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1

Oral l-Arginine Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion to Improve Glucose Tolerance in Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Pharmacological and surgical interventions that increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) action are effective to improve glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In light of this, nutritional strategies to enhance postprandial GLP-1 secretion, particularly in the context of diet-induced obesity, may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. Importantly, recent evidence suggests the amino acid l-arginine, a well-known insulin secretagogue, can also stimulate release of GLP-1 from isolated rat intestine. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral l-arginine acts as a GLP-1 secretagogue in vivo, to augment postprandial insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance. To test this, we administered l-arginine or vehicle by oral gavage, immediately prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in lean and diet-induced obese mice. In both lean and obese mice oral l-arginine increased plasma GLP-1 and insulin and substantially improved glucose clearance. To directly assess the contribution of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-signaling to these improvements, l-arginine was given to Glp1r knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. In this experiment oral l-arginine significantly augmented insulin secretion and improved glucose clearance in WT mice, but not in Glp1r knockout littermates. Taken together these findings identify l-arginine as a GLP-1 secretagogue in vivo and demonstrate that improvement of glucose tolerance by oral l-arginine depends on GLP-1R-signaling. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that l-arginine-based nutritional and/or pharmaceutical therapies may benefit glucose tolerance by improving the postprandial GLP-1 response in obese individuals. PMID:23959939

Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P.; Woods, Stephen C.; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Seeley, Randy J.; D'Alessio, David A.

2013-01-01

2

Long term exposure to L-arginine accelerates endothelial cell senescence through arginase-II and S6K1 signaling.  

PubMed

L-arginine supplementation is proposed to improve health status or as adjunct therapy for diseases including cardiovascular diseases. However, controversial results and even detrimental effects of L-arginine supplementation are reported. We investigate potential mechanisms of L-arginine-induced detrimental effects on vascular endothelial cells. Human endothelial cells were exposed to a physiological (0.1 mmol/L) or pharmacological (0.5 mmol/L) concentration of L-arginine for 30 minutes (acute) or 7 days (chronic). The effects of L-arginine supplementation on endothelial senescence phenotype, i.e., levels of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, eNOS-uncoupling, arginase-II expression/activity, and mTORC1-S6K1 activity were analyzed. While acute L-arginine treatment enhances endothelial NO production accompanied with superoxide production and activation of S6K1 but no up-regulation of arginase-II, chronic L-arginine supplementation causes endothelial senescence, up-regulation of the adhesion molecule expression, and eNOS-uncoupling (decreased NO and enhanced superoxide production), which are associated with S6K1 activation and up-regulation of arginase-II. Silencing either S6K1 or arginase-II inhibits up-regulation/activation of each other, prevents endothelial dysfunction, adhesion molecule expression, and senescence under the chronic L-arginine supplementation condition. These results demonstrate that S6K1 and arginase-II form a positive circuit mediating the detrimental effects of chronic L-arginine supplementation on endothelial cells. PMID:24860943

Xiong, Yuyan; Fru, Michael Forbiteh; Yu, Yi; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong

2014-05-01

3

Orally administered L-arginine and glycine are highly effective against acid reflux esophagitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Reflux esophagitis is caused mainly by excessive exposure of the mucosa to gastric contents. In the present study, we examined the effect of several amino acids on acid reflux esophagitis in rats. Material/Methods After 18 h of fasting, acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating both the pylorus and the transitional region between the forestomach and the corpus under ether anesthesia, and the animals were killed 4 h later. The severity of esophagitis was reduced by the oral administration of omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, or pepstatin, a specific pepsin inhibitor. Results The development of esophageal lesions was dose-dependently prevented by L-arginine and glycine, given intragastrically (i.g.) after the ligation, with complete inhibition obtained at 250 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg, respectively, and these effects were not influenced by the prior s.c. administration of indomethacin or L-NAME. By contrast, both L-alanine and L-glutamine given i.g. after the ligation aggravated these lesions in a dose-dependent manner. These amino acids had no effect on acid secretion but increased the pH of the gastric contents to 1.8~2.3 due to their buffering action. Conclusions The results confirmed an essential role for acid and pepsin in the pathogenesis of acid reflux esophagitis in the rat model and further suggested that various amino acids affect the severity of esophagitis in different ways, due to yet unidentified mechanisms; L-alanine and L-glutamine exert a deleterious effect on the esophagitis, while L-arginine and glycine are highly protective, independent of endogenous prostaglandins and nitric oxide. PMID:22207112

Nagahama, Kenji; Nishio, Hikaru; Yamato, Masanori; Takeuchi, Koji

2012-01-01

4

Oral L-arginine supplementation impacts several reproductive parameters during the postpartum period in mares.  

