Sample records for long-term oral l-arginine

  1. Preservation of amino acids during long term ischemia and subsequent reflow with supplementation of L-arginine, the nitric oxide precursor, in the rat heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Desrois; M. Sciaky; C. Lan; P. J. Cozzone; M. Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Summary.  ?We investigated whether L-arginine, used in heart preservation to limit endothelial damage, may influence the pool of amino\\u000a acids during long term ischemia and reflow. Isolated isovolumic rat hearts (n = 23) were submitted to 8?h of hypothermic ischemia\\u000a after cardioplegic arrest with the Centre de R?sonance Magn?tique Biologique et M?dicale (CRMBM) solution with or without\\u000a L-arginine (Arg and No

  2. Oral administration of L-arginine and captopril in rats prevents chronic renal failure by nitric oxide production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ishmail Ashab; Gary Peer; Miriam Blum; Yoram Wollman; Tamara Chernihovsky; Avi Hassner; Doron Schwartz; Shaltiel Cabili; Donald Silverberg; Adrian Iaina

    1995-01-01

    Oral administration of L-arginine and captopril in rats prevents chronic renal failure by nitric oxide production. The effect of oral supplementation of L-arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide, (1.25 g\\/liter water) and captopril (15 mg\\/liter water) was studied in 5\\/6 nephrectomized rats for a period of three months. N-omega-nitro L-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, was given orally (70 mg\\/liter

  3. The pharmacodynamics of L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Böger, Rainer H

    2014-01-01

    L-Arginine is a precursor for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. NO is a ubiquitous mediator that is formed by a family of enzymes called NO synthases (NOSs). In the brain, NO acts as a neurotransmitter; in the immune system, it acts as a mediator of host defense; and in the cardiovascular system, it mediates the protective effects of the intact endothelium, acting as a vasodilator and endogenous, antiatherogenic molecule. About 5 g of L-arginine are ingested each day in a normal Western diet. Plasma levels of L-arginine are not significantly reduced in most diseases, except in end-stage renal failure during hemodialysis treatment. Nonetheless, intravenous or dietary (oral) administration of relatively large doses of L-arginine has been shown to result in enhanced NO formation in individuals with impaired endothelial function at baseline. In several controlled clinical trials, long-term administration of L-arginine has been shown to improve the symptoms of cardiovascular disease. However, in other trials, L-arginine was not beneficial, and in a recent study, the authors reported higher mortality for participants receiving L-arginine than for those receiving placebo. Recently, it became clear that endogenous levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a competitive inhibitor of L-Arginine metabolism by NOS, may determine an individual's response to L-arginine supplementation. L-Arginine appears to exert no effect in individuals with low ADMA levels, whereas in those with high levels, L-arginine restores the L-arginine/ADMA ratio to normal and, thereby, normalizes endothelial function. In conclusion, the effects of L-arginine supplementation on human physiology appear to be multicausal and dose-related. Doses of 3-8 g/d appear to be safe and not to cause acute pharmacologic effects in humans. PMID:24755570

  4. Effectiveness of Oral L-Arginine in First-Line Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction in a Controlled Crossover Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Klotz; M. J. Mathers; M. Braun; W. Bloch; U. Engelmann; A. Schlichter; J. Schubert; M. Aron; M. Nair; H. Abe; S. Osawa; T. Hamasaki; K. Ikeda; M. Porena; L. Mearini; E. Mearini; M. Marzi; M. A. Rivadeneyra; M. Bonadio; M. Meini; C. Gigli; M. C. Goel; R. Ahlawat; F. Chineguwndo; R. Oliver; M. Kumar; K. Hariu; Y. Kamiyama

    1999-01-01

    Background and Aims: Relaxation of cavernous smooth muscle is a parasympathetic and non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic mediated process which requires nitric oxide (NO). NO is synthesized from L-arginine by NO synthase (NOS). Some studies report good clinical results under oral L-arginine medication in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. We examined the effectiveness and safety of L-arginine in the treatment of mixed-type impotence.

  5. Effects of intrauterine food restriction and long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine on age-related changes in renal function and structure of rats.

    PubMed

    Gil, Frida Zaladek; Lucas, Sandra Regina R; Gomes, Guiomar Nascimento; Cavanal, Maria De Fátima; Coimbra, Terezila Machado

    2005-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that restricting intrauterine food by 50% in 3-mo-old rats produced lower nephron numbers and early-onset hypertension, the latter being normalized by L-arginine administration. In 18-mo-old rats, such restriction increased glomerulosclerosis. In this study, we expanded our investigation, evaluating functional, morphologic, and immunohistochemical parameters in intrauterine-food-restricted 18-mo-old rats, either receiving L-arginine (RA18) or not (R18). Age-matched, non-food-restricted controls were assigned to similar groups with L-arginine (CA18) and without (C18). After weaning, L-arginine was given daily for 17 mo. No functional or morphologic changes were observed in C18 rats. The R18 rats developed early-onset hypertension, which persisted throughout the observation period, as well as significant proteinuria from 12 mo on. In RA18 rats, L-arginine decreased both blood pressure levels and proteinuria, and glomerular diameter was significantly smaller than in R18 rats (115.63 +/- 2.2 versus 134.8 +/- 1.0 mum, p < 0.05). However, in RA18 rats, glomerular filtration rate remained depressed. Although L-arginine prevented glomerulosclerosis (R18 = 14%, RA18 = 4%; p < 0.05), glomerular expression of fibronectin and desmin was still greater in RA18 rats than in controls. Our data show that, although L-arginine prevented hypertension and proteinuria, glomerular injury still occurred, suggesting that intrauterine food restriction may be one of the leading causes of impaired renal function in adult life. PMID:15774822

  6. Oral L-arginine before resistance exercise blunts growth hormone in strength trained males.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Scott C; Harber, Vicki; Bell, Gordon J

    2014-04-01

    Acute resistance exercise and L-arginine have both been shown to independently elevate plasma growth hormone (GH) concentrations; however, their combined effect is controversial. The purpose was to investigate the combined effects of resistance exercise and L-arginine supplementation on plasma L-arginine, GH, GH secretagogues, and IGF-1 in strength trained participants. Fourteen strength trained males (age: 25 ± 4 y; body mass: 81.4 ± 9.0 kg; height: 179.4 ± 6.9 cm; and training experience: 6.3 ± 3.4 y) participated in a randomized double-blind crossover design (separated by ~7 days). Subjects reported to the laboratory at 08:00 in a fasted state, consumed L-arginine (ARG; 0.075 g·kg-1 body mass) or a placebo (PLA) before performing an acute bout of resistance exercise (3 sets of 8 exercises, 10 repetitions at ~75% 1RM). Blood samples were collected at rest, before exercise, and at 0, 15, 30, and 60 min of rest-recovery. The ARG condition significantly increased plasma L-arginine concentrations (~120%) while no change was detected in the PLA condition. There were no differences between conditions for GH, GH-releasing hormone, ghrelin, or IGF-1 at any time point. GH-inhibiting hormone was significantly lower in the ARG condition. However, integrated area under the curve for GH was blunted in the ARG condition (L-arginine = 288.4 ± 368.7 vs. placebo = 487.9± 482.0 min·ng·mL1, p < .05). L-arginine ingested before resistance exercise significantly elevated plasma L-arginine concentration but attenuated plasma GH in strength trained individuals despite a lower GHIH. Furthermore our data shows that the GH suppression was not due to a GH or IGF-1 induced autonegative feedback loop. PMID:24225560

  7. Diabetic nephropathy is resistant to oral L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation.

    PubMed

    You, Hanning; Gao, Ting; Cooper, Timothy K; Morris, Sidney M; Awad, Alaa S

    2014-12-01

    Our recent publication showed that pharmacological blockade of arginases confers kidney protection in diabetic nephropathy via a nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)3-dependent mechanism. Arginase competes with endothelial NOS (eNOS) for the common substrate L-arginine. Lack of L-arginine results in reduced NO production and eNOS uncoupling, which lead to endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we hypothesized that L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation would ameliorate diabetic nephropathy. DBA mice injected with multiple low doses of vehicle or streptozotocin (50 mg/kg ip for 5 days) were provided drinking water with or without L-arginine (1.5%, 6.05 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or L-citrulline (1.66%, 5.73 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 9 wk. Nonsupplemented diabetic mice showed significant increases in albuminuria, blood urea nitrogen, glomerular histopathological changes, kidney macrophage recruitment, kidney TNF-? and fibronectin mRNA expression, kidney arginase activity, kidney arginase-2 protein expression, and urinary oxidative stress along with a significant reduction of nephrin and eNOS protein expression and kidney nitrite + nitrate compared with normal mice after 9 wk of diabetes. Surprisingly, L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation in diabetic mice did not affect any of these parameters despite greatly increasing kidney and plasma arginine levels. These findings demonstrate that chronic L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation does not prevent or reduce renal injury in a model of type 1 diabetes. PMID:25320354

  8. L-Arginine Fails to Prevent Ventricular Remodeling and Heart Failure in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wesley W. Brooks; Chester H. Conrad; Kathleen G. Robinson; Wilson S. Colucci; Oscar H. L. Bing

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundThe effects of long-term oral administration of L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide (NO) production, on left ventricular (LV) remodeling, myocardial function and the prevention of heart failure (HF) was compared to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril in a rat model of hypertensive HF (aged spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)).MethodsSHRs and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were assigned to either

  9. Prospective study of the long term change of the oral flora after radiation therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Al-Nawas; K. A. Grötz

    2006-01-01

    Objectives  The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the long term change in oral pathogens following radiation therapy.Methods  Twenty-two patients with planned radiation therapy (>30 Gy) of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma were included. Before radiation therapy, after 3, 6, and 12 months samples from the deepest periodontal pocket were drawn. Five major periodontal pathogens were studied using DNA probes

  10. L-arginine supplementation and experimental airway hyperreactivity.

    PubMed

    Antosova, M; Strapkova, A

    2013-01-01

    The interest in L-arginine metabolism was triggered primarily by the discovery of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in mammals and its remarkable biological roles. The real role of L-arginine in the airway hyperreactivity (AHR) has not been established yet. Therefore, we studied whether supplementation of L-arginine can influence the experimental AHR evoked by two different triggers - allergen and exogenous irritant (toluene vapours). Male TRIK strain guinea pigs were used in the study. We used two patterns of pretreatment with L-arginine in vivo, short- and long-term, in a dose of 300 mg/kg administered i.p., after which we studied reactivity of airway smooth muscles in vitro. Pretreatment with L-arginine for 3 days decreased the airway smooth muscle reactivity induced by toluene vapour, whereas pretreatment for 17 days was without any additional effect on smooth muscle reactivity. The short-term pretreatment in ovalbumin-induced hyperreactivity caused an increase in airway smooth muscle reactivity to lower concentrations of both bronchoconstrictors. On the other side, this pretreatment significantly decreased smooth muscle reactivity to high concentrations of both bronchoconstrictors. Supplementation of L-arginine resulted in a modification of the airway smooth muscle response. The effect of supplementation was different depending on the AHR trigger, airway region and pretreatment duration. The results also underscore the importance of an optimal L-arginine level for the control of bronchial tone. PMID:22836622

  11. Long-term oral exposure to bisphenol A induces glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Moon, Min Kyong; Jeong, In-Kyong; Jung Oh, Tae; Ahn, Hwa Young; Kim, Hwan Hee; Park, Young Joo; Jang, Hak Chul; Park, Kyong Soo

    2015-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used endocrine disruptor. Recent epidemiologic results have suggested an association between exposure to BPA and cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. We investigated the in vivo effects of long-term oral exposure to BPA on insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In the present study, 4- to 6-week-old male mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with 50??g/kg body weight per day of BPA orally for 12 weeks. Long-term oral exposure to BPA along with an HFD for 12 weeks induced glucose intolerance in growing male mice. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests showed that the mice that received an HFD and BPA exhibited a significantly larger area under the curve than did those that received an HFD only (119.9±16.8 vs 97.9±18.2?mM/min, P=0.027). Body weight, percentage of white adipose tissue, and percentage of body fat did not differ between the two groups of mice. However, treatment with BPA reduced Akt phosphorylation at position Thr308 and GSK3? phosphorylation at position Ser9 in skeletal muscle. BPA tended to decrease serum adiponectin levels and to increase serum interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor ?, although these findings were not statistically significant. Treatment with BPA did not induce any detrimental changes in the islet area or morphology or the insulin content of ? cells. In conclusion, long-term oral exposure to BPA induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in growing mice. Decreased Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle by way of altered serum adipocytokine levels might be one mechanism by which BPA induces glucose intolerance. PMID:25972359

  12. Oral administration of the nitric oxide biosynthesis inhibitor, N-nitro- l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), causes hypertension, but not glucose intolerance or insulin resistance, in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Swislocki; Teresa Eason; George A. Kaysen

    1995-01-01

    While essential hypertension may be characterized by insulin resistance, it is unclear which defect is primary. We therefore compared normotensive Sprague-Dawley male rats who drank N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 1 mg\\/mL in distilled water), with control rats who drank distilled water. Blood pressure was measured noninvasively, weight was controlled by dietary restriction, and glucose tolerance was assessed via oral glucose

  13. Renoprotective effects of long-term oral nicotine in a rat model of spontaneous proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Pramod K; van den Born, Jacob; van Goor, Harry; Navis, Gerjan; Gans, Rijk O B; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2012-04-01

    Many proteinuric renal conditions are accompanied by renal inflammation. Nicotine is known to have anti-inflammatory properties and is used in oral form to help subjects quit smoking. A potential anti-inflammatory role of nicotine in proteinuric renal diseases has not been investigated to date. We therefore evaluated the effects of oral nicotine in a rat model of proteinuria-induced renal inflammation. We used a well-established model of adult (24 wk of age) male Munich-Wistar-Frömter rats. Animals were given three different physiological doses of nicotine in drinking water for 28 wk until 52 wk of age (long term). A group without nicotine served as a parallel control. At 52 wk of age, the control group had a 2.1 times reduction in creatinine clearance, 3.2 times increase in urinary protein excretion, an increased focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) score, increased glomerular desmin deposition, decreased glomerular podocin, and a higher accumulation of macrophages and myofibroblasts compared with 24-wk-old animals. Oral treatment with nicotine dose dependently preserved renal function and halted proteinuria progression, which were independent of blood pressure reduction. It also reduced FGS, desmin deposition, podocin loss, and density of renal macrophages and myofibroblasts. Nicotine also reduced the level of gene expression of the renal inflammatory markers monocyte chemoattractant protein and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. In conclusion, long-term oral nicotine preserved kidney function, reduced proteinuria, reduced renal inflammation, and protected progression of renal structural damage in a rat model of proteinuria. We further suggest evaluating nicotine as a potential additional therapeutic option for treating proteinuric kidney diseases. PMID:22218593

  14. Long-term effects of oral clefts on health care utilization: a sibling comparison.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Morten Saaby; Wehby, George L; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind; Christensen, Kaare

    2015-07-01

    Oral clefts are among the most common birth defects affecting thousands of newborns each year, but little is known about their potential long-term consequences. In this paper, we explore the impact of oral clefts on health care utilization over most of the lifespan. To account for time-invariant unobservable parental characteristics, we compare affected individuals with their own unaffected siblings. The analysis is based on unique data comprising the entire cohort of individuals born with oral clefts in Denmark tracked until adulthood in administrative register data. We find that children with oral clefts use more health services than their unaffected siblings. Additional results show that the effects are driven primarily by congenital malformation-related hospitalizations and intake of anti-infectives. Although the absolute differences in most health care utilization diminish over time, affected individuals have slightly higher utilization of some health care services in adulthood (particularly for diseases of the nervous and respiratory system). These results have important implications for affected individuals, their families, and their health professionals. PMID:24908286

  15. Long-term bone retention of C-14 following oral administration of C-14-xylose

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, L.C.; Siegel, J.; Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    Oral administration of C-14-labeled xylose followed by measurement of C-14 activity in the breath has become a clinically useful test for diagnosis of small bowel bacterial overgrowth. However, accurate biodistribution and radiation dosimetry information was not available in the literature, so the true radiation exposure of the human subjects was not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the actual biodistribution data for orally administered C-14-xylose. A series of rats were given the material orally and sacrificed at various ages, up to 1 month after dosing. Tissues and fluids were solubilized and counted by liquid scintillation counting. Exhaled C-14-carbon dioxide was measured by trapping the gas in ethanolamine. Approximately two-thirds of the administered dose was absorbed from the GI tract and eventually appeared in the breath and urine. Much of the dose was not found in the major organs within the first day; it was presumed to be in the fatty tissue or muscle, which were not sampled. After most of the C-14 had disappeared from the GI and urinary tract, however, the bone retained a significant amount of radioactivity: approximately 5-6% of the administered dose was found in bone at one week, and remained at one month. These findings suggest that radiation exposure to the skeleton is long-term, much greater in magnitude than previously estimated, and suggests that the value of the test should be reevaluated in the light of the long-term radiation burden to the skeleton, especially in young patients.

  16. l-Arginine administration attenuates airway inflammation by altering l-arginine metabolism in an NC/Nga mouse model of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Kubo, Masayuki; Murakami, Ikuo; Setiawan, Heri; Takemoto, Kei; Inoue, Kiyomi; Fujikura, Yoshihisa; Ogino, Keiki

    2015-01-01

    Changes in l-arginine metabolism, including increased arginase levels and decreased nitric oxide production, are involved in the pathophysiology of asthma. In this study, using an intranasal mite-induced NC/Nga mouse model of asthma, we examined whether administration of l-arginine ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation by altering l-arginine metabolism. Experimental asthma was induced in NC/Nga mice via intranasal administration of mite crude extract (50 µg/day) on 5 consecutive days (days 0–4, sensitization) and on day 11 (challenge). Oral administration of l-arginine (250 mg/kg) was performed twice daily on days 5–10 for prevention or on days 11–13 for therapy. On day 14, we evaluated the inflammatory airway response (airway hyperresponsiveness, the number of cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the changes in pathological inflammation of the lung), arginase expression and activity, l-arginine bioavailability, and the concentration of NOx, the end products of nitric oxide. Treatment with l-arginine ameliorated the mite-induced inflammatory airway response. Furthermore, l-arginine administration attenuated the increases in arginase expression and activity and elevated the NOx levels by enhancing l-arginine bioavailability. These findings indicate that l-arginine administration may contribute to the improvement of asthmatic symptoms by altering l-arginine metabolism.

  17. Effect of long-term therapy with oral steroids on respiratory muscle function and ventilatory drive.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, E; Corsico, R; Rampulla, C; Ambrosino, N; Fracchia, C; Crotti, P; Rubini, F; Nava, S

    1993-01-01

    It has been shown that chronic oral steroid therapy (ST) does not induce respiratory muscle dysfunction in normal and asthmatic subjects. As corticosteroids are sometimes chronically used in the treatment of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the aim of our study was to verify whether ST could cause respiratory muscle impairment and, since ST also affects the central nervous system, whether ST could influence the ventilatory pattern. We retrospectively studied 12 COPD patients (group A), on long-term therapy (for at least 4 consecutive months, range 4-18 months) with an oral steroid, deflazacort, 15 mg.d-1. The subjects were strictly matched, with regard to age, sex, height, weight, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), residual volume (RV), arterial oxygen tension (PaCO2), arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and pH, with 12 COPD patients (Group B) who had never taken oral steroids. To assess respiratory muscle strength, we measured maximal inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressures, while mouth occlusion pressure (P0.1) was employed to assess neuromuscular drive; ventilatory pattern and airway impedence were also evaluated. Effectiveness of ST was confirmed by the plasmatic levels of endogenous cortisol. No significant differences were observed between the two groups with regard to MIP (A 72.2 +/- 9.7 vs B: 70 +/- 7.2 cmH2O) and MEP (A 91.6 +/- 10.5 vs B 94.4 +/- 7.6 cmH2O) whilst P0.1 was significantly higher in group A (2.6 +/- 0.3 cmH2O) than in group B (1.8 +/- 0.1 cmH2O). No significant differences were found among all the ventilatory parameters, but the impedence was significantly higher in group A.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8472057

  18. ORAL TOXICITY OF 1,3-DICHLOROPROPANE: ACUTE, SHORT-TERM, AND LONG-TERM STUDIES IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the acute and short- and long-term toxic potency of orally administered 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP). In the acute and short-term studies, male rats of 250-300 g were gavaged with 0, 100, 250, 500, or 1000 mg DCP/kg in corn oil...

  19. Dietary l-Arginine Supplementation Normalizes Platelet Aggregation in Hypercholesterolemic Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Wolf; Christoff Zalpour; Gregor Theilmeier; Bing-yin Wang; Adrian Ma; Barbara Anderson; Philip S Tsao; John P Cooke

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that long-term dietary supplementation with the nitric oxide precursor l-arginine would enhance vascular or platelet-derived nitric oxide activity, or both, and thereby inhibit platelet reactivity in hypercholesterolemic humans.Background. We have shown that reduced vascular activity of nitric oxide in hypercholesterolemic rabbits can be restored by l-arginine supplementation. The improvement in

  20. Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides on renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Yufeng; Liu, Gaoxiang

    2012-02-01

    Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides (JCP) on renovascular hypertension rats (RVHs) was evaluated. The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the RVHs were significantly reduced with administration of JCP (p < 0.05), compared with model control group. However, the arterial blood pressure of normal rats showed no significant changes during long-term oral treatment with high dose JCP (p > 0.05). Furthermore, effect of JCP on angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration of plasma had no significance (p > 0.05), but JCP significantly inhibited the Ang II concentration in RVHs' kidney (p < 0.05). The kidney should be the target site of JCP. PMID:22412809

  1. Long-term safety and efficacy of oral phentolamine mesylate (Vasomax®) in men with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Padma-Nathan; I Goldstein; I Klimberg; C Coogan; S Auerbach; P Lammers

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of phentolamine mesylate, an orally active, rapid-acting alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist, for the treatment of men suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED). It was an open-label study involving more than 2000 patients. Men received phentolamine mesylate 40 mg or 80 mg (10 tablets\\/month) as needed for up to 13 months

  2. Effects of long-term use of antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of oral Epstein-Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Amornthatree, Korntip; Sriplung, Hutcha; Mitarnun, Winyou; Nittayananta, Wipawee

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objectives of this study were to determine i) the prevalence of oral Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in HIV-infected subjects compared to non-HIV controls, and ii) the effects of long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the prevalence of oral EBV. METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed in HIV-infected subjects with and without ART, and non-HIV individuals. DNA in saliva samples was extracted and used as a template to detect EBV BamH1W and EBNA1 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Student t-test and ANOVA test were performed to determine the prevalence rates among groups. RESULTS Forty-nine HIV-infected subjects; 37 on ART (age range 23–54 yr, mean 37 yr), 12 not on ART (age range 20–40 yr, mean 31 yr), and 20 non-HIV controls (age range 19–53 yr, mean 31 yr) were enrolled. The numbers of EBV BamH1W in saliva were found to be significantly higher in HIV-infected subjects than non-HIV controls (80% vs 20%, mean=12,118 vs. 134 copies/105 cells, p<0.001). HIV-infected subjects who were on ART had significantly lower numbers of EBV BamH1W than those who were not (mean= 4,102 vs. 138,613 copies/105 cells, p=0.011). The numbers were significantly lower in those who received long-term ART compared with short-term (mean= 1,401 vs. 11,124 copies/105 cells, p=0.034). No significant difference was observed between the groups when using EBNA1 primers. CONCLUSIONS Prevalence of oral EBV was significantly higher in HIV-infected subjects than non-HIV-controls. The numbers of the virus was significantly decreased by ART. Long-term use of ART did not increase oral EBV. PMID:21981060

  3. Effects of long-term oral magnesium treatment on blood pressure and vascular reacitivity in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumihiko Takahashi; Yuji Ogawa; Takashi Haneda; Kenjiro Kikuchi

    1998-01-01

    Background  This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term oral magnesium treatment on blood pressure and vascular reactivity\\u000a in Dahl salt-sensitive and Dahl salt-resistant rats.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The rats were fed a low-salt (0.3% sodium chloride [NaCl]) or a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet, with or without magnesium in the\\u000a drinking water (aspartic acid magnesium, 15.4 g\\/L), for 4 weeks. Blood pressure,

  4. Effects of Long-Term Oral Administration of Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Immune Functions of Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Juman, Sachiko; Hashimoto, Michio; Katakura, Masanori; Inoue, Takayuki; Tanabe, Yoko; Arita, Makoto; Miki, Tomohiro; Shido, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have many functional activities, including cytotoxicity and the capacity to produce cytokines and chemokines. NK cell activity is regulated partly by eicosanoids, which are produced from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term therapy with ARA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the cytotoxic effects of the NK cells of young rats, which were fed on a nonfish oil diet for two generations. Control oil, ARA (240 mg/kg BW/day) or DHA (240 mg/kg BW/day) were orally administrated to the rats for 13 weeks before determining the cytotoxic activity of NK cells from the spleen against YAC-1 mouse lymphoma cell line, as well as the plasma levels of docosanoids or eicosanoids and inflammatory cytokines. Long-term ARA administration significantly suppressed the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Moreover, ARA administration significantly increased the plasma levels of ARA, prostaglandin (PG) E2, and PGD2. However, DHA administration did not produce any different effects compared with those in the control rats. Furthermore, the inflammatory cytokine levels were not affected by the administration of ARA or DHA. These results suggest that long-term ARA administration has an inhibitory effect on the tumor cytotoxicity of NK cells in rat spleen lymphocytes owing to the enhanced synthesis of PGE2 and PGD2 from ARA because of the elevated plasma ARA levels in young rats. PMID:23760060

  5. The endocrine effects of long-term oral opioid therapy: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jennifer A; Horton, Erica; Fibuch, Eugene E

    2011-01-01

    The negative effects of long-term opioid administration on the body's endocrine system have been known for decades. These effects have been observed and studied with the use of intrathecal opioids and in heroin addicts. However, they have also been noted to occur with the use of oral opioids, especially in those patients who require chronic opioids for the management of nonmalignant and cancer-associated pain. Epidemiologic data in recent years suggest that up to five million men with chronic nonmalignant pain suffer from opioid-induced androgen deficiency (OPIAD) in the United States. Therefore, it is important to understand the physiologic impact of chronic opioid administration in patients. In view of the increasing use of opioids for chronic pain, we must anticipate the potential occurrence of hypogonadism during chronic opioid therapy and monitor patients accordingly. If symptoms of endocrine dysfunction are recognized during chronic opioid therapy, appropriate evaluation, treatment, and follow-up should be instituted. This article describes a case report of a patient who suffered from a clinically significant testosterone deficiency and osteoporosis related to the use of long-term oral opioids for chronic nonmalignant pain. It also includes a review of the existing literature regarding OPIAD and provides recommendations regarding the evaluation and management of OPIAD. PMID:21561038

  6. L-Arginine and Nitric Oxide in CNS Function and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayur Virarkar; Lini Alappat; Peter G. Bradford; Atif B. Awad

    2012-01-01

    One of the main functions of L-arginine (ARG) is the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). NO is an important regulator of physiological processes in the central nervous system (CNS). NO promotes optimal cerebral blood flow, consolidates memory processes, facilitates long term potentiation, maintains sleep-wake cycles, and assists in normal olfaction. However, at pathological levels, NO adversely affects brain function producing

  7. Resveratrol Based Oral Nutritional Supplement Produces Long-Term Beneficial Effects on Structure and Visual Function in Human Patients

    PubMed Central

    Richer, Stuart; Patel, Shana; Sockanathan, Shivani; Ulanski, Lawrence J.; Miller, Luke; Podella, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Longevinex® (L/RV) is a low dose hormetic over-the-counter (OTC) oral resveratrol (RV) based matrix of red wine solids, vitamin D3 and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) with established bioavailability, safety, and short-term efficacy against the earliest signs of human atherosclerosis, murine cardiac reperfusion injury, clinical retinal neovascularization, and stem cell survival. We previously reported our short-term findings for dry and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. Today we report long term (two to three year) clinical efficacy. Methods: We treated three patients including a patient with an AMD treatment resistant variant (polypoidal retinal vasculature disease). We evaluated two clinical measures of ocular structure (fundus autofluorescent imaging and spectral domain optical coherence extended depth choroidal imaging) and qualitatively appraised changes in macular pigment volume. We further evaluated three clinical measures of visual function (Snellen visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and glare recovery to a cone photo-stress stimulus). Results: We observed broad bilateral improvements in ocular structure and function over a long time period, opposite to what might be expected due to aging and the natural progression of the patient’s pathophysiology. No side effects were observed. Conclusions: These three cases demonstrate that application of epigenetics has long-term efficacy against AMD retinal disease, when the retinal specialist has exhausted other therapeutic modalities. PMID:25329968

  8. Long-Term High-dose Oral Morphine in Phantom Limb Pain with No Addiction Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Garg, Rakesh; Bharati, Sachidanand Jee; Gupta, Nishkarsh; Bhatanagar, Sushma; Mishra, Seema; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic phantom limb pain (PLP) is a type of neuropathic pain, which is located in the missing/amputated limb. Phantom pain is difficult to treat as the exact basis of pain mechanism is still unknown. Various methods of treatment for PLP have been described, including pharmacological (NSAIDs, opioids, antiepileptic, antidepressants) and non-pharmacological (TENS, sympathectomy, deep brain stimulation and motor cortex stimulation). Opioids are used for the treatment of neuropathic pain and dose of opioid is determined based on its effect and thus there is no defined ceiling dose for opioids. We report a case where a patient receiving high-dose oral morphine for chronic cancer pain did not demonstrate signs of addiction. PMID:25709194

  9. Modulation of the L-arginine/nitric oxide signalling pathway in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Amanda W; Steinert, Joern R; Mann, Giovanni E

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from L-arginine, and in endothelial cells influx of L-arginine is mediated predominantly via Na+-independent cationic amino acid transporters. Constitutive, Ca2+-calmodulin-sensitive eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) metabolizes L-arginine to NO and L-citrulline. eNOS is present in membrane caveolae and the cytosol and requires tetrahydrobiopterin, NADPH, FAD and FMN as additional cofactors for its activity. Supply of L-arginine for NO synthesis appears to be derived from a membrane-associated compartment distinct from the bulk intracellular amino acid pool, e.g. near invaginations of the plasma membrane referred to as 'lipid rafts' or caveolae. Co-localization of eNOS and the cationic amino acid transport system y+ in caveolae in part explains the 'arginine paradox', related to the phenomenon that in certain disease states eNOS requires an extracellular supply of L-arginine despite having sufficient intracellular L-arginine concentrations. Vasoactive agonists normally elevate [Ca2+]i (intracellular calcium concentration) in endothelial cells, thus stimulating NO production, whereas fluid shear stress, 17beta-oestradiol and insulin cause phosphorylation of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt/protein kinase B in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent manner and activation of eNOS at basal [Ca2+]i levels. Adenosine causes an acute activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase and NO release, with membrane hyperpolarization leading to increased system y+ activity in fetal endothelial cells. In addition to acute stimulatory actions of D-glucose and insulin on L-arginine transport and NO synthesis, gestational diabetes, intrauterine growth retardation and pre-eclampsia induce phenotypic changes in the fetal vasculature, resulting in alterations in the L-arginine/NO signalling pathway and regulation of [Ca2+]i. These alterations may have significant implications for long-term programming of the fetal cardiovascular system. PMID:15777019

  10. Effectiveness of oral iron to manage anemia in long-term hemodialysis patients with the use of ultrapure dialysate.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Akiyasu; Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Paudyal, Pramila; Ishii, Yoshitaka; Hiromura, Keiju; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Komai, Minoru

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oral iron to manage anemia in long-term hemodialysis (HD) patients using ultrapure dialysate. This study was prospectively conducted on 23 patients (11 males and 12 females; median age 60 years, range 35-81) who underwent HD in our hospital from March to September 2007. The patients were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. The first group of 11 patients received ferrous fumarate 305 mg per oral tablet once a day, while the second group of 12 patients received infusions of 50 mg iron in a 0.9% sodium chloride solution. At the end of the 6-month treatment, patients receiving oral iron and intravenous iron had a significant increase in transferrin saturation from baseline (20.1±8.9 to 29.7±7.2; p=0.011 and 17.4±6.1 to 33.7±8.6; p=0.0001, respectively) and ferritin (32.6±15.4 to 115.4±28.2; p=0.0001 and 57.8±26.7 to 183.5±47.5; p=0.0002, respectively). In both groups, hemoglobin, hematocrit and dry weight were increased, but did not reach statistical significance. Moreover, both groups showed a significant reduction in the mean weekly erythropoietin dose from baseline (5,590.9±1,513.6 to 3,727.3±1,618.1; p=0.011 and 6,775.8±2,292.2 to 4,375.0±2,473.7; p=0.027, respectively). Oral iron is indeed as effective as intravenous iron in managing anemia in HD patients using ultrapure dialysate. PMID:22993601

  11. Effectiveness of oral iron to manage anemia in long-term hemodialysis patients with the use of ultrapure dialysate

    PubMed Central

    TSUCHIDA, AKIYASU; PAUDYAL, BISHNUHARI; PAUDYAL, PRAMILA; ISHII, YOSHITAKA; HIROMURA, KEIJU; NOJIMA, YOSHIHISA; KOMAI, MINORU

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oral iron to manage anemia in long-term hemodialysis (HD) patients using ultrapure dialysate. This study was prospectively conducted on 23 patients (11 males and 12 females; median age 60 years, range 35–81) who underwent HD in our hospital from March to September 2007. The patients were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. The first group of 11 patients received ferrous fumarate 305 mg per oral tablet once a day, while the second group of 12 patients received infusions of 50 mg iron in a 0.9% sodium chloride solution. At the end of the 6-month treatment, patients receiving oral iron and intravenous iron had a significant increase in transferrin saturation from baseline (20.1±8.9 to 29.7±7.2; p=0.011 and 17.4±6.1 to 33.7±8.6; p=0.0001, respectively) and ferritin (32.6±15.4 to 115.4±28.2; p=0.0001 and 57.8±26.7 to 183.5±47.5; p=0.0002, respectively). In both groups, hemoglobin, hematocrit and dry weight were increased, but did not reach statistical significance. Moreover, both groups showed a significant reduction in the mean weekly erythropoietin dose from baseline (5,590.9±1,513.6 to 3,727.3±1,618.1; p=0.011 and 6,775.8±2,292.2 to 4,375.0±2,473.7; p=0.027, respectively). Oral iron is indeed as effective as intravenous iron in managing anemia in HD patients using ultrapure dialysate. PMID:22993601

  12. Population pharmacokinetic model of THC integrates oral, intravenous, and pulmonary dosing and characterizes short- and long-term pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Jules A A C; Guan, Zheng; Oyetayo, Olubukayo-Opeyemi; Klumpers, Linda; Morrison, Paul D; Beumer, Tim L; van Gerven, Joop M A; Cohen, Adam F; Freijer, Jan

    2015-02-01

    ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannobinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound of Cannabis, is known to have a long terminal half-life. However, this characteristic is often ignored in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of THC, which may affect the accuracy of predictions in different pharmacologic areas. For therapeutic use for example, it is important to accurately describe the terminal phase of THC to describe accumulation of the drug. In early clinical research, the THC challenge test can be optimized through more accurate predictions of the dosing sequence and the wash-out between occasions in a crossover setting, which is mainly determined by the terminal half-life of the compound. The purpose of this study is to better quantify the long-term pharmacokinetics of THC. A population-based PK model for THC was developed describing the profile up to 48 h after an oral, intravenous, and pulmonary dose of THC in humans. In contrast to earlier models, the current model integrates all three major administration routes and covers the long terminal phase of THC. Results show that THC has a fast initial and intermediate half-life, while the apparent terminal half-life is long (21.5 h), with a clearance of 38.8 L/h. Because the current model characterizes the long-term pharmacokinetics, it can be used to assess the accumulation of THC in a multiple-dose setting and to forecast concentration profiles of the drug under many different dosing regimens or administration routes. Additionally, this model could provide helpful insights into the THC challenge test used for the development of (novel) compounds targeting the cannabinoid system for different therapeutic applications and could improve decision making in future clinical trials. PMID:25316574

  13. L-arginine independent macrophage tumor cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Klostergaard, J.; Leroux, M.E. (Univ. of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA))

    1989-12-29

    We have investigated the role of L-arginine in macrophage tumor cytotoxicity in coculture. L929, EMT-6, MCA-26, and P815 targets were all susceptible to cytolysis by activated macrophages when cocultured in medium containing L-arginine. When cocultured in arginine-free medium, these targets displayed comparable or even higher levels of lysis. L1210 targets were lytically resistant under either condition. However, 59Fe release from this target did reflect strong dependence on the presence of arginine. The structural analogue, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, was an effective inhibitor of iron-release from L1210 targets cocultured with activated macrophages, whereas it had minimal inhibitory effects on release of 51Cr from cocultured L929 cells. These results suggest that the L-arginine requiring cytotoxic pathway of activated macrophage is independent of major effector mechanisms involved in tumor cell lysis.

  14. Point-of-Care International Normalized Ratio (INR) Monitoring Devices for Patients on Long-term Oral Anticoagulation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Subject of the Evidence-Based Analysis The purpose of this evidence based analysis report is to examine the safety and effectiveness of point-of-care (POC) international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring devices for patients on long-term oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Long-term OAT is typically required by patients with mechanical heart valves, chronic atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or peripheral arterial occlusion. It is estimated that approximately 1% of the population receives anticoagulation treatment and, by applying this value to Ontario, there are an estimated 132,000 patients on OAT in the province, a figure that is expected to increase with the aging population. Patients on OAT are regularly monitored and their medications adjusted to ensure that their INR scores remain in the therapeutic range. This can be challenging due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin and variation in individual responses. Optimal INR scores depend on the underlying indication for treatment and patient level characteristics, but for most patients the therapeutic range is an INR score of between 2.0 and 3.0. The current standard of care in Ontario for patients on long-term OAT is laboratory-based INR determination with management carried out by primary care physicians or anticoagulation clinics (ACCs). Patients also regularly visit a hospital or community-based facility to provide a venous blood samples (venipuncture) that are then sent to a laboratory for INR analysis. Experts, however, have commented that there may be under-utilization of OAT due to patient factors, physician factors, or regional practice variations and that sub-optimal patient management may also occur. There is currently no population-based Ontario data to permit the assessment of patient care, but recent systematic reviews have estimated that less that 50% of patients receive OAT on a routine basis and that patients are in the therapeutic range only 64% of the time. Overview of POC INR Devices POC INR devices offer an alternative to laboratory-based testing and venipuncture, enabling INR determination from a fingerstick sample of whole blood. Independent evaluations have shown POC devices to have an acceptable level of precision. They permit INR results to be determined immediately, allowing for more rapid medication adjustments. POC devices can be used in a variety of settings including physician offices, ACCs, long-term care facilities, pharmacies, or by the patients themselves through self-testing (PST) or self-management (PSM) techniques. With PST, patients measure their INR values and then contact their physician for instructions on dose adjustment, whereas with PSM, patients adjust the medication themselves based on pre-set algorithms. These models are not suitable for all patients and require the identification and education of suitable candidates. Potential advantages of POC devices include improved convenience to patients, better treatment compliance and satisfaction, more frequent monitoring and fewer thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications. Potential disadvantages of the device include the tendency to underestimate high INR values and overestimate low INR values, low thromboplastin sensitivity, inability to calculate a mean normal PT, and errors in INR determination in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies with certain instruments. Although treatment satisfaction and quality of life (QoL) may improve with POC INR monitoring, some patients may experience increased anxiety or preoccupation with their disease with these strategies. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions 1. Effectiveness Does POC INR monitoring improve clinical outcomes in various settings compared to standard laboratory-based testing? Does POC INR monitoring impact patient satisfaction, QoL, compliance, acceptability, convenience compared to standard laboratory-based INR determination? Settings include primary care settings with use of POC INR dev

  15. Long-Term Treatment With Oral Sildenafil Is Safe and Improves Functional Capacity and Hemodynamics in Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelos D. Michelakis; Wayne Tymchak; Michelle Noga; Linda Webster; Xi-Chen Wu; Dale Lien; Shao-Hua Wang; Dennis Modry; Stephen L. Archer

    2010-01-01

    Background—The prognosis and functional capacity of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is poor, and there is a need for safe, effective, inexpensive oral treatments. A single dose of sildenafil, an oral phosphodiesterase type-5 (PD-5) inhibitor, is an effective and selective pulmonary vasodilator in PAH. However, the long-term effects of PD-5 inhibition and its mechanism of action in human pulmonary

  16. [Surgery and invasive procedures in patients on long-term treatment with oral direct thrombin or factor Xa inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Sié, P; Samama, C-M; Godier, A; Rosencher, N; Steib, A; Llau, J-V; van der Linden, P; Pernod, G; Lecompte, T; Gouin-Thibault, I; Albaladejo, P

    2011-09-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAs), inhibitors of factor IIa or Xa, are expected to replace vitamin K antagonists in most of their indications. It is likely that patients on long-term treatment with DOAs will be exposed to elective or emergency surgery or invasive procedures. Due to the present lack of experience in such conditions, we cannot make recommendations, but only propose perioperative management for optimal safety as regards the risk of bleeding and thrombosis. DOAs may increase surgical bleeding, they have no validated antagonists, they cannot be monitored by simple, standardised laboratory assays, and their pharmacokinetics vary significantly from patient to patient. Although DOAs differ in many respects, the proposals in the perioperative setting need not be specific to each. For procedures with low risk of haemorrhage, a therapeutic window of 48 h (last administration 24h before surgery, restart 24h after) is proposed. For procedures with medium or high haemorrhagic risk, we suggest stopping DOAs 5 days before surgery to ensure complete elimination of the drug in all patients. The treatment should be resumed only when the risk of bleeding has been controlled. In patients with a high risk of thrombosis (e.g. those in atrial fibrillation with an antecedent of stroke), bridging with heparin (low molecular weight, or unfractionated if the former is contraindicated) is proposed. In emergency, the procedure should be postponed for as long as possible (minimum 1-2 half-lives) and non-specific anti-haemorrhagic agents, such as recombinant human activated factor VIIa, or prothrombin concentrates, should not be given for prophylactic reversal, due to their uncertain benefit-risk. PMID:21820844

  17. Patients’ perspectives regarding long-term warfarin therapy and the potential transition to new oral anticoagulant therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gebler-Hughes, Elizabeth S.; Kemp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine patients’ perspectives regarding long-term vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy and the potential transition to new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) such as dabigatran and rivaroxaban, and to determine if factors such as residential location affect these opinions. Design, setting and participants: Patients on VKA therapy for at least 12 weeks completed a questionnaire specifically designed for the study. They were recruited while attending point-of-care international normalized ratio (INR) testing at six South Australian general practice clinics during the period July–September 2013. Main outcome measures: Opinions of current VKA therapy, level of awareness of NOACs, and ratings of potential benefits and deterrents of transition to NOACs were sought. Results: Data from 290 participants were available for analysis (response rate 95.4%). The majority of the sample (79.5%, 229/288) were either satisfied or very satisfied with current VKA therapy. The mean score for the potential benefits of transition to NOACs was 7.6 (±4.2) out of a possible 20, which was significantly lower than the mean score 10.9 (±4.5) for the perceived deterrents to transition (p < 0.001). Rural patients (82.0%, 82/100) were significantly more likely (p = 0.001) to have not heard of NOACs than metropolitan patients (50.3%, 95/189) and also perceived significant less benefits in a transition to NOACs (p = 0.001). Conclusion: When considering potential transition from VKAs to NOACs it is important for prescribers to consider that some patients, in particular those from a rural location, may not perceive a significant benefit in transitioning or may have particular concerns in this area. PMID:25436104

  18. Crystal structure and characterization of L-arginine chlorate and L-arginine bromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, A. M.; Karapetyan, H. A.; Sukiasyan, R. P.; Aghajanyan, A. E.; Morgunov, V. G.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Bush, A. A.

    2005-10-01

    The salts L-arginine.HClO 3 and L-arginine.HBrO 3, were synthesized. The crystals obtained were characterized by IR and NQR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, Nd:YAG laser radiation second harmonic generation , dielectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric measurements and their crystal structures were determined. L-arginine.HClO 3 and L-arginine.HBrO 3 are crystallized in orthorhombic (space group P2 12 12 1) and triclinic (space group P1) systems, respectively. Their structures consist of the protonated arginine cation [ +(H 2N) 2CNH(CH 2) 3CH(NH 3+)COO -] and respective ClO 3- or BrO 3- anions. Hydrogen bonds (stronger in the bromate) connect anions with cations and the latter with each other. However, these salts have essential distinctions in crystal packing.

  19. Beneficial effects of L -arginine supplementation in experimental hyperlipemia-hyperglycemia in the hamster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doina Popov; Gabriela Costache; Adriana Georgescu; Mirela Enache

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether administration of L-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, was able to ameliorate the endothelial dysfunction and the morphological changes induced by the combined insult of hyperlipemia and hyperglycemia. To this purpose, golden Syrian hamsters were rendered simultaneously hyperlipemic and diabetic (HD group) for 24 weeks, and then orally treated with

  20. Effects of long-term postoperative oral contraceptive use for the prevention of endometrioma recurrence on bone mineral density in young women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Oh, Yoon-Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2014-10-01

    Concerns for negative effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) on bone mineral density (BMD) in long-term users have been raised, since OCs suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. However, there have been still limited data regarding the effects of long-term OC use on BMD in young women in the twenties. We investigated the effects of long-term OC use for the prevention of endometrioma recurrence on BMD in young women. Ninety-two women aged 20-30 years who underwent conservative surgery for endometrioma and used postoperative OC for at least 12 months to prevent the recurrence were included for this cross-sectional study, and BMDs after OC use were analyzed. The mean age at starting OC and duration of OC use was 25.6?±?2.9 years and 40.7?±?28.5 months, respectively. No correlation was found between BMDs and age at starting OC at all sites. In addition, BMDs were also not correlated with the duration of OC use, and were comparable according to the dose of OC (20 versus 30??g). In conclusion, long-term use of OCs has no adverse effect on BMD in post-adolescent young women. PMID:24927075

  1. Inhibition by memantine of the development of persistent oral dyskinesias induced by long-term haloperidol treatment of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Andreassen, O. A.; Aamo, T. O.; Jøorgensen, H. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious side-effect of long-term treatment with neuroleptics. To investigate if neuroleptic-induced excessive stimulation of striatal glutamate receptors may underlie TD development, the effect of the NMDA antagonist, memantine (1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane), was studied in a rat model of TD. 2. In an acute experiment, six groups of rats were treated daily for 1 week with either vehicle or memantine 20 or 40 mg kg-1 day-1, and on the seventh day they received one injection of either haloperidol 1.0 mg kg-1 i.p. or saline i.p. In a subsequent long-term experiment lasting 20 weeks, the same treatment was continued, except that haloperidol was injected i.m. as decanoate (38 mg kg-1 every 4 weeks) and control rats received sesame oil. The behaviour was videotaped and scored at intervals during both experiments, and for 16 weeks after cessation of the long-term treatment. 3. In the acute experiment, haloperidol decreased motor activity and memantine increased moving and tended to attenuate the immobility induced by haloperidol. Memantine also enhanced the haloperidol-induced increase in the putative TD-analogue vacuous chewing movements (VCM). 4. In the long-term experiment, the most marked effect of haloperidol was a gradual increase in VCM and the increase persisted significantly for 12 weeks after cessation of treatment. Memantine dose-dependently increased VCM and moving during long-term treatment. However, only one week after stopping treatment, both these effects of memantine disappeared. In contrast to rats previously treated with haloperidol alone, rats co-treated with memantine (both doses) and haloperidol had VCM at the level of controls two weeks after stopping treatment. The blood levels of drugs were within the therapeutic range achieved in human subjects. 5. These results suggest that long-lasting changes induced by haloperidol are prevented by memantine, which supports the theory that excessive NMDA receptor stimulation may be a mechanism underlying the development of persistent VCM in rats and maybe also TD in human subjects. PMID:8904651

  2. Effects of long-term administration of cancer-promoting substances on oral subepithelial mast cells in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sand, L; Hilliges, M; Larsson, P A; Wallstrom, M; Hirsch, J M

    2002-01-01

    The role of oral subepithelial mast cells in the defence against tumours is a matter of controversy. The effect of established and suggested carcinogens, such as the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO) and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), in combination with oral snuff on lower lip subepithelial mast cells (MC) was studied in rats. The rats were exposed to prolonged use of oral snuff. The test substances were administered in a surgically created canal in the lower lip of the rats. There were 15 rats in each test group and 10 rats in the control group. The amount of countable subepithelial mast cells decreased significantly when the rat oral mucosa was exposed to the oral carcinogen 4-NQO but the effect of oral snuff and HSV-1 infection was weak. Our findings suggest that mast cells play a role in immunological cell defence against chemical carcinogens. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms. PMID:12529973

  3. Long-term fluctuations of pressure pain thresholds in healthy men, normally menstruating women and oral contraceptive users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Isselée; Antoon De Laat; Kris Bogaerts; Roeland Lysens

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether the pressure pain threshold (PPT) in masticatory muscles of symptom-free subjects was influenced by fluctuations of the sex hormones. The PPT was measured with an electronic algometer for at least 10 consecutive menstrual cycles in 10 women using oral contraceptives and 10 women not using oral contraceptives, with a regular menstrual

  4. Long-term persistence of oral human papillomavirus type 16: the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study.

