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Safety of long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine in pigs.  


This study was conducted with a swine model to determine the safety of long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine-HCl or L-arginine free base. Beginning at 30 days of age, pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet (31.5 g/kg body weight/day) supplemented with 0, 1.21, 1.81 or 2.42 % L-arginine-HCl (Experiment 1) or with 0, 1, 1.5 or 2 % L-arginine (Experiment 2). The supplemental doses of 0, 1, 1.5, and 2 % L-arginine provided pigs with 0, 315, 473, and 630 mg L-arginine/kg body weight/day, respectively, which were equivalent to 0, 286, 430, and 573 mg L-arginine/kg body weight/day, respectively, in humans. At 121 days of age (91 days after initiation of supplementation), blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein of pigs at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine increased plasma concentrations of arginine, ornithine, proline, albumin and reticulocytes, while reducing plasma concentrations of ammonia, free fatty acids, triglyceride, cholesterol, and neutrophils. L-Arginine supplementation enhanced protein gain and reduced white-fat deposition in the body. Other variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, serum concentrations of insulin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I did not differ among all the groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with L-arginine (up to 630 mg/kg body weight/day) is safe in pigs for at least 91 days. Our findings help guide clinical studies to determine the safety of long-term oral administration of L-arginine to humans. PMID:25655382

Hu, Shengdi; Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Meininger, Cynthia J; McNeal, Catherine J; Wu, Guoyao




PubMed Central

Objectives To determine if oral supplementation with L-arginine could augment nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and promote epithelial defense in neonatal piglets infected with C. parvum. Methods Neonatal piglets were fed a liquid milk replacer and on day 3 of age infected or not with 108 C. parvum oocysts and the milk replacer supplemented with L-arginine or L-alanine. Milk consumption, body weight, fecal consistency, and oocyst excretion were recorded daily. On day 3 post-infection, piglets were euthanized, and serum concentration of NO metabolites and histological severity of villous atrophy and epithelial infection were quantified. Sheets of ileal mucosa were mounted in Ussing chambers for measurement of barrier function (transepithelial resistance (TER) and permeability) and short-circuit current (Isc; an indirect measurement of Cl? secretion in this tissue). Results C. parvum infected piglets had large numbers of epithelial parasites, villous atrophy, decreased barrier function, severe watery diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. L-arginine promoted synthesis of NO by infected piglets which was unaccompanied by improvement in severity of infection but rather promoted epithelial chloride secretion and diarrhea. Epithelial secretion by infected mucosa from L-arginine supplemented piglets was fully inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, indicating that prostaglandin synthesis was responsible for this effect. Conclusions Results of these studies demonstrate that provision of additional NO substrate in the form of L-arginine incites prostaglandin-dependent secretory diarrhea and does not promote epithelial defense or barrier function of C. parvum infected neonatal ileum. PMID:18223372

Gookin, Jody L.; Foster, Derek M.; Coccaro, Maria R.; Stauffer, Stephen H.



Diabetic nephropathy is resistant to oral L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation.  


Our recent publication showed that pharmacological blockade of arginases confers kidney protection in diabetic nephropathy via a nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)3-dependent mechanism. Arginase competes with endothelial NOS (eNOS) for the common substrate L-arginine. Lack of L-arginine results in reduced NO production and eNOS uncoupling, which lead to endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we hypothesized that L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation would ameliorate diabetic nephropathy. DBA mice injected with multiple low doses of vehicle or streptozotocin (50 mg/kg ip for 5 days) were provided drinking water with or without L-arginine (1.5%, 6.05 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or L-citrulline (1.66%, 5.73 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 9 wk. Nonsupplemented diabetic mice showed significant increases in albuminuria, blood urea nitrogen, glomerular histopathological changes, kidney macrophage recruitment, kidney TNF-? and fibronectin mRNA expression, kidney arginase activity, kidney arginase-2 protein expression, and urinary oxidative stress along with a significant reduction of nephrin and eNOS protein expression and kidney nitrite + nitrate compared with normal mice after 9 wk of diabetes. Surprisingly, L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation in diabetic mice did not affect any of these parameters despite greatly increasing kidney and plasma arginine levels. These findings demonstrate that chronic L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation does not prevent or reduce renal injury in a model of type 1 diabetes. PMID:25320354

You, Hanning; Gao, Ting; Cooper, Timothy K; Morris, Sidney M; Awad, Alaa S



Oral Supplementation of L-Arginine Prevents Chronic Cyclosporine Nephrotoxicity in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to evaluate the effect of L-arginine (L-Arg) on the prevention of chronic cyclosporine (CsA) nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats pair-fed a low-salt diet (0.05%) were given CsA (15 mg\\/kg\\/day s.c.), CsA and L-Arg (L-Arg group, 1.25 g\\/l water), CsA and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME group, 70 mg\\/l water) or vehicle. After 28 days, the L-Arg group had

Chul Woo Yang; Yong Soo Kim; Jin Kim; Young Ok Kim; So Youn Min; Euy Jin Choi; Byung Kee Bang



Long-term care and oral health knowledge.  


Poor oral care correlates with an increase in systemic diseases such as aspiration pneumonia. Lack of education and oral care knowledge in caregivers raises the risk of poor oral care among elderly patients residing in long-term care facilities. This study investigated the results of an education program provided by speech-language pathologists for certified nursing assistants (CNA). Data pre- and post-oral health care knowledge education program were collected. Data on oral health of patients prior to and subsequent to the education were also collected. PMID:19233061

Boczko, Faerella; McKeon, Siobhan; Sturkie, Dana



Long-Term Outcome of Individuals Treated With Oral Insulin  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the long-term intervention effects of oral insulin on the development of type 1 diabetes and to assess the rate of progression to type 1 diabetes before and after oral insulin treatment was stopped in the Diabetes Prevention Trial–Type 1 (DPT-1). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The follow-up included subjects who participated in the early intervention of oral insulin (1994–2003) to prevent or delay type 1 diabetes. A telephone survey was conducted in 2009 to determine whether diabetes had been diagnosed and, if not, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and autoantibody levels were obtained on all subjects who agreed to participate. RESULTS Of 372 subjects randomized, 97 developed type 1 diabetes before follow-up; 75% of the remaining 275 subjects were contacted. In the interim, 77 subjects had been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and 54 of the remainder have had an OGTT; 10 of these were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, subsequently. Among individuals meeting the original criteria for insulin autoantibodies (IAAs) (?80 nU/mL), the overall benefit of oral insulin remained significant (P = 0.05). However, the hazard rate in this group increased (from 6.4% [95% CI 4.5–9.1] to 10.0% [7.1–14.1]) after cessation of therapy, which approximated the rate of individuals treated with placebo (10.2% [7.1–14.6]). CONCLUSIONS Overall, the oral insulin treatment effect in individuals with confirmed IAA ?80 nU/mL appeared to be maintained with additional follow-up; however, once therapy stopped, the rate of developing diabetes in the oral insulin group increased to a rate similar to that in the placebo group. PMID:21610124

Vehik, Kendra; Cuthbertson, David; Ruhlig, Holly; Schatz, Desmond A.; Peakman, Mark; Krischer, Jeffrey P.





... For example, L-arginine is used along with ibuprofen for migraine headaches; with conventional chemotherapy drugs for ... L-arginine by mouth along with the painkiller ibuprofen seems to be effective for treating migraine headache. ...


Oral symptoms significantly higher among long-term khat (Catha edulis) users in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Associations between khat (Catha edulis) chewing and different adverse oral-dental health conditions have been reported, yet evidence is still lacking. This study was designed to investigate the association between long-term regular khat chewing and self-reported oral symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1,255 university students in southern Ethiopia. Data on khat chewing status, a range of oral symptoms and other pertinent variables were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The association between long-term regular khat chewing and oral symptom count was investigated using negative binomial regression. RESULTS: The mean oral symptom count among long-term regular khat chewers was 1.75 (standard deviation [SD], 2.18; standard error [SE], 0.31), whereas that among those who were not long-term regular khat chewers was 1.18 (SD, 1.68; SE, 0.10). After adjustment for other variables, long-term regular khat chewers had approximately 50% more oral symptoms than those who were not long-term chewers did (adjusted count ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.10). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term khat chewing negatively affects the oral health of young university students. PMID:25773437

Astatkie, Ayalew; Demissie, Meaza; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu



L-Arginine treatment may prevent tubulointerstitial nephropathy caused by germanium dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-Arginine treatment may prevent tubulointerstitial nephropathy caused by germanium dioxide.BackgroundLong-term oral ingestion of germanium dioxide (GeO2) causes progressive renal failure derived from tubulointerstitial nephropathy in humans and animals. The characteristic of GeO2-induced nephropathy is the renal tissue injury persisting for a long time, even after cessation of GeO2 ingestion. However, a treatment that can suppress the long-lasting renal tissue injury

Hiroyuki Yanagisawa; Nobuyuki Yamazaki; Gen Sato; Osamu Wada



Clinical and radiological assessment of effects of long-term corticosteroid therapy on oral health  

PubMed Central

Background: Corticosteroids (Cs) are used widely for their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. They have the potential to cause dramatic improvement as well as produce equally dramatic adverse effects. The clinical misuse like over prescription of the drug should be avoided. Long-term administration may cause many adverse effects leading to impaired oral health. Oral health is usually not considered during management of patients on long-term corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status and radiological changes in the jaw bones of the patients under long-term corticosteroid therapy. Materials and Methods: Oral health of 100 patients under long-term corticosteroid therapy with a minimum of 3 months duration was compared with sex- and age-matched 100 healthy controls. The clinical examination included complete examination of the mouth and periodontal status. Radiographic evaluation of bone with the help of intra oral periapical radiograph and digital orthopantomograph and levels of serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and random blood sugar were assessed. ‘Chi-square test’, ‘Kolmogorov-Smirnov test’ and ‘Mann-Whitney U test’ were used for statistical analysis. P > 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Patients on steroids exhibited significantly higher levels of candidiasis and clinical attachment loss of the periodontal ligament, probing pocket depth. Bone density was significantly lower in the study group than that in the control group. Random blood glucose was significantly higher and significant lower levels of calcium were observed in patients on steroids. Conclusion: Long-term use of Cs may affect oral health adversely leading to candidiasis as well as impair bone metabolism leading to a considerable decrease in the mandibular bone mineral density. PMID:24348627

Beeraka, Swapna Sridevi; Natarajan, Kannan; Patil, Rajendra; Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Prathi, Venkata Sarath; Kolaparthi, Venkata Suneel Kumar



Dental Health of Children Taking Antimicrobial and Non-Antimicrobial Liquid Oral Medication Long-Term  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of liquid oral medicines contain sugars and there is concern for the dental health of children requiring this medication long-term for chronic medical problems. Ninety-four chronically sick children aged 2–17 years taking sugar-based or sugar-free liquid oral medication for 1 year or more, and their 92 siblings were dentally examined. The medical problems of the sick children

A. Maguire; A. J. Rugg-Gunn; T. J. Butler



Does long-term treatment with Doxil® predispose patients to oral cancer?  


We present a possible adverse reaction related to long-term use of Doxil(®) in female patients. We believe that long-term use of Doxil(®) may predispose female patients to oral squamous cell carcinoma. The patients in this report were not exposed to the common risk factors related to oral cancer formation such as smoking or alcohol consumption. Both patients were 59-year-old females. The first patient was diagnosed in 2001 with stage IIIC ovarian cancer. Seven years following treatment with Doxil(®), she was diagnosed with stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the right maxilla. The second patient was diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma with evidence of spread to the lungs. Four years following treatment with Doxil(®) she was diagnosed with stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the left maxilla. A literature review did not reveal any report on Doxil(®) and predisposition to oral cancer; however, we found an abstract that was presented at the last annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) by Cannon et al. When we combine the data from Cannon et al. and the data presented here, a total of six female patients developed an epithelial carcinoma of the oral cavity following long-term treatment with Doxil(®). We believe that a large-scale study should be initiated on patients that were treated with Doxil(®) for more than 3 years, since these patients might be at risk for developing secondary cancer of the oral cavity. PMID:22430199

Ben-David, Yehuda; Leiser, Yoav; Kachta, Orly; El-Naaj, Imad Abu



Long-Term Follow-Up of Orally Administered Diacetylmorphine Substitution Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To assess the long-term course of the feasibility and safety of orally administered heroin [diacetylmorphine (DAM)] tablets in substitution treatment of severely addicted opioid users. Design: Open-label, prospective cohort study with 2 non-randomly assigned treatment arms: DAM tablets only (n = 128) or DAM tablets combined with injected DAM and\\/or other opioids (n = 237). The average duration of

Ulrich Frick; Jürgen Rehm; Daniele Zullino; Manrique Fernando; Gerhard Wiesbeck; Jeannine Ammann; Ambros Uchtenhagen



Effect of Long-term Smoking on Whole-mouth Salivary Flow Rate and Oral Health  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Change in the resting whole-mouth salivary flow rate (SFR) plays a significant role in patho-genesis of various oral conditions. Factors such as smoking may affect SFR as well as the oral and dental health. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of smoking on SFR, and oral and dental health. Materials and methods One-hundred smokers and 100 non-tobacco users were selected as case and control groups, respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data and smoking habits. A previously used questionnaire about dry mouth was also employed. Then, after a careful oral examination, subjects’ whole saliva was collected in the resting condition. Data was analyzed by chi-square test using SPSS 15. Results The mean (±SD) salivary flow rate were 0.38 (± 0.13) ml/min in smokers and 0.56 (± 0.16) ml/min in non-smokers. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.00001). Also, 39% of smokers and 12% of non-smokers reported experiencing at least one xerostomia symptom, with statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.0001). Oral lesions including cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus and halitosis were significantly higher in smokers. Conclusion Our findings indicated that long-term smoking would significantly reduce SFR and increase oral and dental disorders associated with dry mouth, especially cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus, and halitosis. PMID:23346336

Rad, Maryam; Kakoie, Shahla; Niliye Brojeni, Fateme; Pourdamghan, Nasim



Oral health status among long-term hospitalized adults: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background. Many Long-Term Care (LTC) institutionalized patients are the most frail and functionally dependent among the geriatric population and have significant oral health disparities.They often suffer from dental neglect due to limited access to appropriate professional dental care. These patients have chronic health situations and are treated with medications, which increase their risk of oral diseases. Despite the growth in elderly population in Israel, there is insufficient data regarding their oral health status and treatment needs. Objective. To describe the oral health status of the LTC hospitalized adults in a geriatric and psychiatric hospital in Israel. Methods. Data was recorded from LTC hospitalized adults with a physical and/or mental disabilities in a cross-sectional research design, which included general health anamnesis and clinical oral examination. Variables included gender, medicines, oral hygiene (OH), using dentures, number of caries lesions and residual teeth. Univariate analyses included Pearson ?2 and t-test analyses. Multivariate analyses included logistic and linear regressions while the outcome variables were categorical OH index and number of carious cavitations, number of residual teeth and carious teeth percentage. Results. 153 participants were included in the study with a mean age of 65.03 ± 18.67 years. 31.3% of the patients were edentulous, and only 14% had partial or full dentures. Females had a significantly higher number of caries cavitation than males (P = 0.044). The number of caries cavitation was higher among patients with poor OH (P < 0.001) and when taking Clonazepam (P = 0.018). Number of residual teeth was higher in the fair OH group (P < 0.001). Carious teeth percentage was higher among the poor OH group (P < 0.001). PMID:24949240

Yavnai, Nirit; Zini, Avi



No increased risk of infection for long-term sex partners of people with HPV-related oral cancers

Spouses and long-term partners of patients with mouth and throat cancers related to infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV) appear to have no increased prevalence of oral HPV infections, according to results of a multicenter, pilot study led by investigators from Johns Hopkins (home of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center). The study’s results suggest that long-term couples need not change their sexual practices, say the scientists.


Effects of l-arginine on endothelial and cardiac function in rats with heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of chronic oral l-arginine treatment on endothelial and cardiovascular function in rats with heart failure induced by coronary artery ligation. Both heart failure and sham-operated rats were treated with either l-arginine in drinking water (12.5 or 50 g\\/l) or water placebo for 8 weeks following surgery. Plasma l-arginine levels in heart failure rats (153±11 ?M) were

Qingping Feng; Amanda J Fortin; Xiangru Lu; J Malcolm; O Arnold



Long-term survival in metastatic malignant struma ovarii treated with oral chemotherapy: A case report.  


Malignant struma ovarii is a rare type of ovarian tumor. Metastasis from malignant struma ovarii is rare and has only been documented in 5-6% of cases. The natural history and optimal treatment strategy for malignant struma ovarii remains controversial due to its rarity. The current report presents the case of a 45-year-old female who presented with a tumor of the rib bone. Following resection, the postoperative diagnosis was a metastasizing thyroid carcinoma. No abnormality was detected in the thyroid gland, however, computed tomography revealed a tumor in the left ovary. The patient underwent a left salpingo-oophorectomy and a wedge resection of the right ovary. The postoperative diagnosis was determined as a mature cystic teratoma with malignant struma ovarii (thyroid type, follicular carcinoma) of the left ovary and mature cystic teratoma of the right ovary. Four years subsequent to the initial diagnosis, multiple lung metastases were detected. The following chemotherapies were administered sequentially and intermittently: Tegafur-uracil, paclitaxel/carboplatin and oral etoposide. During this period, the metastatic lesions extended into the bone and progressed slowly. The patient continues to survive with the disease and 24 years have passed since the initial diagnosis, 20 years following the diagnosis of multiple lung metastates. The present report describes a rare case of malignant struma ovarii in which surgical resection and pathological examination of a metastatic rib tumor resulted in the identification of the primary ovarian lesion. The clinical behavior of malignant struma ovarii does not necessarily indicate a histological malignancy, therefore, prediction of future metastasis is difficult and the optimal treatment strategy for malignant struma ovarii is controversial. The present case indicates that the long-term use of oral anticancer agents may facilitate the maintenance of tumor dormancy. PMID:25364407

Ukita, Masayo; Nakai, Hidekatsu; Kotani, Yasushi; Tobiume, Takako; Koike, Eiji; Tsuji, Isao; Suzuki, Ayako; Mandai, Masaki



Low molecular weight heparin versus oral anticoagulants in the long-term treatment of deep venous thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) could be equal or more effective than conventional oral anticoagulants (OAs) in the long-term treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Methods: One hundred fifty-eight patients with symptomatic DVT of the lower limbs confirmed by means of duplex ultrasound scan were randomized to receive 3 to

Paloma López-Beret; Antonio Orgaz; Juan Fontcuberta; Manuel Doblas; Adela Martinez; Gloria Lozano; Arturo Romero



Antihypertensive Effect of Long-Term Oral Administration of Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) Collagen Peptides on Renovascular Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides (JCP) on renovascular hypertension rats (RVHs) was evaluated. The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the RVHs were significantly reduced with administration of JCP (p < 0.05), compared with model control group. However, the arterial blood pressure of normal rats showed no significant changes during long-term oral treatment with high dose JCP (p > 0.05). Furthermore, effect of JCP on angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration of plasma had no significance (p > 0.05), but JCP significantly inhibited the Ang II concentration in RVHs’ kidney (p < 0.05). The kidney should be the target site of JCP. PMID:22412809

Zhuang, Yongliang; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Yufeng; Liu, Gaoxiang



Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides on renovascular hypertension.  


Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides (JCP) on renovascular hypertension rats (RVHs) was evaluated. The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the RVHs were significantly reduced with administration of JCP (p < 0.05), compared with model control group. However, the arterial blood pressure of normal rats showed no significant changes during long-term oral treatment with high dose JCP (p > 0.05). Furthermore, effect of JCP on angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration of plasma had no significance (p > 0.05), but JCP significantly inhibited the Ang II concentration in RVHs' kidney (p < 0.05). The kidney should be the target site of JCP. PMID:22412809

Zhuang, Yongliang; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Yufeng; Liu, Gaoxiang



Effects of L-arginine on endothelial and cardiac function in rats with heart failure.  


We examined the effects of chronic oral L-arginine treatment on endothelial and cardiovascular function in rats with heart failure induced by coronary artery ligation. Both heart failure and sham-operated rats were treated with either L-arginine in drinking water (12.5 or 50 g/l) or water placebo for 8 weeks following surgery. Plasma L-arginine levels in heart failure rats (153 +/- 11 microM) were lower than sham rats (201 +/- 13 microM, P < 0.05). The lower dose L-arginine treatment improved endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated aortic rings of heart failure rats, while the higher dose of L-arginine treatment did not. Neither low nor high dose of L-arginine treatment improved hemodynamic parameters in heart failure rats. Thus, chronic oral L-arginine treatment at a dose of 12.5 g/l in drinking water improves endothelium-dependent relaxation, but fails to improve in vivo cardiac function in rats with heart failure. PMID:10440087

Feng, Q; Fortin, A J; Lu, X; Arnold, J M; Arnold, O



A novel approach for long-term oral drug administration in animal research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of pharmacological research, the oral consumption of anastrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, when added to an animal's drinking water is hindered by poor drug palatability and environmental loss of drug solution. To overcome these caveats, we developed a novel approach for the oral delivery of anastrozole mixed in a solid hydration gel matrix that functions as a replacement

Cassia R. Overk; Jeffrey A. Borgia; Elliott J. Mufson



Age-related oxidative decline of mitochondrial functions in rat brain is prevented by long term oral antioxidant supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of antioxidants (N-acetyl cysteine, ?-lipoic acid, and ?-tocopherol) was selected for long term oral supplementation\\u000a study in rats for protective effects on age-related mitochondrial alterations in the brain. Four groups of rats were chosen:\\u000a young control (6–7 months); aged rats (22–24 months); aged rats (22–24 months) on daily antioxidant supplementation from 18 month\\u000a onwards and young rats (6–7 months) on daily antioxidant supplementation

Maria Bindu Bagh; Ishita Guha Thakurta; Mallika Biswas; Prajna Behera; Sasanka Chakrabarti



The effect of programs to improve oral hygiene outcomes for older residents in long-term care: a systematic review.  


Nurses have a critical role in promoting oral health in dependent older adults residing in long-term care or having extended hospital stays. Strategies aimed at improving the quality of oral hygiene care nurses provide may contribute to better oral hygiene outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effect of intervention programs designed to enhance the ability of nurses or those to whom they delegate care to improve oral hygiene outcomes in frail older adults. Studies reported an educational program, either alone or augmented in some way. The study interventions consisted of: (a) single in-service education sessions; (b) single in-service education sessions supplemented by a "train-the-trainer" approach; and (c) education sessions supplemented with ongoing active involvement of a dental hygienist. None of the approaches emerged as being desirable over the others, as methodologically strong studies with good intervention integrity were lacking, and a variety of oral health outcomes were used to measure effectiveness of the interventions, making comparisons across studies difficult. PMID:24444451

Coker, Esther; Ploeg, Jenny; Kaasalainen, Sharon



Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial?mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL  

SciTech Connect

Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial?mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ? Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ? Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ? Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ? Si-Snail blocked xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells.

Yu, Cheng-Chia [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Chao, E-mail: [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China) [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)



Oral koilocytic dysplasia: long-term clinical control. A case report.  


Leukoplakia, a common lesion in the oral cavity, is considered a premalignant lesion that can develop into carcinoma. In 1986, a group of pathologists described a variant of epithelial dysplasia and named it "koilocytic dysplasia" (KD). This article presents a case of KD that was identified for 12 years as "carcinoma in situ". Even after removal of the lesion, it recurred with no signs of malignancy. The histopathological findings revealed all of the signs of KD (koilocytosis, acanthosis, multinucleated keratinocytes and atypical mitoses). Liquid-based cytology and hybrid capture were performed to confirm the diagnosis. Despite a professional recommendation to have the lesion removed surgically, the patient chose periodic clinical control. The mechanism of HPV transmission in the oral cavity still remains partially unknown. Additional studies on this subject are required to better understand the role of HPV in cell transformation in the oral cavity. PMID:22669059

Klingbeil, M F G; De Lima, M D M; Gallottini, M H C; Dos Santos Pinto, D; Lemos, C A



[Long-term management of post acute coronary syndrome with oral antiplatelet therapy].  


Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of early death and morbidity in the industrialized world and is becoming a growing problem in many developing countries. Coagulation inhibitors play a major role in the management of the acute phase of ACS whether in association with reperfusion strategies or not. Currently, and in accordance with the results of major randomised studies, for medium and long-term management, the association of Clopidogrel and aspirin is the treatment of choice. However, despite the recognised benefits of this therapeutic strategy and above all the recommendations of learned societies, which have placed this bi-therapy in class I, according to national and international registries it is still underused. Moreover, all of these registries have confirmed, in the real world, the negative impact of not prescribing this antiplatelet therapy on morbidity and mortality after both ST and non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome. which shows the difficulty of applying to everyday clinical practice the results of major randomised cohorts. PMID:17719355

Lorgis, L; Zeller, M; Beer, J-C; Buffet, P; L'Huillier, I; Nguyen, C; Schaad, F; Obbee, P; Lagrost, A-C; Cottin, Y



Acute intravenous injection and short-term oral administration of N(G) -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester to the rat provoke increased pressor responses to agonists and hypertension, but not inhibition of acetylcholine-induced hypotensive responses.  


In experiments in vivo, we studied whether the endothelial dysfunction induced by nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition is simultaneously or sequentially manifested as a reduced level of endothelium-dependent agonist-induced vasodilatation, an increased responsiveness to vasoconstrictors, and hypertension. Vascular responses to acetylcholine, phenylephrine, and angiotensin II were measured in pithed rats after acute intravenous injection (100 mg/kg) and short-term oral administration of N(G) -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 60 mg/kg per day) for 1 and 3 days (L-NAME(1d) and L-NAME(3d), respectively). Pithed rats were chosen because drug-induced cardiovascular responses reflect only peripheral effects. Parallel experiments examined mean arterial pressure (MAP) values in anesthetized rats. After short-term L-NAME(1d) and L-NAME(3d) treatments, the MAP was significantly elevated in anesthetized but not pithed rats. Acute intravenous administration of L-NAME elevated MAP in pithed rats. Intravenous infusion of phenylephrine was used to compensate for the pressor response induced by L-NAME in pithed animals. The maximum decrease and duration of the hypotensive responses to acetylcholine were unaltered by the acute and both short-term L-NAME treatments in pithed rats. These treatments, on the other hand, increased phenylephrine- and angiotensin II-induced pressor responses in pithed animals. In isolated aortic rings prepared from pithed rats treated acutely and short-term with L-NAME, acetylcholine-induced relaxations were inhibited. Thus, the inhibition of NO-dependent vasodilator tone after acute intravenous injection and short-term oral L-NAME administration may be associated with vascular smooth muscle hyper-responsiveness to pressor agonists and hypertension, whereas the hypotensive responses to acetylcholine could not be associated with the L-NAME-induced endothelial dysfunction in pithed rats. PMID:20608990

López, Ruth M; Pérez, Teresa; Castillo, Carlos; Castillo, María C; Castillo, Enrique F



Long-term follow-up analysis of zolpidem in fingernails after a single oral dose.  


The determination of xenobiotics in keratinized matrices, such as nails and hair, has received considerable attention because of the relatively long detection window for compounds. The distribution of xenobiotics in fingernails, unlike hair, was equivocal. The main aim of this study was to use follow-up surveys to measure zolpidem profiles in nails after subjects consumed a single dose of the drug. In addition, the zolpidem concentrations in nails were compared with data for different biosamples, such as hair and blood from previous work. With these preconditions, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of zolpidem in nails. Nails underwent alkaline hydrolysis and were extracted with diethyl ether. A Capcell Pak C18 MGII column was used to separate the target compound, and an API 4000 Qtrap mass spectrometer was used as a detector. The results for nail samples from seven subjects who had taken a single 10 mg zolpidem dose were significant: two relatively high zolpidem concentrations were observed in the long-term follow-up analysis of nails. The zolpidem concentration was less than 1.74 pg/mg and less than 3.29 pg/mg in fingernails and toenails, respectively. The subsequent peak concentration of zolpidem was observed between 10 and 15 weeks after each subject took a single dose of the drug. This result suggested that the germinal matrix area was a primary in vivo pathway for zolpidem secretion into the nail. The analysis of biosamples, such as nails, may be a useful adjunct to conventional methods of drug testing and hair analysis. Further research is needed concerning the contamination risk in analysis of nail biosamples. PMID:23857143

Hang, Chen; Ping, Xiang; Min, Shen



Resveratrol Based Oral Nutritional Supplement Produces Long-Term Beneficial Effects on Structure and Visual Function in Human Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Longevinex® (L/RV) is a low dose hormetic over-the-counter (OTC) oral resveratrol (RV) based matrix of red wine solids, vitamin D3 and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) with established bioavailability, safety, and short-term efficacy against the earliest signs of human atherosclerosis, murine cardiac reperfusion injury, clinical retinal neovascularization, and stem cell survival. We previously reported our short-term findings for dry and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. Today we report long term (two to three year) clinical efficacy. Methods: We treated three patients including a patient with an AMD treatment resistant variant (polypoidal retinal vasculature disease). We evaluated two clinical measures of ocular structure (fundus autofluorescent imaging and spectral domain optical coherence extended depth choroidal imaging) and qualitatively appraised changes in macular pigment volume. We further evaluated three clinical measures of visual function (Snellen visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and glare recovery to a cone photo-stress stimulus). Results: We observed broad bilateral improvements in ocular structure and function over a long time period, opposite to what might be expected due to aging and the natural progression of the patient’s pathophysiology. No side effects were observed. Conclusions: These three cases demonstrate that application of epigenetics has long-term efficacy against AMD retinal disease, when the retinal specialist has exhausted other therapeutic modalities. PMID:25329968

Richer, Stuart; Patel, Shana; Sockanathan, Shivani; Ulanski, Lawrence J.; Miller, Luke; Podella, Carla



Long-Term High-dose Oral Morphine in Phantom Limb Pain with No Addiction Risk  

PubMed Central

Chronic phantom limb pain (PLP) is a type of neuropathic pain, which is located in the missing/amputated limb. Phantom pain is difficult to treat as the exact basis of pain mechanism is still unknown. Various methods of treatment for PLP have been described, including pharmacological (NSAIDs, opioids, antiepileptic, antidepressants) and non-pharmacological (TENS, sympathectomy, deep brain stimulation and motor cortex stimulation). Opioids are used for the treatment of neuropathic pain and dose of opioid is determined based on its effect and thus there is no defined ceiling dose for opioids. We report a case where a patient receiving high-dose oral morphine for chronic cancer pain did not demonstrate signs of addiction. PMID:25709194

Kumar, Vinod; Garg, Rakesh; Bharati, Sachidanand Jee; Gupta, Nishkarsh; Bhatanagar, Sushma; Mishra, Seema; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh



Long-Term Oral Administration of Hop Flower Extracts Mitigates Alzheimer Phenotypes in Mice  

PubMed Central

Coincident with the expanding population of aged people, the incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is rapidly increasing in most advanced countries. At present, no effective prophylactics are available. Among several pathological mechanisms proposed for AD, the “amyloid hypothesis” has been most widely accepted, in which accumulation or deposition of A? is considered to be the initial event. Thus, prevention of A? production would be an ideal strategy for the treatment or prevention of AD. A? is produced via the proteolytic cleavage of its precursor protein, APP (amyloid precursor protein), by two different enzymes, ? and ?-secretases. Indeed, inhibitors against either or both enzymes have been developed and tested for clinical efficacy. Based on the “amyloid hypothesis”, we developed a luciferase-based screening method to monitor ?-secretase activity, screened more than 1,600 plant extracts, most of which have long been used in Chinese medicine, and observed that Hop extracts significantly inhibit A? production in cultured cells. A major component of the inhibitory activity was purified, and its chemical identity was determined by NMR to be Garcinielliptone HC. In vivo, oral administration of Hop extracts to AD model mice decreased A? depositions in the cerebral cortex of the parietal lobe, hippocampus, and artery walls (amyloid angiopathy) in the brains. In a Morris water maze test, AD model mice that had daily consumed Hop extracts in their drinking water showed significant mitigation of memory impairment at ages of 9 and 12 months. Moreover, in the open field test oral administration of Hop extracts also prevented an emotional disturbance that appeared in the AD mice at 18 months. Despite lifelong consumption of Hop extracts, no deleterious side effects were observed at any age. These results support the “amyloid hypothesis”, and indicate that Hop extract is a promising candidate for an effective prophylactic for AD. PMID:24489866

Sasaoka, Norio; Sakamoto, Megumi; Kanemori, Shoko; Kan, Michiru; Tsukano, Chihiro; Takemoto, Yoshiji; Kakizuka, Akira



Effects of oral amino acid supplementation on long-term-care-acquired infections in elderly patients.  


The very high general infection rate (IRI) observed in our Geriatric Intensive Rehabilitation Center (GIRC) led us to investigate whether patient supplementation with essential amino acids (EAAs), modulators of immuno-competence, could reduce IRI. Eighty elderly patients admitted to our GIRC (n=40; age 79.5 ± 7.71; male/female 14/26) or placebo (n=40; age 82.13 ± 6.15; male/female 13/27) were allocated to an 8 g/day oral EAAs group and were surveyed for infections (>48 h from admission) over the first month of their hospital stay. The IRI was 67% for the entire population of patients, 82.5% (33/40 patients) in the placebo group and 52% (21/40 patients) in the EAA group (p<0.02). When patients were divided into infection group (IG) and without-infection group (WIG), independently of post randomization allocation, the WIG had higher levels of serum albumin (p<0.001), blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration (p=0.01), dietary protein (p=0.008) calorie intakes (p=0.05) but lower serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (p<0.001). The factor of CRP>0.8 mg/dl and Hb ? 12 in females, ?13 in males was associated 4 times and 3.6 times risk of infection, respectively, by sex. EAAs supplementation may lower the risk of infection by 30% in the rehabilitative elderly population. CRP and blood hemoglobin levels can be considered risk markers of future infection. PMID:20934757

Aquilani, Roberto; Zuccarelli, Ginetto Carlo; Dioguardi, Francesco Saverio; Baiardi, Paola; Frustaglia, Antonio; Rutili, Carla; Comi, Elena; Catani, Michele; Iadarola, Paolo; Viglio, Simona; Barbieri, Annalisa; D'Agostino, Luca; Verri, Manuela; Pasini, Evasio; Boschi, Federica



Long-term efficacy and safety of topical tacrolimus in the management of ulcerative/erosive oral lichen planus.  


The long-term safety and clinical benefit of topical tacrolimus for the management of erosive or ulcerative oral lichen planus has not been evaluated. 50 adults (39 female 11 male; group median age 59, range 29-88 years) with symptomatic, erosive or ulcerative lichen planus recalcitrant to topical corticosteroids applied 0.1% topical tacrolimus ointment twice daily to symptomatic mucosal lesions. Topical tacrolimus was applied for a median time of 19.8 months (range 2-39 months) in this patient group. Fourteen percent of the patients had complete resolution of ulcers or erosions, 80% partial resolution and 6% reported no clinical benefit. The most common adverse effects were a burning sensation (16%) at the site of application and transient taste disturbance (8%). No significant, long-standing changes in hepatic or renal biochemistry were observed. The mean tacrolimus level decreased with duration of therapy from 2.7 microg/l (week 1) to 0.5 microg/l (week 32). 0.1% topical tacrolimus is an effective means of controlling the symptoms and signs of erosive or ulcerative oral lichen planus and has no notable adverse effects over a mean duration of application of 19.8 months. PMID:14693491

Hodgson, Tim A; Sahni, Neeraj; Kaliakatsou, Fotini; Buchanan, John A G; Porter, Stephen R



Population pharmacokinetic model of THC integrates oral, intravenous, and pulmonary dosing and characterizes short- and long-term pharmacokinetics.  


?(9)-Tetrahydrocannobinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound of Cannabis, is known to have a long terminal half-life. However, this characteristic is often ignored in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of THC, which may affect the accuracy of predictions in different pharmacologic areas. For therapeutic use for example, it is important to accurately describe the terminal phase of THC to describe accumulation of the drug. In early clinical research, the THC challenge test can be optimized through more accurate predictions of the dosing sequence and the wash-out between occasions in a crossover setting, which is mainly determined by the terminal half-life of the compound. The purpose of this study is to better quantify the long-term pharmacokinetics of THC. A population-based PK model for THC was developed describing the profile up to 48 h after an oral, intravenous, and pulmonary dose of THC in humans. In contrast to earlier models, the current model integrates all three major administration routes and covers the long terminal phase of THC. Results show that THC has a fast initial and intermediate half-life, while the apparent terminal half-life is long (21.5 h), with a clearance of 38.8 L/h. Because the current model characterizes the long-term pharmacokinetics, it can be used to assess the accumulation of THC in a multiple-dose setting and to forecast concentration profiles of the drug under many different dosing regimens or administration routes. Additionally, this model could provide helpful insights into the THC challenge test used for the development of (novel) compounds targeting the cannabinoid system for different therapeutic applications and could improve decision making in future clinical trials. PMID:25316574

Heuberger, Jules A A C; Guan, Zheng; Oyetayo, Olubukayo-Opeyemi; Klumpers, Linda; Morrison, Paul D; Beumer, Tim L; van Gerven, Joop M A; Cohen, Adam F; Freijer, Jan



Enteral L-Arginine and Glutamine Supplementation for Prevention of NEC in Preterm Neonates  

PubMed Central

Objective. Evaluating the efficacy and safety of arginine and glutamine supplementation in decreasing the incidence of NEC among preterm neonates. Methods. Prospective case-control study done on 75 preterm neonates ?34 weeks, divided equally into L-arginine group receiving enteral L-arginine, glutamine group receiving enteral glutamine, and control group. Serum L-arginine and glutamine levels were measured at time of enrollment (sample 1), after 14 days of enrollment (sample 2), and at time of diagnosis of NEC (sample 3). Results. The incidence of NEC was 9.3%. There was no difference in the frequency of NEC between L-arginine and control groups (P > 0.05). NEC was not detected in glutamine group; L-arginine concentrations were significantly lower in arginine group than control group in both samples while glutamine concentrations were comparable in glutamine and control groups in both samples. No significant difference was found between groups as regards number of septic episodes, duration to reach full oral intake, or duration of hospital stay. Conclusion. Enteral L-arginine supplementation did not seem to reduce the incidence of NEC. Enteral glutamine may have a preventive role against NEC if supplied early to preterm neonates. However, larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. This work is registered in ( Identifier: NCT01263041).

El-Shimi, M. S.; Awad, H. A.; Abdelwahed, M. A.; Mohamed, M. H.; Khafagy, S. M.; Saleh, G.



Patients’ perspectives regarding long-term warfarin therapy and the potential transition to new oral anticoagulant therapy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine patients’ perspectives regarding long-term vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy and the potential transition to new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) such as dabigatran and rivaroxaban, and to determine if factors such as residential location affect these opinions. Design, setting and participants: Patients on VKA therapy for at least 12 weeks completed a questionnaire specifically designed for the study. They were recruited while attending point-of-care international normalized ratio (INR) testing at six South Australian general practice clinics during the period July–September 2013. Main outcome measures: Opinions of current VKA therapy, level of awareness of NOACs, and ratings of potential benefits and deterrents of transition to NOACs were sought. Results: Data from 290 participants were available for analysis (response rate 95.4%). The majority of the sample (79.5%, 229/288) were either satisfied or very satisfied with current VKA therapy. The mean score for the potential benefits of transition to NOACs was 7.6 (±4.2) out of a possible 20, which was significantly lower than the mean score 10.9 (±4.5) for the perceived deterrents to transition (p < 0.001). Rural patients (82.0%, 82/100) were significantly more likely (p = 0.001) to have not heard of NOACs than metropolitan patients (50.3%, 95/189) and also perceived significant less benefits in a transition to NOACs (p = 0.001). Conclusion: When considering potential transition from VKAs to NOACs it is important for prescribers to consider that some patients, in particular those from a rural location, may not perceive a significant benefit in transitioning or may have particular concerns in this area. PMID:25436104

Gebler-Hughes, Elizabeth S.; Kemp, Linda



L-Arginine Reduces Glomerular Basement Membrane Collagen Nε-Carboxymethyllysine in the Diabetic db\\/db Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to examine the effect of .L-arginine on advanced stage nonenzymatic glycosylation end products in glomerular basement membrane (GBM) as represented by carboxymethyllysine (CML). Twelve db\\/db mice were given a solution containing a daily dosage of L-arginine of 50 mg\\/kg body weight orally. Twelve db\\/db mice served as controls. At the end of the 4-months

M. Weninger; Zhou Xi; B. Lubec; S. Szalay; H. Höger; G. Lubec



Long-term effects of continuous oral and transdermal estrogen replacement therapy on sex hormone binding globulin and free testosterone levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the long-term effects of estrogen replacement therapy on sex hormone binding globuline (SHBG) and free testosterone (fT) levels in surgical postmenopausal women. Study Design: Forty patients with surgical menopause were enrolled in this prospective study. The women were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received oral therapy (continuous conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) — 0.625mg per

Ibrahim Serdar Serin; Bülent Özçelik; Mustafa Ba?bu?; Ercan Aygen; Mustafa Kula; Ru?en Erez



Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine.  


Taurine, glutamine and arginine are examples of amino acids which have become increasingly popular as ingredients in dietary supplements and functional foods and beverages. Animal and human clinical research suggests that oral supplementation of these amino acids provides additional health and/or performance benefits beyond those observed from normal intake of dietary protein. The increased consumer awareness and use of these amino acids as ingredients in dietary supplements and functional foods warrant a comprehensive review of their safety through quantitative risk assessment, and identification of a potential safe upper level of intake. The absence of a systematic pattern of adverse effects in humans in response to orally administered taurine (Tau), l-glutamine (Gln) and l-arginine (Arg) precluded the selection of a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). Therefore, by definition, the usual approach to risk assessment for identification of a tolerable upper level of intake (UL) could not be used. Instead, the newer method described as the Observed Safe Level (OSL) or Highest Observed Intake (HOI) was utilized. The OSL risk assessments indicate that based on the available published human clinical trial data, the evidence for the absence of adverse effects is strong for Tau at supplemental intakes up to 3 g/d, Gln at intakes up to 14 g/d and Arg at intakes up to 20 g/d, and these levels are identified as the respective OSLs for normal healthy adults. Although much higher levels of each of these amino acids have been tested without adverse effects and may be safe, the data for intakes above these levels are not sufficient for a confident conclusion of long-term safety, and therefore these values are not selected as the OSLs. PMID:18325648

Shao, Andrew; Hathcock, John N



Long-Term Outcomes of a Dental Postbaccalaureate Program: Increasing Dental Student Diversity and Oral Health Care Access  

PubMed Central

The University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry established the Dental Postbaccalaureate Program in 1998 to provide reapplication assistance to students from economically and/or educationally disadvantaged backgrounds who were previously denied admission to dental school. The goals were to increase diversity in the dental school student population and improve access to dental services for underserved populations. This article assesses the program’s short-, mid-, and long-term outcomes and is the first to examine long-term practice patterns after a dental postbaccalaureate program. Data collected on all participant (n=94) demographics, pre/post-program DAT scores, and post-program dental school admission results were used to assess short- and mid-term outcomes. Long-term outcomes and practice patterns were assessed using results of a census survey administered between 2009 and 2011 to the participants who had completed dental school and been in practice for at least two years (n=57). The survey had a response rate of 93 percent (n=53). Descriptive statistical techniques were used to examine the responses and to compare them to U.S. Census Bureau data and nationally available practice data for new dental graduates. Program participants’ DAT scores improved by an average of two points, and 98 percent were accepted to dental school. All survey respondents were practicing dentistry, and 81 percent reported serving underserved populations. These participants treat more Medicaid recipients than do most dentists, and their patient population is more diverse than the general population. The outcomes demonstrate that the program’s graduates are increasing diversity in the dental student population and that their practices are providing access to care for underserved populations. PMID:23658398

Wides, Cynthia D.; Brody, Harvey A.; Alexander, Charles J.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Mertz, Elizabeth A.