PubMed

L-arginine is an amino acid which can alter pituitary function and increase blood flow to the reproductive tract. The objective was to determine the effect of supplementing 100g of L-arginine on plasma arginine concentrations, follicular dynamics and ovarian and uterine artery blood flow during the estrus that occurs subsequent to foaling. In Experiment 1, mares were fed 100g L-arginine for 1 day during the last 3 weeks of pregnancy and plasma samples taken for every hour for the first 4h and every other hour until 12h.L-arginine supplementation elevated plasma arginine concentrations from 1 to 8h post feeding; arginine peaked at 6h (arginine: 515±33?mol/L; control: 80±33?mol/L). In Experiment 2, mares received either 100g L-arginine or control diets beginning 21 d before the expected foaling date and continued for 30 d postpartum. The reproductive tract was evaluated by transrectal Doppler ultrasonography from Day 1 postpartum through Day 30. There were no differences in ovarian follicular dynamics, ovarian or uterine resistance indices between groups. Vascular perfusion of the F1 follicular wall was greater in L-arginine supplemented mares (37.3±2.6%) than controls (25.4±2.7%; P<0.05). L-arginine supplemented mares had a smaller uterine body and horns and accumulated less uterine fluid than controls (P<0.05). The combination of reducing uterine fluid accumulation, while not altering follicular development, raises the possible use of L-arginine supplementation as a breeding management tool during the postpartum period to increase reproductive success. PMID:23523236

Kelley, Dale E; Warren, Lori K; Mortensen, Christopher J

2013-05-01

5

Orally supplemented l-arginine impairs amino acid absorption depending on dose in horses.  

PubMed

The beneficial effect of l-arginine (l-Arg) supplementation, on the physiology of several species, has generated an interest in the use of l-Arg as a nutraceutical in horses, but dosage and absorption of orally supplemented l-Arg must be inferred from other species. The study objective was to determine the effect of 2 oral l-Arg doses on plasma arginine concentrations and the effect on absorption of other amino acids in mares. In Experiment 1, mares were blocked by age and breed and were fed l-Arg supplemented (supplemented with 0.025% BW l-Arg; n = 6) or control (no supplement; n = 6) concentrate on a single day with blood samples taken at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h relative to feeding. In Experiment 2, mares (n = 6) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with l-Arg (0.0125% of BW), urea (0.0087% of BW), and control (no supplement) fed mixed into a grain concentrate as single meal with blood samples taken at 0, 1,2, 4, 6, 8,10, and 12 h relative to feeding. In Experiment 1, l-Arg supplementation increased (P < 0.05) plasma l-Arg and ornthine concentrations and decreased (P < 0.05) lysine and methionine concentrations compared with the control group. At 1 h post feeding, l-Arg mares had lower (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of histidine, glutamic acid, proline, isoleucine, threonine, phenylalanine, leucine, valine, alanine, and taurine. In Experiment 2, l-Arg supplementation increased (P < 0.05) arginine and ornithine concentrations compared with urea and control; there was no difference among other amino acids. These experiments indicate that l-Argis absorbed and, dependent on the dose, alters the absorption of other amino acids in mares. PMID:25403187

Kelley, D E; Warren, L K; Mortensen, C J

2014-12-01

6

The influence of oral L-arginine on fracture healing: an animal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The known biological activities of nitric oxide suggest a role in bone healing. We hypothesized that L-arginine, a source of nitric oxide, expedites the healing process of stabilized diaphyseal defects. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective blinded animal study. METHODS: Using a guinea-pig model, a 7 mm diaphyseal and periosteal defect was produced in the right femur and splinted intramedullary with a

Richard K. Kdolsky; Wolfgang Mohr; Helga Savidis-Dacho; Rudolf Beer; Stefan Puig; Roland Reihsner; Stefan Tangl; Karl Donath

2005-01-01

7

Giant Osteoclast Formation and Long-Term Oral Bisphosphonate Therapy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Bisphosphonates decrease bone resorption and are commonly used to treat or prevent osteoporosis. However, the effect of bisphosphonates on their target cells remains enigmatic, since in patients benefiting from therapy, little change, if any, has been observed in the number of osteoclasts, which are the cells responsible for bone resorption. METHODS We examined 51 bone-biopsy specimens obtained after a 3-year, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of oral alendronate to prevent bone resorption among healthy postmenopausal women 40 through 59 years of age. The patients were assigned to one of five groups: those receiving placebo for 3 years; alendronate at a dose of 1, 5, or 10 mg per day for 3 years; or alendronate at a dose of 20 mg per day for 2 years, followed by placebo for 1 year. Formalin-fixed, undecalcified planar sections were assessed by bone histomorphometric methods. RESULTS The number of osteoclasts was increased by a factor of 2.6 in patients receiving 10 mg of alendronate per day for 3 years as compared with the placebo group (P<0.01). Moreover, the number of osteoclasts increased as the cumulative dose of the drug increased (r = 0.50, P<0.001). Twenty-seven percent of these osteoclasts were giant cells with pyknotic nuclei that were adjacent to superficial resorption cavities. Furthermore, giant, hypernucleated, detached osteoclasts with 20 to 40 nuclei were found after alendronate treatment had been discontinued for 1 year. Of these large cells, 20 to 37% were apoptotic, according to both their morphologic features and positive findings from in situ end labeling. CONCLUSIONS Long-term alendronate treatment is associated with an increase in the number of osteoclasts, which include distinctive giant, hypernucleated, detached osteoclasts that are undergoing protracted apoptosis. PMID:19118304

Weinstein, Robert S.; Roberson, Paula K.; Manolagas, Stavros C.