    PubMed

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Kreimer, Aimée R; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; O'Keefe, Michael T; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-03-01

    Persistent infection with oral HPV16 is believed to drive the development of most oropharyngeal cancers. However, patterns of oral HPV16 persistence remain understudied, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. Oral HPV16 persistence was evaluated among 1,626 participants of the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Twenty-three oral HPV16-positive men who provided an oral gargle sample on ?2 study visits were included in the analysis. Archived oral samples from all follow-up visits were tested for HPV16 using Linear Array and INNO-LiPA detection methods. Persistence was evaluated using consecutive HPV16-positive visits held approximately 6 months apart and using the Kaplan-Meier method. Oral HPV16-positive men were aged 18 to 64 years [median, 36 years; interquartile range (IQR), 25-42] and were followed for a median of 44.4 months (IQR, 29.9-49.5). Of 13 incident infections, 4 (30.8%) persisted ?12 months, 1 (10.0%) persisted ?24 months, and none persisted ?36 months [median infection duration, 7.3 months; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.4-NA)]. Of 10 prevalent infections, 9 (90.0%) persisted ?12 months, 8 (80.0%) persisted ?24 months, 4 (57.1%) persisted ?36 months, and 2 (40.0%) persisted ?48 months (median infection duration, NA). Twelve-month persistence of incident infections increased significantly with age (Ptrend = 0.028). Prevalent oral HPV16 infections in men persisted longer than newly acquired infections, and persistence appeared to increase with age. These findings may explain the high prevalence of oral HPV observed at older ages. Understanding oral HPV16 persistence will aid in the identification of men at high-risk of developing HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:25575501

  5. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, long-term efficacy and safety of oral 1-deamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin in adult patients with central diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    LAM, K. S. L.; WAT, M. S.; CHOI, K. L.; IP, T. P.; PANG, R. W. C.; KUMANA, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    1The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intranasal (IN) and oral 1-deamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) were compared in 10 Chinese adults with central diabetes insipidus previously controlled on IN DDAVP. This was followed by comparison of the acute pharmacodynamics of commonly used oral preparations (containing 100, 200 and 400??g per tablet) and a 1 year prospective evaluation of the long-term safety and efficacy of oral DDAVP. 2Following 20??g IN and 200??g orally, respective plasma DDAVP concentrations peaked after 45.6±7.3 and 93.3±3.3 (mean±s.e.mean) min, reaching 24.1±4.7 and 15.1±3.2?pmol l?1 and respective terminal half-lives were 2.2±0.1 and 2.0±0.1?h. Based on the area under the concentration-time-curve, the bioequivalent IN/oral ratio was 1:16. 3As judged by changes in urine flow rate and osmolality after IN or oral (100, 200 or 400??g) DDAVP, antidiuretic activity increased rapidly during the second hour and peaked at 4 h. The antidiuresis duration and magnitude correlated with the oral dose (P<0.001 and <0.05 respectively), and was least following 100??g (P<0.01 vs 200 or 400??g). Increasing the dose from 200 to 400??g did not increase maximal antidiuretic activity significantly, but there was a trend towards a longer duration of action (P=0.076). 4During the 1-year prospective study with oral DDAVP 300–600??g per day in two to three doses, stable and satisfactory antidiuresis (comparable with that on previous IN therapy) was maintained; tablets were well-tolerated and no side-effect warranted drug withdrawal. 5These findings suggest that the 100 and 200??g preparations of oral DDAVP are adequate for the long-term control of central diabetes insipidus in our population, and that the 400??g preparation may have a role if the frequency of administration is to be reduced. PMID:8877030

  6. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, long-term efficacy and safety of oral 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin in adult patients with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Lam, K S; Wat, M S; Choi, K L; Ip, T P; Pang, R W; Kumana, C R

    1996-09-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intranasal (IN) and oral 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) were compared in 10 Chinese adults with central diabetes insipidus previously controlled on IN DDAVP. This was followed by comparison of the acute pharmacodynamics of commonly used oral preparations (containing 100, 200 and 400 micrograms per tablet) and a 1 year prospective evaluation of the long-term safety and efficacy of oral DDAVP. 2. Following 20 micrograms IN and 200 micrograms orally, respective plasma DDAVP concentrations peaked after 45.6 +/- 7.3 and 93.3 +/- 3.3 (mean +/- s.e.mean) min, reaching 24.1 +/- 4.7 and 15.1 +/- 3.2 pmol 1(-1) and respective terminal half-lives were 2.2 +/- 0.1 and 2.0 +/- 0.1 h. Based on the area under the concentration-time-curve, the bioequivalent IN/oral ratio was 1:16. 3. As judged by changes in urine flow rate and osmolality after IN or oral (100, 200 or 400 micrograms) DDAVP, antidiuretic activity increased rapidly during the second hour and peaked at 4 h. The antidiuresis duration and magnitude correlated with the oral dose (P < 0.001 and < 0.05 respectively), and was least following 100 micrograms (P < 0.01 vs 200 or 400 micrograms). Increasing the dose from 200 to 400 micrograms did not increase maximal antidiuretic activity significantly, but there was a trend towards a longer duration of action (P = 0.076). 4. During the 1-year prospective study with oral DDAVP 300-600 micrograms per day in two to three doses, stable and satisfactory antidiuresis (comparable with that on previous IN therapy) was maintained; tablets were well-tolerated and no side-effect warranted drug withdrawal. 5. These findings suggest that the 100 and 200 micrograms preparations of oral DDAVP are adequate for the long-term control of central diabetes insipidus in our population, and that the 400 micrograms preparation may have a role if the frequency of administration is to be reduced. PMID:8877030

  7. A new era in palaeomicrobiology: prospects for ancient dental calculus as a long-term record of the human oral microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The field of palaeomicrobiology is dramatically expanding thanks to recent advances in high-throughput biomolecular sequencing, which allows unprecedented access to the evolutionary history and ecology of human-associated and environmental microbes. Recently, human dental calculus has been shown to be an abundant, nearly ubiquitous, and long-term reservoir of the ancient oral microbiome, preserving not only microbial and host biomolecules but also dietary and environmental debris. Modern investigations of native human microbiota have demonstrated that the human microbiome plays a central role in health and chronic disease, raising questions about changes in microbial ecology, diversity and function through time. This paper explores the current state of ancient oral microbiome research and discusses successful applications, methodological challenges and future possibilities in elucidating the intimate evolutionary relationship between humans and their microbes. PMID:25487328

  8. Long-Term Changes in Human Colonic Bifidobacterium Populations Induced by a 5-Day Oral Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mangin, Irène; Lévêque, Christophe; Magne, Fabien; Suau, Antonia; Pochart, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the possible modifications due to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) treatment on total bacteria and on Bifidobacterium species balance in human colonic microbiota. Eighteen healthy volunteers (19 to 36 years old) were given a 875/125 mg dose of AMC twice a day for 5 days. Fecal samples were obtained before and after antibiotic exposure. After total DNA extraction, total bacteria and bifidobacteria were specifically quantified using real-time PCR. Dominant species were monitored over time using bacterial and bifidobacterial Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE). At the end of AMC exposure, total bacterial concentrations as well as bifidobacteria concentrations were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure:10.7±0.1 log10 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 11.1±0.1 log10 (p?=?0.003) and 8.1±0.5 log10 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 9.4±0.3 log10 (p?=?0.003), respectively. At the same time, the mean similarity percentages of TTGE bacteria and TTGE bifidobacteria profiles were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure: 51.6%±3.5% vs 81.4%±2.1% and 55.8%±7.6% vs 84.5%±4.1%, respectively. Occurrence of B. adolescentis, B. bifidum and B. pseudocatenulatum/B. catenulatum species significantly decreased. Occurrence of B. longum remained stable. Moreover, the number of distinct Bifidobacterium species per sample significantly decreased (1.5±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3; p?=?0.01). Two months after AMC exposure, the mean similarity percentage of TTGE profiles was 55.6% for bacteria and 62.3% for bifidobacteria. These results clearly demonstrated that a common antibiotic treatment may qualitatively alter the colonic microbiota. Such modifications may have potential long-term physiological consequences. PMID:23209691

  9. Successive Oral Immunizations Against Piscirickettsia Salmonis and Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus are Required to Maintain a Long-Term Protection in Farmed Salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Tobar, Iván; Arancibia, Sergio; Torres, Constanza; Vera, Verónica; Soto, Paola; Carrasco, Claudia; Alvarado, Marcelo; Neira, Eduardo; Arcos, Sandra; Tobar, Jaime A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing demand to determine the protective status of vaccinated fish in order to prevent diseases outbreaks. A set of different parameters that include the infectious and immunological status of vaccinated salmonids from 622 Chilean farms were analyzed during 2011–2014. The aim of this study was to optimize the vaccination program of these centers through the determination of the protective state of vaccinated fish using oral immunizations. This state was determined from the association of the concentration of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the serum and the mortality rate of vaccinated fish. Salmonids were vaccinated with different commercial mono- or polyvalent vaccines against salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS) and infectious salmon anemia (ISA), first by the intraperitoneal injection of oil-adjuvanted antigens and then by the stimulation of mucosal immunity using oral vaccines as a booster vaccination. The results showed that high levels of specific IgM antibodies were observed after injectable vaccination, reaching a maximum concentration at 600–800?degree-days. Similar levels of antibodies were observed when oral immunizations were administrated. The high concentration of antibodies [above 2750?ng/mL for ISA virus (ISAv) and 3500?ng/mL for SRS] was maintained for a period of 800?degree-days after each vaccination procedure. In this regard, oral immunizations maintained a long-term high concentration of anti-SRS and anti-ISAv specific IgM antibodies. When the concentration of antibodies decreased below 2000?pg/mL, a window of susceptibility to SRS infection was observed in the farm, suggesting a close association between antibody levels and fish protective status. These results demonstrated that, in the field, several oral immunizations are essential to uphold a high level of specific anti-pathogens antibodies and, therefore, the protective status during the whole productive cycle. PMID:26074916

  10. Patient Self-Management of Oral Anticoagulation with Vitamin K Antagonists in Everyday Practice: Efficacy and Safety in a Nationwide Long-Term Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagler, Michael; Bachmann, Lucas M.; Schmid, Pirmin; Raddatz Müller, Pascale; Wuillemin, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Patient self-management (PSM) of oral anticoagulation is under discussion, because evidence from real-life settings is missing. Using data from a nationwide, prospective cohort study in Switzerland, we assessed overall long-term efficacy and safety of PSM and examined subgroups. Data of 1140 patients (5818.9 patient-years) were analysed and no patient were lost to follow-up. Median follow-up was 4.3 years (range 0.2–12.8 years). Median age at the time of training was 54.2 years (range 18.2–85.2) and 34.6% were women. All-cause mortality was 1.4 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 1.1–1.7) with a higher rate in patients with atrial fibrillation (2.5; 1.6–3.7; p<0.001), patients>50 years of age (2.0; 1.6–2.6; p<0.001), and men (1.6; 1.2–2.1; p?=?0.036). The rate of thromboembolic events was 0.4 (0.2–0.6) and independent from indications, sex and age. Major bleeding were observed in 1.1 (0.9–1.5) per 100 patient-years. Efficacy was comparable to standard care and new oral anticoagulants in a network meta-analysis. PSM of properly trained patients is effective and safe in a long-term real-life setting and robust across clinical subgroups. Adoption in various clinical settings, including those with limited access to medical care or rural areas is warranted. PMID:24748062

  11. L-Arginine and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jing; Horky, Laura L.; Friedlich, Avi L.; Shi, Ying; Rogers, Jack T.; Huang, Xudong

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and loss of cognitive and memory functions. Although the exact causes of AD are still unclear, evidence suggests that atherosclerosis, redox stress, inflammation, neurotransmitter dysregulation, and impaired brain energy metabolism may all be associated with AD pathogenesis. Herein, we explore a possible role for L-arginine (L-arg) in AD, taking into consideration known functions for L-arg in atherosclerosis, redox stress and the inflammatory process, regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, and modulation of glucose metabolism and insulin activity. L-arg, a precursor of nitric oxide and polyamine, exhibits multiple functions in human health and may play a prominent role in age-related degenerative diseases such as AD. PMID:19079617

  12. Long-Term Oral Nutrition Supplementation Improves Outcomes in Malnourished Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Zeynep; Tutal, Emre; Uyar, Mehtap Erkmen; Acar, Nurhan Ozdemir

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is no consensus on the type, time of initiation, or duration of use of enteral nutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to compare the effects of a renal-specific oral nutrition supplement (RS-ONS) and a standard recommended nutrition regime on biochemical and nutrition markers in malnourished patients with CKD on hemodialysis. Methods: Sixty-two malnourished patients with CKD, divided into experimental (RS-ONS; n = 32; mean [SD] age, 62.0 [11.3] years; 55.2% female) and control (CON; n = 30; mean [SD] age, 57.2 [12.3] years; 31% female) groups, were evaluated for anthropometric, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters. Results: Mean (SD) serum albumin levels were significantly increased in the RS-ONS group from 3.5 (0.3) g/dL at baseline to 3.7 (0.2) g/dL at 6 months (P = .028). Significantly fewer patients had serum albumin levels of <3.5 g/dL after month 6. Dry weight of patients significantly increased in the RS-ONS but decreased in the CON groups (P < .001 for each). Percent change from baseline revealed negative results for bioelectrical impedance analysis (P < .001) in the CON group. Malnutrition inflammation score at 6 months (P = .006) and erythropoietin (EPO) dose requirements were higher in the CON group (P = .012). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that consuming RS-ONS improves serum albumin and anthropometric measures, as well as reduces EPO dose, in patients with CKD. PMID:24436491

  13. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... 8 sec Click to watch this video Most Care Provided at Home Click for more information Long- ...

  14. A Prospective Study Comparing the Long-term Effectiveness of Injectable Risperidone Long-acting Therapy and Oral Aripiprazole in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Macfadden, Wayne; Ma, Yi-Wen; Thomas Haskins, J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that long-term maintenance with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy is superior to oral daily aripiprazole in stable patients with schizophrenia. Design: This two-year, rater-blinded, open-label, multicenter study (NCT00299702) randomized subjects to injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (25–50mg, injected every 2 weeks) or oral aripiprazole (5–30mg/day), with study visits every two weeks. Subjects who met relapse criteria or discontinued study drug could remain in the study. Setting: Clinical trial. Participants: Stable subjects with schizophrenia not adequately benefiting from current treatment who experienced two or more relapses in the past two years. If recently relapsed, subjects were stabilized (per clinician judgment) for two or more months before entry. Measurements: Primary endpoints: time to relapse and time in remission. Safety assessments included adverse event reporting. Results: Of 355 subjects randomized, 349 were in the intent-to-treat analysis set. Data inspection revealed that 53 (14.9%) randomized subjects deviated from inclusion/exclusion criteria, most commonly not meeting stability requirements. At baseline, mean (standard deviation [SD]) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score was 68.9 (14.6); 115 (33.0%) intent-to-treat subjects met remission criteria. Approximately 29 percent in each group discontinued the study before completing two years. No significant between-group differences were noted in time to relapse or time in remission. No new tolerability issues were identified. Conclusion: Results failed to demonstrate superiority with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy versus oral aripiprazole. The study design did not allow for valid conclusions of equivalence or noninferiority. Although this study attempted to mimic a real-world treatment setting for stable patients, the broad study population, the lack of patient selection for nonadherence, biweekly visits, regular assessments, and other design issues limited generalizability and interpretation relative to the study hypothesis. PMID:21191530

  15. L-arginine and Vitamin D Adjunctive Therapies in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Anna P.; Waramori, Govert; Pontororing, Gysje J.; Kenangalem, Enny; Wiguna, Andri; Tjitra, Emiliana; Sandjaja; Lolong, Dina B.; Yeo, Tsin W.; Chatfield, Mark D.; Soemanto, Retno K.; Bastian, Ivan; Lumb, Richard; Maguire, Graeme P.; Eisman, John; Price, Ric N.; Morris, Peter S.; Kelly, Paul M.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D (vitD) and L-arginine have important antimycobacterial effects in humans. Adjunctive therapy with these agents has the potential to improve outcomes in active tuberculosis (TB). Methods In a 4-arm randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial trial in adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Timika, Indonesia, we tested the effect of oral adjunctive vitD 50,000 IU 4-weekly or matching placebo, and L-arginine 6.0 g daily or matching placebo, for 8 weeks, on proportions of participants with negative 4-week sputum culture, and on an 8-week clinical score (weight, FEV1, cough, sputum, haemoptysis). All participants with available endpoints were included in analyses according to the study arm to which they were originally assigned. Adults with new smear-positive PTB were eligible. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00677339. Results 200 participants were enrolled, less than the intended sample size: 50 received L-arginine + active vitD, 49 received L-arginine + placebo vit D, 51 received placebo L-arginine + active vitD and 50 received placebo L-arginine + placebo vitD. According to the factorial model, 99 people received arginine, 101 placebo arginine, 101 vitamin D, 99 placebo vitamin D. Results for the primary endpoints were available in 155 (4-week culture) and 167 (clinical score) participants. Sputum culture conversion was achieved by week 4 in 48/76 (63%) participants in the active L-arginine versus 48/79 (61%) in placebo L-arginine arms (risk difference ?3%, 95% CI ?19 to 13%), and in 44/75 (59%) in the active vitD versus 52/80 (65%) in the placebo vitD arms (risk difference 7%, 95% CI ?9 to 22%). The mean clinical outcome score also did not differ between study arms. There were no effects of the interventions on adverse event rates including hypercalcaemia, or other secondary outcomes. Conclusion Neither vitD nor L-arginine supplementation, at the doses administered and with the power attained, affected TB outcomes. Registry ClinicalTrials.gov. Registry number: NCT00677339 PMID:23967066

  16. Enhanced transfection efficiency of PAMAM dendrimer by surface modification with l-arginine

    E-print Network

    Park, Jong-Sang

    Enhanced transfection efficiency of PAMAM dendrimer by surface modification with l-arginine Joon were conjugated with l-arginine to generate an l-arginine- grafted-PAMAM dendrimer (PAMAM transfection efficiency. These findings suggest that the l-arginine-grafted-PAMAM dendrimer possesses

  17. Long-term trial with the oral iron chelator 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one (L1). I. Iron chelation and metabolic studies.

    PubMed

    Kontoghiorghes, G J; Bartlett, A N; Hoffbrand, A V; Goddard, J G; Sheppard, L; Barr, J; Nortey, P

    1990-10-01

    A long-term clinical trial of 1-15 months has been carried out with the oral iron chelator 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one (L1) in 13 transfusion-dependent iron-loaded patients. Urinary iron excretion was greatest in patients with thalassaemia major and was related to the number of previous transfusions but not to the serum ferritin level. Substantial increases of urinary iron were observed in all the patients when the frequency of the daily dose was doubled and in response to 2 x 3 g L1 daily 11 of 12 patients tested excreted greater than 25 mg iron daily, the mean daily intake of iron from transfusion. Serum ferritin levels have fluctuated but overall have remained unchanged. Pharmacological studies in five patients have indicated rapid absorption probably from the stomach and variable plasma half life of 77 +/- 35 min (X +/- SD). Glucuronation was identified as a major route of L1 metabolism. Short-term intensive chelation studies using repeated administration of L1 resulted in further increases of urinary iron excretion by comparison to a single dose. In one case 325 mg of iron were excreted in the urine following the administration of 16 g (5 x 2 g + 2 x 3 g) within 24 h. Iron excretion studies were carried out in six transfusional iron-loaded patients who were maintained on a low iron diet before and during chelation. No significant increases of faecal iron excretion were observed with L1 using daily doses of up to 3 x 3 g and 4 x 2 g. The high level of compliance during treatment with L1 and the levels of urine iron excretion that can be achieved increase the prospects for oral chelation in transfusional iron-loaded patients. PMID:2094333

  18. Long Term Ecological Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scott Cooper

    Students analyze data on temperature and precipitation collected from 26 different Long Term Ecological Research sites and compare them with annual net primary productivity. The students then form an ecological rule to explain their results.

  19. l-Arginine Supplementation and Metabolism in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Last, Michael; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Kwan, Vivian W.; O'Roark, Erin; Linderholm, Angela

    2011-01-01

    l-Arginine, the amino acid substrate for nitric oxide synthase, has been tested as a therapeutic intervention in a variety of chronic diseases and is commonly used as a nutritional supplement. In this study, we hypothesized that a subset of moderate to severe persistent asthma patients would benefit from supplementation with l-arginine by transiently increasing nitric oxide levels, resulting in bronchodilation and a reduction in inflammation. The pilot study consisted of a 3 month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of l-arginine (0.05 g/kg twice daily) in patients with moderate to severe asthma. We measured spirometry, exhaled breath nitric oxide, serum arginine metabolites, questionnaire scores, daily medication use and PEFR with the primary endpoint being the number of minor exacerbations at three months. Interim analysis of the 20 subjects showed no difference in the number of exacerbations, exhaled nitric oxide levels or lung function between groups, though participants in the l-arginine group had higher serum l-arginine at day 60 (2.0 ± 0.6 × 10?3 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 × 10?3 ?mol/L, p < 0.05), ornithine at day 30 (2.4 ± 0.9 vs. 1.2 ± 0.3 ?mol/L serum, p < 0.05) and ADMA at day 30 (6.0 ± 1.5 × 10?1 vs. 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10?1 ?mol/L serum, p < 0.05) on average compared to the placebo group. The study was terminated prematurely. Supplementing asthma subjects with l-arginine increases plasma levels; whether subgroups might benefit from such supplementation requires further study.

  20. The effect of chronic l-arginine administration on vascular recovery following cold cardioplegic arrest in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koki Nakamura; Caroline C. Gray; Nicholas J. Severs; Magdi H. Yacouba; Mohamed Amrani

    Objective: Acute administration of l-arginine (LA), the physiological substrate of nitric oxide, has been used as a strategy for myocardial protection during ischemia-reperfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chronic oral LA administration on vascular functions and morphology after prolonged cold cardioplegic arrest. Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (600-650 g) were divided into control and

  1. Plasma l -arginine concentrations in premature infants with necrotizing enterocolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel A. Zamora; Harish J. Amin; Douglas D. McMillan; Paul Kubes; Gordon H. Fick; J. Decker Butzner; Howard G. Parsons; R. Brent Scott

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether l -arginine concentrations (the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis) are lower in premature infants in whom necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) develops than in unaffected infants.Methods: We measured arginine and nutritional intake, plasma arginine, glutamine, total amino acids, and ammonia concentrations in 53 premature infants (mean gestational age ± SD: 27 ± 1.7 weeks) at risk of NEC.

  2. DIETARY L-ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN GILTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary L-arginine supplementation on the production performance of pregnant gilts. A total of 53 pregnant gilts with an initial body weight of 166.25 plus or minus 1.81 kg and backfat thickness of 13.26 plus or minus 0.21 mm were housed individual...

  3. L-arginine increases nitric oxide and attenuates pressor and heart rate responses to change in posture in sickle cell anemia subjects.

    PubMed

    Ogungbemi, S I; Anigbogu, C N; Kehinde, M O; Jaja, S I

    2013-01-01

    Pressor and heart rate changes following change in posture without or with L-arginine supplementation (1g/day for 6 weeks) were studied in 28 sickle cell anemia (SCA) and 32 non-sickle cell anemia (NSCA) subjects. Change in posture increased HR (p<0.01), RPP (p<0.05) in both groups of subjects, MABP (p<0.05) in SCAS but reduced MABP (p<0.01) in NSCAS and PP (p<0.01) in SCAS. L-Arginine supplementation increased plasma L-Arginine concentration ([R]) in both groups of subjects (p<0.001 in each group) and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration ([NOx]) (p<0.01 in each group). Change (?) [R] correlated positively with ? [NOx] in both groups (+ 0.7 in each group). L-Arginine supplementation caused greater reduction of MABP (p<0.001) in NSCAS than in SCAS. However, reduction in HR was greater (p<0.001) in SCAS than in NSCAS. After supplementation, MABP and PP responses to change in posture were attenuated in the two groups. However, while HR and RPP responses in SCAS were attenuated, the same responses were enhanced in NSCAS by change in posture after supplementation. In conclusion, study shows that oral, low dose, chronic supplementation with L-arginine increased NO availability and attenuated pressor and heart rate responses to change in posture in sickle cell anemia subjects. PMID:23955406

  4. Interaction Between Nitric Oxide and Mineralocorticoids in the Long-Term Control of Blood Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gracia Alvarez; Antonio Osuna; Rosemary Wangensteen; Felix Vargas

    Abstract—We analyzed the effects of a possible interaction between nitric oxide deficiency and mineralocorticoids on the long-term control of blood pressure and renal and endocrine variables. Six groups of uninephrectomized male Wistar rats were used: control animals and rats that received (1) N,-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) subpressor (0.5 mg\\/100 mL drinking fluid), (2) L-NAME pressor (35 mg\\/100 mL drinking fluid),

  5. Long-term conditions.

    PubMed

    2015-03-25

    Technology enabled care services (TECS), which include technologies such as telehealth, telecare, telemedicine and self-care apps, are designed to help people manage long-term conditions and retain as much independence as possible. The NHS Commissioning Assembly has published TECS Resource for Commissioners, a toolkit that raises awareness of the range of TECS available and their benefits to patients and professionals, supports commissioners to collaborate with providers to implement TECS, and advises how to create a TECS strategy, oversee implementation plans and ensure effective evaluation. The publication is at tinyurl.com/khsebyr. PMID:25806457

  6. The Effect of Antenatal L-Arginine and Antioxidant Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Marker Levels in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    DR, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:The present study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics, Paediatrics & Biophysics IMS, BHU, Varanasi with an aim to study the role of L-arginine and oral antioxidants as a part of therapy in patients diagnosed with IUGR (Intra uterine growth restriction ) and cord serum NO and oxidative stress markers GSH and SOD in newborns following delivery of such patients. Materials and Methods: The study included 40 pregnant patient between 30-32 weeks of gestation diagnosed with IUGR who were divided into 3 groups: Group I (treated with L-arginine N=10), Group II (treated with antioxidants N=10), Group III (without nutritional supplementation N=10) and Group IV (healthy control pregnant patients of same gestational age range N=10) were taken. Cord serum NO & oxidative stress markers (GSH & SOD) were measured following delivery of patients from those four groups. Results: The cord serum NO levels (?mol/lt) showed a significant increase & SOD (U/ml) & GSH (U/lt) values were increased in newborns to mothers diagnosed with IUGR after treatment with L-arginine. Similar results were obtained for treatment with antioxidants. Conclusion: The reduced NO & reduced cord serum circulating levels of oxidative stress markers (GSH & SOD) activity may play an important role in the occurrence of IUGR. PMID:25478411

  7. Effects of oral arsenic trioxide therapy on QT intervals in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia: implications for long-term cardiac safety.

    PubMed

    Siu, Chung-Wah; Au, Wing-Yan; Yung, Cindy; Kumana, Cyrus R; Lau, Chu-Pak; Kwong, Yok-Lam; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2006-07-01

    Ventricular tachyarrhythmias may occur during intravenous arsenic trioxide (As2O3). This has not happened during oral As2O3. Sixteen patients were studied by electrocardiography and 24-hour Holter monitoring at baseline, during and after oral As2O3 (As2O3-ON, As2O3-OFF). QT and corrected QT (QTc) were significantly longer during As2O3-ON than in As2O3-OFF, but QT and QTc dispersions were comparable. The patients' 24-hour heart rates were higher during As2O3-ON than in As2O3-OFF. QTc intervals at each hour were longer during As2O3-ON than in As2O3-OFF. However, QTc prolongation of more than 30 milliseconds only occurred at one time point (2 hours) after oral As2O3, resulting in QTc of more than 500 milliseconds in 3 of 16 patients, all within 4 hours of oral As2O3. Although the standard deviation of normal RR interval was lower during As2O3-ON, ratios of low frequency to high frequency power for As2O3-ON and As2O3-OFF were comparable. No ventricular proarrhythmias were observed. These observations, due to the lower peak plasma arsenic reached during oral As2O3, may explain the relative cardiac safety of oral As2O3. PMID:16514059

  8. l-citrulline and l-arginine supplementation retards the progression of high-cholesterol-diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Toshio; Juliet, Packiasamy A. R.; Matsui-Hirai, Hisako; Miyazaki, Asaka; Fukatsu, Akiko; Funami, Jun; Iguchi, Akihisa; Ignarro, Louis J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of ingested l-arginine, l-citrulline, and antioxidants (vitamins C and E) on the progression of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. The fatty diet caused a marked impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated thoracic aorta and blood flow in rabbit ear artery in vivo, the development of atheromatous lesions and increased superoxide anion production in thoracic aorta, and increased oxidation-sensitive gene expression [Elk-1 and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein]. Rabbits were treated orally for 12 weeks with l-arginine, l-citrulline, and/or antioxidants. l-arginine plus l-citrulline, either alone or in combination with antioxidants, caused a marked improvement in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and blood flow, dramatic regression in atheromatous lesions, and decrease in superoxide production and oxidation-sensitive gene expression. These therapeutic effects were associated with concomitant increases in aortic endothelial NO synthase expression and plasma \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{N}}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2}^{-}+{\\mathrm{N}}{\\mathrm{O}}_{3}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} and cGMP levels. These observations indicate that ingestion of certain NO-boosting substances, including l-arginine, l-citrulline, and antioxidants, can abrogate the state of oxidative stress and reverse the progression of atherosclerosis. This approach may have clinical utility in the treatment of atherosclerosis in humans. PMID:16157883

  9. Freeze Drying of l-Arginine/Sucrose-Based Protein Formulations, Part I: Influence of Formulation and Arginine Counter Ion on the Critical Formulation Temperature, Product Performance and Protein Stability.

    PubMed

    Stärtzel, Peter; Gieseler, Henning; Gieseler, Margit; Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad M; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Goldbach, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate product performance of freeze dried l-arginine/sucrose-based formulations under variation of excipient weight ratios, l-arginine counter ions and formulation pH as a matrix to stabilize a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (MAb) during freeze drying and shelf life. Protein and placebo formulations were lyophilized at aggressive primary drying conditions and key attributes of the freeze dried solids were correlated to their thermal properties and critical formulation temperature. Stability (physical) during processing and long-term storage of the MAb in different formulations was assessed by SE-HPLC. Thermal properties of the mixtures were greatly affected by the type of l-arginine counter ion. High glass transition temperatures were achieved by adding multivalent acids, whereas the temperature values significantly decreased in the presence of chloride ions. All mixtures were stable during freeze drying, but storage stability varied for the different preparations and counter ions. For l-arginine-based formulations, the protein was most stable in the presence of chloride ion, showing no obvious correlation to estimated global mobility of the glass. Besides drying behavior and thermal properties of the freeze dried solids, the counter ion of l-arginine must be considered relevant for protein shelf life stability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:2345-2358, 2015. PMID:25994980

  10. Methylglyoxal (MG) and Cerebro-Renal Interaction: Does Long-Term Orally Administered MG Cause Cognitive Impairment in Normal Sprague-Dawley Rats?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kimio; Okada, Kana; Fukabori, Ryoji; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Asahi, Koichi; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG), one of the uremic toxins, is a highly reactive alpha-dicarbonyl compound. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated the close associations of cognitive impairment (CI) with plasma MG levels and presence of kidney dysfunction. Therefore, the present study aims to examine whether MG is a direct causative substance for CI development. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two groups: control (n = 9) and MG group (n = 10; 0.5% MG in drinking water), and fed a normal diet for 12 months. Cognitive function was evaluated by two behavioral tests (object exploration test and radial-arm maze test) in early (4–6 months of age) and late phase (7–12 months of age). Serum MG was significantly elevated in the MG group (495.8 ± 38.1 vs. 244.8 ± 28.2 nM; p < 0.001) at the end of study. The groups did not differ in cognitive function during the course of study. No time-course differences were found in oxidative stress markers between the two groups, while, antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly increased in the MG group compared to the control. Long-term MG administration to rats with normal kidney function did not cause CI. A counter-balanced activation of the systemic anti-oxidant system may offset the toxicity of MG in this model. Pathogenetic significance of MG for CI requires further investigation. PMID:24402234

  11. The influence of L-arginine on circadian rhythm and circadian period genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuting Yang; Shuting Cheng; Yonghong Li; Zhou Jiang; Yanyou Liu; Yuhui Wang; Jing Xiao; Huiling Guo; Zhengrong Wang

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of L-arginine on circadian system, ICR mice and AR4-2J cells were treated with L-arginine. The locomotor activity of the mice intraperitoneally injected with a high dose of L-arginine was observed. We also detected effects of arginine on Per1 and Per2 gene expressions in AR4-2J cells. Double-plotted actograms were applied to analyze the locomotor activity of the

  12. Regulation of L-arginine transport and metabolism in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Durante

    2001-01-01

    L-Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that is metabolized to important regulatory molecules. L-Arginine is transported\\u000a into vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) by the cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) family of proteins where it is metabolized\\u000a to nitric oxide (NO), polyamines, or L-proline. Inflammatory mediators, growth factors, and hemodynamic forces stimulate the\\u000a transport of L-arginine in vascular SMC by inducing

  13. Effects of l -arginine on spontaneous contraction of the rat portal vein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Shimamura; Ming Zhou; Miyuki Toba; Shinichi Kimura; Takashiro Higuchi; Hideaki Kawaguchi; Fumiko Sekiguchi; Satoru Sunano

    2003-01-01

    The effects of l-arginine on spontaneous contraction of endothelium-denuded longitudinal preparations of the rat portal vein were studied. l-Arginine increased the frequency of spontaneous contraction concentration-dependently between 10 µM and 1 mM. Changes in contraction amplitude and duration were not remarkable. d-Arginine had a negligible effect on spontaneous contraction. Ny-nitro-l-arginine (1 mM) did not affect spontaneous contraction or the response

  14. Oral prostacycline analog and clopidogrel combination provides early maturation and long-term survival after arteriovenous fistula creation: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Abacilar, A F; Atalay, H; Dogan, O F

    2015-01-01

    Vascular access is used as a lifeline for hemodialysis in patients with end stage renal disease failure (ESRD). Failure of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation is still high. The purpose of this study was to research the effects of clopidogrel in combination with oral iloprost, a synthetic analog of prostacyclin PGI2. Ninety-six diabetic ESRD patients were divided into two groups. In the first group (Group 1, N = 50), clopidogrel (75 mg daily dose) and an oral prostacycline analog (200 mg daily dose) were administered. In the second group (Group 2, N = 46), placebo was given. All patients took study medication 7-10 days prior to surgery. A Doppler ultrasound (USG) was performed for measurement of arterial and venous diameters, and peak systolic velocity of arterial flow based on subsequent fistula adequacy. Autogenous AVFs were constructed in forearm as distally as possible in all patients. Both groups were followed-up for a year. In the placebo group, early AVF thrombosis was detected in two patients (4.3%). AVF maturation failure was noted in 14 patients (30.4%) in placebo group and in four patients (8%) in clopidogrel plus oral prostacycline analog group in the early postoperative period (P = 0.001). The mean maturation time was 38 ± 6.5 and 53 ± 12.8 days in study and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.023). The mean blood flow was 352 ± 94 mL/min in placebo group and 604 ± 125 mL/min in study group (P = 0.001). The arterial end diastolic velocity was 116 ± 14 cm/s in study group and 72 ± 21 cm/s in placebo group (P = 0.036) 1 year after the surgery. Our data indicated that clopidogrel and oral prostacycline analog combination is effective and safe for the prevention of primary AVF failure in hemodialysis patients and decreased acute and chronic thrombotic events. PMID:26060361

  15. Oral prostacycline analog and clopidogrel combination provides early maturation and long-term survival after arteriovenous fistula creation: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Abacilar, A. F.; Atalay, H.; Dogan, O. F.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular access is used as a lifeline for hemodialysis in patients with end stage renal disease failure (ESRD). Failure of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation is still high. The purpose of this study was to research the effects of clopidogrel in combination with oral iloprost, a synthetic analog of prostacyclin PGI2. Ninety-six diabetic ESRD patients were divided into two groups. In the first group (Group 1, N = 50), clopidogrel (75 mg daily dose) and an oral prostacycline analog (200 mg daily dose) were administered. In the second group (Group 2, N = 46), placebo was given. All patients took study medication 7–10 days prior to surgery. A Doppler ultrasound (USG) was performed for measurement of arterial and venous diameters, and peak systolic velocity of arterial flow based on subsequent fistula adequacy. Autogenous AVFs were constructed in forearm as distally as possible in all patients. Both groups were followed-up for a year. In the placebo group, early AVF thrombosis was detected in two patients (4.3%). AVF maturation failure was noted in 14 patients (30.4%) in placebo group and in four patients (8%) in clopidogrel plus oral prostacycline analog group in the early postoperative period (P = 0.001). The mean maturation time was 38 ± 6.5 and 53 ± 12.8 days in study and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.023). The mean blood flow was 352 ± 94 mL/min in placebo group and 604 ± 125 mL/min in study group (P = 0.001). The arterial end diastolic velocity was 116 ± 14 cm/s in study group and 72 ± 21 cm/s in placebo group (P = 0.036) 1 year after the surgery. Our data indicated that clopidogrel and oral prostacycline analog combination is effective and safe for the prevention of primary AVF failure in hemodialysis patients and decreased acute and chronic thrombotic events.

  16. l-Arginine deprivation impairs Leishmania major-specific T-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Munder, Markus; Choi, Beak-San; Rogers, Matthew; Kropf, Pascale

    2009-01-01

    The amino acid l-arginine plays a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses. We have recently shown that uncontrolled replication of Leishmania parasites at the site of pathology correlates with high levels of arginase activity in nonhealing leishmaniasis and that this elevated arginase activity causes local depletion of l-arginine. To further our understanding of the impact of l-arginine deprivation in experimental leishmaniasis, here we characterize in detail the effects of l-arginine deprivation on antigen-specific T cells and M?. The results of our study show that decrease of l-arginine levels in the extracellular milieu affects the biological activities of Leishmania major-specific T cells, both at the level of the magnitude and the quality of their responses. L. major-specific CD4+ T cells rendered hyporesponsive by l-arginine deprivation can be partially rescued by addition of exogenous l-arginine to produce IL-4 and IL-10, but not to produce IFN-?. Furthermore, our results show that l-arginine deprivation also greatly impacts parasite growth in activated macrophages. In summary, our results suggest that l-arginine levels affect both Th cell responses and parasite replication. PMID:19637195

  17. Naringenin adds to the protective effect of L-arginine in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats: favorable modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A; Obaid, Al Arqam Z; Zaki, Hala F; Agha, Azza M

    2014-10-01

    The present study was directed to investigate the possible modulatory effect of naringenin when co-administered with L-arginine in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg). L-arginine (500 mg/kg) and naringenin (50 mg/kg) were orally administered daily, alone and in combination, for 3 weeks. Mean arterial blood pressure, electrocardiography and echocardiography were then recorded and rats were sacrificed and serum was separated for determination of total nitrate/nitrite level. Right ventricles and lungs were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, total nitrate/nitrite and transforming growth factor-beta. Myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities in addition to endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression were also determined. Moreover, histological analysis of pulmonary arteries and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area was performed. Combined therapy provided a significant improvement in L-arginine protective effect toward preserving hemodynamic changes and alleviating oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers induced by monocrotaline treatment. Furthermore, combined therapy prevented monocrotaline-induced changes in endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression as well as histological analysis compared with either treatment alone. In conclusion, naringenin significantly adds to the protective effect of L-arginine in pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline in rats. PMID:24878387

  18. Bioinformatic evaluation of L-arginine catabolic pathways in 24 cyanobacteria and transcriptional analysis of genes encoding enzymes of L-arginine catabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Schriek, Sarah; Rückert, Christian; Staiger, Dorothee; Pistorius, Elfriede K; Michel, Klaus-Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background So far very limited knowledge exists on L-arginine catabolism in cyanobacteria, although six major L-arginine-degrading pathways have been described for prokaryotes. Thus, we have performed a bioinformatic analysis of possible L-arginine-degrading pathways in cyanobacteria. Further, we chose Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 for a more detailed bioinformatic analysis and for validation of the bioinformatic predictions on L-arginine catabolism with a transcript analysis. Results We have evaluated 24 cyanobacterial genomes of freshwater or marine strains for the presence of putative L-arginine-degrading enzymes. We identified an L-arginine decarboxylase pathway in all 24 strains. In addition, cyanobacteria have one or two further pathways representing either an arginase pathway or L-arginine deiminase pathway or an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway. An L-arginine amidinotransferase pathway as a major L-arginine-degrading pathway is not likely but can not be entirely excluded. A rather unusual finding was that the cyanobacterial L-arginine deiminases are substantially larger than the enzymes in non-photosynthetic bacteria and that they are membrane-bound. A more detailed bioinformatic analysis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 revealed that three different L-arginine-degrading pathways may in principle be functional in this cyanobacterium. These are (i) an L-arginine decarboxylase pathway, (ii) an L-arginine deiminase pathway, and (iii) an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway. A transcript analysis of cells grown either with nitrate or L-arginine as sole N-source and with an illumination of 50 ?mol photons m-2 s-1 showed that the transcripts for the first enzyme(s) of all three pathways were present, but that the transcript levels for the L-arginine deiminase and the L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase were substantially higher than that of the three isoenzymes of L-arginine decarboxylase. Conclusion The evaluation of 24 cyanobacterial genomes revealed that five different L-arginine-degrading pathways are present in the investigated cyanobacterial species. In Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 an L-arginine deiminase pathway and an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway represent the major pathways, while the L-arginine decarboxylase pathway most likely only functions in polyamine biosynthesis. The transcripts encoding the enzymes of the two major pathways were constitutively expressed with the exception of the transcript for the carbamate kinase, which was substantially up-regulated in cells grown with L-arginine. PMID:18045455

  19. Transplantation-Associated Long-Term Immunosuppression Promotes Oral Colonization by Potentially Opportunistic Pathogens without Impacting Other Members of the Salivary Bacteriome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Bo-Young; Frias-Lopez, Jorge; Dupuy, Amanda K.; Angeloni, Mark; Abusleme, Loreto; Terzi, Evimaria; Ioannidou, Effie; Strausbaugh, Linda D.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients rely on pharmacological immunosuppression to prevent allograft rejection. The effect of such chronic immunosuppression on the microflora at mucosal surfaces is not known. We evaluated the salivary bacterial microbiome of 20 transplant recipients and 19 nonimmunosuppressed controls via 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Alpha-diversity and global community structure did not differ between transplant and control subjects. However, principal coordinate analysis showed differences in community membership. Taxa more prevalent in transplant subjects included operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of potentially opportunistic Gammaproteobacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acinetobacter species, Vibrio species, Enterobacteriaceae species, and the genera Acinetobacter and Klebsiella. Transplant subjects also had increased proportions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species, Enterobacteriaceae species, and Enterococcus faecalis, among other OTUs, while genera with increased proportions included Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus. Furthermore, in transplant subjects, the dose of the immunosuppressant prednisone positively correlated with bacterial richness, while prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil doses positively correlated with the prevalence and proportions of transplant-associated taxa. Correlation network analysis of OTU relative abundance revealed a cluster containing potentially opportunistic pathogens as transplant associated. This cluster positively correlated with serum levels of C-reactive protein, suggesting a link between the resident flora at mucosal compartments and systemic inflammation. Network connectivity analysis revealed opportunistic pathogens as highly connected to each other and to common oral commensals, pointing to bacterial interactions that may influence colonization. This work demonstrates that immunosuppression aimed at limiting T-cell-mediated responses creates a more permissive oral environment for potentially opportunistic pathogens without affecting other members of the salivary bacteriome. PMID:23616410

  20. Transplantation-associated long-term immunosuppression promotes oral colonization by potentially opportunistic pathogens without impacting other members of the salivary bacteriome.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Patricia I; Hong, Bo-Young; Frias-Lopez, Jorge; Dupuy, Amanda K; Angeloni, Mark; Abusleme, Loreto; Terzi, Evimaria; Ioannidou, Effie; Strausbaugh, Linda D; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients rely on pharmacological immunosuppression to prevent allograft rejection. The effect of such chronic immunosuppression on the microflora at mucosal surfaces is not known. We evaluated the salivary bacterial microbiome of 20 transplant recipients and 19 nonimmunosuppressed controls via 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Alpha-diversity and global community structure did not differ between transplant and control subjects. However, principal coordinate analysis showed differences in community membership. Taxa more prevalent in transplant subjects included operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of potentially opportunistic Gammaproteobacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acinetobacter species, Vibrio species, Enterobacteriaceae species, and the genera Acinetobacter and Klebsiella. Transplant subjects also had increased proportions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species, Enterobacteriaceae species, and Enterococcus faecalis, among other OTUs, while genera with increased proportions included Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus. Furthermore, in transplant subjects, the dose of the immunosuppressant prednisone positively correlated with bacterial richness, while prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil doses positively correlated with the prevalence and proportions of transplant-associated taxa. Correlation network analysis of OTU relative abundance revealed a cluster containing potentially opportunistic pathogens as transplant associated. This cluster positively correlated with serum levels of C-reactive protein, suggesting a link between the resident flora at mucosal compartments and systemic inflammation. Network connectivity analysis revealed opportunistic pathogens as highly connected to each other and to common oral commensals, pointing to bacterial interactions that may influence colonization. This work demonstrates that immunosuppression aimed at limiting T-cell-mediated responses creates a more permissive oral environment for potentially opportunistic pathogens without affecting other members of the salivary bacteriome. PMID:23616410

  1. A simple method to identify patients on long-term warfarin who may derive the most benefit from new oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Marc; Kimpton, Miriam; Wells, Philip S; Langlois, Nicole; Kherani, Shemina; Le Gal, Gregoire

    2014-12-01

    In many countries, new oral anticoagulants are only covered for patients with suboptimal anticoagulation control on vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). The quality of VKA management is often reported using the time in therapeutic range (TTR). We sought to predict a TTR 65% or less using a surrogate measure [number of changes in VKA dose and number of international normalized ratio (INR) tests] that could be easily determined by primary care physicians. This cross-sectional study included consecutive patients whose VKA therapy was managed in a specialized anticoagulation clinic. Patients were dichotomized according to their TTR in the past 6 months (TTR > or ? 65%). The ability of the number of INR tests and VKA dose changes to predict TTR group was assessed using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. The analyses included 1381 patients with a median age of 63 years. The mean TTR was 81% (interquartile range 70-90) and 17.4% of patients had a TTR 65% or more. Based on the ROC curve, patients were stratified according to whether they had either 3 or more dose changes or 9 or more INR tests within the last 6 months. The sensitivity to identify patients with TTR 65% or less was 87% and the specificity was 63%. The number of dose changes and the number of INR tests might be used as indicators of TTR; they could offer a simple way for clinicians to identify patients who are good candidates for the new oral anticoagulants. However, external validation studies in different clinical settings are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24914740

  2. A tea/vanadate decoction delivered orally over 14 months to diabetic rats induces long-term glycemic stability without organ toxicity.

