOS affecting l-arginine-binding and Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent enzyme activation. PMID:11437384

Palumbo, A; Astarita, G; Picardo, M; d'Ischia, M



Long-term follow-up of patients with adult-onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.  


Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare infectious central nervous system disease with a poor prognosis. Nineteen patients, 18 males and one female, ranging in age from 18 to 22, mean 19.6+/-1.5 years with SSPE were evaluated. We treated 9 patients with oral isoprinosine and 10 patients with alpha-interferon plus oral isoprinosine and followed up for 16 to 160 months. Of the 9 patients treated with oral isoprinosine, 7 (77.7%) died, one stabilized, and one showed progression. Seven (70%) of 10 patients treated with alpha-interferon plus oral isoprinosine died, one showed progression, and stabilization was observed in two patients. Thus, we suggest that isoprinosine alone or in combination with intraventricular interferon did not change the prognosis in long-term follow-up periods. PMID:18783800

Eroglu, Erdal; Gokcil, Zeki; Bek, Semai; Ulas, Umit H; Ozdag, Mehmet F; Odabasi, Zeki



Oral citrulline as arginine precursor may be beneficial in sickle cell disease: early phase two results.  

PubMed Central

L-Arginine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, particularly as required substrate in the arginine-nitric oxide pathway for endogenous nitrovasodilation and vasoprotection. Vasoprotection by arginine is mediated partly by nitric oxide-induced inhibition of endothelial damage and inhibition of adhesion and activation of leukocytes. Activated leukocytes may trigger many of the complications, including vasoocclusive events and intimal hyperplasias. High blood leukocyte counts during steady states in the absence of infection are significant laboratory risk factors for adverse complications. L-Citrulline as precursor amino acid was given orally twice daily in daily doses of approximately 0.1 g/kg in a pilot Phase II clinical trial during steady states in four homozygous sickle cell disease subjects and one sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease patient (ages 10-18). There soon resulted dramatic improvements in symptoms of well-being, raised plasma arginine levels, and reductions in high total leukocyte and high segmented neutrophil counts toward or to within normal limits. Continued L-citrulline supplementation in compliant subjects continued to lessen symptomatology, to maintain plasma arginine concentrations greater than control levels, and to maintain nearly normal total leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Side effects or toxicity from citrulline were not experienced. Oral L-citrulline may portend very useful for palliative therapy in sickle cell disease. Placebo-controlled, long-term trials are now indicated.

Waugh, W. H.; Daeschner, C. W.; Files, B. A.; McConnell, M. E.; Strandjord, S. E.



A new approach in the treatment of hypotension in human septic shock by N G -monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthetase  

Microsoft Academic Search

NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) is an inhibitor of the enzyme nitric-oxide-synthetase. Nitric oxide (NO), produced by endothelial and vascular cells regulates physiological vascular tone, blood pressure and tissue perfusion via guanylate-cyclase and cGMP. In an advanced stage of therapy resistant septic shock in response to inflammatory mediators, NO is overproduced. This leads to vasodilatation, a fall in systemic blood pressure and an

J. Schilling; M. Cakmakci; U. Bättig; S. Geroulanos



Down-Regulation of Spontaneous Epstein–Barr Virus Reactivation in the P3HR1 Cell Line by l-Arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) reactivation is controlled in part by nitric oxide (NO) generated from l-arginine (Arg). The spontaneous reactivation of EBV in the Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cell line P3HR-1 was inhibited when the cells were cultured in L-Arg-supplemented medium. The expression of EBV early antigen (EA), immediate-early BZLF1 mRNA and the protein ZEBRA,

Hideyuki Agawa; Kazufumi Ikuta; Yukiko Minamiyama; Masayasu Inoue; Takeshi Sairenji



Substantial regional and hemispheric differences in brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition following intracerebroventricular administration of N ? -nitro- l-arginine (LNA) and its methyl ester (LNAME)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme activity was determined in a comprehensive selection of regions of the rat brain. The effects of lateral ventricular administration of N?-4-nitro-l-arginine (L-NA, 30 ?g) and its methyl ester (L-NAME, 3–100 ?g) on NOS activity were examined in the ipsilateral and contralateral areas of 4 of these brain regions and in the cerebellum. NOS activity was

M. Salter; C. Duffy; J. Garthwaite; P. J. L. M. Strijbos



Involvement of NMDA receptors and l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the antidepressant-like effects of zinc in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the involvement of NMDA receptors and the l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the antidepressant-like effects of zinc in the forced swimming test (FST). The immobility times in the FST and in the tail suspension test (TST) were reduced by zinc chloride (ZnCl2, 30 and 10–30mg\\/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.), respectively). The doses active in the FST and TST reduced