Long-term fluctuations of pressure pain thresholds in healthy men, normally menstruating women and oral contraceptive users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether the pressure pain threshold (PPT) in masticatory muscles of symptom-free subjects was influenced by fluctuations of the sex hormones. The PPT was measured with an electronic algometer for at least 10 consecutive menstrual cycles in 10 women using oral contraceptives and 10 women not using oral contraceptives, with a regular menstrual

Hans Isselée; Antoon De Laat; Kris Bogaerts; Roeland Lysens



Long-term Persistence of Oral Human Papillomavirus Type 16: The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.  


Persistent infection with oral HPV16 is believed to drive the development of most oropharyngeal cancers. However, patterns of oral HPV16 persistence remain understudied, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. Oral HPV16 persistence was evaluated among 1,626 participants of the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Twenty-three oral HPV16-positive men who provided an oral gargle sample on ?2 study visits were included in the analysis. Archived oral samples from all follow-up visits were tested for HPV16 using Linear Array and INNO-LiPA detection methods. Persistence was evaluated using consecutive HPV16-positive visits held approximately 6 months apart and using the Kaplan-Meier method. Oral HPV16-positive men were aged 18 to 64 years [median, 36 years; interquartile range (IQR), 25-42] and were followed for a median of 44.4 months (IQR, 29.9-49.5). Of 13 incident infections, 4 (30.8%) persisted ?12 months, 1 (10.0%) persisted ?24 months, and none persisted ?36 months [median infection duration, 7.3 months; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.4-NA)]. Of 10 prevalent infections, 9 (90.0%) persisted ?12 months, 8 (80.0%) persisted ?24 months, 4 (57.1%) persisted ?36 months, and 2 (40.0%) persisted ?48 months (median infection duration, NA). Twelve-month persistence of incident infections increased significantly with age (Ptrend = 0.028). Prevalent oral HPV16 infections in men persisted longer than newly acquired infections, and persistence appeared to increase with age. These findings may explain the high prevalence of oral HPV observed at older ages. Understanding oral HPV16 persistence will aid in the identification of men at high-risk of developing HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 8(3); 190-6. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25575501

Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Kreimer, Aimée R; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; O'Keefe, Michael T; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R



The effect of long-term oral dantrolene on the neuromuscular action of rocuronium: a case report  

PubMed Central

Oral dantrolene causes a dose-dependent depression of skeletal muscle contractility. A 52-year-old man treated with oral dantrolene for spasticity after spinal cord injury was scheduled to undergo irrigation and drainage of a thigh abscess under general anesthesia. He had taken 50 mg oral dantrolene per day for 3 years. Under standard neuromuscular monitoring, anesthesia was performed with propofol, rocuronium, and sevoflurane. A bolus dose of ED95 (0.3 mg/kg) of rocuronium could not depress T1 up to 95%. An additional dose of rocuronium depressed T1 completely and decreased the train-of-four (TOF) count to zero. There was no apparent prolongation of the neuromuscular blocking action of rocuronium. The TOF ratio was recovered to more than 0.9 within 40 minutes after the last dose of rocuronium. A small dose of oral dantrolene does not prolong the duration of action and recovery of rocuronium. PMID:24624274

Jeon, Jinwoo; Song, Sejin; Kim, Mun-Cheol; Kim, Kye-Min



A new era in palaeomicrobiology: prospects for ancient dental calculus as a long-term record of the human oral microbiome  

PubMed Central

The field of palaeomicrobiology is dramatically expanding thanks to recent advances in high-throughput biomolecular sequencing, which allows unprecedented access to the evolutionary history and ecology of human-associated and environmental microbes. Recently, human dental calculus has been shown to be an abundant, nearly ubiquitous, and long-term reservoir of the ancient oral microbiome, preserving not only microbial and host biomolecules but also dietary and environmental debris. Modern investigations of native human microbiota have demonstrated that the human microbiome plays a central role in health and chronic disease, raising questions about changes in microbial ecology, diversity and function through time. This paper explores the current state of ancient oral microbiome research and discusses successful applications, methodological challenges and future possibilities in elucidating the intimate evolutionary relationship between humans and their microbes. PMID:25487328

Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.



L-Arginine and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and loss of cognitive and memory functions. Although the exact causes of AD are still unclear, evidence suggests that atherosclerosis, redox stress, inflammation, neurotransmitter dysregulation, and impaired brain energy metabolism may all be associated with AD pathogenesis. Herein, we explore a possible role for L-arginine (L-arg) in AD, taking into consideration known functions for L-arg in atherosclerosis, redox stress and the inflammatory process, regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, and modulation of glucose metabolism and insulin activity. L-arg, a precursor of nitric oxide and polyamine, exhibits multiple functions in human health and may play a prominent role in age-related degenerative diseases such as AD. PMID:19079617

Yi, Jing; Horky, Laura L.; Friedlich, Avi L.; Shi, Ying; Rogers, Jack T.; Huang, Xudong



Anti-stress and Adaptogenic Activity of l-Arginine Supplementation  

PubMed Central

In the present study, oral supplementation of l-arginine in rats was evaluated for its anti-stress and adaptogenic activity using the cold (5°C)–hypoxia (428 mmHg)–restraint (C-H-R) animal model. A dose-dependent study of l-arginine was carried out at doses of 12.5, 25.0, 50.0, 100.0, 200.0 and 500.0 mg/kg body weight, administered orally 30 min prior to C-H-R exposure. The time taken by the rat to attain a rectal temperature of 23°C (Trec 23°C) during C-H-R exposure and its recovery to Trec 37°C at normal atmospheric pressure and 32 ± 1°C were used as biomarkers of anti-stress and adaptogenic activity. Biochemical parameters related to lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidants, cell membrane permeability, nitric oxide and stress, with and without administration of the least effective l-arginine dose, were measured in rats on attaining Trec 23°C and Trec 37°C. The least effective adaptogenic dose of l-arginine was 100.0 mg/kg body weight. The C-H-R exposure of control rats, on attaining Trec 23°C, resulted in a significant increase in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and a decrease in blood catalase (CAT) and plasma testosterone levels. On recovery (Trec 37°C) of control rats, there was a further decrease in CAT and plasma testosterone, and an increase in LDH. l-Arginine supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in plasma MDA, an increase in blood superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT levels maintained at control values and a lower increase in LDH compared with controls (45.3 versus 58.5% and 21.5 versus 105.2%) on attaining Trec 23°C during C-H-R exposure and on recovery to Trec 37°C. The results suggested that l-arginine possesses potent anti-stress activity during C-H-R exposure and recovery from C-H-R-induced hypothermia. PMID:15841283



Dual antiplatelet therapy with or without oral anticoagulation in the postdischarge management of acute coronary syndrome patients with an indication for long term anticoagulation: a systematic review.  


Currently, there is a lack of consensus among guidelines for the postdischarge treatment of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who have a long-term indication for anticoagulation. We conducted a systematic review comparing the safety and effectiveness of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and triple therapy (TT; defined as DAPT plus an oral anticoagulant) in patients with ACS and a long-term indication for anticoagulation. We searched for clinical studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published between January 1995 and September 2013. Each investigator screened and abstracted data, assessed applicability and quality, and graded the strength of evidence. Meta-analysis of direct comparison was performed when outcomes and follow-up periods were comparable. Fourteen observational studies were identified that contained comparative effectiveness data on DAPT versus TT. No difference in the odds of mortality (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.59-1.83) or stroke (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.38-2.67) at 1-5 years was found between TT and DAPT. Major bleeding at 1-5 years (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-2.00) and nonfatal MI at 1-5 years (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.13-3.02) occurred more frequently in patients receiving TT. The results of this systematic review demonstrate that treatment with TT was associated with increased rates of nonfatal MI and major bleeding when compared with treatment with DAPT in the postdischarge management of ACS patients with an indication for oral anticoagulation. Until results of ongoing randomized trials assessing antithrombotic therapies define optimal management strategies, the current analysis suggests using caution when prescribing TT to these patients. PMID:24891133

Washam, Jeffrey B; Dolor, Rowena J; Jones, W Schuyler; Halim, Sharif A; Hasselblad, Victor; Mayer, Stephanie B; Heidenfelder, Brooke L; Melloni, Chiara



Responses of dairy cattle to long-term and short-term supplementation with oral selenium and vitamin E  

SciTech Connect

In a two-lactation-gestation cycle experiment, 152 Holstein cows with low serum Se and vitamin E were fed total mixed rations and assigned at parturition to four groups (1, control; 2, 500 IU vitamin E/d; 3, 2 mg Se/d; 4, 500 IU vitamin E plus 2 mg Se/d). Supplements were not fed during dry periods. Serium Se and vitamin E were increased within 1 mo by oral supplements. Maximal mean serum Se in cycles 1 and 2 occurred in groups 3 and 4, respectively. Maximal mean serum vitamin E in cycle 1 and 2 occurred in groups 4 and 2, respectively. Selenium treatment of the dams increased Se in colostrum and in serum of presuckle calves. Vitamin E supplementation of dams did not affect vitamin E in serum of presuckled calves. Reproductive performance was not affected by supplement. In an 8-wk study, 24 lactating cows with low serum Se were assigned (6/group) to 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg supplemental Se/d. Maximal mean serum Se concentrations of 23, 56, 71, and 79 ng/ml were attained by wk 4 in the above respective groups. These data indicate that 2 to 2.5 mg supplemental Se/cow per d were inadequate for desirable serum Se concentrations and support recent changes in allowed Se supplementation for dairy cattle.

Stowe, H.D.; Thomas, J.W.; Johnson, T.; Marteniuk, J.V.; Morrow, D.A.; Ullrey, D.E. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))



L-arginine and Vitamin D Adjunctive Therapies in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin D (vitD) and L-arginine have important antimycobacterial effects in humans. Adjunctive therapy with these agents has the potential to improve outcomes in active tuberculosis (TB). Methods In a 4-arm randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial trial in adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Timika, Indonesia, we tested the effect of oral adjunctive vitD 50,000 IU 4-weekly or matching placebo, and L-arginine 6.0 g daily or matching placebo, for 8 weeks, on proportions of participants with negative 4-week sputum culture, and on an 8-week clinical score (weight, FEV1, cough, sputum, haemoptysis). All participants with available endpoints were included in analyses according to the study arm to which they were originally assigned. Adults with new smear-positive PTB were eligible. The trial was registered at NCT00677339. Results 200 participants were enrolled, less than the intended sample size: 50 received L-arginine + active vitD, 49 received L-arginine + placebo vit D, 51 received placebo L-arginine + active vitD and 50 received placebo L-arginine + placebo vitD. According to the factorial model, 99 people received arginine, 101 placebo arginine, 101 vitamin D, 99 placebo vitamin D. Results for the primary endpoints were available in 155 (4-week culture) and 167 (clinical score) participants. Sputum culture conversion was achieved by week 4 in 48/76 (63%) participants in the active L-arginine versus 48/79 (61%) in placebo L-arginine arms (risk difference ?3%, 95% CI ?19 to 13%), and in 44/75 (59%) in the active vitD versus 52/80 (65%) in the placebo vitD arms (risk difference 7%, 95% CI ?9 to 22%). The mean clinical outcome score also did not differ between study arms. There were no effects of the interventions on adverse event rates including hypercalcaemia, or other secondary outcomes. Conclusion Neither vitD nor L-arginine supplementation, at the doses administered and with the power attained, affected TB outcomes. Registry Registry number: NCT00677339 PMID:23967066

Ralph, Anna P.; Waramori, Govert; Pontororing, Gysje J.; Kenangalem, Enny; Wiguna, Andri; Tjitra, Emiliana; Sandjaja; Lolong, Dina B.; Yeo, Tsin W.; Chatfield, Mark D.; Soemanto, Retno K.; Bastian, Ivan; Lumb, Richard; Maguire, Graeme P.; Eisman, John; Price, Ric N.; Morris, Peter S.; Kelly, Paul M.; Anstey, Nicholas M.



Long-Term Oral Nutrition Supplementation Improves Outcomes in Malnourished Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease on Hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Background: There is no consensus on the type, time of initiation, or duration of use of enteral nutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to compare the effects of a renal-specific oral nutrition supplement (RS-ONS) and a standard recommended nutrition regime on biochemical and nutrition markers in malnourished patients with CKD on hemodialysis. Methods: Sixty-two malnourished patients with CKD, divided into experimental (RS-ONS; n = 32; mean [SD] age, 62.0 [11.3] years; 55.2% female) and control (CON; n = 30; mean [SD] age, 57.2 [12.3] years; 31% female) groups, were evaluated for anthropometric, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters. Results: Mean (SD) serum albumin levels were significantly increased in the RS-ONS group from 3.5 (0.3) g/dL at baseline to 3.7 (0.2) g/dL at 6 months (P = .028). Significantly fewer patients had serum albumin levels of <3.5 g/dL after month 6. Dry weight of patients significantly increased in the RS-ONS but decreased in the CON groups (P < .001 for each). Percent change from baseline revealed negative results for bioelectrical impedance analysis (P < .001) in the CON group. Malnutrition inflammation score at 6 months (P = .006) and erythropoietin (EPO) dose requirements were higher in the CON group (P = .012). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that consuming RS-ONS improves serum albumin and anthropometric measures, as well as reduces EPO dose, in patients with CKD. PMID:24436491

Bal, Zeynep; Tutal, Emre; Uyar, Mehtap Erkmen; Acar, Nurhan Ozdemir



Long-Term Oral Methylphenidate Treatment in Adolescent and Adult Rats: Differential Effects on Brain Morphology and Function  

PubMed Central

Methylphenidate is a widely prescribed psychostimulant for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, which raises questions regarding its potential interference with the developing brain. In the present study, we investigated effects of 3 weeks oral methylphenidate (5?mg/kg) vs vehicle treatment on brain structure and function in adolescent (post-natal day [P]25) and adult (P65) rats. Following a 1-week washout period, we used multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess effects of age and treatment on independent component analysis-based functional connectivity (resting-state functional MRI), D-amphetamine-induced neural activation responses (pharmacological MRI), gray and white matter tissue volumes and cortical thickness (postmortem structural MRI), and white matter structural integrity (postmortem diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)). Many age-related differences were found, including cortical thinning, white matter development, larger dopamine-mediated activation responses and increased striatal functional connectivity. Methylphenidate reduced anterior cingulate cortical network strength in both adolescents and adults. In contrast to clinical observations from ADHD patient studies, methylphenidate did not increase white matter tissue volume or cortical thickness in rat. Nevertheless, DTI-based fractional anisotropy was higher in the anterior part of the corpus callosum following adolescent treatment. Furthermore, methylphenidate differentially affected adolescents and adults as evidenced by reduced striatal volume and myelination upon adolescent treatment, although we did not observe adverse treatment effects on striatal functional activity. Our findings of small but significant age-dependent effects of psychostimulant treatment in the striatum of healthy rats highlights the importance of further research in children and adolescents that are exposed to methylphenidate. PMID:23851400

van der Marel, Kajo; Klomp, Anne; Meerhoff, Gideon F; Schipper, Pieter; Lucassen, Paul J; Homberg, Judith R; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Reneman, Liesbeth



A Prospective Study Comparing the Long-term Effectiveness of Injectable Risperidone Long-acting Therapy and Oral Aripiprazole in Patients with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To test the hypothesis that long-term maintenance with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy is superior to oral daily aripiprazole in stable patients with schizophrenia. Design: This two-year, rater-blinded, open-label, multicenter study (NCT00299702) randomized subjects to injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (25–50mg, injected every 2 weeks) or oral aripiprazole (5–30mg/day), with study visits every two weeks. Subjects who met relapse criteria or discontinued study drug could remain in the study. Setting: Clinical trial. Participants: Stable subjects with schizophrenia not adequately benefiting from current treatment who experienced two or more relapses in the past two years. If recently relapsed, subjects were stabilized (per clinician judgment) for two or more months before entry. Measurements: Primary endpoints: time to relapse and time in remission. Safety assessments included adverse event reporting. Results: Of 355 subjects randomized, 349 were in the intent-to-treat analysis set. Data inspection revealed that 53 (14.9%) randomized subjects deviated from inclusion/exclusion criteria, most commonly not meeting stability requirements. At baseline, mean (standard deviation [SD]) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score was 68.9 (14.6); 115 (33.0%) intent-to-treat subjects met remission criteria. Approximately 29 percent in each group discontinued the study before completing two years. No significant between-group differences were noted in time to relapse or time in remission. No new tolerability issues were identified. Conclusion: Results failed to demonstrate superiority with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy versus oral aripiprazole. The study design did not allow for valid conclusions of equivalence or noninferiority. Although this study attempted to mimic a real-world treatment setting for stable patients, the broad study population, the lack of patient selection for nonadherence, biweekly visits, regular assessments, and other design issues limited generalizability and interpretation relative to the study hypothesis. PMID:21191530

Macfadden, Wayne; Ma, Yi-Wen; Thomas Haskins, J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.



The role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of spontaneous murine autoimmune disease: increased nitric oxide production and nitric oxide synthase expression in MRL-lpr/lpr mice, and reduction of spontaneous glomerulonephritis and arthritis by orally administered NG-monomethyl-L- arginine  

PubMed Central

MRL-lpr/lpr mice spontaneously develop various manifestations of autoimmunity including an inflammatory arthropathy and immune complex glomerulonephritis. This study examines the role of nitric oxide, a molecule with proinflammatory actions, in the pathogenesis of MRL- lpr/lpr autoimmune disease. MRL-lpr/lpr mice excreted more urinary nitrite/nitrate (an in vivo marker of nitric oxide production) than did mice of normal strains and MRL-(+/+) and B6-lpr/lpr congenic strains. In addition, MRL-lpr/lpr peritoneal macrophages had an enhanced capacity to produce nitric oxide in vitro as well as increased nitric oxide synthase activity, and certain tissues from MRL-lpr/lpr mice had increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA and increased amounts of material immunoreactive for inducible NOS. Oral administration of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, prevented the development of glomerulonephritis and reduced the intensity of inflammatory arthritis in MRL-lpr/lpr mice. By using interspecific backcross mice, the gene for inducible NOS (Nosi) was mapped to mouse chromosome 11. This chromosomal localization was different from those loci that we have previously demonstrated to be linked to enhanced susceptibility to renal disease in an MRL-lpr/lpr cross. However, the chromosomal location of the NOS gene was consistent with an insulin-dependent diabetes locus identified in an analysis of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. These results suggest that elevated nitric oxide production could be important in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, and that treatments to block the production of nitric oxide or block its effects might be valuable therapeutically. PMID:7507509



Regulation of macrophage functions by L-arginine  

PubMed Central

Sites of inflammation with prominent macrophage infiltration, such as wounds and certain tumors, are uniquely deficient in free arginine. The effects of arginine availability on macrophage physiology were investigated. When cultured in media containing less than 0.1 mM L- arginine, rat resident peritoneal macrophages exhibited enhanced spreading, tumor cytotoxicity, superoxide production, phagocytosis, and protein synthesis. Thus, arginine concentrations similar to those found in sites of inflammation can augment macrophage functions, while those found in plasma (approximately 0.1 mM) and in commonly used culture media (0.4 to 1.2 mM) are inhibitory. Culture in homoarginine, but not D-arginine, ornithine, citrulline, urea, histidine, or lysine also inhibited macrophage tumor cytotoxicity, indicating the specificity of the effect. In contrast to resident macrophages, the tumor cytotoxicity of peritoneal macrophages obtained after C. parvum injection was suppressed by culture in arginine-deficient media. However, L-arginine- deficient media enhanced all other activation-associated functions in C. parvum-elicited macrophages as in resident cells. Arginine-free wound fluid promoted resident macrophage tumoricidal activity when compared with rat serum, and again, the addition of L-arginine was inhibitory. The marked effects of L-arginine availability on macrophage functions, together with the knowledge that these cells modify the extracellular arginine concentration in sites of inflammation through arginase, provide evidence for an autoregulatory mechanism of macrophage activation. PMID:2538541




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary L-arginine supplementation on the production performance of pregnant gilts. A total of 53 pregnant gilts with an initial body weight of 166.25 plus or minus 1.81 kg and backfat thickness of 13.26 plus or minus 0.21 mm were housed individual...


l-Arginine is a Radioprotector for Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells  

PubMed Central

l-Arginine is shown to protect hematopoietic progenitor (32D cl 3) cells from death due to exposure to ? radiation (137Cs). Some of the other intermediates in the urea cycle, namely ornithine and citrulline, plus urea itself, were not found to have any significant impact on cell survival after irradiation. Intriguingly, supplementation of irradiated cells with l-arginine results in decreased production of peroxynitrite, suggesting that suppression of superoxide generation by nitric oxide synthase in one or more microenvironments is an important factor in the observed radioprotection. The absence of any radioprotective effect of l-arginine in cells at 3% oxygen also confirms the involvement of one or more oxygen-derived species. Knockdown experiments with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) siRNAs in cells and NOS knockout animals confirm that the observed radioprotection is associated with nNOS (NOS-1). l-Arginine also ameliorates the transient inhibition of the electron-transport chain complex I that occurs within 30 min of completing the dose (10 Gy) and that appears to be a functional marker for postirradiation mitochondrial oxidant production. PMID:22175298

Pearce, Linda L.; Zheng, Xichen; Martinez-Bosch, Sandra; Kerr, Patrick P.; Khlangwiset, Pornsri; Epperly, Michael W.; Fink, Mitchell P.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Peterson, Jim



Effects of Adenosine Monophosphate Used in Combination with L-Arginine on Female Rabbit Corpus Cavernosum Tissue  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sexual dysfunction is significantly more prevalent in women than in men. However, to date, no satisfactory oral treatment is yet available. Aim The aim of this study was to study the effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) alone or its combination with L-Arginine on the relaxation of the female rabbit corpus cavernosum. Methods Cylinder strips from the corporal body of the excised clitoris from female New Zealand White rabbits were incubated in Krebs solution. Phenylephrine (PE) precontraction was achieved, then the drugs AMP and L-Arginine were administered either independently or in sequential combinations to the strips under precontracted conditions. Main Outcome Measures Contraction percentages were compared. Results When precontraction was induced by PE 8 ?M or 20 ?M, AMP was shown to induce relaxation up to 25% in a dose-dependent manner. The relaxation induced by L-Arginine reached 15.6% at 5.10?4 M vs. 16.5% at AMP 5.10?4 M under the same experimental conditions. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine strongly inhibited the relaxing effect provoked by AMP, suggesting that the action mechanism of this nucleotide is related to the NO pathway. The combination of L-Arginine at 5.10?4 M with AMP at different doses ranging from 5.10?4 M to 10?3 M significantly amplified the relaxing response up to 40.7% and 58%, respectively. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that AMP induces a relaxing effect on the female rabbit corpora. They also show that L-Arginine and AMP can potentiate each other and that a synergistic effect can be obtained by their combined use. Because only slight differences exist between both sexes in response to NO donors and/or nucleotide purines or in their use together, it is very likely that close biochemical mechanisms, although not to the same degree and not quite similar, are involved in the engorgement of the penis and the clitoris of New Zealand White rabbits. Stücker O, Pons C, Neuzillet Y, Laemmel E, and Lebret T. Original research-sexual medicine: Effects of adenosine monophosphate used in combination with L-Arginine on female rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue. Sex Med 2014;2:1–7. PMID:25356295

Stücker, Olivier; Pons, Catherine; Neuzillet, Yann; Laemmel, Elisabeth; Lebret, Thierry



Long-term efficacy of psoriasis vulgaris treatments: analysis of treatment with topical corticosteroid and/or vitamin D3 analog, oral cyclosporin, etretinate and phototherapy over a 35-year period, 1975-2010.  


Various therapies have been tried for psoriasis. In Japan, biologics began to be used for psoriasis treatment in January 2010. Their clinical efficacy is well known, but biologics cannot be used in all psoriasis patients for reasons such as side-effects and cost. It is necessary to evaluate the effect of long-term psoriasis treatment, but there have been no reports evaluating long-term treatment. Therefore, the outcomes of patients who had been treated at the Tokai University Hospital for more than 5 years, before biological agents were released, were examined. Three categories, classified by initial severity, changes in severity by method of treatment and background characteristics, were investigated. In conclusion, cases of long-term treatment with a combination of topical corticosteroid and topical vitamin D3 analog or oral cyclosporin were found to be effective therapies. Patients with a history of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease of psoriasis were likely to be treatment resistant. PMID:23330814

Akasaka, Emiko; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Manabe, Yasuaki; Yahagi, Eiichiro; Yamada-Hiruma, Azusa; Yamaoka, Hanako; Kojima, Tomoko; Kato, Masayuki; Ikoma, Norihiro; Ozawa, Akira; Haruki, Yasuo



Long Term Ecological Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze data on temperature and precipitation collected from 26 different Long Term Ecological Research sites and compare them with annual net primary productivity. The students then form an ecological rule to explain their results.

Scott Cooper


Intracellular L-arginine concentration does not determine NO production in endothelial cells: Implications on the 'L-arginine paradox'  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our findings provide a possible solution to the 'L-arginine paradox'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular L-arginine concentration is the major determinant of NO production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular L-arginine action is limited by cellular ARG transport, not the K{sub m} of NOS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explain how L-arginine supplementation can work to increase endothelial function. -- Abstract: We examined the relative contributory roles of extracellular vs. intracellular L-arginine (ARG) toward cellular activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were incubated with different concentrations of {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG, ARG, or L-arginine ethyl ester (ARG-EE) for 2 h. To modulate ARG transport, siRNA for ARG transporter (CAT-1) vs. sham siRNA were transfected into cells. ARG transport activity was assessed by cellular fluxes of ARG, {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG, dimethylarginines, and L-citrulline by an LC-MS/MS assay. eNOS activity was determined by nitrite/nitrate accumulation, either via a fluorometric assay or by{sup 15}N-nitrite or estimated {sup 15}N{sub 3}-citrulline concentrations when {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG was used to challenge the cells. We found that ARG-EE incubation increased cellular ARG concentration but no increase in nitrite/nitrate was observed, while ARG incubation increased both cellular ARG concentration and nitrite accumulation. Cellular nitrite/nitrate production did not correlate with cellular total ARG concentration. Reduced {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG cellular uptake in CAT-1 siRNA transfected cells vs. control was accompanied by reduced eNOS activity, as determined by {sup 15}N-nitrite, total nitrite and {sup 15}N{sub 3}-citrulline formation. Our data suggest that extracellular ARG, not intracellular ARG, is the major determinant of NO production in endothelial cells. It is likely that once transported inside the cell, ARG can no longer gain access to the membrane-bound eNOS. These observations indicate that the 'L-arginine paradox' should not consider intracellular ARG concentration as a reference point.

Shin, Soyoung; Mohan, Srinidi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Fung, Ho-Leung, E-mail: [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)



The effects of topical L-arginine and Ng-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester after experimental acute spinal cord injury. A light and electron microscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of topical L-arginine and Ng-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester\\u000a vs the role of ischemia in contributing to secondary injury after experimental acute spinal cord trauma. Twenty-six rabbits\\u000a were submitted to spinal cord compression at the T7\\/8 level. The animals were divided into three groups: no applied drug (n=6), L-arginine (n=10),

Nurullah Yüceer; Hakan Tuna; Ayhan Attar; Mustafa F. Sargon; Nihat Egemen



A novel L-arginine salt nonlinear optical crystal: L-arginine p-nitrobenzoate monohydrate (LANB)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel L-arginine salt nonlinear optical single crystal, L-arginine p-nitrobenzoate monohydrate (LANB) has been grown by slow cooling method from aqueous solution. Its solubility at different temperatures in water was measured. The grown crystal was characterized by the elemental analyses, X-ray single crystal and powder diffractions, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra. The structure analysis revealed that LANB belongs to the monoclinic crystallographic system, space group P21, with unit cell parameters: a = 8.566(3), b = 5.817(2), c = 17.131(7) Å, ? = 101.223(5)°, Z = 2 and V = 837.2(6) Å3. The proton and carbon configurations of L-arginine were confirmed through 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra analyses. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of LANB crystal were studied by the use of transmission spectrum and second harmonic generation (SHG). The thermal properties were investigated by using thermo gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA).

Wang, L.; Zhang, G. H.; Liu, X. T.; Wang, L. N.; Wang, X. Q.; Zhu, L. Y.; Xu, D.



Dietary L-arginine supplementation enhances intestinal development and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in weanling piglets.  


Oral administration of L-arginine has been reported to prevent gut disease in human infants. However, little is known about the effects of dietary arginine supplementation on intestinal development of weaned piglets. In the present study, twenty 21-d-old castrated piglets with 5·3 (SEM 0·13) kg body weight (BW) were weaned from sows, individually housed and randomly assigned to one of the two maize- and soyabean meal-based diets supplemented with 0 or 1% L-arginine. After consuming the diets for 7 d, six pigs were randomly selected from each group to obtain various tissues. Compared with control pigs, dietary supplementation with 1% L-arginine did not affect feed intake but enhanced (P<0·05) the relative weight of the small intestine (+33 %), daily BW gain (+38 %) and feed efficiency (+28 %). The villus height of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in arginine-supplemented piglets was 21, 28 and 25% greater (P<0·05) than in the nonsupplemented control group. Arginine supplementation increased (P<0·05) protein levels for vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in duodenal, jejunal and ileal mucosae by 14, 39 and 35 %, respectively. Compared with the control group, dietary supplementation with 1% L-arginine increased (P<0·05) plasma concentrations of arginine and insulin (+36 %), and decreased (P<0·05) plasma concentrations of cortisol (233 %), NH3 (221 %) and urea (219 %). These results indicate that arginine supplementation enhances intestinal growth, development and expression of VEGF in early-weaned pigs fed a maize- and soyabean meal-based diet. The findings may have important implications for neonatal pigs under stressful or diseased conditions. PMID:21219670

Yao, Kang; Guan, Shu; Li, Tiejun; Huang, Ruilin; Wu, Guoyao; Ruan, Zheng; Yin, Yulong



[Stapedectomy: long term results].  


Stapedectomy, with its most innovatory variations, constitutes the treatment of choice for otoesclerosis. Short term results are spectacular, getting GAP closures of less than 5 dB approximatelly in 94% patients, variations depending on the authors. Long term follow up check results show a gradual auditory deterioration. The aim of this study is to audiometric evolution of patients operated of stapedectomy 7 to 10 years ago in our department and to correlate the results with those obtained by other authors, in an attempt to unify conclusions. PMID:12185900

Hernández Montero, E; Fraile Rodrigo, J; Marín Garrido, C; Sampériz, L Carmen; Llorente Arenas, E; Naya Gálvez, M J; Ortiz García, A



Long-term conditions.  


Technology enabled care services (TECS), which include technologies such as telehealth, telecare, telemedicine and self-care apps, are designed to help people manage long-term conditions and retain as much independence as possible. The NHS Commissioning Assembly has published TECS Resource for Commissioners, a toolkit that raises awareness of the range of TECS available and their benefits to patients and professionals, supports commissioners to collaborate with providers to implement TECS, and advises how to create a TECS strategy, oversee implementation plans and ensure effective evaluation. The publication is at PMID:25806457



L-Arginine Metabolism in Dog Kidney and Isolated Nephron Segments Olivier Levillain1  

E-print Network

- 1 - L-Arginine Metabolism in Dog Kidney and Isolated Nephron Segments Olivier Levillain1 , Daniel Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H2L 4M1, Canada short title : L-Arginine Metabolism in Dog Kidney-ornithine catabolism take place in the dog kidney. We examined the metabolic of L-arginine in dog cortical tubules

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Malaria-Associated l-Arginine Deficiency Induces Mast Cell-Associated Disruption to Intestinal Barrier Defenses against Nontyphoidal Salmonella Bacteremia  

PubMed Central

Coinfection with malaria and nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can cause life-threatening bacteremia in humans. Coinfection with malaria is a recognized risk factor for invasive NTS, suggesting that malaria impairs intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated mechanisms and strategies for prevention of coinfection pathology in a mouse model. Our findings reveal that malarial-parasite-infected mice, like humans, develop l-arginine deficiency, which is associated with intestinal mastocytosis, elevated levels of histamine, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Prevention or reversal of l-arginine deficiency blunts mastocytosis in ileal villi as well as bacterial translocation, measured as numbers of mesenteric lymph node CFU of noninvasive Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the latter of which is naturally invasive in mice. Dietary supplementation of malarial-parasite-infected mice with l-arginine or l-citrulline reduced levels of ileal transcripts encoding interleukin-4 (IL-4), a key mediator of intestinal mastocytosis and macromolecular permeability. Supplementation with l-citrulline also enhanced epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the ilea of coinfected mice. These data suggest that increasing l-arginine bioavailability via oral supplementation can ameliorate malaria-induced intestinal pathology, providing a basis for testing nutritional interventions to reduce malaria-associated mortality in humans. PMID:23690397

Chau, Jennifer Y.; Tiffany, Caitlin M.; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Lawrence, Jessica A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Mooney, Jason P.; Lokken, Kristen L.; Caughey, George H.; Tsolis, Renee M.



CD4 Lymphocyte Count and CD4\\/CD8 Ratio in Elderly Long-Term Care Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: Comparison Between Oral and Tube Enteral Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many institutionalized elderly patients are at risk of undernutrition as a result of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) that possibly affects their immunological status. Tube enteral fed (TEF) patients on controlled intake of nutrients enables us to evaluate the effect of inadequate nutrition on the immune system in the orally fed elderly with OD. The aim of our study was to compare

A. Leibovitz; R. Segal; L. Blavat; S. Peller; B. Habot



Inhibition of renal nitric oxide synthesis with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine and NG-nitro-L-arginine.  


In barbiturate-anesthetized dogs, the effects of intrarenal infusion of the two selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and NG-nitro-L-arginine (NO-Arg), were compared. Basal renal blood flow (RBF) was reduced by 15 +/- 2% after L-NMMA at 0.28 mumol/ml, by 20 +/- 3% after NO-Arg at 0.07 mumol/ml, and by 31 +/- 5% after NO-Arg at 0.56 mumol/ml. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation induced by intrarenal infusion of acetylcholine was unaltered after L-NMMA, reduced by 24 +/- 3% after NO-Arg at 0.07 mumol/ml, and reduced by 59 +/- 13% after NO-Arg at 0.56 mumol/ml. Endothelium-independent vasodilation induced by intrarenal infusion of atrial natriuretic factor was not reduced after L-NMMA and NO-Arg. This study shows that NO-Arg is more potent than L-NMMA in inhibiting basal renal nitric oxide synthesis. In contrast to L-NMMA, NO-Arg exerted an inhibitory effect on acetylcholine-induced renal vasodilation. Our findings indicate that one-third of the basal RBF and more than one-half of the increase in RBF during acetylcholine infusion are dependent on nitric oxide synthesis. PMID:1535755

Naess, P A; Kirkebøen, K A; Christensen, G; Kiil, F



Long-term exposure to oral methylphenidate or dl-amphetamine mixture in peri-adolescent rhesus monkeys: effects on physiology, behavior, and dopamine system development.  


The stimulants methylphenidate and amphetamine are used to treat children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder over important developmental periods, prompting concerns regarding possible long-term health impact. This study assessed the effects of such a regimen in male, peri-adolescent rhesus monkeys on a variety of cognitive/behavioral, physiological, and in vivo neurochemical imaging parameters. Twice daily (0900 and 1200 hours), for a total of 18 months, juvenile male monkeys (8 per group) consumed either an unadulterated orange-flavored solution, a methylphenidate solution, or a dl-amphetamine mixture. Doses were titrated to reach blood/plasma levels comparable to therapeutic levels in children. [¹¹C]MPH and [¹¹C]raclopride dynamic PET scans were performed to image dopamine transporter and D?-like receptors, respectively. Binding potential (BP(ND)), an index of tracer-specific binding, and amphetamine-induced changes in BP(ND) of [¹¹C]raclopride were estimated by kinetic modeling. There were no consistent differences among groups on the vast majority of measures, including cognitive (psychomotor speed, timing, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility), general activity, physiological (body weight, head circumference, crown-to-rump length), and neurochemical (ie, developmental changes in dopamine transporter, dopamine D? receptor density, and amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release were as expected). Cytogenetic studies indicated that neither drug was a clastogen in rhesus monkeys. Thus, methylphenidate and amphetamine at therapeutic blood/plasma levels during peri-adolescence in non-human primates have little effect on physiological or behavioral/cognitive development. PMID:22805599

Soto, Paul L; Wilcox, Kristin M; Zhou, Yun; Kumar, Anil; Ator, Nancy A; Riddle, Mark A; Wong, Dean F; Weed, Michael R



Long-Term Exposure to Oral Methylphenidate or dl-Amphetamine Mixture in Peri-Adolescent Rhesus Monkeys: Effects on Physiology, Behavior, and Dopamine System Development  

PubMed Central

The stimulants methylphenidate and amphetamine are used to treat children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder over important developmental periods, prompting concerns regarding possible long-term health impact. This study assessed the effects of such a regimen in male, peri-adolescent rhesus monkeys on a variety of cognitive/behavioral, physiological, and in vivo neurochemical imaging parameters. Twice daily (0900 and 1200?hours), for a total of 18 months, juvenile male monkeys (8 per group) consumed either an unadulterated orange-flavored solution, a methylphenidate solution, or a dl-amphetamine mixture. Doses were titrated to reach blood/plasma levels comparable to therapeutic levels in children. [11C]MPH and [11C]raclopride dynamic PET scans were performed to image dopamine transporter and D2-like receptors, respectively. Binding potential (BPND), an index of tracer-specific binding, and amphetamine-induced changes in BPND of [11C]raclopride were estimated by kinetic modeling. There were no consistent differences among groups on the vast majority of measures, including cognitive (psychomotor speed, timing, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility), general activity, physiological (body weight, head circumference, crown-to-rump length), and neurochemical (ie, developmental changes in dopamine transporter, dopamine D2 receptor density, and amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release were as expected). Cytogenetic studies indicated that neither drug was a clastogen in rhesus monkeys. Thus, methylphenidate and amphetamine at therapeutic blood/plasma levels during peri-adolescence in non-human primates have little effect on physiological or behavioral/cognitive development. PMID:22805599

Soto, Paul L; Wilcox, Kristin M; Zhou, Yun; Ator, Nancy A; Riddle, Mark A; Wong, Dean F; Weed, Michael R



Characterization of casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films.  


Thin films containing casein appear to be a promising material for coatings used in the medical area to promote biomineralization. ?- and ?-casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films were formed by the layer-by layer technique and their thickness and mass were analyzed by ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). (PLArg/casein) films deposited in 0.15M NaCl exhibit fast (exponential-like) growth of the film thickness with the number of layers. The resulting films were c.a. 10 times thicker than obtained for poly-L-arginine and natural polyanions. We investigated the effect of the type of casein used for the film formation, finding that films with ?-casein were slightly thicker than ones with ?-casein. The effect of polyethylene imine anchoring layer on the thickness and mass of adsorbed films was similar as for linear polyelectrolyte pairs. Thickness of "wet" films was c.a. two times larger than measured after drying that suggests their large hydration. The analysis of the mass of films during their post-treatment with the solutions of various ionic strength and pH provided the information concerning films stability. Films remain stable in the neutral and weakly basic conditions that includes HEPES buffer, which is widely used in cell culture and biomedical experiments. At the conditions of high ionic strength films swell but their swelling is reversible. Films containing caseins as polyanion appear to be more elastic and the same time more viscous than one formed with polyelectrolyte pairs. XPS elemental analysis confirmed binding of calcium ions by the casein embedded in the multilayers. PMID:24703671

Szyk-Warszy?ska, Lilianna; Kilan, Katarzyna; Socha, Robert P



Long-term testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.


Probing of l Arginine as an Additive for the Temperature-Induced Aggregation of Veterinary Growth Hormones: Fluorescence Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of l-arginine on the temperature-induced aggregation of porcine and mink growth hormones was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy.\\u000a It was found that l-arginine suppresses the heat-induced aggregation. Moreover, the analysis of l-arginine interaction with the native proteins by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed no\\u000a significant changes in their native structure. On the basis of the results, l-arginine

Andrejus Cirkovas; Jolanta Sereikaite



Long-term contraceptives.  


To avoid unintended pregnancy, women in the UK need to consistently use reliable contraception for over 30 years. The long-acting reversible contraceptive methods compromise the progestogen-only implant, the progestogen-only injectable contraceptive, the copper-bearing intra-uterine device and the levonorgestrel-releasing intra-uterine system. These methods of contraception are highly reliable in pregnancy prevention, and are amongst the medically safest methods for users. Despite this, these long-acting methods are used by less than 10% of the UK population. National guidance has advised that increasing uptake of these long-acting methods will reduce the unplanned pregnancy rate. In addition, these methods are more cost effective than the oral contraceptive even at 1 year of use. Obstetricians and gynaecologists frequently come into contact with women requiring contraceptive advice, and should have a sound knowledge of the long-acting methods. PMID:20558111

Brown, Audrey



Dimethyl Fumarate Protects Pancreatic Islet Cells and Non-Endocrine Tissue in L-Arginine-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive disorder resulting in the destruction and fibrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma which ultimately leads to impairment of the endocrine and exocrine functions. Dimethyl Fumarate (DMF) was recently approved by FDA for treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. DMF's unique anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties make it an interesting drug to test on other inflammatory conditions. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of DMF on islet cells and non-endocrine tissue in a rodent model of L-Arginine-induced CP. Methods Male Wistar rats fed daily DMF (25 mg/kg) or vehicle by oral gavage were given 5 IP injections of L-Arginine (250 mg/100 g×2, 1 hr apart). Rats were assessed with weights and intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT, 2 g/kg). Islets were isolated and assessed for islet mass and viability with flow cytometry. Non-endocrine tissue was assessed for histology, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lipid peroxidation level (MDA). In vitro assessments included determination of heme oxygenase (HO-1) protein expression by Western blot. Results Weight gain was significantly reduced in untreated CP group at 6 weeks. IPGTT revealed significant impairment in untreated CP group and its restoration with DMF therapy (P <0.05). Untreated CP rats had pancreatic atrophy, severe acinar architectural damage, edema, and fatty infiltration as well as elevated MDA and MPO levels, which were significantly improved by DMF treatment. After islet isolation, the volume of non-endocrine tissue was significantly smaller in untreated CP group. Although islet counts were similar in the two groups, islet viability was significantly reduced in untreated CP group and improved with DMF treatment. In vitro incubation of human pancreatic tissue with DMF significantly increased HO-1 expression. Conclusion Administration of DMF attenuated L-Arginine-induced CP and islet function in rats. DMF treatment could be a possible strategy to improve clinical outcome in patients with CP. PMID:25198679

Robles, Lourdes; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Li, Shiri; Masuda, Yuichi; Takasu, Chie; Takasu, Mizuki; Vo, Kelly; Farzaneh, Seyed H.; Stamos, Michael J.; Ichii, Hirohito



Long-term oral administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine extends life span in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 knock-in mice.  


Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by extension of a CAG repeat in the Sca1gene. Although the mechanisms underlying the symptoms of SCA1 have not been determined, aberrant neuronal activation potentially contributes to the neuronal cell death characteristic of the disease. Here we examined the potential involvement of extrasynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation in the pathogenesis of SCA1 by administering memantine, a low-affinity noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist, in SCA1 knock-in (KI) mice. In KI mice, the exon in the ataxin 1 gene is replaced with abnormally expanded 154CAG repeats. Memantine was administered orally to the SCA1 KI mice from 4 weeks of age until death. The treatment significantly attenuated body-weight loss and prolonged the life span of SCA1 KI mice. Furthermore, memantine significantly suppressed the loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and motor neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, which are critical for motor function and parasympathetic function, respectively. These findings support the contribution of aberrant activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs to neuronal cell death in SCA1 KI mice and suggest that memantine may also have therapeutic benefits in human SCA1 patients. PMID:25725171

Iizuka, Akira; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Hirai, Hirokazu



L-arginine is essential for pancreatic ?-cell functional integrity, metabolism and defense from inflammatory challenge.  


In this work, our aim was to determine whether L-arginine (a known insulinotropic amino acid) can promote a shift of ?-cell intermediary metabolism favoring glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) antioxidant responses, stimulus-secretion coupling and functional integrity. Clonal BRIN-BD11 ?-cells and mouse islets were cultured for 24 h at various L-arginine concentrations (0-1.15 ?mmol/l) in the absence or presence of a proinflammatory cytokine cocktail (interleukin 1?, tumour necrosis factor ? and interferon ?). Cells were assessed for viability, insulin secretion, GSH, GSSG, glutamate, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide, urea, lactate and for the consumption of glucose and glutamine. Protein levels of NO synthase-2, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) were also evaluated. We found that L-arginine at 1.15 ?mmol/l attenuated the loss of ?-cell viability observed in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines. L-arginine increased total cellular GSH and glutamate levels but reduced the GSSG/GSH ratio and glutamate release. The amino acid stimulated glucose consumption in the presence of cytokines while also stimulating AMPK phosphorylation and HSP72 expression. Proinflammatory cytokines reduced, by at least 50%, chronic (24 h) insulin secretion, an effect partially attenuated by L-arginine. Acute insulin secretion was robustly stimulated by L-arginine but this effect was abolished in the presence of cytokines. We conclude that L-arginine can stimulate ?-cell insulin secretion, antioxidant and protective responses, enabling increased functional integrity of ?-cells and islets in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines. Glucose consumption and intermediary metabolism were increased by L-arginine. These results highlight the importance of L-arginine availability for ?-cells during inflammatory challenge. PMID:21784771

Krause, Mauricio S; McClenaghan, Neville H; Flatt, Peter R; de Bittencourt, Paulo I Homem; Murphy, Colin; Newsholme, Philip



Long-term follow-up of a phase 2 study of oral teriflunomide in relapsing multiple sclerosis: safety and efficacy results up to 8.5 years  

PubMed Central

Background: Teriflunomide, an oral disease-modifying therapy in development for patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS), was well tolerated and effective in reducing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in 179 RMS patients in a phase 2 36-week, placebo-controlled study. Methods: A total of 147 patients who completed the core study entered an open-label extension. Teriflunomide patients continued their assigned dose, and placebo patients were re-allocated to teriflunomide, 7 mg/day or 14 mg/day. An interim analysis was performed at a cut-off on January 8 2010. Results: The mean and median duration of study treatment, including both the core and extension phase, from baseline to the interim cut-off, was 5.6 years (standard deviation: 2.7 years) and 7.1 years (range: 0.05–8.5 years), respectively. Of 147 patients, 62 (42.2%) discontinued (19% due to treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs)). The most common TEAEs were mild infections, fatigue, sensory disturbances and diarrhoea. No serious opportunistic infections occurred, with no discontinuations due to infection. Asymptomatic alanine aminotransferase increases (?3× upper limit of normal (ULN)) were common (7 mg, 64.2%; 14 mg, 62.1%); increases >3×ULN were similar across groups (7 mg, 12.3%; 14 mg, 12.1%). Mild decreases in neutrophil counts occurred; none led to discontinuation. The incidence of malignancies was comparable to that of the general population, and cases were not reminiscent of those observed in immunocompromised patients. Annualised relapse rates remained low, minimal disability progression was observed, with a dose-dependent benefit with teriflunomide 14 mg for several MRI parameters. Conclusion: Teriflunomide had a favourable safety profile for up to 8.5 years. PMID:22307384

Li, David K; Freedman, Mark S; Truffinet, Philippe; Benzerdjeb, Hadj; Wang, Dazhe; Bar-Or, Amit; Traboulsee, Anthony L; Reiman, Lucy E; O’Connor, Paul W



Long-term environmental stewardship.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

Nagy, Michael David



Presynaptic long-term plasticity  

PubMed Central

Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole



Overweight and obesity increase the risk for liver cancer in patients with liver cirrhosis and long-term oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acid granules inhibits liver carcinogenesis in heavier patients with liver cirrhosis.  


We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial to investigate the effect of long-term oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the event-free survival in 622 patients with decompensated cirrhosis. In the present study, the development of liver cancer was analyzed as an endpoint in particular. Subjects received either treatment with BCAA at 12g/day or dietary therapy containing the matched daily energy and protein intake. A Cox regression analysis was carried out to estimate the hazard ratios for different background factors stratified by treatment group. Liver cancer was noted in 89 patients. The risk for liver cancer was significantly higher for males, patients with concurrent diabetes mellitus, patients with an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level of 20ng/mL or higher, patients with higher body mass index (BMI), and patients with lower serum albumin levels. When the BCAA group and the diet group were compared for factors that interacted with the treatment arms, the risk for liver cancer was significantly reduced in the BCAA group with a BMI of 25 or higher and with an AFP level of 20ng/mL or higher. Oral supplemental treatment with BCAA may reduce the risk of liver cancer in cirrhotic patients with these specific factors. PMID:16737844

Muto, Yasutoshi; Sato, Shunichi; Watanabe, Akiharu; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Kato, Akinobu; Kato, Masahiko; Nakamura, Teiji; Higuchi, Kiyohiro; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Kumada, Hiromitsu; Ohashi, Yasuo



New Insights into the Methodology of L-Arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Animal models are ideal to study the pathomechanism and therapy of acute pancreatitis (AP). The use of L-arginine-induced AP model is nowadays becoming increasingly popular in mice. However, carefully looking through the literature, marked differences in disease severity could be observed. In fact, while setting up the L-arginine (2×4 g/kg i.p.)-induced AP model in BALB/c mice, we found a relatively low rate (around 15%) of pancreatic necrosis, whereas others have detected much higher rates (up to 55%). We suspected that this may be due to differences between mouse strains. We administered various concentrations (5–30%, pH = 7.4) and doses (2×4, 3×3, or 4×2.5 g/kg) of L-arginine-HCl in BALB/c, FVB/n and C57BL/6 mice. The potential gender-specific effect of L-arginine was investigated in C57BL/6 mice. The fate of mice in response to the i.p. injections of L arginine followed one of three courses. Some mice (1) developed severe AP or (2) remained AP-free by 72 h, whereas others (3) had to be euthanized (to avoid their death, which was caused by the high dose of L-arginine and not AP) within 12 h., In FVB/n and C57BL/6 mice, the pancreatic necrosis rate (about 50%) was significantly higher than that observed in BALB/c mice using 2×4 g/kg 10% L–arginine, but euthanasia was necessary in a large proportion of animals, The i.p. injection of lower L-arginine concentrations (e.g. 5–8%) in case of the 2×4 g/kg dose, or other L-arginine doses (3×3 or 4×2.5 g/kg, 10%) were better for inducing AP. We could not detect any significant differences between the AP severity of male and female mice. Taken together, when setting up the L-arginine-induced AP model, there are several important factors that are worth consideration such as the dose and concentration of the administered L arginine-HCl solution and also the strain of mice. PMID:25688985

Kui, Balázs; Balla, Zsolt; Vasas, Béla; Végh, Eszter T.; Pallagi, Petra; Kormányos, Eszter S.; Venglovecz, Viktória; Iványi, Béla; Takács, Tamás; Hegyi, Péter; Rakonczay, Zoltán



New insights into the methodology of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis.  


Animal models are ideal to study the pathomechanism and therapy of acute pancreatitis (AP). The use of L-arginine-induced AP model is nowadays becoming increasingly popular in mice. However, carefully looking through the literature, marked differences in disease severity could be observed. In fact, while setting up the L-arginine (2×4 g/kg i.p.)-induced AP model in BALB/c mice, we found a relatively low rate (around 15%) of pancreatic necrosis, whereas others have detected much higher rates (up to 55%). We suspected that this may be due to differences between mouse strains. We administered various concentrations (5-30%, pH = 7.4) and doses (2×4, 3×3, or 4×2.5 g/kg) of L-arginine-HCl in BALB/c, FVB/n and C57BL/6 mice. The potential gender-specific effect of L-arginine was investigated in C57BL/6 mice. The fate of mice in response to the i.p. injections of L arginine followed one of three courses. Some mice (1) developed severe AP or (2) remained AP-free by 72 h, whereas others (3) had to be euthanized (to avoid their death, which was caused by the high dose of L-arginine and not AP) within 12 h., In FVB/n and C57BL/6 mice, the pancreatic necrosis rate (about 50%) was significantly higher than that observed in BALB/c mice using 2×4 g/kg 10% L-arginine, but euthanasia was necessary in a large proportion of animals, The i.p. injection of lower L-arginine concentrations (e.g. 5-8%) in case of the 2×4 g/kg dose, or other L-arginine doses (3×3 or 4×2.5 g/kg, 10%) were better for inducing AP. We could not detect any significant differences between the AP severity of male and female mice. Taken together, when setting up the L-arginine-induced AP model, there are several important factors that are worth consideration such as the dose and concentration of the administered L arginine-HCl solution and also the strain of mice. PMID:25688985

Kui, Balázs; Balla, Zsolt; Vasas, Béla; Végh, Eszter T; Pallagi, Petra; Kormányos, Eszter S; Venglovecz, Viktória; Iványi, Béla; Takács, Tamás; Hegyi, Péter; Rakonczay, Zoltán



Macrophage Cytotoxicity: Role for L-Arginine Deiminase and Imino Nitrogen Oxidation to Nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that cytotoxic activated macrophages cause inhibition of DNA synthesis, of mitochondrial respiration, and of aconitase activity in tumor target cells. An L-arginine-dependent biochemical pathway synthesizing L-citrulline and nitrite, coupled to an effector mechanism, is now shown to cause this pattern of metabolic inhibition. Murine cytotoxic activated macrophages synthesize L-citrulline and nitrite in the presence of L-arginine

John B. Hibbs; Read R. Taintor; Zdenek Vavrin



L-arginine polymers inhibit the development of vein graft neointimal hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to determine whether L-arginine polymer treatment of vein grafts enhances vascular production of nitric oxide and inhibits the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Methods: External jugular veins of New Zealand White rabbits (n = 42) were harvested; treated intraluminally for 15 minutes with phosphate-buffered saline solution or L-arginine polymer 5, 7, or 9 at either 10 or 100

Murray H. Kown; Atsushi Yamaguchi; Christina L. Jahncke; Douglas Miniati; Seiichiro Murata; Jurg Grunenfelder; Mark L. Koransky; Jonathan B. Rothbard; Robert C. Robbins



Effect of L-arginine on adrenal and renal blood flows during hemorrhage in cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of L-arginine on adrenal and renal blood flows during hemorrhage in cats. Our earlier studies have shown development of endothelial dysfunction in the feline renal artery during hemorrhagic hypotension. Because L-arginine (L-Arg), the precursor of nitric oxide (NO), reportedly improves endothelial function in several pathophysiological states including hypotension, we investigated its possible beneficial effect on the adrenal and renal

Zoltán Benyó; Csaba Szabó; Csilla Csáki; Michael Wahl; Arisztid G. B. Kovach; Péter Sándor



Basics (Long-Term Care)  


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Medicare (Long-Term Care)  


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l-Arginine currents in rat cardiac ventricular myocytes  

PubMed Central

l-Arginine (l-Arg) is a basic amino acid that plays a central role in the biosynthesis of nitric oxide, creatine, agmantine, polyamines, proline and glutamate. Most tissues, including myocardium, must import l-Arg from the circulation to ensure adequate intracellular levels of this amino acid. This study reports novel l-Arg-activated inward currents in whole-cell voltage-clamped rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Ion-substitution experiments identified extracellular l-Arg as the charge-carrying cationic species responsible for these currents, which, thus, represent l-Arg import into cardiac myocytes. This result was independently confirmed by an increase in myocyte nitric oxide production upon extracellular application of l-Arg. The inward movement of Arg molecules was found to be passive and independent of Na2+, K2+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. The process displayed saturation and membrane potential (Vm)-dependent kinetics, with a K0.5 for l-Arg that increased from 5 mm at hyperpolarizing Vm to 20 mm at +40 mV. l-Lysine and l-ornithine but not d-Arg produced currents with characteristics similar to that activated by l-Arg indicating that the transport process is stereospecific for cationic l-amino acids. l-Arg current was fully blocked after brief incubation with 0.2 mmN-ethylmaleimide. These features suggest that the activity of the low-affinity, high-capacity CAT-2A member of the y2+ family of transporters is responsible for l-Arg currents in acutely isolated cardiomyocytes. Regardless of the mechanism, we hypothesize that a low-affinity arginine transport process in heart, by ensuring substrate availability for sustained NO production, might play a cardio-protective role during catabolic states known to increase Arg plasma levels severalfold. PMID:17303641

Peluffo, R Daniel



Abnormal Mitochondrial L-Arginine Transport Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Heart Failure and Rexoygenation Injury  

PubMed Central

Background Impaired mitochondrial function is fundamental feature of heart failure (HF) and myocardial ischemia. In addition to the effects of heightened oxidative stress, altered nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, generated by a mitochondrial NO synthase, has also been proposed to impact upon mitochondrial function. However, the mechanism responsible for arginine transport into mitochondria and the effect of HF on such a process is unknown. We therefore aimed to characterize mitochondrial L-arginine transport and to investigate the hypothesis that impaired mitochondrial L-arginine transport plays a key role in the pathogenesis of heart failure and myocardial injury. Methods and Results In mitochondria isolated from failing hearts (sheep rapid pacing model and mouse Mst1 transgenic model) we demonstrated a marked reduction in L-arginine uptake (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively) and expression of the principal L-arginine transporter, CAT-1 (p<0.001, p<0.01) compared to controls. This was accompanied by significantly lower NO production and higher 3-nitrotyrosine levels (both p<0.05). The role of mitochondrial L-arginine transport in modulating cardiac stress responses was examined in cardiomyocytes with mitochondrial specific overexpression of CAT-1 (mtCAT1) exposed to hypoxia-reoxygenation stress. mtCAT1 cardiomyocytes had significantly improved mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration and ATP turnover together with significantly decreased reactive oxygen species production and cell death following mitochondrial stress. Conclusion These data provide new insights into the role of L-arginine transport in mitochondrial biology and cardiovascular disease. Augmentation of mitochondrial L-arginine availability may be a novel therapeutic strategy for myocardial disorders involving mitochondrial stress such as heart failure and reperfusion injury. PMID:25111602

Byrne, Melissa; Joshi, Mandar; Horlock, Duncan; Lam, Nicholas T.; Gregorevic, Paul; McGee, Sean L.; Kaye, David M.



Construction and Phenotypic Characterization of an Auxotrophic Mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Defective in L-Arginine Biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis defective in the metabolism of L-arginine was constructed by allelic exchange mutagenesis. The argF mutant strain required exogenous L-arginine for growth in vitro, and in the presence of 0.96 mM L-arginine, it achieved a growth rate and cell density in stationary phase comparable to those of the wild type. The mutant strain was also able

Bhavna G. Gordhan; Debbie A. Smith; Heidi Alderton; Ruth A. McAdam; Gregory J. Bancroft; Valerie Mizrahi



L-arginine enhances cell proliferation and reduces apoptosis in human endometrial RL95-2 cells  

PubMed Central

Background L-arginine is considered to be one of the most versatile amino acids due to the fact that it serves as a precursor for many important molecules in cellular physiology. When supplemented in the diet, L-arginine can increase the number of implantation sites in mice and rats, suggesting an effect at the level of the endometrium. To this end, this study determined the effect that L-arginine has on apoptosis and cell proliferation in human endometrial RL95-2 cells. Results L-arginine at physiological (200 micromol/L) and supra-physiological (800 micromol/L) concentrations increased cell proliferation at days 2 and 4 post-treatment with a dose-dependent effect being observed on day 2. Additionally, inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase and arginase, which are responsible for the conversion of L-arginine to NO and polyamines, respectively, reduced the proliferative effect of L-arginine. L-arginine also decreased the proportion of cells with TUNEL positive nuclei and increased the ratio of cells with healthy mitochondria compared to cells with a disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that L-arginine prevents mitochondrial mediated apoptosis in endometrial RL95-2 cells. Furthermore, exposure to L-arginine did not affect total BAD protein expression; however, L-arginine increased the abundance of phosphorylated BAD protein. Conclusions In summary, L-arginine added to the culture media at physiological (200 micromol/L) and supraphysiological concentrations (800 micromol/L) enhanced endometrial RL95-2 cell proliferation through mechanisms mediated by NO and polyamine biosynthesis. In addition, L-arginine reduced endometrial RL95-2 mitochondrial mediated apoptosis through increased phosphorylation of BAD protein. PMID:23442442



Dietary L-arginine supplementation affects the skeletal longissimus muscle proteome in finishing pigs.  


Forty-eight Duroc x Landrace x Large White gilts were used to determine the relationship between proteome changes of longissimus muscle and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in arginine-supplemented pigs. Beginning at 60 kg BW, pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented or not with 1% L-arginine until they reached a BW of 100 kg. Supplementation with 1% L-arginine did not affect the growth performance or carcass traits, while it increased IMF content by 32% (P < 0.01), it also decreased the drip loss at 48 h post-mortem and the b* meat color value at 24 h post-mortem; supplementation with 1% dietary L-arginine did not change the proportion of SFA and MUFA in muscle lipids. The proteome changes in longissimus muscle between the control and supplemented pigs showed that L-arginine significantly influenced the abundance of proteins related to energy metabolism, fiber type and structure. The increase in IMF content was positively correlated with the increased abundance of slow twitch troponin I (TNNI1) protein and negatively correlated with myosin heavy chain IIb (MyHC IIb) protein content. It is suggested that the proteome changes in longissimus muscle contributed to the greater IMF content in L-arginine supplemented pigs. PMID:25635834

Ma, Xianyong; Zheng, Chuntian; Hu, Youjun; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuefen; Jiang, Zongyong



Dietary L-Arginine Supplementation Affects the Skeletal Longissimus Muscle Proteome in Finishing Pigs  

PubMed Central

Forty-eight Duroc x Landrace x Large White gilts were used to determine the relationship between proteome changes of longissimus muscle and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in arginine-supplemented pigs. Beginning at 60 kg BW, pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented or not with 1% L-arginine until they reached a BW of 100 kg. Supplementation with 1% L-arginine did not affect the growth performance or carcass traits, while it increased IMF content by 32% (P < 0.01), it also decreased the drip loss at 48 h post-mortem and the b* meat color value at 24 h post-mortem; supplementation with 1% dietary L-arginine did not change the proportion of SFA and MUFA in muscle lipids. The proteome changes in longissimus muscle between the control and supplemented pigs showed that L-arginine significantly influenced the abundance of proteins related to energy metabolism, fiber type and structure. The increase in IMF content was positively correlated with the increased abundance of slow twitch troponin I (TNNI1) protein and negatively correlated with myosin heavy chain IIb (MyHC IIb) protein content. It is suggested that the proteome changes in longissimus muscle contributed to the greater IMF content in L-arginine supplemented pigs. PMID:25635834

Ma, Xianyong; Zheng, Chuntian; Hu, Youjun; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuefen; Jiang, Zongyong



Competitive metabolism of L-arginine: arginase as a therapeutic target in asthma?  

PubMed Central

Exhaled breath nitric oxide (NO) is an accepted asthma biomarker. Lung concentrations of NO and its amino acid precursor, L-arginine, are regulated by the relative expressions of the NO synthase (NOS) and arginase isoforms. Increased expression of arginase I and NOS2 occurs in murine models of allergic asthma and in biopsies of asthmatic airways. Although clinical trials involving the inhibition of NO-producing enzymes have shown mixed results, small molecule arginase inhibitors have shown potential as a therapeutic intervention in animal and cell culture models. Their transition to clinical trials is hampered by concerns regarding their safety and potential toxicity. In this review, we discuss the paradigm of arginase and NOS competition for their substrate L-arginine in the asthmatic airway. We address the functional role of L-arginine in inflammation and the potential role of arginase inhibitors as therapeutics. PMID:23554705

Bratt, Jennifer M.; Zeki, Amir A.; Last, Jerold A.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.



Long-term data archiving  

SciTech Connect

Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web Consortium, an independent standards body) as a new data interchange tool is being investigated and implemented. In order to facilitate data archiving, Raman data needs calibration as well as some other kinds of data treatment. Figure 1 illustrates schematically the present situation for Raman data calibration in the world-wide Raman spectroscopy community, and presents some of the terminology used.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory



The Metabolism of L-Arginine and Its Significance for the Biosynthesis of Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor: Cultured Endothelial Cells Recycle L- Citrulline to L-Arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the mechanism by which cultured endothelial cells generate L-arginine (L-Arg), the substrat for the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. When Arg-depleted endothelial cells were incubated in Krebs' solution for 60 min, L-Arg levels were significantly (9.7-fold) elevated. The generation of L-Arg coincided with a substantial decrease (90%) in intracellular L-glutamine (L-Gln), whereas all other amino acids were

Markus Hecker; William C. Sessa; Hayley J. Harris; Erik E. Anggard; John R. Vane



Nitric oxide synthase from cerebellum catalyzes the formation of equimolar quantities of nitric oxide and citrulline from L-arginine.  


This study examined whether constitutive nitric oxide (NO) synthase from rat cerebellum catalyzes the formation of equimolar amounts of NO plus citrulline from L-arginine under various conditions. Citrulline was determined by monitoring the formation of 3H-citrulline from 3H-L-arginine. NO was determined by monitoring the formation of total NOx (NO+nitrite [NO2-] + nitrate [NO3-]) by chemiluminescence after reduction of NOx to NO by acidic vanadium (III). Equal quantities of NO plus citrulline were generated from L-arginine and the formation of both products was linear for about 20 min at 37 degrees C provided L-arginine was present in excess to maintain a zero order reaction rate. Deletion of NADPH, addition of the calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium, or addition of NO synthase inhibitors (NG-methyl-L-arginine, NG-amino-L-arginine) abolished or markedly inhibited the formation of both NO and citrulline. The Km for L-arginine (14 microM; 18 microM) and the Vmax of the reaction (0.74 nmol/min/mg protein; 0.67 nmol/min/mg protein) were the same whether NO or citrulline formation, respectively, was monitored. These observations indicate clearly that NO and citrulline are formed in equimolar quantities from L-arginine by the constitutive isoform of NO synthase from rat cerebellum. PMID:1378272

Bush, P A; Gonzalez, N E; Griscavage, J M; Ignarro, L J



Regulation of Porcine Conceptus Survival and Growth by L-arginine  

E-print Network

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with L-arginine during early pregnancy will ameliorate embryonic loss in pigs. Gilts were bred at the second estrus, and housed individually in pens and fed twice daily 1...

Li, Xilong



Using L-Arginine-Functionalized Gold Nanorods for Visible Detection of Mercury(II) Ions.  


A rapid and simple approach for visible determination of mercury ions (Hg(2+) ) in aqueous solutions was developed based on surface plasmon resonance phenomenon using L-arginine-functionalized gold nanorods (AuNRs). At pH greater than 9, the deprotonated amine group of L-arginine on the AuNRs bound with Hg(2+) leading to the side-by-side assembly of AuNRs, which was verified by transmission electron microscopy images. Thus, when Hg(2+) was present in the test solution, a blue shift of the typical longitudinal plasmon band of the AuNRs was observed in the ultra violet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectra, along with a change in the color of the solution, which occurred within 5 min. After carefully optimizing the potential factors affecting the performance, the L-arginine/AuNRs sensing system was found to be highly sensitive to Hg(2+) , with the limit of detection of 5 nM (S/N = 3); it is also very selective and free of interference from 10 other metal ions (Ba(2+) , Ca(2+) , Cd(2+) , Co(2+) , Cs(+) , Cu(2+) , K(+) , Li(+) , Ni(2+) , Pb(2+) ). The result suggests that the L-arginine-functionalized AuNRs can potentially serve as a rapid, sensitive, and easy-to-use colorimetric biosensor useful for determining Hg(2+) in food and environmental samples. PMID:25754066

Guan, Jiehao; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Gunasekaran, Sundaram



Effect of Arginase Inhibition on Pulmonary L-Arginine Metabolism in Murine Pseudomonas Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Rationale Infection of the lung with Pseudomonas aeruginosa results in upregulation of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and arginase expression, and both enzymes compete for L-arginine as substrate. Nitric oxide (NO) production may be regulated by arginase as it controls L-arginine availability for NOS. We here studied the effect of systemic arginase inhibition on pulmonary L-arginine metabolism in Pseudomonas pneumonia in the mouse. Methods Mice (C57BL/6, 8–10 weeks old, female) underwent direct tracheal instillation of Pseudomonas (PAO-1)-coated agar beads and were treated by repeated intra-peritoneal injections of the arginase inhibitor 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) or PBS until lungs were harvested on day 3 of the infection. L-arginine metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, NO metabolites nitrate and nitrite by Griess reagent and cytokines by ELISA. Results NO metabolite concentrations (48.5±2.9 vs. 10.9±2.3 µM, p<0.0001), as well as L-ornithine (29.6±1.7 vs 2.3±0.4 µM, p<0.0001), the product of arginase activity, were increased in Pseudomonas infected lungs compared to naïve controls. Concentrations of the NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were also increased (0.44±0.02 vs. 0.16±0.01 µM, p<0.0001). Arginase inhibition in the infected animals resulted in a significant decrease in L-ornithine (14.6±1.6 µM, p<0.0001) but increase in L-arginine concentration (p<0.001), L-arginine/ADMA ratio (p<0.001), L-arginine availability for NOS (p<0.001), and NO metabolite concentrations (67.3±5.7 µM, p<0.05). Arginase inhibitor treatment also resulted in an increase in NO metabolite levels in animals following intratracheal injection of LPS (p?=?0.015). Arginase inhibition was not associated with an increase in inflammatory markers (IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-6, MIP-2, KC or TNF-?) in lung. Concentrations of the L-ornithine-dependent polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine were increased in Pseudomonas infected lungs (p<0.001, respectively) but were unaffected by ABH treatment. Conclusions Systemic arginase inhibition with ABH during Pseudomonas pneumonia in mice results in an increase in pulmonary NO formation but no pro-inflammatory effect. PMID:24595185

Mehl, Anne; Ghorbani, Peyman; Douda, David; Huang, Hailu; Palaniyar, Nades; Ratjen, Felix; Grasemann, Hartmut



Reduction by NG-nitro-L-arginine of H2O2-induced endothelial cell injury.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of three analogues of NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced endothelial cell injury were studied. 2. Endothelial cell injury was assessed by measuring the release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 51Cr. 3. Addition of H2O2 (250-1,000 microM) to endothelial cells induced the release of LDH dose-dependently. The release of LDH was reduced by pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10(-4)-4 x 10(-3) M), L-NOARG (10(-4)-4 x 10(-3) M) and NG-nitro-L-arginine benzyl ester (L-NABE, 10(-4)-4 x 10(-3) M), inhibitors of NO synthase. 4. L-NOARG analogues also reduced H2O2-induced 51Cr release from endothelial cells, while L-NMMA had no effect. 5. The protective effect of L-NAME was not reversed by addition of L-arginine (L-Arg, 1-10 mM). 6. Both L-NAME and L-NMMA completely inhibited L-Arg metabolism to L-citrulline coupled with NO synthesis. 7. These findings suggest that L-NOARG analogues but not L-NMMA reduced H2O2-induced endothelial cell injury, and that these effects may not be related to inhibition of NO production. PMID:7530574

Shimizu, S; Nomoto, M; Yamamoto, T; Momose, K



Long-term antibiotic therapy for balanitis xerotica obliterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an open uncontrolled study of 3 patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans we have observed significant improvement after long-term systemic antibiotic therapy. Two of the patients noticed softening of the skin as well as disappearance of pruritus, tenderness, and inflammatory changes within 3 weeks of receiving oral and intramuscular penicillin. The third patient experienced the same degree of improvement after

Walter B. Shelley; E. Dorinda Shelley; Molly A. Grunenwald; Timothy J. Anders; Anita Ramnath



Nanoscale characterization of effect of L-arginine on Streptococcus mutans biofilm adhesion by atomic force microscopy.  


A major aetiological factor of dental caries is the pathology of the dental plaque biofilms. The amino acid L-arginine (Arg) is found naturally in saliva as a free molecule or as a part of salivary peptides and proteins. Plaque bacteria metabolize Arg to produce alkali and neutralize glycolytic acids, promoting a less cariogenous oral microbiome. Here, we explored an alternative and complementary mechanism of action of Arg using atomic force microscopy. The nanomechanical properties of Streptococcus mutans biofilm extracellular matrix were characterized under physiological buffer conditions. We report the effect of Arg on the adhesive behaviour and structural properties of extracellular polysaccharides in S. mutans biofilms. High-resolution imaging of biofilm surfaces can reveal additional structural information on bacterial cells embedded within the surrounding extracellular matrix. A dense extracellular matrix was observed in biofilms without Arg compared to those grown in the presence of Arg. S. mutans biofilms grown in the presence of Arg could influence the production and/or composition of extracellular membrane glucans and thereby affect their adhesion properties. Our results suggest that the presence of Arg in the oral cavity could influence the adhesion properties of S. mutans to the tooth surface. PMID:24763427

Sharma, Shivani; Lavender, Stacey; Woo, JungReem; Guo, Lihong; Shi, Wenyuan; Kilpatrick-Liverman, LaTonya; Gimzewski, James K



Involvement of nitric oxide in long-term potentiation of spinal nociceptive responses in rats.  


Nitric oxide plays an important role in spinal nociception. The present study explored the effects of nitric oxide on the spinal long-term potentiation associated with nociception. (1) Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (1 mM, 20 microl) and the nitric oxide scavenger hemoglobin (2 mg/ml, 20 mul) strikingly blocked the induction of tetanic sciatic stimulation-induced spinal long-term potentiation of C-fiber-evoked field potentials. L-arginine, a substrate of nitric oxide synthase, completely reversed L-NAME-induced inhibition. However, D-NAME (1 mM, 20 microl), an inactive form of L-NAME, had little effect on the spinal LTP. (2) The same tetanic sciatic stimulation induced long-term thermal hyperalgesia, which was blocked by pre-application of L-NAME. These results suggest the involvement of nitric oxide in the spinal long-term potentiation of C-fiber-evoked field potentials and related behavior changes. PMID:16012348

Zhang, Xi-Chun; Zhang, Yu-Qiu; Zhao, Zhi-Qi



Lessons from Long-term Studies  

E-print Network

Lessons from Long-term Studies Gordon Reeves U.S. Forest Service PNW Research Station Corvallis #12 #12;Lessons from Long-term Studies Habitat responds quickly Biological response variables · difficult;Long-term Studies of the Aquatic-Land Interaction Program, PNW Research Station, Corvallis Fish Creek


Rapid, one-pot synthesis of highly-soluble carbon nanotubes functionalized by L-arginine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a necessary step to exploit their valuable properties. Due to having several steps and especially acid treatment, most of current methods of functionalization result in irrecoverable defects on CNTs structure. Here, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with L-arginine in a simple, one-pot and rapid microwave-assisted technique without any acid treatment step. The CNT functionalities were analyzed with infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results confirmed the covalent functionalization of L-arginine with very low defects on CNTs. Also it is found that increase of input powers of microwave in the range 500-900 W, monotonically increase the degree of functionalization. The maximum dispersibility of MWCNT was found ˜1.03 mg/mL corresponding to 900 W irradiation. Accounting considerable low treatment time, the method may be applied for large-scale solubilization of MWCNTs in an industrial scale.

Ghiadi, Behnam; Baniadam, Majid; Maghrebi, Morteza; Amiri, Ahmad



Growth and characterization of L-arginine sulphate: A new nanocrystal with non linear optical behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-arginine combines with a variety of salts and acids to form a potential non-linear optical material. Nano crystals of L-arginine-Sulphate (LAS) have been grown from solution by the slow evaporation technique for the first time. The single phase formation has been verified by XRD studies. TEM studies confirm the formation of nanocrystallites of particle size of about 34nm. The optical absorption studies shows presence of a sharp UV cut-off region at 239.57nm. Further the presence of wide transparency window in the entire visible region shows its use for optoelectronic applications. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) confirms the presence of potassium and sulphur in the grown nanocrystal of LAS. Fungus growth has been avoided by subjecting the solution to pre-heat treatment. Preliminary studies indicate presence of non-linear optical (NLO) response.

Khandpekar, M. M.; Patil, Smita S.



Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.



Crystal growth of high quality nonlinear optical crystals of L-arginine trifluoroacetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grow of good optical quality single crystals of L-arginine trifluoroacetate (LATF), a new semiorganic nonlinear optical (NLO) material is reported. Bulk crystals have been successfully grown from solution by the temperature lowering method. Growth rate and effects of seed orientation on morphologies of LATF crystals were studied. The crystals were characterized by density measurement, optical absorption spectrum, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microhardness studies.

Liu, Xiaojing; Wang, Zeyan; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xinqiang; Duan, Aidong; Sun, Zhihua; Zhu, Luyi; Xu, Dong



Alterations in l -arginine and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade inflammation is closely involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and associated micro- and macrovascular\\u000a complications. The nitric oxide (NO) precursor l-arginine, is relevant to diverse pathological conditions including type 2 diabetes and its complications. High sensitive-CRP\\u000a (hs-CRP), neopterin and arginine levels were measured in 46 normoalbuminuric, 45 microalbuminuric type 2 diabetics and in\\u000a 32 healthy controls in

Necla Bar??; Mehmet Erdo?an; Ebru Sezer; Füsun Sayg?l?; A. Mert Özgönül; Nevbahar Turgan; Biltan Ersöz



Nitro containing L-arginine analogs interfere with assays for nitrate and nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect of in vivo and in vitro administration of nitro-containing and nitro-deficient L-arginine -derived nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors on the measurement of NO in plasma, urine and HEPES buffered physiologic salt solution (PSS) by ozone chemiluminescence and by the modified Griess reaction. In vivo administration of 1, 5, 25, 40 or 50 mg\\/kg of NG-nitro-L-or D-arginine

Stan S. Greenberg; Jianming Xie; John J. Spitzer; Ji-fang Wang; Jack Lancaster; Matthew B. Grisham; David R. Powers; Thomas D. Giles



Excess L-arginine restores endothelium-dependent relaxation impaired by monocrotaline pyrrole  

SciTech Connect

The pyrrolizidine alkaloid plant toxin monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP) causes pulmonary hypertension in experimental animals. The present study aimed to examine the effects of MCTP on the endothelium-dependent relaxation. We constructed an in vitro disease model of pulmonary hypertension by overlaying MCTP-treated bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPAEs) onto pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell-embedded collagen gel lattice. Acetylcholine (Ach) induced a relaxation of the control CPAEs-overlaid gels that were pre-contracted with noradrenaline, and the relaxation was inhibited by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). In contrast, when MCTP-treated CPAEs were overlaid, the pre-contracted gels did not show a relaxation in response to Ach in the presence of 0.5 mM L-arginine. Expression of endothelial NOS protein, Ach-induced Ca{sup 2+} transients and cellular uptake of L-[{sup 3}H]arginine were significantly smaller in MCTP-treated CPAEs than in control cells, indicating that these changes were responsible for the impaired NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. Since cellular uptake of L-[{sup 3}H]arginine linearly increased according to its extracellular concentration, we hypothesized that the excess concentration of extracellular L-arginine might restore NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. As expected, in the presence of 10 mM L-arginine, Ach showed a relaxation of the MCTP-treated CPAEs-overlaid gels. These results indicate that the impaired NO production in damaged endothelial cells can be reversed by supplying excess L-arginine.

Cheng Wei [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan); Oike, Masahiro [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Hirakawa, Masakazu [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan); Ohnaka, Keizo [Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan); Koyama, Tetsuya [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan); Ito, Yushi [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan)



Single crystal growth and characterization of the nonlinear optical crystal l-arginine hydrofluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication, single crystal growth of the nonlinear optical crystal l-arginine hydrofluoride C6H14N4O2. HF (here after abbreviated as LAHF) of dimensions up to 20×15×3mm3 is reported. Crystals have been grown by the temperature lowering method and also by slow evaporation method at constant temperature 30°C from its aqueous solution with pH at 2.2. As-grown single crystals were then characterized

Tanusri Pal; Tanusree Kar



A novel prokaryotic L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase is involved in cylindrospermopsin biosynthesis.  


We report the first characterization of an L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase from a prokaryote. The enzyme, CyrA, is involved in the pathway for biosynthesis of the polyketide-derived hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin from Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii AWT205. CyrA is phylogenetically distinct from other amidinotransferases, and structural alignment shows differences between the active site residues of CyrA and the well-characterized human L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT). Overexpression of recombinant CyrA in Escherichia coli enabled biochemical characterization of the enzyme, and we confirmed the predicted function of CyrA as an L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase by (1) H NMR. As compared with AGAT, CyrA showed narrow substrate specificity when presented with substrate analogs, and deviated from regular Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the presence of the non-natural substrate hydroxylamine. Studies of initial reaction velocities and product inhibition, and identification of intermediate reaction products, were used to probe the kinetic mechanism of CyrA, which is best described as a hybrid of ping-pong and sequential mechanisms. Differences in the active site residues of CyrA and AGAT are discussed in relation to the different properties of both enzymes. The enzyme had maximum activity and maximum stability at pH 8.5 and 6.5, respectively, and an optimum temperature of 32 °C. Investigations into the stability of the enzyme revealed that an inactivated form of this enzyme retained an appreciable amount of secondary structure elements even on heating to 94 °C, but lost its tertiary structure at low temperature (T(max) of 44.5 °C), resulting in a state reminiscent of a molten globule. CyrA represents a novel group of prokaryotic amidinotransferases that utilize arginine and glycine as substrates with a complex kinetic mechanism and substrate specificity that differs from that of the eukaryotic L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferases. PMID:20718864

Muenchhoff, Julia; Siddiqui, Khawar S; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J; Barrow, Kevin D; Neilan, Brett A



Self-interaction of native and denatured lysozyme in the presence of osmolytes, l-arginine and guanidine hydrochloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmolyte molecules such as betaine and trehalose are protein stabilizers while l-arginine (Arg) and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) are the most widely used aggregation suppressor in protein refolding. We have herein studied the effects of the osmolyte molecules and l-arginine together with GdnHCl (0–6mol\\/L) on the intermolecular interaction of native and denatured lysozyme by self-interaction chromatography. The self-interaction is characterized in

Xiao-Yan Dong; Jian-Hua Liu; Fu-Feng Liu; Yan Sun



Erythrocyte L-arginine uptake in peritoneal dialysis patients: systems y and y+ L.  


L-Arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis and may enter cells by the y+ and y+ L transport systems. Peritoneal membrane characteristics may depend on vascular function and the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated erythrocyte L-arginine uptake in stable peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with various categories of peritoneal transport function. We used 14C as a marker and N-ethyl-maleimide as an inhibitor of the y+ system to measure maximal uptake capacity (Vma in ulmol/L cell/h) and the half-saturation constant (Km in micromol/L) in erythrocytes. The sample consisted of 41 patients (mean age: 50 +/- 17 years; 5 with diabetes; 18 men). Mean dialysate-toplasma creatinine (D/P(Cr)) was 0.62 +/- 0.14. Peritoneal membrane transport was classified as high, high-average, low-average, or low in 10, 11, 11, and 9 patients, respectively. Mean y+ L Vmax, was 208 +/- 111 micromol/L cell/h, 494 +/- 893 micromol/L cell/h, 222 +/- 59 micromol/L cell/h, and 193 +/- 63 umol/L cell/h [p = 0.404, analysis of variance (ANOVA)] for the high, high-average, low-average, and low transporters respectively. Similarly, mean y+ Vmax was 963 +/- 1034 micromol/L cell/h 843 +/- 366 micromol/L cell/h, 639 +/- 254 micromol/L cell/h, and 774 +/- 378 micromol/L cell/h (p = 0.647, ANOVA). As with Vmax, the y+ L Km and y+ Km values were not significantly different between the various peritoneal transport categories. A negative correlation was observed between y+ Vmax and Kt/V (r = -0.393, p = 0.011). Erythrocyte uptake of L-arginine does not vary with peritoneal membrane transport characteristics, but maximal L-arginine uptake capacity is higher in patients with a lower Kt/V. PMID:16686274

Figueiredo, Ana E; Almeida, Priscilla B; Pinheiro da Costa, Bartira E; D'Avila, Domingos O; Poli de Figueiredo, Carlos E



Safety Profile of L-Arginine Infusion in Moderately Severe Falciparum Malaria  

PubMed Central

Background L-arginine infusion improves endothelial function in malaria but its safety profile has not been described in detail. We assessed clinical symptoms, hemodynamic status and biochemical parameters before and after a single L-arginine infusion in adults with moderately severe malaria. Methodology and Findings In an ascending dose study, adjunctive intravenous L-arginine hydrochloride was infused over 30 minutes in doses of 3 g, 6 g and 12 g to three separate groups of 10 adults hospitalized with moderately severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in addition to standard quinine therapy. Symptoms, vital signs and selected biochemical measurements were assessed before, during, and for 24 hours after infusion. No new or worsening symptoms developed apart from mild discomfort at the intravenous cannula site in two patients. There was a dose-response relationship between increasing mg/kg dose and the maximum decrease in systolic (??=?0.463; Spearman's, p?=?0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (r?=?0.42; Pearson's, p?=?0.02), and with the maximum increment in blood potassium (r?=?0.70, p<0.001) and maximum decrement in bicarbonate concentrations (r?=?0.53, p?=?0.003) and pH (r?=?0.48, p?=?0.007). At the highest dose (12 g), changes in blood pressure and electrolytes were not clinically significant, with a mean maximum decrease in mean arterial blood pressure of 6 mmHg (range: 0–11; p<0.001), mean maximal increase in potassium of 0.5 mmol/L (range 0.2–0.7 mmol/L; p<0.001), and mean maximal decrease in bicarbonate of 3 mEq/L (range 1–7; p<0.01) without a significant change in pH. There was no significant dose-response relationship with blood phosphate, lactate, anion gap and glucose concentrations. All patients had an uncomplicated clinical recovery. Conclusions/Significance Infusion of up to 12g of intravenous L-arginine hydrochloride over 30 minutes is well tolerated in adults with moderately severe malaria, with no clinically important changes in hemodynamic or biochemical status. Trials of adjunctive L-arginine can be extended to phase 2 studies in severe malaria. Trial Registration NCT00147368 PMID:18545693

Yeo, Tsin W.; Lampah, Daniel A.; Gitawati, Retno; Tjitra, Emiliana; Kenangalem, Enny; Granger, Donald L.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Lopansri, Bert K.; Price, Ric N.; Celermajer, David S.; Duffull, Stephen B.; Anstey, Nicholas M.



Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME): requirement for bioactivation to the free acid, NG-nitro-L-arginine.  