    PubMed

    Clark, Tod A; Heyliger, Clayton E; Kopilas, Melanie; Edel, Andrea L; Junaid, Asad; Aguilar, Floribeth; Smyth, Donald D; Thliveris, James A; Merchant, Michele; Kim, Hae K; Pierce, Grant N

    2012-05-01

    Vanadium can induce potent hypoglycemic effects in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus animals, but toxic adverse effects have inhibited the translation of these findings. Administration of vanadate in a black tea decoction has shown impressive hypoglycemic effects without evidence of toxicity in short-term studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic action and the toxic adverse effects of a tea/vanadate (T/V) decoction in diabetic rats over a 14-month treatment period. Streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus rats were orally gavaged with 40 mg sodium vanadate in a black tea decoction only when blood glucose levels were greater than 10 mmol/L. Glycemic status and liver and kidney function were monitored over 14 months. All of the diabetic rats in this treatment group (n = 25) required treatment with the T/V decoction at the start of the study to reduce blood glucose levels to less than 10 mmol/L. Diarrhea was uncommon among the T/V-treated animals during the first week of T/V treatment and was absent thereafter. There was no evidence of liver or kidney dysfunction or injury. From 2 to 6 months, fewer animals required the T/V treatment to maintain their blood glucose levels. After 9 months of treatment, none of the diabetic animals required any T/V to maintain their blood glucose levels at less than 10 mmol/L. Oral administration of a T/V decoction provides safe, long-acting hypoglycemic effects in type 1 diabetes mellitus rats. The typical glycemic signs of diabetes were absent for the last 5 months of the study. PMID:22146096

  3. Long-term symbolic learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G. Kennedy; J. Gregory Trafton

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks. Long sequences of problems were run collecting data to answer fundamental questions about long-term, symbolic learning. We examined whether symbolic learning continues indefinitely, how the learned knowledge is used, and whether

  4. Mechanisms of Disease: L-arginine in coronary atherosclerosis—a clinical perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer H Böger; Charalambos Antoniades; Gerasimos Siasos; Elli Stefanadi; Christodoulos Stefanadis; Dimitris Tousoulis

    2007-01-01

    L-Arginine is the substrate of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the main precursor of nitric oxide in the vascular endothelium, thus its effects are mediated largely by increases in nitric oxide production. L- Arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, increases smooth muscle relaxation, inhibits the expression of adhesion molecules and chemotactic peptides, decreases endothelin-1 expression, and inhibits platelet aggregation. This

  5. l-Arginine reduces mitochondrial dysfunction and airway injury in murine allergic airway inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulaganathan Mabalirajan; Tanveer Ahmad; Geeta Devi Leishangthem; Amit Kumar Dinda; Anurag Agrawal; Balaram Ghosh

    2010-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial injury is the hall mark of asthma which is a chronic airway inflammatory disease. We have shown the mitochondrial ultrastructural changes and dysfunction in bronchial epithelia of OVA induced mice. Reduced l-arginine bioavailability in asthma leads to increased formation of peroxynitrite which could induce mitochondrial dysfunction. We have also shown that l-arginine administration attenuates experimental asthma and reduces

  6. L-Arginine and its metabolites in kidney and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Popolo, Ada; Adesso, Simona; Pinto, Aldo; Autore, Giuseppina; Marzocco, Stefania

    2014-10-01

    L-Arginine is a semi essential amino acid synthesised from glutamine, glutamate and proline via the intestinal-renal axis in humans and most mammals. L-Arginine degradation occurs via multiple pathways initiated by arginase, nitric-oxide synthase, Arg: glycine amidinotransferase, and Arg decarboxylase. These pathways produce nitric oxide, polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine and agmatine with each having enormous biological importance. Several disease are associated to an L-arginine impaired levels and/or to its metabolites: in particular various L-arginine metabolites may participate in pathogenesis of kidney and cardiovascular disease. L-Arginine and its metabolites may constitute both a marker of pathology progression both the rationale for manipulating L-arginine metabolism as a strategy to ameliorate these disease. A large number of studies have been performed in experimental models of kidney disease with sometimes conflicting results, which underlie the complexity of Arg metabolism and our incomplete knowledge of all the mechanisms involved. Moreover several lines of evidence demonstrate the role of L-arg metabolites in cardiovascular disease and that L-arg administration role in reversing endothelial dysfunction, which is the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. This review will discuss the implication of the mains L-arginine metabolites and L-arginine-derived guanidine compounds in kidney and cardiovascular disease considering the more recent literature in the field. PMID:25161088

  7. Decreased systemic bioavailability of L-arginine in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartmut Grasemann; Raphael Schwiertz; Corinna Grasemann; Udo Vester; Kurt Racké; Felix Ratjen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: L-arginine is the common substrate for nitric oxide synthases and arginases. Increased arginase levels in the blood of patients with cystic fibrosis may result in L-arginine deficiency and thereby contribute to low airway nitric oxide formation and impaired pulmonary function. METHODS: Plasma amino acid and arginase levels were studied in ten patients with cystic fibrosis before and after 14

  8. Antioxidant activity of simvastatin prevents L-arginine-induced acute toxicity of pancreas.

    PubMed

    Matalka, Ismail I; Mhaidat, Nizar M; Fatlawi, Lina A

    2013-01-01

    L-arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that found naturally in food. It has been shown that administration of large doses of L-arginine can induce acute pancreatitis. In the present study, we evaluated if simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) inhibitor, might prevent acute pancreatitis induced by L-arginine. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups. Groups were: DMSO, saline, simvastatin, L-arginine, and simvastatin with L-arginine. Twenty four hours after the last dose, rats were sacrificed and their blood was collected from heart for biochemical analysis. Pancreatic tissues were obtained for analysis of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione s-transferase (GST), lipid peroxide levels (MDA) and histology analysis was examined for pancreas. Results indicated that treatment with simvastatin significantly enhanced levels of GPx and GST and decreased lipid peroxide levels induced by L-arginine compared to the vehicle. Moreover, histopathological analysis further confirmed that administration of simvastatin relatively prevented pancreatic acinar cell damage compared to those animals received L-arginine alone. These findings pointed out the protective role of simvastatin against acute pancreatitis induced by high doses of L-arginine. PMID:23750308

  9. Adjuvant L-arginine treatment in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation: a double-blind, randomized study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesare Battaglia; Giorgia Regnani; Tiziana Marsella; Fabio Facchinetti; Annibale Volpe; Stefano Venturoli; Carlo Flamigni

    BACKGROUND: Enhanced vascularization appears to be important for follicular selection and maturation in both spontaneous and stimulated IVF cycles. Nitric oxide, formed in vivo from L-arginine, may play a key role in follicular maturation and ovulation. METHODS: To evaluate the role of L-arginine supplementation in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, 37 IVF patients were divided into two groups according to ovarian stimulation

  10. Oral melphalan and dexamethasone grants extended survival with minimal toxicity in AL amyloidosis: long-term results of a risk-adapted approach

    PubMed Central

    Palladini, Giovanni; Milani, Paolo; Foli, Andrea; Obici, Laura; Lavatelli, Francesca; Nuvolone, Mario; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Perlini, Stefano; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    The combination of oral melphalan and dexamethasone is considered standard therapy for patients with light-chain amyloidosis ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. However, previous trials reported different rates of response and survival, mainly because of the different proportions of high-risk patients. In the present study, including a total of 259 subjects, we treated 119 patients with full-dose melphalan and dexamethasone (dexamethasone 40 mg days 1–4), and 140 patients with advanced cardiac disease with an attenuated dexamethasone schedule (20 mg). Hematologic response rates were 76% in the full-dose group and 51% in the patients receiving the attenuated schedule; the corresponding complete response rates were 31% and 12%, respectively. The median survival was 7.4 years in the full-dose group and 20 months in the attenuated-dose group. Use of high-dose dexamethasone, amino-terminal pro-natriuretic peptide type-B >1800 ng/L, a difference between involved and uninvolved free light chains of >180 mg/L, troponin I >0.07 ng/mL, and response to therapy were independent prognostic determinants. In relapsed/refractory subjects bortezomib combinations granted high hematologic response rates (79% and 63%, respectively), proving the most effective rescue treatment after melphalan and dexamethasone. In summary, melphalan plus dexamethasone was highly effective with minimal toxicity, confirming its central role in the treatment of AL amyloidosis. Future randomized trials will clarify whether bortezomib is best used in frontline combination with melphalan and dexamethasone or as rescue treatment. PMID:24213149

  11. Oral melphalan and dexamethasone grants extended survival with minimal toxicity in AL amyloidosis: long-term results of a risk-adapted approach.

    PubMed

    Palladini, Giovanni; Milani, Paolo; Foli, Andrea; Obici, Laura; Lavatelli, Francesca; Nuvolone, Mario; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Perlini, Stefano; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2014-04-01

    The combination of oral melphalan and dexamethasone is considered standard therapy for patients with light-chain amyloidosis ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. However, previous trials reported different rates of response and survival, mainly because of the different proportions of high-risk patients. In the present study, including a total of 259 subjects, we treated 119 patients with full-dose melphalan and dexamethasone (dexamethasone 40 mg days 1-4), and 140 patients with advanced cardiac disease with an attenuated dexamethasone schedule (20 mg). Hematologic response rates were 76% in the full-dose group and 51% in the patients receiving the attenuated schedule; the corresponding complete response rates were 31% and 12%, respectively. The median survival was 7.4 years in the full-dose group and 20 months in the attenuated-dose group. Use of high-dose dexamethasone, amino-terminal pro-natriuretic peptide type-B >1800 ng/L, a difference between involved and uninvolved free light chains of >180 mg/L, troponin I >0.07 ng/mL, and response to therapy were independent prognostic determinants. In relapsed/refractory subjects bortezomib combinations granted high hematologic response rates (79% and 63%, respectively), proving the most effective rescue treatment after melphalan and dexamethasone. In summary, melphalan plus dexamethasone was highly effective with minimal toxicity, confirming its central role in the treatment of AL amyloidosis. Future randomized trials will clarify whether bortezomib is best used in frontline combination with melphalan and dexamethasone or as rescue treatment. PMID:24213149

  12. Nucleation studies of ZTC doped with L-arginine in supersaturated aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, T.; Rajasekaran, T. R.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2009-06-01

    The metastable zonewidth studies are carried out for various temperatures for supersaturated aqueous solutions of zinc thiourea chloride added with 1 mole % of L-arginine. The metastable zonewidth is increased with the addition of L-arginine. The induction period is experimentally determined and various critical nucleation parameters such as radius of critical nucleus, number of molecules in the critical nucleus, critical free energy of nucleus and interfacial tension are also calculated based on the classical theory for homogeneous crystal nucleation. The induction period is increased with the increase of L-arginine addition. The critical nucleation parameters vary with increase in doping concentration. It is also observed that the nucleation rate increases with the increase of supersaturation. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurements are carried out with different doping concentration of L-arginine reveal that nonlinear optical (NLO) property is enhanced by L-arginine dopant.

  13. Dimethyl Fumarate Protects Pancreatic Islet Cells and Non-Endocrine Tissue in L-Arginine-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Lourdes; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Li, Shiri; Masuda, Yuichi; Takasu, Chie; Takasu, Mizuki; Vo, Kelly; Farzaneh, Seyed H.; Stamos, Michael J.; Ichii, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive disorder resulting in the destruction and fibrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma which ultimately leads to impairment of the endocrine and exocrine functions. Dimethyl Fumarate (DMF) was recently approved by FDA for treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. DMF's unique anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties make it an interesting drug to test on other inflammatory conditions. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of DMF on islet cells and non-endocrine tissue in a rodent model of L-Arginine-induced CP. Methods Male Wistar rats fed daily DMF (25 mg/kg) or vehicle by oral gavage were given 5 IP injections of L-Arginine (250 mg/100 g×2, 1 hr apart). Rats were assessed with weights and intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT, 2 g/kg). Islets were isolated and assessed for islet mass and viability with flow cytometry. Non-endocrine tissue was assessed for histology, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lipid peroxidation level (MDA). In vitro assessments included determination of heme oxygenase (HO-1) protein expression by Western blot. Results Weight gain was significantly reduced in untreated CP group at 6 weeks. IPGTT revealed significant impairment in untreated CP group and its restoration with DMF therapy (P <0.05). Untreated CP rats had pancreatic atrophy, severe acinar architectural damage, edema, and fatty infiltration as well as elevated MDA and MPO levels, which were significantly improved by DMF treatment. After islet isolation, the volume of non-endocrine tissue was significantly smaller in untreated CP group. Although islet counts were similar in the two groups, islet viability was significantly reduced in untreated CP group and improved with DMF treatment. In vitro incubation of human pancreatic tissue with DMF significantly increased HO-1 expression. Conclusion Administration of DMF attenuated L-Arginine-induced CP and islet function in rats. DMF treatment could be a possible strategy to improve clinical outcome in patients with CP. PMID:25198679

  14. Arabidopsis chloroplasts dissimilate L-arginine and L-citrulline for use as N source.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, R A

    1993-01-01

    When aseptically grown on defined medium with either L-arginine, L-citrulline, or nitrate as the sole N source, Arabidopsis plants grew and developed normally. Three catabolic activities, L-arginine iminohydrolase, L-ornithine carbamoyltransferase, and carbamate kinase, were found in stromal fractions of purified Arabidopsis chloroplasts. These activities dissimilate L-arginine and/or L-citrulline into L-ornithine, ammonium, bicarbonate, and ATP. In physiological tests with purified, intact Arabidopsis chloroplasts, L-[guanido-14C]arginine was rapidly taken up and about 10% was decomposed, releasing 14CO2. Therefore, chloroplasts can take up and dissimilate L-arginine. In principle, chloroplast arginine dissimilation allows Arabidopsis to use L-arginine and/or L-citrulline as general N sources for growth. However, plants rarely encounter exogenous L-arginine and/or L-citrulline in amounts exceeding their biosynthetic needs. Therefore, L-arginine and L-citrulline might serve as endogenous N sources. PMID:8278506

  15. Glossary (Long-Term Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not as intensive as care offered at a nursing home. Types and sizes of facilities vary, ranging from ... a cognitive impairment. Community Spouse Spouse of a nursing home resident applying for or receiving Medicaid long-term ...

  16. L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency protects from metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choe, Chi-un; Nabuurs, Christine; Stockebrand, Malte C; Neu, Axel; Nunes, Patricia; Morellini, Fabio; Sauter, Kathrin; Schillemeit, Stefan; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Marescau, Bart; Heerschap, Arend; Isbrandt, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylated creatine (Cr) serves as an energy buffer for ATP replenishment in organs with highly fluctuating energy demand. The central role of Cr in the brain and muscle is emphasized by severe neurometabolic disorders caused by Cr deficiency. Common symptoms of inborn errors of creatine synthesis or distribution include mental retardation and muscular weakness. Human mutations in l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), the first enzyme of Cr synthesis, lead to severely reduced Cr and guanidinoacetate (GuA) levels. Here, we report the generation and metabolic characterization of AGAT-deficient mice that are devoid of Cr and its precursor GuA. AGAT-deficient mice exhibited decreased fat deposition, attenuated gluconeogenesis, reduced cholesterol levels and enhanced glucose tolerance. Furthermore, Cr deficiency completely protected from the development of metabolic syndrome caused by diet-induced obesity. Biochemical analyses revealed the chronic Cr-dependent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which stimulates catabolic pathways in metabolically relevant tissues such as the brain, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver, suggesting a mechanism underlying the metabolic phenotype. In summary, our results show marked metabolic effects of Cr deficiency via the chronic activation of AMPK in a first animal model of AGAT deficiency. In addition to insights into metabolic changes in Cr deficiency syndromes, our genetic model reveals a novel mechanism as a potential treatment option for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23026748

  17. N?-Nitro-L-Arginine Methylester Ameliorates Myocardial Toxicity Induced by Doxorubicin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Ahmed Mansour; Ayman Gamal El-Din; Mahmoud N. Nagi; Othman A. Al-Shabanah; Abdullah M. Al-Bekairi

    2003-01-01

    The effects of N?-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) and L-arginine on cardiotoxicity that is induced by doxorubicin (Dox) were investigated. A single dose of Dox 15 mg\\/kg i.p. induced cardiotoxicity, manifested biochemically by a significant elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity (EC 2.7.3.2). Moreover, cardiotoxicity was further confirmed by a significant increase in lipid peroxides, measured as malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) in cardiac

  18. L-Arginine Availability Modulates Local Nitric Oxide Production and Parasite Killing in Experimental Trypanosomiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALAIN P. GOBERT; SYLVIE DAULOUEDE; MICHEL LEPOIVRE; JEAN LUC BOUCHER; BERNARD BOUTEILLE; ALAIN BUGUET; RAYMOND CESPUGLIO; BERNARD VEYRET; PHILIPPE VINCENDEAU

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important effector molecule of the immune system in eliminating numerous pathogens. Peritoneal macrophages from Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected mice express type II NO synthase (NOS-II), produce NO, and kill parasites in the presence of L-arginine in vitro. Nevertheless, parasites proliferate in the vicinity of these macrophages in vivo. The present study shows that L-arginine availability modulates

  19. Beneficial effects of l -arginine on reducing obesity: potential mechanisms and important implications for human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason R. McKnight; M. Carey Satterfield; Wenjuan S. Jobgen; Stephen B. Smith; Thomas E. Spencer; Cynthia J. Meininger; Catherine J. McNeal; Guoyao Wu

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, growing interest in the biochemistry, nutrition, and pharmacology of l-arginine has led to extensive studies to explore its nutritional and therapeutic roles in treating and preventing human metabolic\\u000a disorders. Emerging evidence shows that dietary l-arginine supplementation reduces adiposity in genetically obese rats, diet-induced obese rats, finishing pigs, and obese\\u000a human subjects with Type-2 diabetes mellitus. The

  20. Pressor, renal and endocrine effects of l-arginine in essential hypertensives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pedrinelli; M. Ebel; G. Catapano; G. Dell'Omo; M. Ducci; M. Chicca; A. Clerico

    1995-01-01

    The pressor, renal and endocrine effect of the physiological precursor of endothelial derived nitric oxide, l-arginine was compared, with a substrate inactive on nitric oxide, hypertonic d-glucose, in hypertensive patients. Ten mild-moderate essential hypertensives were assigned to either l-arginine (n-5) or d-glucose (n-5). Substances were infused over 25 min at equiosmolal rates preceded and followed by saline infusion for 25

  1. Different effects of l-arginine on the heat-induced unfolding and aggregation of proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrejus Cirkovas; Jolanta Sereikaite

    2011-01-01

    Circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to study the effect of l-arginine on the temperature related unfolding and aggregation of three growth hormones, i.e. human, porcine and mink growth hormones, and human interferon-?2b. l-arginine can stabilize some proteins and suppress their aggregation as it was exemplified by porcine and mink growth hormones. For some other proteins, on the contrary, the effect

  2. Supplemental l-arginine during cardioplegic arrest and reperfusion avoids regional postischemic injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Sato; Zhi-Qing Zhao; D. Scott McGee; Mark W. Williams; John W. Hammon; J. Vinten-Johansen

    1995-01-01

    Unenhanced hypothermic cardioplegia does not prevent postischemic endothelial and contractile dysfunction in hearts subjected to antecedent regional or global ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that supplementing blood cardioplegic solution and reperfusion with the nitric oxide precursor l-arginine would preserve endothelial function, reduce infarct size, and reverse postcardioplegia regional contractile dysfunction by the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. In 23 anesthetized dogs,

  3. L-Arginine enhances aerobic exercise capacity in association with augmented nitric oxide production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREW J. MAXWELL; HOAI-KY V. HO; CHRISTINE Q. LE; PATRICK S. LIN; DANIEL BERNSTEIN; JOHN P. COOKE

    2001-01-01

    L-Arginine enhances aerobic exercise capacity in association with augmented nitric oxide production. J Appl Physiol 90: 933-938, 2001.—We tested whether supplementation with L-arginine can augment aerobic capacity, particularly in con- ditions where endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO) ac- tivity is reduced. Eight-week-old wild-type (E 1 ) and apoli- poprotein E-deficient mice (E 2 ) were divided into six groups; two groups

  4. Macrophage Cytotoxicity: Role for L-Arginine Deiminase and Imino Nitrogen Oxidation to Nitrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Hibbs; Read R. Taintor; Zdenek Vavrin

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that cytotoxic activated macrophages cause inhibition of DNA synthesis, of mitochondrial respiration, and of aconitase activity in tumor target cells. An L-arginine-dependent biochemical pathway synthesizing L-citrulline and nitrite, coupled to an effector mechanism, is now shown to cause this pattern of metabolic inhibition. Murine cytotoxic activated macrophages synthesize L-citrulline and nitrite in the presence of L-arginine

  5. ? Carinae long-term variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damineli, Augusto; Teodoro, Mairan; Corcoran, Michael F.; Groh, Jose H.

    2011-07-01

    We present preliminary results of our analysis on the long-term variations observed in the optical spectrum of the LBV star ? Carinae. Based on the hydrogen line profiles, we conclude that the physical parameters of the primary star did not change in the last 15 years.

  6. Surgery and invasive procedures in patients on long-term treatment with direct oral anticoagulants: thrombin or factor-Xa inhibitors. Recommendations of the Working Group on Perioperative Haemostasis and the French Study Group on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Sié, Pierre; Samama, Charles M; Godier, Anne; Rosencher, Nadia; Steib, Annick; Llau, Juan V; Van der Linden, Philippe; Pernod, Gilles; Lecompte, Thomas; Gouin-Thibault, Isabelle; Albaladejo, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAs)--inhibitors of thrombin or factor-Xa--are expected to replace vitamin K antagonists in most of their indications. Patients receiving long-term treatment with DOAs are likely to be exposed to elective or emergency surgery or invasive procedures. Owing to the present lack of experience in such conditions, we cannot make recommendations, but only propose perioperative management for optimal safety regarding the risk of bleeding and thrombosis. DOAs may increase surgical bleeding, they have no validated antagonists, they cannot be monitored by simple standardized laboratory assays and their pharmacokinetics vary significantly between patients. Although DOAs differ in many respects, the proposals in the perioperative setting need not be specific to each. For procedures with low haemorrhagic risk, a therapeutic window of 48 hours (last administration 24 hours before surgery, restart 24 hours after) is proposed. For procedures with medium or high haemorrhagic risk, we suggest stopping DOAs 5 days before surgery to ensure complete elimination in all patients. Treatment should be resumed only when the risk of bleeding has been controlled. In patients at high thrombotic risk (e.g. those in atrial fibrillation with a history of stroke), bridging with heparin (low molecular-weight heparin, or unfractionated heparin, if the former is contraindicated) is proposed. In an emergency, the procedure should be postponed for as long as possible (minimum 1-2 half-lives) and non-specific antihaemorrhagic agents, such as recombinant human activated factor VIIa or prothrombin complex concentrates should not be given for prophylactic reversal due to their uncertain benefit-risk. PMID:22152517

  7. The protective effects of long-term oral administration of marine collagen hydrolysate from chum salmon on collagen matrix homeostasis in the chronological aged skin of Sprague-Dawley male rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiang; Pei, Xinrong; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Nan; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of marine collagen hydrolysate (MCH) from Chum Salmon skin on the aberrant collagen matrix homeostasis in chronological aged skin, Sprague-Dawley male rats of 4-wk-old were orally administrated with MCH at the diet concentrations of 2.25% and 4.5% for 24 mo. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that MCH had the potential to inhibit the collagen loss and collagen fragmentation in chronological aged skin. Based on immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, collagen type I and III protein expression levels in MCH-treated groups significantly increased as compared with the aged control group. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis showed MCH was able to increase the expressions of procollagen type I and III mRNA (COL1A2 and COL3A1) through activating Smad signaling pathway with up-regulated TGF-?RII (T?RII) expression level. Meanwhile, MCH was shown to inhibit the age-related increased collagen degradation through attenuating MMP-1 expression and increasing tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, MCH could alleviate the oxidative stress in chronological aged skin, which was revealed from the data of superoxide dismutase activity and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level in skin homogenates. Therefore, MCH was demonstrated to have the protective effects on chronological skin aging due to the influence on collagen matrix homeostasis. And the antioxidative property of MCH might play an important role in the process. PMID:21535500

  8. Low-dose nitro-L-arginine administration in baboon (Papio hamadryas) pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, A; Gillin, A G; Duggin, G G; Horvath, J S; Tiller, D J

    1999-11-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of nitric oxide (NO) inhibition on mean arterial pressure (MAP), endothelin (ET) and the renin-aldosterone system in pregnancy in the non-human primate (baboon). 2. Twenty pregnant baboons (Papio hamadryas) were examined prospectively after the administration of an oral NO inhibitor in different phases of pregnancy. Haemodynamic responses to NO inhibition, evidence of pre-eclampsia and the renin-aldosterone system were examined under anaesthesia. 3. Oral NL-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA; 5 or 10 mg/kg) was given for 1 week in early (6-8 weeks gestation), middle (14-16 weeks gestation) and late (22-24 weeks gestation) pregnancy and while non-pregnant. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, haematology, biochemistry, ET, plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone were measured. Foetal effects of NOLA were also examined by ultrasound and neonatal measurements. 4. Nitric oxide inhibition led to an increase in MAP in non-pregnant animals (9 mmHg) and in middle and later pregnancy (6 and 7 mmHg, respectively). Mean arterial pressure in early pregnancy was not affected. A reduction in PRA occurred after NO inhibition in all stages of pregnancy. Significant proteinuria occurred only in late pregnancy. 5. Nitric oxide is involved in the maintenance of lower blood pressure in late pregnancy and inhibition leads to an increase in blood pressure and proteinuria in the baboon. Nitric oxide insufficiency may contribute to the clinical manifestations of human pre-eclampsia. Nitric oxide was not involved in the normal vasodilation of early primate pregnancy. PMID:10561803

  9. L-arginine augments nitric oxide production and mesenteric blood flow in ovine endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Allman, K G; Stoddart, A P; Kennedy, M M; Young, J D

    1996-10-01

    We studied the effects of administrating the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or the nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, on hemodynamic variables and serum nitrate concentrations in an anesthetized ovine model of endotoxemia to assess the effects on regional visceral blood flow and to determine whether L-arginine availability limits nitric oxide production. Animals received Escherichia coli endotoxin (2 micrograms/kg) followed 2 h later by L-NAME (25 mg/kg), L-arginine (0.575 g/kg), or saline administered over 1 h followed by an infusion of the same dose over 8 h (n = 6 per group). Renal and mesenteric blood flow were measured by placement of electromagnetic flow probes, and serum nitrate concentrations were determined using vanadium III chloride or nitrate reductase reduction to nitric oxide or nitrite, respectively. The results showed L-NAME significantly increased systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.01), decreased serum nitrate concentrations (P < 0.05), and caused a transient reduction in mesenteric blood flow (P < 0.05). L-Arginine caused a reduction in systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.01), increased mesenteric blood flow (P < 0.001) and conductance (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in renal arterial blood flow in either group. We conclude that the availability of L-arginine limits nitric oxide production in endotoxemia and, furthermore, that L-arginine administration in this model causes significant mesenteric vasodilatation. L-NAME administration had only limited effect on visceral blood flow despite a marked increase in systemic vascular resistance and a reduction in nitric oxide production. PMID:8897920

  10. Macrophage oxidation of L-arginine to nitrite and nitrate: nitric oxide is an intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Marletta, M.A.; Yoon, P.S.; Iyengar, R.; Leaf, C.D.; Wishnok, J.S.

    1988-11-29

    Previous studies have shown that murine macrophages immunostimulated with interferon ..gamma.. and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide synthesize NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and citrulline from L-arginine by oxidation of one of the two chemically equivalent guanido nitrogens. The enzymatic activity for this very unusual reaction was found in the 100,000g supernatant isolated from activated RAW 264.7 cells and was totally absent in unstimulated cells. This activity requires NADPH and L-arginine and is enhanced by Mg/sup 2 +/. When the subcellular fraction containing the enzyme activity was incubated with L-arginine, NADPH, and Mg/sup 2 +/, the formation of nitric oxide was observed. Nitric oxide formation was dependent on the presence of L-arginine and NADPH and was inhibited by the NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesis inhibitor N/sup G/-monomethyl-L-arginine. Furthermore, when incubated with L-(guanido-/sup 15/N/sub 2/)arginine, the nitric oxide was /sup 15/N-labeled. The results show that nitric oxide is an intermediate in the L-arginine to NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and citrulline pathway. L-Arginine is required for the activation of macrophages to the bactericidal/tumoricidal state and suggests that nitric oxide is serving as an intracellular signal for this activation process in a manner similar to that very recently observed in endothelial cells, where nitric oxide leads to vascular smooth muscle relaxation.

  11. Calcification in coronary artery disease can be reversed by EDTA-tetracycline long-term chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, Benedict S.; Taylor, Karen A.

    2004-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex process with multiple mechanisms and factors contributing to its initiation and progression. Detection and quantification of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores with electron beam tomography has been shown to correlate with obstructive and nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Pathogen-triggered calcification could play a role in CAD. Recent reports suggest that infectious blood nanobacteria (NB) emerge to be such a trigger. So far, minimal or no reversal of atherosclerosis has been claimed by therapies with iv ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA), antibiotics, or other regimens, and therapies for atherosclerosis remain non-curative. We have now combined EDTA with antibiotic tetracycline (comET), an in vitro proven nanobacteriocidal treatment, and tested comET therapy in patients with documented CAD. Three hypotheses were probed: (1) Are NB present in patients with CAD?; (2) Does treatment with comET affect blood NB antigen and serology?; (3) Does a comET decrease CAC scores? One hundred patients with stable CAD and positive CAC scores were enrolled into a 4 month study of comET therapy. ComET therapy is composed of (1) Nutraceutical Powder (Vitamin C, Vitamin B6, Niacin, Folic Acid, Selenium, EDTA, l-Arginine, l-Lysine, l-Ornithine, Bromelain, Trypsin, CoQ10, Grapeseed Extract, Hawthorn Berry, Papain) 5cm(3) taken orally every evening; (2) Tetracycline HCl 500mg taken orally every evening; (3) EDTA 1500mg taken in a rectal suppository base every evening. CAC scoring was repeated at 4 months and serum samples were analyzed for NB antigen and serology at baseline, 2 and 4 months. Complete blood count, metabolic panel, liver function, C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipids were analyzed at baseline and 4 months. Seventy-seven patients completed the study and all patients were positive for NB serology, antigen or both. Responders (n = 44; 57%) had significant decreases in total CAC scores (P = 0.001), the average decrease being 14%. Non-responders (n = 33; 44%) had no change or had increases in CAC scores. Angina was decreased or ablated in 16 of 19 patients (84%). Lipid profiles improved to non-atherogenic direction significantly (P = 0.001), a remarkable finding in a patient group where 86% were on continuous statin medication already before the trial. No adverse physiologic effects were seen in renal, hepatic, or hematopoetic systems. In conclusion, CAC scores decreased during ComET therapy trial in most CAD patients inferring regression of calcified coronary artery plaque volume. The patients tolerated the therapy well and their angina and lipid profiles improved. Further treatment trials for long term therapy with matched controls are warranted. PMID:15364120

  12. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web Consortium, an independent standards body) as a new data interchange tool is being investigated and implemented. In order to facilitate data archiving, Raman data needs calibration as well as some other kinds of data treatment. Figure 1 illustrates schematically the present situation for Raman data calibration in the world-wide Raman spectroscopy community, and presents some of the terminology used.

  13. Physiological cyclic stretch directs L-arginine transport and metabolism to collagen synthesis in vascular smooth muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM DURANTE; LAN LIAO; SYLVIA V. REYNA; KELLY J. PEYTON; ANDREW I. SCHAFER

    2000-01-01

    Application of cyclic stretch (10% at 1 hertz) to vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) in- creased L-arginine uptake and this was associated with a specific increase in cationic amino acid trans- porter-2 (CAT-2) mRNA. In addition, cyclic stretch stimulated L-arginine metabolism by inducing argi- nase I mRNA and arginase activity. In contrast, cyclic stretch inhibited the catabolism of L-arginine to

  14. The unique role of dietary L-arginine in the acceleration of peritoneal macrophage sensitivity to bacterial endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Pekarova, Michaela; Kubala, Lukas; Martiskova, Hana; Papezikova, Ivana; Kralova, Stanislava; Baldus, Stephan; Klinke, Anna; Kuchta, Radoslav; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Kuchtova, Zdenka; Kolarova, Hana; Lojek, Antonin

    2013-05-01

    It is known that cells and organisms can indirectly "sense" changes in L-arginine availability via changes in the activity of various metabolic pathways. However, the mechanism(s) by which genes can be directly regulated by L-arginine in mammalian cells have not yet been elucidated. We investigated the effect of L-arginine in the in vivo model of peritoneal inflammation in mice and in vitro in RAW 264.7 macrophages. A detailed analysis of basic physiological functions and selected intracellular signaling cascades revealed that L-arginine is crucial for the acceleration of macrophage activation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. L-arginine increased the production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, release of Ca(2+), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Interestingly, the effect of L-arginine on macrophage activation was dependent on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and activity of phospholipase C. In RAW 264.7 cells, L-arginine was shown to modulate the response of macrophages toward lipopolysaccharide via the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. According to our data, we concluded that L-arginine availability plays a key role in the initiation of intracellular signaling pathways that trigger the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in murine macrophages. Although macrophages are partially stimulated in the absence of extracellular L-arginine, the presence of this amino acid significantly accelerates the sensitivity of macrophages to bacterial endotoxin. PMID:23184235

  15. Dietary L-Arginine Supplementation Affects the Skeletal Longissimus Muscle Proteome in Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xianyong; Zheng, Chuntian; Hu, Youjun; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuefen; Jiang, Zongyong

    2015-01-01

    Forty-eight Duroc x Landrace x Large White gilts were used to determine the relationship between proteome changes of longissimus muscle and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in arginine-supplemented pigs. Beginning at 60 kg BW, pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented or not with 1% L-arginine until they reached a BW of 100 kg. Supplementation with 1% L-arginine did not affect the growth performance or carcass traits, while it increased IMF content by 32% (P < 0.01), it also decreased the drip loss at 48 h post-mortem and the b* meat color value at 24 h post-mortem; supplementation with 1% dietary L-arginine did not change the proportion of SFA and MUFA in muscle lipids. The proteome changes in longissimus muscle between the control and supplemented pigs showed that L-arginine significantly influenced the abundance of proteins related to energy metabolism, fiber type and structure. The increase in IMF content was positively correlated with the increased abundance of slow twitch troponin I (TNNI1) protein and negatively correlated with myosin heavy chain IIb (MyHC IIb) protein content. It is suggested that the proteome changes in longissimus muscle contributed to the greater IMF content in L-arginine supplemented pigs. PMID:25635834

  16. Novel metabolic roles of L-arginine in body energy metabolism and possible clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Hristina, K; Langerholc, T; Trapecar, M

    2014-01-01

    Although the body can synthesize L-arginine, exogenous supplementation may be sometimes necessary, especially in particular conditions which results in depleted endogenous source. Among diseases and states when exogenous supplementation may be necessary are: burns, severe wounds, infections, insufficient circulation, intensive physical activity or sterility. In recent time, the attention was paid to the use of L-arginine supplementation by athletes during intensive sport activity, to enhance tissue growth and general performance, to potentiate the ergogenic potential and muscle tolerance to high intensive work and gas exchange threshold, to decrease ammonia liberation and recovery performance period and to improve wound healing. High-intensity exercise produces transient hyperammoniemia, presumably due to AMP catabolism. Catabolic pathways of AMP may involve its deamination or dephosphorylation, mainly in order to compensate fall in adenylate enrgy charge (AEC), due to AMP rise. The enzymes of purine metabolism have been documented to be particularly sensitive to the effect of dietary L-arginine supplementation. L-arginine supplementation leads to redirection of AMP deamination on account of increased AMP dephosphorylation and subsequent adenosine production and may increase ATP regeneration via activation of AMP kinase (AMPK) pathway. The central role of AMPK in regulating cellular ATP regeneration, makes this enzyme as a central control point in energy homeostasis. The effects of L-arginine supplementation on energy expenditure were successful independently of age or previous disease, in young sport active, elderly, older population and patients with angina pectoris. PMID:24522477

  17. Spectroscopic and structural studies of L-arginine doped Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govani, Jayesh; Botez, Cristian; Durrer, William; Manciu, Felicia

    2009-03-01

    We report in this study the spectroscopic and structural characterization of standard and L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals synthesized by a solution growth technique. The infrared absorption and Raman results demonstrate chemical functionalization between the amino (NH3^+) groups of the organic material and the phosphate units of the inorganic crystals. This affirmation, which also implies the achievement of successful doping, is supported by the existence of extra vibrational lines in the IR and Raman spectra of L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals; these vibrational lines exhibit shifting towards lower frequencies as compared with the characteristic bands of L-arginine. Incorporation of the amino acid into the structure of the inorganic material is revealed by X-ray diffraction results also, where the shifting of diffraction lines and the appearance of a new one are observed.

  18. Synthesis, thermal and nonlinear optical characterization of L-arginine semi-oxalate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, P.; Gokulraj, S.; Sankar, S.

    2012-06-01

    Optically good quality L-arginine semi-oxalate, an organic nonlinear optical crystal, has been synthesized from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the synthesized L-arginine semi-oxalate crystal possesses triclinic structure with unit cell dimensions as a=5.05Å, b=9.73Å, c=13.12Å, ?=111.030, ?=92.790 and ?=91.910. The Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy was analyzed and the presence of functional groups of L-arginine semi-oxalate was confirmed. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies show that the material is thermally stable up to 1460C and the melting point is 1500C. Kurtz and Perry powder technique confirms that the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency is 0.32 times that of standard organic materials urea and KDP.

  19. A novel sensor based on electropolymerization of ?-cyclodextrin and L-arginine on carbon paste electrode for determination of fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fenfen; Gu, Shuqing; Ding, Yaping; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Li

    2013-04-01

    An electrochemical sensor for fluoroquinolones (FQs) based on polymerization of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and L-arginine (L-arg) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) (P-?-CD-L-arg/CPE) was built for the first time. Synergistic effect of L-arg and ?-CD was used to construct this sensor for quantification of these important antibiotics. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image shows that polymer of ?-CD and L-arg has been successfully modified on electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammograms (CV) further indicate that polymer of ?-CD and L-arg efficiently decreased the charge transfer resistance value of electrode and improved the electron transfer kinetic between analyte and electrode. Under the optimized conditions, this modified electrode was utilized to determine the concentrations of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and gatifloxacin. The differential pulse voltammogram (DPV) exhibits the oxidation peak currents were linearly proportional to their concentration in the range of 0.05-100 ?M for ciprofloxacin, 0.1-100 ?M for ofloxacin, 0.1-40 ?M for norfloxacin and 0.06-100 ?M for gatifloxacin, respectively. This method was also successfully used to detect the concentrations of each drug in pharmaceutical formulations and human serum samples. In addition, this proposed fluoroquinolones sensor exhibited good reproducibility, long-term stability and fast current response. PMID:23498686

  20. Theoretical calculation and vibrational spectral analysis of L-arginine trifluoroacetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z. H.; Zhang, L.; Xu, D.; Wang, X. Q.; Liu, X. J.; Zhang, G. H.

    2008-11-01

    Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the nonlinear optical crystal, L-arginine trifluoroacetate ( L-arginine·CF 3COOH, abbreviated as LATF) have been calculated by the first-principles calculation and investigated in experiment. The calculated results are slightly different from those experimental values because of the distinction resulted from the intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The role of this type of intermolecular interaction on the crystal vibrational spectra and nonlinear optical properties has been discussed. The absorption-edge on the IR side has been estimated by the theoretical approach on basis of the calculated infrared spectrum, which will be meaningful for further research on NLO crystal.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of chemical analogs of L-arginine phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Monaco, S.B.; Davis, L.D.; Velsko, S.P.; Wang, F.T.; Eimerl, D.; Zalkin, A.

    1987-07-01

    L-arginine phosphate is a promising new material for harmonic generation of the Nd:YAG fundamental wavelength, 1064 nm. The synthesis of 24 other salts of L-arginine was attempted and millimeter size crystals of 9 of these were obtained. These were analyzed for crystal structure and chemical composition and the linear and nonlinear optical properties measured. The compounds were all optically biaxial and several gave second harmonic signals greater than quartz. Phasematching has been observed in four of the crystals to date. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Dietary l -arginine supplementation enhances the immune status in early-weaned piglets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bie Tan; Xinguo G. Li; Xiangfeng Kong; Ruilin Huang; Zheng Ruan; Kang Yao; Zeyuan Deng; Mingyong Xie; Izuru Shinzato; Yulong Yin; Guoyao Wu

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation enhances immunity in early weaned\\u000a piglets. Seventy piglets weaned at 7 days of age were assigned to five groups (14 pigs\\/group), representing supplementation\\u000a of 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8% l-arginine to a milk-based formula. On Day 7 after initiation of treatment, spleen weight in piglets supplemented with 0.2

  3. L -arginine and glycine supplementation in the repair of the irradiated colonic wall of rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etiene de Aguiar Picanço; Francisco Lopes-Paulo; Ruy G. Marques; Cristina F. Diestel; Carlos Eduardo R. Caetano; Mônica Vieira Mano de Souza; Gabriela Mendes Moscoso; Helena Maria F. Pazos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  Radiotherapy is widely used for cancer treatment but has harmful effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of L-arginine and glycine supplementation on the colon wall of rats submitted to abdominal irradiation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: I—healthy, II—irradiated with no amino acid supplementation,\\u000a III—irradiated and supplemented with L-arginine, and IV—irradiated and supplemented with

  4. The Metabolism of L-Arginine and Its Significance for the Biosynthesis of Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor: Cultured Endothelial Cells Recycle L- Citrulline to L-Arginine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Hecker; William C. Sessa; Hayley J. Harris; Erik E. Anggard; John R. Vane

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism by which cultured endothelial cells generate L-arginine (L-Arg), the substrat for the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. When Arg-depleted endothelial cells were incubated in Krebs' solution for 60 min, L-Arg levels were significantly (9.7-fold) elevated. The generation of L-Arg coincided with a substantial decrease (90%) in intracellular L-glutamine (L-Gln), whereas all other amino acids were

  5. L-arginine enhances cell proliferation and reduces apoptosis in human endometrial RL95-2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    L-arginine is considered to be one of the most versatile amino acids due to the fact that it serves as a precursor for many important molecules in cellular physiology. When supplemented in the diet, L-arginine can increase the number of implantation sites in mice and rats, suggesting an effect at th...

  6. Regulation of Porcine Conceptus Survival and Growth by L-arginine 

    E-print Network

    Li, Xilong

    2012-02-14

    and amniotic fluids, concentrations of progesterone in maternal plasma and allantoic fluid, compared to the control group. However, dietary supplementation with 0.4% or 0.8% L-arginine between d 14 and 25 of gestation increased total volume of amniotic fluid...

  7. DIETARY L-ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION AFFECTS IMMUNE STATUS OF PREGNANT GILTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary L-arginine supplementation on the immune status of pregnant gilts. A total of 53 pregnant gilts with an initial body weight of 166.25, plus or minus 1.81 kg, and backfat thickness of 13.26, plus or minus 0.21 mm, were housed individually in...

  8. Role of Environmental Conditions on the Interaction of L-Arginine with Oxide Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, K.; Jonsson, C. M.; Jonsson, C. L.; Lee, N.; Cleaves, H. J., II; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    The current study is focused on surface interactions between L-arginine, the most basic protein amino acid, and rutile in NaCl media over a wide range of solution pH conditions, amino acid concentrations, and solution ionic strengths.

  9. EFFECTS OF L-ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION ON LACTATION PERFORMANCE OF FIRST PARITY SOWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of L-arginine (ARG) supplementation (1.0%) on lactation performance using 27 'rst parity sows with litter size greater than 9. An isonitrogenous diet (1.7% L-alanine, ALA) served as the control. Sows were allotted to four dietary treatments which con...