2010-01-01

8

Antihypertensive Effect of Long-Term Oral Administration of Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) Collagen Peptides on  

E-print Network

Abstract: Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides (JCP) on renovascular hypertension rats (RVHs) was evaluated. The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the RVHs were significantly reduced with administration of JCP (p blood pressure of normal rats showed no significant changes during long-term oral treatment with high dose JCP (p> 0.05). Furthermore, effect of JCP on angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration of plasma had no significance (p> 0.05), but JCP significantly inhibited the Ang II concentration in RVHs ’ kidney (p < 0.05). The kidney should be the target site of JCP.

Renovascular Hypertension; Yongliang Zhuang; Liping Sun; Yufeng Zhang; Gaoxiang Liu

2012-01-01

9

Localized periodontitis as a long-term effect of oral piercing: a case report.  

PubMed

Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the number of published articles on short-term complications of oral piercing, possibly reflecting an increase in the popularity of this practice. Long-term effects of oral piercing, however, have had minimal documentation. This case report of a 28-year-old woman with piercing of the tongue and lower lip demonstrated localized severe periodontitis as a destructive long-term outcome related to oral piercing. The patient reported that she had worn 2 tongue rings and a mandibular labrette (lip piercing) in the form of a bar for 12 years. Plaque and calculus accumulation, severe inflammation, tooth mobility, severe horizontal radiographic bone loss, and deep pocketing were observed in teeth affected by the jewelry. PMID:16454012

Berenguer, Gaston; Forrest, Andrew; Horning, Gregory M; Towle, Herbert J; Karpinia, Katherine

2006-01-01

10

Long-Term Safety of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate for Breakthrough Cancer Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This open-label study evaluated the long-term safety and tolerability of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) in ambulatory cancer patients with breakthrough pain undergoing cancer care at 32 university- or community-based practices. Patients had participated in a previous short-term titration trial of OTFC, were experiencing at least one episode per day of breakthrough pain, and had achieved relief of their breakthrough

Richard Payne; Paul Coluzzi; Lowell Hart; Mary Simmonds; Alan Lyss; Richard Rauck; Robert Berris; Michael A Busch; Earl Nordbrook; Diane B Loseth; Russell K Portenoy

2001-01-01

11

[Management of major bleeding complications in patients on long-term treatment with oral anticoagulants].  

PubMed

The new direct oral anticoagulants directly targeting thrombin (factor IIa) or factor-Xa, are currently used for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (rivaroxaban, Xarelto) or for the prevention of systemic embolism in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (rivaroxaban; dabigatran, Pradaxa; Apixaban, Eliquis). Given their ease of use, it is expected that these drugs would be widely used in such long-term indications. Beyond their effectiveness, these treatments remain anticoagulant drugs, potentially responsible for bleeding complications, and specific measures should be defined in case of occurrence of such complications. PMID:24624626

Pernod, Gilles

2014-02-01

12

Dental caries, gingival health, and oral hygiene of long term survivors of paediatric malignant diseases.  

PubMed Central

Fifty two children who had had cancer and been treated with chemotherapy, and who were long term event free, were examined for caries prevalence, gingival health, and oral hygiene and compared with a control group. A higher dental caries prevalence for the 14-17 year age group was noted. The restorative index was significantly lower in the age group 10-13. There were no significant differences in gingival index, plaque index, or toothbrushing frequency. It is concluded that these patients should be considered as at high risk for caries after cancer treatment. Professional dental follow up should be integrated in the medical follow up. PMID:7702374

Dens, F; Boute, P; Otten, J; Vinckier, F; Declerck, D

1995-01-01

13

Long-term follow-up of children breast-fed by mothers using oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

In a long-term follow-up study 48 breast-fed children, whose mothers had used oral contraceptives containing 50 micrograms of ethinylestradiol while lactating, were compared to a matched control group whose mothers had not used any hormonal contraceptives during lactation. In spite of a very large number of data collected from several different sources of information, no effect could be demonstrated of the ingested steroid, neither upon the panorama of diseases nor upon intellectual or psychological behaviour of the infants and children up to 8 years of age. The mothers who used oral contraceptives lactated a significantly shorter period of time than the controls, but no differences were found in weight gain and height increase in the children between cases and controls. PMID:3816229