PubMed Central

1. The L-arginine derivatives NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) have been widely used to inhibit constitutive NO synthase (NOS) in different biological systems. This work was carried out to investigate whether L-NAME is a direct inhibitor of NOS or requires preceding hydrolytic bioactivation to L-NOARG for inhibition of the enzyme. 2. A bolus of L-NAME and L-NOARG (0.25 micromol) increased coronary perfusion pressure of rat isolated hearts to the same extent (21 +/- 0.8 mmHg; n = 5), but the effect developed more rapidly following addition of L-NOARG than L-NAME (mean half-time: 0.7 vs 4.2 min). The time-dependent onset of the inhibitory effect of L-NAME was paralleled by the appearance of L-NOARG in the coronary effluent. 3. Freshly dissolved L-NAME was a 50 fold less potent inhibitor of purified brain NOS (mean IC50 = 70 microM) than L-NOARG (IC50 = 1.4 microM), but the apparent inhibitory potency of L-NAME approached that of L-NOARG upon prolonged incubation at neutral or alkaline pH. H.p.l.c. analyses revealed that NOS inhibition by L-NAME closely correlated with hydrolysis of the drug to L-NOARG. 4. Freshly dissolved L-NAME contained 2% of L-NOARG and was hydrolyzed with a half-life of 365 +/- 11.2 min in buffer (pH 7.4), 207 +/- 1.7 min in human plasma, and 29 +/- 2.2 min in whole blood (n = 3 in each case). When L-NAME was preincubated in plasma or buffer, inhibition of NOS was proportional to formation of L-NOARG, but in blood the inhibition was much less than expected from the rates of L-NAME hydrolysis. This was explained by accumulation of L-NOARG in blood cells. 5. These results suggest that L-NAME represents a prodrug lacking NOS inhibitory activity unless it is hydrolyzed to L-NOARG. Bioactivation of L-NAME proceeds at moderate rates in physiological buffers, but is markedly accelerated in tissues such as blood or vascular endothelium. PMID:8832069

Pfeiffer, S.; Leopold, E.; Schmidt, K.; Brunner, F.; Mayer, B.



Nitric-Oxide Supplementation for Treatment of Long-Term Complications in Argininosuccinic Aciduria  

PubMed Central

Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is required for the synthesis and channeling of L-arginine to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for nitric oxide (NO) production. Congenital ASL deficiency causes argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), the second most common urea-cycle disorder, and leads to deficiency of both ureagenesis and NO production. Subjects with ASA have been reported to develop long-term complications such as hypertension and neurocognitive deficits despite early initiation of therapy and the absence of documented hyperammonemia. In order to distinguish the relative contributions of the hepatic urea-cycle defect from those of the NO deficiency to the phenotype, we performed liver-directed gene therapy in a mouse model of ASA. Whereas the gene therapy corrected the ureagenesis defect, the systemic hypertension in mice could be corrected by treatment with an exogenous NO source. In an ASA subject with severe hypertension refractory to antihypertensive medications, monotherapy with NO supplements resulted in the long-term control of hypertension and a decrease in cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, the NO therapy was associated with an improvement in some neuropsychological parameters pertaining to verbal memory and nonverbal problem solving. Our data show that ASA, in addition to being a classical urea-cycle disorder, is also a model of congenital human NO deficiency and that ASA subjects could potentially benefit from NO supplementation. Hence, NO supplementation should be investigated for the long-term treatment of this condition. PMID:22541557

Nagamani, Sandesh C.S.; Campeau, Philippe M.; Shchelochkov, Oleg A.; Premkumar, Muralidhar H.; Guse, Kilian; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Chen, Yuqing; Sun, Qin; Tang, Yaoping; Palmer, Donna; Reddy, Anilkumar K.; Li, Li; Slesnick, Timothy C.; Feig, Daniel I.; Caudle, Susan; Harrison, David; Salviati, Leonardo; Marini, Juan C.; Bryan, Nathan S.; Erez, Ayelet; Lee, Brendan



Long-Term Intravesical Oxybutynin Chloride Therapy in Children with Myelodysplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe evaluated the clinical use of long-term intravesical oxybutynin chloride in the treatment of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in children with myelodysplasia who could not tolerate oral anticholinergics.

Kelly A. Painter; Thomas S. Vates; Timothy P. Bukowski; Patricia Fleming; Andrew L. Freedman; Craig A. Smith; Ricardo Gonzalez; Alan D. Perlmutter



An Association between l-Arginine/Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine Balance, Obesity, and the Age of Asthma Onset Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Increasing body mass index (BMI) has been associated with less fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). This may be explained by an increase in the concentration of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) relative to l-arginine, which can lead to greater nitric oxide synthase uncoupling. Objectives: To compare this mechanism across age of asthma onset groups and determine its association with asthma morbidity and lung function. Methods: Cross-sectional study of participants from the Severe Asthma Research Program, across early- (<12 yr) and late- (>12 yr) onset asthma phenotypes. Measurements and Main Results: Subjects with late-onset asthma had a higher median plasma ADMA level (0.48 ?M, [interquartile range (IQR), 0.35–0.7] compared with early onset, 0.37 ?M [IQR, 0.29–0.59], P = 0.01) and lower median plasma l-arginine (late onset, 52.3 [IQR, 43–61] compared with early onset, 51 ?M [IQR 39–66]; P = 0.02). The log of plasma l-arginine/ADMA was inversely correlated with BMI in the late- (r = ?0.4, P = 0.0006) in contrast to the early-onset phenotype (r = ?0.2, P = 0.07). Although FeNO was inversely associated with BMI in the late-onset phenotype (P = 0.02), the relationship was lost after adjusting for l-arginine/ADMA. Also in this phenotype, a reduced l-arginine/ADMA was associated with less IgE, increased respiratory symptoms, lower lung volumes, and worse asthma quality of life. Conclusions: In late-onset asthma phenotype, plasma ratios of l-arginine to ADMA may explain the inverse relationship of BMI to FeNO. In addition, these lower l-arginine/ADMA ratios are associated with reduced lung function and increased respiratory symptom frequency, suggesting a role in the pathobiology of the late-onset phenotype. PMID:23204252

Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Powers, Robert W.; Khatri, Sumita S.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Busse, William W.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin; Israel, Elliot; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Moore, Wendy C.; Peters, Stephen P.; Teague, W. Gerald; Chung, Kian Fan; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Wenzel, Sally E.



Prevention of renal injury and endothelial dysfunction by chronic L-arginine and antioxidant treatment.  


We evaluated the effects of vitamins with antioxidant properties (a combination of vitamins C and E) and L-arginine treatment on renal failure in mice by measuring survival rate. The molecular changes were elucidated by determining endothelial tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) levels and nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA expression in mice with renal ablation. Previous studies have shown that endothelial dysfunction in 5/6 nephrectomized mice is associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and increased vascular superoxide production. WTC57 mice were divided into three groups: Group 1 was the sham-operated group (C); Group 2 was the 5/6 nephrectomized group (Nfx); and Group 3 was a group of 5/6 nephrectomized mice, treated with L-arginine and vitamins with antioxidant properties (NfxTx; 200 mg/kg L-arginine, 83 mg/kg vitamin C, and 46.6 mg/kg vitamin E). After 20 weeks of treatment, urinary protein excretion, blood pressure, BH4 and dihydrobiopterin (BH2) levels, eNOS mRNA, oxidative stress, and survival rate were determined. An increase in urinary protein excretion, blood pressure, and oxidative stress was prevented in the NfxTx group, but not in the Nfx group. BH4 and eNOS mRNA expression was increased by 32% and 78%, respectively, in the NfxTx group. Furthermore, the treatment increased the survival rate by 33%. Our results indicate that under normal conditions, NO appears to protect renal function. However, this NO-dependent protection is lost during kidney failure, probably due to increased reactive oxygen species synthesis. The treatment restores the viability of NO and prevents the BH4 oxidation. Therefore, this treatment may represent a therapeutic approach for the management of kidney disease. PMID:21219205

Arellano-Mendoza, Monica G; Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Del Valle-Mondragon, Leonardo; Rios, Amelia; Escalante, Bruno



Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  


Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program (OAA, Title VII, Chapter 2, Sections 711/712) The Purpose of the Program and How it ... Services Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2013 indicate that ...


Group Benefits Long Term Disability Benefits  

E-print Network

­ not the specific job they were hired to do. Contracts that have an own occupation definition of disability usuallyGroup Benefits Long Term Disability Benefits #12;What are Long Term Disability (LTD) benefits? Long job to confirm whether you meet the definition of disability within your group benefits contract


Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...


X-ray radiation of poly-L-arginine hydrochloride and multilayered DNA-coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to determine the chemical changes induced in thin films of the dry polypeptide poly-L-arginine hydrochloride and its mixture with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) during 5 h of soft X-ray exposure. The physical and chemical effects of the soft X-ray irradiation were studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Analysis of O1 s, N1 s and C1 s features in XPS spectra reveals the existence of several routes of radiation-induced decomposition and shows quantitative and qualitative changes.

Stypczy?ska, Agnieszka; Nixon, Tony; Mason, Nigel



L-Arginine Supplementation Causes Additional Effects on Exercise-Induced Angiogenesis and VEGF Expression in the Heart and Hind-Leg Muscles of Middle-Aged Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dietary L-arginine supplementation on exercise-induced angiogenesis and VEGF expression were ex- amined in male middle-aged (12 months old) Wistar rats. Exer- cise training lasted for six weeks at 20 m\\/min on a 0% gradient for 10-60 min\\/day. Rats in the L-arginine-treated groups drank water containing 2.5% L-arginine. According to histochemical identification of the capillary profile, in the

Junichi Suzuki



Development/Plasticity/Repair Dopaminergic Control of Long-Term Depression/Long-Term  

E-print Network

Development/Plasticity/Repair Dopaminergic Control of Long-Term Depression/Long-Term Potentiation) 7102, University Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris 6, F-75005, Paris, France, and 2Unit of Psychopathology, U952, University Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris 6, F-75005, Paris, France Long-term memory

Arleo, Angelo


Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Mice: Upregulation of L-arginine Transporters  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an incurable, rapidly-worsening neuromuscular degenerative disease caused by the absence of dystrophin. In skeletal muscle, lack of dystrophin disrupts the recruitment of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) to the sarcolemma thus affecting nitric oxide (NO) production. Utrophin is a dystrophin homolog which expression is greatly upregulated in the sarcolemma of dystrophin-negative fibers from mdx mice, a mouse model of DMD. Although cardiomyopathy is an important cause of death, little is known about the NO signaling pathway in cardiac muscle of DMD patients. Thus, we used cardiomyocytes and hearts from two month-old mdx and mdx:utrophin (?/?) double knockout mice (mdx:utr) to study key steps in NO signaling: L-arginine transporters, NOS, and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). nNOS did not co-localize with dystrophin or utrophin to the cardiomyocyte membrane. Despite this, nNOS activity was markedly decreased in both mdx and mdx:utr mice while nNOS expression was only decreased in mdx:utr hearts, suggesting that utrophin upregulation in cardiomyocytes maintains nNOS levels but not function. sGC protein levels and activity remained at control levels. Unexpectedly, L-arginine transporter expression and function were significantly increased, suggesting a novel biochemical compensatory mechanism of the NO pathway and a potential entry site for therapeutics. PMID:23009292

Ramachandran, Jayalakshmi; Schneider, Joel S.; Crassous, Pierre-Antoine; Zheng, Ruifang; Gonzalez, James P.; Xie, Lai-Hua; Beuve, Annie; Fraidenraich, Diego; Peluffo, R. Daniel



Long-lasting effects of oxy- and sulfoanalogues of L-arginine on enzyme actions.  


Arginine residues are very important for the structure of proteins and their action. Arginine is essential for many natural processes because it has unique ionizable group under physiological conditions. Numerous mimetics of arginine were synthesized and their biological effects were evaluated, but the mechanisms of actions are still unknown. The aim of this study is to see if oxy- and sulfoanalogues of arginine can be recognized by human arginyl-tRNA synthetase (HArgS)-an enzyme responsible for coupling of L-arginine with its cognate tRNA in a two-step catalytic reaction. We make use of modeling and docking studies of adenylate kinase (ADK) to reveal the effects produced by the incorporation of the arginine mimetics on the structure of ADK and its action. Three analogues of arginine, L-canavanine (Cav), L-norcanavanine (NCav), and L-sulfoarginine (sArg), can be recognized as substrates of HArgS when incorporated in different peptide and protein sequences instead of L-arginine. Mutation in the enzyme active center by arginine mimetics leads to conformational changes, which produce a decrease the rate of the enzyme catalyzed reaction and even a loss of enzymatic action. All these observations could explain the long-lasting nature of the effects of the arginine analogues. PMID:24282631

Dzimbova, Tatyana A; Milanov, Peter B; Pajpanova, Tamara I



Role of L-arginine in the biological effects of blue light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid, and metabolites of arginine exert multiple biological effects. It has been known that arginine causes the release of various hormones such as insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, prolactin, and adrenal catecholamines. Arginine infusion also produces vasodilation, and in the kidney increased plasma flow accompanied by increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Recent studies have showed that blue and red light irradiation in vitro and in vivo can increase production of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, and related reactive oxygen species (ROS). These then can modulate the production and secretion of several cytokines and other mediators and play an important role as regulatory mediators in signaling processes which can then modulate the production, mobilization and homing of stem cells. It is proposed that some of the therapeutic effects of light can be considered to be due to the changes in the metabolism of L-arginine. The regulation of L-arginine turnover by the use of light at blue wavelengths between 400nm and 510nm can be the explanation for some of the observed effects of blue light: lowering of blood pressure, pain killing effect, regulating insulin production, anti-inflammatory action, and possible effects on the release and homing of stem cells.

Makela, Anu M.



Isotopic study of L-Arginine kinetics in the lung during pseudomonas sepsis in an ovine model  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study is to investigate how L-Arginine pulmonary metabolism is altered in response Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) induced septic conditions using an ovine model. Methods: Seven female sheep were infused with a primed-constant infusion of L-[15N2-guanidino, 5, 5, 2H2] L-Arginine for 28 hs. After the initial 4 hs of the L-Arginine infusion, a continuous infusion of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria started for 24 hs. A NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-Methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA), infusion was added during the last 4 hs of the bacterial infusion. Blood samples were taken at specific time points for isotopic enrichment during control, septic and NOS blocking phases of the study. Results: We observed that the level of total delivery of L-Arginine to the lungs was significantly decreased in septic phase after 24 hours of pseudomonas infusion. In contrast, the fractional uptake and metabolism of L-Arginine by the lungs was doubled during septic phase relative to the control phase (MARG-basal = 100% vs. MARG-septic = 220 ± 56%, P < 0.05). NO production in the lungs was also significantly increased. Infusion of L-NMA markedly blunted this elevated NO production and attenuated the total arginine metabolized in the septic lungs (Mnitrate-septic = 43.6 ± 5.7 vs. Mnitrate-septic + L-NMA = 13.4 ± 5.1 umol/kg/min; p < 0.05). We demonstrated sepsis induced by P. aeruginosa infusion caused an increase in the fractional uptake and metabolic rate of arginine in the lungs. Furthermore, our data suggests that arginine was mainly consumed via arginine – NO pathway, which might be responsible for this enhanced arginine metabolic activity in the septic lungs. PMID:24273695

Xu, Hongzhi; Watson, Davin; Yu, Yong-Ming; Traber, Daniel L; Fischer, Stefani; Nichols, Joan; Deyo, Donald; Traber, Lillian L; Cortiella, Joaquin



Who Pays for Long-Term Care?  


... Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers ... on Alzheimer's Disease Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community Home About Us Accessibility Disclaimer Privacy Contact ...


Who Needs Care? (Long-Term Care)  


... Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers ... on Alzheimer's Disease Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community Home About Us Accessibility Disclaimer Privacy Contact ...


Transverse Myelitis: Long-Term Care  


... at this stage. The long-term management of TM requires attention to a number of issues. These ... residual effects of any spinal cord injury, including TM. In addition to chronic medical problems, there are ...


Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516



Evaluation of the Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Rates of Oral Antidiabetic Prescribing in Accordance with Guidelines and Manufacturer Recommendations in Type 2 Diabetic Patients within a Long-Term Care Setting  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study assessed the prevalence of moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) among nursing home (NH) residents with type 2 diabetes. The pattern of oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) use and their concordance with the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guideline and prescribing information (PI) was also assessed. About half (47%) of diabetic residents had moderate to severe CKD. A little over a quarter of the 186 residents using OADs received at least one NKF-discordant OAD prescription. Metformin was the most commonly misused OAD. PI nonconcordance was observed in 58.6% of residents and was highest in glipizide and metformin users. With the high prevalence of moderate to severe CKD in NH residents with diabetes, physicians should consider residents' renal function when choosing treatment plans and review treatments regularly to check compliance with the NKF guidelines or PIs. PMID:24719761

Wu, Ning; Greene, Mallik; Oderda, Gary



Does L-arginine availability during the early pregnancy alters the immune response of Trypanosoma cruzi infected and pregnant Wistar rats?  


Chagas disease induces a strong immune response and L-arginine is an essential amino acid which plays an important role in homeostasis of the immune system. The aims of this study were to evaluate parasitemia, corticosterone levels, production of nitric oxide (NO), fetal morphological measurements, and histology of heart and placenta. Twenty pregnant Wistar rats (180-220 g) were grouped in: pregnant control (PC), pregnant control and L-arginine supplied (PCA), pregnant infected (PI), pregnant infected and L-arginine supplied (PIA). Females were infected with 1×10(5) trypomastigotes of the Y strain (3rd day of pregnancy). Animals were supplied with 21 mg of L-arginine/kg/day during 14 days. PIA showed significant decreased levels of corticosterone and parasitemia. For control groups, any alteration in NO production was found with L-arginine supplementation; for PIA, enhanced nitrite concentrations were observed as compared to PI. Weights and lengths of fetuses were higher in L-arginine treated and infected pregnant rats as compared to untreated ones. Placental weight from the PIA group was significantly increased when compared to PI. In L-arginine treated animals, cardiac tissue showed reduced amastigote burdens. PIA and PI displayed similar placental parasitism. Based on these results, L-arginine supplementation may be potentially useful for the protection against Trypanosoma cruzi during pregnancy. PMID:24786713

da Costa, Cássia Mariana Bronzon; de Freitas, Murilo Rodrigues Barbosa; Brazão, Vânia; dos Santos, Carla Domingues; Sala, Miguel Angel; do Prado Júnior, José Clovis; Abrahão, Ana Amélia Carraro



Bioanalytical profile of the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway and its evaluation by capillary electrophoresis?  

PubMed Central

This review briefly summarizes recent progress in fundamental understanding and analytical profiling of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway. It focuses on key analytical references of NO actions and on the experimental acquisition of these references in vivo, with capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) comprising one of the most flexible and technologically promising analytical platform for comprehensive high-resolution profiling of NO-related metabolites. Second aim of this review is to express demands and bridge efforts of experimental biologists, medical professionals and chemical analysis-oriented scientists who strive to understand evolution and physiological roles of NO and to develop analytical methods for use in biology and medicine. PMID:17329176

Boudko, Dmitri Y.



Diamond turning of L-arginine phosphate, a new organic crystal  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated that single point diamond turning can be used to generate high optical quality finished surfaces on a new organic nonlinear crystal, L-arginine phosphate (LAP). The proper choice of cutting conditions can produce surfaces with {lt}5-A rms local roughness. Local softening or melting near the cutting tool tip may play a key role in the machining process by ensuring that material is removed by ductile cutting rather than brittle fracture. At the same time, the low melting temperature of LAP makes lubrication and cooling especially important to prevent extensive melting and tool fouling. In spite of the presence of a weak cleavage plane in LAP, the surface quality is relatively insensitive to crystallographic orientation. Tool wear is apparently negligible, so that surface flatness is governed by the stability of the diamond turning machine. These results suggest that it may be possible to fabricate large aperture LAP harmonic converters for use in inertial confinement fusion lasers.

Fuchs, B.A.; Syn, K.; Velsko, S.P. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (US))



Diamond turning of L-arginine phosphate, a new organic nonlinear crystal.  


We have demonstrated that single point diamond turning can be used to generate high optical quality finished surfaces on a new organic nonlinear crystal, L-arginine phosphate (LAP). The proper choice of cutting conditions can produce surfaces with <5-A rms local roughness. Local softening or melting near the cutting tool tip may play a key role in the machining process by ensuring that material is removed by ductile cutting rather than brittle fracture. At the same time, the low melting temperature of LAP makes lubrication and cooling especially important to prevent extensive melting and tool fouling. In spite of the presence of a weak cleavage plane in LAP, the surface quality is relatively insensitive to crystallographic orientation. Tool wear is apparently negligible, so that surface flatness is governed by the stability of the diamond turning machine. These results suggest that it may be possible to fabricate large aperture LAP harmonic converters for use in inertial confinement fusion lasers. PMID:20555896

Fuchs, B A; Syn, C K; Velsko, S P



Ground based experiments on the growth and characterization of L-Arginine Phosphate (LAP) crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

L-Arginine Phosphate (LAP) is a new nonlinear optical material with higher efficiency for harmonic generation compared to KDP. Crystals of LAP were grown in the laboratory from supersaturated solutions by temperature lowering technique. Investigations revealed the presence of large dislocation densities inside the crystals which are observed to produce refractive index changes causing damage at high laser powers. This is a result of the convection during crystal growth from supersaturated solutions. It is proposed to grow these crystals in a diffusion controlled growth condition under microgravity environment and compare the crystals grown in space with those grown on ground. Physical properties of the solutions needed for modelling of crystal growth are also presented.

Rao, S. M.; Cao, C.; Batra, A. K.; Lal, R. B.; Mookherji, T. K.



Long-term antibiotic therapy for balanitis xerotica obliterans.  


In an open uncontrolled study of 3 patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans we have observed significant improvement after long-term systemic antibiotic therapy. Two of the patients noticed softening of the skin as well as disappearance of pruritus, tenderness, and inflammatory changes within 3 weeks of receiving oral and intramuscular penicillin. The third patient experienced the same degree of improvement after a regimen of dirithromycin, 500 mg/day. Stopping the antiobiotic for 1 month resulted in relapse, with improvement again on resumption. PMID:9922014

Shelley, W B; Shelley, E D; Grunenwald, M A; Anders, T J; Ramnath, A



Role of Renal Nerves in the Treatment of Renovascular Hypertensive Rats with L-Arginine  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to determine the role of renal nerves in mediating the effects of antihypertensive treatment with L-arginine in a renovascular hypertension model. The 2K1C (two-kidney one-clip model) hypertensive rats were submitted to bilateral surgical-pharmacological renal denervation. The animals were subdivided into six experimental groups: normotensive control rats (SHAM), 2K1C rats, 2K1C rats treated with L-arginine (2K1C?+?L-arg), denervated normotensive (DN) rats, denervated 2K1C (2K1C?+?DN) rats, and denervated 2K1C?+?L-arg (2K1C?+?DN?+?L-arg) rats. Arterial blood pressure, water intake, urine volume, and sodium excretion were measured. The 2K1C rats exhibited an increase in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) (from 106 ± 3 to 183 ± 5.8?mmHg, P < 0.01), whereas L-arg treatment induced a reduction in the MAP (143 ± 3.4?mmHg) without lowering it to the control level. Renal nerve denervation reduced the MAP to normotensive levels in 2K1C rats with or without chronic L-arg treatment. L-arg and denervation induced increases in water intake and urine volume, and L-arg caused a significant natriuretic effect. Our results suggest that renal sympathetic activity participates in the genesis and the maintenance of the hypertension and also demonstrate that treatment with L-arg alone is incapable of normalizing the MAP and that the effect of such treatment is not additive with the effect of kidney denervation. PMID:25349722

Gouvea, Sonia Alves; Tiradentes, Renata V.; Santuzzi, Cintia H.; Mengal, Vinícius; Futuro Neto, Henrique de A.; Silva, Nyam F.; Abreu, Gláucia R.



Substrate binding and catalysis by L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase--a mutagenesis and crystallographic study.  


L-Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase catalyzes the committed step in the biosynthesis of creatine. Eight active-site mutants, D170N, D254N, H303V, D305A, R322E, S355A, C407S, and C410A of recombinant human L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase were prepared by site-directed mutagenesis and enzymatically characterized. The crystal structures of the three mutants D170N, D254N, and C407S have been determined at 0.28-nm, 0.29-nm and 0.236-nm resolution, respectively. The mutation of active-site residues which are involved in substrate-binding yielded inactive mutants. Substitution of Asp254, which is not directly involved in substrate binding but is thought to transfer protons in concert with the His303 imidazole group, results in a strongly (2000-fold) reduced activity. However, the substitution of Cys410, a residue near the active site but not involved in catalysis or substrate binding, by Ala does not change the kinetic properties with respect to the wild-type enzyme. The loss of enzymatic activity of the D170N, D254N, C407S and likely all other mutants is solely due to the inserted point mutations, affecting substrate binding or transition-state stabilization, and not due to major conformational rearrangements of the protein. These results show that a His-Asp pair on one side of the substrate and a Cys on the other side are key residues for activity and are part of a disjoint triad. The imidazole ring of the His is proposed to act as a general acid/general base during catalysis whereas the Cys acts as a nucleophile analogous to Cys25 of papain-like cysteine proteinases. PMID:9266688

Fritsche, E; Humm, A; Huber, R



Effects of oral glucose-lowering drugs on long term outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus following myocardial infarction not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention - a retrospective nationwide cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The optimum oral pharmacological treatment of diabetes mellitus to reduce cardiovascular disease and mortality following myocardial infarction has not been established. We therefore set out to investigate the association between individual oral glucose-lowering drugs and cardiovascular outcomes following myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention. Materials and methods All patients aged 30 years or older receiving glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs) and admitted with myocardial infarction (MI) not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention in Denmark during 1997-2006 were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries of hospitalizations and drug dispensing from pharmacies. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, comorbidity, and concomitant pharmacotherapy were used to assess differences in the composite endpoint of non-fatal MI and cardiovascular mortality between individual GLDs, using metformin monotherapy as reference. Results The study comprised 9876 users of GLDs admitted with MI. The mean age was 72.3 years and 56.5% of patients were men. A total of 3649 received sulfonylureas and 711 received metformin at admission. The average length of follow-up was 2.2 (SD 2.6) years. A total of 6,171 patients experienced the composite study endpoint. The sulfonylureas glibenclamide, glimepiride, glipizide, and tolbutamide were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and/or nonfatal MI with hazard ratios [HRs] of 1.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.46), 1.19 (1.06-1.32), 1.25 (1.11-1.42), and 1.18 (1.03-1.34), respectively, compared with metformin. Gliclazide was the only sulfonylurea not associated with increased risk compared with metformin (HR 1.03 [0.88-1.22]). Conclusions In patients with diabetes mellitus admitted with MI not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention, monotherapy treatment with the sulfonylureas glibenclamide, glimepiride, glipizide, and tolbutamide was associated with increased cardiovascular risk compared with metformin monotherapy. PMID:20843380



Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of l-arginine in rats: a model of stimulated neuronal nitric oxide synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) is believed to be involved in a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions, including opioid responsivity. Elucidation of the role of NO in the CNS requires the ability to elevate systematically neuronal NO concentrations in vivo. This study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of l-arginine, a NO precursor, and to relate the disposition of this

Erin L. Heinzen; Gary M. Pollack



Treatment of Chronic Anal Fissure by Application of l Arginine Gel: A Phase II Study in 15 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE  Local application of exogenous nitric oxide donors, such as isosorbide dinitrate and glyceryl trinitrate, promotes fissure healing by reducing anal resting pressure and improving anodermal blood flow. The major drawback of these nitric oxide donors is headache. The overall incidence of this side effect is approximately 40 percent. Recently we have shown in healthy volunteers that l-arginine, being an intrinsic

M. P. Gosselink; M. Darby; D. D. E. Zimmerman; H. J. Gruss; W. R. Schouten



Modulatory effects of l-arginine and soy enriched diet on bone homeostasis abnormalities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  


Diabetes mellitus is a complex syndrome which is responsible for numerous complications affecting the whole body. Osteoporosis is regarded as one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus that results from reduced bone formation and increased resorption. In this context, we searched for dietary supplements that preserve diabetic bone loss. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been suggested as a possible mechanism affecting bone homeostasis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The osteoprotective effects of l-arginine and soy enriched diet were also investigated. Male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups; normal control, untreated STZ-diabetic rats and STZ-diabetic rats treated with either l-arginine (10mg/kg/day) or fed soy enriched diet (200g/kg diet) for 12weeks. l-Arginine and soy enriched diet normalized serum PTH level and increased serum osteocalcin level; bone osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin and runt-related transcription factor2 mRNA levels compared to diabetic rats. A decrease in serum pyridinoline, C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, cathepsin k levels and bone cathepsin k mRNA level was observed in both treated groups. Both treatments increased serum insulin and insulin like growth factor-1 levels and decreased urinary calcium excretion. In conclusion, l-arginine and soy enriched diet are effective in prevention of osteoporosis associated with diabetes mellitus. PMID:25617479

El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Mehana, Noha Ali



The US Long Term Ecological Research Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience describes Long Term Ecological Research program in the US. The 24 projects of the National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research Network, whose sites range from the poles to the Tropics, from rain forests to tundras and deserts, and from offshore marine to estuarine and freshwater habitats, address fundamental and applied ecological issues that can be understood only through a long-term approach. Each project addresses different ecological questions; even the scale of research differs across sites. Projects in the network are linked by the requirement for some research at each site on five core areas, including primary production, decomposition, and trophic dynamics, and by cross-site comparisons, which are aided by the universally available databases. Many species and environmental variables are studied, and a wide range of synthetic results have been generated.




Valuing a long-term care facility.  


The business valuation industry generally uses at least one of three basic approaches to value a long-term care facility: the cost approach, sales comparison approach, or income approach. The approach that is chosen and the resulting weight that is applied to it depend largely on the circumstances involved. Because a long-term care facility is a business enterprise, more weight usually is given to the income approach which factors into the estimate of value both the tangible and intangible assets of the facility. PMID:10145686

Mellen, C M



Effects of acute supplementation of L-arginine and nitrate on endurance and sprint performance in elite athletes.  


This study examined the effects of acute supplementation with L-arginine and nitrate on running economy, endurance and sprint performance in endurance-trained athletes. In a randomised cross-over, double-blinded design we compared the effects of combined supplementation with 6?g L-arginine and 614?mg nitrate against 614?mg nitrate alone and placebo in nine male elite cross-country skiers (age 18?±?0 years, VO2max 69.3?±?5.8?ml?min(-1)?kg(-1)). After a 48-hour standardisation of nutrition and exercise the athletes were tested for plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, blood pressure, submaximal running economy at 10?km?h(-1) and 14?km?h(-1) at 1% incline and 180?m as well as 5-km time-trial running performances. Plasma nitrite concentration following L-arginine?+?nitrate supplementation (319?±?54?nmol?L(-1)) did not differ from nitrate alone (328?±?107?nmol?L(-1)), and both were higher than placebo (149?±?64?nmol?L(-1), p?L-arginine?+?nitrate and with nitrate alone compared to placebo, but no additional effect was revealed when L-arginine was added to nitrate. Still, there were no effects of supplementation on exercise economy or endurance running performance in endurance-trained cross-country skiers. PMID:25445632

Sandbakk, Silvana Bucher; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Peacock, Oliver; James, Philip; Welde, Boye; Stokes, Keith; Böhlke, Nikolai; Tjønna, Arnt Erik



Canine generalized demodicosis treated with varying doses of a 2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid spot-on and oral ivermectin: parasiticidal effects and long-term treatment outcomes.  


Advocate(®) (2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid) (Bayer HealthCare, Leverkusen, Germany) is a multiparasiticidal spot-on authorized for treating canine demodicosis in many countries. This blinded, randomized three-phase clinical trial compared its efficacy employing different dosing regimens with that of ivermectin. In the blinded first phase, 58 dogs suffering from generalized demodicosis were randomly assigned to one of four groups and treated with monthly, biweekly or weekly applications of Advocate(®), or with oral ivermectin (IVR) at 500 ?g/kg daily. Dogs were evaluated clinically and multiple skin scrapings undertaken every 4 weeks until parasitological cure was achieved (defined as two consecutive series of deep skin scrapings at monthly intervals negative for all life forms). Forty dogs completed the 16-week initial blinded phase, with 5 cases achieving parasitological cure. Five dogs were deemed treatment failures and subsequently treated with ivermectin. The treatment protocol was then changed for the remaining 35 dogs and this cross-over phase (Phase 2) was maintained for a further 8 weeks with an additional 9 dogs achieving parasitological cure. Thereafter, all remaining animals were treated with IVR until cured (Phase 3). Overall, 26 dogs achieved parasitological cure during the clinical investigation. Of these, 23 remained disease-free for at least 12 months while two were lost to follow up and one died of unrelated causes. A total of 32 (55.2%) dogs were withdrawn at various stages of the investigation including the 5 dogs that were judged treatment failures. Other reasons for withdrawal included: non-compliance, lost to follow-up, ivermectin toxicity or reasons unrelated to the investigation. No adverse effects were attributable to the use of Advocate(®). Parasiticidal efficacy was assessed by changes in mite counts (live adult, juvenile and egg) and skin lesion extent & severity scores. Statistical significance was assessed using ANCOVA with initial mite counts or skin scores used as the covariate to account for variations in disease severity. Planned pairwise comparisons were used to identify differences between treatment groups. The efficacy of Advocate(®) increased with its rate of application across all measures of efficacy. Although ivermectin was shown to be more effective than Advocate(®) applied once weekly, both treatment protocols produced clinically satisfactory results. It was concluded that weekly application of Advocate(®) can be recommended as effective for the treatment of canine generalized demodicosis without the potential for toxicity associated with ivermectin. PMID:25262617

Paterson, Tara E; Halliwell, Richard E; Fields, Paul J; Louw, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoff; Louw, Jakobus; Pinckney, Rhonda




EPA Science Inventory

The Toxic Modeling System Long-Term (TOXLT) is a personal-computer- based model that has been developed in conjunction with the release of the new version of the EPAs Industrial Source Complex (ISC2) Dispersion Models (EPA, 1992) and the promulgation of the EPAs A Tiered Modeling...


Evaluating Long-Term Disability Insurance Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report analyzes the factors involved in reviewing benefits and services of employer-sponsored group long-term disability plans for higher education institutions. Opening sections describe the evolution of disability insurance and its shape today. Further sections looks at the complex nature of "value" within a plan, relationship between plan…

Powell, Jan



Long-term treatment with recombinant  

E-print Network

Long-term treatment with recombinant nerve growth factor for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy and significantly im- proved pain symptoms. However, there was no improvement of neuropathy severity as assessed antiretroviral zal- citabine, didanosine, and stavudine is associated with a toxic neuropathy clinically similar

Steinbach, Joe Henry


Long-Term Stability of Social Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo



Long-Term Tracking Through Failure Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long term tracking of an object, given only a single instance in an initial frame, remains an open problem. We propose a visual tracking algorithm, robust to many of the difficulties which often occur in real-world scenes. Correspondences of edge-based features are used, to overcome the reliance on the texture of the tracked object and improve invariance to lighting. Furthermore

Karel Lebeda; Simon Hadfield; Jiri Matas; Richard Bowden



Long-term complications of chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with cancer are living longer and, therefore, are not only at risk for recurrence of the disease but also for long-term side effects of treatment. For patients treated with chemotherapy, secondary malignancies are a special concern, with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia being the most common. Although typically associated with alkylating agents, this complication is now being seen with use of

Mark A. Morgan; Stephen C. Rubin



Long-Term Sequelae of Stroke  

PubMed Central

Scant attention has been paid to the long-term consequences and complications resulting from a stroke. Many stroke survivors go on to develop a variety of medical, musculoskeletal, and psychosocial complications, years after the acute stroke. The family physician is regularly called upon to deal with these problems, but is often hampered by a lack of resources. PMID:21221264

Teasell, Robert W.



Truancy: Short and Long-Term Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers guidance on dealing with the problem of truancy and non-attendance. It provides examples of the latest ways that schools, teachers, education welfare officers, and local education authorities in the United Kingdom have worked to overcome their attendance problems, identifying 120 short-term solutions and several long-term

Reid, Ken


Long-term cropping systems study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This long-term study has been conducted on the Agronomy Farm at ARDC since the early 1970’s. In the beginning, the objectives were mainly related to crop production as affected by different cropping systems. The cropping systems included in the study are Continuous Corn, Soybean, and Sorghum; 2-year...


Long-term data storage in DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses how DNA might be used to store data. It is argued that, at present, DNA would be best employed as a long-term repository (thousands or millions of years). How data-containing DNA might be packaged and how the data might be encrypted, with particular attention to the encryption of written information, is also discussed. Various encryption issues are

Jonathan P. L Cox



Long term perspectives in energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long term perspectives in global energy use patterns and energy resources are considered. The potential contributions of natural gas and coal, oil, nuclear energy, hydroelectric energy, and alternative energy resources (geothermal, wind, biomass, solar) are evaluated. It is concluded that fossile fuels will continue to provide the bulk of the world's energy through the upcoming decades. The political uncertainty of

C. Destival




EPA Science Inventory

National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...



EPA Science Inventory

LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...


Process synchronization without long-term interlock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented for replacing long-term interlocking of shared data by the possible repetition of unprivileged code in case a version number (associated with the shared data) has been changed by another process. Four principles of operating system architecture (which have desirable effects on the intrinsic reliability of a system) are presented; implementation of a system adhering to these

William B. Easton



Process synchronization without long-term interlock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented for replacing long-term interlocking of shared data by the possible repetition of unprivileged code in case a version number (associated with the shared data) has been changed by another process. Four principles of operating system architecture (which have desirable effects on the intrinsic reliability of a system) are presented; implementation of a system adhering to these

William B. Easton



Long-Term Recidivism of Child Molesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the long-term recidivism rates of 197 child molesters released from prison between 1958 and 1974. Overall, 42% of the total sample were reconvicted for sexual crimes, violent crimes, or both, with 10% of the total sample reconvicted 10–31 years after being released. Incest offenders were reconvicted at a slower rate than were offenders who selected only boys, with

R. Karl Hanson; Richard A. Steffy; Rene Gauthier



Four Long-Term Fiscal Realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States faces a long-run fiscal imbalance because of rapid projected growth in Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid spending. The policy response to the imbalance will be shaped by four long-term fiscal realities. First, revenue will rise as a share of GDP. Second, entitlement spending will be reduced, relative to current policies. Third, the middle class, broadly defined, will

Alan D Viard



Attachment style and long-term singlehood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how long-term single people satisfy their attachment and sexual needs. A community sample of single and coupled adults (N ¼ 142) located in the United States completed measures of attachment style, attachment figures, loneliness, depression, anxiety, quality of relationships with parents, and sexual behavior. In a structured interview, they answered questions about their childhoods and managing attachment,




Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected

Dominique Robert; Laurent Argaud



Long-term projection: Initializing sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term climate change and sea-level rise in model projections have been primarily determined by external forcing of climate conditions. Now, research shows that centennial projections of the dynamic sea level are also sensitive to the ocean's initial conditions.

Yin, Jianjun



Quantification and classification of errors associated with hand-repackaging of medications in long-term care facilities in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to quantify and classify errors associated with the repackaging of residents' medications in long-term care facilities in Germany.Methods: This was a prospective 8-week study conducted in 3 long-term care facilities. Pill organizers, each of which contained all repackaged solid oral dosage forms of long-term medications for a particular resident for an entire day,

Andreas Gerber; Ines Kohaupt; Karl W. Lauterbach; Guido Buescher; Stephanie Stock; Markus Lungen



Long-Term Outcome after Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated long-term outcome of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Survival, functional status, quality of life, health care utilization, and relationships between these parameters and postoperative pulmo- nary hemodynamics were assessed. Questionnaires were mailed to 420 patients who were more than 1 yr post-PTE; 308 responded (mean age, 56 yr (range, 19-89 yr);



Osteoporosis management in long-term care  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Demographic variables; physician attitudes; and practices concerning awareness, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. RESULTS Respondents returned 275 of 490 questionnaires, for a response rate of 56.1%. Most respondents (92.4%) were family physicians; 28.7% were caring for more than 100 patients in long-term care. Most (85.8%) saw from one to 10 hip fractures yearly in their practices. Although

H. G. McKercher; R. G. Crilly; M. Kloseck



Anemia in Long-Term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term care refers to a heterogeneous spectrum of facilities and health-related services that range from home nursing services\\u000a to residential care and skilled nursing facilities, so-called nursing homes. Although the services eligible for Medicare coverage\\u000a are defined by CMS, the clinical and demographic mix in facilities, even of the same level of care, is highly variable. The\\u000a shifting health care

Andrew S. Artz; Miriam Rodin


Long-term Variation of AGNs  

E-print Network

In this paper, we will discuss the long-term variations in the optical and the infrared bands of some AGNs. It is interesting to note that the reported periods of AGNs are of the similar values (about 10 years, see Fan et al. 1998a, ApJ, 507 in press, and references therein). DCF method shows the optical and infrared bands are strongly correlated suggesting that the emission mechanisms in the two bands have a common origin.

J. H. Fan; G. Z. Xie; G. Adam; S. L. Wen; Y. Copin; R. G. Lin; J. M. Bai; Y. P. Qin



Quantal analysis and long-term potentiation.  


Quantal analysis is useful for assessing the pre- and/or post-synaptic locus of the expression of long-term tetanic potentiation with the condition, however, that the studied synaptic potentials have been evoked by single cell stimulations, as is the case with paired recordings of identified neurons. The application of this methodology, primarily with indirect criteria, has produced conclusions which dance back and forth across the synaptic cleft. PMID:9759330

Korn, H; Faber, D S



Long-term course of opioid addiction.  


Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed. PMID:25747921

Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas



Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated stimulation of hippocampal neurons can induce an immediate and prolonged increase in synaptic strength that is called long-term potentiation (LTP)-the primary cellular model of memory in the mammalian brain1. An early phase of LTP (lasting less than three hours) can be dissociated from late-phase LTP by using inhibitors of transcription and translation2-8. Because protein synthesis occurs mainly in the

Uwe Frey; Richard G. M. Morris



A long-term view of hypospadias.  


The long-term psychological and physical sequelae of hypospadias and its management were assessed in a study of 213 patients over the age of fifteen. A high level of adult dissatisfaction regarding the quality of their repairs both in terms of function and aesthetics, plus criticism of inadequate guidance, indicates the need for follow-up until at least mid-teens, and the choice of operations which produce a terminal meatus and more natural appearance. PMID:2758195

Bracka, A




Microsoft Academic Search

Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a



Long-term sequelae of electrical injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John



Pupil motility in long-term diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Employing infrared TV-videopupillography and the open loop stimulatory technique the ability of the pupil of the eye to react to rhythmic light stimuli of increasing frequencies was studied in 15 control subjects and 14 long-term juvenile diabetics. The degree of retinopathy varied from nil to proliferative changes. The visual acuity of all subjects studied was at least 6\\/9 and there

Á. B. Hreidarsson



Long-term EEG in children.  


Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. PMID:25687590

Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D



Electrodes for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.  


The emerging application of long-term and high-quality ECG recording requires alternative electrodes to improve the signal quality and recording capability of surface skin electrodes. The esophageal ECG has the potential to overcome these limitations but necessitates novel recorder and lead designs. The electrode material is of particular interest, since the material has to ensure conflicting requirements like excellent biopotential recording properties and inertness. To this end, novel electrode materials like PEDOT and silver-PDMS as well as established electrode materials such as stainless steel, platinum, gold, iridium oxide, titanium nitride, and glassy carbon were investigated by long-term electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and model-based signal analysis using the derived in vitro interfacial properties in conjunction with a dedicated ECG amplifier. The results of this novel approach show that titanium nitride and iridium oxide featuring microstructured surfaces did not degrade when exposed to artificial acidic saliva. These materials provide low electrode potential drifts and insignificant signal distortion superior to surface skin electrodes making them compatible with accepted standards for ambulatory ECG. They are superior to the noble and polarizable metals such as platinum, silver, and gold that induced more signal distortions and are superior to esophageal stainless steel electrodes that corrode in artificial saliva. The study provides rigorous criteria for the selection of electrode materials for prolonged ECG recording by combining long-term in vitro electrode material properties with ECG signal quality assessment. PMID:23649132

Niederhauser, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Jungo, Michael; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Abacherli, Roger; Vogel, Rolf



Study of L-arginine in intestinal lesions caused by ischemia-reperfusion in rats.  