  10. Inhaled L-Arginine Improves Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Pulmonary Function in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartmut Grasemann; Fionn Kurtz; Felix Ratjen

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Nitric oxide formation is deficient in airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Since nitric oxide has bronchodilatory ef- fects, nitric oxide deficiency may contribute to airway obstruction in CF. Objectives: We reasoned that inhalation of L-arginine, the precursor of enzymatic nitric oxide formation, could improve airway nitric oxide formation and pulmonary function in patients with CF. Measurements: Exhaled

  11. L-arginine transport and nitric oxide synthesis in human endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Pérez, Francisca; Radojkovic, Claudia; Aguilera, Valeria; Veas, Carlos; González, Marcelo; Lamperti, Liliana; Escudero, Carlos; Aguayo, Claudio

    2012-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous vasodilator molecule synthetized from L-arginine by a family of nitric oxide synthases. In differentiated human endothelial cells, it is well known that L-arginine uptake via cationic amino acid transporters (y(+)/CAT) or system y(+)L is required for the NO synthesis via endothelial nitric oxide synthase, but there are no reports in human endothelial progenitor cell (hEPC). Therefore, we isolated hEPCs from peripheral blood of healthy donors and cultured them for either 3 (hEPC-3d) or 14 days (hEPC-14d) to characterize the L-arginine transport and NO synthesis in those cells. L-arginine transport and NO synthesis were analyzed in the presence or absence of N-ethylmaleimide or L-nitroarginine methyl ester, as inhibitors of y(+)/CAT system and nitric oxide synthases, respectively. The results showed that L-arginine uptake is higher in hEPC-14d than in hEPC-3d. Kinetic parameters for L-arginine transport showed the existence of at least 2 transporter systems in hEPC: a high affinity transporter system (K(m)= 4.8 ± 1.1 ?M for hEPC-3d and 6.1 ± 2.4 ?M for hEPC-14d) and a medium affinity transporter system (K(m) = 85.1 ± 4.0 ?M for hEPC-3d and 95.1 ± 8 ?M for hEPC-14d). Accordingly, hEPC expressed mRNA and protein for CAT-1 (ie, system y(+)) and mRNA for 2 subunits of y(+)L system, yLAT1, and 4F2hc. Higher L-citruline production and NO bioavailability (4-fold), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (both mRNA and protein) were observed in hEPC-14d compared with hEPC-3d. Finally, the high L-citruline formation observed in hEPC-14d was blocked by N-ethylmaleimide. In conclusion, this study allowed to identity a functional L-arginine/NO pathway in two hEPC differentiation stages, which improves the understanding of the physiology of these precursor cells. PMID:23143655

  12. Long-term injectable progestogens.

    PubMed

    Tyler, E T

    1967-01-01

    Prof. Edward T. Tyler, medical director of the Family Planning Clinics of Los Angeles, gave an interim report on a study into the use of unjectable progestogens as a long-term method of contraception. An intramuscular injection of medroxy-progesterone acetate (150 mg.) is given three-monthly, with no supplementary oestrogen. Over the past two years about 150 women began this form of contraception in a continuing study. There have been no pregnancies in the series. The most frequent side-effect has been bleeding. An attempt was made to see how soon the contraceptive effects cease after treatment is stopped. The injections were therefore stopped in 36 women, who were then fitted with various mechanical forms of contraception, including IUDs. Tests for the re-establishment of ovulation were undertaken, including basal temperature studies, frequent pelvic examinations, cervical and vagianl smears, endometrial biopsies, gonadotrophin and pregnanediol estimations. It appeared that the earliest return of ovulation is a little under six months from the time of the last injection. The early results of this study, presented here, suggest that long-acting injectable progestogens are an extremely effective form of contraception. While the delay in return of fertility for some months may be a problem in certain areas, this method may well be of importance in general population control. PMID:12254706

  13. Low-dose L-arginine administration increases microperfusion of hindlimb muscle without affecting blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Fumio; Takagi, Tomo; Sato, Hiroyuki; Ignarro, Louis J

    2007-01-23

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of exogenous L-arginine on the capillary blood flow of peripheral tissues of normotensive subjects. Rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, and the blood flow of femoral, dorsal, and ventral skin and gastrocnemius and soleus muscle was measured by laser Doppler flow and microsphere methods to compare the blood flow before and after the L-arginine infusion. L-arginine lowered the mean blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner, but a statistically significant reduction in mean blood pressure was detected only at a high dose of 500 mg/kg of body weight. The significant blood flow increment was detected after the L-arginine infusion at doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg without causing hypotension. Nicardipine, a calcium channel blocker, also increased the skin blood flow, but the blood flow increment and blood pressure fall were comparable. A significant increment in microperfusion was detected in gastrocnemius, soleus muscle, and ventral skin compared with control group by the microsphere method. No adverse effects were observed during L-arginine and microsphere infusion. The present work indicates that l-arginine infusion increases muscle capillary blood flow in rats that are not performing exercise. Supplementation with l-arginine might provide additional blood flow at rest and during exercise and result in the improvement of muscle performance and exercise capacity. PMID:17229841

  14. L-Arginine Affects Aerobic Capacity and Muscle Metabolism in MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes) Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rodan, Lance H.; Wells, Greg D.; Banks, Laura; Thompson, Sara; Schneiderman, Jane E.; Tein, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of L-arginine (L-Arg) on total body aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism as assessed by 31Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS) in patients with MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes) syndrome. Methods We performed a case control study in 3 MELAS siblings (m.3243A>G tRNAleu(UUR) in MTTL1 gene) with different % blood mutant mtDNA to evaluate total body maximal aerobic capacity (VO2peak) using graded cycle ergometry and muscle metabolism using 31P-MRS. We then ran a clinical trial pilot study in MELAS sibs to assess response of these parameters to single dose and a 6-week steady-state trial of oral L-Arginine. Results At baseline (no L-Arg), MELAS had lower serum Arg (p = 0.001). On 31P-MRS muscle at rest, MELAS subjects had increased phosphocreatine (PCr) (p = 0.05), decreased ATP (p = 0.018), and decreased intracellular Mg2+ (p = 0.0002) when compared to matched controls. With L-arginine therapy, the following trends were noted in MELAS siblings on cycle ergometry: (1) increase in mean % maximum work at anaerobic threshold (AT) (2) increase in % maximum heart rate at AT (3) small increase in VO2peak. On 31P-MRS the following mean trends were noted: (1) A blunted decrease in pH after exercise (less acidosis) (2) increase in Pi/PCr ratio (ADP) suggesting increased work capacity (3) a faster half time of PCr recovery (marker of mitochondrial activity) following 5 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (4) increase in torque. Significance These results suggest an improvement in aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects in response to supplementation with L-Arg. Intramyocellular hypomagnesemia is a novel finding that warrants further study. Classification of Evidence Class III evidence that L-arginine improves aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01603446. PMID:25993630

  15. Nitric-Oxide Supplementation for Treatment of Long-Term Complications in Argininosuccinic Aciduria

    PubMed Central

    Nagamani, Sandesh C.S.; Campeau, Philippe M.; Shchelochkov, Oleg A.; Premkumar, Muralidhar H.; Guse, Kilian; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Chen, Yuqing; Sun, Qin; Tang, Yaoping; Palmer, Donna; Reddy, Anilkumar K.; Li, Li; Slesnick, Timothy C.; Feig, Daniel I.; Caudle, Susan; Harrison, David; Salviati, Leonardo; Marini, Juan C.; Bryan, Nathan S.; Erez, Ayelet; Lee, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is required for the synthesis and channeling of L-arginine to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for nitric oxide (NO) production. Congenital ASL deficiency causes argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), the second most common urea-cycle disorder, and leads to deficiency of both ureagenesis and NO production. Subjects with ASA have been reported to develop long-term complications such as hypertension and neurocognitive deficits despite early initiation of therapy and the absence of documented hyperammonemia. In order to distinguish the relative contributions of the hepatic urea-cycle defect from those of the NO deficiency to the phenotype, we performed liver-directed gene therapy in a mouse model of ASA. Whereas the gene therapy corrected the ureagenesis defect, the systemic hypertension in mice could be corrected by treatment with an exogenous NO source. In an ASA subject with severe hypertension refractory to antihypertensive medications, monotherapy with NO supplements resulted in the long-term control of hypertension and a decrease in cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, the NO therapy was associated with an improvement in some neuropsychological parameters pertaining to verbal memory and nonverbal problem solving. Our data show that ASA, in addition to being a classical urea-cycle disorder, is also a model of congenital human NO deficiency and that ASA subjects could potentially benefit from NO supplementation. Hence, NO supplementation should be investigated for the long-term treatment of this condition. PMID:22541557

  16. Protective effect of lawsone on L-Arginine induced acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Biradar, Sandeep; Veeresh, B

    2013-03-01

    The efficacy of lawsone against L-arginine induced acute pancreatitis was determined at 24 h by determination of serum levels of amylase, lipase and proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, C-reactive proteins and interleukin (IL)], pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], nitrate/nitrite levels, and the wet weight/body weight ratio. Lawsone and methylprednisolone treatments significantly attenuated the L-arginine- induced increases in pancreatic wet weight/body weight ratio, and decreased the serum levels of amylase and lipase, and TNF-alpha and IL-6 and significantly lowered pancreatic levels of MPO, TBARS, and nitrate/nitrite. The histoimmunological findings further proved the amelioration of pancreatic injury by lawsone and further proved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent property of lawsone. PMID:23678547

  17. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Is Necessary in the Development of Arteriosclerosis by Recruiting\\/Activating Monocytes in a Rat Model of Long-Term Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingwei Zhao; Kensuke Egashira; Shujiro Inoue; Makoto Usui; Shiro Kitamoto; Weihua Ni; Minako Ishibashi; Ken-ichi Hiasa; Toshihiro Ichiki; Masabumi Shibuya; Akira Takeshita

    Background—It remains unclear whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a proarteriosclerotic or an antiarteriosclerotic factor. We recently reported that long-term inhibition of nitric oxide by administering N-nitro-L- arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induces coronary vascular inflammation and arteriosclerosis. Methods and Results—We used this animal model to investigate the role of VEGF in arteriosclerosis. We blocked VEGF activity in vivo by

  18. The Utilization of Dipeptides Containing L-Arginine by Chicken Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-L. SU; R. E. AUSTIC

    L-Arginine is the precursor of NO, a cytotoxic agent of macrophages. Studies were carried out to determine whether dipeptides containing arginine can be utilized by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated avian macrophages for NO production. A chicken macrophage cell line, the HD11 cell, was used in all experiments. Peptidase activities were observed in fetal bovine serum (FBS) and macrophage serum free medium (Mac-SFM).

  19. L-arginine availability regulates T-lymphocyte cell-cycle progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo C. Rodriguez; David G. Quiceno; Augusto C. Ochoa

    2006-01-01

    L-arginine (L-Arg) plays a central role in several biologic systems including the regulation of T-cell function. L-Arg deple- tion by myeloid-derived suppressor cells producing arginase I is seen in patients with cancer inducing T-cell anergy. We studied how L-Arg starvation could regu- late T-cell-cycle progression. Stimulated T cells cultured in the absence of L-Arg are arrested in the G0-G1 phase

  20. The role of antioxidants in models of inflammation: Emphasis on l -arginine and arachidonic acid metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kapoor; A. N. Clarkson; B. A. Sutherland; I. Appleton

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory processes are made up of a multitude of complex cascades. Under physiological conditions these processes aid\\u000a in tissue repair. However, under pathophysiological environments, such as wound healing and hypoxia-ischaemia (HI), inflammatory\\u000a mediators become imbalanced, resulting in tissue destruction. This review addresses the changes in reactive oxygen species\\u000a (ROS), l-arginine and arachidonic acid metabolism in wound healing and HI and

  1. Characterization and growth factor stimulation of l -arginine transport in a human colon cancer cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Carlos Cendan; Wiley W. Souba; Edward M. Copeland III; D. Scott Lind

    1995-01-01

    Background: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) are potent mitogens that contribute to abnormal growth\\u000a regulation in colon cancer. Growth factors have been shown to regulate transmembrane nutrient uptake as an adaptive response\\u000a to support cellular proliferation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: The transport of L-arginine by the SW480 primary human colon adenocarcinoma cell line was characterized by assaying the

  2. Dietary l -arginine supplementation alleviates immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide in weaned pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Han; Y. L. Liu; W. Fan; J. Chao; Y. Q. Hou; Y. L. Yin; H. L. Zhu; G. Q. Meng; Z. Q. Che

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of l-arginine (Arg) on performance and immune function in cyclophosphamide (CY) immunosuppressed weaned pigs. The weaned pigs\\u000a were allotted randomly into one of three treatments, including: (1) non-challenged control; (2) CY-challenged group; and (3)\\u000a CY + 0.5% Arg. On days 14 and 21 of the trial, pigs were injected with CY or sterile saline.

  3. Enhanced L-arginine-induced vasoreactivity suggests endothelial dysfunction in CADASIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Peters; T. Freilinger; C. Opherk; T. Pfefferkorn; M. Dichgans

    2008-01-01

    Background\\u000a   Mutations in the Notch3 gene are the cause of CADASIL, a hereditary small vessel disease leading to stroke and vascular dementia. The disease is\\u000a characterized by ultrastructural granular deposits within small arterial vessels and degeneration of vascular smooth muscle\\u000a cells. Yet, little is known about endothelial function in CADASIL. Vasoreactivity induced by L-arginine, which is the substrate\\u000a for endothelial

  4. Nitric oxide biosynthesis, nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and arginase competition for L-arginine utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Boucher; C. Moali; J. P. Tenu

    1999-01-01

    .   Nitric oxide (NO) is a recently discovered mediator produced by mammalian cells. It plays a key role in neurotransmission,\\u000a control of blood pressure, and cellular defense mechanisms. Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) catalyze the oxidation of L-arginine\\u000a to NO and L-citrulline. NOSs are unique enzymes in that they possess on the same polypeptidic chain a reductase domain and\\u000a an oxygenase

  5. Thermal, mechanical, electrical, linear and nonlinear optical properties of L-arginine dihydrofluoride single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, D.; Menon, Vinay Raj; Sagayaraj, P.; Madhavan, J.

    2010-01-01

    L-arginine dihydrofluoride of dimensions upto 15×10×9 mm 3 was successfully grown by slow evaporation technique from aqueous solution. The crystal was characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, thermal and microhardness studies. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the crystal were studied as function of frequency. Photoconductivity studies were also carried out on the sample. Kurtz powder SHG measurement confirms the NLO property of the grown crystals.

  6. The endothelial L-arginine\\/nitric oxide pathway and the renal circulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. Liischer; H. A. Bock

    1991-01-01

    Summary Endothelial cells contain an enzyme(s) which produces nitric oxide from L-arginine in response to a variety of mechanical stimuli as well as to autacoids and local and circulating hormones. Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet function; it exerts its effects via activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and subsequent formation of cyclic 3'–5'-guanosine monophosphate. In the

  7. Research Note Effect of Eimeria acervulina Infections on Plasma L-Arginine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Allen; R. H. Fetterer

    As part of a program to study the patho- logical effects of coccidia infections on growth, we have examined the relationship of plasma L-arginine (ARG) levels to infective doses of Eimeria acervulina and infec- tion-associated changes in weight gain, plasma carot- enoids, and plasma NO2? + NO3?. Chickens consuming a starter ration containing 1.68% ARG were infected with a range

  8. L-Arginine at the Crossroads of Biochemical Pathways Involved in Myocardial Hypertrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuele Giordano; Lisa M. Shantz; Rebecca A. Hillary; Carlo Guarnieri; Claudio M. Caldarera; Anthony E. Pegg

    \\u000a Both ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities rely on the availability of the common substrate\\u000a L-arginine, which is directly processed by NOS to nitric oxide (NO) and L-citrulline. Alternatively, arginine is acted on\\u000a by arginase in the urea cycle to produce ornithine, which then enters polyamine biosynthesis. Evidence in the literature points\\u000a out that NO is able

  9. Metabolomic analysis of the response of growing pigs to dietary l -arginine supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinghua He; Xiangfeng Kong; Guoyao Wu; Pingping Ren; Huiru Tang; Fuhua Hao; Ruilin Huang; Tiejun Li; Bie Tan; Peng Li; Zhiru Tang; Yulong Yin; Yongning Wu

    2009-01-01

    Arginine plays an important role regulating nutrient metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study\\u000a was conducted to determine the effect of dietary arginine supplementation on the metabolome in serum of growing pigs using\\u000a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixteen 120-day-old pigs (48 ± 1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two groups,\\u000a representing supplementation with 0 or 1.0% l-arginine

  10. Dietary L-Arginine Normalizes Endothelin-Induced Vascular Contractions in Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laddawal Phivthong-ngam; Stefanie M. Bode-Boger; Rainer H. Boger; Michael Bohme; Ralf P. Brandes; Jiirgen C. Frolich

    Summary: The endothelium regulates vascular function by re- leasing the vasodilator autacoid nitric oxide (NO) and the vaso- constrictor peptide endothelin-I (ET-I). Impaired activity of NO as well as excessive activity of ET-I have been demon- strated in hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Because dietary L-arginine can restore NO function and improve abnor- mal endothelium-dependent relaxation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits, we examined the

  11. Macrophage oxidation of L-arginine to nitrite and nitrate: nitric oxide is an intermediate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Marletta; Poksyn S. Yoon; Radha Iyengar; Cynthia D. Leaf; John S. Wishnok

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that murine macrophages immunostimulated with interferon ..gamma.. and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide synthesize NOâ⁻, NOâ⁻, and citrulline from L-arginine by oxidation of one of the two chemically equivalent guanido nitrogens. The enzymatic activity for this very unusual reaction was found in the 100,000g supernatant isolated from activated RAW 264.7 cells and was totally absent in unstimulated cells.

  12. Long-Term Intravesical Oxybutynin Chloride Therapy in Children with Myelodysplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly A. Painter; Thomas S. Vates; Timothy P. Bukowski; Patricia Fleming; Andrew L. Freedman; Craig A. Smith; Ricardo Gonzalez; Alan D. Perlmutter

    1996-01-01

    PurposeWe evaluated the clinical use of long-term intravesical oxybutynin chloride in the treatment of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in children with myelodysplasia who could not tolerate oral anticholinergics.

  13. Adsorption behaviors of L-arginine from aqueous solutions on a spherical cellulose adsorbent containing the sulfonic group.

    PubMed

    Liu, Minghua; Huang, Jianhui; Deng, Yun

    2007-03-01

    An investigation was conducted regarding the adsorption and desorption of L-arginine from aqueous solutions with a new spherical cellulose adsorbent containing the sulfonic group. The adsorption of L-arginine on the adsorbent was time, pH, initial concentration of L-arginine and temperature dependent. The adsorption process followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and was endothermic (DeltaH =24.66 KJ/mol). Almost 100% L-arginine adsorbed on the adsorbent could be recovered with a 2.0 mol/L NH4OH or 2.0 mol/L NH4Cl aqueous solution. After 25 and 40 cycles of adsorption and desorption, the decrease in adsorption capacity reached to 4.9% and 20.3%, respectively. PMID:16765043

  14. One-Pot Green Synthesis and Bioapplication of l-Arginine-Capped Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yongchao; Yin, Weiwei; Liu, Jinting; Xi, Rimo; Zhan, Jinhua

    2010-02-01

    Water-soluble l-arginine-capped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using a one-pot and green method. Nontoxic, renewable and inexpensive reagents including FeCl3, l-arginine, glycerol and water were chosen as raw materials. Fe3O4 nanoparticles show different dispersive states in acidic and alkaline solutions for the two distinct forms of surface binding l-arginine. Powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the structure of Fe3O4 nanocrystals. The products behave like superparamagnetism at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 49.9 emu g-1 and negligible remanence or coercivity. In the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride, the anti-chloramphenicol monoclonal antibodies were connected to the l-arginine-capped magnetite nanoparticles. The as-prepared conjugates could be used in immunomagnetic assay.

  15. Self-interaction of native and denatured lysozyme in the presence of osmolytes, l-arginine and guanidine hydrochloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Yan Dong; Jian-Hua Liu; Fu-Feng Liu; Yan Sun

    2009-01-01

    Osmolyte molecules such as betaine and trehalose are protein stabilizers while l-arginine (Arg) and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) are the most widely used aggregation suppressor in protein refolding. We have herein studied the effects of the osmolyte molecules and l-arginine together with GdnHCl (0–6mol\\/L) on the intermolecular interaction of native and denatured lysozyme by self-interaction chromatography. The self-interaction is characterized in

  16. Effect of arginase II on L-arginine depletion and cell growth in murine cell lines of renal cell carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J Tate; Derek J Vonderhaar; Yupanqui A Caldas; Toye Metoyer; John R Patterson; Diego H Aviles; Arnold H Zea

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: L-arginine is the common substrate for the two isoforms of arginase. Arginase I, highly expressed in the liver and arginase II mainly expressed in the kidney. Arginase I-producing myeloid derived suppressor cells have been shown to inhibit T-cell function by the depletion of L-arginine. On the other hand, arginase II has been detected in patients with cancer and is

  17. The L-Arginine: Nitric Oxide Pathway Is the Major Source of Plasma Nitrite in Fasted Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Rhodes; A. M. Leone; P. L. Francis; A. D. Struthers; S. Moncada

    1995-01-01

    15N guanidino-labelled L-arginine was infused into fasted human volunteers giving, at equilibrium, a stable 1:10 ratio of 15N to 14N arginine in the plasma. Separate GC-MS assays were used to compare the degree of enrichment of plasma arginine, nitrite and nitrate and thus define the quantitative relationship between the L-arginine:nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the formation of these oxides of

  18. Changes in pulmonary arteriole protein kinase c? expression associated with supplemental L-arginine in broilers during cool temperature exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Tan; W. D. Sun; Y. X. Hu; J-CH. Li; J. Q. Pan; J. Y. Wang; X.-L. Wang

    2006-01-01

    1. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of supplemental L-arginine on pulmonary arteriole protein kinase C? (PKC?) expression in broilers exposed to cool temperature, to investigate further the molecular mechanisms of supplemental L-arginine on modulating pulmonary vascular functions in hypertensive broilers.2. Broilers were subjected to sub-thermoneutral (cool) temperature to induce pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), and an additional

  19. Long-term treatment with recombinant

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Joe Henry

    Long-term treatment with recombinant nerve growth factor for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. No effective treatment is available. The au- thors investigated the long-term effect (48 weeks and significantly im- proved pain symptoms. However, there was no improvement of neuropathy severity as assessed

  20. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-01-01

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor.

  1. Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    MedlinePLUS

    Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program (OAA, Title VII, Chapter 2, Sections 711/712) The Purpose of the Program and How it ... Services Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2013 indicate that ...

  2. Veterans Affairs Benefits (Long-Term Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to obtain information about services available in your area. LTC PathFinder Long-term care is a big topic. Use the PathFinder to get to the information most relevant and useful to you now. Please fill out all questions How old are you? Less than 50 51-64 65+ Do you currently require long-term ...

  3. Prevention of muscle fibers atrophy during gravitational unloading: The effect of L-arginine administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashkina, N.; Lomonosova, Y.; Shevchenko, T. F.; Bugrova, A. E.; Turtikova, O. V.; Kalamkarov, G. R.; Nemirovskaya, T. L.

    2011-05-01

    Gravitational unloading results in pronounced atrophy of m.soleus. Probably, the output of NO is controlled by the muscle activity. We hypothesized that NO may be involved in the protein metabolism and increase of its concentration in muscle can prevent atrophic changes induced by gravitational unloading. In order to test the hypothesis we applied NO donor L-arginine during gravitational unloading. 2.5-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 220-230g were divided into sedentary control group (CTR, n=7), 14-day hindlimb suspension (HS, n=7), 14 days of hindlimb suspension+ L-arginine (HSL, n=7) (with a daily supplementation of 500 mg/kg wt L-arginine) and 14 days of hindlimb suspension+ L-NAME (HSN, n=7) (90 mg/kg wt during 14 days). Cross sectional area (CSA) of slow twitch (ST) and fast twitch (FT) soleus muscle fibers decreased by 45% and 28% in the HS group ( p<0.05) and 40% and 25% in the HSN group, as compared to the CTR group ( p<0.05), respectively. CSA of ST and FT muscle fibers were 25% and 16% larger in the HSL group in comparison with the HS group ( p<0.05), respectively. The atrophy of FT muscle fibers in the HSL group was completely prevented since FT fiber CSA had no significant differences from the CTR group. In HS group, the percentage of fibers revealing either gaps/disruption of the dystrophin layer of the myofiber surface membrane increased by 27% and 17%, respectively, as compared to the controls (CTR group, p<0.05). The destructions in dystrophin layer integrity and reductions of desmin content were significantly prevented in HSL group. NO concentration decreased by 60% in the HS group (as well as HSN group) and at the same time no changes were detectable in the HSL group. This fact indicates the compensation of NO content in the unloaded muscle under L-arginine administration. The levels of atrogin-1 mRNA were considerably altered in suspended animals (HS group: plus 27%, HSL group: minus 13%) as compared to the control level. Conclusion: L-arginine administration allows maintaining NO concentration in m.soleus at the level of cage control group, prevents from dystrophin layer destruction, decreases the atrogin mRNA concentration in the muscle and atrophy level under gravitational unloading.

  4. Effect of Long-Term Castration and Long-Term Androgen Treatment on Sexually Dimorphic

    E-print Network

    Crews, David

    Effect of Long-Term Castration and Long-Term Androgen Treatment on Sexually Dimorphic Estrogen be modified by steroid hormone manipulation. We castrated male whiptail lizards for 1 week (short term) or 6 that in male whiptail lizards, long-term castration increases sensitivity to estradiol as measured by induction

  5. Long-term care and the elderly

    E-print Network

    Coe, Norma B

    2005-01-01

    Long-term care expenditures represent one of the largest uninsured financial risks facing the elderly. Medicaid provides incomplete insurance against these costs: unlimited nursing home benefits with a deductible equal to ...

  6. Long Term TOA - M Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-08-06

    ... 30 years to date.   The proposed project utilizes knowledge gained in the last 10 years through CERES data analyses and apply the knowledge to existing data to develop long-term (nearly 30 years) consistent ...

  7. CHAPTER FOUR COLLABORATIVE LONG-TERM ETHNOGRAPHY

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    for the Tzintzuntzan project was begun in 1998 and is still in progress (see the Tzintzuntzan website, currently available at www.santafe.edu/tarasco/Mexican.html). Through longitudinal analysis, long-term field sites

  8. Arginase Activity in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines: Nv-Hydroxy-L-arginine Selectively Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 Cells1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajan Singh; Shehla Pervin; Ardeshir Karimi; Stephen Cederbaum; Gautam Chaudhuri

    L-Arginine is the common substrate for two enzymes, arginase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Arginase converts L-arginine to L-ornithine, which is the precursor of polyamines, which are essential components of cell proliferation. NOS converts L-arginine to produce NO, which inhibits proliferation of many cell lines. Various human breast cancer cell lines were initially screened for the presence of arginase and

  9. Transforming Growth Factor-b1 Stimulates L-Arginine Transport and Metabolism in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Role in Polyamine and Collagen Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Durante; Lan Liao; Sylvia V. Reyna; Kelly J. Peyton; Andrew I. Schafer

    Background—Transforming growth factor- b1 (TGF-b1) contributes to arterial remodeling by stimulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth and collagen synthesis at sites of vascular injury. Because L-arginine is metabolized to growth-stimulatory polyamines and to the essential collagen precursor L-proline, we examined whether TGF-b1 regulates the transcellular transport and metabolism of L-arginine by VSMCs. Methods and Results—TGF- b1 increased L-arginine uptake,

  10. L-Arginine Supplementation Causes Additional Effects on Exercise-Induced Angiogenesis and VEGF Expression in the Heart and Hind-Leg Muscles of Middle-Aged Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junichi Suzuki

    2006-01-01

    The effects of dietary L-arginine supplementation on exercise-induced angiogenesis and VEGF expression were ex- amined in male middle-aged (12 months old) Wistar rats. Exer- cise training lasted for six weeks at 20 m\\/min on a 0% gradient for 10-60 min\\/day. Rats in the L-arginine-treated groups drank water containing 2.5% L-arginine. According to histochemical identification of the capillary profile, in the

  11. LONG-TERM OUTCOME AFTER PULMONARY ENDARTERECTOMY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo G. Corsico; Andrea M. D'Armini; Isa Cerveri; Catherine Klersy; Elena Ansaldo; Rosanna Niniano; Elena Gatto; Cristian Monterosso; Marco Morsolini; Salvatore Nicolardi; Corrado Tramontin; Ernesto Pozzi; Mario Viganò

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: There are few follow-up studies on long-term cardiopul- monary function after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), the oper- ation of choice for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hyperten- sion (CTEPH). Objectives: To prospectively evaluate long-term outcome of patients with CTEPH treated with PEA. Methods: Between 1994 and 2006, 157 patients (mean age 55 yr) were treated with PEA at Pavia University Hospital. The

  12. Long-term broadband technology forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KJELL STORDAHL

    The paper gives an overview of the relevant broadband technologies, describes their market positions and possibilities. Diffusion models are used to make long-term broadband forecasts for the Western European residential market. The forecasts are separated for the main broadband technologies ADSL, ADSL2+\\/VDSL, Cable modem and other technologies (FTTx, BWA) based on market share predictions for each technology. The long-term forecasts

  13. [Exogenous L-arginine modulates mitochondrial and microsomal oxidation in acute and intermittent normobaric hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Kurhaliuk, N M; Serebrovs'ka, T V; Koliesnikova, Ie E; Aleksiuk, L I

    2002-01-01

    It is known that protective effects of adaptation to intermittent hypoxia are mediated partly by stimulating of some mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes activity. Our objective was to investigate whether exogenous NO (L-arginine) or NO blocker (L-NNA) modulate mitochondrial and microsomal oxidation during acute hypoxia (AH) and intermittent hypoxic training (IHT). In control rats AH (inhalation of 7% O2, 30 min) provoked a decrease of ADP-stimulated liver mitochondrial respiration. However, the pattern of oxidation substrates was different from normoxic controls. In the presence of succinate, an increase of the Chance respiratory coefficient and the phosphorylation rate and a decrease of O2 uptake efficacy with simultaneous activation of aspartate aminotransferase activity were observed. Simultaneously, oxidation of a-ketoglutarate, an NAD-dependent substrate, was inhibited. IHT caused reorganization of mitochondrial energy metabolism favoring NAD-dependent oxidation and improving the protection against acute hypoxia. After 14 days of normobaric IHT (10% O2, 15-min sessions with 15 min rest intervals, 5 times daily), in comparison to controls acute hypoxic challenge in the presence of succinate resulted in an increase of the Chance respiratory coefficient, the ADP/O ratio and the phosphorylation rate, in activation of both aspartate and alanine aminotranferases, and in less lipid peroxidation. The microsomal oxidation was not changed under AH per se but significantly decreased (by 37%) during acute hypoxic test after ITH. These findings indicated a more efficient use of oxygen under hypoxic conditions after IHT pre-conditioning. The combination of IHT with L-arginine treatment (600 mg/kg intraperitoneally, daily before IHT sessions) provoked more pronounced decrease of tissue oxygen consumption and microsomal oxidative processes in comparison with IHT animals. L-arginine effects were abolished by the NO-synthase blocker L-NNA. We conclude that the combination of IHT with NO-donor treatment provokes a decrease in aerobic link of energy regulation thereby increasing the tolerance to episodes of acute hypoxia. PMID:12449619

  14. l Arginine reduces thioflavin T fluorescence but not fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuan-Nan Liu; Hsiang-Yun Wang; Chih-Yuan Chen; Steven S.-S. Wang

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the effects of l-arginine (l-Arg) on the aggregation and amyloid fibrillation of bovine serum albumin (BSA). We demonstrate that l-Arg dose-dependently reduces thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence of BSA within the l-Arg concentration range used (0–1.4 M). However, as revealed by electron microscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and dynamic\\u000a light scattering results, l-Arg does not prevent amyloid-like fibril formation by

  15. X-ray radiation of poly-L-arginine hydrochloride and multilayered DNA-coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stypczy?ska, Agnieszka; Nixon, Tony; Mason, Nigel

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the chemical changes induced in thin films of the dry polypeptide poly-L-arginine hydrochloride and its mixture with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) during 5 h of soft X-ray exposure. The physical and chemical effects of the soft X-ray irradiation were studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Analysis of O1 s, N1 s and C1 s features in XPS spectra reveals the existence of several routes of radiation-induced decomposition and shows quantitative and qualitative changes.

  16. Temperature-insensitive phase matching for second-harmonic generation in deuterated l -arginine phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, C.E.; Eimerl, D.; Velsko, S.P. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, M.S. L-490, P. O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

    1991-12-01

    We present measurements of the thermal behavior of the second-harmonic generation (SHG) phase-matching loci of deuterated {ital l}-arginine phosphate (dLAP) at a fundamental wavelength of 1.064 {mu}m. These results clearly indicate the existence of temperature-insensitive phase-matching directions that possess large nonlinear couplings. To the best of our knowledge, this property of temperature-insensitive SHG phase-matching directions is unique to dLAP. Such behavior can greatly decrease thermal contributions to phase mismatch in high-average-power harmonic conversion.

  17. Growth and characterization of NLO based L-arginine maleate dihydrate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraniraj, T.; Philominathan, P.

    2010-01-01

    Single crystals of L-arginine maleate dihydrate (LAMD) were successfully grown from aqueous solution by solvent evaporation technique. As-grown crystals were analyzed by different instrumentation techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and UV-vis near infrared (NIR) transmittance spectra. Thermal behavior has been studied with TGA/DTA analyses. The optical second harmonic generation (SHG) conversion efficiency of LAMD was determined using Kurtz powder technique and found to be 1.5 times that of KDP.

  18. l Arginine stimulates proliferation and prevents endotoxin-induced death of intestinal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bie Tan; Yulong Yin; Xiangfeng Kong; Peng Li; Xilong Li; Haijun Gao; Xinguo Li; Ruilin Huang; Guoyao Wu

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that l-arginine (Arg) may stimulate cell proliferation and prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced death of intestinal cells. Intestinal\\u000a porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1) were cultured for 4 days in Arg-free Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s-F12 Ham medium (DMEM-F12)\\u000a containing 10, 100 or 350 ?M Arg and 0 or 20 ng\\/ml LPS. Cell numbers, protein concentrations, protein synthesis and degradation,\\u000a as well as mammalian

  19. Effect of L-arginine on the catalytic activity and stability of nickel nanoparticles for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umegaki, Tetsuo; Xu, Qiang; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2012-10-01

    Amorphous nickel catalysts were synthesized by reducing the nickel(II) species in an aqueous NaBH4/NH3BH3 solution with and without L-arginine. The nickel catalyst with L-arginine maintains relatively high activity for hydrolysis of NH3BH3 to generate a stoichiometric amount of hydrogen with the cycle number up to 11 (827 mL s-1 (mol-Ni)-1 at the 11th cycle with L-arginine = 35 mg), while the reaction rate in the presence of the bare nickel catalyst was relatively low through the cycle number up to 11 (232 mL s-1 (mol-Ni)-1 at the 11th cycle). After catalytic reaction, the nickel catalyst with L-arginine possesses the high dispersion (diameters of nickel nanoparticles <5 nm), while the agglomerate of nickel in the bare nickel catalyst is observed. The results indicate that L-arginine maintains the dispersion of nickel nanoparticles (diameters of nickel nanoparticles <10 nm), leading to higher activity against cycle tests than the bare nickel catalyst.

  20. Dietary l-Arginine Supplementation Protects Weanling Pigs from Deoxynivalenol-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li; Liao, Peng; He, Liuqin; Feng, Zemeng; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Duan, Jielin; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the positive effects of dietary supplementation with l-arginine (Arg) on piglets fed a deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated diet. A total of eighteen, 28-day-old healthy weanling pigs were randomly assigned into one of three groups: uncontaminated basal diet (control group), 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet (DON group) and 6 mg/kg DON + 1% l-arginine (DON + ARG group). After 21 days of Arg supplementation, piglets in the DON and DON + ARG groups were challenged by feeding 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet for seven days. The results showed that DON resulted in damage to piglets. However, clinical parameters, including jejunal morphology, amino acid concentrations in the serum, jejunum and ileum, were improved by Arg (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mRNA levels for sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1), glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2) and y+l-type amino acid transporter-1 (y+LAT-1) were downregulated in the DON group, but the values were increased in the DON + ARG group (p < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with Arg exerts a protective role in pigs fed DON-contaminated diets. PMID:25884909

  1. Dietary L-arginine supplementation protects weanling pigs from deoxynivalenol-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Liao, Peng; He, Liuqin; Feng, Zemeng; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Duan, Jielin; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the positive effects of dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) on piglets fed a deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated diet. A total of eighteen, 28-day-old healthy weanling pigs were randomly assigned into one of three groups: uncontaminated basal diet (control group), 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet (DON group) and 6 mg/kg DON + 1% L-arginine (DON + ARG group). After 21 days of Arg supplementation, piglets in the DON and DON + ARG groups were challenged by feeding 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet for seven days. The results showed that DON resulted in damage to piglets. However, clinical parameters, including jejunal morphology, amino acid concentrations in the serum, jejunum and ileum, were improved by Arg (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mRNA levels for sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1), glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2) and y(+)L-type amino acid transporter-1 (y(+)LAT-1) were downregulated in the DON group, but the values were increased in the DON + ARG group (p < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with Arg exerts a protective role in pigs fed DON-contaminated diets. PMID:25884909

  2. Solubility and dissolution kinetics of calcium oxalate renal calculi in solutions containing L-arginine: In-vitro experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, S.

    2010-06-01

    The kinetics of dissolution of calcium oxalate (CaOX) calculi in physiological solutions containing L-arginine at different concentrations were studied using the change in the Archimedean weight of samples immersed in the solution. It was faound that arginine, which is a normal constituent of human urine, acts at increased concentrations as a dissolving agent with respect to CaOX calculi. The possible effect of L-arginine as a natural regulator of CaOX supersaturation and crystalization in human urine is also disscused.

  3. Long-term survival of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension recovering to World Health Organization functional class I or II: a historical comparison between intravenous epoprostenol and oral agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intravenous epoprostenol is the only drug proved in a randomized study to reduce mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, administration of this drug has procedural difficulties and a risk of sepsis. Oral drugs provide simple treatment, but their benefit for survival has not been proven. A recovery of patients with PAH to World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC) I or II may predict favorable survival. Methods Survival analyses were performed on a historical cohort of 41 patients with PAH. The patients were 43?±?22 years old, 23 had idiopathic or heritable PAH, and 18 had connective tissue disease-associated PAH. The baseline was defined as the initial visit to a medical facility. Results The median duration of follow-up was 1276 days (108 to 5389 days) and 21 patients died during this period. The estimated survival times for patients who received intravenous epoprostenol and did and did not recover to WHO-FC I or II were 4371?±?577 days and 1172?±?404 days, respectively. These times for patients who were not treated with intravenous epoprostenol and did and did not recover to WHO-FC I or II were 4717?±?554 days and 925?±?230 days, respectively. A Cox proportional hazard analysis gave a hazard ratio for death after recovery to WHO-FC I or II of 0.07 (P?

  4. Effect of electromagnetic field and surface modification on the electrical behavior of novel solid lipid nanoparticles covered with l-arginine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Chih Kuo; Che-Wei Lin

    2009-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were fabricated with modification of bioactive l-arginine in their exterior region. The lipid cores of these biomimetic SLNs contained cacao butter (CB) and tripalmitin varying between 0% and 7%. Effects of lipid composition, l-arginine coverage, and electromagnetic field (EMF) on the electrical properties of the novel SLNs were investigated. The morphological micrographs revealed that the particle

  5. Long Term Forecast ofLong Term Forecast of TsunamisTsunamis

    E-print Network

    Model comparisons: · Inundation field data at Seaside, Oregon · Tide gage measurement at Hilo, Hawaii 3 (Seaside Pilot Study) Long-term Forecast: #12;1- Validated Numerical Code #12;Relocation of emergency Approach (Seaside Pilot Study) Long-term Forecast: #12;2- Development of a high resolution Digital

  6. Long Term Capability Requirements as derived from the Long Term Requirements Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brownlee

    2010-01-01

    Of the 38 Long Term Capability Requirements indentified by NATO in the 2009 Long Term Requirements Study, at least four can be directly applied to waterside security research and technology. First, Area Access Control, the capability of controlling access to designated unattended areas and borders, denying or allowing access to appropriate personnel and equipment. It must be capable of monitoring

  7. Long term ground movement of TRISTAN synchrotron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Endo; Y. Ohsawa; M. Miyahara

    1989-01-01

    The long-term ground movement was estimated in a geological survey done in connection with the siting of the TRISTAN-MR (main ring). The movement of the synchrotron magnet mainly results from the structure of the tunnel. If the movement of an individual magnet exceeds a certain threshold limit, it exerts a significant influence on the particle behavior in a synchrotron. The

  8. Long-Term Oxygen Therapy in Ioannina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stamatis Katsenos; Marios E. Froudarakis; Alexandros Charisis; Miltiadis P. Vassiliou; Stavros H. Constantopoulos

    2004-01-01

    Background: Long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT) is very important, especially in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its efficacy is closely related to patient compliance. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the compliance of patients under LTOT in the Prefecture of Ioannina (north-western Greece) and to identify factors that might be involved. Methods: The

  9. Long term ecological research and information management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William K. Michener; John Porter; Mark Servilla; Kristin Vanderbilt

    2011-01-01

    The United States Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program has supported research in the ecological and environmental sciences for more than three decades. The Program has grown from six to 26 sites and has been the precursor to a worldwide network of International LTER sites. Extracting knowledge from the massive volume of disparate data collected across ecosystems and decades depends

  10. Dynamics of long-term genomic selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Luc Jannink

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simulation and empirical studies of genomic selection (GS) show accuracies sufficient to generate rapid gains in early selection cycles. Beyond those cycles, allele frequency changes, recombination, and inbreeding make analytical prediction of gain impossible. The impacts of GS on long-term gain should be studied prior to its implementation. METHODS: A simulation case-study of this issue was done for barley,

  11. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  12. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  13. Long-Term Stability of Tutor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the extent to which tutor ratings remained stable in the long term by evaluating 291 ratings of 140 tutors at Maastricht University in the Netherlands between 1992 and 1995. The results indicated that, if the aggregated score and overall judgement are used to interpret the precision of individual scores, four and two occasions,…

  14. Neonatal desensitization allows long-term

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    for long-term immune protection of human fetal and stem cell­derived neural cells transplanted into the adult rat brain, by desensitizing the host rat to similar cells in the neonatal period, without the need appropriate immunosuppression, neural xenografts in the adult rat or mouse brain are rejected within 2­4 weeks

  15. Foundation work in long-term care.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Lauren; Treanor, Katherine; Art, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Health foundations have invested in services, research, and advocacy to improve the financing and delivery of long-term services and supports. This article describes some of the broad array of approaches they have taken--in such areas as aging in place, assisted living, "culture change" in nursing homes, quality improvement, augmenting the workforce, and paying for care. PMID:20048379

  16. NATIONAL LONG TERM CARE SURVEY (NLTCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...

  17. TOXIC MODELING SYSTEM LONG-TERM (TOXLT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toxic Modeling System Long-Term (TOXLT) is a personal-computer- based model that has been developed in conjunction with the release of the new version of the EPAs Industrial Source Complex (ISC2) Dispersion Models (EPA, 1992) and the promulgation of the EPAs A Tiered Modeling...

  18. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  19. Long-term orbital lifetime predictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Dreher; A. T. Lyons

    1990-01-01

    Long-term orbital lifetime predictions are analyzed. Predictions were made for three satellites: the Solar Max Mission (SMM), the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), and the Pegasus Boiler Plate (BP). A technique is discussed for determining an appropriate ballistic coefficient to use in the lifetime prediction. The orbital decay rate should be monitored regularly. Ballistic coefficient updates should be done whenever

  20. 4, 26712726, 2004 Long-term global

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with long-term climatological data from the Inter- national Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-D2 The mean monthly shortwave (SW) radiation budget at the top of atmosphere (TOA) was computed on 2 validated against Earth Radiation Budget Ex- periment (ERBE) S4 scanner satellite data (1985

  1. Coats' syndrome: long term follow up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devron H Char

    2000-01-01

    AIMTo increase the understanding of the long term results in pseudo-retinoblastoma eyes with infantile Coats' syndrome.METHODSThis study design was a retrospective case review. 10 patients were analysed who were initially referred with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma but had Coats' syndrome on the basis of ocular oncological evaluation. Vision, fundus photography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography scans were obtained and evaluated. Changes

  2. Long-term cropping systems study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This long-term study has been conducted on the Agronomy Farm at ARDC since the early 1970’s. In the beginning, the objectives were mainly related to crop production as affected by different cropping systems. The cropping systems included in the study are Continuous Corn, Soybean, and Sorghum; 2-year...

  3. Long-term US energy outlook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    Chase Econometrics summarizes the assumptions underlying long-term US energy forecasts. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they compare Chase Econometrics forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the DOE Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Scenario B, the mid-range reference case, is emphasized. The

  4. Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Robert; Laurent Argaud

    2007-01-01

    Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected

  5. Long-term variation of total ozone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Kane

    1988-01-01

    The long-term variation of total ozone is studied for 1957 up to date for different latitude zones. The 3-year running averages show that, apart from a small portion showing parallelism with sunspot cycles, the trends in different latitude zones are dissimilar. In particular, where northern latitudes show a rising trend, the southern latitudes show an opposite (decreasing) trend. In the

  6. Long-term biological investigations in space.

    PubMed

    Lotz, R G; Fuchs, H; Bertsche, U

    1975-01-01

    Missions in space within the next two decades will be of longer duration than those carried out up to the present time, and the effects of such long-term flights on biological organisms are unknown. Results of biological experiments that have been performed to date cannot be extrapolated to results in future flights because of the unknown influence of adaptation over a long period of time. Prior experiments with Axolotl, fishes, and vertebrates by our research team (in part with sounding rockets) showed that these specimens did not appear to be suitable for long-term missions on which minimization of expense, technique, and energy is required. Subsequent investigations have shown the suitability of the leech (Hirudo medicinalis), which consumes blood of mammals up to ten times its own weight (1 g) and can live more than 2 years without further food supply. Emphasis in the experiments with Hirudo medicinalis is placed on metabolic rhythm and motility. Resorption and diffusion in tissue, development, and growth under long-term effects of cosmic proton radiation and zero-gravity are other focal points. The constancy of cellular life in the mature animals is a point in favor of these specimens. We have also taken into account the synergistic effects of the space environment on the problems just mentioned. The life-support system constructed for the leech has been tested successfully in four sounding rocket flights and, on that basis, has been prepared for a long-term mission. Long-term investigations out of the terrestrial biosphere will provide us with information concerning the degree of adaptation of certain physiological and biochemical functions and as to what extent biological readjustment or repair processes can occur under the specific stress conditions of space flight. PMID:11841093

  7. Physicochemical and molecular modeling studies of cefixime-L-arginine-cyclodextrin ternary inclusion compounds.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Priyanka; Petkar, Bhushan; Pore, Yogesh; Kulkarni, Anita; Burade, Kishorkumar

    2013-11-01

    In an attempt to improve the physicochemical properties of cefixime (CEF), its supramolecular inclusion compounds were prepared with ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) in presence and/or absence of ternary component L-arginine (ARG) using spray drying technique. Initially, the phase solubility studies revealed a stoichiometry of 1:1 molar ratio with an AL-type of phase solubility curve. The stability constants of binary systems were remarkably improved in presence of ARG, indicating positive effect of its addition. The inclusion complexes were characterized by FTIR, XRPD, DSC, SEM, particle size analysis, and dissolution studies. Further, molecular mechanic (MM) calculations were performed to investigate the possible orientations of CEF inside ?CD cavity in presence and/or absence of ternary component. In case of physicochemical studies, the ternary systems performed well as a result of comprehensive effect of ternary complexation and particle size reduction achieved by a spray drying technology. PMID:24053809

  8. L-Arginine improves DNA synthesis in LPS-challenged enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bi'e; Xiao, Hao; Xiong, Xia; Wang, Jing; Li, Guangran; Yin, Yulong; Huang, Bo; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal small intestine is susceptible to damage by endotoxin, and this cytotoxicity may involve intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. L-Arginine (Arg) confers a cytoprotective effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated enterocytes through activation of the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Arg improves DNA synthesis and mitochondrial bioenergetics, which may also be responsible for beneficial effects of Arg on intestinal mucosal cells. In support of this notion, results of recent studies indicate that elevated Arg concentrations enhances DNA synthesis, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial bioenergetics in LPS-treated intestinal epithelial cells through mechanisms involving activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway. These findings provide a biochemical basis for dietary Arg supplementation to improve the regeneration and repair of the small-intestinal mucosa in both animals and humans. PMID:25961538

  9. Growth and characterization of deuterated analog of L-arginine phosphate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haja Hameed, A. S.; Ravi, G.; Ilangovan, R.; Nixon Azariah, A.; Ramasamy, P.