Nilsson, S; Mellbin, T; Hofvander, Y; Sundelin, C; Valentin, J; Nygren, K G

1986-11-01

14

Oral health status among long-term hospitalized adults: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background. Many Long-Term Care (LTC) institutionalized patients are the most frail and functionally dependent among the geriatric population and have significant oral health disparities.They often suffer from dental neglect due to limited access to appropriate professional dental care. These patients have chronic health situations and are treated with medications, which increase their risk of oral diseases. Despite the growth in elderly population in Israel, there is insufficient data regarding their oral health status and treatment needs. Objective. To describe the oral health status of the LTC hospitalized adults in a geriatric and psychiatric hospital in Israel. Methods. Data was recorded from LTC hospitalized adults with a physical and/or mental disabilities in a cross-sectional research design, which included general health anamnesis and clinical oral examination. Variables included gender, medicines, oral hygiene (OH), using dentures, number of caries lesions and residual teeth. Univariate analyses included Pearson ?2 and t-test analyses. Multivariate analyses included logistic and linear regressions while the outcome variables were categorical OH index and number of carious cavitations, number of residual teeth and carious teeth percentage. Results. 153 participants were included in the study with a mean age of 65.03 ± 18.67 years. 31.3% of the patients were edentulous, and only 14% had partial or full dentures. Females had a significantly higher number of caries cavitation than males (P = 0.044). The number of caries cavitation was higher among patients with poor OH (P < 0.001) and when taking Clonazepam (P = 0.018). Number of residual teeth was higher in the fair OH group (P < 0.001). Carious teeth percentage was higher among the poor OH group (P < 0.001). PMID:24949240

Yavnai, Nirit; Zini, Avi

2014-01-01

15

Oral health status among long-term hospitalized adults: a cross sectional study.  

PubMed

Background. Many Long-Term Care (LTC) institutionalized patients are the most frail and functionally dependent among the geriatric population and have significant oral health disparities.They often suffer from dental neglect due to limited access to appropriate professional dental care. These patients have chronic health situations and are treated with medications, which increase their risk of oral diseases. Despite the growth in elderly population in Israel, there is insufficient data regarding their oral health status and treatment needs. Objective. To describe the oral health status of the LTC hospitalized adults in a geriatric and psychiatric hospital in Israel. Methods. Data was recorded from LTC hospitalized adults with a physical and/or mental disabilities in a cross-sectional research design, which included general health anamnesis and clinical oral examination. Variables included gender, medicines, oral hygiene (OH), using dentures, number of caries lesions and residual teeth. Univariate analyses included Pearson ? (2) and t-test analyses. Multivariate analyses included logistic and linear regressions while the outcome variables were categorical OH index and number of carious cavitations, number of residual teeth and carious teeth percentage. Results. 153 participants were included in the study with a mean age of 65.03 ± 18.67 years. 31.3% of the patients were edentulous, and only 14% had partial or full dentures. Females had a significantly higher number of caries cavitation than males (P = 0.044). The number of caries cavitation was higher among patients with poor OH (P < 0.001) and when taking Clonazepam (P = 0.018). Number of residual teeth was higher in the fair OH group (P < 0.001). Carious teeth percentage was higher among the poor OH group (P < 0.001). PMID:24949240

Bilder, Leon; Yavnai, Nirit; Zini, Avi

2014-01-01

16

Influence of temperature on long-term keratin immunoreactivity for oral exfoliative cytology.  

PubMed

We previously showed that keratin profiles can be of value in the diagnosis of oral cancer when using exfoliative cytology. In the future, they may form part of a screening program for oral cancer. This study evaluated the influence of long-term storage on keratin expression. Smears were collected from the clinically normal buccal mucosa and dorsal tongue of 22 patients. Half were stored in a refrigerator (5 degrees C) and half in a freezer (-70 degrees C). A total of 528 smears were collected. A panel of three antikeratin antibodies (LP34, AE8 and 1C7) was used to identify the preservation of keratin expression (graded as absent, few cells positive or many cells positive). The results for smears from dorsal tongue indicated that many cells were impermeable by the antikeratin antibodies. However, a satisfactory level of keratin immunoreactivity was observed in smears from buccal mucosa stored at -70 degrees C for over one year. Results for storage at 5 degrees C for both sites were inadequate after one month. Thus, smears from nonkeratinized oral sites may be stored at -70 degrees C for at least one year without a profound loss of keratin immunoreactivity, thus allowing examination of archival material. PMID:7539269