To examine whether treatment with L-arginine (ARG), a substrate of nitric oxide biosynthesis, attenuated intestinal dysfunction caused by ischemia (I) and reperfusion (R), we treated rats with ARG (100 mg/kg intravenously) or saline solution (SS) before 60 minutes of I produced by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery and/or during 120 minutes of R. After I or I/R, we isolated 2-cm jejunal segments for mounting in an organ bath to study neurogenic contractions stimulated by electrical pulses or KCl with the use of a digital recording system. Thin jejunal slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for optical microscopy. Jejunal contractions were similar in the sham and I+ARG, but reduced in I+SS, I/R+SS, and I/R+ARG groups. Jejunal enteric nerves were damaged in I+SS, IR+SS, and IR+ARG, but not in the I+ARG group, suggesting that ARG attenuate intestinal dysfunctions due to I but not to R. PMID:23026581

Gomez, J S M; Miranda-Ferreira, R; Taha, N S A; Rodrigues, L W; Bento, D R G M; Fernandes, D T; Chihara, R T; Simões, M J; Oliveira-Junior, I S; Monteiro, H P; Fagundes, D J; Caricati-Neto, A; Taha, M O



Effect of L-arginine on HSP70 expression in liver in weanling piglets  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of L-arginine (Arg) on photomicrographs and HSP70 expression in the liver of weanling piglets. Twelve healthy Landrace?×?Yorkshire piglets that had been weaned at 21 d (average body weight 5.56?±?0.51 kg) were randomly divided into a control group and an Arg group (6 g/kg feed). At age 28 d, all of the piglets were slaughtered to obtain liver samples to determine HSP70 expression by real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results The results showed that, compared to control piglets, treatment with Arg decreased inflammatory reactions caused by weaning. The immunohistochemical localization of HSP70 in liver revealed strong expression in the Arg group. Arg increased HSP70 mRNA and HSP70 expression in the liver (P?



Antiviral and Virucidal Activities of N?-Cocoyl-L-Arginine Ethyl Ester  

PubMed Central

Various amino acid-derived compounds, for example, N?-Cocoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (CAE), alkyloxyhydroxylpropylarginine, arginine cocoate, and cocoyl glycine potassium salt (Amilite), were examined for their virucidal activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), influenza A virus (IAV), and poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in comparison to benzalkonium chloride (BKC) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a cationic and anionic control detergent and also to other commercially available disinfectants. While these amino acid-derived compounds were all effective against HSV-1 and HSV-2, CAE and Amilite were the most effective. These two compounds were, however, not as effective against IAV, another enveloped virus, as against HSV. Cytotoxicity of CAE was weak; at 0.012%, only 5% of the cells were killed under the conditions, in which 100% cells were killed by either SDS or BKC. In addition to these direct virucidal effects, CAE inhibited the virus growth in the HSV-1- or PV-1-infected cells even at 0.01%. These results suggest a potential application of CAE as a therapeutic or preventive medicine against HSV superficial infection at body surface. PMID:22312346

Yamasaki, Hisashi; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Ikeda, Keiko; Suzuki, Yukiko; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Koyama, A. Hajime



Intrathecal l-arginine reduces the antinociception of sevoflurane in formalin-induced pain in rats.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of spinal nitric oxide (NO) to the antinociceptive effects of emulsified sevoflurane in rats. Formalin tests were used to assess the nociceptive response. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the effects of emulsified sevoflurane on formalin-induced changes of Fos-like immunoreactive (Fos-LI)-positive neurons in the spinal cord. We found that emulsified sevoflurane administered intraperitoneally at a dosage of 2.5ml/kg did not impair motor performance in rats, but it significantly decreased the formalin-induced paw licking time. Furthermore, Fos-LI-positive neurons were mainly found in the ipsilateral dorsal horn after the injection of formalin. The administration of emulsified sevoflurane significantly decreased Fos-LI-labeled neurons. Finally, intrathecal l-arginine alone did not affect the basal pain threshold, but it significantly decreased the antinociceptive response of emulsified sevoflurane against formalin injection and the suppressive effects of sevoflurane on formalin-induced Fos protein expression (P<0.05). These data suggest that spinal cord NO is involved in the antinociception of sevoflurane in rats. PMID:25660619

Chen, Jian-Qing; Zeng, Yin-Ming; Dai, Ti-Jun; Tang, Qi-Feng



N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester effects on neutrophil function and bacterial clearance.  


Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors are considered promising as a therapeutic option in severe septic shock. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) application on neutrophil (PMN) respiratory burst, phagocytosis, and elimination of Escherichia coli from blood and tissue in rabbits. Twenty-eight female chinchilla rabbits were randomized to a treatment and control group. To quantify the bacterial clearance process, 10 colony forming units (CFU) of E. coli were injected intravenously into anesthetized rabbits. Animals in the L-NAME group had a significantly higher mortality compared with controls. NOS inhibition resulted in a significant delay of bacterial clearance (P < 0.001). These findings correlated with a significant augmentation of all organ E. coli findings (P = 0.002-0.035). PMN phagocytosis activity was notably reduced by L-NAME treatment during the experimental observation. Neutrophil burst, on the other hand, was amplified by NOS inhibition (P = 0.008). Our findings point to an interference with the PMN-dependent immune mechanisms after L-NAME treatment. The augmented PMN burst reaction could be a compensatory mechanism, potentially leading to tissue damage. Therefore, in this model, we find sufficient evidence pointing to a possible cause for the deleterious effect of early nonselective NOS inhibition in critically ill patients. PMID:15257093

Stehr, Sebastian N; Weber, Sören; Heller, Susanne C; Weikel, Jutta; Hübler, Matthias; Koch, Thea; Heller, Axel R



l-arginine availability regulates T-lymphocyte cell-cycle progression  

PubMed Central

l-arginine (l-Arg) plays a central role in several biologic systems including the regulation of T-cell function. l-Arg depletion by myeloid-derived suppressor cells producing arginase I is seen in patients with cancer inducing T-cell anergy. We studied how l-Arg starvation could regulate T-cell–cycle progression. Stimulated T cells cultured in the absence of l-Arg are arrested in the G0-G1phase of the cell cycle. This was associated with an inability of T cells to up-regulate cyclin D3 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4), but not cdk6, resulting in an impaired downstream signaling with a decreased phosphorylation of Rb protein and a low expression and binding of E2F1. Silencing of cyclin D3 reproduced the cell cycle arrest caused by l-Arg starvation. The regulation of cyclin D3 and cdk4 by l-Arg starvation occurs at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Signaling through GCN2 kinase is triggered during amino acid starvation. Experiments demonstrated that T cells from GCN2 knock-out mice did not show a decreased proliferation and were able to up-regulate cyclin D3 when cultured in the absence of l-Arg. These results contribute to the understanding of a central mechanism by which cancer and other diseases characterized by high arginase I production may cause T-cell dysfunction. PMID:17023580

Rodriguez, Paulo C.; Quiceno, David G.; Ochoa, Augusto C.



Evidence that L-Arginine inhibits glycation of human serum albumin (HSA) in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Previous work by Brownlee has shown that glycation of bovine serum albumin can be reduced in the presence of aminoguanidine (AG). Presumably, the guanidinium group on AG interferes with further rearrangement of amadori products to advanced glycosylated end products (AGE). Since L-arginine (ARG) also contains a guanidinium group, its ability to inhibit the formation of AGE products was investigated. HSA was incubated at 37{degrees}C in the presence or absence of glucose; with glucose and fructose; or with sugars in the presence or absence of ARG or AG. A tracer amount of U-{sup 14}C-glucose was added to each tube containing sugars. Protein bound glucose was separated from unreacted glucose by gel filtration. Radioactivity, total protein, fluorescence, and glucose concentration were measured. Preliminary data show enhanced binding of {sup 14}C-glucose to HSA with fructose at all time points. A 30-40% decrease in {sup 14}C-glucose incorporation was observed when ARG or AG as present. ARG and AG were equally effective in inhibiting incorporation of {sup 14}C-glucose. FPLC analysis is in progress to determine the type and degree of HSA crosslinking during the 2 week incubation period.

Servetnick, D.A.; Wiesenfeld, P.L.; Szepesi, B. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))



Binding-competent states for L-arginine in E. coli arginine repressor apoprotein.  


Arginine repressor of E. coli is a multifunctional hexameric protein that provides feedback regulation of arginine metabolism upon activation by the negatively cooperative binding of L-arginine. Interpretation of this complex system requires an understanding of the protein's conformational landscape. The ~50 kDa hexameric C-terminal domain was studied by 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations in the presence and absence of the six L-arg ligands that bind at the trimer-trimer interface. A rotational shift between trimers followed by rotational oscillation occurs in the production phase of the simulations only when L-arg is absent. Analysis of the system reveals that the degree of rotation is correlated with the number of hydrogen bonds across the trimer interface. The trajectory presents frames with one or more apparently open binding sites into which one L-arg could be docked successfully in three different instances, indicating that a binding-competent state of the system is occasionally sampled. Simulations of the resulting singly-liganded systems reveal for the first time that the binding of one L-arg results in a holoprotein-like conformational distribution. PMID:24952066

Pandey, Saurabh Kumar; ?eha, David; Zayats, Vasilina; Melichercik, Milan; Carey, Jannette; Ettrich, Rüdiger



Validated Method for Simultaneous Determination of Cefepime and L?Arginine in Cefepime for Injection by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and accurate capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method is described for simultaneous determination of cefepime and L?arginine in cefepime for injection. Best results were achieved with the background electrolyte (BGE) prepared by titrating 40 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate with phosphoric acid to pH 2.3 and an applied voltage of 30 kV in a bare fused?silica capillary. The capillary temperature was 30°C

Hao Liu; V. Bruce Sunderland



Dietary l-arginine and ?-tocopherol reduce vascular oxidative stress and preserve endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits via different mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular oxidative stress brought about by superoxide radicals and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) is a major factor contributing to decreased NO-dependent vasodilator function in hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. We investigated whether chronic administration of l-arginine (2% in drinking water) or of ?-tocopherol (300 mg\\/day) improves endothelium-dependent vasodilator function and systemic NO production, reduces vascular oxidative stress, and reduces the progression of

Rainer H. Böger; Stefanie M. Bode-Böger; Laddaval Phivthong-ngam; Ralf P. Brandes; Edzard Schwedhelm; Andreas Mügge; Michael Böhme; Dimitrios Tsikas; Jürgen C. Frölich



Evidence for cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthesis from L-arginine in patients receiving interleukin-2 therapy.  

PubMed Central

An interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-1-inducible, high-output pathway synthesizing nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine was recently identified in rodents. High-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy is known to induce the same cytokines in patients with advanced cancer. Therefore, we examined renal cell carcinoma (RCC; n = 5) and malignant melanoma (MM; n = 7) patients for evidence of cytokine-inducible NO synthesis. Activity of this pathway was evaluated by measuring serum and urine nitrate (the stable degradation product of NO) during IL-2 therapy. IL-2 administration caused a striking increase in NO generation as reflected by serum nitrate levels (10- and 8-fold increase [P less than 0.001, P less than 0.003] for RCC and MM patients, respectively) and 24-h urinary nitrate excretion (6.5- and 9-fold increase [both P less than 0.001] for RCC and MM patients, respectively). IL-2-induced renal dysfunction made only a minor contribution to increased serum nitrate levels. Metabolic tracer studies using L-[guanidino-15N2]arginine demonstrated that the increased nitrate production was derived from a terminal guanidino nitrogen atom of L-arginine. Our results showing increased endogenous nitrate synthesis in patients receiving IL-2 demonstrate for the first time that a cytokine-inducible, high-output L-arginine/NO pathway exists in humans. Images PMID:1541678

Hibbs, J B; Westenfelder, C; Taintor, R; Vavrin, Z; Kablitz, C; Baranowski, R L; Ward, J H; Menlove, R L; McMurry, M P; Kushner, J P



Evidence for cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthesis from L-arginine in patients receiving interleukin-2 therapy.  


An interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-1-inducible, high-output pathway synthesizing nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine was recently identified in rodents. High-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy is known to induce the same cytokines in patients with advanced cancer. Therefore, we examined renal cell carcinoma (RCC; n = 5) and malignant melanoma (MM; n = 7) patients for evidence of cytokine-inducible NO synthesis. Activity of this pathway was evaluated by measuring serum and urine nitrate (the stable degradation product of NO) during IL-2 therapy. IL-2 administration caused a striking increase in NO generation as reflected by serum nitrate levels (10- and 8-fold increase [P less than 0.001, P less than 0.003] for RCC and MM patients, respectively) and 24-h urinary nitrate excretion (6.5- and 9-fold increase [both P less than 0.001] for RCC and MM patients, respectively). IL-2-induced renal dysfunction made only a minor contribution to increased serum nitrate levels. Metabolic tracer studies using L-[guanidino-15N2]arginine demonstrated that the increased nitrate production was derived from a terminal guanidino nitrogen atom of L-arginine. Our results showing increased endogenous nitrate synthesis in patients receiving IL-2 demonstrate for the first time that a cytokine-inducible, high-output L-arginine/NO pathway exists in humans. PMID:1541678

Hibbs, J B; Westenfelder, C; Taintor, R; Vavrin, Z; Kablitz, C; Baranowski, R L; Ward, J H; Menlove, R L; McMurry, M P; Kushner, J P



Assessing nutritional risk of long-term care residents.  


The validity was determined for Minimum Data Set (MDS) 2.0 oral/nutrition status (Section K) items, used to identify long-term care residents at nutritional risk. A registered dietitian assessed 128 long-term care residents using standardized procedures, and used clinical judgment to provide a nutritional risk rating. Registered nursing staff completed the MDS assessments. Bivariate tests of association were used to assess the relationship between the dietitian rating and each Section K item. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of specific and combinations of variables were also determined. The MDS variables of dietary prescription (diet rx), supplement use, and swallowing problems were significantly associated with nutritional risk rating. Body mass index (BMI), calculated from MDS data, also was significantly associated with nutritional risk rating. The MDS trigger system, however, had poor Se and Sp. The best combination of variables included the presence of one or more of diet rx, supplement use, swallowing problem, or BMI <24 kg/m2 (Se=0.81, Sp=0.50). Although Section K items are associated with nutritional risk, Se and Sp analyses suggest that these items and this section require further refinement and validation before use as part of a referral mechanism. PMID:16159408

Bowman, Jennifer J; Keller, Heather H



Long term differential consequences of miglustat therapy on intestinal disaccharidases.  


Miglustat is an oral medication for treatment of lysosomal storage diseases such as Gaucher disease type I and Niemann Pick disease type C. In many cases application of Miglustat is associated with symptoms similar to those observed in intestinal carbohydrate malabsorption. Previously, we have demonstrated that intestinal disaccharidases are inhibited immediately by Miglustat in the intestinal lumen. Nevertheless, the multiple functions of Miglustat hypothesize long term effects of Miglustat on intracellular mechanisms, including glycosylation, maturation and trafficking of the intestinal disaccharidases. Our data show that a major long term effect of Miglustat is its interference with N-glycosylation of the proteins in the ER leading to a delay in the trafficking of sucrase-isomaltase. Also association with lipid rafts and plausibly apical targeting of this protein is partly affected in the presence of Miglustat. More drastic is the effect of Miglustat on lactase-phlorizin hydrolase which is partially blocked intracellularly. The de novo synthesized SI and LPH in the presence of Miglustat show reduced functional efficiencies according to altered posttranslational processing of these proteins. However, at physiological concentrations of Miglustat (?50 ?M) a major part of the activity of these disaccharidases is found to be still preserved, which puts the charge of the observed carbohydrate maldigestion mostly on the direct inhibition of disaccharidases in the intestinal lumen by Miglustat as the immediate side effect. PMID:24863482

Amiri, Mahdi; Naim, Hassan Y



Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

Akins, F. R.



Long-Term Wind Power Variability  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

Wan, Y. H.



A long-term climatology of medicanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medicanes, intense and destructive mesoscale cyclones exhibiting several similarities with tropical hurricanes, are known to struck occasionally the Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to a high-resolution dynamical downscaling effort, we are able to study for the first time the long-term climatology of those rare storms in a systematic way. The distribution of medicanes frequency in space and time is discussed, and the environmental factors responsible for their formation are investigated. We find that medicanes develop in those areas of the Mediterranean region where intrusions of cold air in the upper troposphere can produce configurations of thermodynamical disequilibrium of the atmosphere similar to those associated with the formation of tropical cyclones.

Cavicchia, Leone; von Storch, Hans; Gualdi, Silvio



N sup G -methyl-L-arginine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced hypotension: Implications for the involvement of nitric oxide  

SciTech Connect

Clinical assessment of the activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) against human cancer has been limited by a dose-dependent cardiovascular toxicity, most frequently hypotension. TNF is also thought to mediate the vascular collapse resulting from bacterial endotoxin. The present studies address the mechanism by which TNF causes hypotension and provide evidence for elevated production of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator initially characterized as endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nitric oxide is synthesized by several cell types, including endothelial cells and macrophages, from the guanidino nitrogen of L-arginine; the enzymatic pathway is competitively inhibited by N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine. The authors found that hypotension induced in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs by TNF was completely reversed within 2 min following administration of N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine. In contrast, N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine failed to reverse the hypotensive response to an equivalent depressor dose of nitroglycerin, a compound that acts by forming nitric oxide by a monenzymatic, arginine-independent mechanism. The effect of N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine on TNF-induced hypotension was antagonized, and the hypotension restored, by administration of excess L-arginine findings suggest that excessive nitric oxide production mediates the hypotensive effect of TNF.

Kilbourn, R.G.; Adams, J. (Univ. of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA)); Gross, S.S.; Griffith, O.W.; Levi, R. (Cornell Univ. Medical College, New York, NY (USA)); Jubran, A.; Lodato, R.F. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston (USA))



Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of L-arginine and its derivatives.  


L-arginine (ARG) is an important amino acid for both medicinal and industrial applications. For almost six decades, the research has been going on for its improved industrial level production using different microorganisms. While the initial approaches involved random mutagenesis for increased tolerance to ARG and consequently higher ARG titer, it is laborious and often leads to unwanted phenotypes, such as retarded growth. Discovery of L-glutamate (GLU) overproducing strains and using them as base strains for ARG production led to improved ARG production titer. Continued effort to unveil molecular mechanisms led to the accumulation of detailed knowledge on amino acid metabolism, which has contributed to better understanding of ARG biosynthesis and its regulation. Moreover, systems metabolic engineering now enables scientists and engineers to efficiently construct genetically defined microorganisms for ARG overproduction in a more rational and system-wide manner. Despite such effort, ARG biosynthesis is still not fully understood and many of the genes in the pathway are mislabeled. Here, we review the major metabolic pathways and its regulation involved in ARG biosynthesis in different prokaryotes including recent discoveries. Also, various strategies for metabolic engineering of bacteria for the overproduction of ARG are described. Furthermore, metabolic engineering approaches for producing ARG derivatives such as L-ornithine (ORN), putrescine and cyanophycin are described. ORN is used in medical applications, while putrescine can be used as a bio-based precursor for the synthesis of nylon-4,6 and nylon-4,10. Cyanophycin is also an important compound for the production of polyaspartate, another important bio-based polymer. Strategies outlined here will serve as a general guideline for rationally designing of cell-factories for overproduction of ARG and related compounds that are industrially valuable. PMID:25467280

Shin, Jae; Lee, Sang



Parenteral Administration of l-Arginine Prevents Fetal Growth Restriction in Undernourished Ewes12  

PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major health problem worldwide that currently lacks an effective therapeutic solution. This study was conducted with an ovine IUGR model to test the hypothesis that parenteral administration of l-arginine (Arg) is effective in enhancing fetal growth. Beginning on d 28 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% (control-fed) or 50% (underfed) of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements. Between d 60 of gestation and parturition, underfed ewes received i.v. infusions of saline or 155 ?mol Arg-HCl/kg body weight 3 times daily, whereas control-fed ewes received only saline. The birth weights of lambs from saline-infused underfed ewes were 23% lower (P < 0.01) than those of lambs from control-fed dams. Administration of Arg to underfed ewes increased (P < 0.01) concentrations of Arg (69%), ornithine (55%), proline (29%), methionine (37%), leucine (36%), isoleucine (35%), cysteine (19%), and FFA (43%) in maternal serum, decreased maternal circulating levels of ammonia (18%) and triglycerides (32%), and enhanced birth weights of lambs by 21% compared with saline-infused underfed ewes. There was no difference in birth weights of lambs between the control-fed and the Arg-infused underfed ewes. These novel results indicate that parenteral administration of Arg to underfed ewes prevented fetal growth restriction and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans. The findings also lay a new framework for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of Arg in regulating conceptus growth and development. PMID:20505020

Lassala, Arantzatzu; Bazer, Fuller W.; Cudd, Timothy A.; Datta, Sujay; Keisler, Duane H.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Spencer, Thomas E.; Wu, Guoyao



RNA aptamers that bind L-arginine with sub-micromolar dissociation constants and high enantioselectivity.  

PubMed Central

A completely randomized RNA pool as well as a degenerate pool comprised of an RNA sequence which binds citrulline with a dissociation constant of 0 muM were used to select for tight binding arginine specific RNA aptamers. A modified in vitro selection scheme, based on affinity chromatography was applied to allow the enrichment of high affinity solution binders. The selection scheme included a negative selection with the non-cognate ligand citrulline, and a heat denaturation step prior to affinity elution with an excess of the cognate ligand arginine. After 20 cycles the majority of the pools bound specifically to the arginine matrix even after denaturation/renaturation in the presence of 20 mM of a non-cognate amino acid. When denatured and eluted in the presence of 20 mM arginine, the selected RNAs quantitatively washed off the column. These RNA aptamers were cloned and sequenced. Equilibrium dialysis performed with the most abundant clone among the selected sequence revealed Kd values of 330 nM for the RNA/arginine affinity, which is nearly a 200-fold improvement over the tightest binding arginine binding RNAs known to date. Arginine recognition by this RNA is highly enantioselectice: L- arginine is bound 12 000-fold better than D-arginine. Chemical modification analysis revealed that the secondary structure of the aptamer might contain a pseudoknot motif. Our tight binding arginine aptamers join a number of natural and in vitro selected RNAs which recognize arginine. The RNAs described here compare in their binding affinity with the tightest binding RNA aptamers for low molecular weight molecules isolated in other in vitro selection experiments. PMID:8604334

Geiger, A; Burgstaller, P; von der Eltz, H; Roeder, A; Famulok, M



Sympathetic baroreceptor responses after chronic NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester treatment in conscious rats.  


Blood pressure elevations after nitric oxide inhibition may result in part from increased sympathetic tone. In this study arterial baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA) were compared in rats given normal tap water or a 3.7 nmol/L (10 mg%) solution of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) for 1 or 5 weeks. L-NAME raised blood pressure after 5 weeks of treatment (153 +/- 3 versus 130 +/- 3 and 124 +/- 2 mm Hg, 5 weeks versus 1 week and control). The sensitivity of arterial baroreceptor reflex control of RSNA was reduced after both 1 and 5 weeks of treatment (-5.05 +/- 0.63% and -4.46 +/- 0.2% versus -6.43 +/- 0.39% baseline activity per millimeters of mercury). Set point gain of ASNA was attenuated after 5 weeks of treatment compared with controls (-1.7 +/- 3% versus -3.3 +/- 3% baseline activity per millimeters of mercury). Maximal inhibition of ASNA was attenuated in groups treated 1 and 5 weeks (60 +/- 3% and 66 +/- 3% versus 34 +/- 4% baseline activity). The maximal increase in both RSNA and ASNA was elevated in rats treated 5 weeks (RSNA: control, 263 +/- 19%; 1 week, 224 +/- 17%; 5 weeks, 324 +/- 20%; ASNA: control, 272 +/- 29%; 1 week, 252 +/- 31%; 5 weeks, 361 +/- 28% baseline activity). The data indicate that chronic L-NAME treatment alters arterial baroreceptor reflexes in part before the onset of hypertension. PMID:8206639

Scrogin, K E; Veelken, R; Luft, F C



Pediatric HIV Long-Term Nonprogressors  

PubMed Central

Patients infected with HIV are best categorized along a continuum from rapid progressors to HIV long-term nonprogressors. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) are those in which AIDS develop many years after being infected with HIV, often beyond the 10-year mark, and represent 15–20% of the HIV infected patients. Many of these patients are able to control their infection and maintain undetectable viral loads for long periods of time without antiretroviral therapy. After a comprehensive literature search, we found extensive data related to HIV LTNPs in the adult population; however, very limited data was available related to LTNPs within the pediatric population. We present a case of pediatric HIV LTNPs, perinatally infected patient with undetectable viral loads, despite never receiving ART. Although there are not many instances of LTNPs among children, this child may be one, though she had intermittent viremia. She has continued to manifest serologic evidence of infection, with yearly ELISA and western blot positive tests. Based on the viral fitness studies that were performed, this case exemplifies an adolescent LTNP. PMID:25247098

Rimawi, B. H.; Rimawi, R. H.; Micallef, M.; Pinckney, L.; Fowler, S. L.; Dixon, T. C.



The Long-Term Hemispheric Sunspot Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sunspot activity is usually represented by either sunspot numbers (SN) or sunspot areas (SA). The smoothed monthly mean SA and SN in the northern and southern hemispheres from 1945 January to 2008 March are used to investigate the characteristics of long-term hemispheric sunspot activity. Although sunspot activity (SA and SN) is found to begin one month earlier in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere on the average of the considered time interval, the shift is so small that no long-term systematic phase shift is statistically acceptable as a first-order effect, as suggested by White & Trotter. Sunspot activity never peaks at the same time in the two hemispheres. Although the Schwabe cycle appears in hemispheric sunspot activity, its period length slightly varies during the considered time interval and seems to be longer in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere on the average. Sunspot activity is asymmetrically distributed in the hemispheres, but the largest hemispheric diversity usually does not appear around the maximum time of a cycle. The diversity of SA, respectively, in the northern and southern hemispheres runs on the Sun similarly and synchronously as the diversity of SN does. Sunspot activity is slightly asynchronous in the hemispheres.

Li, K. J.; Gao, P. X.; Zhan, L. S.; Shi, X. J.



Long-term anticoagulation. Indications and management.  

PubMed Central

Each year half a million persons in the United States receive long-term anticoagulant therapy to prevent venous and arterial thromboembolism. Unfortunately, the relative benefits and risks of anticoagulant therapy have not been adequately quantified for many thromboembolic disorders, and the decisions as to whether, for how long, and how intensely to administer anticoagulation are often complex and controversial. Several expert panels have published recommendations for anticoagulant therapy for different thromboembolic disorders; the primary area of disagreement among these panels concerns the optimal intensity of anticoagulation. Recent research and analytic reviews have helped to clarify both the risk factors for and the appropriate diagnostic evaluation of anticoagulant-induced hemorrhage. Clinicians must be aware of the nonhemorrhagic complications of anticoagulant therapy, particularly during pregnancy. The administration of anticoagulants is difficult both in relation to dosing and long-term monitoring. Knowledge of the pharmacology of the anticoagulants, an organized approach to ongoing monitoring, and thorough patient education may facilitate the safe and effective use of these drugs. PMID:2686173

Stults, B M; Dere, W H; Caine, T H



Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation  

PubMed Central

Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as ‘storage’. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation—which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes—with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent



Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected to improve patient outcomes, reduce ICU admission, enhance patient comfort, and increase the efficiency of health care resource utilization. Current literature indicates that noninvasive ventilation improves and stabilizes the clinical course of many patients with chronic ventilatory failure. Noninvasive ventilation also permits long-term mechanical ventilation to be an acceptable option for patients who otherwise would not have been treated if tracheostomy were the only alternative. Nevertheless, these results appear to be better in patients with neuromuscular/-parietal disorders than in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This clinical review will address the use of noninvasive ventilation (not including continuous positive airway pressure) mainly in diseases responsible for chronic hypoventilation (that is, restrictive disorders, including neuromuscular disease and lung disease) and incidentally in others such as obstructive sleep apnea or problems of central drive. PMID:17419882

Robert, Dominique; Argaud, Laurent



Dehydration among Long-Term Care Elderly Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Long-term care (LTC) residents, especially the orally fed with dysphagia, are prone to dehydration. The clinical consequences of dehydration are critical. The validity of the common laboratory parameters of hydration status is far from being absolute, especially so in the elderly. However, combinations of these indices are more reliable. Objective: Assessment of hydration status among elderly LTC residents with

A. Leibovitz; Y. Baumoehl; E. Lubart; A. Yaina; N. Platinovitz; R. Segal



Long-term performance of filtration layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permeable pavements are commonly employed to capture and divert stormwater before it enters the stormwater or sewer conveyance systems. During a storm event, runoff water passes through the permeable pavement surface, enters a storage gallery and finally exfiltrates into the surrounding soil. Thus, the ability of the system to store an appropriate volume of runoff water is an important consideration for stormwater control design. Traditionally, crushed stone or other porous material has been used to provide the necessary interstitial void space to store the runoff water. Unfortunately, over time the available void space within the storage gallery is reduced due to settlement, biological growth and sediment accumulation. This gradual reduction in void space reduces the long-term effectiveness of these stormwater controls by limiting its ability to store and pass runoff water. This study examined the long-term performance of the storage gallery layer with respect to its ability to both store and pass runoff water. As the porosity within the storage gallery decreased, it was anticipated that volumetric water content within the gallery would increase and that time necessary to drain the gallery would increase as well. The effects of the gallery porosity were assessed over a one-year study using both laboratory experimentation and monitoring data from naturally occurring rain events. Changes in gallery porosity were first assessed by correlating monitoring piezometer data with surface infiltration testing; building a relation between know volume of poured water being used for the test and the associated pressure head at the base of the gallery. As a known volume of water enters the system, volume change in the gallery directly correlate to increases in pressure head. Second, the time required for water to permeate through pavers and gallery layer to trigger the TDRs in the filtration layer and the time to drain it from the crushed stone were calculated and compared by the age of permeable pavement. These data were utilized to develop a model that more appropriately considered changes in gallery porosity. By better understanding the progression of the runoff water through the storage gallery a better assessment of the long-term performance of the entire system can be developed. Future storage gallery designs can be appropriately modified to account for changes within the storage gallery so that volume and flow requirements are maintained throughout the life of the structure.

Radfar, A.; Rockaway, T. D.



L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic and control rats. Under these findings, we suggest that targeting of eNOS and Nrf2 signaling by L-arginine supplementation could be used as a potential treatment method to alleviate the late diabetic complications.

Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)] [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)



Reducing long-term reservoir performance uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir performance is one of the key issues that have to be addressed before going ahead with the development of a geothermal field. In order to select the type and size of the power plant and design other surface installations, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the production wells and of the produced fluids, and to predict the changes over a 10--30 year period. This is not a straightforward task, as in most cases the calculations have to be made on the basis of data collected before significant fluid volumes have been extracted from the reservoir. The paper describes the methodology used in predicting the long-term performance of hydrothermal systems, as well as DOE/GTD-sponsored research aimed at reducing the uncertainties associated with these predictions. 27 refs., 1 fig.

Lippmann, M.J.



Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1992 by the Kentucky General Assembly, the Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center is dedicated to helping the Bluegrass State "act as a catalyst to change the way decisions are made in government." Their research has proved seminal to the state's advancement, and interested parties can learn about their publications, conferences, and other work on this site. First-time visitors should start by looking over some of their work in the "Publications" area. Here they will find full-length reports, their "Policy Notes" series, and PowerPoint presentations created by staff members. There are several hundred publications here, which can be viewed by topics, which range from "aging population" to "workforce development". The "Videos" section is quite good as well, and it features talks with 43 persons of interest from across the state, including journalist Betty Winston Baye and the mayor of Madisonville, Karen Cunningham.


Long-term U. S. energy outlook  

SciTech Connect

Each year Chase Econometrics offers its clients a brief summary of the assumptions underlying the long-term energy forecast for the U.S. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they choose to compare forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Particular emphasis is placed on Scenario B, which is the mid-range reference case. As the introduction to the supplement emphasizes, the NEPP projections should not be considered a statement of the policy goals of the Reagan Administration. They represent an analysis of the possible evolution of U.S. energy markets, given current information and existing policies. The purpose of providing Scenario B as a reference case as well as Scenarios A and C as alternate cases is to show the sensitivity of oil price projections to small swings in energy demand.

Friesen, G.



Long-term control of root growth  


A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

Burton, Frederick G. (West Richland, WA); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Richland, WA)



Networking: a long-term management strategy.  


As we face a changing health-care landscape of mergers and acquisitions during these tough economic times, it is more important than ever to cultivate a network of individuals who can assist you in your career development efforts. How do you manage your career in a shrinking economy? What is networking and how can you use it to enhance your career and professional competencies? Many myths surround the networking process; this article clarifies those misperceptions and tells you the truth about networking and the positive results you can achieve. Networking can be used to get a new job, but it has much wider application as a long-term career management strategy. Learn how you can manage your own career while building professional relationships and coaching your employees. PMID:12813955

Gumbus, Andra



Long term thermoelectric module testing system.  


Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period. PMID:19895086

D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy



Long-term data storage in DNA.  


This article discusses how DNA might be used to store data. It is argued that, at present, DNA would be best employed as a long-term repository (thousands or millions of years). How data-containing DNA might be packaged and how the data might be encrypted, with particular attention to the encryption of written information, is also discussed. Various encryption issues are touched on, such as how data-containing DNA might be differentiated from genetic material, error detection, data compression and reading frame location. Finally, this article broaches the difficulty of constructing very large pieces of DNA in the laboratory and highlights some complications that might arise when attempting to transmit DNA-encrypted data to recipients who are a long period of time in the future. PMID:11412947

Cox, J P



Energy medicine for long-term disabilities.  


Energy medicine techniques derive from traditional Chinese medicine and are based upon the concept that health and healing are dependent upon a balance of vital energy, a still mind, and controlled emotions. Physical dysfunctions result from disordered patterns of energy of long standing and reversal of the physical problem requires a return to balanced and ordered energy. Qi Gong (Chi Kung) is a system which teaches an individual to live in a state of energy balance. Shen Qi is a sophisticated form of Qi Gong which relies on no external physical interventions but rather relies on mind control to prevent illness, heal existing physical and emotional problems, and promote health and happiness. This paper will describe the use of these techniques with people who have long-term physical disabilities. PMID:10381239

Trieschmann, R B



Characterization of the stable L-arginine-derived relaxing factor released from cytokine-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells as an NG-hydroxyl-L-arginine-nitric oxide adduct.  


The nature of an L-arginine-derived relaxing factor released from vascular smooth muscle cells cultured on microcarrier beads and stimulated for 20 h with interleukin 1 beta was investigated. Unlike the unstable relaxation elicited by authentic nitric oxide (NO) in a cascade superfusion bioassay system, the effluate from vascular smooth muscle cells induced a stable relaxation that was susceptible to inhibition by oxyhemoglobin. Three putative endogenous NO carriers mimicked this stable relaxing effect: S-nitroso-L-cysteine, low molecular weight dinitrosyl-iron complexes (DNICs), and the adduct of NG-hydroxy-L-arginine (HOArg) with NO. Inactivation of S-nitroso-L-cysteine by Hg2+ ions or trapping of DNICs with agarose-bound bovine serum albumin abolished their relaxing effects, whereas that of the vascular smooth muscle cell effluate remained unaffected. In addition, neither S-nitrosothiols nor DNICs were detectable in the effluate from these cells, as judged by UV and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The HOArg-NO adduct was instantaneously generated upon reaction of HOArg with authentic NO under bioassay conditions. Its pharmacological profile was indistinguishable from that of the vascular smooth muscle cell effluate, as judged by comparative bioassay with different vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle preparations. Moreover, up to 100 nM HOArg was detected in the effluate from interleukin 1 beta-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells, suggesting that sufficient amounts of HOArg are released from these cells to spontaneously generate the HOArg-NO adduct. This intercellular NO carrier probably accounts for the stable L-arginine-derived relaxing factor released from cytokine-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells and also from other NO-producing cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils. PMID:7753862

Hecker, M; Boese, M; Schini-Kerth, V B; Mülsch, A; Busse, R



Long-term dynamics of Typha populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.



Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy Management will keep records management as a high priority. (authors)

Montgomery, John V. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Gueretta, Jeanie [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)



Where Can You Receive Care? (Long-Term Care)  


... may need. Share page: Where Can You Receive Care? Most long-term care is provided at home. ... in long-term care facilities. Examples of home care services include: An unpaid caregiver who may be ...


The growth and characterization of L-arginine phosphate microcrystals in a silica sol gel matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silica sol-gel has proven to be a versatile material that can host a number of inorganic and organic dopant molecules, providing an environment in which they may retain their activity. This dissertation studies the relationship between crystallization and gelation in a system consisting of L-arginine phosphate (LAP), an organic non-linear optical crystal, in an inorganic silica sol-gel matrix. The objectives of this research are to investigate the mechanisms of crystal nucleation and growth in a silica sol-gel matrix. Complex impedance measurements were used to determine the solubility of LAP in sol-gel as a function of temperature, the induction times for crystallization of LAP, and the overall rate of LAP precipitation. Analysis of the induction times was performed to determine the interfacial energies, surface entropy factors, and nucleation and growth mechanisms of LAP in sol-gel over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Nucleation and growth of LAP in sol-gel was found to follow a model of primary nucleation followed by spiral growth (5°C to 20°C) or normal growth (25°C to 40°C) for LAP concentrations high enough that nucleation occurs in the sol. For lower LAP concentrations, heterogeneous nucleation occurs on sample interfaces or electrodes. The solubility of LAP in silica sol-gel was found to follow an Arrhenius relationship, with an enthalpy of solution of 0.68 eV. The enthalpy of solution for LAP in sol-gel is comparable to that in aqueous solutions, while the pre-exponential factor is about 8 times smaller in sol-gel than in water. The interfacial energies of LAP in sol-gel are close to, but slightly larger than, those in aqueous solution. The interfacial energies decrease with increasing temperature at about the same rate in sol-gel as in aqueous solution. Conductivity of LAP in sol-gel is primarily through proton conduction and follows an Arrhenius relationship with an activation energy for conduction of 0.26 eV and a pre-exponential factor that depends upon the square root of the LAP concentration.

Faltens, Tanya Anne


Long-Term Maintenance of Weight Loss: Current Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intervention strategies for promoting long-term weight loss are examined empirically and conceptually. Weight control research over the last 20 years has dramatically improved short-term treatment efficacy but has been less successful in improving long-term success. Interventions in preadolescent children show greater long-term efficacy than in adults. Extending treatment length and putting more emphasis on energy expenditure have modestly improved long-term

Robert W. Jeffery; Adam Drewnowski; Leonard H. Epstein; Albert J. Stunkard; G. Terence Wilson; Rena R. Wing; Dana Robin Hill



Renal Response to L-Arginine in Diabetic Rats. A Possible Link between Nitric Oxide System and Aquaporin-2  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether L-Arginine (L-Arg) supplementation modifies nitric oxide (NO) system and consequently aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression in the renal outer medulla of streptozotocin-diabetic rats at an early time point after induction of diabetes. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Control, Diabetic, Diabetic treated with L-Arginine and Control treated with L-Arginine. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was estimated by [14C] L-citrulline production in homogenates of the renal outer medulla and by NADPH-diaphorase staining in renal outer medullary tubules. Western blot was used to detect the expression of AQP2 and NOS types I and III; real time PCR was used to quantify AQP2 mRNA. The expression of both NOS isoforms, NOS I and NOS III, was decreased in the renal outer medulla of diabetic rats and L-Arg failed to prevent these decreases. However, L-Arg improved NO production, NADPH-diaphorase activity in collecting ducts and other tubular structures, and NOS activity in renal homogenates from diabetic rats. AQP2 protein and mRNA were decreased in the renal outer medulla of diabetic rats and L-Arg administration prevented these decreases. These results suggest that the decreased NOS activity in collecting ducts of the renal outer medulla may cause, at least in part, the decreased expression of AQP2 in this model of diabetes and constitute additional evidence supporting a role for NO in contributing to renal water reabsorption through the modulation of AQP2 expression in this pathological condition. However, we cannot discard that another pathway different from NOS also exists that links L-Arg to AQP2 expression. PMID:25111608

Ortiz, María C.; Albertoni Borghese, María F.; Balonga, Sabrina E.; Lavagna, Agustina; Filipuzzi, Ana L.; Elesgaray, Rosana; Costa, María A.; Majowicz, Mónica P.



17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity...UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...



Long-Term Consequences of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an acute inflammatory systemic condition that involves injury not just to the skin. Historically, it has been associated with a high mortality but few long-term consequences among survivors. With improved survival, long-term consequences may be becoming more appar- ent. The objective of this study was to define these long- term consequences and their frequency.

Robert L. Sheridan; John T. Schulz; Colleen M. Ryan; Jay J. Schnitzer; David Lawlor; Daniel N. Driscoll; Matthias B. Donelan; Ronald G. Tompkins


78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Related to the Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program H...the Office of the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman I. Conflicts...Reform Act of 1995 D. Assessment of Federal Regulations...Program Background State Long-Term Care Ombudsman...




E-print Network

(White and Johansen 2001) based on a 40-year span of field visits, extensive oral histories, and a 200 and shifting quality of people's lives. Longitudinal analysis, in this context, vastly enriches our by genealogical links, as are its patrilineal extended families and linkages. Kinship links provide network

White, Douglas R.



SciTech Connect

Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart sensors housed in anti-fouling sensor chambers. The monitoring network is highly versatile and can be applied to a variety of subsurface sensing scenarios in different media. However, the current project focused on monitoring water quality parameters of pH, oxidation-reduction potential, conductivity, and temperature in groundwater.

Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck



Long-term Changes in Tropospheric Ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric ozone measurements from a selected network of surface and ozonesonde sites are used to give a broad geographic picture of long-term variations. The picture of long-term tropospheric ozone changes is a varied one in terms of both the sign and magnitude of trends and in the possible causes for the changes. At mid latitudes of the S.H. three time series of ~20 years in length agree in showing increases that are strongest in the austral spring (August-October). Profile measurements show this increase extending through the mid troposphere but not into the highest levels of the troposphere. In the N.H. in the Arctic a period of declining ozone in the troposphere through the 1980s into the mid 1990s has reversed and the overall change is small. The decadal-scale variations in the troposphere in this region are related in part to changes in the lowermost stratosphere. At mid latitudes in the N.H., continental Europe and Japan showed significant increases in the 1970s and 1980s. Over North America rises in the 1970s are less than those seen in Europe and Japan, suggesting significant regional differences. In all three of these mid latitude, continental regions tropospheric ozone amounts appear to have leveled off or in some cases declined in the more recent decades. Over the North Atlantic three widely separated sites show significant increases since the late 1990s that may have peaked in recent years. In the N.H. tropics both the surface record and the ozonesondes in Hawaii show a significant increase in the autumn months in the most recent decade compared to earlier periods that drives the overall increase seen in the 30 year record. This appears to be related to a shift in the transport pattern during this season with more frequent flow from higher latitudes in the latest decade. The pattern of change, with the largest increases in the N.H. coming prior to the mid 1980s, suggests that increased positive radiative forcing due to tropospheric ozone was felt most significantly in the period from the 1950s through the 1980s and has not been spread uniformly over the period since the industrial revolution.