    2002-04-01

    Due to significant absorption in the near infrared in pure L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) deuterated LAP (dLAP) crystals have been grown using heavy water (D 2O) as a solvent by a slow cooling technique. The growth conditions for the growth of monoclinic dLAP crystals are optimized by adjusting the growth parameters, such as pH, temperature etc. The grown crystals are morphologically compared with the pure LAP crystals. For extending the shelf life of the dLAP solution, 1 wt% of potassium fluoride has been added in the solution and the LAP, dLAP and dLAP:KF solutions are comparatively examined. The variation of lattice parameters of dLAP crystal with pure LAP is found from the X-ray powder diffraction studies. The thermal behaviour and molecular vibrations of dLAP are reported from DT&TG and FTIR studies.

  10. Bioanalytical profile of the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway and its evaluation by capillary electrophoresis?

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Dmitri Y.

    2007-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent progress in fundamental understanding and analytical profiling of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway. It focuses on key analytical references of NO actions and on the experimental acquisition of these references in vivo, with capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) comprising one of the most flexible and technologically promising analytical platform for comprehensive high-resolution profiling of NO-related metabolites. Second aim of this review is to express demands and bridge efforts of experimental biologists, medical professionals and chemical analysis-oriented scientists who strive to understand evolution and physiological roles of NO and to develop analytical methods for use in biology and medicine. PMID:17329176

  11. Diamond turning of L-arginine phosphate, a new organic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, B.A.; Syn, K.; Velsko, S.P. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (US))

    1989-10-15

    We have demonstrated that single point diamond turning can be used to generate high optical quality finished surfaces on a new organic nonlinear crystal, L-arginine phosphate (LAP). The proper choice of cutting conditions can produce surfaces with {lt}5-A rms local roughness. Local softening or melting near the cutting tool tip may play a key role in the machining process by ensuring that material is removed by ductile cutting rather than brittle fracture. At the same time, the low melting temperature of LAP makes lubrication and cooling especially important to prevent extensive melting and tool fouling. In spite of the presence of a weak cleavage plane in LAP, the surface quality is relatively insensitive to crystallographic orientation. Tool wear is apparently negligible, so that surface flatness is governed by the stability of the diamond turning machine. These results suggest that it may be possible to fabricate large aperture LAP harmonic converters for use in inertial confinement fusion lasers.

  12. Characterization studies on the additives mixed L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haja Hameed, A. S.; Karthikeyan, C.; Ravi, G.; Rohani, S.

    2011-04-01

    L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP), potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) mixed LAP (LAP:KSCN) and sodium sulfite (Na 2SO 3) mixed LAP (LAP:Na 2SO 3) single crystals were grown by slow cooling technique. The effect of microbial contamination and coloration on the growth solutions was studied. The crystalline powders of the grown crystals were examined by X-ray diffraction and the lattice parameters of the crystals were estimated. From the FTIR spectroscopic analysis, various functional group frequencies associated with the crystals were assigned. Vickers microhardness studies were done on {1 0 0} faces for pure and additives mixed LAP crystals. From the preliminary surface second harmonic generation (SHG) results, it was found that the SHG intensity at (1 0 0) face of LAP:KSCN crystal was much stronger than that of pure LAP.

  13. Effect of l-Arginine on Nitric Oxide Levels in Intrauterine Growth Restriction and its Correlation with Fetal Outcome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shalini; Singh, Archana; Sharma, Deepika; Singh, Abha; Narula, M K; Bhattacharjee, Jayashree

    2015-07-01

    The current management of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) being empirical and aimed at selecting a safe time for delivery. Acknowledging the beneficial effects of l-arginine on endothelial vasculature the present study was designed to evaluate efficacy of l-arginine on bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) with respect to fetal outcome. With l-arginine supplementation, mean NO levels were significantly increased and a significant mild reduction in systolic/end-diastolic velocity ratio (S/D ratio) was observed on doppler blood flow study, also neonatal outcome improved and incidences of complications were lowered. A deficiency in NO may play an important role in the causation of asymmetric fetal growth restriction. l-Arginine can be used to increase maternal NO levels, enhancing birth weight and decreasing neonatal morbidity. The ideal candidate for arginine therapy according to our study would be IUGR cases with S/D ratio less than 4.96 ± 0.49 and NO levels below 33 ?mol/L with minimum of 3 weeks duration of arginine supplementation. PMID:26089616

  14. Dietary L-arginine supplementation during mouse gestation enhances reproductive performance and Vegfr2 transcription activity in the fetoplacental unit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regarded as one of the most versatile amino acids, arginine serves as a precursor for many molecules and has been reported to improve the reproductive performance of rats and pigs. To this end, we sought to determine if dietary L-arginine alters fetoplacental vascular endothelial growth factor recep...

  15. Activation of adrenal medullary L-arginine: nitric oxide pathway by stimuli which induce the release of catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Moro, M A; Michelena, P; Sánchez-García, P; Palmer, R; Moncada, S; García, A G

    1993-08-15

    The activation of the L-arginine: nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the cat adrenal medulla by different stimuli which induce the release of catecholamines was studied. Stimuli that evoke catecholamine release, such as electrical stimulation of splanchnic nerves (50 V, 5 Hz, 1 ms), methacholine (100 microM), dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP; 10 microM), high K+ (35 mM) and alamethicin (15 micrograms ml-1) also caused a rise in cyclic GMP in the perfused cat adrenal medulla. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 1 mM) abolished the rise in cyclic GMP induced by these stimuli without affecting the catecholamine release. Bovine adrenal medulla cytosol contained an NO synthase which was L-arginine- and Ca(2+)-dependent. In conclusion cat and bovine adrenal medulla stimulated with a variety of secretagogues synthesize NO from L-arginine to activate the soluble guanylate cyclase. The present data do not rule out a role for cyclic GMP in the regulation of catecholamine secretion; however, it seems more plausible that cyclic GMP may play a role in controlling local blood flow and thus the access of the released catecholamines to the systemic circulation during stressful conflicts. PMID:7693497

  16. Dietary l-arginine supplementation differentially regulates expression of lipid-metabolic genes in porcine adipose tissue and skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bie Tan; Yulong Yin; Zhiqiang Liu; Wenjie Tang; Haijun Xu; Xiangfeng Kong; Xinguo Li; Kang Yao; Wanting Gu; Stephen B. Smith; Guoyao Wu

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a major health crisis worldwide and new treatments are needed to fight this epidemic. Using the swine model, we recently reported that dietary l-arginine (Arg) supplementation promotes muscle gain and reduces body-fat accretion. The present study tested the hypothesis that Arg regulates expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue. Sixteen

  17. L-Arginine Supplementation Influenced Nitrite but Not Nitrate and Total Nitrite in Rabbit Model of Hypercholesterolemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard; Mehdi Nematbakhsh; Alireza Monajemi

    2008-01-01

    Background: The assessment of altered nitric oxide (NO) availability is of potentially important diagnostic and prognostic significance. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of L-arginine (as a natural NO donor) supplementation on NO metabolite in a rabbit model of hypercholesterolemia to find a reliable marker for endothelial NO production. Methods: White male rabbits (n = 30) randomly

  18. Increased brain l-arginine availability facilitates cutaneous heat loss induced by running exercise.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Leite, Laura Hora Rios; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-06-01

    The effects of increased brain availability of l-arginine (l-arg), a precursor for nitric oxide synthesis, on core body temperature (Tcore ) and cutaneous heat loss were evaluated in running rats. One week prior to the experiments, adult male Wistar rats received the following implants: a chronic guide cannula in the lateral cerebral ventricle and a temperature sensor in the abdominal cavity. On the day of the experiments, the rats were assigned to receive a 2-?L intracerebroventricular injection of either NaCl (0.15 mol/L) or l-arg solution (0.825, 1.65 or 3.30 mol/L); Tcore and tail skin temperature were measured while the rats ran at a speed of 18 m/min until they were fatigued. l-arginine induced a dose-dependent reduction in the threshold Tcore required for cutaneous heat loss (38.09 ± 0.20°C for 3.30-mol/L l-arg vs 38.61 ± 0.10°C for saline; P < 0.05), which attenuated the exercise-induced hyperthermia. Although the rats treated with l-arg presented a lower Tcore at the end of exercise (~0.7°C lower after treatment with the highest dose), no changes in the time to fatigue were observed relative to the control trial. These results suggest that brain l-arg controls heat loss during exercise, most likely by modulating the sympathetic vasoconstrictor tonus to skin vessels. Furthermore, despite facilitating cutaneous heat loss mechanisms, increased brain l-arg availability did not enhance physical performance. PMID:25881674

  19. Comparison of the effect of topical versus systemic L-arginine on wound healing in acute incisional diabetic rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zandifar, Alireza; Seifabadi, Sima; Zandifar, Ehsan; Beheshti, Sajedeh Sohrabi; Aslani, Abolfazl; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired wound healing. The amino acid L-arginine is the only substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. The purpose of this study was to compare the topical versus systemic L-arginine treatment on total nitrite (NOx) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations in wound fluid and rate of wound healing in an acute incisional diabetic wound model. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 Sprague-Dawley rats were used of which 32 were rendered diabetic. Animals underwent a dorsal skin incision. Dm-sys-arg group (N = 8, diabetic) and Norm-sys-arg group (N = 8, normoglycemic) were gavaged with L-arginine. Dm-sys-control group (N = 8, diabetic) and Norm-sys-control group (N = 8, normoglycemic) were gavaged with water. Dm-top-arg group (N = 8, diabetic) and norm-top-arg group (N = 8, normoglycemic) received topical L-arginine gel. Dm-top-control group (N = 8, diabetic) received gel vehicle. On the day 5 the amount of NOx in wound fluid was measured by Griess reaction. VEGF/total protein in wound fluids was also measured on day 5 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All wound tissue specimens were fixed and stained to be evaluated for rate of healing. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 18.0, Chicago, IL, USA) through One-way analysis of variance test and Tukey's post-hoc. Results: In dm-sys-arg group, the level of NOx on day 5 was significantly more than dm-top-arg group (P < 0.05). VEGF content in L-arginine treated groups were significantly more than controls (P < 0.05). Rate of diabetic wound healing in dm-sys-arg group was significantly more than dm-top-arg group. Conclusion: Systemic L-arginine is more efficient than topical L-arginine in wound healing. This process is mediated at least in part, by increasing VEGF and NO in the wound fluid.

  20. Case presentation: long-term treatment.

    PubMed

    Glucksman, Myron L

    2013-01-01

    The long-term (14 years) psychodynamic psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of a depressed, suicidal, self-mutilating female patient is described. Her diagnoses included Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Recurrent Major Depression. Treatment was punctuated with repeated hospitalizations for self-mutilation (cutting) and suicidal ideation. A major determinant for her psychopathology was sexual abuse by her father from ages 6 to 14. This resulted in feelings of guilt and rage that she repressed and acted out through self-mutilating and suicidal behavior. A prolonged negative transference gradually became ambivalent, then positive. This was associated with her internalization of the healing qualities of the therapeutic relationship. She also gained insight into the reasons for her need to punish herself. Her initial self-representation as unworthy and bad was transformed into perceiving herself as a worthwhile, loving person. This case illustrates the role of long-term treatment for a complex, life-threatening, psychiatric disorder. PMID:24001161

  1. Effects of acute supplementation of L-arginine and nitrate on endurance and sprint performance in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Silvana Bucher; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Peacock, Oliver; James, Philip; Welde, Boye; Stokes, Keith; Böhlke, Nikolai; Tjønna, Arnt Erik

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of acute supplementation with L-arginine and nitrate on running economy, endurance and sprint performance in endurance-trained athletes. In a randomised cross-over, double-blinded design we compared the effects of combined supplementation with 6?g L-arginine and 614?mg nitrate against 614?mg nitrate alone and placebo in nine male elite cross-country skiers (age 18?±?0 years, VO2max 69.3?±?5.8?ml?min(-1)?kg(-1)). After a 48-hour standardisation of nutrition and exercise the athletes were tested for plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, blood pressure, submaximal running economy at 10?km?h(-1) and 14?km?h(-1) at 1% incline and 180?m as well as 5-km time-trial running performances. Plasma nitrite concentration following L-arginine?+?nitrate supplementation (319?±?54?nmol?L(-1)) did not differ from nitrate alone (328?±?107?nmol?L(-1)), and both were higher than placebo (149?±?64?nmol?L(-1), p?L-arginine?+?nitrate and with nitrate alone compared to placebo, but no additional effect was revealed when L-arginine was added to nitrate. Still, there were no effects of supplementation on exercise economy or endurance running performance in endurance-trained cross-country skiers. PMID:25445632

  2. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine between days 14 and 25 of gestation enhances embryonic development and survival in gilts.

    PubMed

    Li, Xilong; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Burghardt, Robert C; Frank, James W; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Shinzato, Izuru; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-02-01

    Embryonic loss is a major problem in mammals, but there are few effective ways to prevent it. Using a porcine model, we determined effects of dietary L-arginine supplementation between days 14 and 25 of gestation on embryonic growth and survival. Gilts were checked daily for estrus with boars in the morning and bred at onset of the second estrus and 12 h later (the time of breeding = day 0 of gestation). Between days 14 and 25 of gestation, 15 gilts/treatment were housed individually and fed twice daily 1 kg of a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.0, 0.4, or 0.8 % L-arginine. All diets were made isonitrogenous by addition of L-alanine. On day 25 of gestation, gilts were hysterectomized to obtain conceptuses. Compared with controls, dietary supplementation with 0.4 or 0.8 % L-arginine increased (P ? 0.05) arginine concentrations in maternal plasma, total volume of amniotic fluid; total amounts of arginine in allantoic and amniotic fluids; total amounts of fructose and most amino acids in amniotic fluid; placental growth; and the number of viable fetuses per litter by 2. The numbers of total fetuses, fetal weight, corpora lutea, volume of allantoic fluid, maternal circulating levels of progesterone and estrogen, or total amounts of hormones in allantoic fluid did not differ among the three treatment groups. Reproductive performance of gilts did not differ between the 0.4 and 0.8 % L-arginine groups. Thus, dietary supplementation with 0.4 or 0.8 % L-arginine between days 14 and 25 of gestation enhances embryonic/fetal survival in swine. PMID:24337831

  3. Emotional behavior in long-term marriage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L. Carstensen; John M. Gottman; Robert W. Levenson

    1995-01-01

    In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction.

  4. Assessing long term backache after childbirth.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, R; Groves, P; Taub, N; O'Dowd, J; Reynolds, F

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate the factors associated with long term backache after childbirth, to assess all women reporting new onset long term backache, and to investigate any relation with pain relief in labour. DESIGN--Data collected from obstetric records and postal questionnaires or telephone interviews on morbidity after childbirth from all women delivering their first baby between March 1990 and February 1991, followed by analysis of data collected from outpatient consultations. SETTING--St Thomas's Hospital, London. SUBJECTS--Questionnaires were sent to 1615 women who had delivered their first baby in the defined period; 1015 either replied by post or were contacted by telephone. RESULTS--299 women (29.5% of responders) reported backache lasting more than six months and of these 156 (15.4%) said they had had no back problems previously. Those women who had received epidural analgesia in labour were significantly more likely to report new onset backache (17.8%; 95% confidence interval 14.8% to 20.8%) than those who did not (11.7%; 8.6% to 14.8%). Younger women, unmarried women, and those reporting other antenatal symptoms were significantly more likely to report new long term backache. The 156 women reporting new backache were asked to attend an outpatient clinic and 36 (23%) did so. The majority had a postural backache which was not severe. Psychological factors were present in 14 women. CONCLUSIONS--Though new long term backache is reported more commonly after epidural analgesia in labour, it tends to be postural and not severe. There were no differences in the nature of the backache between those who had or had not received epidural analgesia in labour. PMID:8518569

  5. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  6. Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-07-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

  7. Posterior urethral valves: long-term outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Caione; Simona Gerocarni Nappo

    Posterior urethral valves represent the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infancy that impairs renal and\\u000a bladder function. Long-term outcome of patients with previous PUV is evaluated. Patients over 18 years of age, treated from\\u000a 1982 to 1995 before the age of 3 years were considered. Previous surgery, renal function, bladder activity, urinary incontinence,\\u000a and fertility\\/sexual activity were evaluated. Clinical

  8. Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Frey; Richard G. M. Morris

    1997-01-01

    Repeated stimulation of hippocampal neurons can induce an immediate and prolonged increase in synaptic strength that is called long-term potentiation (LTP)-the primary cellular model of memory in the mammalian brain1. An early phase of LTP (lasting less than three hours) can be dissociated from late-phase LTP by using inhibitors of transcription and translation2-8. Because protein synthesis occurs mainly in the

  9. Long-term health consequences of PCOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Wild

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance\\/diabetes and\\/or uterine pathology appears to be increased in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although more outcome studies are necessary to determine incidence. Data pertaining to some of the potential long-term health consequences associated with PCOS are summarized. Medline, Current Contents and PubMed were searched for studies from the time of our

  10. Long-term Variation of AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Xie, G. Z.; Adam, G.; Copin, Y.; Lin, R. G.; Bai, J. M.; Quin, Y. P.

    In this paper we will present the long-term variation in the optical and the infrared bands for some selected AGNs. 1. Some new optical data observed by us have been presented for BL Lacertae (1995-1996) and OJ 287 (1994-1995), and new infrared data are presented for OJ 287 (Nov=2E 1995), which corresponds to the second optical peak (Sillanpaa et al. 1996; Takalo et al. 1996) and during last outburst. 2. For objects with long term observations, the Jurkevich's method has been used to analyses the long-term variation period. It is interesting that the reported periods of AGNs are of the similar value of about 10 years: 3C 345 11.4 years (Webb et al. 1988), 3C 120 15 years (Belokon et al. 1987; Hagen-Thorn et al. 1997), ON 231 13.6 years (Liu et al. 1995), OJ 287 12 years (Sillanpaa et al. 1988; Kidger et al. 1992), PKS 0735+178 14 years (Fan et al. 1997), NGC 4151 15 years (Fan et al. 1998a), BL Lacertae 14.0 years (Fan et al. 1998b). Is the mechanism for the long-term variation the same for different AGNs? 3. The DCF method has been adopted to analysis the variation correlation in the optical and infrared bands for BL Lac object OJ 287, the results show that these two bands are strongly correlated, which suggest that the emission mechanism in the two bands is the same. 4. For the optical and infrared bands, the maximum variations are correlated.

  11. Long-term ambulatory enterogastric reflux monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Bechi; Filippo Pucciani; Francesco Baldini; Franco Cosi; Riccardo Falciai; Roberto Mazzanti; Antonio Castagnoli; Alessandro Passeri; Sergio Boscherini

    1993-01-01

    A new technique for the long-term ambulatory detection of enterogastric and nonacid gastroesophageal reflux has been conceived, developed, and validated. It is based on the use of a fiberoptic sensor that utilizes the optical properties of bile.In vitro studies have shown good precision, good stability, sensitivity of 2.5 µmol\\/liter bilirubin concentration, as well as a useful working range of 2.5–100

  12. Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Petursson; M H Lader

    1981-01-01

    Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels

  13. Malaria prophylaxis for long-term travellers.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C; Tucker, R; Bannister, B; Bradley, D J

    2003-09-01

    These guidelines are designed to assist healthcare workers who are advising long-term travellers on malaria prophylaxis, defined for the purpose of this document as those travelling for longer than 6 months. The document focuses on long-term use of antimalarials for adults, but also identifies specific issues for women and children. However, data on the long-term use of antimalarials is limited for all travellers and few data are available on the incidence of malaria in travellers overseas or, indeed, deaths overseas from malaria. Whilst all available evidence is taken into account, the advice provided also reflects experienced professional opinion. This document has been written on behalf of the Health Protection Agency's Advisory Committee on Malaria Prevention for UK Travellers, and is designed to act as a supplement to the 'Guidelines for malaria prevention in travellers from the United Kingdom for 2003'. The latter document contains a more complete description of antimalarials and additional preventive measures, together with recommendations for malaria chemoprophylaxis for individuals countries. Decisions on the terms under which different drugs are licensed for use are the responsibility of the Committee on Safety of Medicines. This paper should also, therefore, be used in conjunction with Summary of Product Characteristics (data sheets). PMID:14708269

  14. Long-term EEG in children.

    PubMed

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

    2015-03-01

    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. PMID:25687590

  15. Long-term outcomes of stapled hemorrhoidopexy

    PubMed Central

    Michalik, Maciej; Bobowicz, Maciej; Witzling, Mieczys?aw

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hemorrhoidal disease is one of the commonest anorectal disorders worldwide. Stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH) is a treatment modality associated with low postoperative pain and early mobilization. Aim To assess long-term outcomes after SH. Material and methods All 326 patients who underwent SH in 1999–2003 were invited by mail to participate. For each patient we analyzed their medical records, and conducted a questionnaire survey and a digital rectal examination. Results Only 91 patients attended the final examination and the mean ± SD follow-up time was 8.7 ±1.2 years. Recurrences were diagnosed in one third of the 91 subjects. There were correlations between recurrences and: the duration of disease (p = 0.047); female gender (p = 0.037); and childbirth (vaginal delivery) (p = 0.026). Sixty-seven patients (73.6%) were satisfied with the outcomes. In the group of dissatisfied patients symptoms such as pain (p = 0.0001), burning (p = 0.0002) and itching (p = 0.014) were most common. Long-term outcomes were good with 75% and 88% reductions in pain sensation and severe and moderate hemorrhoidal bleeding. Pruritus, burning and discomfort resolved in more than 50% of patients. Flatus incontinence, fecal incontinence, or soiling occurred in 21%, 11%, and 32% of patients. Conclusions Long-term results of stapled hemorrhoidopexy are satisfactory in most patients. The 36% recurrence rate correlates with the degree of hemorrhoidal prolapse before the operation, duration of the disease, female gender, and previous vaginal delivery. PMID:24729805

  16. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be presented. ACKNOWLEDGMENTs The financial support by the European Community through the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure Action under the 7th Framework Programme under ACTRIS Grant Agreement n° 262254 is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia.

    PubMed

    Talmi, Deborah; Caplan, Jeremy B; Richards, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM) despite an intact short-term memory (STM). The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR). This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors) and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only) condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant's recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation. PMID:26046770

  18. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Talmi, Deborah; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Richards, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM) despite an intact short-term memory (STM). The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR). This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors) and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only) condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant’s recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation. PMID:26046770

  19. Long-term interferon-? treatment formultiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Ruggieri; N. Settipani; L. Viviano; M. Attanasio; L. Giglia; P. Almasio; V. La Bella; F. Piccoli

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract.\\u000a   The aim of our study was to analyze the dropout rate in\\u000apatients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS)\\u000aunder long-term treatment with the three commercially available\\u000ainterferon beta (IFN) preparations. According to the drug\\u000ataken, we divided 122 RRMS patients into 4 groups: Betaferon\\u000agroup, 56 patients taking INF-1b (24 MIU weekly, subcutaneous\\u000ainjections); Avonex group, 38 patients taking

  20. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  1. Hypoglycemia in childhood: long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Flykanaka-Gantenbein, Christina

    2004-08-01

    Glucose is the main cerebral fuel throughout life. Inadequate cerebral glucose supply, due to recurrent episodes of severe hypoglycemia during the neonatal period or infancy, when the brain is still developing, lead to serious long-term neurological impairments, ranging from mild neurocognitive dysfunction to severe mental retardation, epilepsy, microcephaly or even hemiparesis or aphasia. Moreover, in the most common form of severe recurrent hypoglycemia of infancy due to hyperinsulinism, not only abnormalities in neurocognitive function, but also the later development of diabetes mellitus are observed. Furthermore, recurrent hypoglycemia, supervening as a side-effect of intensified insulin treatment in young diabetic children, may also induce mild neurocognitive dysfunction and, specifically, memory deficits that predispose these children to new hypoglycemic episodes and hypoglycemia unawareness. In conclusion, prompt and meticulous management of hypoglycemia and its prevention during the neonatal period, infancy and childhood constitute the main goal of physicians taking care of these patients in order to ascertain a long-standing quality of life devoid of long-term sequelae. PMID:16444188

  2. Long-term intracranial pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    de Jong, D A; Maas, A I; den Ouden, A H; de Lange, S A

    Continuous or intermittent measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is important in patients at risk for raised ICP. Indications exist for short- and long-term measurements. The various methods used for short-term monitoring are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages. For long-term measurements of ICP use of a completely implantable telemetric epidural pressure transducer is indicated. No such device is commercially available. We have developed an inexpensive passive telemetric transducer for this purpose. Results obtained up till now have demonstrated its reliability for measurements of two to three months duration. The life span of the device is limited by degrading of the epoxy utilized for sealing of the titanium pressure sensing part to the radiolucent ceramic cap of the transducer, causing leakage of water into the transducer and false low measurements. Because of these problems new hermetic sealing techniques were tested. Both active metal brazing and glass bonding yielded good results and hermetic sealing could be obtained. The metal to ceramic bonding presented is generally applicable within the design of implants. Besides the technical progress reported, the experience with clinical use in 12 patients is presented. PMID:6674738

  3. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  4. Pediatric HIV Long-Term Nonprogressors.

    PubMed

    Rimawi, B H; Rimawi, R H; Micallef, M; Pinckney, L; Fowler, S L; Dixon, T C

    2014-01-01

    Patients infected with HIV are best categorized along a continuum from rapid progressors to HIV long-term nonprogressors. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) are those in which AIDS develop many years after being infected with HIV, often beyond the 10-year mark, and represent 15-20% of the HIV infected patients. Many of these patients are able to control their infection and maintain undetectable viral loads for long periods of time without antiretroviral therapy. After a comprehensive literature search, we found extensive data related to HIV LTNPs in the adult population; however, very limited data was available related to LTNPs within the pediatric population. We present a case of pediatric HIV LTNPs, perinatally infected patient with undetectable viral loads, despite never receiving ART. Although there are not many instances of LTNPs among children, this child may be one, though she had intermittent viremia. She has continued to manifest serologic evidence of infection, with yearly ELISA and western blot positive tests. Based on the viral fitness studies that were performed, this case exemplifies an adolescent LTNP. PMID:25247098

  5. Pediatric HIV Long-Term Nonprogressors

    PubMed Central

    Rimawi, B. H.; Rimawi, R. H.; Micallef, M.; Pinckney, L.; Fowler, S. L.; Dixon, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Patients infected with HIV are best categorized along a continuum from rapid progressors to HIV long-term nonprogressors. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) are those in which AIDS develop many years after being infected with HIV, often beyond the 10-year mark, and represent 15–20% of the HIV infected patients. Many of these patients are able to control their infection and maintain undetectable viral loads for long periods of time without antiretroviral therapy. After a comprehensive literature search, we found extensive data related to HIV LTNPs in the adult population; however, very limited data was available related to LTNPs within the pediatric population. We present a case of pediatric HIV LTNPs, perinatally infected patient with undetectable viral loads, despite never receiving ART. Although there are not many instances of LTNPs among children, this child may be one, though she had intermittent viremia. She has continued to manifest serologic evidence of infection, with yearly ELISA and western blot positive tests. Based on the viral fitness studies that were performed, this case exemplifies an adolescent LTNP. PMID:25247098

  6. Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by <15% decrease in DMY and <30 days until return to normal (n?=?5), and 'long inflammation', characterized by >15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands. PMID:24906501

  7. Long-term mechanical ventilation and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Clini, Enrico

    2004-05-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) in chronic situations is commonly used, either delivered invasively or by means of non-invasive interfaces, to control hypoventilation in patients with chest wall, neuromuscular or obstructive lung diseases (either in adulthood or childhood). The global prevalence of ventilator-assisted individuals (VAI) in Europe ranges from 2 to 30 per 100000 population according to different countries. Nutrition is a common problem to face with in patients with chronic respiratory diseases: nonetheless, it is a key component in the long-term management of underweight COPD patients whose muscular disfunction may rapidly turn to peripheral muscle waste. Since long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) is usually prescribed in end-stage respiratory diseases with poor nutritional status, nutrition and dietary intake related problems need to be carefully assessed and corrected in these patients. This paper aims to review the most recent innovations in the field of nutritional status and food intake-related problems of VAI (both in adulthood and in childhood). PMID:15139570

  8. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy

    PubMed Central

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J; Benowitz, N; Connolly, G; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M; Boyle, P

    2005-01-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source. PMID:15923465

  9. L-Arginine trifluoroacetate salt bridges in its solid state compound: The low-temperature three dimensional structural determination of L-arginine bis(trifluoroacetate) crystal and its vibrational spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z. H.; Sun, W. M.; Chen, C. T.; Zhang, G. H.; Wang, X. Q.; Xu, D.

    2011-12-01

    Structural varieties of L-arginine trifluoroacetate (abbreviated as LATF) and L-arginine bis(trifluoroacetate), LABTF, in the solid state compounds were observed and analyzed by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The guanidinium-carboxylate interaction plays an important role involving in the crystal structure construction. Conformational changes of L-Arg + and L-Arg 2+ cations result from the intrinsic structural difference by hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. The low-temperature structure of its crystalline salt, L-arginine bis(trifluoroacetate), was determined to describe the hydrogen bonding interactions. In comparison with the crystal structure at room temperature, the low-temperature L-Arg 2+ cations present tiny conformational difference and the rotational disorder of CF 3 group disappears. FT-IR and Raman spectra were investigated and hydrogen bonding interactions were analyzed on the basis of its vibrational spectra. Results indicate that this type interaction is greatly contributive to the structural features and vibrational spectral properties.

  10. Antiviral and virucidal activities of n?-cocoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hisashi; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Ikeda, Keiko; Suzuki, Yukiko; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Koyama, A Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Various amino acid-derived compounds, for example, N?-Cocoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (CAE), alkyloxyhydroxylpropylarginine, arginine cocoate, and cocoyl glycine potassium salt (Amilite), were examined for their virucidal activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), influenza A virus (IAV), and poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in comparison to benzalkonium chloride (BKC) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a cationic and anionic control detergent and also to other commercially available disinfectants. While these amino acid-derived compounds were all effective against HSV-1 and HSV-2, CAE and Amilite were the most effective. These two compounds were, however, not as effective against IAV, another enveloped virus, as against HSV. Cytotoxicity of CAE was weak; at 0.012%, only 5% of the cells were killed under the conditions, in which 100% cells were killed by either SDS or BKC. In addition to these direct virucidal effects, CAE inhibited the virus growth in the HSV-1- or PV-1-infected cells even at 0.01%. These results suggest a potential application of CAE as a therapeutic or preventive medicine against HSV superficial infection at body surface. PMID:22312346

  11. Antiviral and Virucidal Activities of N?-Cocoyl-L-Arginine Ethyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Hisashi; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Ikeda, Keiko; Suzuki, Yukiko; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Koyama, A. Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Various amino acid-derived compounds, for example, N?-Cocoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (CAE), alkyloxyhydroxylpropylarginine, arginine cocoate, and cocoyl glycine potassium salt (Amilite), were examined for their virucidal activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), influenza A virus (IAV), and poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in comparison to benzalkonium chloride (BKC) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a cationic and anionic control detergent and also to other commercially available disinfectants. While these amino acid-derived compounds were all effective against HSV-1 and HSV-2, CAE and Amilite were the most effective. These two compounds were, however, not as effective against IAV, another enveloped virus, as against HSV. Cytotoxicity of CAE was weak; at 0.012%, only 5% of the cells were killed under the conditions, in which 100% cells were killed by either SDS or BKC. In addition to these direct virucidal effects, CAE inhibited the virus growth in the HSV-1- or PV-1-infected cells even at 0.01%. These results suggest a potential application of CAE as a therapeutic or preventive medicine against HSV superficial infection at body surface. PMID:22312346

  12. L-canavanine inhibits L-arginine uptake by broiler chicken intestinal brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Rueda, E; Michelangeli, C; Gonzalez-Mujica, F

    2003-09-01

    1. Intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared from 3-week-old broiler chickens. 2. Electron microscopy of the BBMV fraction showed single membrane vesicles of different sizes with no electron dense material inside. No other organelles were observed. The sucrase and maltase activities were enriched by factors of 16 and 18, respectively, in the BBMV fraction in comparison with the homogenate. On the other hand, the Na+/K+-ATPase sensitivity to ouabain was increased by a factor of 0.8. 3. The BBMV showed a maximum L-[14C]-arginine uptake (944.9 +/- 22.9 pmoles/mg protein) at 45 s and thereafter it declined slowly. In the presence of 0.5 mM L-canavanine, the L-[14C]-arginine uptake by BBMV was reduced by 43.6% at 45 s. 4. It is concluded that L-canavanine inhibits L-arginine Na+-dependent transport across the enterocyte apical membrane in a highly purified intestinal BBMV from broiler chickens. PMID:14584853

  13. Effect of H + ion implantation on structural, morphological, optical and dielectric properties of l-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate single crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sangeetha; R. Ramesh Babu; P. Kumar; G. Bhagvannarayana; K. Ramamurthi

    2011-01-01

    l-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate (LAHCl) single crystals have been implanted with 100keV H+ ions at different ion fluence ranging from 1012 to 1015ions\\/cm2. Implanted LAHCl single crystals have been investigated for property changes. Crystal surface and crystalline perfection of the pristine and implanted crystals were analyzed by atomic force microscope and high-resolution X-ray diffraction studies, respectively. Optical absorption bands induced by

  14. l-citrulline and l-arginine supplementation retards the progression of high-cholesterol-diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Hayashi; Packiasamy A. R. Juliet; Hisako Matsui-Hirai; Asaka Miyazaki; Akiko Fukatsu; Jun Funami; Akihisa Iguchi; Louis J. Ignarro

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of ingested l-arginine, l-citrulline, and antioxidants (vitamins C and E) on the progression of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. The fatty diet caused a marked impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated thoracic aorta and blood flow in rabbit ear artery in vivo, the development of atheromatous lesions and

  15. Dietary l -arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bie Tan; Yulong Yin; Zhiqiang Liu; Xinguo Li; Haijun Xu; Xiangfeng Kong; Ruilin Huang; Wenjie Tang; Izuru Shinzato; Stephen B. Smith; Guoyao Wu

    2009-01-01

    Obesity in humans is a major public health crisis worldwide. In addition, livestock species exhibit excessive subcutaneous\\u000a fat at market weight. However, there are currently few means of reducing adiposity in mammals. This study was conducted with\\u000a a swine model to test the hypothesis that dietary l-arginine supplementation may increase muscle gain and decrease fat deposition. Twenty-four 110-day-old barrows were

  16. Albumin stimulates cell growth, L-arginine transport, and metabolism to polyamines in human proximal tubular cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NEIL ASHMAN; Steven M. Harwood; JULIUS KIESWICH; David A. Allen; Norman B. Roberts; A. Claudio Mendes-Ribeiro; Muhammad M. Yaqoob

    2005-01-01

    Albumin stimulates cell growth, L-arginine transport, and metabolism to polyamines in human proximal tubular cells.BackgroundPure albumin stimulates proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC) proliferation, and may have a role in homeostasis in health, as well as in disrupted PTEC turnover in proteinuric nephropathies. We investigated a role for arginine and its metabolites, the polyamines, in this process, given the ability of

  17. Effects of supplemental L-arginine on the intestinal adaptive response after massive small-bowel resection in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayrettin Öztürk; Ali Dokucu; Yusuf Ya?mur; ?brahim Sari

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate whether L-arginine methyl ester (L-Arg) can improve the structure of the small intestine and enhance adaptation in an experimental model of short-bowel syndrome (SBS), 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups of 10 each. In one group only a laparotomy was performed (G1). The remaining 30 rats underwent 90% small-bowel resection (SBR) and formed the three

  18. The effect of l -arginine methyl ester on indices of free radical involvement in a rat model of experimental nephrocalcinosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayrettin Ozturk; Hulya Ozturk; Yusuf Yagmur; Huseyin Buyukbayram

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of l-arginine methyl ester (l-Arg) on indices of free radical involvement in a rat model of experimental nephrocalcinosis. Twenty-eight Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups of seven. The first group (G1), the sham-control group received pure distilled drinking water. The second group (G2) received drinking water containing 0.7% ethylene

  19. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil erosion accentuates the often very low inherent fertility of many soils in the tropics. An integrated approach involving inorganic and organic inputs is required where animal and plant residues are returned, as far as practicable. Chemical fertilizers alone cannot achieve long-term productivity on many soils and organic material inputs are required to maintain soil organic matter levels and crop productivity. A major research effort is required to develop improved strategies for halting and reversing soil degradation if long-term productivity is to be secured.

  20. Long-term performance of filtration layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radfar, A.; Rockaway, T. D.

    2013-12-01

    Permeable pavements are commonly employed to capture and divert stormwater before it enters the stormwater or sewer conveyance systems. During a storm event, runoff water passes through the permeable pavement surface, enters a storage gallery and finally exfiltrates into the surrounding soil. Thus, the ability of the system to store an appropriate volume of runoff water is an important consideration for stormwater control design. Traditionally, crushed stone or other porous material has been used to provide the necessary interstitial void space to store the runoff water. Unfortunately, over time the available void space within the storage gallery is reduced due to settlement, biological growth and sediment accumulation. This gradual reduction in void space reduces the long-term effectiveness of these stormwater controls by limiting its ability to store and pass runoff water. This study examined the long-term performance of the storage gallery layer with respect to its ability to both store and pass runoff water. As the porosity within the storage gallery decreased, it was anticipated that volumetric water content within the gallery would increase and that time necessary to drain the gallery would increase as well. The effects of the gallery porosity were assessed over a one-year study using both laboratory experimentation and monitoring data from naturally occurring rain events. Changes in gallery porosity were first assessed by correlating monitoring piezometer data with surface infiltration testing; building a relation between know volume of poured water being used for the test and the associated pressure head at the base of the gallery. As a known volume of water enters the system, volume change in the gallery directly correlate to increases in pressure head. Second, the time required for water to permeate through pavers and gallery layer to trigger the TDRs in the filtration layer and the time to drain it from the crushed stone were calculated and compared by the age of permeable pavement. These data were utilized to develop a model that more appropriately considered changes in gallery porosity. By better understanding the progression of the runoff water through the storage gallery a better assessment of the long-term performance of the entire system can be developed. Future storage gallery designs can be appropriately modified to account for changes within the storage gallery so that volume and flow requirements are maintained throughout the life of the structure.

  1. Enzymatic production of l-citrulline by hydrolysis of the guanidinium group of l-arginine with recombinant arginine deiminase.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Sun, Xia; Chen, Xiulai; Liu, Dongxu; Liu, Liming

    2015-08-20

    In this study, a simple, efficient enzymatic production process for the environmentally friendly synthesis of l-citrulline from l-arginine was developed using arginine deiminase (ADI) from Lactococcus lactis. Following overexpression of L. lactis ADI in Escherichia. coli BL21 (DE3) and experimental evolution using error-prone PCR, mutant FMME106 was obtained with a Km for l-arginine of 3.5mM and a specific activity of 195.7U/mg. This mutant exhibited a maximal conversion of 92.6% and achieved a final l-citrulline concentration of 176.9g/L under optimal conditions (190g/L l-arginine, 15g/L whole-cell biocatalyst treated with 2% isopropanol for 30min, 50°C, pH 7.2, 8h). The average l-citrulline synthesis rate of 22.1g/L/h is considerably higher than that reported for other similar biocatalytic approaches, therefore the process developed in the present work has great potential for large-scale production of l-citrulline. PMID:26022421

  2. [Intermittent hypoxic training and L-arginine as corrective agents for myocardial energy supply under acute hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Kurhaliuk, N M; Serebrovs'ka, T V; Nosar, V I; Kolesnikova, E E; Mo?benko, O O

    2002-01-01

    It NO has been shown play to the primary role in several mitochondrial functions. Our aim for this study was to investigate whether exogenous NO (L-arginine) or NO blocker L-NNA modulated the adaptive reactions of rat myocardial tissue respiration on intermittent hypoxic training (IHT). In the control rats an acute hypoxic test (inhalation of 7% O2, 30 min) provoked sharp augmentation of ADP-stimulated tissue respiration with the increase of respiratory coefficient and phosphorylation rate, the decrease of O2 uptake efficacy and switching the energy supply to succinate oxidation pathway. The same hypoxic test but following 14 days of IHT (11% O2, 15-min sessions with 15 min rest intervals, 5 times daily) produced a stimulation of oxidative phosphorylation with primary activation of NAD-dependent pathway, the marked increase of ADP/O ratio. The combination of IHT with L-arginine treatment (600 mg/kg intraperitoneally, daily before IHT sessions) provoked the decrease of tissue oxygen consumption in comparison with untrained animals. L-arginine effects abolished by the NO-synthase blocker L-NNA. Its effects on mitochondrial function deals with succinic acid inhibition utilizatin (increasing level ADP/O) and activation NADH-dependent oxidation. We conclude that the combination of IHT with NO-precursor treatment was capable to increase significantly the tolerance to episodes of acute hypoxia. PMID:12199105

  3. Interactions between L-arginine and L-glutamine change endothelial NO production. An effect independent of NO synthase substrate availability.

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, J F; Münzel, T; Venema, R C; James, N L; Bai, C L; Mitch, W E; Harrison, D G

    1995-01-01

    The effect of extracellular L-arginine and L-glutamine on nitric oxide (NO) release was studied in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells and in rabbit aortic rings. Increasing L-arginine (0.01 to 10 mM) did not alter NO release from cultured endothelial cells or modify endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine in isolated vessels. L-Glutamine (0.6 and 2 mM) inhibited NO release from cultured cells (in response to bradykinin) and from aortic rings (in response to acetylcholine or ADP). L-Arginine (0.1-10 mM) dose-dependently reversed the L-glutamine inhibition of receptor-stimulated NO release in both models. In contrast to its inhibitory response to receptor-mediated stimuli, glutamine alone slightly potentiated NO release in both models when the calcium ionophore, A23187, was added. Furthermore, cultured cells incubated with L-arginine (0.01-10 mM), in the presence or absence of glutamine, released similar amounts of NO in response to A23187. L-Glutamine did not affect intracellular L-arginine levels. Neither D-glutamine nor D-arginine affected NO release or endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation. L-Glutamine had no effect on the activity of endothelial NOS assessed by L-arginine to L-citrulline conversion. These findings show that in the absence of L-glutamine, manipulating intracellular L-arginine levels over a wide range does not affect NO release. L-Glutamine in concentrations circulating in vivo may tonically inhibit receptor-mediated NO release by interfering with signal transduction. One mechanism by which L-arginine may enhance NO release is via reversal of the inhibitory effect of L-glutamine, but apparently independently of enhancing NO synthase substrate. Images PMID:7539455

  4. Effects of Dietary Zinc and l Arginine Supplementation on Total Antioxidants Capacity, Lipid Peroxidation, Nitric Oxide, Egg Weight, and Blood Biochemical Values in Japanase Quails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Onur Atakisi; Emine Atakisi; Asim Kart

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of dietary zinc and l-arginine supplementation on blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), some blood\\u000a chemistry parameters, and egg weights of laying quails. Three groups of Japanese quails were fed with a diet containing l-arginine (5 mg\\/kg), zinc (60 mg\\/kg), and normal basal diet (control) for 30 days. TAC, lipid

  5. Dietary L-Arginine Supplementation Reduces White Fat Gain and Enhances Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat Masses in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenjuan Jobgen; Cynthia J. Meininger; Scott C. Jobgen; Peng Li; Mi-Jeong Lee; Stephen B. Smith; Thomas E. Spencer; Susan K. Fried; Guoyao Wu

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies showed that dietary L-arginine supplementation decreased white fat mass in genetically obese rats. This study tested the effectiveness of L-arginine in diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 15 wk a high- fat (HF) (40% energy) or low-fat (LF) (10% energy) diet beginning at 4 wk of age, resulting in 18% higher body weight gains and 74%

  6. Restoring vascular nitric oxide formation by l-arginine improves the symptoms of intermittent claudication in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer H Böger; Stefanie M Bode-Böger; Wolfgang Thiele; Andreas Creutzig; Klaus Alexander; Jürgen C Frölich

    1998-01-01

    Background. Administration of l-arginine improves nitric oxide (NO) formation and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in atherosclerotic patients.Objectives. We investigated in this double-blind, controlled study whether prolonged intermittent infusion therapy with l-arginine improves the clinical symptoms of patients with intermittent claudication, as compared with the endothelium-independent vasodilator prostaglandin E1, and control patients.Methods. Thirty-nine patients with intermittent claudication were randomly assigned to receive 2

  7. Radiation risk during long-term spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Petrov, V M

    2002-01-01

    Cosmonauts' exposure to cosmic rays during long-term spaceflight can cause unfavorable effects in health and risk for the crew members' lives. All unfavorable effects induced by exposure should be taken into consideration for the risk estimation. They should include both the acute deterministic effects and delayed effects called stochastic. On the ground the limitation of unfavorable consequences of acute exposure is achieved by means of establishing dose limits. But in space applications this approach can't be acceptable. Establishing a fixed dose limit is adequate to introducing indefinite reserve coefficient and therefore ineffective usage of spacecraft resource. The method of radiation risk calculation caused by acute and delayed effects of cosmonauts' exposure is discussed and substantiated in the report. Peculiarities of the impact of permanent radiation sources (galactic cosmic rays and trapped radiation) and the variable one (solar cosmic rays) are taken into consideration. PMID:12539775

  8. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  9. [Childhood liver transplantation. Long-term results].

    PubMed

    Jara, Paloma; Hierro, Loreto

    2010-05-01

    Liver transplantation allows long-term survival (10 years or more) in 75% of children receiving transplants before 2000. The risk of mortality after the first year is 4-10% in the next 10-20 years. Chronic rejection affects 6%. The need for late retransplantation is 3-5%. However, the follow-up of these patients involves the management of diverse problems in the graft (immunological, biliary, vascular) and others related to the use of immunosuppressants (renal dysfunction, lymphoproliferative syndrome). The transition from pediatric to adult care generates special needs. Adolescence and young adulthood are associated with a lack of compliance. Adult specialists should be aware of the special features of the original diagnosis and the surgical techniques used in childhood transplantation. Final quality of life is good overall but is lower than that in healthy young persons. PMID:20122757

  10. [Strongyloidiasis following long-term corticosteroid therapy].