Ogden, G R; Chisholm, D M; Green, M; Cowpe, J G; Lane, E B

1995-02-01

17

Long-term stability, biocompatibility and oral delivery potential of risperidone-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) formulation to improve the oral delivery of risperidone (RISP), a poorly water-soluble drug, was designed and tested. Initially, lipid-RISP solubility was screened to select the best lipid for SLN preparation. Compritol(®)-based formulations were chosen and their long-term stability was assessed over two years of storage (at 25 °C and 4 °C) by means of particle size, polydispersity index (PI), zeta potential (ZP) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) measurements. SLN shape was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at the beginning and end of the study. The oxidative potential (OP) of the SLN was measured and their biocompatibility with Caco-2 cells was evaluated using the (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-dyphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In vitro drug release and transport studies were performed to predict the in vivo release profile and to evaluate the drug delivery potential of the SLN formulations, respectively. The RISP-loaded SLN systems were stable and had high EE and similar shape to the placebo formulations before and after storage. Classical Fickian diffusion was identified as the release mechanism for RISP from the SLN formulation. Biocompatibility and dose-dependent RISP transport across Caco-2 cells were observed for the prepared SLN formulations. The viability of SLN as formulations for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs such as RISP was illustrated. PMID:22867992

Silva, A C; Kumar, A; Wild, W; Ferreira, D; Santos, D; Forbes, B

2012-10-15

18

Long-term survival in metastatic malignant struma ovarii treated with oral chemotherapy: A case report.  

PubMed

Malignant struma ovarii is a rare type of ovarian tumor. Metastasis from malignant struma ovarii is rare and has only been documented in 5-6% of cases. The natural history and optimal treatment strategy for malignant struma ovarii remains controversial due to its rarity. The current report presents the case of a 45-year-old female who presented with a tumor of the rib bone. Following resection, the postoperative diagnosis was a metastasizing thyroid carcinoma. No abnormality was detected in the thyroid gland, however, computed tomography revealed a tumor in the left ovary. The patient underwent a left salpingo-oophorectomy and a wedge resection of the right ovary. The postoperative diagnosis was determined as a mature cystic teratoma with malignant struma ovarii (thyroid type, follicular carcinoma) of the left ovary and mature cystic teratoma of the right ovary. Four years subsequent to the initial diagnosis, multiple lung metastases were detected. The following chemotherapies were administered sequentially and intermittently: Tegafur-uracil, paclitaxel/carboplatin and oral etoposide. During this period, the metastatic lesions extended into the bone and progressed slowly. The patient continues to survive with the disease and 24 years have passed since the initial diagnosis, 20 years following the diagnosis of multiple lung metastates. The present report describes a rare case of malignant struma ovarii in which surgical resection and pathological examination of a metastatic rib tumor resulted in the identification of the primary ovarian lesion. The clinical behavior of malignant struma ovarii does not necessarily indicate a histological malignancy, therefore, prediction of future metastasis is difficult and the optimal treatment strategy for malignant struma ovarii is controversial. The present case indicates that the long-term use of oral anticancer agents may facilitate the maintenance of tumor dormancy. PMID:25364407

Ukita, Masayo; Nakai, Hidekatsu; Kotani, Yasushi; Tobiume, Takako; Koike, Eiji; Tsuji, Isao; Suzuki, Ayako; Mandai, Masaki

2014-12-01

19

Long-term survival in metastatic malignant struma ovarii treated with oral chemotherapy: A case report  

PubMed Central

Malignant struma ovarii is a rare type of ovarian tumor. Metastasis from malignant struma ovarii is rare and has only been documented in 5–6% of cases. The natural history and optimal treatment strategy for malignant struma ovarii remains controversial due to its rarity. The current report presents the case of a 45-year-old female who presented with a tumor of the rib bone. Following resection, the postoperative diagnosis was a metastasizing thyroid carcinoma. No abnormality was detected in the thyroid gland, however, computed tomography revealed a tumor in the left ovary. The patient underwent a left salpingo-oophorectomy and a wedge resection of the right ovary. The postoperative diagnosis was determined as a mature cystic teratoma with malignant struma ovarii (thyroid type, follicular carcinoma) of the left ovary and mature cystic teratoma of the right ovary. Four years subsequent to the initial diagnosis, multiple lung metastases were detected. The following chemotherapies were administered sequentially and intermittently: Tegafur-uracil, paclitaxel/carboplatin and oral etoposide. During this period, the metastatic lesions extended into the bone and progressed slowly. The patient continues to survive with the disease and 24 years have passed since the initial diagnosis, 20 years following the diagnosis of multiple lung metastates. The present report describes a rare case of malignant struma ovarii in which surgical resection and pathological examination of a metastatic rib tumor resulted in the identification of the primary ovarian lesion. The clinical behavior of malignant struma ovarii does not necessarily indicate a histological malignancy, therefore, prediction of future metastasis is difficult and the optimal treatment strategy for malignant struma ovarii is controversial. The present case indicates that the long-term use of oral anticancer agents may facilitate the maintenance of tumor dormancy. PMID:25364407

UKITA, MASAYO; NAKAI, HIDEKATSU; KOTANI, YASUSHI; TOBIUME, TAKAKO; KOIKE, EIJI; TSUJI, ISAO; SUZUKI, AYAKO; MANDAI, MASAKI

2014-01-01

20

ORAL TOXICITY OF 1,3-DICHLOROPROPANE: ACUTE, SHORT-TERM, AND LONG-TERM STUDIES IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this investigation was to characterize the acute and short- and long-term toxic potency of orally administered 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP). In the acute and short-term studies, male rats of 250-300 g were gavaged with 0, 100, 250, 500, or 1000 mg DCP/kg in corn oil...