Oltmans, S.; Lefohn, A.; Galbally, I.; Scheel, E.; Bodeker, G.; Brunke, E.; Claude, H.; Tarasick, D.; Simmonds, P.; Anlauf, K.; Schmidlin, F.; Akagi, K.; Redondas, A.



Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh-environment surveyor (RHES) is a robotic platform with SCADA capabilities equipped with a sonar-imaging scanner, a high-resolution color CCD camera, and various combinations of sensors. The RHES is controlled remotely via a PC. This paper will discuss the development and application of this system. (authors)

Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso [Florida International University, Miami, Florida (United States)



Long-term safety and efficacy of continuous intrathecal baclofen.  


Long-term continuous intrathecal baclofen (CITB) infusion is a treatment option used to manage otherwise intractable spasticity and is delivered via an implantable pump. The purpose of this single-center multidisciplinary review was to report on the long-term safety and efficacy of CITB in the treatment of 21 children with intractable severe spasticity of cerebral origin. Nineteen recipients had spastic quadriplegia and two had spastic diplegia. Seven recipients had level IV severity on the Gross Motor Functional Classification System and 14 had level V. Median age at implantation was 12 years (range 4 to 20). Fifteen recipients were male, 6 were female. Seventeen recipients were alive at the end of the follow-up period (31 to 78 months; mean 53, SD 4). The Ashworth scale showed a substantial decrease in spasticity in the upper and lower extremities at 6 months and at the most recent follow-up. The Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory showed no functional change. Most treatment goals were at least partly achieved. Caregivers reported a reduction in use of oral medication for spasticity, and improvements in comfort, function, and ease of care. Caregiver satisfaction was high. During 80 recipient-years of pump operation, 153 treatment-associated adverse events occurred: 27 of these were device-related. There were four deaths unrelated to CITE, including one from acute pancreatitis. Our findings might assist in establishing patient selection criteria and treatment goals, improving patient follow-up, and monitoring adverse events. PMID:12418790

Campbell, William M; Ferrel, Anne; McLaughlin, John F; Grant, Gerald A; Loeser, John D; Graubert, Catherine; Bjornson, Kristie



The antinociceptive activity of Muntingia calabura aqueous extract and the involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in its observed activity in mice.  


The present study was carried out to investigate on the possible involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (L-arginine/NO/cGMP) pathway in the aqueous extract of Muntingia calabura (AEMC) leaves antinociception in mice assessed by abdominal constriction test. The AEMC, obtained by soaking the dried leaves in distilled water (DH(2)O) (1 : 2; w/v) for 24 h, was prepared in concentrations of 10%, 50% and 100% that were approximately equivalent to doses of 27, 135 and 270 mg/kg, and administered subcutaneously (s.c.) 5 min after pre-treatment (s.c.) of mice with DH(2)O, L-arginine (20 mg/kg), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMMA; 20 mg/kg), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; 20 mg/kg), methylene blue (MB) (20 mg/kg), respectively. The AEMC was found to exhibit a concentration-dependent antinociception after pre-challenge with DH(2)O. Interestingly, pre-treatment with L-arginine was found to block significantly (P < 0.05) the AEMC antinociception but only at the highest concentration (100%) of AEMC used. On the other hand, pre-treatment with L-NAME was found to significantly (P < 0.05) enhance the low concentration but inhibit the high concentration AEMC antinociception. MB was found to significantly (P < 0.05) enhance AEMC antinociception at all concentrations used. Except for the higher concentration of AEMC used, co-treatment with L-NAME was found to insignificantly and significantly (P < 0.05) reverse the L-arginine effect when given alone or with low concentration AEMC, respectively. In addition, co-treatment with MB significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the L-arginine effect when given alone or with 10% concentration AEMC but failed to affect the activity of the rest of concentrations used. As a conclusion, this study has demonstrated the involvement of L-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway in AEMC antinociception. PMID:16867020

Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat; Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Jayaraman, Kogilla Vani; Balakhrisnan, Ganesh; Abdullah, Fatimah Corazon



Long-term corrosion testing pan.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)



Long-term corrosion testing plan.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)



Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

Nestroy, O.



Long-term potentiation in the Eocene.  

PubMed Central

The first ten years of long-term potentiation (LTP) research are reviewed. Surprisingly, given the intensity of current interest, the discovery paper did not trigger a wave of follow-on experiments. Despite this, the initial work laid out what ultimately became standard questions and paradigms. The application of the then still novel hippocampal slice technique oriented LTP towards basic neuroscience, perhaps somewhat at the cost of lesser attention to its functional significance. The use of slices led to the discovery of the events that trigger the formation of LTP and provided some first clues about its extraordinary persistence. Signs of the intense controversy over the nature of LTP expression (release vs receptors) emerged towards the end of the first decade of work. What appears to be lacking in the literature of that time is a widespread concern about LTP and memory. This may reflect a somewhat different attitude that neurobiologists then had towards memory research and a perceived need to integrate the new potentiation phenomenon into the web of established science before advancing extended arguments about its contributions to behaviour. PMID:12740106

Lynch, G



Embryo culture and long-term consequences.  


The development ofpre-elongation (ruminants) and preimplantation (e.g. mouse and humans) embryos ex vivo has evolved over the past four decades into a reliable technology that is used as a research tool in developmental biology, as well as other embryo technologies, for application in infertility treatment, species conservation and selective breeding. It is clear from a variety of embryo culture studies that adaptive responses by embryos during culture can lead to significant alterations in subsequent developmental profiles, the mechanisms of which are not entirely clear but are unlikely to be limited to a single mechanism because this does not account for the variability seen in responses and the emerging list of specific cellular stressors that cause long-term deviations in fetal development. Epigenetic mechanisms, especially deviation of methylation patterns, and adaptation via causal pathways linking gene expression signalling with critical developmental time points, especially of placental development, are two candidates. Observational studies on post-transfer consequences must now be designed so that specific candidate pathways are followed to elucidate their role in perturbed development following transfer. PMID:17389134

Thompson, Jeremy G B; Mitchell, Megan; Kind, Karen L



Economic efficiency, IRPs and long term contracts  

SciTech Connect

There is no market failure that warrants utility regulation of the construction of new generating plants, the supply of energy efficiency or the purchase of fuel under contract. The natural monopoly problem applies to the distribution of electricity and gas, not to generation, energy conservation, or gas purchases. Utility regulation magnifies a market failure, which is the principal agent problem. Regulatory allowance of utilities signing long term fixed price contracts and undertaking conservation measures result in costs and risks being shifted to ratepayers that would not occur under competitive market conditions. Economic efficiency would be enhanced if cost of service regulation of electric and gas utilities were replaced by a competitive market process for the construction of new power plants, utility conservation programs and contracts to purchase fuel. Conservation measures could be supplied by energy service companies. Gas merchants could provide gas and energy conservation directly to ultimate customers, if they had access to LDC pipelines. With a competitive market established to sell gas and energy services, contracts and conservation measures would not require cost-of- service regulation.

Sutherland, R.J.



Bacterial Cellulose: Long-Term Biocompatibility Studies.  


The bacterial cellulose (BC) secreted by Gluconacetobacter xylinus is a network of pure cellulose nanofibres which has high crystallinity, wettability and mechanical strength. These characteristics make BC an excellent material for tissue-engineering constructs, noteworthy for artificial vascular grafts. In this work, the in vivo biocompatibility of BC membranes produced by two G. xylinus strains was analyzed through histological analysis of long-term subcutaneous implants in the mice. The BC implants caused a mild and benign inflammatory reaction that decreased along time and did not elicit a foreign body reaction. A tendency to calcify over time, which may be related to the porosity of the BC implants, was observed, especially among the less porous BC-1 implants. In addition, the potential toxicity of BC nanofibres - obtained by chemical-mechanical treatment of BC membranes - subcutaneously implanted in mice was analysed through bone marrow flow cytometryand histological analyses. At 2 and 4 months post-implantation, the nanofibres implants were found to accumulate intracellularly, in subcutaneous foamy macrophages aggregates. Moreover, no differences were observed between the controls and implanted animals in thymocyte populations and in B lymphocyte precursors and myeloid cells in the bone marrow. PMID:21722421

Pértile, Renata A N; Moreira, Susana; Costa, Rui M Gil da; Correia, Alexandra; Guardão, Luisa; Gartner, Fátima; Vilanova, Manuel; Gama, Miguel



Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.  


Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. PMID:11607658

Sykes, L R



Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.  

PubMed Central

Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

Sykes, L R



The neuronal response at extended timescales: long-term correlations without long-term memory  

PubMed Central

Long term temporal correlations frequently appear at many levels of neural activity. We show that when such correlations appear in isolated neurons, they indicate the existence of slow underlying processes and lead to explicit conditions on the dynamics of these processes. Moreover, although these slow processes can potentially store information for long times, we demonstrate that this does not imply that the neuron possesses a long memory of its input, even if these processes are bidirectionally coupled with neuronal response. We derive these results for a broad class of biophysical neuron models, and then fit a specific model to recent experiments. The model reproduces the experimental results, exhibiting long term (days-long) correlations due to the interaction between slow variables and internal fluctuations. However, its memory of the input decays on a timescale of minutes. We suggest experiments to test these predictions directly. PMID:24744724

Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron



Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage estuaries below by removing all incoming freshwater. At Toolik Lake, long-term experiments of removing top predators from the good web of lakes showed dramatic alterations of lake populations of small fish and zooplankton. In New Mexico, LTER research on small mammal populations is successfully predicting rodent increases and the potential for increased zoonotic diseases such as Hantavirus and bubonic plague. This ability to forecast based on El Nino prediction is being used to increase scientific awareness and public health awareness through media based communication with the public. In Oregon, the Andrews Forest LTER program has had long, strong links with natural resource policy and management. Basic understanding of forest-stream interactions, characteristics of old-growth forests, roles of woody debris in temperate forest ecosystems, invertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function have been incorporated in management guidelines, plans and regulations for public and private lands throughout the Pacific Northwest. Other examples of the values of long-term research and monitoring will be presented.

Gosz, J.



Long-term care coverage: the need is now.  


As the world population steadily ages, the future of America's long-term healthcare system is facing a major crisis. By the year 2050, approximately 22 percent of the United States population is expected to be over the age of 65 and more than 19 million Americans will require long-term care. Long-term care financing will be increasingly important, since nursing home care can lead to financial catastrophe. The key to preventing this catastrophe for the elderly is appropriate third-party coverage. Although more insurance companies are offering long-term care policies today, three major obstacles to the success of such insurance remain: lack of knowledge about the extent of public funding for long-term care, denial of the need for such insurance, and lack of public awareness of potential liabilities inherent in financing long-term care. Congress is supporting the development of long-term care insurance, and states are placing long-term care legislation at the top of their agendas. Tax incentives have been proposed in the form of tax-free individual retirement accounts to finance long-term care, individual medical accounts, tax credits for policyholders, and favorable tax treatment for employers who offer long-term care benefits. But only coordination of public and private financiers will ensure adequate protection for all consumers of long-term care services. PMID:10312281

Constable, J F; Wong, S A



Crystal growth, structural, thermal and mechanical behavior of L-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of L-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) have been grown successfully from the solution of L-arginine and 4-nitrophenol. Slow evaporation of solvent technique was adopted to grow the bulk single crystals. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the grown crystal has monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis shows the good crystalline nature. The crystalline perfection of the grown single crystals was analyzed by HRXRD by employing a multicrystal X-ray diffractometer. The functional groups were identified from proton NMR spectroscopic analysis. Linear and nonlinear optical properties were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Kurtz powder technique respectively. It is found that the grown crystal has no absorption in the green wavelength region and the SHG efficiency was found to be 2.66 times that of the standard KDP. The Thermal stability of the crystal was found by obtaining TG/DTA curve. The mechanical behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by Vicker's microhardness method.

Mahadevan, M.; Ramachandran, K.; Anandan, P.; Arivanandhan, M.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Hayakawa, Y.



Nitric oxide control of steroidogenesis: Endocrine effects of N sup G -nitro-L-arginine and comparisons to alcohol  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) may regulate hormone biosynthesis and secretion. This was tested by treating male rats with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NAME), a NO synthase inhibitor, and measuring serum and testicular interstitial fluid testosterone and serum corticosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL). The effect of N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine (NA), a less-soluble form of the same NO synthase inhibitor, on the reproductive suppressant actions of alcohol was also examined. NAME increased testosterone and corticosterone secretion dose-dependently without affecting LH and PRL secretion. The alcohol-induced suppression of testosterone or LH secretion was not altered by treatment with NA. Although effects of NAME and NA on other systems may be involved, these results indicate that testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis are negatively regulated by endogenous NO and that NO does not regulate LH and PRL secretion or inhibit the testicular steroidogenic pathway in the same way as alcohol.

Adams, M.L.; Nock, B.; Truong, R.; Cicero, T.J. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))



Crystal growth, structural, thermal and mechanical behavior of l-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) single crystals.  


Single crystals of l-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) have been grown successfully from the solution of l-arginine and 4-nitrophenol. Slow evaporation of solvent technique was adopted to grow the bulk single crystals. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the grown crystal has monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis shows the good crystalline nature. The crystalline perfection of the grown single crystals was analyzed by HRXRD by employing a multicrystal X-ray diffractometer. The functional groups were identified from proton NMR spectroscopic analysis. Linear and nonlinear optical properties were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Kurtz powder technique respectively. It is found that the grown crystal has no absorption in the green wavelength region and the SHG efficiency was found to be 2.66 times that of the standard KDP. The Thermal stability of the crystal was found by obtaining TG/DTA curve. The mechanical behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by Vicker's microhardness method. PMID:24967545

Mahadevan, M; Ramachandran, K; Anandan, P; Arivanandhan, M; Bhagavannarayana, G; Hayakawa, Y



The safety of etretinate as long-term therapy for psoriasis: Results of the Etretinate Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Etretinate is an aromatic retinoid given orally to treat severe psoriasis, a chronic disease that often requires long-term therapy.Objective: We assessed the safety of long-term therapy with etretinate for psoriasis.Methods: This 5-year prospective study of a cohort of 956 patients with psoriasis treated with etretinate assessed the frequency of adverse events in relation to total use and in relation

Robert S Stern; Elizabeth Fitzgerald; Charles N Ellis; Nicholas Lowe; Michael T Goldfarb; Richard D Baughman




SciTech Connect

Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are also presented.




Nitric Oxide Is Associated with Long-Term Zinc Tolerance in Solanum nigrum1[W  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as a signal molecule that interplays with reactive oxygen species in response to heavy metal stresses. Roles of NO in regulating cadmium toxicity and iron deficiency have been proposed; however, the function of NO in zinc (Zn) tolerance in plants remains unclear. Here, we investigated NO accumulation and its role in plant Zn tolerance. Zn-induced NO production promoted an increase in reactive oxygen species accumulation in Solanum nigrum roots by modulating the expression and activity of antioxidative enzymes. Subsequently, programmed cell death (PCD) was observed in primary root tips. Inhibiting NO accumulation by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (a specific NO scavenger) or NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (a NO synthase inhibitor) prevented the increase of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide as well as the subsequent cell death in the root tips, supporting the role of NO in Zn-induced PCD in the root tips. Zn-induced NO production affected the length of primary roots, the number of lateral roots, and root hair growth and thereby modulated root system architecture and activity. Investigation of metal contents in Zn-treated roots suggests that NO is required for metal (especially iron) uptake and homeostasis in plants exposed to excess Zn. Taken together, our results indicate that NO production and the subsequent PCD in root tips exposed to excess Zn are favorable for the S. nigrum seedling response to long-term Zn toxicity by modulating root system architecture and subsequent adaptation to Zn stress. PMID:20855519

Xu, Jin; Yin, Hengxia; Li, Yulong; Liu, Xiaojing



Ligustrazine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in pulmonary arteries via an NO-mediated and exogenous L-arginine-dependent mechanism.  


1. Ligustrazine (tetramethylpyrazine, TMP) is a vasodilator that has been reported to have pulmonary selective properties in vivo, but not in vitro. Although TMP is generally described as being endothelium-independent, we provide evidence here that TMP may have an endothelium-dependent and nitric oxide (NO)-mediated mechanism in pulmonary arteries that could predominate at concentrations used therapeutically in China. 2. The study was performed on isolated pulmonary (1-2 mm i.d.), intrapulmonary (200-850 microns) and mesenteric (200-400 microns) arteries of the rat using a Mulvaney-Halpen small vessel myograph, following preconstriction with phenylephrine (PE, 10 microM), prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha, 100 microM), or 75 mM K+ (KPSS, equimolar substitution for Na+). Values are shown as mean +/- s.e.mean, or for EC50S as mean [+/-95% confidence limits]. 3. TMP caused a concentration-dependent relaxation against all three agonists in both large (1.56 +/- 0.04 mm) and small (399 +/- 20 microM) pulmonary arteries; it was more potent in small compared to large arteries constricted with PE or PGF2 alpha (P < 0.05), but not those constricted with KPSS. The NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 100 microM) caused a significant shift to the right of these relationships, such that the EC50 for TMP in large pulmonary arteries constricted with PE increased from 522 [+130, -104] microM (n = 12) to 1828 [+395, -325] microM (n = 6, P < 0.01). Both removal of the endothelium and methylene blue (10 microM) had similar effects. 4. L-Arginine substantially reduced the EC50 for TMP in pulmonary arteries; in the presence of 400 microM L-arginine the EC50 for TMP in large arteries constricted with PE was 14.7 [+21.0, -8.6] microM, (n = 6, P < 0.001), and with 10 microM L-arginine 96.7 [+45.1, -30.7] microM, (n = 6, P < 0.001). Similar effects were seen in small arteries. L-Arginine had no effect in the absence of an endothelium. D-Arginine was ineffective, and inhibition of L-arginine uptake with L-lysine blocked the action of L-arginine. L-Arginine (400 microM) had no significant effect on TMP-induced relaxation in mesenteric arteries (n = 5). 5. L-Arginine itself caused a concentration-dependent relaxation in intrapulmonary arteries (639 +/- 34 microM) constricted with PE, reaching a maximum relaxation around 100-400 microM (42.4 +/- 3.0%, n = 16), but this was independent of the endothelium. TMP (10 and 100 microM) significantly enhanced the relaxation to L-arginine, with a maximum relaxation in the presence of 100 microM TMP of 81.7 +/- 6.2% (n = 5, P < 0.01), but the effect of TMP was entirely dependent on the endothelium. A similar effect was observed in PGF2 alpha-constricted pulmonary arteries. 6. These results show that TMP stimulates NO production at low concentrations in pulmonary arteries, via an apparently novel endothelium-resident mechanism that is dependent on exogenous L-arginine. Normal plasma L-arginine levels of around 150 microM would allow this mechanism to be maximally activated. As mesenteric arteries do not seem to express the mechanism to any significant extent, at low concentrations TMP would be effectively selective to the pulmonary vasculature, and may thus have potential as a therapeutic agent in pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:8922759

Peng, W; Hucks, D; Priest, R M; Kan, Y M; Ward, J P



Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report for our Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program (NRA 94-OSS-12) grant NAG 5-3225. The proposal is entitled 'Spectral and Temporal Properties of Black Hole Candidates', and began funding in May 1995, and ran through 31 Aug 2000. The project summary from the original proposal was as follows: 'We will study the spectral and temporal properties of black hole candidates (BHC) by using data from archival sources (e.g., EXOSAT, Ginga, ROSAT) and proposed follow-up observations with modern instruments (e.g., ASCA, XTE). Our spectral studies will focus on identifying the basic characteristics and luminosities of the emission components in the various 'states' of BHC. We hope to understand and quantify the global energetics of these states. Our temporal studies will focus on expanding and classifying our knowledge of BHC variability properties in each state. We will explore the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in BHC. We will combine our spectral and temporal studies by analyzing time lags and variability coherence between energy channels. In addition, we will investigate ways of correlating observed variability behavior with specific emission components.' We have accomplished many of these goals laid out within the original proposal. As originally proposed, we have utilized both archival and proprietary satellite data. In terms of archival data, we have utilized data from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), ROSAT, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We also obtained proprietary data from ASCA, RXTE, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). In terms of sources, we have examined a wide variety of both galactic black hole candidates and extra-galactic black holes. For the galactic black holes we have observed and analyzed both the low/hard state and the high/soft state. We have performed both spectral and timing analyses on all of these objects. In addition, we have also examined a number of neutron stars or potential neutron stars. All of our research on the above mentioned objects has resulted in one or more publications in peer-reviewed journals. Attached is a list of refereed publications of research results which have been funded by this grant over approximately the past five and a half years. In addition, we have included a list of conference proceedings and other similar reports that have been associated with this grant.

Nowark, Michael A.



42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals the long-term care hospital or satellite of the long-term care hospital...provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals...



42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals the long-term care hospital or satellite of the long-term care hospital...provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals...



42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals the long-term care hospital or satellite of the long-term care hospital...provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals...



Viability Issues for Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has strived to understand the scope of long-term stewardship at DOE facilities. This paper identifies several challenges and needed innovations to provide cost-effective long-term subsurface monitoring. These challenges are significant, as DOE has identified greater than 100 candidate sites that may require subsurface monitoring for long-term stewardship. This enormous stewardship mortgage

Ronald Schalla; Jim G. Bush



Long-term effects of reduced renal mass in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term effects of reduced renal mass in humans. The long-term risks of kidney donation have not been well defined. We carried out a meta-analysis of investigations that examined the long-term effects of reduced renal mass in humans. We used multiple linear regression to combine studies and adjust for differences in the duration of follow-up, the reason for reduced renal mass,

Bertram L Kasiske; Jennie Z Ma; Thomas A Louis; Suzanne K Swan



Long-term survival after Kasai's operation for biliary atresia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term survival of biliary atresia patients after Kasai hepaticoportoenterostomy is being increasingly reported. Prognostic factors indicative of a favorable long-term outcome consist of: (1) early age at operation; (2) bilirubin excretion of at least 6 mg daily 1 month after operation; (3) favorable hepatic histology at the time of operation; and (4) low incidence of postoperative cholangitis. Jaundice-free long-term survival

Barbara A. Stewart; Roberta J. Hall; Frederick M. Karrer; John R. Lilly



TIA and Stroke: the long-term perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Survival after stroke has improved, but little is known about the long-term risk of new vascular events and the functioning of long-term survivors. The main objective of this thesis was to evaluate the long-term perspective of these patients. Methods Two longitudinal studies were carried out in patients with TIA or minor stroke (LiLAC) and in patients with major stroke

I. van Wijk



Private long-term care insurance and state tax incentives.  


To increase the role of private insurance in financing long-term care, tax incentives for long-term care insurance have been implemented at both the federal and state levels. To date, there has been surprisingly little study of these initiatives. Using a panel of national data, we find that market take-up for long-term care insurance increased over the last decade, but state tax incentives were responsible for only a small portion of this growth. Ultimately, the modest ability of state tax incentives to lower premiums implies that they should be viewed as a small piece of the long-term care financing puzzle. PMID:19938726

Stevenson, David G; Frank, Richard G; Tau, Jocelyn



Consider long-term care as service alternative.  


The increasing demand for elderly care services, pressures on inpatient average length of stay and payment levels, and potential financial rewards from providing additional services, makes long-term care look attractive to hospitals. Long-term care, however, is not for every hospital. Before deciding to establish long-term care services, management should examine how the service fits within the hospital's strategic plan. The action plan below provides guidance in evaluating a decision to use hospital facilities for long-term care. Examine how long-term care services fit within the hospital's strategic plan. Study area demographics and competitors to assess the need and supply of long-term care services. Survey the medical staff, consumers and payers to determine attitudes, perceptions and interests regarding long-term care services. Develop a facility plan that identifies areas of excess capacity that can be most easily converted into long-term care with minimal effects on hospital operations. Prepare a financial feasibility analysis of the contribution margin and return on investment attributable to long-term care services. Include an impact analysis on hospital operations. Establish a management task force to develop a detailed implementation plan including assigned individual responsibilities and related timetable. Develop an effective marketing plan designed to generate increased patient market share. PMID:10312056

Loria, L S



Birth Weight and Long-Term Metabolic Outcomes: Does the Definition of Smallness Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish the role of individual definition of smallness at birth in the association between birth weight and long-term metabolic outcomes. Methods: Lipid profile and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in young adults (22 years) born either small (SGA) or appropriate for gestational age (AGA). AGA\\/SGA were defined by both population-based and customized methods adjusting for individual maternal\\/pregnancy

R. Verkauskiene; F. Figueras; S. Deghmoun; D. Chevenne; J. Gardosi; M. Levy-Marchal



Regulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term depression by diacylglycerol kinase ?.  


Diacylglycerol (DAG) is an important signaling molecule at neuronal synapses. Generation of synaptic DAG is triggered by the activation of diverse surface receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The action of DAG is terminated by enzymatic conversion of DAG to phosphatidic acid (PA) by DAG kinases (DGKs). DGK?, one of many mammalian DGKs, is localized to synapses through direct interaction with the postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95, and regulates dendritic spine maintenance by promoting DAG-to-PA conversion. However, a role for DGK? in the regulation of synaptic plasticity has not been explored. We report here that Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal synapses in the hippocampus of DGK?-knockout (DGK?(-/-) ) mice show enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) and attenuated long-term depression (LTD). The attenuated LTD at DGK?(-/-) synapses involves both NMDA receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors. These changes in LTP and LTD were reversed by phospholipase C inhibition, which blocks DAG production. Similar reversals in both LTP and LTD were also induced by inhibition of protein kinase C, which acts downstream of DAG. These results suggest that DGK? regulates hippocampal LTP and LTD by promoting DAG-to-PA conversion, and establish that phospholipase C and protein kinase C lie upstream and downstream, respectively, of DGK?-dependent regulation of hippocampal LTP and LTD. PMID:21069783

Seo, Jinsoo; Kim, Karam; Jang, Seil; Han, Seungnam; Choi, Se-Young; Kim, Eunjoon



The NMR and X-ray study of L-arginine derived Schiff bases and its cadmium complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure study of five Schiff bases derived from L-arginine (L-Arg) and 2-hydroxy carbonyl compounds were performed in both solution and solid state using NMR and X-ray methods. Both analytical methods applied to the solid state sample of two Schiff bases showed a significant difference in molecular structures of unsubstituted and 7-CH3 substituted compounds. This effect was explained as a steric interaction of methyl group. Additionally the structure of two Cd2+ complexes with some Schiff bases were determined by NMR methods in DMSO solution and in the solid state. On the base of heteronuclear NMR measurement (13C, 15N and 113Cd) it was possible to define the complexation site on nitrogen atom. The large set of spectral parameters: chemical shifts, homo- and heteronuclear coupling constants, were used in structure study.

Ko?odziej, B.; Grech, E.; Schilf, W.; Kamie?ski, B.; Pazio, A.; Wo?niak, K.



Benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester (BAME)-esterase activity in human plasma during the gravidic-puerperal cycle.  


Benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester (BAME)-esterase activity of plasma was measured in women going through the gravidic-puerperal cycle and compared with plasma of non-pregnant women. Plasma from women in the 36th to 40th week of pregnancy hydrolyzes BAME two times more rapidly than that from non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, BAME-esterase activity in plasma increases progressively up to the 40th week, decreases during labor, and after delivery reaches the same level as in non-pregnant women. The BAME-esterase activity of plasma was affected by the storage temperature, with differences demonstrable between -20 and -4 C and between pregnant and non-pregnant women. PMID:754510

Salles Meirelles, R



L-arginine abolishes the hypothalamic serotonergic activation induced by central interleukin-1? administration to normal rats.  


IL-1?-induced anorexia may depend on interactions of the cytokine with neuropeptides and neurotransmitters of the central nervous system control of energy balance and serotonin is likely to be one catabolic mediator targeted by IL-1?. In the complex interplay involved in feeding modulation, nitric oxide has been ascribed a stimulatory action, which could be of significance in counteracting IL-1? effects.The present study aims to explore the participation of the nitric oxide and the serotonin systems on the central mechanisms induced by IL-1? and the relevance of their putative interactions to IL-1? hypophagia in normal rats.Serotonin levels were determined in microdialysates of the ventromedial hypothalamus after a single intracerebroventricular injection of 10 ng of IL-1? , with or without the pre-injection of 20 ?g of the nitric oxide precursor L-arginine. IL-1? significantly stimulated hypothalamic serotonin extracellular levels, with a peak variation of 130 ± 37% above baseline. IL- 1? also reduced the 4-h and the 24-h food intakes (by 23% and 58%, respectively). The IL-1?-induced serotonergic activation was abolished by the pre-injection of L-arginine while the hypophagic effect was unaffected.The data showed that one central effect of IL-1? is serotonergic stimulation in the ventromedial hypothalamus, an action inhibited by nitric oxide activity. It is suggested that, although serotonin participates in IL-1? anorexia, other mechanisms recruited by IL-1? in normal rats are able to override the absence of the serotonergic hypophagic influence. PMID:24314273

Iuras, Anderson; Telles, Mônica M; Andrade, Iracema S; Santos, Gianni M S; Oyama, Lila M; Nascimento, Cláudia M O; Silveira, Vera L F; Ribeiro, Eliane B



Nitric oxide can acutely modulate its biosynthesis through a negative feedback mechanism on l-arginine transport in cardiac myocytes  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) plays a central role as a cellular signaling molecule in health and disease. In the heart, NO decreases the rate of spontaneous beating and the velocity and extent of shortening and accelerates the velocity of relengthening. Since the cationic amino acid l-arginine (l-Arg) is the substrate for NO production by NO synthases (NOS), we tested whether the transporters that mediate l-Arg import in cardiac muscle cells represent an intervention point in the regulation of NO synthesis. Electrical currents activated by l-Arg with low apparent affinity in whole cell voltage-clamped rat cardiomyocytes were found to be rapidly and reversibly inhibited by NO donors. Radiotracer uptake studies performed on cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles revealed the presence of high-affinity/low-capacity and low-affinity/high-capacity components of cationic amino acid transport that were inhibited by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-dl-penicillamine. NO inhibited uptake in a noncompetitive manner with Ki values of 275 and 827 nM for the high- and low-affinity component, respectively. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that millimolar concentrations of l-Arg initially promoted and then inhibited the release of endogenous NO in cardiomyocytes. Likewise, l-Arg currents measured in cardiac myocytes voltage clamped in the presence of 460 nM free intracellular Ca2+, a condition in which a Ca-CaM complex should activate endogenous NO production, showed fast activation followed by inhibition of l-Arg transport. The NOS inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, but not blockers of downstream reactions, specifically removed this inhibitory component. These results demonstrate that NO acutely regulates its own biosynthesis by modulating the availability of l-Arg via cationic amino acid transporters. PMID:20505044

Zhou, Jiaguo; Kim, David D.



Effect of L-arginine supplementation to gestation and lactation diets on the expression of immune related genes in white blood cells of lactating sows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of L-arginine HCl supplementation on immune related gene expression in leukocytes of first parity sows. Nineteen first parity sows (BW of 180.7 ± 2.7 kg and BF of 15.3 ± 0.2 mm) were used in this study. On d 30 of gestation, pregnant gilts were assign...


Effect of electromagnetic field and surface modification on the electrical behavior of novel solid lipid nanoparticles covered with l-arginine.  


Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were fabricated with modification of bioactive l-arginine in their exterior region. The lipid cores of these biomimetic SLNs contained cacao butter (CB) and tripalmitin varying between 0% and 7%. Effects of lipid composition, l-arginine coverage, and electromagnetic field (EMF) on the electrical properties of the novel SLNs were investigated. The morphological micrographs revealed that the particle size distribution of the spherical SLNs was quite uniform. Based on small-angle X-ray scattering of the SLNs, thickness of the external layers was about 4.5nm. An increase in the percentage of CB in the emulsified fluids increased average diameter and charge of the SLNs in general. An increase in the percentage of CB however decreased particle softness. In addition, a higher fraction of the surface coverage of l-arginine yielded a higher average diameter and softness of the SLNs. On the contrary, an increase in the surface coverage of l-arginine on the SLNs decreased charge in the peripheral zone. In regard to electromagnetic regulation, the exposure to EMF reduced charge and increased softness of the SLNs. From biomedical aspect, these SLNs could be potentially applied to drug entrapment and targeted delivery in preclinical trials. PMID:19181492

Kuo, Yung-Chih; Lin, Che-Wei



Re and (99m)Tc organometallic complexes containing pendant l-arginine derivatives as potential probes of inducible nitric oxide synthase.  


Aiming to design radioactive compounds based on the core "(99m)Tc(CO)(3)" for probing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in vivo, we have synthesized conjugates containing a pyrazolyl-diamine chelating unit and pendant l-arginine analogues (substrates and inhibitors of NOS). Reaction of the conjugates with fac-[M(CO)(3)](+) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) gave bioorganometallic complexes of the type fac-[M(CO)(3)(k(3)-L)] in good yield. After in vitro testing using the oxyhemoglobin NO capture assay, we concluded that the affinity of the inhibitor-containing conjugates to iNOS seems to be less affected upon metallation with rhenium than the substrate-containing conjugates. The complexes bearing guanidino substituted analogues of l-arginine still present considerable inhibitory action (N(omega)-monomethyl-l-arginine, K(i) = 36 microM; N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine, K(i) = 84 microM), being the first examples of organometallic complexes able to inhibit the iNOS. These results seem to indicate that (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-labeled L-argininine analogues, namely NOS inhibitors, may hold potential for monitoring increased levels of iNOS in vivo. PMID:19081984

Oliveira, Bruno L; Correia, João D G; Raposinho, Paula D; Santos, Isabel; Ferreira, António; Cordeiro, Carlos; Freire, Ana P



3 CFR - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan...Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan...Agencies The oil spill in the restoration of the ecosystem...losses due to the spill. (c) The...respond to the oil spill,...



Long-term outcome after resection for bronchial carcinoid tumorsq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We sought to determine the long-term survival of patients treated for bronchial carcinoid tumors and whether lesser resections have had an effect on outcomes. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, multi-institutional review of patients treated surgically for primary bronchial carcinoid tumors since 1980. Operative approach, pathologic stage, histology, surgical complications, tumor recurrence, and long- term survival were assessed. Results: There

Mark K. Fergusona; Rodney J. Landreneaub; Stephen R. Hazelriggc; Nasser K. Altorkid; Keith S. Naunheime; Joseph B. Zwischenbergerf; Michael Kentd; Anthony P. C. Yimg


Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an  

E-print Network

Anthrax Symposium March 2008 Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event Symposium Sheraton Hotel--Seattle, WA #12;Anthrax Symposium 2 Acknowledgements The authors would from an Anthrax Event Symposium--March 2008 3 Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term cropping systems research provides critical information to producers regarding the sustainability of management practices. Fixed cropping sequences in long-term cropping systems research, while useful from the standpoint of understanding specific crop rotation effects on agronomic and env...


Long Term Outcome of Severe Anaemia in Malawian Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSevere anaemia is a common, frequently fatal, condition in African children admitted to hospital, but its long term outcome is unknown. Early reports that survivors may be at risk of additional late morbidity and mortality may have significant implications for child survival in Africa. We assessed the short and long term outcome of severe anaemia in Malawian children and identified

Kamija S. Phiri; Job C. J. Calis; Brian Faragher; Ernest Nkhoma; Kondwani Ng'oma; Bridget Mangochi; Malcolm E. Molyneux; Michaël Boele van Hensbroek; Erik von Elm



Comparison of Waste Composition in a Long Term Care Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To determine the composition of wastes generated in a long term care facility.A waste stream analysis was conducted for seven consecutive days to quantify the wastes discarded in a long term care facility, and the results were compared with previous studies conducted in same facility. Weight, volume, and collapsed volume were determined for service waste, production food waste,

T. H. KimMS; C. W. Shanklin; A. Y. Su; B. L. Hackes



Long-term Ecological Monitoring in Schools and Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value and difficulties of long-term ecological monitoring studies undertaken in schools and colleges are reviewed. Rookeries, stream ecology, sand dune succession, fish population, and seed production and survival are presented as examples of successful studies. This is followed by a discussion of points to consider when setting up a long-term

Doberski, Julian; Brodie, Iain D. S.



Long-term changes in the invertebrate communities of SUDS  

E-print Network

Long-term changes in the invertebrate communities of SUDS ponds Rob Briers Edinburgh Napier Current study · Long term monitoring of development of invertebrate communities across 4 SUDS sites. (2006) Methods: invertebrates · Two phases of study: ­ 1999-2003: 5 x 30s pond net sampling annually

Heal, Kate


Fracture protection provided by long-term estrogen treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine the incidence rate of osteoporotic fractures among elderly women who had long-term postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and to compare this with the incidence rate in women who had not used estrogen. In a previous retrospective cohort study based on medical record review in 1982, we showed that long-term ERT was associated

P. Maxim; B. Ettinger; G. M. Spitalny



Infrastructuring for the Long-Term: Ecological Information Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper foregrounds the long-term perspective and the role of information management in creating infrastructure to support collaborative ecological research. The case study of the Long-Term Ecological Research Network is an ongoing research collaboration that integrates ethno- graphic and action research approaches. We describe three interdependent elements of science, data and tech- nology for which information management provides sup- port,

Helena Karasti; Karen S. Baker



Long-term follow-up of patients with adult-onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.  


Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare infectious central nervous system disease with a poor prognosis. Nineteen patients, 18 males and one female, ranging in age from 18 to 22, mean 19.6+/-1.5 years with SSPE were evaluated. We treated 9 patients with oral isoprinosine and 10 patients with alpha-interferon plus oral isoprinosine and followed up for 16 to 160 months. Of the 9 patients treated with oral isoprinosine, 7 (77.7%) died, one stabilized, and one showed progression. Seven (70%) of 10 patients treated with alpha-interferon plus oral isoprinosine died, one showed progression, and stabilization was observed in two patients. Thus, we suggest that isoprinosine alone or in combination with intraventricular interferon did not change the prognosis in long-term follow-up periods. PMID:18783800

Eroglu, Erdal; Gokcil, Zeki; Bek, Semai; Ulas, Umit H; Ozdag, Mehmet F; Odabasi, Zeki



The kinetic profile of intracellular calcium predicts long-term potentiation and long-term depression.  


Efficiency of synaptic transmission within the neocortex is regulated throughout life by experience and activity. Periods of correlated or uncorrelated presynaptic and postsynaptic activity lead to enduring changes in synaptic efficiency [long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), respectively]. The initial plasticity triggering event is thought to be a precipitous rise in postsynaptic intracellular calcium, with higher levels inducing LTP and more moderate levels inducing LTD. We used a pairing protocol in visual cortical brain slices from young guinea pigs with whole-cell recording and calcium imaging to compare the kinetic profiles of calcium signals generated in response to individual pairings along with the cumulative calcium wave and plasticity outcome. The identical pairing protocol applied to layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons results in different plasticity outcomes between cells. These differences are not attributable to variations in the conditioning protocol, cellular properties, inter-animal variability, animal age, differences in spike timing between the synaptic response and spikes, washout of plasticity factors, recruitment of inhibition, or activation of different afferents. The different plasticity outcomes are reliably predicted by individual intracellular calcium transients in the dendrites after the first few pairings. In addition to the differences in the individual calcium transients, the cumulative calcium wave that spreads to the soma also has a different profile for cells that undergo LTP versus LTD. We conclude that there are biological differences between like-type cells in the dendritic calcium signals generated by coincident synaptic input and spiking that determine the sign of the plasticity response after brief associations. PMID:15525769

Ismailov, Iskander; Kalikulov, Djanenkhodja; Inoue, Takafumi; Friedlander, Michael J



Wnt signaling is required for long-term memory formation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Wnt signaling regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult nervous system, suggesting a potential role in behavioral processes. Here, we probed the requirement for Wnt signaling during olfactory memory formation in Drosophila using an inducible RNA interference approach. Interfering with ?-catenin expression in the adult mushroom body neurons specifically impaired long-term memory without altering short-term memory. The impairment was reversible, rescued with expression of a wild-type ?-catenin transgene, and correlated with a disruption of a cellular long-term memory trace. Inhibition of wingless, a Wnt ligand, and arrow, a Wnt co-receptor, also impaired long-term memory. Wingless expression in wild type flies was transiently elevated in the brain after long-term memory conditioning. Thus, inhibiting three key components of the Wnt signaling pathway in the adult mushroom bodies impairs long-term memory, collectively indicating that this pathway mechanistically underlies this specific form of memory. PMID:24035392

Tan, Ying; Yu, Dinghui; Busto, Germain U.; Wilson, Curtis; Davis, Ronald L.



Amino Acid Transport and Metabolism in Mycobacteria: Cloning, Interruption, and Characterization of an l-Arginine/?-Aminobutyric Acid Permease in Mycobacterium bovis BCG  

PubMed Central

Genes encoding l-arginine biosynthetic and transport proteins have been shown in a number of pathogenic organisms to be important for metabolism within the host. In this study we describe the cloning of a gene (Rv0522) encoding an amino acid transporter from Mycobacterium bovis BCG and the effects of its deletion on l-arginine transport and metabolism. The Rv0522 gene of BCG was cloned from a cosmid library by using primers homologous to the rocE gene of Bacillus subtilis, a putative arginine transporter. A deletion mutant strain was constructed by homologous recombination with the Rv0522 gene interrupted by a selectable marker. The mutant strain was complemented with the wild-type gene in single copy. Transport analysis of these strains was conducted using 14C-labeled substrates. Greatly reduced uptake of l-arginine and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) but not of lysine, ornithine, proline, or alanine was observed in the mutant strain compared to the wild type, grown in Middlebrook 7H9 medium. However, when the strains were starved for 24 h or incubated in a minimal salts medium containing 20 mM arginine (in which even the parent strain does not grow), l-[14C]arginine uptake by the mutant but not the wild-type strain increased strongly. Exogenous l-arginine but not GABA, lysine, ornithine, or alanine was shown to be toxic at concentrations of 20 mM and above to wild-type cells growing in optimal carbon and nitrogen sources such as glycerol and ammonium. l-Arginine supplied in the form of dipeptides showed no toxicity at concentrations as high as 30 mM. Finally, the permease mutant strain showed no defect in survival in unactivated cultured murine macrophages compared with wild-type BCG. PMID:10648515

Seth, Anjali; Connell, Nancy D.



The modulation of NMDA receptors and L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway is implicated in the anti-immobility effect of creatine in the tail suspension test.  


The modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway is a therapeutic strategy for treating depression and neurologic disorders that involves excitotoxicity. Literature data have reported that creatine exhibits antidepressant and neuroprotective effects, but the implication of NMDAR and L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway in these effects is not established. This study evaluated the influence of pharmacological agents that modulate NMDAR/L-arginine-NO pathway in the anti-immobility effect of creatine in the tail suspension test (TST) in mice. The NOx levels and cellular viability in hippocampal and cerebrocortical slices of creatine-treated mice were also evaluated. The anti-immobility effect of creatine (10 mg/kg, po) in the TST was abolished by NMDA (0.1 pmol/mouse, icv), D-serine (30 µg/mouse, icv, glycine-site NMDAR agonist), arcaine (1 mg/kg, ip, polyamine site NMDAR antagonist), L-arginine (750 mg/kg, ip, NO precursor), SNAP (25 ?g/mouse, icv, NO donor), L-NAME (175 mg/kg, ip, non-selective NOS inhibitor) or 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg, ip, neuronal NOS inhibitor), but not by DNQX (2.5 µg/mouse, icv, AMPA receptor antagonist). The combined administration of sub-effective doses of creatine (0.01 mg/kg, po) and NMDAR antagonists MK-801 (0.001 mg/kg, po) or ketamine (0.1 mg/kg, ip) reduced immobility time in the TST. Creatine (10 mg/kg, po) increased cellular viability in hippocampal and cerebrocortical slices and enhanced hippocampal and cerebrocortical NO x levels, an effect potentiated by L-arginine or SNAP and abolished by 7-nitroindazole or L-NAME. In conclusion, the anti-immobility effect of creatine in the TST involves NMDAR inhibition and enhancement of NO levels accompanied by an increase in neural viability. PMID:25555469

Cunha, Mauricio P; Pazini, Francis L; Ludka, Fabiana K; Rosa, Julia M; Oliveira, Ágatha; Budni, Josiane; Ramos-Hryb, Ana B; Lieberknecht, Vicente; Bettio, Luis E B; Martín-de-Saavedra, Maria D; López, Manuela G; Tasca, Carla I; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S



Involvement of L-arginine/NO/cGMP/K(ATP) channel pathway in the peripheral antinociceptive actions of ellagic acid in the rat formalin test.  