    PubMed

    Yamori, S; Yamamoto, M; Kawabata, A; Nakashima, K; Iinuma, Y; Satake, T; Shimokata, K

    1989-10-01

    A 64-year-old man who was born and raised in Fukuoka Prefecture was admitted because of dyspnea. The chest X-ray film showed multiple pulmonary cysts. Corticosteroid therapy was given because of repeated episodes of dyspnea and wheezing. He complained of epigastric pain 20 months after administration of corticosteroid therapy. Gastro-endoscopic examination showed inflammatory changes of the gastric mucosa and the biopsy specimens revealed the filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Furthermore, the larvae were frequently detected in both sputum specimens and stools. Pyrvinium pamoate was initially administered and was switched to thiabendazole because of the presence of hyperinfection. Although two cycles of thiabendazole treatment were given, the larvae were not eradicated. This case report suggests that long term corticosteroid therapy caused the hyperinfection syndrome of Strongyloides stercoralis in a patient who was auto-infected with this nematode. PMID:2615077

  11. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  12. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  13. N sup G -methyl-L-arginine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced hypotension: Implications for the involvement of nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbourn, R.G.; Adams, J. (Univ. of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA)); Gross, S.S.; Griffith, O.W.; Levi, R. (Cornell Univ. Medical College, New York, NY (USA)); Jubran, A.; Lodato, R.F. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Clinical assessment of the activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) against human cancer has been limited by a dose-dependent cardiovascular toxicity, most frequently hypotension. TNF is also thought to mediate the vascular collapse resulting from bacterial endotoxin. The present studies address the mechanism by which TNF causes hypotension and provide evidence for elevated production of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator initially characterized as endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nitric oxide is synthesized by several cell types, including endothelial cells and macrophages, from the guanidino nitrogen of L-arginine; the enzymatic pathway is competitively inhibited by N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine. The authors found that hypotension induced in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs by TNF was completely reversed within 2 min following administration of N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine. In contrast, N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine failed to reverse the hypotensive response to an equivalent depressor dose of nitroglycerin, a compound that acts by forming nitric oxide by a monenzymatic, arginine-independent mechanism. The effect of N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine on TNF-induced hypotension was antagonized, and the hypotension restored, by administration of excess L-arginine findings suggest that excessive nitric oxide production mediates the hypotensive effect of TNF.

  14. Performance Evaluation Using Expert Elicitation and Long Term Environmental Monitoring Optimization for Long Term Stewardship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Moore; Jack Ditmars; Barbara Minsker; James Bachmaier

    Long term environmental monitoring is a critical component of stewardship for three reasons: (1) data provide ongoing evidence of environmental compliance and protection of the public and the environment; (2) the monitoring program, in part, determines the life cycle cost and extent of stewardship; and (3) the monitoring program provides a framework to develop trust and agreement between the site

  15. Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression in Experience-Dependent Plasticity

    E-print Network

    Crair, Michael C

    -term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) more than 30 years ago, a great deal of experimental-dependent develop- ment and plasticity of sensory systems and addresses how LTP and LTD mechanisms at excitatory synapses might be used to mediate such changes. Mechanisms of LTP and LTD LTP and LTD are nearly ubiquitous

  16. Where Can You Receive Care? (Long-Term Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may need. Share page: Where Can You Receive Care? Most long-term care is provided at home. ... in long-term care facilities. Examples of home care services include: An unpaid caregiver who may be ...

  17. Long-Term Maintenance of Weight Loss: Current Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Jeffery; Adam Drewnowski; Leonard H. Epstein; Albert J. Stunkard; G. Terence Wilson; Rena R. Wing; Dana Robin Hill

    2000-01-01

    Intervention strategies for promoting long-term weight loss are examined empirically and conceptually. Weight control research over the last 20 years has dramatically improved short-term treatment efficacy but has been less successful in improving long-term success. Interventions in preadolescent children show greater long-term efficacy than in adults. Extending treatment length and putting more emphasis on energy expenditure have modestly improved long-term

  18. 78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...1327 RIN 0985-AA08 State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program AGENCY: Administration...Older Americans Act, the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman program. This proposed rule...compliance in carrying out the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program functions. This...

  19. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart sensors housed in anti-fouling sensor chambers. The monitoring network is highly versatile and can be applied to a variety of subsurface sensing scenarios in different media. However, the current project focused on monitoring water quality parameters of pH, oxidation-reduction potential, conductivity, and temperature in groundwater.

  20. Parenteral administration of L-arginine prevents fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    PubMed

    Lassala, Arantzatzu; Bazer, Fuller W; Cudd, Timothy A; Datta, Sujay; Keisler, Duane H; Satterfield, M Carey; Spencer, Thomas E; Wu, Guoyao

    2010-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major health problem worldwide that currently lacks an effective therapeutic solution. This study was conducted with an ovine IUGR model to test the hypothesis that parenteral administration of l-arginine (Arg) is effective in enhancing fetal growth. Beginning on d 28 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% (control-fed) or 50% (underfed) of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements. Between d 60 of gestation and parturition, underfed ewes received i.v. infusions of saline or 155 micromol Arg-HCl/kg body weight 3 times daily, whereas control-fed ewes received only saline. The birth weights of lambs from saline-infused underfed ewes were 23% lower (P < 0.01) than those of lambs from control-fed dams. Administration of Arg to underfed ewes increased (P < 0.01) concentrations of Arg (69%), ornithine (55%), proline (29%), methionine (37%), leucine (36%), isoleucine (35%), cysteine (19%), and FFA (43%) in maternal serum, decreased maternal circulating levels of ammonia (18%) and triglycerides (32%), and enhanced birth weights of lambs by 21% compared with saline-infused underfed ewes. There was no difference in birth weights of lambs between the control-fed and the Arg-infused underfed ewes. These novel results indicate that parenteral administration of Arg to underfed ewes prevented fetal growth restriction and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans. The findings also lay a new framework for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of Arg in regulating conceptus growth and development. PMID:20505020

  1. Involvement of cationic amino acid transporter 1 in L-arginine transport in rat retinal pericytes.

    PubMed

    Zakoji, Nobuyuki; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Tachikawa, Masanori; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a known relaxant, is produced in cells from L-arginine (L-Arg). Because the relaxation of retinal pericytes alters the microcirculatory hemodynamics, it is important to understand the manner of NO production in retinal pericytes. The purpose of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanism(s) of uptake of L-Arg in retinal pericytes using a conditionally immortalized rat retinal pericyte cell line (TR-rPCT1 cells) which expresses the mRNAs of endothelial NO synthase and inducible NO synthase. L-Arg uptake by TR-rPCT1 cells exhibited Na(+)-independence and concentration-dependence with a Km of 28.9 µM. This process was strongly inhibited by substrates of cationic amino acid transporters (CAT), such as L-ornithine and L-lysine. In contrast, L-valine, L-leucine, and L-glutamine, which are substrates of cation/neutral amino acid transport systems, such as system y(+)L, system B(0,+), and system b(0,+), did not strongly inhibit L-Arg uptake by TR-rPCT1 cells. In addition, the expression of mRNA and protein of CAT1 in TR-rPCT1 cells was observed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses. Taking these results into consideration, it appears that CAT1 is involved in L-Arg uptake by retinal pericytes and this is expected to play an important role in the relaxation of retinal pericytes, thereby modulating the microcirculatory hemodynamics in the retina. PMID:25747984

  2. Combined Aliskiren and L-arginine treatment reverses renovascular hypertension in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Tiradentes, Renata V; Santuzzi, Cintia H; Claudio, Erick Rg; Mengal, Vinicius; Silva, Nyam F; Neto, Henrique A F; Bissoli, Nazaré S; Abreu, Glaucia R; Gouvea, Sonia A

    2015-07-01

    Renovascular hypertension is characterized by increased renal sympathetic activity, angiotensin II and by endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in mediating the anti-hypertensive effects of aliskiren (ALSK) and L-arginine (L-ARG) in a rat renovascular hypertension model. Hypertension was induced by clipping the right renal artery, and the following five groups were divided: SHAM operated; 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C); 2K1C plus ALSK; 2K1C plus L-ARG; and 2K1C plus ALSK+ L-ARG. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 2K1C rats increased from 114.4±5.2 to 204±12.7?mm?Hg (P<0.05) and was only reduced by ALSK+L-ARG treatment (138.4±4.37?mm?Hg). The 2K1C hypertension increased the baseline RSNA (SHAM: 62.4±6.39 vs. 2K1C: 97.4±8.43%). L-ARG or ALSK+L-ARG treatment significantly decreased baseline RSNA (2K1C L-ARG:70.7±2.39; 2K1C ALSK+L-ARG: 69.3±4.23%), but ALSK treatment alone did not (2K1C ALSK: 84.2±2.5%). Urinary water, Na(+), Cl(-) and urea excretion were similar in the 2K1C L-ARG, 2K1C ALSK+L-ARG and SHAM groups. The combination of ALSK+L-ARG restored urine flow and increased the glomerular filtration rate. The nNOS expression in the non clipped kidney was significantly increased in 2K1C ALSK+L-ARG rats. In conclusion, combined ALSK+L-ARG treatment normalizes SBP and prevents renal dysfunction in 2K1C hypertensive rats. PMID:25740291

  3. Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces abdominal fat content by modulating lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Fouad, A M; El-Senousey, H K; Yang, X J; Yao, J H

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of different levels of dietary L-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation on the abdominal fat pad, circulating lipids, hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expression, gene expression related to fatty acid ?-oxidation, and the performance of broiler chickens. We tested whether the dietary L-Arg levels affected the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in order to reduce body fat deposition. A total of 192 broiler chickens (Cobb 500) aged 21 days with an average BW of 920 ± 15 g were randomly assigned to four groups (six broilers per replicate and eight replicates per treatment). The control group was fed a basal diet, whereas the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 0.25%, 0.50%, or 1.00% L-Arg for 3 weeks. The average daily feed intake, average daily gain and feed : gain ratio were not affected by the dietary L-Arg levels. However, chickens supplemented with L-Arg had lower abdominal fat content, plasma triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) concentrations, hepatic FAS mRNA expression and increased heart carnitine palmitoyl transferase1 (CPT1) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (3HADH) mRNA expression. These findings suggest that the addition of 0.25% L-Arg may reduce the plasma TC concentration by decreasing hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA expression. This may lower the plasma TG and abdominal fat content by suppressing hepatic FAS mRNA expression and enhancing CPT1 and 3HADH (genes related to fatty acid ?-oxidation) mRNA expression in the hearts of broiler chickens. PMID:23472611

  4. Acute l-arginine supplementation increases muscle blood volume but not strength performance.

    PubMed

    Alvares, Thiago Silveira; Conte, Carlos Adam; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Silva, Joab Trajano; Meirelles, Cláudia de Mello; Bhambhani, Yagesh N; Gomes, Paulo Sergio Chagas

    2012-02-01

    l-Arginine (L-arg) is an amino acid precursor to nitric oxide (NO). Dietary supplements containing L-arg have been marketed with the purpose of increasing vasodilation, thereby elevating blood flow to the exercising muscle and enhancing the metabolic response to exercise. Our goal was to identify the acute effect of L-arg supplementation on biceps strength performance, indicators of NO production (nitrite and nitrate - NOx), and muscle blood volume (Mbv) and oxygenation (Mox) during recovery from 3 sets of resistance exercise. Fifteen males participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. After withdrawing resting blood samples, the subjects were supplemented with 6 g of L-arg (ARG) or placebo (PLA). Monitoring of Mbv and Mox with near-infrared spectroscopy began 30 min after supplementation and lasted for 60 min. The exercise protocol (3 sets of 10 maximal voluntary contractions of isokinetic concentric elbow extension at 60°·s(-1), 2-min rest between sets) was initiated 80 min after supplementation. Blood samples were drawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after supplementation. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that Mbv significantly (p ? 0.05) increased in ARG compared with the PLA during the recovery period of each set of resistance exercise. NOx, Mox, peak torque, total work, and set total work were not significantly different between groups. We found that acute L-arg supplementation increases Mbv during recovery from sets of resistance exercise with no increase in strength performance. It is still premature to recommend nutritional supplements containing L-arg as an ergogenic aid to increase muscle strength during resistance training in healthy subjects. PMID:22251130

  5. A theoretical investigation of electric properties of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate including environment polarization effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, T. L.; Sabino, J. R.; Castro, M. A.; Georg, H. C.

    2010-10-01

    The dipole moment (?), linear polarizability (?¯), and first hyperpolarizability (?tot) of the asymmetric unit of L-arginine phosphate (LAP) monohydrate crystal are investigated using the supermolecule approach in combination with an iterative electrostatic polarization scheme. Environment polarization effects are attained by assuring the convergence of the dipole moment of LAP embedded in the polarization field of the surrounding molecules whose atomic sites are treated as point charges. The results obtained show that in the presence of the embedding charges, the value of ? is increased by 9% but the static values of ?¯ and ?tot are decreased, respectively, by 3% and 13%, as compared with the isolated situation. The MP2/6-311+G(d) model predicts for the in-crystal dipole moment the converged value of 33 D, in good concordance with the available experimental result of 32 D. Our estimates for the converged results of ?¯ and ?tot are, respectively, 22.51×10-24 and 5.01×10-30 esu. Dispersion effects are found to have a small impact on the nonlinear optical responses of LAP in the visible region. In addition, MP2/6-311G results obtained for ?tot by using isolated and embedded LAP dimers show that crystal packing effects have a significant contribution of the electrostatic interactions. Our results suggest that the role of the crystal environment is to minimize the effects of the intermolecular interactions in the electric properties. That is, ? and ?tot gain a more additive character in the presence of the field of the embedding charges. This is specially marked for ?tot.

  6. L-arginine availability regulates inducible nitric oxide synthase-dependent host defense against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Asim, Mohammad; Lewis, Nuruddeen D; Algood, Holly M Scott; Cover, Timothy L; Kim, Preston Y; Wilson, Keith T

    2007-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach causes an active immune response that includes stimulation of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) expression. Although NO can kill H. pylori, the bacterium persists indefinitely, suggesting that NO production is inadequate. We determined if the NO derived from iNOS in macrophages was dependent on the availability of its substrate, L-arginine (L-Arg). Production of NO by H. pylori-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was dependent on the L-Arg concentration in the culture medium, and the 50% effective dose for L-Arg was 220 microM, which is above reported plasma L-Arg levels. While iNOS mRNA induction was L-Arg independent, iNOS protein increased in an L-Arg-dependent manner that did not involve changes in iNOS protein degradation. L-lysine, an inhibitor of L-Arg uptake, attenuated H. pylori-stimulated iNOS protein expression, translation, NO levels, and killing of H. pylori. While L-Arg starvation suppressed global protein translation, at concentrations of L-Arg at which iNOS protein was only minimally expressed in response to H. pylori, global translation was fully restored and eukaryotic translation initiation factor alpha was dephosphorylated. H. pylori lacking the gene rocF, which codes for a bacterial arginase, induced higher levels of NO production by increasing iNOS protein levels. When murine gastric macrophages were activated with H. pylori, supraphysiologic levels of L-Arg were required to permit iNOS protein expression and NO production. These findings indicate that L-Arg is rate limiting for iNOS translation and suggest that the levels of L-Arg that occur in vivo do not permit sufficient NO generation by the host to kill H. pylori. PMID:17562760

  7. Cerebrovascular responsiveness to NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in spontaneously diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Fouyas, I. P.; Kelly, P. A.; Ritchie, I. M.; Whittle, I. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. There is evidence that endothelial dysfunction is associated with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of the present study was to assess local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and cerebrovascular responsiveness to the NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in spontaneously diabetic insulin-dependent BioBred (BB) rats. 2. Diabetic rats, and non-diabetic controls, were treated with L-NAME (30 mg kg-1, i.v.) or saline, 20 min prior to the measurement of LCBF by the fully quantitative [14C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic technique. 3. There were no significant differences in physiological parameters (blood pH, PCO2, and PO2, rectal temperature, arterial blood pressure, or plasma glucose) between any of the groups of rats, and no difference in either the extent or the temporal characteristics of the hypertensive response to L-NAME between diabetic and non-diabetic rats. 4. In diabetic rats, a global reduction in basal LCBF was observed, although significant reductions (between -20 and -30%) were found in only 5 (mainly subcortical) out of the 13 brain regions measured. Following L-NAME injection, significant reductions in LCBF (between -20 and -40%) were found in the non-diabetic animals. In diabetic animals treated with L-NAME, a significant reduction in LCBF was measured only in the hypothalamus (-33%). 5. The cerebrovascular response to acute L-NAME is attenuated in spontaneously diabetic insulin-dependent BB rats. This would be consistent with the endothelial dysfunction in cerebral vessels, known to be associated with diabetes mellitus and it is possible that a loss of NO-induced dilator tone, amongst other factors, may underlie the observed reductions of basal LCBF in these animals. PMID:8735622

  8. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)] [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic and control rats. Under these findings, we suggest that targeting of eNOS and Nrf2 signaling by L-arginine supplementation could be used as a potential treatment method to alleviate the late diabetic complications.

  9. Long-term behavior of ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Anson, D.; Ramesh, K.S.

    1992-02-19

    This topical report has been prepared in response to the need to address the question of long term durability of high-strength structural ceramic materials. In a new project to demonstrate the use of such materials as replacements for metals in the hot gas path of industrial gas turbines, the longest projected test bed run will be 1000 hours. Creep in ceramic materials seldom exceeds one percent strain before failure, but the strain takes place almost entirely in the intergranular regions, which can be severely weakened by accumulated damage as creep occurs. In this report, we discuss the nature of creep in silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramic materials, the method of evaluating creep, and the interpretation of data obtained under various creep test conditions. A review of creep data illustrates the importance of intergranular phases and of the history of the material. Also, in most cases, the histories applying to laboratory investigations are different from those that will apply to engineering situations in which measurable creep will be generally unacceptable. Fatigue in ceramic materials usually is assessed in static fatigue tests, which are dependent on the same types of grain boundary damage as those occurring in creep, but over shorter time periods. Corrosion of silicon-based ceramics by oxygen and water vapor results in the formation of protective SiO{sub 2} under gas turbine operating conditions.

  10. Bacterial Cellulose: Long-Term Biocompatibility Studies.

    PubMed

    Pértile, Renata A N; Moreira, Susana; Costa, Rui M Gil da; Correia, Alexandra; Guardão, Luisa; Gartner, Fátima; Vilanova, Manuel; Gama, Miguel

    2011-06-28

    The bacterial cellulose (BC) secreted by Gluconacetobacter xylinus is a network of pure cellulose nanofibres which has high crystallinity, wettability and mechanical strength. These characteristics make BC an excellent material for tissue-engineering constructs, noteworthy for artificial vascular grafts. In this work, the in vivo biocompatibility of BC membranes produced by two G. xylinus strains was analyzed through histological analysis of long-term subcutaneous implants in the mice. The BC implants caused a mild and benign inflammatory reaction that decreased along time and did not elicit a foreign body reaction. A tendency to calcify over time, which may be related to the porosity of the BC implants, was observed, especially among the less porous BC-1 implants. In addition, the potential toxicity of BC nanofibres - obtained by chemical-mechanical treatment of BC membranes - subcutaneously implanted in mice was analysed through bone marrow flow cytometryand histological analyses. At 2 and 4 months post-implantation, the nanofibres implants were found to accumulate intracellularly, in subcutaneous foamy macrophages aggregates. Moreover, no differences were observed between the controls and implanted animals in thymocyte populations and in B lymphocyte precursors and myeloid cells in the bone marrow. PMID:21722421

  11. Long-term potentiation and memory.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard G M

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP) transformed research on the neurobiology of learning and memory. This did not happen overnight, but the discovery of an experimentally demonstrable phenomenon reflecting activity-driven neuronal and synaptic plasticity changed discussions about what might underlie learning from speculation into something much more concrete. Equally, however, the relationship between the discovery of LTP and research on the neurobiology of learning and memory has been reciprocal; for it is also true that studies of the psychological, anatomical and neurochemical basis of memory provided a developing and critical intellectual context for the physiological discovery. The emerging concept of multiple memory systems, from 1970 onwards, paved the way for the development of new behavioural and cognitive tasks, including the watermaze described in this paper. The use of this task in turn provided key evidence that pharmacological interference with an LTP induction mechanism would also interfere with learning, a finding that was by no means a foregone conclusion. This reciprocal relationship between studies of LTP and the neurobiology of memory helped the physiological phenomenon to be recognized as a major discovery. PMID:12740109

  12. Long-term variations in sunspot characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlatov, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Relative variations in the number of sunspots and sunspot groups in activity cycles have been analyzed based on data from the Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station and international indices. The following regularities have been established: (1) The relative fraction of small sunspots decreases linearly and that of large sunspots increase with increasing activity cycle amplitude. (2) The variation in the average number of sunspots in one group has a trend, and this number decreased from ˜12 in cycle 19 to ˜7.5 in cycle 24. (3) The ratio of the sunspot index (Ri) to the sunspot group number index ( G gr) varies with a period of about 100 years. (4) An analysis of the sunspot group number index ( G gr) from 1610 indicates that the Gnevyshev-Ohl rule reverses at the minimums of secular activity cycles. (5) Ratio of the total area to area of Ssp/Sum nuclei has long-term variation with a period approximately 8 cycles. Minimum ratio falls on 16-17 cycles of activity. (6) It has been indicated that the magnetic field intensity and sunspot area in the current cycle are related to the amplitude of the next activity cycle.

  13. Long-term changes in Saturn's troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, L.

    1985-09-01

    The author reports the results of monitoring Saturn's H2 quadrupole and CH4 band absorptions outside of the equatorial zone over one-half of Saturn's year. This interval covers most of the perihelion half of Saturn's elliptical orbit, which happens to be approximately bounded by the equinoxes. Marked long-term changes occur in the CH4 absorption accompanied by weakly opposite changes in the H2 absorption. Around the 1980 equinox, the H2 and CH4 absorptions in the northern hemisphere appear to be discontinuous with those in the southern hemisphere. This discontinuity and the temporal variation of the absorptions are evidence for seasonal changes. The absorption variations can be attributed to a variable haze in Saturn's troposphere, responding to changes in temperature and insolation through the processes of sublimation and freezing. The author models the vertical haze distribution of Saturn's south temperate latitudes during 1971 - 1977 in terms of a distribution having a particle scale height equal to a fraction of the atmospheric scale height. He also reports spatial measurements of the absorption in the 6450 Å NH3 band made annually since the 1980 equinox.

  14. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Long-term potentiation in the Eocene.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, G

    2003-01-01

    The first ten years of long-term potentiation (LTP) research are reviewed. Surprisingly, given the intensity of current interest, the discovery paper did not trigger a wave of follow-on experiments. Despite this, the initial work laid out what ultimately became standard questions and paradigms. The application of the then still novel hippocampal slice technique oriented LTP towards basic neuroscience, perhaps somewhat at the cost of lesser attention to its functional significance. The use of slices led to the discovery of the events that trigger the formation of LTP and provided some first clues about its extraordinary persistence. Signs of the intense controversy over the nature of LTP expression (release vs receptors) emerged towards the end of the first decade of work. What appears to be lacking in the literature of that time is a widespread concern about LTP and memory. This may reflect a somewhat different attitude that neurobiologists then had towards memory research and a perceived need to integrate the new potentiation phenomenon into the web of established science before advancing extended arguments about its contributions to behaviour. PMID:12740106

  16. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage estuaries below by removing all incoming freshwater. At Toolik Lake, long-term experiments of removing top predators from the good web of lakes showed dramatic alterations of lake populations of small fish and zooplankton. In New Mexico, LTER research on small mammal populations is successfully predicting rodent increases and the potential for increased zoonotic diseases such as Hantavirus and bubonic plague. This ability to forecast based on El Nino prediction is being used to increase scientific awareness and public health awareness through media based communication with the public. In Oregon, the Andrews Forest LTER program has had long, strong links with natural resource policy and management. Basic understanding of forest-stream interactions, characteristics of old-growth forests, roles of woody debris in temperate forest ecosystems, invertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function have been incorporated in management guidelines, plans and regulations for public and private lands throughout the Pacific Northwest. Other examples of the values of long-term research and monitoring will be presented.

  17. NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTP/LTD).

    PubMed

    Lüscher, Christian; Malenka, Robert C

    2012-06-01

    Long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTP/LTD) can be elicited by activating N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, typically by the coincident activity of pre- and postsynaptic neurons. The early phases of expression are mediated by a redistribution of AMPA-type glutamate receptors: More receptors are added to potentiate the synapse or receptors are removed to weaken synapses. With time, structural changes become apparent, which in general require the synthesis of new proteins. The investigation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these forms of synaptic plasticity has received much attention, because NMDA receptor-dependent LTP and LTD may constitute cellular substrates of learning and memory. PMID:22510460

  18. LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

    2003-07-23

    Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are also presented.

  19. Long term observations of Saturn's northern auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    Auroral emissions are a vital tool in diagnosing the dynamics of planetary magnetospheres. While SaturnA?s southern UV auroras have been observed with high-sensitivity cameras onboard the Hubble Space Telescope {HST}, the northern auroras have only been observed at very oblique angles. Our understanding of SaturnA?s auroral emissions is thus only half complete. However, Saturn has now passed equinox and is moving toward summer in the northern hemisphere, such that the northern auroras are now visible from Earth, and recent results from HST have indicated that SaturnA?s northern auroras are not simply mirror images of the southern. The changing seasons are also expected to result in significant changes in magnetospheric phenomena related to the auroras. Observing these changes is a specific goal of the Cassini Solstice Mission {CSM} and, since joint HST-Cassini observations have repeatedly proved to be invaluable, CSM operations are currently being planned specifically with joint HST observations in mind. The observations proposed here will thus execute over Cycles 18-20, and will address the following science questions:What is the morphology of SaturnA?s northern auroras? Do SaturnA?s auroras change with the planetA?s season? How are the auroral emissions of different wavelengths related?The importance of long term HST observations of SaturnA?s northern auroras are highlighted by the fact that recent key discoveries would have been missed without the multiyear archive of observations of the planetA?s southern auroras. The opportunity to obtain HST images while Cassini makes specifically-tailored supporting observations is an extremely valuable opportunity, and HST is the only instrument capable of providing sustained, high time resolution observations of Saturns auroral emission.

  20. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light spectrum. The light intensities reaching the Foraminifera in cultivation however largely depend on the substrate provided (e.g. sand and silt where individuals dig close to the surface or coral rubble used as shelter by the Foraminiferans and as an easy way of retaining the organisms within a designated container by the investigator).

  1. A new long-term care manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for. PMID:26035606

  2. The role of the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway for relaxation of the human lower oesophageal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Tøttrup, A; Ny, L; Alm, P; Larsson, B; Forman, A; Andersson, K E

    1993-12-01

    Smooth muscle specimens were taken from the oesophagogastric junction (OGJ) in patients operated on for gastrointestinal malignancies not involving the OGJ. The smooth muscle bundles of the inner, circular layer of the OGJ were richly innervated by fine nerve fibres staining positively for NADPH diaphorase. The outer longitudinal layer had a markedly lower number of NADPH-diaphorase positive nerve fibres. When the preparations were suspended in organ baths for recording of isometric tension, they developed active tension. Transmural field stimulation (TMS) induced frequency-dependent relaxations, which were abolished by NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA; 10(-4) M), and were often converted to atropine-sensitive contractions. The effect of L-NNA was concentration-dependent, and the concentration-response curve for L-NNA was shifted to the right by L-arginine pre-incubation. The enantiomer NG-nitro-D-arginine (10(-4) M) also showed inhibitory actions on the responses to TMS, but significantly less than L-NNA. Relaxant responses to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), forskolin, and sodium nitroprusside were unaffected by L-NNA pre-incubation. Exposure to a 124 mM K+ solution resulted in a biphasic relaxation of the preparations. This relaxation was not seen in preparations treated with scorpion venom (20 micrograms ml-1) or L-NNA (10(-4) M). Instead, a contractile response to 124 mM K+ solution was found. The results suggest that NANC responses to electrical stimulation of nerves in the human OGJ are mediated by a product generated from L-arginine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8128894

  3. Dietary L-arginine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianzhuang; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Yuming; Applegate, Todd J; Eicher, Susan D

    2014-04-28

    In the present study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation on the inflammatory response and innate immunity of broiler chickens. Expt 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n 8 cages/treatment; n 6 birds/cage) with three dietary Arg concentrations (1.05, 1.42 and 1.90%) and two immune treatments (injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline) given at an interval of 48 h between 14 and 21 d of age. In Expt 2, correlation between dietary Arg concentration (0.99, 1.39, 1.76, 2.13 or 2.53%) and percentage of circulating B cells (percentage of circulating lymphocytes) was determined. In Expt 1, LPS injection decreased body-weight gain and feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio of the challenged broilers (14-21 d; P< 0.05). LPS injection suppressed (P< 0.05) the percentages of splenic CD11+ and B cells (percentages of splenic lymphocytes) and phagocytic activity of splenic heterophils and macrophages; Arg supplementation linearly decreased the percentages of CD11+, CD14+ and B cells in the spleen (P< 0.10). LPS injection increased (P< 0.05) the expression of IL-1? and IL-6 mRNA in the spleen and caecal tonsils. Arginine supplementation decreased (P< 0.05) the expression of IL-1?, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and PPAR-? mRNA in the spleen and IL-1?, IL-10, TLR4 and NF-?B mRNA in the caecal tonsils. In Expt 2, increasing dietary Arg concentrations linearly and quadratically reduced the percentage of circulating B cells (P< 0.01). Collectively, Arg supplementation attenuated the overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines probably through the suppression of the TLR4 pathway and CD14+ cell percentage. Furthermore, excessive Arg supplementation (1.76%) suppressed the percentages of circulating and splenic B cells. PMID:24330949

  4. Complexation of a Poly l Arginine with Low Molecular Weight Heparin Enhances Pulmonary Absorption of the Drug

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Rawat; Tianzhi Yang; Alamdar Hussain; Fakhrul Ahsan

    2008-01-01

    \\u000a Purpose  This study tests the hypothesis that complexation between a cationic polymer, poly-l-arginine (PLA), and an anionic drug, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), enhances pulmonary absorption and reduces the epithelial\\u000a toxicity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Enoxaparin, a LMWH, was complexed with PLAs of different molecular weights at varying concentrations. The resulting complexes\\u000a were characterized by measuring particle size and zeta potential, and by

  5. Single crystal growth, crystal structure and characterization of a novel crystal: L-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dehydrate (LAPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. N.; Wang, X. Q.; Zhang, G. H.; Liu, X. T.; Sun, Z. H.; Sun, G. H.; Wang, L.; Yu, W. T.; Xu, D.

    2011-07-01

    A novel organic crystal, L-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dehydrate (LAPP), synthesized and grown from aqueous solution, is presented. X-ray single diffraction shows that LAPP belongs to the monoclinic crystallographic system with space group P2 1. FT-IR and UV/vis/NIR transmission spectra have been employed to characterize the crystal. The computational calculation based on the density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level has been used to compute the first-order hyperpolarizability of LAPP relating to different molecular models. The morphology, nonlinear characteristic and thermal stability of the crystal have also been investigated.

  6. Effect of H + ion implantation on structural, morphological, optical and dielectric properties of L-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, K.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Kumar, P.; Bhagvannarayana, G.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2011-06-01

    L-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate (LAHCl) single crystals have been implanted with 100 keV H + ions at different ion fluence ranging from 10 12 to 10 15 ions/cm 2. Implanted LAHCl single crystals have been investigated for property changes. Crystal surface and crystalline perfection of the pristine and implanted crystals were analyzed by atomic force microscope and high-resolution X-ray diffraction studies, respectively. Optical absorption bands induced by colour centers, refractive index and birefringence, mechanical stability and dielectric constant of implanted crystals were studied at different ion fluence and compared with that of pristine LAHCl single crystal.

  7. High fat feeding and dietary l -arginine supplementation differentially regulate gene expression in rat white adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenjuan Jobgen; Wenjiang J. Fu; Haijun Gao; Peng Li; Cynthia J. Meininger; Stephen B. Smith; Thomas E. Spencer; Guoyao Wu

    2009-01-01

    Dietary l-arginine (Arg) supplementation reduces white-fat gain in diet-induced obese rats but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.\\u000a This study tested the hypothesis that Arg treatment affects expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in adipose tissue.\\u000a Four-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 15 weeks. Thereafter, lean or obese\\u000a rats continued to be fed

  8. Long-Term Mortality Trends Infographic (Infographic)

    Cancer.gov

    This infographic shows the National Cancer Institute 10-year Mortality Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent of Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Liver & IBD: 2.6*, Soft Tissue inc. Heart: 0.8*, Pancreas: 0.3*, Melanoma: 0.3*, Bladder: 0, Brain & ONS: -0.4, Oral Cavity: -0.5, Esophagus: -0.5*, Kidney: -0.8*, Leukemia: -0.9*, Myeloma: -1.1*, All Sites: -1.8*, Non Hodgkin Lymphoma: -2.3*, Larynx: -2.5*, Lung and Bronchus: -2.6*, Colon and Rectum: -3.9*, Stomach: -3.1*, and Prostate: -3.3*. For Women, Liver & IBD: 1.9*, Corpus & Uterus: 1.0*, Pancreas: 0.4*, Bladder: -0.4*, Kidney: -0.9*, Brain & ONS: -0.9*, Leukemia: -1.1*, Gallbladder: -1.2*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.2*, Cervix: -1.3*, All Sites: -1.4*, Esophagus: -1.5*, Myeloma: -1.6*, Breast: -1.9*, Oral Cavity: -2.0*, Ovary: -2.0*, Stomach: -2.7*, Colon & Rectum: -2.9*, and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -3.1*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011

  9. The antinociceptive activity of Muntingia calabura aqueous extract and the involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in its observed activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat; Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Jayaraman, Kogilla Vani; Balakhrisnan, Ganesh; Abdullah, Fatimah Corazon

    2006-08-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate on the possible involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (L-arginine/NO/cGMP) pathway in the aqueous extract of Muntingia calabura (AEMC) leaves antinociception in mice assessed by abdominal constriction test. The AEMC, obtained by soaking the dried leaves in distilled water (DH(2)O) (1 : 2; w/v) for 24 h, was prepared in concentrations of 10%, 50% and 100% that were approximately equivalent to doses of 27, 135 and 270 mg/kg, and administered subcutaneously (s.c.) 5 min after pre-treatment (s.c.) of mice with DH(2)O, L-arginine (20 mg/kg), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMMA; 20 mg/kg), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; 20 mg/kg), methylene blue (MB) (20 mg/kg), respectively. The AEMC was found to exhibit a concentration-dependent antinociception after pre-challenge with DH(2)O. Interestingly, pre-treatment with L-arginine was found to block significantly (P < 0.05) the AEMC antinociception but only at the highest concentration (100%) of AEMC used. On the other hand, pre-treatment with L-NAME was found to significantly (P < 0.05) enhance the low concentration but inhibit the high concentration AEMC antinociception. MB was found to significantly (P < 0.05) enhance AEMC antinociception at all concentrations used. Except for the higher concentration of AEMC used, co-treatment with L-NAME was found to insignificantly and significantly (P < 0.05) reverse the L-arginine effect when given alone or with low concentration AEMC, respectively. In addition, co-treatment with MB significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the L-arginine effect when given alone or with 10% concentration AEMC but failed to affect the activity of the rest of concentrations used. As a conclusion, this study has demonstrated the involvement of L-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway in AEMC antinociception. PMID:16867020

  10. Long-term recovery from alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Chappel, J N

    1993-03-01

    AA has demonstrated success in steadily increasing membership, with no loss of the proportion of those with over 5 years of sobriety. It has been recognized as effective long-term treatment for alcoholism by psychiatrists and psychoanalysts experienced in treatment of the addictions. The triennial membership surveys of AA have shown stability in 1. A 50% dropout rate within the first 3 months of starting AA. Only 41% of those in the first year will remain in the Fellowship for another year. 2. Roughly equal numbers of those with less than 1 year, 1 to 5 years, and over 5 years of sobriety, with an average length of sobriety of about 4 years. 3. Members having a sponsor (85%) and belonging to a home group (88%). 4. Attendance by members of about three meetings a week, regardless of duration of sobriety. 5. Members telling their doctor that they are in AA, but not helping him or her learn about the program. The survey data also indicate that AA is changing in the following ways: 1. The number of women members has increased to more than one third the total membership. 2. An increasing number of young people, under 30 years of age, to more than one fifth the total. 3. A decreasing number of older people, over 50 years of age, to just under one fourth the total. 4. An increasing number of members who were also addicted to other drugs (46%). Psychiatrists can use these data and knowledge of AA to 1. Increase the effectiveness of referrals of alcoholic patients to AA regardless of age, sex, race, or other characteristics. All are welcome and can benefit. 2. Deal with resistance, which occurs when patients begin to make contact with AA. 3. Help alcoholic patients through the difficult first year of sobriety. 4. Encourage their alcoholic patients to use AA as a program for personal growth and development. 5. Helping dually addicted patients use AA's singleness of purpose to facilitate their recovery. 6. Cooperate with alcohol and drug treatment programs in helping patients transfer to AA and work on an effective program of recovery. 7. Work with members of the local AA Treatment Facilities and Cooperation with the Professional Community Committees in helping alcoholic patients enter and use AA. 8. Provide psychiatric treatment for AA members in ways that support and sustain their program of recovery, especially by avoiding dependence-producing medications. PMID:8456043

  11. Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowark, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for our Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program (NRA 94-OSS-12) grant NAG 5-3225. The proposal is entitled 'Spectral and Temporal Properties of Black Hole Candidates', and began funding in May 1995, and ran through 31 Aug 2000. The project summary from the original proposal was as follows: 'We will study the spectral and temporal properties of black hole candidates (BHC) by using data from archival sources (e.g., EXOSAT, Ginga, ROSAT) and proposed follow-up observations with modern instruments (e.g., ASCA, XTE). Our spectral studies will focus on identifying the basic characteristics and luminosities of the emission components in the various 'states' of BHC. We hope to understand and quantify the global energetics of these states. Our temporal studies will focus on expanding and classifying our knowledge of BHC variability properties in each state. We will explore the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in BHC. We will combine our spectral and temporal studies by analyzing time lags and variability coherence between energy channels. In addition, we will investigate ways of correlating observed variability behavior with specific emission components.' We have accomplished many of these goals laid out within the original proposal. As originally proposed, we have utilized both archival and proprietary satellite data. In terms of archival data, we have utilized data from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), ROSAT, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We also obtained proprietary data from ASCA, RXTE, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). In terms of sources, we have examined a wide variety of both galactic black hole candidates and extra-galactic black holes. For the galactic black holes we have observed and analyzed both the low/hard state and the high/soft state. We have performed both spectral and timing analyses on all of these objects. In addition, we have also examined a number of neutron stars or potential neutron stars. All of our research on the above mentioned objects has resulted in one or more publications in peer-reviewed journals. Attached is a list of refereed publications of research results which have been funded by this grant over approximately the past five and a half years. In addition, we have included a list of conference proceedings and other similar reports that have been associated with this grant.

  12. New role for L-arginine in regulation of inducible nitric-oxide-synthase-derived superoxide anion production in raw 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pekarova, Michaela; Lojek, Antonin; Martiskova, Hana; Vasicek, Ondrej; Bino, Lucia; Klinke, A; Lau, D; Kuchta, Radek; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Vrba, Radimir; Kubala, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with L-arginine was shown to improve immune responses in various inflammatory models. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying L-arginine effects on immune cells remain unrecognized. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that a limitation of L-arginine could lead to the uncoupled state of murine macrophage inducible nitric oxide synthase and, therefore, increase inducible nitric-oxide-synthase-derived superoxide anion formation. Importantly, we demonstrated that L-arginine dose- and time dependently potentiated superoxide anion production in bacterial endotoxin-stimulated macrophages, although it did not influence NADPH oxidase expression and activity. Detailed analysis of macrophage activation showed the time dependence between LPS-induced iNOS expression and increased O(2)(?-) formation. Moreover, downregulation of macrophage iNOS expression, as well as the inhibition of iNOS activity by NOS inhibitors, unveiled an important role of this enzyme in controlling O(2)(?-) and peroxynitrite formation during macrophage stimulation. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that simultaneous induction of NADPH oxidase, together with the iNOS enzyme, can result in the uncoupled state of iNOS resulting in the production of functionally important levels of O(2)(?-) soon after macrophage activation with LPS. Moreover, we demonstrated, for the first time that increased concentrations of L-arginine further potentiate iNOS-dependent O(2) (?-) formation in inflammatory macrophages. PMID:22219714

  13. New Role for L-Arginine in Regulation of Inducible Nitric-Oxide-Synthase-Derived Superoxide Anion Production in Raw 264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pekarova, Michaela; Lojek, Antonin; Martiskova, Hana; Vasicek, Ondrej; Bino, Lucia; Klinke, A.; Lau, D.; Kuchta, Radek; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Vrba, Radimir; Kubala, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with L-arginine was shown to improve immune responses in various inflammatory models. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying L-arginine effects on immune cells remain unrecognized. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that a limitation of L-arginine could lead to the uncoupled state of murine macrophage inducible nitric oxide synthase and, therefore, increase inducible nitric-oxide-synthase-derived superoxide anion formation. Importantly, we demonstrated that L-arginine dose- and time dependently potentiated superoxide anion production in bacterial endotoxin-stimulated macrophages, although it did not influence NADPH oxidase expression and activity. Detailed analysis of macrophage activation showed the time dependence between LPS-induced iNOS expression and increased O2?? formation. Moreover, downregulation of macrophage iNOS expression, as well as the inhibition of iNOS activity by NOS inhibitors, unveiled an important role of this enzyme in controlling O2?? and peroxynitrite formation during macrophage stimulation. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that simultaneous induction of NADPH oxidase, together with the iNOS enzyme, can result in the uncoupled state of iNOS resulting in the production of functionally important levels of O2?? soon after macrophage activation with LPS. Moreover, we demonstrated, for the first time that increased concentrations of L-arginine further potentiate iNOS-dependent O2?? formation in inflammatory macrophages. PMID:22219714

  14. Long-Term Environmental Policy: Definition, Knowledge, Future Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Detlef F. Sprinz

    2009-01-01

    Considering the long-term is not new, yet we seem to be overwhelmed by the long-term nature of many of our environmental policy problems. Following a definition of long-term policy problems, this editorial introduces the contributions to this special issue of Global Environmental Politics and outlines three major challenges for future research, including the time inconsistency problem, the effect of democratic

  15. Pregnancy in women who undergo long-term hemodialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An-Shine Chao; Jeng-Yi Huang; Reyin Lien; Fu-Tsai Kung; Po-Jen Chen; Peter C. C. Hsieh

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Pregnancy is rare in women who require long-term hemodialysis, and pregnancy outcome with a live birth has a low success rate. The purpose of this study was to describe the treatment of pregnancy and the outcome in a series of patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis treatment. Study Design: A total of 15 women who were undergoing long-term hemodialysis treatment who

  16. Long term physical sequelae after adult-onset cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie D. Fosså; Rena Vassilopoulou-Sellin; Alv A. Dahl

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  With two thirds of cancer patients living for at least 5 years, clinical research has increasingly focused on the long-term\\u000a health of cancer survivors. Contrary to the amount of knowledge on long-term consequences observations on late effects after\\u000a childhood cancer in adult-onset cancer are sparse. Only limited literature is available recommending guidelines for long-term\\u000a follow-up of cancer patients and their implementation

  17. Long-term sequelae of tolnidamine on male reproduction and general body metabolism in rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Ansari; Y. Kumar; S. Srivastava; N. K. Lohiya

    1998-01-01

    The long-term effects of tolnidamine on male reproduction and general body metabolism were studied in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The study was divided into three groups of 10 animals each. The first group (A) received vehicle alone to serve as controls. The second and third groups (B and C) of animals were administered tolnidamine orally at 50 mg\\/kg body weight\\/week and

  18. Long-term Durability of Dentin Bonds Made with a Self-etching Primer, in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Sano; T. Yoshikawa; P. N. R. Pereira; N. Kanemura; M. Morigamui; J. Tagami; D. H. Pashley

    1999-01-01

    The long-term durability of bonds between adhesive resins and dentin is of significant importance for the longevity of bonded restorations. We carried out an in vivo one-year study to evaluate the durability of resin-dentin bonds in the oral cavity, as well as to test the hypothesis that the adhesive interface would show morphological changes in vivo over time. Very shallow

  19. Tolerability and Efficacy of Almotriptan in the Long-Term Treatment of Migraine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pascual; R. Falk; R. Docekal; A. Prusinski; J. Jelencsik; X. Cabarrocas; X. Segarra; X. Luria; P. Ferrer

    2001-01-01

    Background: Almotriptan is a highly specific 5-HT1B\\/1D receptor agonist, which acts selectively on blood vessels of the brain. Short-term studies have demonstrated that almotriptan provides rapid, effective and reliable relief of migraine attacks, while offering excellent tolerability. Purpose: To assess the long-term tolerability and efficacy of oral almotriptan 12.5 mg administered for every migraine attack over a 1-year period. Methods:

  20. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. (editor); Rossow, W. (editor); Fung, I. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

  1. Draft Report A Forecast Model of Long-Term PCB

    E-print Network

    Draft Report A Forecast Model of Long-Term PCB Fate in San Francisco Bay John J. Oram and Jay A................................................................................................ 8 Estimation of Future PCB Loads

  2. Dose-Dependent Effects of L-Arginine on PROP Bitterness Intensity and Latency and Characteristics of the Chemical Interaction between PROP and L-Arginine

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Melania; Arca, Massimiliano; Aragoni, Maria Carla; Cabras, Tiziana; Caltagirone, Claudia; Castagnola, Massimo; Crnjar, Roberto; Messana, Irene; Tepper, Beverly J.; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation in the ability to taste the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a complex trait that has been used to predict food preferences and eating habits. PROP tasting is primarily controlled by polymorphisms in the TAS2R38 gene. However, a variety of factors are known to modify the phenotype. Principle among them is the salivary protein Ps-1 belonging to the basic proline-rich protein family (bPRP). Recently, we showed that oral supplementation with Ps-1 as well as its related free amino acids (L-Arg and L-Lys) enhances PROP bitterness perception, especially for PROP non-tasters who have low salivary levels of Ps-1. Here, we show that salivary L-Arg levels are higher in PROP super-tasters compared to medium tasters and non-tasters, and that oral supplementation with free L-Arg enhances PROP bitterness intensity as well as reduces bitterness latency in a dose-dependent manner, particularly in individuals with low salivary levels of both free L-Arg and Ps-1 protein. Supplementation with L-Arg also enhanced the bitterness of caffeine. We also used 1H-NMR spectroscopy and quantum-mechanical calculations carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) to characterize the chemical interaction between free L-Arg and the PROP molecule. Results showed that the –NH2 terminal group of the L-ArgH+ side chain interacts with the carbonyl or thiocarbonyl groups of PROP by forming two hydrogen bonds with the resulting charged adduct. The formation of this PROP•ArgH+ hydrogen-bonded adduct could enhance bitterness intensity by increasing the solubility of PROP in saliva and its availability to receptor sites. Our data suggest that L-Arg could act as a ‘carrier’ of various bitter molecules in saliva. PMID:26103639

  3. [Detection of the generation of nitric oxide from L-arginine in the murine brain in vivo using EPR].