21

Long-term studies on the stability and oral bioavailability of cyclosporine A nanoparticle colloid.  

PubMed

The present study was geared at the long-term stability and the changes in oral bioavailability of CyA Eudragit S100 nanoparticles stabilized by suspending agents. CyA Eudragit S100 nanoparticle colloids were prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion technique and they were mixed with Xanthan gum to obtain suspended nanoparticle colloids. The suspended nanoparticle colloids were preserved at different temperatures for different period of time, as long as 18 months. During the storage period, the CyA concentration, particle size, pH and viscosity were determined. The results indicated that CyA concentration, particle size and viscosity of the colloids had no obvious change. However, the pH increased slightly from 5.5 to about 6.4. The results of bioavailability and pharmacokinetic study revealed that all formulations of nanoparticles showed higher C(max) and higher AUC(0-24) values than that of reference (Neoral). The relative bioavailability of S-CyA-S100 NP initial compared with Neoral was 162.8%. The C(max) and AUC(0-24) values of nanoparticle formulations at 12 and 18 months were both lower than that of the initial. The bioequivalency was suggested between the tested nanoparticle formulations at the initial and 12 months. It was deduced by surface analysis, TEM observation, in vitro release as well as the characteristics of Eudragit S100 that the decrease in bioavailability might be due to the pH change of the nanoparticle colloid. PMID:16787721

Wang, Xue-qing; Huang, Jia; Dai, Jun-dong; Zhang, Tao; Lü, Wan-liang; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Jian-cheng; Zhang, Qiang

2006-09-28

22

Oral care for frail elders: knowledge, attitudes, and practices of long-term care staff.  

PubMed

The University of British Columbia Geriatric Dentistry Program (GDP) offers dental services and provides a comprehensive in-service education program for nursing and residential care-aide (RCA) staff in the provision of daily mouth care for elders in various long-term care (LTC) facilities in Vancouver. This study examined the general impact of the education initiative at one LTC site. A survey (N=90), semi-structured open-ended interviews (N=26), and product audits were conducted to 1) examine the impact of the GDP education initiative on the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of RCAs and nursing staff regarding the provision of daily mouth care; 2) identify the enablers and barriers that influenced the provision of daily mouth care practices, policies, and protocols using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model of health promotion research; and 3) assess the self-perceptions of RCAs and nursing staff members regarding their oral health. A knowledge gap was evident in some key areas pertaining to prevention of dental diseases. Twenty-five percent of residents were missing toothbrushes and toothpaste for daily mouth care. Residents who exhibit resistance to mouth care tended not to receive regular care, while issues such as time, increased workload, limited staff, and the lack of an accountability structure are disenabling factors for provision of daily mouth care. Results suggest that the impact of educational interventions is affected by the quality of in-service education, an absence of identified predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors, and a strong commitment among LTC staff to the provision of daily mouth care for frail elders. PMID:19433533

Dharamsi, Shafik; Jivani, Khairun; Dean, Charmaine; Wyatt, Chris

2009-05-01

23

Treatment of Peyronie's disease with oral colchicine: long?term results and predictive parameters of successful outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

As recent clinical and animal studies have indicated, colchicine, with its anti?fibrotic, anti?mitotic and anti?inflammatory activities, has suppressive effects in the pathogenesis of Peyronie's disease.Oral colchicine treatment was initiated in 60 Peyronie's patients during their acute phase (mean duration of disease: 5.7±4.3 months). Long?term results, based on changes of subjective and objective criteria, were assessed and predictive factors of successful