The present study was conducted to evaluate the local antinociceptive actions of EA and the possible involvement of l-arginine/NO/cGMP/KATP channel pathway in this effect using formalin test in rats. To evaluate the involvement of l-arginine/NO/cGMP/KATP channel pathway in the antinociceptive action of EA, rats were pre-treated intraplantarlly with l-NAME (NOS inhibitor, 25-100?g/paw), methylene blue (guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 100-400?g/paw), glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker, 25-100?g/paw), l-arginine (a nitric oxide precursor, 25-100?g/paw) and sodium nitroprusside (125-500?g/paw). The local peripheral ipsilateral, but not contralateral, administration of EA into the right paw (30-300?g/paw) produced a dose-related antinociception during both early and late phases of formalin test which is comparable with morphine (25?g/paw). Moreover, local pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue and glibenclamide dose-dependently prevented EA (100?g/paw)-induced antinociception in late phase. Additionally, administration of l-arginine and sodium nitroprusside significantly potentiated the antinociception induced by EA in the late phase. However, these treatments had no significant effect on antinociceptive response of EA in the early phase of the formalin test. The results of the present study showed that EA-induced local peripheral antinociception during the both phases of formalin test. Also, our data suggested the activation of the l-arginine/NO/cGMP/KATP channels pathway in EA-induced antinociception in late phase of formalin test. Topical application of EA by ointment or jelly might be a useful method to relieving the inflammatory pain states. PMID:25278343

Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam; Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Mard, Seyyed Ali; Rezaie, Anahita



Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance  

SciTech Connect

Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

Kristofferson, Keith



Space ventures and society long-term perspectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

Brown, W. M.



Long-term safety and efficacy of budesonide in the treatment of ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, relapsing, and remitting inflammatory disease involving the large intestine (colon). Treatment seeks to break recurrent inflammation episodes by inducing and maintaining remission. Historically, oral systemic corticosteroids played an important role in inducing remission of this chronic disease; however, their long-term use is limited and can lead to adverse events. Budesonide is a synthetic steroid with potent local anti-inflammatory effects and low systemic bioavailability due to high first-pass hepatic metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated oral budesonide’s usefulness in treating active mild to moderate ileocecal Crohn’s disease and microscopic colitis and in an enema formulation for left sided UC. However, there is limited information regarding oral budesonide’s efficacy in UC. A novel oral budesonide formulation using a multimatrix system (budesonide-MMX) to extend drug release throughout the colon has been developed recently and seems to be an effective treatment in active left sided UC patients. This article summarizes budesonide’s long-term safety and efficacy in treating UC. PMID:24523594

Iborra, Marisa; Álvarez-Sotomayor, Diego; Nos, Pilar



Spotlight on "Long-Term English Language Learners": Characteristics and Prior Schooling Experiences of an Invisible Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents qualitative research findings about the characteristics and prior schooling experiences of "long-term English language learners" (LTELLs), who have attended U.S. schools for 7 years or more, and about whom there is little empirical research, despite their significant numbers. Findings indicate that these students are orally

Menken, Kate; Kleyn, Tatyana; Chae, Nabin



Examining Long-Term Global Climate Change on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a web-based, inquiry-oriented activity that enables students to examine long-term global climate change. Supports instruction in other topics such as population growth. (Contains 34 references.) (DDR)

Huntoon, Jacqueline E.; Ridky, Robert K.



ARGOS STRATEGY A decision support tool for the long term  

E-print Network

1 ARGOS ­STRATEGY A decision support tool for the long term management of radioactively....................................................................................................................... 3 About ARGOS........................................................................................................................ 34 #12;3 Introduction About ARGOS ARGOS is a decision support system for nuclear emergency management


Managed long-term care: care integration through care coordination.  


The New York State managed long-term care demonstration program combines traditional home, community, and institutional long-term care services with other benefits integral to maximizing overall well-being for a frail elderly population. A distinguishing feature of the model is the responsibility to coordinate both covered and noncovered services. This article, a case study of VNS CHOICE, a managed long-term care plan that serves 2,500 New York City residents, describes the program's operating structure, service delivery model, and care management strategies. By providing a capitated Medicaid long-term care benefit, VNS CHOICE can utilize a broad array of services, offer significant flexibility to care management staff, and support member and family involvement in care planning. Its broad care coordination responsibility allows it to achieve integrated care without integrated financing. PMID:12613469

Fisher, Holly Michaels; Raphael, Terrie G



Insuring Long-Term Care in the United States  

E-print Network

Long-term care expenditures constitute one of the largest uninsured financial risks facing the elderly in the United States and thus play a central role in determining the retirement security of elderly Americans. In this ...

Finkelstein, Amy


Assessments of long-term uranium supply availability  

E-print Network

The future viability of nuclear power will depend on the long-term availability of uranium. A two-form uranium supply model was used to estimate the date at which peak production will occur. The model assumes a constant ...

Zaterman, Daniel R



Offensive jokes: How do they impact long-term relationships?  

E-print Network

This article explores the impact of the use of negative humor on relational satisfaction and the importance of humor in long-term relationships from a coorientation perspective. Dyadic data from 123 couples were gathered using a survey measuring...

Hall, Jeffrey A.; Sereno, Ken



How Much Care Will You Need? (Long-Term Care)  


... care you may need. Share page: How Much Care Will You Need? The duration and level of ... in facilities. Distribution and duration of long-term care services Type of care Average number of years ...


Who Will Provide Your Care? (Long-Term Care)  


... may need. Share page: Who Will Provide Your Care? Long-term care services and support typically come ... you live at home. About 80 percent of care at home is provided by unpaid caregivers and ...


Long-term memories in online users' selecting activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the long-term memory effect in the behavior of online users. Two user-oriented online movie systems are used in this study. Due to the short length of the series, the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy approach is used to evaluate scaling-invariance in selecting activities of users in the two online movie systems. Our results indicate that persistence (long-term memory) exists widely in the movie selecting series. However, there is generally significant difference between a user's objective and subjective behaviors. Additionally, statistically, the long-term memory depends on activity levels, as results show that the much more active a users' group, the stronger the long-term memory will be. These findings provide a new criterion for constructing reasonable models, and can help understand how individuals' behaviors form a collective behavior of an online society.

Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie



Long-term Career Goals for Professional Women in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encourages the formation of long-term career goals for women in agronomy. Offers perspectives and practical suggestions for obtaining positions, maintaining professional credentials, and managing personal and career related obligations. (ML)

Klepper, Betty



Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007  

SciTech Connect

This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

T. Haney



Using Life Insurance to Pay for Long-Term Care  


... Covered by Health & Disability Insurance? Expand Coverage Limits Chart Expand What is Long-term Care Insurance? Expand ... death benefit on your life insurance policy. The chart below lists guidelines from the National Association of ...


Long-Term Quiescent Fibroblast Cells Transit into Senescence  

PubMed Central

Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development. PMID:25531649

Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Hemmerich, Peter; Klement, Karolin; Diekmann, Stephan



Estimation of long-term discharge statistics by regional adjustment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A regional adjustment relationship was developed to estimate long-term (30-year) monthly median discharges from short term (three-year) records. This method differs from traditional approaches in that it is based on site-specific discharge data but does not require correlation of these data with discharges from a single hydrologically similar long-term gage. The method is shown to be statistically robust, and applicable to statistics other than the median.A regional adjustment relationship was developed to estimate long-term (30-year) monthly discharges from short term (three-year) records. This method differs from traditional approaches in that it is based on site-specific discharge data but does not require correlation of these data with discharges from a single hydrologically similar long-term gage. The method is shown to be statistically robust, and applicable to statistics other than the median.

Bakke, P.D.; Thomas, R.; Parrett, C.



Common Medication Errors in Long-Term Care Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Medication management in long-term care settings is a complex process. The infrastructure, staffing and limited accessibility\\u000a to pharmaceutical and medical resources in long-term care facilities create an environment of high risk with the potential\\u000a for medication errors to occur. There is some evidence to suggest that at each step along the continuum from prescription\\u000a to medication delivery to the resident,

Catherine Edgar; Penny Harvey


Long-term outcome after resection for bronchial carcinoid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We sought to determine the long-term survival of patients treated for bronchial carcinoid tumors and whether lesser resections have had an effect on outcomes. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, multi-institutional review of patients treated surgically for primary bronchial carcinoid tumors since 1980. Operative approach, pathologic stage, histology, surgical complications, tumor recurrence, and long-term survival were assessed. Results: There were

Mark K Ferguson; Rodney J Landreneau; Stephen R Hazelrigg; Nasser K Altorki; Keith S Naunheim; Joseph B Zwischenberger; Michael Kent; Anthony P. C Yim



Long-term memory motion-compensated prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term memory motion-compensated prediction extends the spatial displacement vector utilized in block-based hybrid video coding by a variable time delay permitting the use of more frames than the previously decoded one for motion compensated prediction. The long-term memory covers several seconds of decoded frames at the encoder and decoder. The use of multiple frames for motion compensation in most cases

Thomas Wiegand; Xiaozheng Zhang; Bernd Girod



Evidence for long-term spatial memory in a parid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals use spatial memory. Although much work has examined the accuracy of spatial memory, few studies have explicitly\\u000a focused on its longevity. The importance of long-term spatial memory for foraging has been demonstrated in several cases.\\u000a However, the importance of such long-term memory for all animals is unclear. In this study, we present the first evidence\\u000a that a parid

Timothy C. Roth; Lara D. LaDage; Vladimir V. Pravosudov


Long term culture of tumour-specific cytotoxic T cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

MANY investigators have been successful in the maintenance of long term tissue culture of human bone marrow-derived (B) cells. These cell lines have been established from both normal subjects1 and from patients with lymphoproliferative disorders2. In most cases, long term B-cell lines have been shown to harbour the Epstein-Barr virus genome which some investigators feel is required for establishment and

Steven Gillis; Kendall A. Smith



Management of Severe Scleroderma with Long-Term Extracorporeal Photopheresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The management of systemic sclerosis remains unsatisfactory. Thus far, the action of extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) in severe systemic scleroderma has been evaluated in short-term studies, and only limited experience has been obtained with long-term application. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate prospectively the long-term effect of ECP in a group of 16 patients suffering from

K. Krasagakis; E. Dippel; J. Ramaker; M. Owsianowski; C. E. Orfanos



Chronic renal lesions following long-term treatment with lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic renal lesions following long-term treatment with lithium. Fourteen patients receiving long-term treatment with lithium carbonate for manic-depressive disease were referred to a nephrological department because of acute lithium intoxication or lithiuminduced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Renal biopsy specimens from each of these patients showed only insignificant acute lesions. In thirteen of the specimens, however, a pronounced degree of focal nephron

Jytte Hestbech; Hans Erik Hansen; Amdi Amdisen; Steen Olsen



Quality of life in long term survivors of colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:We aimed to determine the quality of life (QOL) for long term survivors of colorectal cancer.METHODS:Persons with colorectal cancer who had survived at least 5 yr from diagnosis were recruited from a local cancer registry to answer questions about general QOL and colon cancer-specific issues. Before the general survey, focus group interviews with long term survivors were conducted to select

Scott D. Ramsey; Kristin Berry; Carol Moinpour; Antoinette Giedzinska; M. Robyn Andersen



Long-term Tropospheric Ozone Trends: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review we attempt to critically evaluate the availability of reliable tropospheric ozone measurements suitable for\\u000a long-term trend analysis. The focus is on large-scale changes deduced from measurements, which are used for comparison with\\u000a numerical simulations of the tropospheric ozone cycle. These are required to quantify the influence of anthropogenic ozone\\u000a precursor emission changes on climate. Long-term tropospheric ozone

J. Staehelin; C. Schnadt Poberaj


Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents  

PubMed Central

We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan



Long-term effects of maternal citrulline supplementation on renal transcriptome prevention of nitric oxide depletion-related programmed hypertension: the impact of gene-nutrient interactions.  


Maternal malnutrition can elicit gene expression leading to fetal programming. L-citrulline (CIT) can be converted to L-arginine to generate nitric oxide (NO). We examined whether maternal CIT supplementation can prevent N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor)-induced programmed hypertension and examined their effects on the renal transcriptome in male offspring using next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received L-NAME administration at 60mg/kg/day subcutaneously via osmotic minipump during pregnancy alone or with additional 0.25% L-citrulline solution in drinking water during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to three groups: control, L-NAME, and L-NAME + CIT. L-NAME exposure induced hypertension in the 12-week-old offspring, which CIT therapy prevented. Identified differentially expressed genes in L-NAME and CIT-treated offspring kidneys, including Guca2b, Hmox1, Hba2, Hba-a2, Dusp1, and Serpine1 are related to regulation of blood pressure (BP) and oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data suggests that the beneficial effects of CIT supplementation are attributed to alterations in expression levels of genes related to BP control and oxidative stress. Our results suggest that early nutritional intervention by CIT has long-term impact on the renal transcriptome to prevent NO depletion-related programmed hypertension. However, our RNA-Seq results might be a secondary phenomenon. The implications of epigenetic regulation at an early stage of programming deserve further clarification. PMID:25517031

Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Huang, Li-Tung



Long-Term Effects of Maternal Citrulline Supplementation on Renal Transcriptome Prevention of Nitric Oxide Depletion-Related Programmed Hypertension: The Impact of Gene-Nutrient Interactions  

PubMed Central

Maternal malnutrition can elicit gene expression leading to fetal programming. l-citrulline (CIT) can be converted to l-arginine to generate nitric oxide (NO). We examined whether maternal CIT supplementation can prevent NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (l-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor)-induced programmed hypertension and examined their effects on the renal transcriptome in male offspring using next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received l-NAME administration at 60mg/kg/day subcutaneously via osmotic minipump during pregnancy alone or with additional 0.25% l-citrulline solution in drinking water during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to three groups: control, l-NAME, and l-NAME + CIT. l-NAME exposure induced hypertension in the 12-week-old offspring, which CIT therapy prevented. Identified differentially expressed genes in l-NAME and CIT-treated offspring kidneys, including Guca2b, Hmox1, Hba2, Hba-a2, Dusp1, and Serpine1 are related to regulation of blood pressure (BP) and oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data suggests that the beneficial effects of CIT supplementation are attributed to alterations in expression levels of genes related to BP control and oxidative stress. Our results suggest that early nutritional intervention by CIT has long-term impact on the renal transcriptome to prevent NO depletion-related programmed hypertension. However, our RNA-Seq results might be a secondary phenomenon. The implications of epigenetic regulation at an early stage of programming deserve further clarification. PMID:25517031

Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Huang, Li-Tung



Long-term effects of treatment of pituitary adenomas.  


Pituitary adenomas can be treated effectively in the vast majority of cases. After successful treatment for pituitary disease, many patients still report reduced quality of life in the presence of persistent morbidity and (slightly) increased mortality. At present, there is an increasing awareness that in many cases long-term remission of functioning or nonfunctioning adenomas does not equal cure. The causes are most probably multifactorial. Hypopituitarism, intrinsic imperfections of surgical or endocrine replacement therapy, but also persistent effects of treatment and of previous hormone excess on the central nervous system all affect long-term morbidity, general well-being, and mortality. This implies that treatment goals for patients with pituitary adenomas will shift from long-term cure to long-term care. Further research is therefore needed to get more insight into each of these factors of influence, such as the extent of reversibility of hormone excess syndromes on cardiovascular risk and behavior. The fact that coping strategies, despite long-term remission, are altered and illness perceptions are affected strongly suggests that long-term care should incorporate self-management interventions that might help to improve quality of life for patients. PMID:25248599

Pereira, Alberto M



Private Financing Options for Long-term Care  

PubMed Central

Private financing for long-term care now comes almost exclusively from out-of-pocket payments. Long-term-care costs quickly impoverish most elderly, resulting in Medicaid dependency. The consequences are profound for the western Sun Belt with its rapidly growing elderly population. Key private financing options are long-term-care individual retirement accounts (LTC/IRAs), home equity conversion, social-health maintenance organizations and long-term-care insurance. Study of data from the past half century suggests that the LTC/IRA approach would prove unsatisfactory for the purpose despite the intuitive appeal of this mechanism. Experience with home equity conversions is still very limited, and unresolved questions limit this approach to the role of a reserve option for now. While promising, social-health maintenance organizations are still in the experimental stages and not yet commercially available. Long-term-care insurance is currently sold on a thin market and emphasizes nursing home coverage. New approaches to private financing through long-term-care insurance seem to offer the best approach for immediate implementation. PMID:3118576

Brody, Barbara L.; Simon, Harold J.; Smallwood, Dennis E.



Increased Susceptibility to Induction of Long-Term Depression and Long-Term Potentiation Reversal during Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) and reversal of long- term potentiation (LTP) were examined extracellularly at CA3-CA1 synapses in stratum radiatum of slices from adult (6-9 months) and aged (20-24 months) Fischer 344 rats. Prolonged low- frequency stimulation (LFS) (900 pulses\\/1 Hz) of the Schaffer collaterals depressed the initial slope of the excitatory postsynap- tic potential (EPSP) in aged but not

Christopher M. Norris; Donna L. Korol; Thomas C. Foster


An engineered l-arginine sensor of Chlamydia pneumoniae enables arginine-adjustable transcription control in mammalian cells and mice  

PubMed Central

For optimal compatibility with biopharmaceutical manufacturing and gene therapy, heterologous transgene control systems must be responsive to side-effect-free physiologic inducer molecules. The arginine-inducible interaction of the ArgR repressor and the ArgR-specific ARG box, which synchronize arginine import and synthesis in the intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae, was engineered for arginine-regulated transgene (ART) expression in mammalian cells. A synthetic arginine-responsive transactivator (ARG), consisting of ArgR fused to the Herpes simplex VP16 transactivation domain, reversibly adjusted transgene transcription of chimeric ARG box-containing mammalian minimal promoters (PART) in an arginine-inducible manner. Arginine-controlled transgene expression showed rapid induction kinetics in a variety of mammalian cell lines and was adjustable and reversible at concentrations which were compatible with host cell physiology. ART variants containing different transactivation domains, variable spacing between ARG box and minimal promoter and several tandem ARG boxes showed modified regulation performance tailored for specific expression scenarios and cell types. Mice implanted with microencapsulated cells engineered for ART-inducible expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) exhibited adjustable serum phosphatase levels after treatment with different arginine doses. Using a physiologic inducer, such as the amino acid l-arginine, to control heterologous transgenes in a seamless manner which is devoid of noticeable metabolic interference will foster novel opportunities for precise expression dosing in future gene therapy scenarios as well as the manufacturing of difficult-to-produce protein pharmaceuticals. PMID:17947334

Hartenbach, Shizuka; Daoud-El Baba, Marie; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin



Amphoteric, prevailingly cationic L-arginine polymers of poly(amidoamino acid) structure: synthesis, acid/base properties and preliminary cytocompatibility and cell-permeating characterizations.  


A linear amphoteric poly(amidoamino acid), L-ARGO7, is prepared by Michael-type polyaddition of L-arginine with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. Chain-extension of acrylamide end-capped L-ARGO7 oligomers with piperazine leads to high-molecular-weight copolymers in which L-arginine maintains its absolute configuration. Acid/base properties of L-ARGO7 polymers show isolectric points of ? 10 and positive net average charges per repeating unit at pH = 7.4 from 0.25 to 0.40. These arginine-rich synthetic polymers possibly share some of the unique biological properties of polyarginine cell-permeating peptides. In vitro tests with mouse embryo fibroblasts balb/3T3 clone A31 show that L-ARGO7 polymers are endowed with effective cell internalization ability combined with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:24821667

Ferruti, Paolo; Mauro, Nicolò; Falciola, Luigi; Pifferi, Valentina; Bartoli, Cristina; Gazzarri, Matteo; Chiellini, Federica; Ranucci, Elisabetta



Influence of Initial Treatment Modality on Long-Term Control of Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a common cutaneous disorder but the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical features, and the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control. Methods and Results 641 CIU patients were enrolled from the allergy clinic in a tertiary referral hospital. Disease duration, aggravating factors and treatment modality at each visit were evaluated. Times required to reach a controlled state were analyzed according to initial treatment modality, using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the Cox proportional-hazards model, and propensity scores. Female to male ratio was 1.7: 1; mean age at onset was 40.5 years. The most common aggravating factors were food (33.5%), stress (31.5%) and fatigue (21.6%). Most patients (82.2%) used H1-antihistamines alone as initial treatment while 17% used a combination treatment with oral corticosteroids. There was no significant difference in the time taken to reach a controlled state between patients treated with single vs multiple H1-antihistamines or between those who received H1-antihistamine monotherapy vs. a combination therapy with oral corticosteroids. Conclusion The time required to control CIU is not reduced by use of multiple H1-antihistamines or oral corticosteroids in the initial treatment. PMID:23935990

Kim, Sujeong; Baek, Seunghee; Shin, Bomi; Yoon, Sun-young; Park, So Young; Lee, Taehoon; Lee, Yoon Su; Bae, Yun-Jeong; Kwon, Hyouk Soo; Cho, You Sook; Moon, Hee-Bom; Kim, Tae-Bum



Acute Intravenous L-Arginine Infusion Decreases Endothelin1 Levels and Improves Endothelial Function in Patients With Angina Pectoris and Normal Coronary Arteriograms Correlation With Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—We tested the hypothesis that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels could be elevated and influence endothelin-1 and nitric oxide release and action in patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). In addition, we evaluated whether an intravenous infusion of L-arginine would improve endothelial function in these subjects. Methods and Results—Nine patients with CSX and 14 control subjects underwent a continuous infusion of

PierMarco Piatti; Gabriele Fragasso; Lucilla D. Monti; Emanuela Setola; Pietro Lucotti; Isabella Fermo; Rita Paroni; Elena Galluccio; Guido Pozza; Sergio Chierchia; Alberto Margonato


Involvement of the nitric oxide\\/L-arginine and sympathetic nervous systems on the vasodepressor action of human urotensin II in anesthetized rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined if the nitric oxide (NO)\\/L-arginine pathway participates in and if the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the depressor action of human urotensin II. I.V. bolus injections of human urotensin II (0.1–30 nmol\\/kg) caused dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP, EC50 = 2.09 ± 0.8 nmol\\/kg; Emax = ?18 ± 3 mmHg ) and increases in heart rate.

Aly M. Abdelrahman; Catherine C. Y. Pang



Limited availability of l -arginine increases DNA-binding activity of NF-?B and contributes to regulation of iNOS expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of nutrients on gene expression can be mediated by the availability of amino acids. The aim of this study is to\\u000a examine the effect of limited availability of l-arginine on the DNA-binding activity of NF-?B, a dominant transcription factor in inflammation, and the consequence for the\\u000a expression pattern of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in murine keratinocytes. Low

Guido Kagemann; Helmut Sies; Oliver Schnorr



Comparative study on the protective role of vitamin C and L-arginine in experimental renal ischemia reperfusion in adult rats  

PubMed Central

Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is a main cause of transplanted kidney dysfunction and rejection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a causal role in cellular damage induced by I/R. Antioxidant vitamins and Nitric oxide (NO) were postulated to play renoprotective effects against I/R. This study compares the protective effects of vitamin C with that of the nitric oxide donor, L-arginine, on renal I/R injury in adult rats. The study was performed on 50 adult Wistar rats of both sexes, divided into 5 groups: I: Control group, receive daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline for 3 days. II: Renal I/R group, received i.p saline for 3 days and subjected to renal I/R. III: L-arginine Pretreated, 400 mg/kg/day i.p. for 3 days prior to I/R. IV: Vitamin C Pretreated, 500 mg/kg/day i.p. 24 hours prior to I/R. V: combined L-arginine and Vitamin C Pretreated, exposed to Renal I/R group. At the end of the experiment, plasma urea and creatinine were determined. Kidney tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), NO, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured and kidneys were examined histologically. Results: I/R group showed significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine, and renal MDA, and a significant decrease in renal catalase with marked necrotic epithelial cells and infiltration by inflammatory cells in kidney section compared to the control group. All the treated groups showed significant decrease in urea, creatinine, and MDA, and a significant increase in catalase with less histopathological changes in kidney sections compared to I/R group. However, significant improvements in urea, MDA, and catalase were found in vitamin C pretreated and combined treated groups than L-arginine pretreated group. Conclusion: Oxidative stress is the primary element involved in renal I/R injury. So, antioxidants play an important renoprotective effects than NO donors. PMID:25349638

Mohamed, Abd El-Hamid A; Lasheen, Noha N



Maternal citrulline supplementation prevents prenatal N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced programmed hypertension in rats.  


Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency induced by the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) resulted in hypertension. L-citrulline (CIT) can be converted to L-arginine to generate NO. We examined whether maternal CIT supplementation can prevent L-NAME-induced programmed hypertension. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups: control, L-NAME, control + citrulline (CIT), and L-NAME + citrulline (L-NAME+CIT). Pregnant rats received L-NAME administration at 60 mg/kg/day subcutaneously during pregnancy alone or with additional 0.25% l-citrulline solution in drinking water during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were sacrificed at 12 wk of age. L-NAME exposure during pregnancy induces hypertension in the 12-wk-old offspring. Maternal CIT therapy prevented L-NAME-induced programmed hypertension, which was associated with a decreased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentration and an increased L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio in the kidney, increased urinary cGMP levels, and decreased renal protein levels of type 3 sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE3). Together, our data suggest that the beneficial effects of CIT supplementation are attributed to its ability to increase NO level in the kidney and inhibition of NHE3 expression. Our results suggest that supplementing CIT in pregnant women with NO deficiency can improve fetal development and prevent programmed hypertension. PMID:25395680

Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung; Lee, Chien-Te; Chan, Julie Y H; Hsu, Chien-Ning



Effects of L- Arginine Supplementation on Antioxidant Status and Body Composition in Obese Patients with Pre-diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of present study was to determine effects of L-Arginine supplementation on antioxidant status and body composition in obese patients with prediabetes. Methods: A double-blind randomized control trial was performed on 46 (24 men, 22 women) obese patients with prediabetes. They were divided randomly into two groups. Patients in intervention (n = 23) and control group (n=23) received 3 gr/day L-arginine and placebo, respectively for 8 weeks. Anthropometric indices, dietary intake and biochemical measurements ((serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)) were performed at the baseline and after 8-week intervention. Results: The mean age and BMI of participants were 44.29±8.65 years old and 28.14±1.35 kg/m2, respectively. At the end of study, in both intervention and control group, percentage of carbohydrate decreased and %fat intake increased compared to the baseline (P<0.05). After adjusting for dietary intake, no significant difference was observed in Fat Mass (FM) and Fat Free Mass (FFM) between two groups (P>0.05). Among measured biochemical factors, only serum TAC level showed significant differences at the end of study in the intervention group compared to the control group (pv<0.01). Conclusion: 3gr/day L-Arginine supplementation increased TAC level in obese patients with prediabetes. PMID:25364661

Fazelian, Siavash; Hoseini, Mostafa; Namazi, Nazli; Heshmati, Javad; Sepidar Kish, Mehdi; Mirfatahi, Maryam; Some Olia, Ahmad Saedi



Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements  

SciTech Connect

Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

Joan McDonald



NMDA Receptors and the L-Arginine–Nitric Oxide–Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Pathway Are Implicated in the Antidepressant-Like Action of the Ethanolic Extract from Tabebuia avellanedae in Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Bark infusion of Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb is consumed in tropical America folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases, including depressive disorders. It was recently demonstrated that the extract from this plant has antidepressant properties. The present study was aimed at investigating the contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the L-arginine–nitric oxide (NO)–cyclic guanosine 3?5?-monophosphate (cGMP) pathway to the antidepressant-like action of the ethanolic extract from T. avellanedae (EET) in the tail suspension test (TST). The anti-immobility effect of the extract (30?mg/kg, orally [p.o.]) was prevented by pretreatment of mice with NMDA (0.1 pmol/site, intracerebroventicular [i.c.v.]), L-arginine (750?mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]), and sildenafil (5?mg/kg, i.p.). Additionally, the combination of MK-801 (0.01?mg/kg, p.o.), 7-nitroindazole (25?mg/kg, i.p.), and 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) (30 pmol/site, i.c.v.) with a subeffective dose of EET (1?mg/kg, p.o.) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the TST, without causing significant alterations in the locomotor activity. Moreover, the administration of an effective dose of EET (30?mg/kg, p.o.) produced a reduction in NOx levels in the cerebral cortex. Conversely, a subeffective dose of EET (1?mg/kg, p.o.) caused no changes in the cortical NOx levels. Results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of EET in the TST is dependent on a blockade of NMDA receptor activation and inhibition of NO-cGMP synthesis, significantly extending literature data about the antidepressant-like action of this plant and reinforcing the notion that this plant may be useful in the management of depressive disorders. PMID:24236576

Freitas, Andiara E.; Moretti, Morgana; Budni, Josiane; Balen, Grasiela O.; Fernandes, Sinara C.; Veronezi, Patricia O.; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo A.; Pizzolatti, Moacir G.



Long-term efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of ibandronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Several second-generation bisphosphonates (BPs) are approved in osteoporosis treatment. Efficacy and safety depends on potency of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) inhibition, hydroxyapatite affinity, compliance and adherence. The latter may be influenced by frequency and route of administration. A literature search using “ibandronate”, “postmenopausal osteoporosis”, “fracture”, and “bone mineral density” (BMD) revealed 168 publications. The Phase III BONE study, using low dose 2.5 mg daily oral ibandronate demonstrated 49% relative risk reduction (RRR) in clinical vertebral fracture after 3 years. Non-vertebral fracture (NVF) reduction was demonstrated in a subgroup (pretreatment T-score ? ?3.0; RRR 69%) and a meta-analysis of high annual doses (150 mg oral monthly or intravenous equivalent of ibandronate; RRR 38%). Hip fracture reduction was not demonstrated. Long-term treatment efficacy has been confirmed over 5 years. Long term safety is comparable to placebo over 3 years apart from flu-like symptoms which are more common with oral monthly and intravenous treatments. No cases of atypical femoral fracture or osteonecrosis of the jaw have been reported in randomized controlled trial studies. Ibandronate inhibits FPPS more than alendronate but less than other BPs which could explain rate of action onset. Ibandronate has a higher affinity for hydroxyapatite compared with risedronate but less than other BPs which could affect skeletal distribution and rate of action offset. High doses (150 mg oral monthly or intravenous equivalent) were superior to low doses (oral 2.5 mg daily) according to 1 year BMD change. Data are limited by patient selection, statistical power, under-dosing, and absence of placebo groups in high dose studies. Ibandronate treatment offers different doses and modalities of administration which could translate into higher adherence rates, an important factor when the two main limitations of BP treatment are initiation and adherence rates. However, lack of consistency in NVF reduction and absence of hip fracture data limits more generalized use of this agent. PMID:25565901

Inderjeeth, Charles A; Glendenning, Paul; Ratnagobal, Shoba; Inderjeeth, Diren Che; Ondhia, Chandni



Long-term efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of ibandronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.  


Several second-generation bisphosphonates (BPs) are approved in osteoporosis treatment. Efficacy and safety depends on potency of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) inhibition, hydroxyapatite affinity, compliance and adherence. The latter may be influenced by frequency and route of administration. A literature search using "ibandronate", "postmenopausal osteoporosis", "fracture", and "bone mineral density" (BMD) revealed 168 publications. The Phase III BONE study, using low dose 2.5 mg daily oral ibandronate demonstrated 49% relative risk reduction (RRR) in clinical vertebral fracture after 3 years. Non-vertebral fracture (NVF) reduction was demonstrated in a subgroup (pretreatment T-score ? -3.0; RRR 69%) and a meta-analysis of high annual doses (150 mg oral monthly or intravenous equivalent of ibandronate; RRR 38%). Hip fracture reduction was not demonstrated. Long-term treatment efficacy has been confirmed over 5 years. Long term safety is comparable to placebo over 3 years apart from flu-like symptoms which are more common with oral monthly and intravenous treatments. No cases of atypical femoral fracture or osteonecrosis of the jaw have been reported in randomized controlled trial studies. Ibandronate inhibits FPPS more than alendronate but less than other BPs which could explain rate of action onset. Ibandronate has a higher affinity for hydroxyapatite compared with risedronate but less than other BPs which could affect skeletal distribution and rate of action offset. High doses (150 mg oral monthly or intravenous equivalent) were superior to low doses (oral 2.5 mg daily) according to 1 year BMD change. Data are limited by patient selection, statistical power, under-dosing, and absence of placebo groups in high dose studies. Ibandronate treatment offers different doses and modalities of administration which could translate into higher adherence rates, an important factor when the two main limitations of BP treatment are initiation and adherence rates. However, lack of consistency in NVF reduction and absence of hip fracture data limits more generalized use of this agent. PMID:25565901

Inderjeeth, Charles A; Glendenning, Paul; Ratnagobal, Shoba; Inderjeeth, Diren Che; Ondhia, Chandni



Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.



Long-term Internship through Cooperative Education with Regional Industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long term internship is one of special educational programs for graduate students of Graduate School of Engineering in University of Fukui. This is a collaborative program between university and industries where selected post-graduate students are dispatched to companies for a long term and educated in real business environments. It is the final goal of the program to develop sophisticated specialists who would be able to catch the business strategy in industries and solve any problems by themselves. The program is managed in a semester (6 months) and contains 1.5 month prior education of preliminary special knowledge, ethics and secrecy, about 3 month dispatch with long-term internship, and 1.5 month post-education for complementary education and presentation. This paper presents the effect of this program which has been evolving since 2005.

Takahashi, Kenzo; Hase, Hiroyuki


Risky business: long-term care insurance underwriting.  


Private insurance is one strategy for financing the large and growing cost of long-term care. Little is known, however, about the extent to which medical underwriting may limit the potential of private insurance to cover nursing home care, or whether the underwriting criteria used in this relatively new market successfully identify high-cost groups. This paper uses data from the National Mortality Followback Survey to address these two questions. We estimate that between 12% and 23% of the population would be rejected for private long-term care insurance because of their health if everyone applied at age 65. These figures rise to between 20% and 31% at age 75. Our simulation results suggest that long-term care insurance underwriting criteria identify individuals who vary substantially in the financial risk they pose to insurers. In most cases, whether a criterion identifies a high-cost group is sensitive to the policy individuals are assumed to buy. PMID:7591041

Murtaugh, C M; Kemper, P; Spillman, B C



An approach to long-term sedative-hypnotic use  

PubMed Central

Insomnia is a common, often chronic medical disorder with significant medical and socioeconomic repercussions. However, unlike other medical conditions, there is intense debate as to whether the long-term treatment of insomnia is clinically appropriate. The perceived deleterious side effect of sedative-hypnotic medications may result in patients remaining untreated or undertreated. This review proposes that a more subtle approach needs to be taken in the management of patients with chronic insomnia and that long-term use of the newer sedative-hypnotics may be a feasible and effective treatment option when used in conjunction with thorough medical assessment and regular patient follow-up. This review discusses these issues and discusses the pros and cons of long-term sedative-hypnotic use. PMID:23620678

Shahid, Azmeh; Chung, Sharon A; Phillipson, Ron; Shapiro, Colin M



Evidence for long-term memory in sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate change signals in sea level rise (SLR) has experienced considerable attention during the last decades. Here we provide evidence that superimposed on any possible anthropogenic trend there is a significant amount of natural decadal and multidecadal variability. Using a set of 60 centennial tide gauge records and an ocean reanalysis, we find that sea levels exhibit long-term correlations on time scales up to several decades that are independent of any systematic rise. A large fraction of this long-term variability is related to the steric component of sea level, but we also find long-term correlations in current estimates of mass loss from glaciers and ice caps. These findings suggest that (i) recent attempts to detect a significant acceleration in regional SLR might underestimate the impact of natural variability and (ii) any future regional SLR threshold might be exceeded earlier/later than from anthropogenic change alone.

Dangendorf, Sönke; Rybski, Diego; Mudersbach, Christoph; Müller, Alfred; Kaufmann, Edgar; Zorita, Eduardo; Jensen, Jürgen



Long-term outcome of cyclosporin rescue therapy in acute, steroid-refractory severe ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Background Although cyclosporin is effective in severe ulcerative colitis (UC), long-term colectomy rate varies between 60 and 88% among patients in whom cyclosporin initially induced remission. The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term outcome and the optimal duration of cyclosporin therapy in acute, severe UC. Methods A total of 73 patients underwent i.v. cyclosporin therapy for a steroid refractory flare up of UC between 1998 and 2009. All patients were treated with 1?mg/kg i.v. methylprednisolone for 3–7 days before the administration of cyclosporin. Patients received i.v. cyclosporin of 4–5?mg/kg for 5 days following oral treatment. Results The mean follow up after the initiation of cyclosporin was 4.2 years. There were 20 patients who underwent early colectomy. Cyclosporin had to be discontinued due to side effects in 22 patients. Cyclosporin failed and late colectomy was performed in 14 of the 53 responders. Duration of cyclosporin treatment was significantly longer in those who avoided colectomy. The probability of avoiding colectomy proved to be 66% in case of 1-year treatment period with cyclosporin. The longer treatment period resulted in longer colectomy-free disease course. Conclusions Cyclosporin is effective in acute, severe UC during long-term follow up. Our data suggest that the longer cyclosporin is used, the more it is possible to avoid colectomy in the future. PMID:24918015

Farkas, Klaudia; Szepes, Zoltán; Nagy, Ferenc; Sz?cs, Mónika; Nyári, Tibor; Bálint, Anita; Wittmann, Tibor



Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Orthopedic Biodegradable Implants  

PubMed Central

Presently, orthopedic and oral/maxillofacial implants represent a combined $2.8 billion market, a figure expected to experience significant and continued growth. Although traditional permanent implants have been proved clinically efficacious, they are also associated with several drawbacks, including secondary revision and removal surgeries. Non-permanent, biodegradable implants offer a promising alternative for patients, as they provide temporary support and degrade at a rate matching tissue formation, and thus, eliminate the need for secondary surgeries. These implants have been in clinical use for nearly 25 years, competing directly with, or maybe even exceeding, the performance of permanent implants. The initial implantation of biodegradable materials, as with permanent materials, mounts an acute host inflammatory response. Over time, the implant degradation profile and possible degradation product toxicity mediate long-term biodegradable implant-induced inflammation. However, unlike permanent implants, this inflammation is likely to cease once the material disappears. Implant-mediated inflammation is a critical determinant for implant success. Thus, for the development of a proactive biodegradable implant that has the ability to promote optimal bone regeneration and minimal detrimental inflammation, a thorough understanding of short- and long-term inflammatory events is required. Here, we discuss an array of biodegradable orthopedic implants, their associated short- and long- term inflammatory effects, and methods to mediate these inflammatory events. PMID:22043969

Amini, Ami R.; Wallace, James S.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.



New devices for very long-term ECG monitoring.  


Present day 24-h Holter monitors have been shown to miss many arrhythmias that may occur infrequently or under specific circumstances. The advancement in electronic and adhesive technologies have enabled the development of first generation wearable long-term 14-day patch ECG monitors that attach directly to the skin and require no electrodes and wires to operate. This new technology is unobtrusive to the patients and offers them unprecedented mobility. It enables very long-term monitoring of critical patients while they are carrying out daily activities. The monitors are waterproof, offer good adhesion to the skin and can operate as either recorders or wireless streaming devices. PMID:22461060

Lobodzinski, S Suave; Laks, Michael M



Factors Affecting Long-term Abstinence from Substances Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term\\u000a abstinence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence.\\u000a A random survey was conducted on 62 subjects from extended care units. All participants were male

Salah Elgaily Elsheikh



Long-term Strategy for ESA Science Archives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Science Archives at ESAC represent a major research and discovery asset for the scientific community. They currently contain data from 13 missions - astronomy from gamma-rays to microwaves and solar system data from the Sun through Venus, the Moon, Mars, Titan and out to comets. In the next few years, data from another 5 missions (including heliospheric ones) will be added. This paper describes the long-term strategy which has been defined for these archives to cover science exploitation, long-term preservation and support to the science operations.

Arviset, C.; Hanowski, N.; Jansen, F.; Kessler, M.; Lennon, D.; Osuna, P.



Metabolic bone diseases during long-term total parenteral nutrition.  


Long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a procedure commonly applied to patients with advanced forms of intestinal malabsorption. Among TPN complications, bone metabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteomalacia, are a common finding. Initially considered to be a manifestation of aluminium toxicity which followed massive contamination with the element of the solutions used in TPN, metabolic osteopathy during TPN is currently considered a multiform syndrome, with a multifactorial pathogenesis, which may manifest itself with vague or clear clinical pictures. In this review, we analyse clinical, pathogenetic, and therapeutic aspects of the most common bone metabolic diseases in patients undergoing long-term TPN. PMID:17721075

Acca, M; Ragno, A; Francucci, C M; D'Erasmo, E



Ability of poly-L-arginine to enhance drug absorption into aqueous humor and vitreous body after instillation in rabbits.  


The effect of poly-L-arginine with a molecular weight of 35.5 kDa (PLA) on the ocular absorption of hydrophilic molecules after instillation was examined in rabbits in vivo. FITC-labeled dextran (3.8 kDa, FD-4) and pyridoxamine were used as model hyprophilic molecules for absorption. The potential toxicity of PLA was evaluated by microscopic observation of the cornea, production of TNF-alpha, and the thickness of the corneal epithelia and stroma. The concentration of pyridoxamine and FD-4 in aqueous humor 30 min after a single instillation of a solution of PLA was 29- and 16-fold higher than that without PLA, respectively, but the drug concentrations were not determined in the vitreous body. Repetitive instillation of PLA every 30 min for 150 min achieved 31.1- and 13.3-fold increases in pyridoxamine and FD-4 in aqueous humor, respectively. Furthermore, significant amounts of pyridoxamine and FD-4 were detected in the vitreous body after the repetitive instillation of PLA, even although very little of these drugs was detected in the vitreous body in the control eye without PLA. On the other hand, repetitive instillation of PLA did not induce any alteration of corneal epithelial and stromal thickness, production of TNF-alpha, and disruption of the epithelial and stromal morphologies and neutrophil infiltration. Our findings suggest that PLA may be useful in promoting drug delivery of hydrophilic drugs to the ocular tissues without producing any significant corneal damage and inflammation. PMID:17827737

Nemoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Hideo; Akimoto, Masayuki; Natsume, Hideshi; Morimoto, Yasunori



L-Arginine stimulates the mTOR signaling pathway and protein synthesis in porcine trophectoderm cells.  