    PubMed

    Mikoian, V D; Kubrina, L N; Vanin, A F

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) was shown by EPR method to be generated via L-arginine-dependent way in brain of mice in vivo. The complexes of diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) or pirrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) with endogenous or exogenous Fe2+ were used as a traps of NO, which are capable to bind NO resulted in the formation of mononitrosyl iron complexes with DETC or PDTC (MNIC-DETC or PDTC) recovered by EPR method. These complexes were detected in mouse brain in concentration of 2.5 nmole/g of wet tissue for 30 min only when exogenous Fe2+ was injected in to mice. The level of MNIC-DETC (PDTC) was 5 fold increased in brain of mice pretreated for 4 hrs with lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli, which induced the inflammation processes. The inhibitor of NO-synthase, NG-nitro-L-arginine attenuated the formation of MNIC-DETC (PDTC) in mouse brain in vivo. Exogenous Fe2+ is suggested to induced the synthesis of NO-synthase in mouse brain. PMID:7529563

  4. Nitric oxide control of steroidogenesis: Endocrine effects of N sup G -nitro-L-arginine and comparisons to alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.; Nock, B.; Truong, R.; Cicero, T.J. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) may regulate hormone biosynthesis and secretion. This was tested by treating male rats with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NAME), a NO synthase inhibitor, and measuring serum and testicular interstitial fluid testosterone and serum corticosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL). The effect of N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine (NA), a less-soluble form of the same NO synthase inhibitor, on the reproductive suppressant actions of alcohol was also examined. NAME increased testosterone and corticosterone secretion dose-dependently without affecting LH and PRL secretion. The alcohol-induced suppression of testosterone or LH secretion was not altered by treatment with NA. Although effects of NAME and NA on other systems may be involved, these results indicate that testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis are negatively regulated by endogenous NO and that NO does not regulate LH and PRL secretion or inhibit the testicular steroidogenic pathway in the same way as alcohol.

  5. BCSC Grants: Long-Term Antibiotic Use As A Breast Cancer Risk Factor

    Cancer.gov

    Oral antibiotic use disrupts normal intestinal microflora and can interfere with a number of metabolic processes potentially relevant to breast cancer development, such as steroid hormone metabolism and formation of several bioactive phytochemicals. The only reported epidemiologic study of antibiotic use and breast cancer risk was a Finnish cohort study that found a modest association in pre-menopausal women. The purpose of this 2-year study is to examine the association between long-term oral antibiotic use and primary, invasive breast cancer.

  6. [Long-term treatment of venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Guy; Couturaud, Francis

    2015-02-01

    Proximal deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism should be treated for at least three months. The optimal duration then depends on the cause of venous thromboembolism (VTE). When VTE is provoked by a major transient risk factor like surgery, three month treatment dura- tion is sufficient. When VTE is provoked by a persistent major risk factor like cancer, treatment should be prolonged as long as the underlying risk-factor is present. The optimal treatment duration is more difficult to define after an episode of unprovoked VTE and when VTE is triggered by a minor risk factor like travel or oral contraceptives. In these circumstances, the risk of recur- rent VTE is still high after six months of anticoagulant treatment. Prolonging the anticoagulant treatment for an additional period of 12 to 24 months after the initial period of 6 months is associated with delayed recurrences but does not reduce the overall risk of recurrent VTE. In these patients, treatment should be stopped at six months or prolonged indefinitively according to the risks of recurrence and bleeding of the patient. PMID:25939225

  7. eschweizerbartxxx Long-term zooplankton size in L. Kinneret 1

    E-print Network

    Hambright, K. David

    eschweizerbartxxx Long-term zooplankton size in L. Kinneret 1 DOI: 10-term zooplankton body size and species changes in a subtropical lake: implications for lake management K. David figures and 3 tables Abstract: Analysis of long-term (1970­2002) zooplankton body sizes in Lake Kinneret

  8. Improving secure long-term archival of digitally signed documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmela Troncoso; Danny De Cock; Bart Preneel

    2008-01-01

    Long-term archival of signed documents presents specic challenges that do not need to be considered in short-term storage systems. In this paper we present a Secure Long- Term Archival System (SLTAS) that protects, in a veri- able way, the validity of today's digital signatures in a dis- tant future. Moreover, our protocol is the rst proposal that provides a proof

  9. Long-term complications related to the modified Indiana pouch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel G Holmes; J. Brantley Thrasher; Gerald Y Park; Deborah C Kueker; John W Weigel

    2002-01-01

    ObjectivesTo describe a single-institution, single-surgeon experience with 125 modified Indiana pouches performed during a period of 14 years and their long-term complications. The modified Indiana pouch is a widely accepted and often used form of continent urinary diversion. Few studies have established the long-term complication rates associated with the procedure.

  10. Long-Term Retention of Electronic Theses and Dissertations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teper, Thomas H.; Kraemer, Beth

    2002-01-01

    Examines the increasing trend of universities to pursue electronic thesis and dissertation (ETD) programs. Although the goal of most programs is similar, procedural variations impact a program's long-term success. As primary research generators, responsibility for providing long-term access to unique materials must be borne by universities.…

  11. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  12. Long Term Real Trajectory Reuse through Region Goal Satisfaction

    E-print Network

    Iyengar, Garud

    Long Term Real Trajectory Reuse through Region Goal Satisfaction Junghyun Ahn1 , St´ephane Gobron1 collision avoidance through long term anticipation of pedestrian trajectories. For this aim, we choose to reuse outdoor pedestrian trajectories obtained with non-invasive means. This initial step is achieved

  13. Developing a Long-Term Drought Plan for Phoenix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedykt Dziegielewski; William R. Mee Jr.; Keith R. Larson

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the economic consequences of potential water supply shortages can help water agencies determine the need for investment in long-term protection from drought. In Phoenix, Ariz., the risk of drought damage in the long term justifies the need for additional drought protection through developing standby groundwater supplies and implementing permanent demand-reduction measures. The most efficient way of dealing with the

  14. It's Not Your Grandmother's Long-Term Care Anymore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua M. Wiener

    Recently, a colleague of mine, who used to do research on long-term care but has been out of the field for the last 15 years, commented to me that long-term care seemed stagnant to him and that the issues he had worked on long ago were still the issues of today. Aside from my annoyed rejoinder that the issues of

  15. Market-Consistent Valuation of Long-Term Insurance Contracts -

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Market-Consistent Valuation of Long-Term Insurance Contracts - Valuation Framework-Consistent Valuation of Long-Term Insurance Contracts Valuation Framework and Application to German Private Health with respect to prot sharing rules and premium adjustment mechanisms. In contrast to the valuation of life

  16. Apoptosis of monocytes cultured from long-term hemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Heidenreich; Michael Schmidt; Jürgen Bachmann; Bärbel Harrach

    1996-01-01

    Apoptosis of monocytes cultured from long-term hemodialysis patients. Monocyte apoptosis in vitro was studied in patients on long-term hemodialysis, CAPD, and in predialytic uremia to gain insight into the high susceptibility of these patients to infections. Monocytes from dialysis and control subjects were cultured for 24 to 120 hours in vitro to analyze the level and progression of DNA fragmentation

  17. ENDOPYELOTOMY AFTER FAILED PYELOPLASTY: THE LONG-TERM RESULTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHEL E. JABBOUR; EVAN R. GOLDFISCHER; WLODZIMIERZ J. KLIMA; KONSTANTINOS G. STRAVODIMOS; ARTHUR D. SMITH

    1998-01-01

    PurposeEndopyelotomy has been proposed as a technique to treat ureteropelvic junction obstruction after failed open pyeloplasty. However, to our knowledge no long-term results of this treatment have been reported. We report the long-term followup of a cohort of patients in whom pyeloplasty failed and who subsequently were treated with endopyelotomy.

  18. Setting the stage for long-term reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Payne, Craig A; Vander Ley, Brian; Poock, Scott E

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses some of the aspects of heifer development that contribute to long-term health and productivity, such as disease prevention and control. Nutrition is also an important component of long-term health, and body condition score is discussed as a way to determine whether the nutrient demands of heifers are being met. PMID:24182434

  19. A review on long-term sorption solar energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Edem N’Tsoukpoe; Hui Liu; Nolwenn Le Pierrès; Lingai Luo

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, long-term sorption and thermochemical heat storage has generated lot of interest. This paper presents the state of the art in this field of research, materials used in these systems and technological difficulties that researchers are set against. An emphasis is put on recent demonstrative projects including absorption and adsorption for long-term solar energy storage. It emerges

  20. Perinatal l -arginine and antioxidant supplements reduce adult blood pressure but not ameliorate the altered vascular function in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego B. de Queiroz; Fernanda E. Ramos-Alves; Raphaella L. Fernandes; Cíntia P. Zuzu; Glória P. Duarte; Fabiano E. Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) offspring from l-arginine- and antioxidant-supplemented SHR dams had persistent lower blood pressure in adulthood. We investigated the influence\\u000a of vascular mechanism in this effect. We analyzed response to acetylcholine and phenylephrine in aorta and superior mesenteric\\u000a arteries from Wistar–Kyoto (WKY), SHR, and SHR perinatally supplemented with l-arginine and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl (TEMPOL; SHR-suppl). Supplements reduced blood pressure persistently

  1. Long-term variation of energetic electron precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asikainen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    The long-term evolution of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) is of considerable interest, e.g., because of its atmospheric and climatic effects. However, the long-term evolution of EEP over several solar cycles has been problematic due to the lack of reliable long-term data. The NOAA/POES satellites have measured energetic particles for more than 35 years. This dataset has been used widely but it has been plagued by several instrumental problems, which have restricted its use for long-term studies. However, we have recently corrected and recalibrated the entire NOAA/POES energetic particle dataset. Using this unique dataset we present here an overview of the long-term evolution of EEP paying particular attention to the role of different types of solar wind disturbances in driving the EEP.

  2. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  3. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  4. Neurotoxicological consequence of long-term exposure to lanthanum.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liuxing; Xiao, Haiqing; He, Xiao; Li, Zijie; Li, Fuliang; Liu, Nianqing; Zhao, Yuliang; Huang, Yuying; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chai, Zhifang

    2006-08-20

    Lanthanides, because of their diversified physical and chemical effects, have been widely used in a number of fields. As a result, more and more lanthanides are entering into the environment and eventually accumulated in human body. Recently, a new medicine, lanthanum carbonate (Fosrenol), has been used to treat chronic renal failure (CRF), and the dosage is much higher than the daily intake of lanthanides. However, the effects of lanthanides on human body, especially on the central nervous system, are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term lanthanum exposure results in persistent alternations in nervous system function. Wistar rats were exposed to lanthanum chloride (LaCl(3)) through oral administration at 0, 0.1, 2 and 40mg/kg concentration from 4 weeks through 6 months of age. Morris water maze test showed that lanthanum exposure at 40mg/kg could significantly impair the behavioral performance. To fully investigate the neurotoxicological consequence of lanthanum exposure, brain elemental distributions and neurochemicals were also investigated. The distributions of brain elements such as Ca, Fe and Zn were significantly altered after lanthanum exposure. Moreover, 40mg/kg LaCl(3) significantly inhibited the activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase; the function of the central cholinergic system was also noticeably disturbed and the contents of some monoamines neurotransmitters were significantly decreased. These findings indicate that chronic exposure to lanthanum could possibly impair the learning ability and this deficit may be possibly attributed to the disturbance of the homeostasis of trace elements, enzymes and neurotransmitter systems in brain. Therefore, the application of lanthanide, especially in pharmacology, should be cautious. PMID:16542800

  5. The metabolism of L-arginine and its significance for the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor: L-glutamine inhibits the generation of L-arginine by cultured endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sessa, W.C.; Hecker, M.; Mitchell, J.A. Vane, J.R. (William Harvey Research Inst., London (England))

    1990-11-01

    The mechanism by which L-glutamine (L-Gln) inhibits the release of endothelium-derived factor from bovine aortic cultured endothelial cells was investigated. The intracellular concentration of L-arginine (L-Arg) in Arg-depleted endothelial cells was inversely related to the level of L-Gln. Removal of L-Gln from the culture medium (usually containing L-Gln at 2 mM) abolished the inhibitory effect of the culture medium on L-Arg generation. L-Gln (0.2 and 2 mM) but not D-Gln inhibited the generation of L-Arg by both Arg-depleted and nondepleted endothelial cells. L-Gln did not interfere with the uptake of L-Arg or the metabolism of L-Arg-L-Phe to L-Arg but inhibited the formation of L-Arg from L-citrulline (L-Cit), L-Cit-L-Phe, and N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine. L-Gln also inhibited the conversion of L-({sup 14}C)Cit to L-({sup 14}C)Arg by Arg-depleted endothelial cells. However, L-Gln did not inhibit the conversion of L-argininosuccinic acid to L-Arg by endothelial cell homogenates. Thus, L-Gln interferes with the conversion of L-Cit to L-Arg probably by acting on argininosuccinate synthetase rather than argininosuccinate lyase. L-Gln also inhibited the generation of L-Arg by the monocyte-macrophage cell line J774 but had no effect on the conversion of L-Cit to L-Arg by these cells. As the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor from cultured and non-cultured endothelial cells is limited by the availability of L-Arg, endogenous L-Gln may play a regulatory role in the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor.

  6. Management of adrenocortical insufficiency with continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion: long-term experience in three patients

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, A; Khurana, R; Kyriacou, A; Davies, R

    2015-01-01

    Summary To assess continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion (CSHI) in patients with adrenocortical insufficiency (AI) and difficulties with oral replacement. Three patients with AI and frequent hospital admissions attributed to adrenal crises were treated with CSHI, which was delivered via a continuous subcutaneous infusion. All three patients preferred CSHI and remained on it long term, which permitted prolonged follow-up analysis. All three patients reported symptomatic improvement, and in two cases, reduced hospital admission rates and inpatient stay lengths were observed. The cost of hospital admissions and overall treatment was reduced in all cases. CSHI offers a practical and acceptable alternative to oral replacement in a subset of patients with AI. The cost of initiating and maintaining the pump is offset in the long term by reduced frequency and duration of emergency admissions. CSHI can therefore be considered in a select group of patients who are resistant to treatment with conventional oral glucocorticoids. Learning points Continuous subcutaneous infusion of cortisol is a viable alternative in patients unable to take oral steroids.Patient acceptability was high, with three out of three patients preferring to remain on pump treatment.Hospital admissions were reduced in response to pump therapy, which compensated for the increased treatment cost.The daily dosage of hydrocortisone can be reduced by using pump therapy. PMID:26124953

  7. Long-term safety and efficacy of budesonide in the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Iborra, Marisa; Álvarez-Sotomayor, Diego; Nos, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, relapsing, and remitting inflammatory disease involving the large intestine (colon). Treatment seeks to break recurrent inflammation episodes by inducing and maintaining remission. Historically, oral systemic corticosteroids played an important role in inducing remission of this chronic disease; however, their long-term use is limited and can lead to adverse events. Budesonide is a synthetic steroid with potent local anti-inflammatory effects and low systemic bioavailability due to high first-pass hepatic metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated oral budesonide’s usefulness in treating active mild to moderate ileocecal Crohn’s disease and microscopic colitis and in an enema formulation for left sided UC. However, there is limited information regarding oral budesonide’s efficacy in UC. A novel oral budesonide formulation using a multimatrix system (budesonide-MMX) to extend drug release throughout the colon has been developed recently and seems to be an effective treatment in active left sided UC patients. This article summarizes budesonide’s long-term safety and efficacy in treating UC. PMID:24523594

  8. The Position of Pranlukast, a Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist, in the Long-Term Treatment of Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasushi Obase; Terufumi Shimoda; Hiroto Matsuse; Yuki Kondo; Ikuko Machida; Tetsuya Kawano; Sachiko Saeki; Shinya Tomari; Kazuko Mitsuta-Izaki; Nobuko Matsuo; Chizu Fukushima; Shigeru Kohno

    2004-01-01

    Background: Adverse effects, tachyphylaxis, and the position of pranlukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, in asthma treatment have not been fully established. Objectives and Methods: To address these questions, adverse effects and long-term efficacy of pranlukast were evaluated in 82 patients [28 patients with moderate asthma (group I), 27 with severe persistent asthma not on oral corticosteroid (OCS; group II)

  9. Spotlight on "Long-Term English Language Learners": Characteristics and Prior Schooling Experiences of an Invisible Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menken, Kate; Kleyn, Tatyana; Chae, Nabin

    2012-01-01

    This article presents qualitative research findings about the characteristics and prior schooling experiences of "long-term English language learners" (LTELLs), who have attended U.S. schools for 7 years or more, and about whom there is little empirical research, despite their significant numbers. Findings indicate that these students are orally…

  10. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  11. Extremely high damage threshold of a new nonlinear crystal L-arginine phosphate and its deuterium compound

    SciTech Connect

    Yokotani, A.; Sasaki, T.; Yoshida, K.; Nakai, S. (Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565, Japan (JP))

    1989-12-25

    L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) and deuterated LAP (DLAP) are new organic nonlinear optical materials useful for higher harmonics of radiation from high-power lasers. We measured the bulk laser damage threshold of these crystals using light from a 1.05 {mu}m laser with 1 and 25 ns pulse widths and 0.53 {mu}m laser light with 0.6 and 20 ns pulse widths. In every case, these crystals show much higher thresholds than potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and fused silica. These crystals are very interesting not only as a frequency converter but also as other optical components of high-power lasers, because of their extremely high damage threshold.

  12. Crystal growth, structural and thermal studies of amino acids admixtured L-arginine phosphate monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandan, P.; Saravanan, T.; Parthipan, G.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ravi, G.; Jayavel, R.

    2011-05-01

    To study the improved characteristics of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals, amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been grown by slow cooling method. Amino acids like glycine, L-alanine, and L-valine have been selected for doping. Optical quality bulk crystals have been harvested after a typical growth period of about twenty days. The effect of amino acids in the crystal lattice and molecular vibrational frequencies of various functional groups in the crystals have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) analyses respectively. Thermal behavior of the amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been studied from the TG and DTG analyses. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out to find the crystalline nature. Optical transmission studies have been carried out by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The cut off wavelength is below 240 nm for the grown crystals.

  13. Modulation of vascular tone by low density lipoproteins: effects on L-arginine transport and nitric oxide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jay, M T; Chirico, S; Siow, R C; Bruckdorfer, K R; Jacobs, M; Leake, D S; Pearson, J D; Mann, G E

    1997-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays an important role in atherogenesis. Focal accumulation within the arterial intima of excess amounts of cholesterol-rich LDL leads to the migration and recruitment of monocytes, which then differentiate into macrophages after taking up large amounts of oxidatively modified LDL via their scavenger receptors and become lipid-laden 'foam cells' within the subendothelial space. It is generally accepted that oxidized LDL and hyperlipidaemia impair endothelial-dependent vascular relaxation, yet the existing literature on the effects of oxidatively modified LDL on endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2) release is inconclusive, since oxidized LDL has been reported to enhance or reduce NO and PGI2 production. Our studies using cultured human endothelial and smooth muscle cells have established that basal rates of L-arginine (NO precursor) transport, NO and PGI2 production and soluble guanylyl cyclase activity are unaffected by pretreatment (for 1 or 24 h) with native LDL, or with mildly or highly oxidized LDL. In contrast, highly oxidized LDL inhibited histamine-stimulated release of NO and PGI2 from human endothelial cells and induced an adaptive increase in the level of intracellular glutathione in human smooth muscle cells, a response which was prevented by the chain-breaking antioxidant alpha-tocopherol. Although initial rates of L-arginine transport and basal NO and PGI2 release from human endothelium are unaffected by oxidized LDL, agonist-stimulated release of these vasodilators is markedly attenuated. Elucidation of the mechanisms regulating these responses and their sensitivity to dietary antioxidants could lead to alternative strategies for reducing atherogenesis. PMID:9129949

  14. Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces Methotrexate-induced intestinal mucosal injury in rat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arginine (ARG) and nitric oxide maintain the mucosal integrity of the intestine in various intestinal disorders. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of oral ARG supplementation on intestinal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis following methotrexate (MTX)-induced intestinal damage in a rat. Methods Male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Control rats, CONTR-ARG rats, were treated with oral ARG given in drinking water 72 hours before and 72 hours following vehicle injection, MTX rats were treated with a single dose of methotrexate, and MTX-ARG rats were treated with oral ARG following injection of MTX. Intestinal mucosal damage, mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 72 hours following MTX injection. RT-PCR was used to determine bax and bcl-2 mRNA expression. Results MTX-ARG rats demonstrated greater jejunal and ileal bowel weight, greater ileal mucosal weight, greater ileal mucosal DNA and protein levels, greater villus height in jejunum and ileum and crypt depth in ileum, compared to MTX animals. A significant decrease in enterocyte apoptosis in the ileum of MTX-ARG rats (vs MTX) was accompanied by decreased bax mRNA and protein expression and increased bcl-2 protein levels. Conclusions Treatment with oral ARG prevents mucosal injury and improves intestinal recovery following MTX- injury in the rat. PMID:22545735

  15. Insuring Long-Term Care in the United States

    E-print Network

    Finkelstein, Amy

    Long-term care expenditures constitute one of the largest uninsured financial risks facing the elderly in the United States and thus play a central role in determining the retirement security of elderly Americans. In this ...

  16. Long-Term Quiescent Fibroblast Cells Transit into Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Hemmerich, Peter; Klement, Karolin; Diekmann, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development. PMID:25531649

  17. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...assure reasonable progress toward the national visibility goal; (v) The progress achieved in implementing best available retrofit technology (BART) and meeting other schedules set forth in the long-term strategy; (vi) The impact of any...

  18. Endowments and New Institutions for Long-Term Observation

    E-print Network

    Baker, D. James

    2007-01-01

    An ever-increasing volume of publications on the changing ocean environment underscores the requirement for long-term observations to understand and predict ocean and climate change. Such observations must be globally ...

  19. Learning The Long-Term Structure of the Blues

    E-print Network

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    Molle di Studi sull'Intelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA) Galleria 2, CH 6928 Manno, Switzerland doug structure and rhythmic organization." In short, RNNs do not excel at finding long-term dependencies in data

  20. Learning The LongTerm Structure of the Blues #

    E-print Network

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    Molle di Studi sull'Intelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA) Galleria 2, CH 6928 Manno, Switzerland doug structure and rhythmic organization.'' In short, RNNs do not excel at finding long­term dependencies in data

  1. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  2. Long-term Stewardship Science and Technology Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdonald, Jaimee Kristen; Nickelson, Reva Anne

    2002-08-01

    To ensure technology developed for long-term stewardship will meet existing requirements, a review of requirements was performed. In addition to identifying existing science and technology related requirements, gaps and conflicts of requirements were identified.

  3. How Much Care Will You Need? (Long-Term Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... care you may need. Share page: How Much Care Will You Need? The duration and level of ... in facilities. Distribution and duration of long-term care services Type of care Average number of years ...

  4. Who Will Provide Your Care? (Long-Term Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may need. Share page: Who Will Provide Your Care? Long-term care services and support typically come ... you live at home. About 80 percent of care at home is provided by unpaid caregivers and ...

  5. Long-term Career Goals for Professional Women in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, Betty

    1986-01-01

    Encourages the formation of long-term career goals for women in agronomy. Offers perspectives and practical suggestions for obtaining positions, maintaining professional credentials, and managing personal and career related obligations. (ML)

  6. Long Term SuboxoneTM Emotional Reactivity As

    E-print Network

    epidemic and the need for buprenorphine/naloxone (SuboxoneH; SUBX) as an opioid maintenance substance knowledge to evaluate ``true ground'' emotionality in long-term buprenorphine/naloxone combination (Suboxone

  7. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  8. Long-term memories in online users' selecting activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the long-term memory effect in the behavior of online users. Two user-oriented online movie systems are used in this study. Due to the short length of the series, the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy approach is used to evaluate scaling-invariance in selecting activities of users in the two online movie systems. Our results indicate that persistence (long-term memory) exists widely in the movie selecting series. However, there is generally significant difference between a user's objective and subjective behaviors. Additionally, statistically, the long-term memory depends on activity levels, as results show that the much more active a users' group, the stronger the long-term memory will be. These findings provide a new criterion for constructing reasonable models, and can help understand how individuals' behaviors form a collective behavior of an online society.

  9. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED...long-term lease agreement is subject to the source and origin requirements of this subpart B. For purposes of...

  10. Long-term effects of maternal citrulline supplementation on renal transcriptome prevention of nitric oxide depletion-related programmed hypertension: the impact of gene-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Huang, Li-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Maternal malnutrition can elicit gene expression leading to fetal programming. L-citrulline (CIT) can be converted to L-arginine to generate nitric oxide (NO). We examined whether maternal CIT supplementation can prevent N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor)-induced programmed hypertension and examined their effects on the renal transcriptome in male offspring using next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received L-NAME administration at 60mg/kg/day subcutaneously via osmotic minipump during pregnancy alone or with additional 0.25% L-citrulline solution in drinking water during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to three groups: control, L-NAME, and L-NAME + CIT. L-NAME exposure induced hypertension in the 12-week-old offspring, which CIT therapy prevented. Identified differentially expressed genes in L-NAME and CIT-treated offspring kidneys, including Guca2b, Hmox1, Hba2, Hba-a2, Dusp1, and Serpine1 are related to regulation of blood pressure (BP) and oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data suggests that the beneficial effects of CIT supplementation are attributed to alterations in expression levels of genes related to BP control and oxidative stress. Our results suggest that early nutritional intervention by CIT has long-term impact on the renal transcriptome to prevent NO depletion-related programmed hypertension. However, our RNA-Seq results might be a secondary phenomenon. The implications of epigenetic regulation at an early stage of programming deserve further clarification. PMID:25517031

  11. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Citrulline Supplementation on Renal Transcriptome Prevention of Nitric Oxide Depletion-Related Programmed Hypertension: The Impact of Gene-Nutrient Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Huang, Li-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Maternal malnutrition can elicit gene expression leading to fetal programming. l-citrulline (CIT) can be converted to l-arginine to generate nitric oxide (NO). We examined whether maternal CIT supplementation can prevent NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (l-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor)-induced programmed hypertension and examined their effects on the renal transcriptome in male offspring using next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received l-NAME administration at 60mg/kg/day subcutaneously via osmotic minipump during pregnancy alone or with additional 0.25% l-citrulline solution in drinking water during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to three groups: control, l-NAME, and l-NAME + CIT. l-NAME exposure induced hypertension in the 12-week-old offspring, which CIT therapy prevented. Identified differentially expressed genes in l-NAME and CIT-treated offspring kidneys, including Guca2b, Hmox1, Hba2, Hba-a2, Dusp1, and Serpine1 are related to regulation of blood pressure (BP) and oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data suggests that the beneficial effects of CIT supplementation are attributed to alterations in expression levels of genes related to BP control and oxidative stress. Our results suggest that early nutritional intervention by CIT has long-term impact on the renal transcriptome to prevent NO depletion-related programmed hypertension. However, our RNA-Seq results might be a secondary phenomenon. The implications of epigenetic regulation at an early stage of programming deserve further clarification. PMID:25517031

  12. Long-term parotid gland function after radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra M.. Braam; Judith M. Roesink; Marinus A. Moerland; Cornelis P. J. Raaijmakers; Maria Schipper; Chris H. J. Terhaard

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Irradiation of the parotid glands causes salivary dysfunction, resulting in reduced salivary flow. Recovery can be seen with time; however, long-term prospective data are lacking. The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term parotid gland function after irradiation for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 patients with head-and-neck cancer and treated with radiotherapy (RT)

  13. Forest site evaluation and long-term productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, D.W; Gessel, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the evaluation of factors affecting forest site and a discussion of long-term changes in site caused by human activity. Contributions include papers covering such critical issues as evaluation of site, interlaboratory comparison of chemical analyses, long-term growth effects of chemical fertilizers, influence of nitrogen fixation on soil acidification and nitrogen accumulation, potential effects of atmospheric deposition on productivity, and the reclamation of land by using municipal sewage sludge.

  14. Long-term effects of sludge application to land

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, W.S. (Metcalf and Eddy Pacific Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)); Knocke, W.R.; Novak, J.T.; Dove, D. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term environmental effects of applying alum sludge to land. Investigations at the original field site included soil analysis, soil water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and analysis of tissues from pine needles. No long-term (30 months) effects were observed, and the authors conclude that alum coagulant sludges can be applied to forest lands at loading rates of at least 1.5 to 2.5% by dry weight without adverse effect.

  15. Long-term hydraulic properties of subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    E-print Network

    Turner, Glenn Allen

    1994-01-01

    LONG-TERM HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF SUBSURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS A Thesis by GLENN ALLEN TURNER Submitted to the Office of Graduate studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1994 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering LONG-TERM HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF SUBSURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS by GLENN ALLEN TURNER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfdlment of the requirements for the degree...

  16. Learning long-term dependencies in NARX recurrent neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsungnan Lin; Bill G. Horne; P. Tino; C. Lee Giles

    1996-01-01

    It has previously been shown that gradient-descent learning algorithms for recurrent neural networks can perform poorly on tasks that involve long-term dependencies, i.e. those problems for which the desired output depends on inputs presented at times far in the past. We show that the long-term dependencies problem is lessened for a class of architectures called nonlinear autoregressive models with exogenous

  17. Long-term Memory and Multiscaling Properties of River Flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Hirpa; M. Gebremichael; T. Over

    2009-01-01

    We present results of detailed analysis of long-term memory and multi-scaling properties of river flow. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) technique has been applied to daily and 15 minute long records of river flow measured at 14 nested gauge stations in Flint River Basin in Georgia. The findings show that 1) River flow exhibits long-term memory whose correlation increases with increasing

  18. Determinants of Long-Term Mortality after Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loutfi S. Aboussouan; Chris D. Lattin; Jeffrey L. Kline

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives The poor long-term survival of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation may be due to potentially modifiable factors.\\u000a We therefore sought to assess the early determinants of long-term survival after discharge from a specialized respiratory\\u000a unit. Methods Eighty of 113 patients (71%) admitted to a respiratory care unit from June 2001 to August 2003 survived to discharge. Mortality\\u000a outcomes

  19. Segmented vs conventional numerals: legibility and long term retention

    E-print Network

    Hill, Steve Edgar

    1971-01-01

    SEGMENTED VS CONVENTIONAL NUMERALS: LEGIBILITY AND LONG TERM RETENTION A Thesis by STEVE EDGAR HILL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1971 Ma]or Subject: Industrial Engineering SEGMENTED VS CONVENTIONAL NUMERALS: LEGIBILITY AND LONG TERM RETENTION A Thesis STEVE EDGAR HILL Approved as to style and content by: Elias Chairman of Committee) r. A. W. ortham (Head...

  20. Private Financing Options for Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Barbara L.; Simon, Harold J.; Smallwood, Dennis E.

    1987-01-01

    Private financing for long-term care now comes almost exclusively from out-of-pocket payments. Long-term-care costs quickly impoverish most elderly, resulting in Medicaid dependency. The consequences are profound for the western Sun Belt with its rapidly growing elderly population. Key private financing options are long-term-care individual retirement accounts (LTC/IRAs), home equity conversion, social-health maintenance organizations and long-term-care insurance. Study of data from the past half century suggests that the LTC/IRA approach would prove unsatisfactory for the purpose despite the intuitive appeal of this mechanism. Experience with home equity conversions is still very limited, and unresolved questions limit this approach to the role of a reserve option for now. While promising, social-health maintenance organizations are still in the experimental stages and not yet commercially available. Long-term-care insurance is currently sold on a thin market and emphasizes nursing home coverage. New approaches to private financing through long-term-care insurance seem to offer the best approach for immediate implementation. PMID:3118576

  1. Increased Susceptibility to Induction of Long-Term Depression and Long-Term Potentiation Reversal during Aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher M. Norris; Donna L. Korol; Thomas C. Foster

    Homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) and reversal of long- term potentiation (LTP) were examined extracellularly at CA3-CA1 synapses in stratum radiatum of slices from adult (6-9 months) and aged (20-24 months) Fischer 344 rats. Prolonged low- frequency stimulation (LFS) (900 pulses\\/1 Hz) of the Schaffer collaterals depressed the initial slope of the excitatory postsynap- tic potential (EPSP) in aged but not

  2. Long-term, Clinical and Echocardiographic Results After Successful Mitral Balloon Valvotomy and Predictors of Long-term Outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Eid Fawzy; Hesham Hegazy; Mohamed Shoukri

    2005-01-01

    Aims To assess the long-term outcome of mitral balloon valvotomy (MBV) and identify predictors of rest- enosis- and event-free survival. Methods and results We report the immediate and long-term clinical and echocardiographic results in 493 patients, mean age 31+ 11, who underwent successful MBV and were followed-up for 0.5-15 years (median 5+ 3) with clinical and echocardiographic examination. After MBV,

  3. Action Planning for Daily Mouth Care in Long-Term Care: The Brushing Up on Mouth Care Project

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Mary E.; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Wyatt, Christopher C. L.; McNeil, Karen P.; Crowell, Sandra J.; Matthews, Debora C.; Clovis, Joanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Research focusing on the introduction of daily mouth care programs for dependent older adults in long-term care has met with limited success. There is a need for greater awareness about the importance of oral health, more education for those providing oral care, and organizational structures that provide policy and administrative support for daily mouth care. The purpose of this paper is to describe the establishment of an oral care action plan for long-term care using an interdisciplinary collaborative approach. Methods. Elements of a program planning cycle that includes assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation guided this work and are described in this paper. Findings associated with assessment and planning are detailed. Assessment involved exploration of internal and external factors influencing oral care in long-term care and included document review, focus groups and one-on-one interviews with end-users. The planning phase brought care providers, stakeholders, and researchers together to design a set of actions to integrate oral care into the organizational policy and practice of the research settings. Findings. The establishment of a meaningful and productive collaboration was beneficial for developing realistic goals, understanding context and institutional culture, creating actions suitable and applicable for end-users, and laying a foundation for broader networking with relevant stakeholders and health policy makers. PMID:22550572

  4. Epilepsy-related long-term amnesia: anatomical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Butler, Chris; Kapur, Narinder; Zeman, Adam; Weller, Roy; Connelly, Alan

    2012-11-01

    There are few clues as to the neural basis of selective long-term amnesia. We report group and single-case data to shed light on this issue. In a group study of patients with transient epileptic amnesia, there were no significant correlations between volumetric measures of the hippocampus and indices of accelerated long-term forgetting or longer-term autobiographical memory loss. Post-mortem investigations in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy who showed accelerated long-term forgetting, together with a degree of autobiographical memory loss, yielded evidence of neuronal loss and gliosis in regions of both the right and the left hippocampus. Neuronal loss and gliosis were more evident in anterior than posterior hippocampus. These results indicate that the unusual forms of long-term forgetting seen in some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have no gross anatomical correlate. The findings leave open the possibilities that subtle structural damage or subtle functional disturbance, perhaps in the form of subclinical epileptiform activity, underly epilepsy-related long-term amnesia. PMID:22841993

  5. Long Term Stability Following Genioplasty: A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B Lakshman; Raju, G Kranthi Praveen; Kumar, N Dilip; Reddy, G Vivek; Naik, B Ravindra; Achary, C Ravindranath

    2015-01-01

    Background: A receding chin associated with an orthognathic mandible is a common situation and surgical changes in chin position are often required to improve the overall harmony of the face. Genioplasty is one such procedure. Stability of hard and soft tissue changes following genioplasty on a long term basis needs to be assessed. Studies on the stability of hard and soft tissue changes following genioplasty on a short term basis have revealed it as a procedure with good stability. This study is done to assess the stability of hard and soft tissue changes following genioplasty on a long term basis. Materials and Methods: Pre-surgical, postsurgical and long term post-surgical cephalograms of 15 cases treated by vertical reduction augmentation genioplasty were obtained. Paired t-test was used to compare the changes between pre-surgical, postsurgical and long term postsurgical cephalograms. Results: Findings of this study demonstrated that genioplasty is a stable procedure. After long term follow-up period, there was a relapse of 1.5 mm at the pogonion accounting for 24% of the surgical advancement. This is attributed to the remodeling that occurs at the surgical site, but not the instability due to the surgical procedure. Conclusion: With the present study, it can be concluded that vertical reduction and advancement genioplasty can be considered as an adjunctive procedure that produces predictable results and the bony and soft tissue stability were generally very good. PMID:25954070

  6. Challenges in long-term health care for children.

    PubMed

    Stein, R E

    2001-01-01

    More children with chronic conditions are surviving than in previous times, and many have serious and significant ongoing health care needs. This paper reviews 1) the population characteristics of children with chronic health conditions in terms of the epidemiology and their sociodemographic profiles; 2) the implications of children's development on their needs, on caretaker roles and responsibilities, on the concept of medical necessity, and on service systems; 3) financing issues and service options for long-term care; and 4) strengths and limitations of existing mechanisms for monitoring the quality of services provided. The following discussion highlights the need for 1) improved data on the numbers of children who need and receive different types of long-term care; 2) better coordination of services and creation of a workable system; 3) a child-specific standard of medical necessity in defining service eligibility; 4) better support systems for families caring for children with long-term needs in non institutional settings; and 5) improved consistency in the mechanisms for financing of care for these children. More attention also should be focused on developing ways of monitoring the quality of long-term care provided. Addressing these needs would go a long way toward improving the quality of long-term care for infants, children, and adolescents. PMID:11888416

  7. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  8. Long-term efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of ibandronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Inderjeeth, Charles A; Glendenning, Paul; Ratnagobal, Shoba; Inderjeeth, Diren Che; Ondhia, Chandni

    2015-01-01

    Several second-generation bisphosphonates (BPs) are approved in osteoporosis treatment. Efficacy and safety depends on potency of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) inhibition, hydroxyapatite affinity, compliance and adherence. The latter may be influenced by frequency and route of administration. A literature search using “ibandronate”, “postmenopausal osteoporosis”, “fracture”, and “bone mineral density” (BMD) revealed 168 publications. The Phase III BONE study, using low dose 2.5 mg daily oral ibandronate demonstrated 49% relative risk reduction (RRR) in clinical vertebral fracture after 3 years. Non-vertebral fracture (NVF) reduction was demonstrated in a subgroup (pretreatment T-score ? ?3.0; RRR 69%) and a meta-analysis of high annual doses (150 mg oral monthly or intravenous equivalent of ibandronate; RRR 38%). Hip fracture reduction was not demonstrated. Long-term treatment efficacy has been confirmed over 5 years. Long term safety is comparable to placebo over 3 years apart from flu-like symptoms which are more common with oral monthly and intravenous treatments. No cases of atypical femoral fracture or osteonecrosis of the jaw have been reported in randomized controlled trial studies. Ibandronate inhibits FPPS more than alendronate but less than other BPs which could explain rate of action onset. Ibandronate has a higher affinity for hydroxyapatite compared with risedronate but less than other BPs which could affect skeletal distribution and rate of action offset. High doses (150 mg oral monthly or intravenous equivalent) were superior to low doses (oral 2.5 mg daily) according to 1 year BMD change. Data are limited by patient selection, statistical power, under-dosing, and absence of placebo groups in high dose studies. Ibandronate treatment offers different doses and modalities of administration which could translate into higher adherence rates, an important factor when the two main limitations of BP treatment are initiation and adherence rates. However, lack of consistency in NVF reduction and absence of hip fracture data limits more generalized use of this agent. PMID:25565901

  9. Long-term efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of ibandronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Inderjeeth, Charles A; Glendenning, Paul; Ratnagobal, Shoba; Inderjeeth, Diren Che; Ondhia, Chandni

    2015-01-01

    Several second-generation bisphosphonates (BPs) are approved in osteoporosis treatment. Efficacy and safety depends on potency of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) inhibition, hydroxyapatite affinity, compliance and adherence. The latter may be influenced by frequency and route of administration. A literature search using "ibandronate", "postmenopausal osteoporosis", "fracture", and "bone mineral density" (BMD) revealed 168 publications. The Phase III BONE study, using low dose 2.5 mg daily oral ibandronate demonstrated 49% relative risk reduction (RRR) in clinical vertebral fracture after 3 years. Non-vertebral fracture (NVF) reduction was demonstrated in a subgroup (pretreatment T-score ? -3.0; RRR 69%) and a meta-analysis of high annual doses (150 mg oral monthly or intravenous equivalent of ibandronate; RRR 38%). Hip fracture reduction was not demonstrated. Long-term treatment efficacy has been confirmed over 5 years. Long term safety is comparable to placebo over 3 years apart from flu-like symptoms which are more common with oral monthly and intravenous treatments. No cases of atypical femoral fracture or osteonecrosis of the jaw have been reported in randomized controlled trial studies. Ibandronate inhibits FPPS more than alendronate but less than other BPs which could explain rate of action onset. Ibandronate has a higher affinity for hydroxyapatite compared with risedronate but less than other BPs which could affect skeletal distribution and rate of action offset. High doses (150 mg oral monthly or intravenous equivalent) were superior to low doses (oral 2.5 mg daily) according to 1 year BMD change. Data are limited by patient selection, statistical power, under-dosing, and absence of placebo groups in high dose studies. Ibandronate treatment offers different doses and modalities of administration which could translate into higher adherence rates, an important factor when the two main limitations of BP treatment are initiation and adherence rates. However, lack of consistency in NVF reduction and absence of hip fracture data limits more generalized use of this agent. PMID:25565901

  10. Reduced l-arginine transport and nitric oxide synthesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells from intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies is not further altered by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Casanello, P; Krause, B; Torres, E; Gallardo, V; González, M; Prieto, C; Escudero, C; Farías, M; Sobrevia, L

    2009-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with chronic fetal hypoxia, altered placental vasodilatation and reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from pregnancies complicated with IUGR (IUGR cells) and in HUVEC from normal pregnancies (normal cells) cultured under hypoxia l-arginine transport is reduced; however, the mechanisms leading to this dysfunction are unknown. We studied hypoxia effect on l-arginine transport and human cationic amino acid transporters 1 (hCAT-1) expression, and the potential NO and protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) involvement. Normal or IUGR HUVEC monolayers were exposed (0-24h) to 5% O(2) (normoxia), and 1 or 2% O(2) (hypoxia). l-Arginine transport and hCAT-1 expression, phosphorylated and total PKCalpha or eNOS protein and mRNA expression were quantified. eNOS involvement was tested using a siRNA against eNOS (eNOS-siRNA) adenovirus. IUGR cells in normoxia or hypoxia, and normal cells in hypoxia exhibited reduced l-arginine transport, hCAT-1 expression, NO synthesis and eNOS phosphorylation at Serine(1177), effects reversed by calphostin C (PKC inhibitor) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-l,d-penicillamine (SNAP, NO donor). However, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, NOS inhibitor) reduced hCAT-1 expression only in normal cells in normoxia. Increased Thr(638)-phosphorylated PKCalpha was exhibited by IUGR cells in normoxia or hypoxia and normal cells in hypoxia. The effects of hypoxia in normal cells were mimicked in eNOS-siRNA transduced cells; however, IUGR phenotype was unaltered by eNOS knockdown. Thus, IUGR- and hypoxia-reduced l-arginine transport could result from increased PKCalpha, but reduced eNOS activity leading to a lower hCAT-1 expression in HUVEC. In addition, IUGR endothelial cells are either not responsive or maximally affected by hypoxia. These mechanisms could be responsible for placental dysfunction in diseases where fetal endothelium is chronically exposed to hypoxia, such as IUGR. PMID:19501907

  11. Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Orthopedic Biodegradable Implants

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Ami R.; Wallace, James S.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.

    2012-01-01

    Presently, orthopedic and oral/maxillofacial implants represent a combined $2.8 billion market, a figure expected to experience significant and continued growth. Although traditional permanent implants have been proved clinically efficacious, they are also associated with several drawbacks, including secondary revision and removal surgeries. Non-permanent, biodegradable implants offer a promising alternative for patients, as they provide temporary support and degrade at a rate matching tissue formation, and thus, eliminate the need for secondary surgeries. These implants have been in clinical use for nearly 25 years, competing directly with, or maybe even exceeding, the performance of permanent implants. The initial implantation of biodegradable materials, as with permanent materials, mounts an acute host inflammatory response. Over time, the implant degradation profile and possible degradation product toxicity mediate long-term biodegradable implant-induced inflammation. However, unlike permanent implants, this inflammation is likely to cease once the material disappears. Implant-mediated inflammation is a critical determinant for implant success. Thus, for the development of a proactive biodegradable implant that has the ability to promote optimal bone regeneration and minimal detrimental inflammation, a thorough understanding of short- and long-term inflammatory events is required. Here, we discuss an array of biodegradable orthopedic implants, their associated short- and long- term inflammatory effects, and methods to mediate these inflammatory events. PMID:22043969

  12. Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J. [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Parque Cientifico Universitat de Valencia, Poligono 'La Coma' s/n, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Departamento de Comunicaciones, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo - ICMUV, Universitat de Valencia c/ Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Comunicaciones, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Parque Cientifico Universitat de Valencia, Poligono 'La Coma' s/n, 46980 Paterna (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield.

  13. Long-term RNA persistence in postmortem contexts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ribonucleic acids (RNA) are generally considered fragile molecules that are readily degraded. However, there is growing documentation of long-term (from days to centuries) RNA persistence in a variety of contexts and tissue types, and as such a number of academic disciplines are beginning to exploit degraded RNA. While the reasons for its survival are not fully understood, there are several plausible mechanisms that would safeguard this molecule against degradation. However, after examining the literature available on the postmortem instability and decay mechanisms of RNA, it has become clear that limited experimental studies and no reviews offer an overview of these mechanisms. Hence in this review we outline molecular reasons for RNA surviving long-term postmortem, and provide specific examples of RNA survival in forensic, archival and archaeological contexts. A better understanding of the mechanisms of RNA decay will be crucial for developing expectations on its long-term survival. PMID:23618361

  14. The nursing home in long-term care education.

    PubMed

    White, Heidi K

    2008-02-01

    Nursing homes have long been used to teach geriatric medicine to medical students, primary care residents, and geriatric medicine fellows, but we may be able to more appropriately use this clinical setting by addressing principles of long-term care in addition to general geriatrics. Long-term care education starts with developing an understanding of the health care system and how to use services to maximize the functional abilities of our frailest elderly, and, depending on the needs of specific learners may incorporate skills such as quality improvement methodology, interdisciplinary team participation, managing infection risk within a community, and optimally transitioning patients between care venues. At each level of medical education, specific long-term care learning outcomes should be established with attention given to appropriate assessment of these outcomes. Curricular elements should be directed by the needs of the specific group of learners and the resources of the institution. PMID:18261698

  15. A basic strategy for financing long term care.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J A; Leutz, W N

    1984-02-01

    As pressure mounts to contain Medicaid long term care spending, short-range "quick fixes" must be avoided. Three such false solutions in particular have shortcomings that may actually exacerbate long term care's financial dilemma because they are based on inadequate definitions of the problem. Two of these proposals--legislation to broaden family responsibility toward institutionalized elders on Medicaid and expanded state power to put liens on such elders' real property--err by trying to mandate "caring" and are predicated on a misunderstanding of the "spend-down" problem. The other proposal--to provide tax incentives to family members who care for elders--requires a large administrative apparatus, assumes an elasticity of supply that may not exist, and could disrupt the "gift relationship" on which family exchanges are often based. What is needed is a strategy with short term, intermediate, and long term objectives that move toward an insurance approach. The short term plan should lay the groundwork for intermediate strategy and control costs by changing rate-setting methods and putting limits on facility construction. The intermediate plan should change the problem's definition from one of merely controlling Medicaid long term care expenditures to one of efficiently managing state resources for the elderly through the development of state financing and local delivery systems that target older persons in greatest need. An effective means of doing this is through the creation of social/HMOs, which have five key features: integration of service responsibility and authority; flexibility in organizational design; balanced clientele; pooled prepaid funding; and financial risk for the provider organization. Finally, the long term strategy should transfer much of the long term care financial burden from individuals and state Medicaid agencies to insurance mechanisms. Many individuals would thus avoid impoverishment caused by health care spending and Medicaid would greatly reduce its caseload. Insurance coverage is an appropriate funding mechanism, moreover, in that relatively few persons will ever incur high costs. PMID:10310445

  16. Mobile wearable device for long term monitoring of vital signs.

    PubMed

    Klingeberg, T; Schilling, M

    2012-05-01

    In long-term prevention and in rehabilitation of health of elderly people the recording of vital signs plays an important role. Especially the progress of rehabilitation can be deduced from the recording of an electrocardigram (ECG), blood pressure and body temperature. In this paper we present a wireless coupled recording device for long-term monitoring of these vital sign signals. We record the ECG, the blood pressure and the skin temperature and include a 3D-acceleration sensor for the determination of the movements during recording. To deal with motion artifacts in all recorded properties we use data fusion to reject or correct distorted vital sign signals. PMID:22285459

  17. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Genescà, A; Caballín, M R; Miró, R; Benet, J; Bonfill, X; Egozcue, J

    1990-06-01

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa. PMID:2340495

  18. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, A.; Caballin, M.R.; Miro, R.; Benet, J.; Bonfill, X.; Egozcue, J. (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain))

    1990-06-01

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa.