A Kadio?lu; A Tefekli; T Köksal; M Usta; H Erol

2000-01-01

24

Olfactory stimulation using black pepper oil facilitates oral feeding in pediatric patients receiving long-term enteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Patients with severe neurological disorders often require enteral nutrition (EN). Since long-term EN can cause multiple complications, reinstating the oral intake of food is beneficial. Olfactory stimulation using black pepper oil (BPO), a strong appetite stimulant, was reported to facilitate swallowing in older people. Therefore, the effects of olfactory stimulation with BPO were investigated in pediatric patients receiving long-term EN due to neurological disorders. The effects of scenting with BPO for 1 min immediately before every meal were evaluated in ten patients: 4 boys and 6 girls, aged 19-97 months (51 +/- 26 months). The neurological disorders included periventricular leukomalacia (3 patients), hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (3), Costello syndrome (1), Russell-Silver syndrome (1), Miller-Dieker syndrome (1), and cerebral palsy of unknown etiology (1). In eight of these patients, BPO intervention was continued for 3 months. Five of these eight patients showed increases in the amount of oral intake with desirable effects including facilitated swallowing movement, although complete elimination of the need for EN was not achieved. In the other three patients, BPO intervention was not effective; severe cerebral tissue loss, profound malformation or intractable seizures seemed to reduce the efficacy of BPO. In two cases, BPO intervention was discontinued due to cough or because the odor of BPO was unbearable to the family. In conclusion, olfactory stimulation with BPO facilitated oral intake in a subset of patients on long-term EN. BPO stimulation may be useful for facilitating oral intake when used in combination with conventional methods. PMID:18441508

Munakata, Mitsutoshi; Kobayashi, Kaori; Niisato-Nezu, Junko; Tanaka, Souichiro; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Ebihara, Takae; Ebihara, Satoru; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Onuma, Akira

2008-04-01

25

Long-Term Effects of Oral L-Carnitine Supplementation on Anemia in Chronic Hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Background The therapeutic role of L-carnitine (LC) on the anemia of chronic hemodialized patients is still controversial. In order to clarify the long-term effects of LC administration on renal anemia, an open, observational 12-month study was performed. Methods Twenty stable outpatients undergoing hemodialysis were administered LC 900 mg p.o. daily for 12 months. The recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) dose was adjusted monthly when necessary to maintain the target hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Results The free LC level increased, while the acyl/free LC ratio decreased significantly 3 months after administration and was then maintained until the end of the study. There was no difference in Hb levels and the erythropoietin resistance index (ERI) during the study period. However, it was observed that ERI decreased significantly in 7 out of 18 patients (responders) 5 months after LC administration and was maintained thereafter (almost 40% reduction of the rHuEPO dose). The acyl/free carnitine ratio at baseline was the most contributing factor distinguishing responders from nonresponders. Conclusion Although the beneficial effect of LC supplementation on renal anemia was not observed in all patients, at least 40% of the patients (responders) showed a significant improvement in ERI after long-term LC administration. PMID:24847334

Kudoh, Yasuo; Aoyama, Shinya; Torii, Takaaki; Chen, Qijie; Nagahara, Daigo; Sakata, Hiromi; Nozawa, Akihiko

2014-01-01

26

Age-related oxidative decline of mitochondrial functions in rat brain is prevented by long term oral antioxidant supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of antioxidants (N-acetyl cysteine, ?-lipoic acid, and ?-tocopherol) was selected for long term oral supplementation\\u000a study in rats for protective effects on age-related mitochondrial alterations in the brain. Four groups of rats were chosen:\\u000a young control (6–7 months); aged rats (22–24 months); aged rats (22–24 months) on daily antioxidant supplementation from 18 month\\u000a onwards and young rats (6–7 months) on daily antioxidant supplementation

Maria Bindu Bagh; Ishita Guha Thakurta; Mallika Biswas; Prajna Behera; Sasanka Chakrabarti

2011-01-01

27

Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial?mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL  

SciTech Connect

Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial?mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ? Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ? Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ? Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ? Si-Snail blocked xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells.

Yu, Cheng-Chia [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Chao, E-mail: cyc@csmu.edu.tw [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China) [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

2013-02-01

28

Safety and effectiveness of long-term therapy with the oral iron chelator deferiprone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of a safe, orally active iron chelator is critically important for the prevention of morbidity and early death in patients receiving regular red cell transfu- sions. Based on our findings in a 1-year multicenter, prospective study of the safety and efficacy of deferiprone in pa- tients with thalassemia major, we have extended the treatment period to 4 years.

Alan R. Cohen; Renzo Galanello; Antonio Piga; Vincenzo De Sanctis; Fernando Tricta

2003-01-01

29

Long-term oral sensitivity and feeding skills of low-risk pre-term infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the oral sensitivity and feeding skills of low-risk pre-term infants at 11–17 months corrected age. Twenty pre-term infants (PT) born between 32 and 37 weeks at birth without any medical comorbidities were assessed. All of this PT group received supplemental nasogastric (NG) tube feeds during their birth-stay in hospital. A matched control group of 10 healthy full-term

Pamela Dodrill; Sandra McMahon; Elizabeth Ward; Kelly Weir; Tim Donovan; Bena Riddle