Impairment of placental growth is a major factor contributing to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in both human pregnancy and animal production. Results of recent studies indicate that administration of L-arginine (Arg) to gestating pigs or sheep with IUGR fetuses can enhance fetal growth. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that Arg stimulates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and protein synthesis in porcine conceptus trophectoderm (pTr2) cells. The cells were cultured for 4 days in Arg-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's Ham medium containing 10, 50, 100, 200, 350 or 500 ?M Arg. Cell numbers, protein synthesis and degradation, as well as total and phosphorylated levels of mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4EBP1), were determined. The pTr2 cells exhibited time (0-6 days)- and Arg concentration (10-350 ?M)-dependent increases in proliferation. Addition of 100 and 350 ?M Arg to culture medium dose-dependently increased (a) protein synthesis and decreased protein degradation and (b) the abundance of total and phosphorylated mTOR, p70S6K and 4EBP1 proteins. Effects of 350 ?M Arg on intracellular protein turnover were only modestly affected when nitric oxide synthesis was inhibited. Collectively, these results indicate a novel and important role for Arg in promoting growth of porcine placental cells largely via a nitric-oxide-independent pathway. Additionally, these findings help to explain beneficial effects of Arg supplementation on improving survival and growth of embryos/fetuses in mammals. PMID:22137265

Kong, Xiangfeng; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Gao, Haijun; Li, Xilong; Jaeger, Laurie A; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao



The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine decreases defibrillation-induced free radical generation?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) contributes to free radical generation after epicardial shocks and to determine the effect of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), on free radical generation. Background: Free radicals are generated by direct current shocks for defibrillation. NO reacts with the superoxide (O2•?) radical to form peroxynitrite (O = NOO?), which is toxic and initiates additional free radical generation. The contribution of NO to free radical generation after defibrillation is not fully defined. Methods and results Fourteen open chest dogs were studied. In the initial eight dogs, 40 J damped sinusoidal monophasic epicardial shocks was administered. Using electron paramagnetic resonance, we monitored the coronary sinus concentration of ascorbate free radical (Asc•?), a measure of free radical generation (total oxidative flux). Epicardial shocks were repeated after L-NNA, 5 mg/kg IV. In six additional dogs, immunohistochemical staining was done to identify nitrotyrosine, a marker of reactive nitrogen species-mediated injury, in post-shock myocardial tissue. Three of these dogs received L-NNA pre-shock. After the initial 40 J shock, Asc•? rose 39 ± 2.5% from baseline. After L-NNA infusion, a similar 40 J shock caused Asc•? to increase only 2 ± 3% from baseline (P < 0.05, post-L-NNA shock versus initial shock). Nitrotyrosine staining was more prominent in control animals than dogs receiving L-NNA, suggesting prevention of O = NOO? formation. Conclusions NO contributes to free radical generation and nitrosative injury after epicardial shocks; NOS inhibitors decrease radical generation by inhibiting the production of O = NOO?. PMID:15061157

Clark, Craig B.; Zhang, Yi; Martin, Sean M.; Davies, L. Ray; Xu, Linjing; Kregel, Kevin C.; Miller, Francis J.; Buettner, Garry R.; Kerber, Richard E.



Divergent effects of l-arginine-NO pathway modulators on diazepam and flunitrazepam responses in NOR task performance.  


The goal of the study was an evaluation of the degree, in which nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the benzodiazepines (BZs)-induced recognition memory impairment in rats. The novel object recognition (NOR) test was used to examine recognition memory. The current research focused on the object memory impairing effects of diazepam (DZ; 0.5 and 1mg/kg, sc) and flunitrazepam (FNZ; 0.1 and 0.2mg/kg; sc) in 1-hour delay periods in rats. It was found that acute ip injection of l-arginine (l-arg; 250 and 500mg/kg; ip), 5min before DZ administration (0.5mg/kg, sc) prevented DZ-induced memory deficits. On the other hand, it was also proven that l-arg (125, 250 and 500mg/kg; ip) did not change the behaviour of rats in the NOR test, following a combined administration with FNZ at a threshold dose (0.05mg/kg; sc). It was also found that 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 10, 20 and 40mg/kg; ip) induced amnesic effects in DZ in rats, submitted to the NOR test, following a combined administration of 7-NI with a threshold dose of DZ (0.25mg/kg; sc). However, following a combined administration of 7-NI (10, 20 and 40mg/kg; ip) with FNZ (0.1mg/kg; sc), it was observed that 7-NI inhibited the amnesic effects of FNZ on rats in the NOR test. Those findings led us to hypothesize that NO synthesis suppression may induce amnesic effects of DZ, while preventing FNZ memory impairment in rats, submitted to NOR tasks. PMID:25698597

Orzelska, Jolanta; Talarek, Sylwia; Listos, Joanna; Fidecka, Sylwia



L-arginine conjugates of bile acids-a possible treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a continuum of diseases that include simple steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) ultimately leading to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and end stage liver failure. Currently there is no approved treatment for NASH. It is known that bile acids not only have physiological roles in lipid digestion but also have strong hormonal properties. We have synthesized a novel chenodeoxycholyl-arginine ethyl ester conjugate (CDCArg) for the treatment of NAFLD. Methods Chemical synthesis of CDCArg was performed. Experiments for prevention and treatment of NAFLD were carried out on C57BL/6 J male mice that were treated with high fat diet (HFD, 60% calories from fat). CDCArg or cholic acid bile acids were admixture into the diets. Food consumption, weight gain, liver histology, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, biochemical analysis and blood parameters were assessed at the end of the experiment after 5 weeks of diet (prevention study) or after 14 weeks of diet (treatment study). In the treatment study CDCArg was admixture into the diet at weeks 10–14. Results In comparison to HFD treated mice, mice treated with HFD supplemented with CDCArg, showed reduced liver steatosis, reduced body weight and decreased testicular fat and liver tissue mass. Blood glucose, cholesterol, insulin and leptin levels were also lower in this group. No evidence of toxicity of CDCArg was recorded. In fact, liver injury, as evaluated using plasma hepatic enzyme levels, was low in mice treated with HFD and CDCArg when compared to mice treated with HFD and cholic acid. Conclusion CDCArg supplementation protected the liver against HFD-induced NAFLD without any toxic effects. These results indicate that basic amino acids e.g., L-arginine and bile acids conjugates may be a potential therapy for NAFLD. PMID:24750587



l-Arginine depletion blunts antitumor T-cell responses by inducing myeloid-derived suppressor cells.  


Enzymatic depletion of the nonessential amino acid l-Arginine (l-Arg) in patients with cancer by the administration of a pegylated form of the catabolic enzyme arginase I (peg-Arg I) has shown some promise as a therapeutic approach. However, l-Arg deprivation also suppresses T-cell responses in tumors. In this study, we sought to reconcile these observations by conducting a detailed analysis of the effects of peg-Arg I on normal T cells. Strikingly, we found that peg-Arg I blocked proliferation and cell-cycle progression in normal activated T cells without triggering apoptosis or blunting T-cell activation. These effects were associated with an inhibition of aerobic glycolysis in activated T cells, but not with significant alterations in mitochondrial oxidative respiration, which thereby regulated survival of T cells exposed to peg-Arg I. Further mechanistic investigations showed that the addition of citrulline, a metabolic precursor for l-Arg, rescued the antiproliferative effects of peg-Arg I on T cells in vitro. Moreover, serum levels of citrulline increased after in vivo administration of peg-Arg I. In support of the hypothesis that peg-Arg I acted indirectly to block T-cell responses in vivo, peg-Arg I inhibited T-cell proliferation in mice by inducing accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). MDSC induction by peg-Arg I occurred through the general control nonrepressed-2 eIF2? kinase. Moreover, we found that peg-Arg I enhanced the growth of tumors in mice in a manner that correlated with higher MDSC numbers. Taken together, our results highlight the risks of the l-Arg-depleting therapy for cancer treatment and suggest a need for cotargeting MDSC in such therapeutic settings. PMID:25406192

Fletcher, Matthew; Ramirez, Maria E; Sierra, Rosa A; Raber, Patrick; Thevenot, Paul; Al-Khami, Amir A; Sanchez-Pino, Dulfary; Hernandez, Claudia; Wyczechowska, Dorota D; Ochoa, Augusto C; Rodriguez, Paulo C



NG-nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester Protects Against Hormonal Imbalances Associated with Nicotine Administration in Male Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The administration of nicotine is associated with altered hormonal imbalances and increased serum and testicular nitric oxide (NO) level. Aim: This study sought to investigate the effects of NO inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on altered hormonal imbalance in adult male albinorats. Materials and Methods: Rats were administered with 0.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 1.0 mg/kg BW nicotine and were treated with L-NAME in the drinking water or drinking water alone for 30 days. Serum was analyzed for testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin using radioimmunoassay. Results: Nicotine administration significantly decreased (P < 0.05) testosterone in the low and high dose treated groups and FSH in the high dose treated group when compared with the control group. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in mean LH and prolactin level in the high dose treated group when compared with the control. Concomitant treatment with nicotine and L-NAME produced significant increases in testosterone and FSH, and a decrease in prolactin in 1.0 mg/kg BW. L-NAME alone did not lead to a significant increase in testosterone when compared with control. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that the suppressive effects of nicotine on testosterone level of the adult male rat can be prevented by NOS blockade with L-NAME. It appears that these beneficial effects are mediated primarily within the gonad; however, the involvement of the pituitary cannot be totally ruled out.

Oyeyipo, Ibukun P.; Raji, Y.; Bolarinwa, Adeyombo F.



Nitric-oxide supplementation for treatment of long-term complications in argininosuccinic aciduria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is required for the synthesis and channeling of L-arginine to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for nitric oxide (NO) production. Congenital ASL deficiency causes argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), the second most common urea cycle disorder, and leads to deficiency of both urea...


Long term culture of MDCK strains alters chromosome content  

E-print Network

Long term culture of MDCK strains alters chromosome content Cassio Cassio BMC Research Notes 2013 of MDCK strains alters chromosome content Doris Cassio1,2 Abstract Background: The Madin-Darby Canine to the different MDCK strains, with a directory of where to buy them. The present work focused on chromosome

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Long-term assessment of cryopreserved vein bypass grafting success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: When autogenous vein is unavailable, cryopreserved veins have been used in patients as a means of attempted limb salvage. We evaluated the long-term patency and limb salvage rates for patients undergoing bypass grafting with cryopreserved veins. Methods: Medical records were reviewed for patients undergoing cryovein bypass grafting at two hospitals from 1992 to 1997. Follow-up data were obtained from

Linda Harris; Monica O'Brien-Irr; John J. Ricotta



Phytoavailability of Cadmium in Long-Term Biosolids Amended Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agronomic use of biosolids has raised concern that plant availability of biosolids-Cd will increase with time following cessation of biosolids application. But it was demonstrated that long-term biosolids-amended soils have greater sorptive capacity for Cd than non-biosolids-amended soils. This stud...


Areas of Marital Dissatisfaction among Long-Term Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To better understand relational dissatisfaction and duration of long-term married couples, this study surveyed 30 couples married at least 40 years with the Marital Satisfaction Inventory. Findings suggest various areas of dissatisfaction (e.g., affective communication, conflict over child rearing) and relationship among and link to other areas of…

Duba, Jill D.; Hughey, Aaron W.; Lara, Tracy; Burke, Monica G.



Crystalline Concepts in Long-Term Mathematical Invention and Discovery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces the notion of "crystalline concept" as a focal idea in long-term mathematical thinking, bringing together the geometric development of Van Hiele, process-object encapsulation, and formal axiomatic systems. Each of these is a strand in the framework of "three worlds of mathematics" with its own special characteristics, but all…

Tall, David



The Long-Term Illinois River Fish Population Monitoring Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term ecological monitoring is essential to gain an understanding of the interaction between spatial and temporal patterns and variability. The goals of our study were to test for trends in (1) overall fish catches; (2) native and non-native fish species richness and relative abundance; and (3) the fish species assemblages over time using greater than 50 years offish population data

Michael A. McClelland; Greg G. Sass; Thad R. Cook; Kevin S. Irons; Nerissa N. Michaels; T. Matthew OHara; Cammy S. Smith



Sexual practices and administrative policies in long term care institutions.  


Long an activist in the long term care field, Dulcy Miller again provides us with well grounded advice: "Sexual behavior of the intact aged," Miller states, "presents significant administrative problems. Sexual behavior of the impaired and the resulting sequelae present moral dilemmas worthy of microscopic analysis." PMID:10248082

Miller, D B



Long-term analysis of phenotypically structured models Alexander Lorz  

E-print Network

, selection of fittest trait and lack of dissipation principles. The competitive exclusion principle], that the competitive exclusion principle can be expressed as n(t, x) - t ¯(x - ¯x), (4) and we extend this result here: Phenotypically structured equations; Long-term behaviour; Dirac concentration; Chemo- stat; Competitive Exclusion

Boyer, Edmond


Continental diatoms as indicators of long-term environmental change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is curious that diatoms, whose short lifespans and capacity for rapid regeneration make them especially suitable for short-term paleoenvironmental studies, would also have a significant role as indicators of long-term environmental change. This chapter explores the nature of long diatom records, their relation to global environmental changes, guidelines for their interpretation, and problems common to such records.

Bradbury, J. Platt



Long-Term Potentiation--A Decade of Progress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is the leading experimental model for the synaptic changes that may underlie learning and memory. This review presents a current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this long-lasting increase in synaptic strength and describes a simple model that unifies much of the data that previously were viewed as contradictory.

Robert C. Malenka; Roger A. Nicoll



Case Management Takes Hold in Long-Term Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Empowering Case Management Clients" (Rose); "Case Management in Rural Japan" (Maeda, Takahashi); "Coordinated-Care Teams" (Brodsky, Sobol); "Comparing Practice in the United States and the United Kingdom" (Sturges); "Business of Case Management Flourishing in the U.S." (Cress); and "Community Options Bring Change to Long-Term Care in…

Rose, Stephen M.; And Others



Long Term Treatment Concepts and Proactive Therapy for Atopic Eczema  

PubMed Central

Atopic eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a frequent, highly pruritic, chronic skin disease, which is typically running in flares. The traditional treatment mainly consists of the reactive application of topical anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors. The short term benefit of this approach is well known, but long term remission between flares is difficult to achieve. Therefore, innovative long-term treatment strategies targeting flare prevention and skin barrier stabilization are needed. We and others have shown that normal looking, non-lesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients is immunobiologially not normal but characterized by an invisible inflammation and barrier defect. This has led to the novel concept of proactive therapy, which is defined as long-term, low-dose intermittent application of anti-inflammatory therapy to the previously affected skin, together with an ongoing emollient treatment of unaffected skin. This review article describes the most important long-term treatment options for atopic dermatitis, which includes emollient therapy, the novel concept of proactive treatment, the different ultraviolet light modalities and a selection of systemic immunosuppressive drugs and biologics. Current trial data, licensed indications, off-label use and relevant side effects of the different treatment modalities are summarized. PMID:22879707

Ehmann, Laura Maximiliane



Concept Formation Skills in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated if a period of auditory sensory deprivation followed by degraded auditory input and related language delays affects visual concept formation skills in long-term prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. We also examined if concept formation skills are mediated or moderated by other neurocognitive domains (i.e.,…

Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G.; Beer, Jessica; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Ditmars, Allison; Pisoni, David B.



Using Technology in Reggio-Inspired Long-Term Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes examples of use of technology in the implementation and documentation of long-term projects conducted as a part of the Reggio Emilia preschool curriculum. Considers use of digital camera, videotapes, and video prints; documentation of graphics with the computer scanner; use of computer software as a tool for representing ideas; and use…

Trepanier-Street, Mary L.; Hong, Seong B.; Bauer, Jennifer C.



Long term modification of cerebellar inhibition after inferior olive degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term effects of inferior olive destruction on the activities of the Purkinje cells and their target neurones in the cerebellar nuclei were studied in the rat. Careful observations were also made of motor behaviour throughout the study. Albino rats were injected with 3-acetylpyridine to produce a neurotoxic destruction of the inferior olive and then were used for acute

C. Batini; J. M. Billard; H. Daniel



Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term: Overview August 28, 2007  

E-print Network

Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term: Overview 277 August 28, 2007 SECTION 4, MANAGING ASTHMA LONG is to control asthma by (Evidence A): -- Reducing impairment Prevent chronic and troublesome symptoms (e) Meet patients' and families' expectations of and satisfaction with asthma care -- Reducing risk

Levin, Judith G.


Long-term pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorders.  


Several lines of clinical, genetic, and pharmacological evidence point to an association between bipolar and psychotic disorders. The goals of maintenance and prophylactic treatment of bipolar disorder include the prevention of new episodes and the improvement of social, family, and occupational functioning. This goal can be mainly achieved by using long-term adequate pharmacological treatment that is tolerable to patients. Among mood-stabilizers, the main drugs used for such treatment, the role of atypical antipsychotics has greatly increased in recent years. Lithium still remains the drug that has produced the most convincing evidence of prophylactic action and has undergone the longest periods of observation. There has also been good confirmation for the maintenance efficacy of such anticonvulsant drugs as carbamazepine, valproate, and lamotrigine, the last having the strongest properties for prophylaxis of depressive episodes. The case for the usefulness of second-generation antipsychotic drugs in the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder has been rapidly accumulating. Based on controlled trials, the best evidence for maintenance efficacy exists for olanzapine. The vast majority of patients with bipolar illness experience inadequate response to monotherapy with mood-stabilizing drugs during long-term treatment. Some issues connected with polypharmacy targeting optimal maintenance results are discussed. In addition, the long-term management and the role of antidepressants in treatment of non-bipolar I illness is also briefly described. PMID:17262006

Rybakowski, Janusz



Long term surface albedo datasets generated with Meteosat images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) has recognized the importance and the key-role of the surface albedo in the study of the climate change. This and the other climate variables, called Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), must satisfy the following requirements: (i) a global coverage over long-term periods with adequate spatial and temporal resolution, (ii) reliability and accuracy as well as

Alessio Lattanzio; Y. M. Govaerts; Bertrand Theodore



Understanding the long-term effects of species invasions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the ecological and evolutionary processes that modulate the effects of invasive species over time, and argue that such processes are so widespread and important that ecologists should adopt a long-term perspective on the effects of invasive species. These processes (including evolution, shifts in species composition, accumulation of materials and interactions with abiotic variables) can increase, decrease, or

David L. Strayer; Valerie T. Eviner; Jonathan M. Jeschke; Michael L. Pace



Crop Domestication as a Long-term Selection Experiment  

E-print Network

1 Crop Domestication as a Long-term Selection Experiment Paul Gepts* Department of Agronomy SYNDROME VI. INHERITANCE AND MOLECULAR BASIS OF THE DOMESTICATION SYNDROME VII. GENETIC BOTTLENECKS VIII Domestication (1868) and he became involved in pigeon breeding. The fact that *Research on crop evolution in my

Gepts, Paul


Treatment of corrosive esophageal strictures by long-term stenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1975 through 1992, 932 patients with caustic esophageal burns were admitted to the author's institution. Deep circumferential burns were diagnosed esophagoscopically in 241 children within the first 48 hours postburn. Initial treatment consisted of periodic anterograde and\\/or retrograde dilations of the injured and scarring esophagus (n = 172). In 1989, a long-term stenting technique was introduced, and a total

Oktay Mutaf



Global, long-term surface reflectance records from Landsat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global, long-term monitoring of changes in Earth’s land surface requires quantitative comparisons of satellite images acquired under widely varying atmospheric conditions. Although physically based estimates of surface reflectance (SR) ultimately provide the most accurate representation of Earth’s s...


Experiences of the Long Term Stability at SLS  

SciTech Connect

The long term stability on the scale from days to a year, besides the short term stability, is one of key performance indicators of a light source. The Swiss Light Source (SLS) was installed and commissioned in 2000. It has successfully worked for more than 5 years without re-alignment of the machine. Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) and Horizontal Position System (HPS) have been added at supports of the storage ring (48 girders). They made evidence that the position of SLS Storage Ring (SR) is very stable on the time scale of a day, a week, a month and a year. The evidence for the long term stability is also provided by frequency of the RF cavity. The HLS is a powerful tool. The analysis of the HLS data shows that the vertical displacements, which are adjusted to correct average orbit deviations, of the SLS storage ring foundation and of the girder supports were in the range of 0.15 mm in 2003. The site, the building foundation, the mechanical supports and the temperature control are important pre-conditions to get the good long term stability. The experience gained with the long term stability at SLS is presented.

Wei, F. Q. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH 5234 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)



Translating Science into Long-term Delta Policy  

E-print Network

Translating Science into Long-term Delta Policy Ellen Hanak Public Policy Institute of California CALFED Science Conference, 2008 #12;Some thoughts based on the PPIC- UC Davis Delta reports 2 Comparing Futures for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Engineers: Jay Lund, UC Davis William Fleenor, UC Davis

Pasternack, Gregory B.


Marketing in the long-term care continuum.  


Today, long-term care facilities are composed of independent, assisted living, and skilled nursing facilities along with many variations of those themes in between. The clientele for these various types of facilities differ because of the level of care the facility provides as well as the amenities long-term care consumers are looking for. However, there many similarities and common approaches to how reaching the target audience through effective marketing activities. Knowing who the target audience is, how to reach them, and how to communicate with them will serve any facility well in this competitive market. Developing marketing strategies for long-term care settings is as important as understanding what elements of care can be marketed individually as a niche market. Determining the market base for a facility is equally crucial since the target populations differ among the three types of facilities. By reviewing current marketing articles and applying marketing practices, we have crafted some general principles for which each facility type can learn from. Finally, we will discuss the types of marketing and how they related to the spectrum of long-term care facilities. PMID:20446138

Laurence, J Nathan; Kash, Bita A



Long-Term Adaptation to Institutionalization in Dementia Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Longitudinal research in dementia has acknowledged the importance of transitions during the course of family caregiving. However, long-term adaptation to institutionalization has received little attention. This study attempts to describe caregivers' adaptation (changes in stress, well-being, and psychosocial resources) to placement up to…

Gaugler, Joseph E.; Pot, Anne Margriet; Zarit, Steven H.




Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To report the long term follow-up of a case of Birdshot Chorioretinopathy treated with ste- roids and cyclosporine during three years and fol- lowed for twenty years. Methods: The patient was monitored with Snellen visual acuity, slit lamp examination, perimetry, co- lour vision test, fluorescein angiography, electrore- tinogram (ERG) and electrooculogram (EOG). Results: The retinal alterations progressed despite minimization


Cogeneration of electricity: Cost-effective over long term  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the determination of the cost-effectiveness of a cogeneration project five years after it became operational in 1984. The cogeneration project uses digester sludge gas from a wastewater treatment plant. The topics covered include the history of electrical cogeneration at the site, cogeneration economics in the short term and the long term, and the factors in cost-effectiveness.

Barger, R.L.; Barham, J. (Little Rock Wastewater Utility, AR (United States))



Long-Term Habituation in the Marine Mollusc Tritonia diomedea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tritonia diomedea is one of several gastropod molluscs used to study cellular mechanisms of learning and memory. Previous studies in this organism have focused on short-term habituation and sensitization. This report pre- sents the first detailed description of long-term habituation in Tritonia. Experimental animals were given 11 swim sessions, each consisting of 10 trials, over 6 days, during which they




Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin



Effects of Long-Term Nitrogen Addition on Microbial Enzyme  

E-print Network

Effects of Long-Term Nitrogen Addition on Microbial Enzyme Activity in Eight Forested and Grassland of microbially produced extracellu- lar enzymes involved in decomposition. Specifi- cally, it is hypothesized that adding N to N-limited ecosystems increases activity of cellulose degrading enzymes and decreases

Weiblen, George D


Strategic Asset Allocation: Portfolio Choice for Long-Term Investors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic finance has had a remarkable impact on many financial services. Yet long-term investors have received curiously little guidance from academic financial economists. Mean-variance analysis, developed almost fifty years ago, has provided a basic paradigm for portfolio choice. This approach usefully emphasizes the ability of diversification to reduce risk, but it ignores several critically important factors. Most notably, the analysis

John Y. Campbell; Luis M. Viceira



Performance of CS Fallback for Long Term Evolution Mobile Network  

E-print Network

Performance of CS Fallback for Long Term Evolution Mobile Network Ren-Huang Liou, and Yi-Bing Christian Wietfeld Communication Networks Institute TU Dortmund University Christian Evolution (LTE), both 3G and LTE will co-exist for a period of time. Since the 3G Circuit-Switched (CS

Lin, Jason Yi-Bing


Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

MacFall, Janet



Long-term theranostic hydrogel system for solid tumors.  


The long-term theranostic hydrogel system for solid tumors was prepared via simple physical mixing, which consisted of three major parts: the thermosensitive/biodegradable poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel, PEGylated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, and paclitaxel (PTX). The PEGylated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed extremely low cytotoxicity due to the surface modification using PEG chains. The long-term theranostic hydrogel system showed adequate properties to be used for long-term MR theragnosis. In particular, the theranostic hydrogel gradually degraded over 28 days, and the PTX was sustainedly released out from the theranostic hydrogel over the same period in vitro. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of long-term MR theragnosis using the theranostic hydrogel system was estimated successfully over 3 weeks by using high field (4.7 T) animal MRI and solid tumor-bearing mice. Based on our results, we expect that this system can supply multiple data regarding a) the progress of therapy and b) the treatment processes via one- or two-time i.t. administration for cases in which surgical approaches are difficult to apply. Meanwhile, cancer patients can be free from the pain of multiple surgical treatments and have the advantage of therapy through a simple i.t. administration. PMID:22189146

Kim, Jang Il; Lee, Beom Suk; Chun, Changju; Cho, Jung-Kyo; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Song, Soo-Chang



The Long-Term Outcome of Medical Therapy for BPH  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe lack of cure with medical therapy implies life-long treatment emphasising the need for a thorough understanding of the long-term outcome. We review the natural history, markers for progression, placebo effect, efficacy, pharmacoeconomic aspects, and preventive measures.

Stephan Madersbacher; Martin Marszalek; Jakob Lackner; Peter Berger; Georg Schatzl



Long term agro-ecosystem research: The Southern Plains partnership  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is coordinating ten well-established research sites as a Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network. The goal of the LTAR is to sustain a land-based infrastructure for research, environmental management testing, and education, that enables understan...



EPA Science Inventory

A Joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/Army project is in progress to produce a Long-term (2.5-hr), Self-contained, Chemical Protective Ensemble (LSCPE) with a NIOSH-certified breathing apparatus. The LSCPE provides the wearer with a combination of assets including mo...


RESEARCH ARTICLE Satellite-indicated long-term vegetation changes  

E-print Network

production. This study aimed to explore long-term changes in vegetation greenness and land surface phenology;vegetation dynamics can contribute to grassland biomass estimations, grazing capacity predictions publications using satellite data have recog- nized a more neutral situation, involving both declines

Hutyra, Lucy R.


The Effect of Overlearning on Long-Term Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Once material has been learned to a criterion of one perfect trial, further study within the same session constitutes overlearning. Although overlearning is a popular learning strategy, its effect on long-term retention is unclear. In two experiments presented here, 218 college students learned geography facts (Experiment 1) or word definitions…

Rohrer, Doug; Taylor, Kelli; Pashler, Harold; Wixted, John T.; Cepeda, Nicholas J.



The Basics of Long-Term Debt Issuance and Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issuing long-term debt can be a complex, multifaceted process. Although the process varies by stare, typically the school business official and the district solicitor work with the financing ream, which includes a financial adviser, bond counsel, underwriter, raring agency, and possibly a bond insurance agent, paying agent, and architect.…

Van Meter, Christine M.



Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.



Lake restoration: successes, failures and long-term effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Eutrophication constitutes a serious threat to many European lakes and many approaches have been used during the past 20-30 years to improve lake water quality. Results from the various lake restoration initiatives are diverse and the long-term effects are not well described. 2. In this study we evaluated data from more than 70 restoration projects conducted mainly in




Long-term goals for solar thermal technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies are discussed. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies

T. A. Williams; J. A. Dirks; D. R. Brown



Understanding the long-term effects of species invasions  

E-print Network

Understanding the long-term effects of species invasions David L. Strayer1 , Valerie T. Eviner1 Laboratory of Ecological and Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland 3 Evolutionary Ecology Unit, Department of Biological


Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.  

PubMed Central

This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximately 10% and remained at approximately that level throughout follow-up. The proportion meeting criteria for remission (Hamilton Depression score of 7 or less) rose gradually to approximately 45%. Long-term prognosis (i.e. probability of remission at 6 months and beyond) was strongly related to remission status at 3 months (odds ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.81-4.76) and only modestly related to various clinical characteristics assessed at baseline (e.g. prior history of recurrent depression, medical comorbidity, comorbid anxiety symptoms). The findings indicate that potentially modifiable risk factors influence the long-term prognosis of depression. This suggests that more systematic and effective depression treatment programmes might have an important effect on long-term course and reduce the overall burden of chronic and recurrent depression. PMID:10885162

Simon, G. E.



41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 6-PROCUREMENT PROCEDURES § 51-6.3...




EPA Science Inventory

The Maryland Department of the Environments Freshwater Potomac Long-Term Benthic Monitoring Program provides seasonal information on abundance and composition for the benthic fauna of the freshwater portion of the Potomac River for use in recommendations to State agencies accordi...


Long-Term Effects of Peace Workshops in Protracted Conflicts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study evaluates the efficacy of an intensive four-day contact intervention (a peace workshop) organized in Sri Lanka and represents an initial step toward understanding the long-term impact of such interventions on attitudes and behaviors in the context of protracted ethnic conflict. Compared with two control groups, the participant…

Malhotra, Deepak; Liyanage, Sumanasiri



Going Solar Yields Long-Term Economical, Educational Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Going solar is not an easy decision, but a long-term investment with a potentially substantial up-front cost. While some schools have enough capital in reserve, can raise bond money, or can solicit sufficient donations, many schools rely on creative financial programs to make a solar energy system economically feasible. Thinking about going solar…

von Moos, Brian



Long-Term Mortality after Gastric Bypass Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this retrospective cohort study, we determined the long-term mortality (from 1984 to 2002) among 9949 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery and 9628 severely obese persons who applied for driver's licenses. From these subjects, 7925 surgical patients and 7925 severely obese control subjects were matched for age, sex, and body-mass index. We determined the rates of death from

Ted D. Adams; Richard E. Gress; Sherman C. Smith; R. Chad Halverson; Steven C. Simper; Wayne D. Rosamond; Michael J. LaMonte; Antoinette M. Stroup; Steven C. Hunt



Reflections on the Long Term Effects of Early Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discussed Consortium for Longitudinal Studies findings which demonstrate that, contrary to first impressions from earlier evaluation studies, early intervention preschool programs do have generally positive long term effects. A public information campaign to communicate these findings through all media is advocated. Problems of…

Evans, Ellis D.


Implicit, Long-Term Spatial Contextual Memory Marvin M. Chun  

E-print Network

Implicit, Long-Term Spatial Contextual Memory Marvin M. Chun Vanderbilt University Yuhong Jiang such as visual search through an implicit process called contextual cuing (M. M. Chun & Y. Jiang, 1998 lobe system that includes the hippocampus (M. M. Chun & E. A. Phelps, 1999). Memory research rests

Jiang, Yuhong


Idaho National Laboratory Site Long-Term Stewardship Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.

B. E. Olaveson



Research on the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores recent quantitative and qualitative studies of the long-term effects of child abuse, specifically, how abuse in childhood affects adulthood. Many studies associate various forms of abuse experienced in childhood with a wide range of psychological, behavioral, and relational problems in adulthood. Articles reviewed may inform marriage and…

Elam, George A.; Kleist, David M.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term experiments are commonly used tools in agronomy, soil science, and other disciplines for comparing the effects of different treatment regimes over an extended length of time. Periodic measurements, typically annual, are taken on experimental units and are often analyzed using customary to...


Post-Learning Arousal Change and Long-Term Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects on long-term retention of variations in intensity and of temporal parameters of arousal following a single learning trial in a paired-associate task. The subjects were 56 female university students. Intensity of arousal was manipulated by using two levels of white noise--75 decibels and 90 decibels sound pressure…

Kumar, V.K.; Farley, Frank H.


A Heuristic Model of Long-Term Atomic Clock Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A class of conceptually simple models for the long-term frequency variations of atomic clocks is presented. The basic model simulates the average fractional frequency deviation of a frequency standard as the sum of a normally distributed random variable, E and a random variable, l~ , which represents the spontaneous changes in the mean frequency of an atomic t clock

D. B. Percival




E-print Network

GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial Beyond its objective basis in natural science, understanding, discussion, and res- olution of the policy issue labeled "global warming the global warming problem. In public discussion, natu- ral scientists tend to frame the issue through

Oppenheimer, Michael


Long term investigations of silver cathodes for alkaline fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline fuel cells (AFC) are an interesting alternative to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). In AFC no expensive platinum metal is necessary; silver can be used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) (cathode catalyst). For technical use of AFC the long term behavior of AFC components is important, especially that of the electrodes. The investigated cathodes for AFC consist of

N Wagner; M Schulze; E Gülzow



Long-Term Results of Meniscal Allograft Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between May 1984 and December 1986, 23 patients with a history of medial meniscectomy and anterior knee instability were entered into a long-term prospective study of the results of medial meniscal transplantation combined with reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. In 17 cases a lyophilized meniscal allograft was used and in 6 cases a deep-frozen meniscal allograft was used. The

Carl Joachim Wirth; Gabriela Peters; Klaus A. Milachowski; Karl G. Weismeier; Dieter Kohn



Some shortcomings of long-term working memory.  


Within the framework of their long term working memory theory, Ericsson and Kintsch (1995) propose that experts rapidly store information in long-term memory through two mechanisms: elaboration of long-term memory patterns and schemas and use of retrieval structures. They use chess players' memory as one of their most compelling sources of empirical evidence. In this paper, I show that evidence from chess memory, far from supporting their theory, limits its generality. Evidence from other domains reviewed by Ericsson and Kintsch, such as medical expertise, is not as strong as claimed, and sometimes contradicts the theory outright. I argue that Ericsson and Kintsch's concept of retrieval structure conflates three different types of memory structures that possess quite different properties. One of these types of structures--generic, general purpose retrieval structures--has a narrower use than proposed by Ericsson and Kintsch: it applies only in domains where there is a conscious, deliberate intent by individuals to improve their memory. Other mechanisms, including specific retrieval structures, exist that permit a rapid encoding into long-term memory under other circumstances. PMID:11104178

Gobet, F



Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.



Allowable Long Term Stresses in Aramid Yarns Chris J Burgoyne  

E-print Network

1 Allowable Long Term Stresses in Aramid Yarns Chris J Burgoyne University of Cambridge, UK presents methods that have been used to measure the stress-rupture behaviour of two different aramid fibres such as aramid, carbon and glass have become increasingly popular in many structural applications due

Burgoyne, Chris


On the analysis of long-term experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term experiments are commonly used tools in agronomy, soil science and other disciplines for comparing the effects of different treatment regimes over an extended length of time. Periodic measurements, typically annual, are taken on experimental units and are often analysed by using customary tools and models for repeated measures. These models contain nothing that accounts for the random environmental variations

Thomas M. Loughin; Mollie Poehlman Roediger; George A. Milliken; John P. Schmidt



Outcomes for Adolescent Girls After Long-Term Residential Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residential treatment for troubled adolescents continues to generate controversy. Youth may improve during treatment, but are these gains sustained upon return to the community? We explore this question by analyzing outcome data collected at three months and one year post-discharge for 49 adolescent girls discharged from long-term programs at a residential treatment center in Massachusetts. Qualitative data reveals the range

Susan Thomson; David Hirshberg; Joanne Qiao



Sandostatin LAR in Acromegalic Patients: Long Term Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the long term effects and safety of Sandostatin LAR, a long acting formulation of octreotide, during 18 subsequent injections given every fourth week to 14 octreotide-sensitive acrome- galic patients. The dosages (20, 30, or 40 mg) were adjusted according to GH response, side-effects, or symptom relief and assessed on day 28 after each injection. We found a



Multimethod Behavioral Treatment of Long-Term Selective Mutism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted single-subject, experimental research to examine efficacy of treating severe, long-term selective mutism in nine-year-old male using shaping, multiple reinforcers, natural consequences, stimulus fading, and mild aversives. Implemented different treatment regimens in home and school environments. Home intervention resulted in increase in…

Watson, T. Steuart; Kramer, Jack J.



The long-term correlates of family foster care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine long-term correlates of experiencing family foster care sometime before the age of 19. Subjects for the study were selected from participants in the 1988 National Survey of Families and Households. Three groups were compared: 101 adults experiencing family foster care, 101 adults selected at random, and 101 adults matched to those experiencing

Cheryl Buehler; John G. Orme; James Post; David A. Patterson




Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy has been shown to be less morbid than traditional open radical nephrectomy. The long-term oncological effectiveness of laparoscopic radical ne- phrectomy remains to be established. Materials and Methods: At 3 centers patients undergoing laparoscopic radical nephrectomy before November 1, 1996 with pathologically confirmed renal cell carcinoma were identified. A representative group of patients undergoing open radical




Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and 2006); and…

Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.



Long-Term Effects of First-Grade Multitier Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of 2 first-grade Response to Intervention (RTI) models (Dynamic and Typical RTI) on the reading performance of students in second and third grade. Participants included 419 first-grade students (352 in second grade and 278 in third grade after attrition). Students were classified based…

Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Wagner, Richard K.




Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the influence of health on the growth paths of ten industrialized countries over the course of 100 to 125 years. Changes in health increased their pace of growth by 30 to 40 percent, altering permanently the slope of their growth paths. This finding is robust across five measures of long-term health and it remains largely unchanged when

Suchit Arora



A Guide Through the Maze of Long-term Care  

PubMed Central

Complicated requirements regarding eligibility and coverage as well as variations in the availability of programs confuse even the most diligent physicians trying to advise elderly patients about health care services. Nevertheless, awareness of such government and community resources is critical because physicians play an essential role in assisting the elderly to receive maximum health care benefits, particularly during long-term illness. PMID:6801867

Kane, Robert L.; Kane, Rosalie A.



Long-Term Study Finds Measles Vaccines Safe  


... page, please enable JavaScript. Long-Term Study Finds Measles Vaccines Safe Research included more than a half- ... 7, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Childhood Immunization Immunization Measles WEDNESDAY, Jan. 7, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Two measles- ...


Nutrient budgeting in a long term fertilizer experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a long term field experiment on maize-wheat cropping sequence, the effect of recommended doses of NPK alone and in combination with farmyard manure (FYM) and lime was studied on nutrient budgeting after completing 28 years of cropping cycles. At 100 percent recommendation rate, a total of 6,240 kg N was added through chemical fertilizers to maize and wheat crops

Sarwan Kumar


A crop profitability analysis for long-term crop investments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Crop Profitability Analysis (CPA) computer program is designed to help agricultural producers make long-run cropping decisions. CPA uses previously generated enterprise budgets to establish a base from which producers can analyze the potential profitability of perennial crops with establishment periods, such as orchard, berry, and vineyard crops, or the feasibility of long-term crop rotations. CPA permits up to a

Clark Seavert; Herbert Hinman; Karen Klonsky



Long-Term Sequelae of Pneumococcal Meningitis in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term effects of pneumococcal meningitis in children. From 1967 to 1988, a total of 90 children were admitted to the Hospital for Infectious Diseases, Thessaloniki, Greece, with the diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis. Sixteen patients died in the hospital as a direct result of meningitis. Eleven others were excluded from the study

Andreas Pikis; John Kavaliotis; John Tsikoulas; Panayiotis Andrianopoulos; David Venzon; Sotiris Manios



Globalization, Women's Migration, and the Long-Term-Care Workforce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the aging of the world's population comes the rising need for qualified direct long-term-care (DLTC) workers (i.e., those who provide personal care to frail and disabled older adults). Developed nations are increasingly turning to immigrant women to fill these needs. In this article, we examine the impact of three global trends--population…

Browne, Colette V.; Braun, Kathryn L.



Long term orbital debris environment sensitivity to spacecraft breakup parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term prediction of the orbital debris environment depends fundamentally on the dynamics of spacecraft breakups. These processes provide the numbers, initial velocities, positions, and ballistic coefficients for newly formed debris fragments. Efforts are ongoing to model satellite breakup phenomenon using a variety of models with varying degrees of complexity. This paper provides a comparison of four of the

Al Reinhardt; William Borer; Kenneth Yates



Rights-Based Advocacy in Long-Term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both long-term care (LTC) ombudsmen and nurses are committed to advocacy, but often find themselves at odds due to fundamentally divergent orientation to patient care and advocacy issues within the nursing home setting. This paper compares these advocacy alignments, identifies areas of potential conflict, and provides grounds for cooperation and mutual support. Specifically, we argue that nursing advocacy, despite a

H. Wayne Nelson; Priscilla D. Allen; Donna Cox



Long term nitrogen and phosphorus application to veld  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term effects of a 5N x 3P factorial fertilizer application trial on hay yields, botanical composition and soil properties of veld are presented. Significant increases in hay yields were recorded during most years. There was a strong correlation (r = 0,757) between mean (over all 15 treatment combinations) annual hay yields and annual rainfall.N and N + P

C. H. Donaldson; G. Rootman; D. Grossman



Predictors of Relapse and Long-Term Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on panic disorfer (Bruce et al., 1995) have examined predictors of relapse on a short-term basis. This study investigated predictors of relapse and long-term recovery in panic disorder treated with alprazolam or alprazolam plus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Relapse was defined as return to medication or other treatment after discontinuation. Logistic regression analysis tested five variables derived from




Long-Term Parental Illness and Children: Perils and Promises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses effects of long-term parental illness, focusing on effects on children. Describes effects on family homeostasis and family coping mechanisms. Discusses school counselor's role in bringing about a more balanced viewpoint of power and sharing within the family. Recommends establishing a strong therapeutic bond, assessing what the child is…

Johnston, Mona; And Others



Long-Term Objectives for Government Debt Alan J. Auerbach  

E-print Network

Long-Term Objectives for Government Debt Alan J. Auerbach University of California, Berkeley use national debt and the budget deficit as measures of fiscal position. But what should government paths. #12;1. Introduction Governments use current levels of national debt, typically scaled

Sadoulet, Elisabeth



E-print Network

SCENARIOS TO EVALUATE LONG TERM WILDFIRE RISK IN CALIFORNIA: New wildfire risk in California on a 1/8degree latitude/longitude grid at a monthly time step, using statistical models of wildfire activity and parameterizations of uncertainties related to residential



EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is developing a new computer application called PLUME-SCALER to evaluate long term monitoring well networks using typically available historical site water level data. PLUME-SCALER can be used to determine if there are enough ...


Increasing long term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...


Arkansas Long Term Care Facility Nursing Assistant Training Curriculum. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum is designed for use in developing training programs for nursing assistants who provide nursing or nursing-related services to residents in long-term care (LTC) facilities. Implementation provisions provide a general overview of the basic requirements found in Arkansas' Nursing Assistant Training Program "Rules and Regulations." The…

Arkansas State Dept. of Human Services, Little Rock.


What will long-term care be like in 2040?  


Many innovative long-term care models can now be found in nursing homes, assisted living, and community home care settings. Key forces that will shape the future include the aging of the baby-boomer generation, personal choice, concerns about quality, new technologies, dementia research, payment issues, financial pressures, and workforce needs. PMID:25237871

Sloane, Philip D; Zimmerman, Sheryl; D'Souza, Maria F



Long-term Potentiation Requires Unique Postsynaptic SNARE Fusion Machinery  

E-print Network

Seminar Long-term Potentiation Requires Unique Postsynaptic SNARE Fusion Machinery Debanjan Goswami LTP, but the exact molecular machinery is unclear. This seminar will focus on the results that show features of this particular SNARE- mediated fusion machinery. SNAP-47, a novel Q-SNARE protein in the post

Shyamasundar, R.K.


Long-Term Ecological Research and Network-Level Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With every passing year, the effects of global environmental change are becoming more pervasive and are occurring at a more accelerated pace. Climate change, land use change, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, ocean acidification and sea level rise, loss of biodiversity, and homogenization of Earth's ecosystems are all manifestations of human activities. These short- and long-term effects of environmental changes continue to mount.

Collins, Scott L.; Childers, Daniel L.



Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; medi