Angelo Oscar Rosa; Jaime Lin; João Batista Calixto; Adair Roberto S. Santos; Ana Lúcia S. Rodrigues



Endothelium-Dependent and Independent Perfusion Reserve and the Effect of L-arginine on Myocardial Perfusion in Patients With Syndrome X  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Impaired vasodilatation capacity in patients with angina pectoris and a normal coronary arteriogram (syndrome X (SX)) has been reported. Most studies report on the response in epicardial vessels. This does not necessarily reflect compromised myocardial microcirculation. Lack of the NO precursor L-arginine has been suggested as a possible cause. Methods and Results—Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured, using PET, at

Morten Bøttcher; Hans Erik; Helle Sonne; Torsten Toftegaard Nielsen; Johannes Czernin


Na +-dependent and Na +-independent transport of l-arginine and l-alanine across dog intestinal brush border membrane vesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prepared intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from beagle dogs fed a commercial diet (protein content: 24–26%), and investigated the characteristics of transport for basic and neutral amino acids across the intestinal BBMVs. To determined the kinetic parameters for l-arginine and l-alanine uptake, their total uptake was resolved into three routes: (1) Na+-dependent carrier-mediated transport; (2) Na+-independent carrier-mediated transport;

Takahiro Hatanaka; Yoshiaki Nabuchi; Hidetoshi Ushio



The Effects of L-Arginine on Neurological Function, Histopathology, and Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor1 Alpha following Spinal Cord Ischemia in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L-arginine (L-Arg) on neurological function, histopathology, and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) following spinal cord ischemia in rats, and the interaction between therapy with the nitric oxide donor L-Arg and up-regulation of the expression of HIF-1?. Thirty Wistar rats weighing between 200 and 250 g were divided into

M. Cudi Tuncer; E. Savas Hatipoglu; H. Ozturk; P. Kervancioglu; H. Buyukbayram



L-Arginine transport is augmented through up-regulation of tubular CAT2 mRNA in ischemic acute renal failure in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-Arginine transport is augmented through up-regulation of tubular CAT-2 mRNA in ischemic acute renal failure in rats.BackgroundIschemic acute renal failure (iARF) is associated with increased nitric oxide (NO) production during the reperfusion period, as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is maximally activated, and renal tubular inducible NOS (iNOS) is stimulated. Increased NO production leads to augmented tubular injury, probably through

Idit F Schwartz; Doron Schwartz; Marina Traskonov; Tamara Chernichovsky; Yoram Wollman; Ehud Gnessin; Ian Topilsky; Yoram Levo; Adrian Iaina



Return to the Community of Long Term Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 1967-1971 study discovered better adjustment in long-term psychiatric patients when placed in a high expectation halfway house rather than the usual, more limited, low expectation services. The high expectation program provided patient autonomy and stru...

H. R. Lamb V. Goertzel



Psychophysiological Correlates of Long-Term Attention to Complex Tasks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ongoing investigation of the psychophysiological nature of attention is described. Problems associated with the measurement of long-term human attention to complex tasks are discussed. A multivariate, hierarchical regression approach is described for t...

J. C. Miller N. Y. Takamoto G. M. Bartel M. D. Brown




Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines the impact of preschool malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects - instrumental variables (MFE - IV) estimator with a long - term panel data set Representations of civil war and drought \\

Harold Alderman; John Hoddinott; Bill Kinsey



Long Term Dissolution Testing of Mine Waste: Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains the appendices for the long term laboratory studies to examine the dissolution of abandoned mine wastes and the consequent drainage quality. Appendices include solid phase characterization, wet-dry cycle test, elevated temperature t...

K. Lapakko J. Wessels D. Antonson



Panel: Long-Term Consequences and Prospects for Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The validity of projected impacts of nuclear war on global climate is examined. The writer speculates on the long-term consequences and the prospects for recovery of major ecosystems. 18 refs., 8 figs. (ERA citation 11:009716)

L. R. Anspaugh



Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi variants in long-term carriers.  


Long-term typhoid carriers can simultaneously excrete Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi variants with considerable genetic differences, a situation that complicates the interpretation of the subtyping data used in outbreak investigations and disease surveillance. PMID:23241373

Chiou, Chien-Shun; Wei, Hsiao-Lun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Liao, Ying-Shu; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Tsao, Chi-Sen; Wang, Shu-Chuan