  19. Long-Term Elevation of Cyclooxygenase-2, but Not Lipoxygenase, in Regions Synaptically Distant From Spreading Depression

    PubMed Central

    CAGGIANO, ANTHONY O.; BREDER, CHRISTOPHER D.; KRAIG, RICHARD P.

    2009-01-01

    Eicosanoids, produced from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LIPOXs), are involved in numerous brain processes. To explore if brief and noninjurious stimuli chronically alter expression of these enzymes, we examined the induction of COX-2 and LIPOX expression following unilateral neocortical spreading depression (SD). Expression was examined over time and in regions not experiencing SD (hippocampus) but synaptically connected to the site of stimulation (cortex). One hundred six male Wistar rats had SD induced via microinjection of 0.5 M KCl (0.5 M NaCl for sham) into left parietal cortex every 9 minutes for 1or 3 hours. One hour before SD some animals received dexamethasone (Dex), mepacrine (Mep), indomethacin (Indo), nordihydroguaiaretic acid (Ndga), phenylephrine (Pe), sodium nitroprusside (Snp) with Pe, or N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (Lnam). Animals survived for 0, 3, or 6 hours, or 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. Brains were processed immunohistochemically for COX-2 and LIPOX, and the optical density (OD) of the left and right cortex, dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, and CA1 immunoreactivity (IR) were measured. Induction was expressed as the log of left divided by right side OD for each region. COX-2 IR in the left cortex was elevated rapidly and was sustained for 21 days following SD. COX-2 IR was also elevated in the ipsilateral hippocampus not experiencing SD, with the rank order of induction as follows: DG > CA3 > CA1. Dex, Snp, and/or Pe significantly reduced the induction of COX-2. No changes in LIPOX IR were observed. These results show that long-term changes in COX-2 expression are induced by SD and these changes decrease with synaptic distance. Benign stimuli increase COX-2 expression and thus may influence brain function for extended periods and at distant locations. PMID:8956110

  20. Nitric-oxide supplementation for treatment of long-term complications in argininosuccinic aciduria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is required for the synthesis and channeling of L-arginine to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for nitric oxide (NO) production. Congenital ASL deficiency causes argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), the second most common urea cycle disorder, and leads to deficiency of both urea...

  1. Amphoteric, prevailingly cationic L-arginine polymers of poly(amidoamino acid) structure: synthesis, acid/base properties and preliminary cytocompatibility and cell-permeating characterizations.

    PubMed

    Ferruti, Paolo; Mauro, Nicolò; Falciola, Luigi; Pifferi, Valentina; Bartoli, Cristina; Gazzarri, Matteo; Chiellini, Federica; Ranucci, Elisabetta

    2014-03-01

    A linear amphoteric poly(amidoamino acid), L-ARGO7, is prepared by Michael-type polyaddition of L-arginine with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. Chain-extension of acrylamide end-capped L-ARGO7 oligomers with piperazine leads to high-molecular-weight copolymers in which L-arginine maintains its absolute configuration. Acid/base properties of L-ARGO7 polymers show isolectric points of ? 10 and positive net average charges per repeating unit at pH = 7.4 from 0.25 to 0.40. These arginine-rich synthetic polymers possibly share some of the unique biological properties of polyarginine cell-permeating peptides. In vitro tests with mouse embryo fibroblasts balb/3T3 clone A31 show that L-ARGO7 polymers are endowed with effective cell internalization ability combined with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:24821667

  2. A new approach for preparation of magnetite-graphite composite: Intercalation of polyhydroxy iron cation into graphite oxide in L-arginine medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuqiong; Chen, Zhen; Jin, Yongdong; Chen, Shuihua; Wang, Hang; Geng, Junxia; Song, Qiang; Yang, Xiaodan; Ma, Lijian; Li, Shoujian; Qin, Zhi; Zheng, Chong

    2011-05-01

    A new approach to prepare magnetite nanoparticle pillared graphite has been put forward. The magnetic composite was normally obtained by calcining iron-intercalated graphite oxide, but the latter was prepared via intercalation reaction using polyhydroxy iron cation as iron precursor and pillaring agent, and a strong organic guanidine base, L-arginine, as alkaline agent and also intercalating agent. L-arginine, used herein instead of inorganic alkali, which would lead to the deoxygenation and reduction of graphite oxide into graphite, not only provided the alkaline condition for the formation of polyhydroxy iron cations, but also increased the interlayer spacing of graphite oxide to facilitate the intercalation of polyhydroxy iron cations into graphite oxide. The characterization by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and nitrogen absorption indicated that the composite was nanoscale Fe 3O 4 pillared graphite with superparamagnetic property.

  3. Effect of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced intrauterine growth restriction on postnatal lung growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Véronique; Lebras-Isabet, Marie-Noelle; Denjean, André

    2005-09-01

    Infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at high risk for morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia, one of the leading causes of IUGR, begins during the canalicular phase of lung development. The aim of our study was to determine whether induced IUGR was responsible for abnormal lung development in rat pups. We randomized pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to daily gavage with either the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; n = 5, 50 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1)) or pure water (n = 6). The pups were weighed at birth and on postnatal days 7 and 14. At each of these time points, pups were killed and their lung growth was assessed on the basis of lung volume and light-microscopy morphometric data. At birth, body weight, total alveolar surface area, and alveolar surface density were significantly decreased and alveolar size was significantly increased in the L-NAME group, compared with the control group. On day 7, body weight was similar in the two groups, and the only significant difference was smaller total alveolar surface area in the L-NAME group. On day 14, neither body weight nor lung morphometric parameters were significantly different between the L-NAME group and the controls. These results suggest that postnatal catch-up growth may completely correct the lung development disorders present at birth in IUGR pups, in parallel with the catch-up body weight gain. PMID:16148073

  4. Protective effect of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on L-arginine-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Khan, M W; Priyamvada, S; Khan, S A; Khan, S; Naqshbandi, A; Yusufi, A N K

    2012-10-01

    L-Arginine (ARG), an essential amino acid, is the endogenous source of the deleterious nitric oxide. Dietary ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched fish oil (FO) has been shown to reduce the severity of certain types of cancers, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Present study examined whether feeding of FO/flaxseed oil (FXO) would have protective effect against ARG-induced nephrotoxicity. ARG-induced nephrotoxicity was recorded by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. ARG significantly altered the activities of metabolic and brush border membrane (BBM) enzymes. ARG caused significant imbalances in the antioxidant system. These alterations were associated with increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and altered antioxidant enzyme activities. Feeding of FO and FXO with ARG ameliorated the changes in various parameters caused by ARG. Nephrotoxicity parameters lowered and enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism, BBM and inorganic phosphate (32Pi) transport were improved to near control values. ARG-induced LPO declined and antioxidant defense mechanism was strengthened by both FO and FXO alike. The results of the present study suggest that ?-3 PUFA-enriched FO and FXO from seafoods and plant sources, respectively, are similarly effective in reducing ARG-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage. Thus, vegetarians who cannot consume FO can have similar health benefits from plant-derived ?-3 PUFA. PMID:22531969

  5. Crystal structure and mechanism of human L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase: a mitochondrial enzyme involved in creatine biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Humm, A; Fritsche, E; Steinbacher, S; Huber, R

    1997-01-01

    L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AT) catalyses the committed step in creatine biosynthesis by formation of guanidinoacetic acid, the immediate precursor of creatine. We have determined the crystal structure of the recombinant human enzyme by multiple isomorphous replacement at 1.9 A resolution. A telluromethionine derivative was used in sequence assignment. The structure of AT reveals a new fold with 5-fold pseudosymmetry of circularly arranged betabeta alphabeta-modules. These enclose the active site compartment, which is accessible only through a narrow channel. The overall structure resembles a basket with handles that are formed from insertions into the betabeta alphabeta-modules. Binding of L-ornithine, a product inhibitor, reveals a marked induced-fit mechanism, with a loop at the active site entrance changing its conformation accompanied by a shift of an alpha-helix by -4 A. Binding of the arginine educt to the inactive mutant C407A shows a similar mode of binding. A reaction mechanism with a catalytic triad Cys-His-Asp is proposed on the basis of substrate and product bound states. PMID:9218780

  6. Laser heated pedestal growth and characterization of the crystalline fibers of KDP doped L-arginine phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shivani; Lal, Bansi

    2010-01-01

    Transparent crystalline fibers of ˜25 mm length and ˜1 mm diameter of KDP (0.3 and 0.4 mol%)doped L-arginine phosphate (LAP) were prepared by laser heated pedestal growth technique. The crystalline fibers were prepared with ˜5.4 W of CW CO 2 laser power, ˜7.7 cm/hr sample rodpushing speed and ˜19.4 cm/hr fiber pulling speed. The crystalline fibers were almost 100% transparent in 250-1200 nm region with cut-off frequency at 220 nm. Powder and single crystal XRD analysis led to the conclusion that KDP doping did not change the crystal structure of LAP. The calculations based on single crystal XRD data produced the structure of the KDP: LAP identical to undoped LAP. This observation is further confirmed by FTIR analysis. The presence of KDP in LAP was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The shifting and broadening of the photoluminescent emission also indicated KDP doping in LAP. Thermal behavior of crystalline fiber showed significant increase in the decomposing temperature of LAP on doping with KDP so as to make the melt growth of KDP: LAP easy.

  7. N-Omega-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester Increases Airway Responsiveness to Serotonin but Not to Acetylcholine in Cats in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Aizawa; S. Takata; M. Shigyo; K. Matsumoto; H. Inoue; N. Hara

    2001-01-01

    Background: We previously reported that N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) enhances airway responsiveness to inhaled serotonin in cats treated with atropine and propranolol. Objective: To further elucidate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in airway responsiveness, we investigated whether L-NAME induces airway hyperresponsiveness to serotonin and acetylcholine (ACh) in animals with intact innervation. Methods: Cats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (50

  8. Vasomotor response to CO 2 and L-Arginine in patients with severe internal carotid artery stenosis; pre- and post-surgical evaluation with transcranial Doppler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Micieli; D Bosone; F Zappoli; S Marcheselli; A Argenteri; G Nappi

    1999-01-01

    Background and aim: Carotid artery disease may cause both thromboembolism and cerebral blood flow disturbances, particularly in subjects with impaired hemodynamic compensatory mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by transcranial Doppler (TCD) the hemodynamic changes induced by CO2 and L-Arginine stimulation in a selected population with severe unilateral carotid stenosis (70–80%), before and after carotid endarterectomy, in

  9. Protective Effect of Dietary Supplementation with L-Arginine and L-Carnitine on Hypoxia\\/Reoxygenation-Induced Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Young Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mete Akisu; Dilek Ozmen; Meral Baka; Sara Habif; Mehmet Yalaz; Sertac Arslanoglu; Nilgun Kultursay; Oya Bayindir

    2002-01-01

    Oxygen-derived free radicals are important components of gastrointestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In the present investigation, we examined the protective actions of L-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase substrate, and L-carnitine against hypoxia-reoxygenation (H\\/R) induced NEC in young mice. Young mice were divided into four groups: group 1 mice were subjected to H\\/R only; group 2 H\\/R mice were supplemented

  10. PHYSIOLOGY, ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND REPRODUCTION N?-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) Amplifies the Pulmonary Hypertensive Response to Microparticle Injections in Broilers1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Wideman; G. F. Erf; M. E. Chapman

    We tested the hypothesis that micropar- ticles entrapped within the pulmonary vasculature elicit the production of nitric oxide(NO) in quantities sufficient to modulate the combined impact of physical occlusion plus contemporaneously released vasoconstrictors. In ex- periment 1, male broilers were given an injection of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), followed by an intravenous injection of cellulose

  11. A Kinetic Model of Short and Long-Term Potentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Migliore; G. F. Ayala

    1993-01-01

    We present a kinetic model that can account for several experimental findings on short- and long-term potentiation (STP and LTP) and their pharmacological modulation. The model, which is consistent with Hebb's postulate, uses the hypothesis that part of the origin of LTP may be a consequence of an increased release of neurotransmitter due to a retrograde signal. The operation of

  12. Brownian motion and long-term clinical trial recruitment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dejian Lai; Lemuel A. Moyé; Barry R. Davis; Lisa E. Brown; Frank M. Sacks

    2001-01-01

    Accurate prediction of recruitment in a clinical trial may help investigator to better allocate resources and to quickly make decision to intervene in the case of slow recruitment. In this paper, the theory of Brownian motion was used to model recruitment in a long-term clinical trial. The proposed model is illustrated using the recruitment experience of the Cholesterol and Recurrent

  13. A Heuristic Model of Long-Term Atomic Clock Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Percival

    1976-01-01

    Summary A class of conceptually simple models for the long-term frequency variations of atomic clocks is presented. The basic model simulates the average fractional frequency deviation of a frequency standard as the sum of a normally distributed random variable, E and a random variable, l~ , which represents the spontaneous changes in the mean frequency of an atomic t clock

  14. Long-Term Effects of First-Grade Multitier Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of 2 first-grade Response to Intervention (RTI) models (Dynamic and Typical RTI) on the reading performance of students in second and third grade. Participants included 419 first-grade students (352 in second grade and 278 in third grade after attrition). Students were classified based…

  15. The Effect of Overlearning on Long-Term Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug; Taylor, Kelli; Pashler, Harold; Wixted, John T.; Cepeda, Nicholas J.

    2005-01-01

    Once material has been learned to a criterion of one perfect trial, further study within the same session constitutes overlearning. Although overlearning is a popular learning strategy, its effect on long-term retention is unclear. In two experiments presented here, 218 college students learned geography facts (Experiment 1) or word definitions…

  16. Long term stability of cannabis resin and cannabis extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Lindholst

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of cannabinoids in cannabis resin slabs and cannabis extracts upon long-term storage. The levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) on both neutral and acidic form were measured at room temperature, 4°C and ?20°C for up to 4 years. Acidic THC degrades exponentially via decarboxylation

  17. FRESHWATER POTOMAC LONG-TERM BENTHIC MONITORING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maryland Department of the Environments Freshwater Potomac Long-Term Benthic Monitoring Program provides seasonal information on abundance and composition for the benthic fauna of the freshwater portion of the Potomac River for use in recommendations to State agencies accordi...

  18. Long term modification of cerebellar inhibition after inferior olive degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Batini; J. M. Billard; H. Daniel

    1985-01-01

    The long term effects of inferior olive destruction on the activities of the Purkinje cells and their target neurones in the cerebellar nuclei were studied in the rat. Careful observations were also made of motor behaviour throughout the study. Albino rats were injected with 3-acetylpyridine to produce a neurotoxic destruction of the inferior olive and then were used for acute

  19. Sandostatin LAR in Acromegalic Patients: Long Term Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANETTE KVISTBORG FLØGSTAD; JOHAN HALSE; SØREN BAKKE; IOANA LANCRANJAN; P. MARBACH; C. H. BRUNS; JAK JERVELL

    We have evaluated the long term effects and safety of Sandostatin LAR, a long acting formulation of octreotide, during 18 subsequent injections given every fourth week to 14 octreotide-sensitive acrome- galic patients. The dosages (20, 30, or 40 mg) were adjusted according to GH response, side-effects, or symptom relief and assessed on day 28 after each injection. We found a

  20. Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

  1. Effects of Long-Term Nitrogen Addition on Microbial Enzyme

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Effects of Long-Term Nitrogen Addition on Microbial Enzyme Activity in Eight Forested and Grassland of microbially produced extracellu- lar enzymes involved in decomposition. Specifi- cally, it is hypothesized that adding N to N-limited ecosystems increases activity of cellulose degrading enzymes and decreases

  2. Political Turnovers, Contract Damages, and Long Term Government Contracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Chan

    Government contracts may be inherited by policy makers of dierent political viewpoints. In this paper, I propose a model in which the incumbent policy maker, the potential inheritor and all voters make strategic choices upon undertaking a long term government contract. Given that the incumbent knows it may not remain in power for the ending term of the contract, it

  3. Long Term Stability of Nanowire Nanoelectronics in Physiological Environments

    E-print Network

    Lieber, Charles M.

    signals from cells, as well as from natural and engineered/cyborg tissues, and in this capacity open many cardiac cells,14-16 and the development of electronically innervated three-dimensional cyborg tissues.17-recording, implantable cyborg tissues, and more general implantable devices do require long-term nanowire stability

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Site Long-Term Stewardship Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    B. E. Olaveson

    2006-07-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.

  5. The Aging Network and Managed Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivka, Larry; Zayac, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, service providers and area agencies on aging, that is, the aging network, have developed a number of strengths as they built a community-based long-term-care system in most states. Many area agencies and providers now have the capacity to assess the needs of older persons, identify appropriate services, and administer…

  6. Long term complications of inferior vena cava thrombosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Häusler; D Hübner; T Delhaas; E G Mühler

    2001-01-01

    AIMTo evaluate the long term outcome after paediatric inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis.METHODSA combined retrospective and prospective study on infants and children with IVC thrombosis treated at Aachen and Maastricht University Hospitals between 1980 and 1999.RESULTSForty patients were enrolled, including four with preceding cardiac catheterisation, 18 with central venous saphenous lines, and an additional eight with umbilical venous catheters. Six

  7. Arkansas Long Term Care Facility Nursing Assistant Training Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Human Services, Little Rock.

    This curriculum is designed for use in developing training programs for nursing assistants who provide nursing or nursing-related services to residents in long-term care (LTC) facilities. Implementation provisions provide a general overview of the basic requirements found in Arkansas' Nursing Assistant Training Program "Rules and Regulations." The…

  8. Long-term theranostic hydrogel system for solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Il; Lee, Beom Suk; Chun, Changju; Cho, Jung-Kyo; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Song, Soo-Chang

    2012-03-01

    The long-term theranostic hydrogel system for solid tumors was prepared via simple physical mixing, which consisted of three major parts: the thermosensitive/biodegradable poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel, PEGylated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, and paclitaxel (PTX). The PEGylated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed extremely low cytotoxicity due to the surface modification using PEG chains. The long-term theranostic hydrogel system showed adequate properties to be used for long-term MR theragnosis. In particular, the theranostic hydrogel gradually degraded over 28 days, and the PTX was sustainedly released out from the theranostic hydrogel over the same period in vitro. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of long-term MR theragnosis using the theranostic hydrogel system was estimated successfully over 3 weeks by using high field (4.7 T) animal MRI and solid tumor-bearing mice. Based on our results, we expect that this system can supply multiple data regarding a) the progress of therapy and b) the treatment processes via one- or two-time i.t. administration for cases in which surgical approaches are difficult to apply. Meanwhile, cancer patients can be free from the pain of multiple surgical treatments and have the advantage of therapy through a simple i.t. administration. PMID:22189146

  9. Use of a geriatric formulary in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Babington, M A

    1997-01-01

    The use of drug formularies in nursing facilities (NFs) is a fairly new idea. A large long-term care pharmacy provider prepared a formulary specific to a geriatric population. This open formulary is contained within a handbook of clinical monographs, complete with dosing information, cost comparisons, and references to NF regulations affecting the use of particular drugs. PMID:10164509

  10. Whiskey Springs Long-Term Coast Redwood Density Management; Final

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    571 Whiskey Springs Long-Term Coast Redwood Density Management; Final Growth, Sprout, and Yield sempervirens, coast redwood, commercial thinning, precommercial thinning, regeneration, sprouting Introduction-year site index of 180 ft. Vigorous coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D.Don] Endl.) sprouting

  11. Long-term occurrence probabilities of intense geomagnetic storm events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tsubouchi; Y. Omura

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the occurrence probability of intense geomagnetic storms (peak Dst < -100 nT) has been investigated by analyzing the Dst index time series database from 1957 to 2001. The main purpose was to derive two parameters, the probable intensity S T and the occurrence frequency lambda t , that can act as proxies for long-term space weather

  12. Long-term consequences of childhood physical abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Malinosky-Rummell; David J. Hansen

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the long-term consequences of childhood physical abuse. Empirical research is discussed within 7 topic areas: aggressive and violent behavior, nonviolent criminal behavior, substance abuse, self-injurious and suicidal behavior, emotional problems, in- terpersonal problems, and academic and vocational difficulties. The studies reviewed involve primarily adult populations, although pertinent findings from literature on children and adoles-

  13. Cost considerations for long-term ecological monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynne Caughlan; Karen L Oakley

    2001-01-01

    For an ecological monitoring program to be successful over the long-term, the perceived benefits of the information must justify the cost. Financial limitations will always restrict the scope of a monitoring program, hence the program’s focus must be carefully prioritized. Clearly identifying the costs and benefits of a program will assist in this prioritization process, but this is easier said

  14. Pathways to Long-Term Recovery from Alcohol Dependence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth R. Kubicek; Oliver J. Morgan; Nancy C. Morrison

    2002-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative pilot study explored like attributes of successful recovery among 13 alcoholics with six or more years of continuous sobriety. Seven subjects were current members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Six subjects were spontaneous remitters (SA) chosen through convenience sampling techniques; these persons achieved and maintain stable, long-term recovery without the assistance of a support group. Open-ended questions about

  15. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and 2006); and…

  16. Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J..; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y…

  17. Enhancing Practical Evaluation Training through Long-Term Evaluation Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevisan, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests an approach to providing practical evaluation training through university-supported, long-term funded evaluation projects. Such projects are managed through a university center that provides assistance to clients in student assessment and program evaluation. Discusses the benefits and challenges of these experiences for students. (SLD)

  18. Concept Formation Skills in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G.; Beer, Jessica; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Ditmars, Allison; Pisoni, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if a period of auditory sensory deprivation followed by degraded auditory input and related language delays affects visual concept formation skills in long-term prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. We also examined if concept formation skills are mediated or moderated by other neurocognitive domains (i.e.,…

  19. Children's Long-Term Memory for Autobiographical Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole

    2002-01-01

    Traces the origins of children's autobiographical memories, discussing research on infantile amnesia and young children's memory skills. Focuses on studies of children's long-term memory for autobiographical events that investigate delays of 1-2 years and delays of 4 years or more. Reports that a few studies have documented remarkably robust…

  20. Long-Term Outcome of Overlapping Anal Sphincter Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy L. Halverson; Tracy L. Hull

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study reviews the long-term outcome of overlapping anal sphincteroplasty for acquired anal incontinence. METHODS: Seventy-one consecutive patients underwent overlapping sphincteroplasty from 1989 to 1996. Current degree of continence and associated quality of life were determined by telephone interview using the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, as validated by The American Society of

  1. Long-Term Mortality after Gastric Bypass Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted D. Adams; Richard E. Gress; Sherman C. Smith; R. Chad Halverson; Steven C. Simper; Wayne D. Rosamond; Michael J. LaMonte; Antoinette M. Stroup; Steven C. Hunt

    2007-01-01

    In this retrospective cohort study, we determined the long-term mortality (from 1984 to 2002) among 9949 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery and 9628 severely obese persons who applied for driver's licenses. From these subjects, 7925 surgical patients and 7925 severely obese control subjects were matched for age, sex, and body-mass index. We determined the rates of death from

  2. LONG-TERM EVALUATION OF THREE ALUM TREATED LAKES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Garrison; Douglas R. Knauer

    1984-01-01

    Alum treatment of lakes has been found to be a generally effective method for reducing P concentrations in lakes over a period of 2 to 3 years after treatment. However, the long-term benefits of lake alum treatment in most cases have not been determined. In this study, three Wisconsin lakes treated 9 to 12 years previously were re-examined in 1982

  3. Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term: Overview August 28, 2007

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term: Overview 277 August 28, 2007 SECTION 4, MANAGING ASTHMA LONG is to control asthma by (Evidence A): -- Reducing impairment Prevent chronic and troublesome symptoms (e) Meet patients' and families' expectations of and satisfaction with asthma care -- Reducing risk

  4. MMS 93-0048 Long-term Assessment

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    OCS Study MMS 93-0048 Long-term Assessment of the Oil Spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama Synthesis.S. Department of the Interior Minerals I~~anagement Service Gulf of Mexico OCS Region #12;OCS Study MMS 93J Prepared under MMS Contract 14-12-0001-30393 by Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Box 2072 Balboa

  5. MMS 93-0048 Long-term Assessment

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    OCS Study MMS 93-0048 Long-term Assessment of the Oil Spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama Synthesis Service Gulf of Mexico OCS Region #12;OCS Study MMS 93-0048 bong-term Assessment of the Oil Spill at Bahia B.C. Jackson Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute I Prepared under MMS Contract 14

  6. Experiences of the Long Term Stability at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, F. Q. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH 5234 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2007-01-19

    The long term stability on the scale from days to a year, besides the short term stability, is one of key performance indicators of a light source. The Swiss Light Source (SLS) was installed and commissioned in 2000. It has successfully worked for more than 5 years without re-alignment of the machine. Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) and Horizontal Position System (HPS) have been added at supports of the storage ring (48 girders). They made evidence that the position of SLS Storage Ring (SR) is very stable on the time scale of a day, a week, a month and a year. The evidence for the long term stability is also provided by frequency of the RF cavity. The HLS is a powerful tool. The analysis of the HLS data shows that the vertical displacements, which are adjusted to correct average orbit deviations, of the SLS storage ring foundation and of the girder supports were in the range of 0.15 mm in 2003. The site, the building foundation, the mechanical supports and the temperature control are important pre-conditions to get the good long term stability. The experience gained with the long term stability at SLS is presented.

  7. Uncovering Camouflage: Amygdala Activation Predicts Long-Term Memory

    E-print Network

    Rubin, Nava

    Neuron Article Uncovering Camouflage: Amygdala Activation Predicts Long-Term Memory of Induced (``camouflage''), followed by brief exposures to the original images (``solution''), which led to induced as ``remembered'' if detailed perceptual knowledge was elicited from the camouflage image alone. During encoding

  8. EVOLUTION ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR LONG-TERM DISASTER REDUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GANGYI CHEN; YI LIN; BAILIN OUYANG; LIUQING XU

    In this paper, we study the long-term technology of the theory system of urban disaster reduction and prevention of floods, caused by suddenly appearing torrential rains. Our results indicate that based on the concept of secondary circulations, by establishing urban artificial lakes, a high capability of flood prevention system can be materialized with very low costs, and this system also

  9. Factors Behind Low Long-Term Interest Rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudiger Ahrend; Pietro Catte; Robert Price

    2006-01-01

    Long-term bond yields have been low in recent years both in nominal and real terms, and . especially in the United States - they have reacted differently to shifts in monetary and fiscal stances relative to previous cycles. This article examines various possible explanations for this behaviour, such as the effects of changes in monetary policy frameworks on inflation and

  10. Long-Term Parental Illness and Children: Perils and Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Mona; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses effects of long-term parental illness, focusing on effects on children. Describes effects on family homeostasis and family coping mechanisms. Discusses school counselor's role in bringing about a more balanced viewpoint of power and sharing within the family. Recommends establishing a strong therapeutic bond, assessing what the child is…

  11. Long-term consequences of low birth weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEONARDO REYES; REYNALDO MAÑALICH

    2005-01-01

    Long-term consequences of low birth weight. There is accumulating evidence of the impact of low birth weight in adult age. Thus, the Barker theory and Brenner hypothesis gain more power. This article reviews and analyzes the evidence that supports the intrauterine origin of chronic noncommunicable diseases in adult age, particularly systemic arterial hypertension and chronic renal insufficiency. These are possibly

  12. Suicidal Behavior in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Nancy J.; Brant, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed administrators of 463 long-term care facilities concerning overt suicides and intentional life-threatening behaviors. Data revealed that White males were highest risk group. Refusal to eat, drink, or take medications were most common suicidal behaviors. Depression, loneliness, feelings of family rejection, and loss were significant…

  13. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  14. The long-term correlates of family foster care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl Buehler; John G. Orme; James Post; David A. Patterson

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine long-term correlates of experiencing family foster care sometime before the age of 19. Subjects for the study were selected from participants in the 1988 National Survey of Families and Households. Three groups were compared: 101 adults experiencing family foster care, 101 adults selected at random, and 101 adults matched to those experiencing

  15. A Conditioning Analysis of Infant Long-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the long-term retention of conditioned operant footkicks by three-month-old infants. Views a conditioning analysis as a logical means by which to bridge the gap between animal and adult human models of memory. (Author/RH)

  16. [Long-term cancer survivorship: definition and clinical implications].

    PubMed

    Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Muzzatti, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    Defining whether long-term cancer survivorship must be considered as a disease stage with its own characteristics, or as a condition ascribable to the state of health of the general population, has significant implications for the intervention proposals and the medical psychosocial rehabilitation. This issue is noteworthy also for the dimensions of this phenomenon and its subjective impact. PMID:22430751

  17. Long term survival and cure after childhood cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M M Hawkins

    1989-01-01

    Investigations of long term survival and evidence concerning cure among children surviving at least three years after most of the more common childhood cancers treated in Britain between 1960 and 1981 are reported. The results indicate striking improvements in survival beyond three years for many childhood tumours over this period. For most childhood tumours considered over 80% of those who

  18. RAPID COMMUNICATION Estradiol Enhances Long Term Potentiation in Hippocampal

    E-print Network

    Woolley, Catherine

    in vitro memory model (long-term potentiation, LTP) in aged (24­27 month) female targeted replacement mice, and that these measures were not affected by estra- diol. Vehicle-treated groups from both strains showed comparable LTP. Estradiol had no effect on LTP in apoE3-TR, but selectively increased LTP magnitude in apoE4-TR

  19. The Basics of Long-Term Debt Issuance and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Issuing long-term debt can be a complex, multifaceted process. Although the process varies by stare, typically the school business official and the district solicitor work with the financing ream, which includes a financial adviser, bond counsel, underwriter, raring agency, and possibly a bond insurance agent, paying agent, and architect.…

  20. Driving Ability Under Long-Term Treatment with Transdermal Fentanyl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Sabatowski; Susanne Schwalen; Klaus Rettig; Klaus W Herberg; Stephan M Kasper; Lukas Radbruch

    2003-01-01

    Clinical experience shows that neuropsychological side effects due to opioid therapy usually decrease during the first weeks of therapy. However, the effect of long-term treatment with transdermal fentanyl on complex activities, such as driving, is not yet clear. In a prospective trial, patients with continuous noncancer pain, who had received stable doses of transdermal fentanyl for at least 2 weeks,

  1. Long Term Effects of Breastfeeding on the Infant and Mother

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lene Schack-Nielsen; Anni Larnkjær; Kim Fleischer Michaelsen

    There is increasing evidence that breastfeeding has long term beneficial effects on the infant. The most important are improved\\u000a cognitive development, reduced incidence of immune related diseases (e.g. Type-1 diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease),\\u000a and childhood cancers. A reduced risk of breast cancer in the mother is another important benefit.

  2. Long-term cosmogenic 3 He production rates

    E-print Network

    Zreda, Marek

    Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: cosmogenic elements; helium; production; rates; magnetic ¢eldLong-term cosmogenic 3 He production rates (152 ka^1.35 Ma) from 40 Ar/39 Ar dated basalt £ows production rates in olivines for the last 1.35 Ma are presented. We investigated three basaltic lava flow

  3. Long term integration error of KS regularized orbital motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Arakida; T. Fukushima

    2001-01-01

    Long term integrations of highly eccentric orbits are necessary to study the orbital evolution of comets and some minor planets. We confirmed that the positional error of a perturbed two body problem expressed in the KS variable is proportional to the fictitious time s, which is the independent variable in the KS transformation. This property does not depend on the

  4. Long-Term Trends Derived from Satellite PMC Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Deland

    2003-01-01

    The recent availability of long-term PMC data sets from satellites provides the opportunity to evaluate possible PMC trends over the past few decades. Satellite PMC data have daily coverage to characterize seasonal variations, sufficient detections for each season to give good statistics, quantitative information for physical analysis, and coverage of both hemispheres to evaluate global behavior. Multiple PMC data sets

  5. Long term orbital debris environment sensitivity to spacecraft breakup parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Al Reinhardt; William Borer; Kenneth Yates

    1993-01-01

    The long term prediction of the orbital debris environment depends fundamentally on the dynamics of spacecraft breakups. These processes provide the numbers, initial velocities, positions, and ballistic coefficients for newly formed debris fragments. Efforts are ongoing to model satellite breakup phenomenon using a variety of models with varying degrees of complexity. This paper provides a comparison of four of the

  6. Claviculectomy for subclavian venous repair: Long-term functional results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Green; David Waldman; Kenneth Ouriel; Patrick Riggs; James A. DeWeese

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term functional results after medial claviculectomy and venous patch angioplasty or bypass grafting using internal jugular vein after incomplete thrombolysis of effort thrombosis of the subclavian vein. Methods: The records of 11 patients with effort thrombosis who were treated over the past 9 years were reviewed. Patients have been followed

  7. long-term Collaborators: Y. Ageon (Insight Finance, France)

    E-print Network

    long-term Collaborators: Y. Ageon (Insight Finance, France) J. Andersen (CNRS, France) D. Darcet) Princeton University Press (2003) KINGS and PREDICTION Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich, Switzerland Member of the Swiss Finance Institute co-founder of the Competence Center

  8. Long Term Treatment Concepts and Proactive Therapy for Atopic Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Ehmann, Laura Maximiliane

    2012-01-01

    Atopic eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a frequent, highly pruritic, chronic skin disease, which is typically running in flares. The traditional treatment mainly consists of the reactive application of topical anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors. The short term benefit of this approach is well known, but long term remission between flares is difficult to achieve. Therefore, innovative long-term treatment strategies targeting flare prevention and skin barrier stabilization are needed. We and others have shown that normal looking, non-lesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients is immunobiologially not normal but characterized by an invisible inflammation and barrier defect. This has led to the novel concept of proactive therapy, which is defined as long-term, low-dose intermittent application of anti-inflammatory therapy to the previously affected skin, together with an ongoing emollient treatment of unaffected skin. This review article describes the most important long-term treatment options for atopic dermatitis, which includes emollient therapy, the novel concept of proactive treatment, the different ultraviolet light modalities and a selection of systemic immunosuppressive drugs and biologics. Current trial data, licensed indications, off-label use and relevant side effects of the different treatment modalities are summarized. PMID:22879707

  9. Long-Term Teacher Effects on Pupils' Learning Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressoux, Pascal; Bianco, Maryse

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that a teacher has a substantial impact on how much pupils learn. However, research on the long-term effects of teachers is scarce, and the results obtained so far are inconsistent. Some studies have concluded that teacher effects are relatively permanent, while others claim that they fade away more or less rapidly…

  10. Long-term working memory in voice identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eitan Eladd; Sima Segev; Yishai Tobin

    1998-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of long-term working memory in voice identification. For this purpose, a mock theft design was used and three groups: voice identification experts, totally blind people and a control group of sighted listeners without any special training or experience in voice identification, were compared for their voice identification efficiency.Results revealed that the professional voice identification

  11. The Long-Term Impact of Interactive Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, John

    1991-01-01

    Follow-up interviews with 79 adults and children about 6 months after their visit to Launch Pad, the interactive center in London's Science Museum, provide evidence of long-term impact of the visit. Although most of the memories were episodic rather than semantic in nature, over one-quarter of the memories showed evidence that respondents…

  12. Strategic Asset Allocation: Portfolio Choice for Long-Term Investors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Y. Campbell; Luis M. Viceira

    2002-01-01

    Academic finance has had a remarkable impact on many financial services. Yet long-term investors have received curiously little guidance from academic financial economists. Mean-variance analysis, developed almost fifty years ago, has provided a basic paradigm for portfolio choice. This approach usefully emphasizes the ability of diversification to reduce risk, but it ignores several critically important factors. Most notably, the analysis

  13. ARGOS STRATEGY A decision support tool for the long term

    E-print Network

    , for example the deposition by weather onto external surfaces, or external doses to the human population concentrations of common food products, and the resulting ingestion dose of the affected population in the long term. Various radiological countermeasures are simulated in the STRATEGY model, and can be applied

  14. Neurobiological problems in long-term deep space flights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Vazquez

    1998-01-01

    Future missions in space may involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, subjecting astronauts to radiation hazards posed by solar flares and galactic cosmic rays, altered gravitation fields and physiological stress. Thus, it is critical to determine if there will be any reversible or irreversible, detrimental neurological effects from this prolonged exposure to space. A question of

  15. Long Term Activity Analysis in Surveillance Video Archives

    E-print Network

    Eskenazi, Maxine

    Long Term Activity Analysis in Surveillance Video Archives Ming-yu Chen CMU-LTI-10-015 September 12 Ming-yu Chen #12;Keywords: Activity Analysis, Surveillance Video, Computational Perception #12;For my parents, Mong-fu Chen and Yuan-ling Yu. #12;iv #12;Abstract Surveillance video recording is becoming

  16. Long term management practices influenced soil aggregation and carbon dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil aggregation protects soil organic C (SOC) against rapid decomposition, improves soil quality, and reduces soil erosion potential. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effects of long-term (21 yrs.) management practices on SOC, water stable aggregate (WSA), and aggregate-associated ...

  17. Europe's long-term climate target: A critical evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2007-01-01

    The European Commission as a whole and a number of its Member States individually have adopted a stringent long-term target for climate policy, namely that the global mean temperature should not rise more than 2 °C above pre-industrial times. This target is supported by rather thin arguments, based on inadequate methods, sloppy reasoning, and selective citation from a very narrow

  18. Long-Term Potentiation--A Decade of Progress?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Malenka; Roger A. Nicoll

    1999-01-01

    Long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is the leading experimental model for the synaptic changes that may underlie learning and memory. This review presents a current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this long-lasting increase in synaptic strength and describes a simple model that unifies much of the data that previously were viewed as contradictory.

  19. Evolutionary Finance Simulation of Long Term Equity Portfolio Management System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent C S Lee; Ting Yean Tan; Terence Kwok

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of evolutionary finance to long-term equity portfolio management. Based on Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and the associated theory of natural selection, evolutionary finance offers a promising third paradigm after traditional finance and behavioural finance. From an evolutionary finance perspective, capital markets are made up by investors who use their portfolio strategies that interact

  20. Infection Control in the Long Term Care Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara

    This booklet is intended to increase the awareness of persons working in long-term care facilities regarding the danger of infectious disease and the ways in which it can be spread. Materials in this booklet include: (1) a brief discussion of historical events in the study of microorganisms; (2) information about how microorganisms cause infection…

  1. A long-term space policy for Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Creola

    1999-01-01

    This is an abridged and edited version of the second report of ESA's Long-Term Space Policy Committee, published in May 1999. Emphasizing the importance of space-based technologies to so many earthly activities, it argues that only greater European involvement in the field will ensure that the continent remains an autonomous and significant player in world affairs and illustrates this by

  2. Using Technology in Reggio-Inspired Long-Term Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepanier-Street, Mary L.; Hong, Seong B.; Bauer, Jennifer C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes examples of use of technology in the implementation and documentation of long-term projects conducted as a part of the Reggio Emilia preschool curriculum. Considers use of digital camera, videotapes, and video prints; documentation of graphics with the computer scanner; use of computer software as a tool for representing ideas; and use…

  3. Antenatal oligohydramnios of renal origin: long-term outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilka Klaassen; Thomas J. Neuhaus; Dirk E. Mueller-Wiefel; Markus J. Kemper

    Background. Prognosis of fetuses with renal oligohy- dramnios (ROH) is often still regarded as poor. Neonatal complications and the long-term follow-up of fetuses with ROH in two pediatric centres are described. Method. 23 fetuses (16 males, 7 females) were included as patients. Primary diseases included congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (n ¼ 16), autosomal recessive polycystic kidney

  4. The Australian Long Term Power Quality Survey project update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean Elphick; Vic Smith; Vic Gosbell; Robert Barr

    2010-01-01

    The Australian Long Term National Power Quality Survey (LTNPQS) is a large multi-utility power quality survey which has now been in operation for 8 years. This paper details the latest innovative developments in the reporting and analysis procedures developed for the LTNPQS. The paper also highlights the key power quality issues affecting Australian electricity networks at the present time. These

  5. Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia: Long-Term Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Audrey K., Ed.; Showacre, Jane, Ed.

    This book contains 16 papers from the 1974 conference held by the Pregnancy and Infancy Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to: (1) assess the photobiological processes involved in phototherapy used in treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and (2) to document long term clinical experience with the treatment…

  6. ON THE ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term experiments are commonly used tools in agronomy, soil science, and other disciplines for comparing the effects of different treatment regimes over an extended length of time. Periodic measurements, typically annual, are taken on experimental units and are often analyzed using customary to...

  7. Improving the Long-term Homogeneity in MERRA

    E-print Network

    Improving the Long-term Homogeneity in MERRA Reanalysis for Climate study Junye Chen1,2, Mike/MSFC/NASA #12;Like other reanalysis datasets, MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-analysis For Research of MERRA at the time before NOAA-15 ATOVS data is added, except that the new NOAA-15 data that comes along

  8. Long-term results of the lateral tunnel Fontan operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christof Stamm; Ingeborg Friehs; John E. Mayer; David Zurakowski; John K. Triedman; Adrian M. Moran; Edward P. Walsh; James E. Lock; Richard A. Jonas; Pedro J. del Nido

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: Completion of a total cavopulmonary anastomosis with an intra-atrial lateral tunnel is known to yield good early and midterm results. In this study, we sought to determine the long-term outcome (10 years) after a lateral tunnel Fontan procedure. Methods: Between October 1987 and December 1991, 220 patients (aged 11 months to 32 years) with a wide range of underlying

  9. The Long-term Rotational Behavior of Ceres and Vesta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiandan Wu; S. G. Alexander; N. P. Abel

    2007-01-01

    The DAWN mission which was launched in September of 2007 will visit both the dwarf planet Ceres and the asteroid Vesta. We have calculated the long-term (10 My) evolution of the obliquity of these two objects using a gravitational N-body simulation. For each object, we calculate the obliquity fluctuations for three cases: the first is with the entire solar system

  10. Environmental Factors in Suicide in Long Term-Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Nancy J.

    1992-01-01

    Explored environmental factors related to suicide in 463 long-term care facilities. Staff turnover, size, auspices, and per diem cost related to suicidal behavior and deaths from suicide. More suicides occurred in larger facilities and facilities with higher staff turnover. Religious or "other" facilities experienced more suicidal deaths than…

  11. The Sun's Role in Long-Term Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Hansen

    2000-01-01

    Evidence suggests that changes of solar irradiance in recent centuries have provided a significant climate forcing and that the sun has been one of the principal causes of long-term climate change. During the past two decades the solar forcing has been much smaller than the climate forcing caused by increasing greenhouse gases. But it is incorrect to assume that the

  12. Handover Performance in 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andras Racz; Andras Temesvary; Norbert Reider

    2007-01-01

    The specification of the long term evolution (LTE) of 3G systems is currently ongoing in 3GPP with a target date of ready specification at the end of 2007. The evolved radio access network (RAN) involves a new radio interface based on OFDM technology and a radically different RAN architecture, where radio functionality is distributed into the base stations. The distributed

  13. Horticultural Therapy in Residential Long-Term Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise K. Stein

    1997-01-01

    A sociocultural conceptual framework for the work of horticultural therapists provides a foundation for more effective and compassionate gardening programs for long-term care residents. Contemporary American health care emphasizes technical, biomedical approaches to most problems related to aging, chronic illness and frailty. However, evidence from qualitative research, personal narratives about life in a nursing home and observations from the author's

  14. GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial

    E-print Network

    Todorov, Alex

    GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial Beyond its objective basis in natural science, understanding, discussion, and res- olution of the policy issue labeled "global warming the global warming problem. In public discussion, natu- ral scientists tend to frame the issue through

  15. Understanding the long-term effects of species invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Strayer; Valerie T. Eviner; Jonathan M. Jeschke; Michael L. Pace

    2006-01-01

    We describe here the ecological and evolutionary processes that modulate the effects of invasive species over time, and argue that such processes are so widespread and important that ecologists should adopt a long-term perspective on the effects of invasive species. These processes (including evolution, shifts in species composition, accumulation of materials and interactions with abiotic variables) can increase, decrease, or

  16. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  17. Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximately 10% and remained at approximately that level throughout follow-up. The proportion meeting criteria for remission (Hamilton Depression score of 7 or less) rose gradually to approximately 45%. Long-term prognosis (i.e. probability of remission at 6 months and beyond) was strongly related to remission status at 3 months (odds ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.81-4.76) and only modestly related to various clinical characteristics assessed at baseline (e.g. prior history of recurrent depression, medical comorbidity, comorbid anxiety symptoms). The findings indicate that potentially modifiable risk factors influence the long-term prognosis of depression. This suggests that more systematic and effective depression treatment programmes might have an important effect on long-term course and reduce the overall burden of chronic and recurrent depression. PMID:10885162

  18. Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

  19. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE AND LIFETIME PREDICTION OF GEOSYNTHETICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. G. Hsuan; H. F. Schroeder; K. Rowe; W. Müller; D. Cazzuffi; R. M. Koerner

    To properly understand and assess the long-term behaviour of geosynthetic materials it is necessary to investigate the various types of possible degradation mechanims. This includes both chemical and mechanical behaviour, and sometimes even their interactions with one another. Clearly, chemical degradation of geosynthetics depends on the polymer type. For example, polyolefins are vulnerable to oxidation; polyesters are susceptible to hydrolysis;

  20. Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Simon

    2000-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The