2004-01-01

30

Long-Term Surgical Complications in the Oral Cancer Patient: a Comprehensive Review. Part II  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives Surgery remains the preferred treatment for the majority of oral cancers. The aim of the present article was to provide a comprehensive review of complications associated with surgical treatment of oral cancer including hardware failure; complications associated with choice of reconstruction, donor site morbidity as well as functional and aesthetic issues that impact on the quality of life. Material and Methods The available English language literature relevant to complications associated with surgical treatment of oral cancer was reviewed. Complications associated with potential for disfigurement, choice of reconstruction, donor site morbidity as well as functional and aesthetic issues that impact on the quality of life are summarized. Results In total 35 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The topics covered in the second part of this review series include hardware failure, scars and fistula formation; complications associated with choice of reconstruction, donor site morbidity as well as functional and aesthetic issues. Conclusions Cancer resection should be planned around two very important concepts. First and foremost is the eradication of disease. This should be the ultimate goal of the ablative team and all potential complications that may be the result of appropriately executed oncologic resection should be discussed in details with the patient. Adequate reconstruction of the defects with restoration of form and function is the second, but not of less importance, goal for the successful care of the head and neck cancer patient. PMID:24421972

2010-01-01

31

Resveratrol Based Oral Nutritional Supplement Produces Long-Term Beneficial Effects on Structure and Visual Function in Human Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Longevinex® (L/RV) is a low dose hormetic over-the-counter (OTC) oral resveratrol (RV) based matrix of red wine solids, vitamin D3 and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) with established bioavailability, safety, and short-term efficacy against the earliest signs of human atherosclerosis, murine cardiac reperfusion injury, clinical retinal neovascularization, and stem cell survival. We previously reported our short-term findings for dry and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. Today we report long term (two to three year) clinical efficacy. Methods: We treated three patients including a patient with an AMD treatment resistant variant (polypoidal retinal vasculature disease). We evaluated two clinical measures of ocular structure (fundus autofluorescent imaging and spectral domain optical coherence extended depth choroidal imaging) and qualitatively appraised changes in macular pigment volume. We further evaluated three clinical measures of visual function (Snellen visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and glare recovery to a cone photo-stress stimulus). Results: We observed broad bilateral improvements in ocular structure and function over a long time period, opposite to what might be expected due to aging and the natural progression of the patient’s pathophysiology. No side effects were observed. Conclusions: These three cases demonstrate that application of epigenetics has long-term efficacy against AMD retinal disease, when the retinal specialist has exhausted other therapeutic modalities. PMID:25329968

Richer, Stuart; Patel, Shana; Sockanathan, Shivani; Ulanski, Lawrence J.; Miller, Luke; Podella, Carla

2014-01-01

32

Differential long-term outcomes for voluntary and involuntary transition from injection to oral opioid maintenance treatment  

PubMed Central

Background The most widely used maintenance treatment for opioid dependency is substitution with long-acting oral opioids. Treatment with injectable diacetylmorphine provides an opportunity for patients to stabilize and possibly transition to oral treatment, if clinically indicated. The aim of this study was to explore outcomes of individuals that received injectable diacetylmorphine and voluntarily transitioned to oral methadone. Design and methods The North American Opiate Medication Initiative was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effectiveness of injectable diacetylmorphine (or hydromorphone) to oral methadone for long-term opioid-dependency. Treatment was provided for 12-months with an additional 3 months for transition and weaning. Participants were followed until 24-months from randomization. Among the participants randomized to injectable treatments, a sub-group voluntarily chose to transition to oral methadone (n?=?16) during the treatment period. Illicit heroin use and treatment retention were assessed at 24-months for those voluntarily and involuntarily transitioning (n?=?95) to oral methadone. Results At 24-months, the group that voluntarily transitioned to oral methadone had higher odds of treatment retention (adjusted odds ratio?=?5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.11, 27.81; Chi-square?=?4.33, df?=?1, p-value?=?0.037) than the involuntary transition group. At 24-months, the adjusted mean difference in prior 30 days of illicit heroin use for the voluntary, compared to the involuntary group was -5.58 (95% CI?=?-11.62, 0.47; t-value?=?-1.83, df?=?97.4, p-value?=?0.070). Conclusions Although the results of this study were based on small groups of self-selected (i.e., non-randomized) participants, our data underlines the critical importance of voluntary and patient-centered decision making. If we had continued offering treatment with diacetylmorphine, those retained to injectable medication may have sustained the achieved improvements in the first 12 months. Diversified opioid treatment should be available so patients and physicians can flexibly choose the best treatment at the time. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration: NCT00175357 PMID:24908387

2014-01-01

33

Molecular analysis of the microbiota in hard feces from healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) medicated with long term oral meloxicam  

PubMed Central

Background Analgesia is often indicated in rabbits undergoing surgical procedures or suffering from various painful conditions and the most common adverse effects associated with NSAIDs occur in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The objective of this study was to determine the potential effect of long-term (21 days) meloxicam administration on the fecal bacterial microbiota in healthy rabbits. Samples of hard feces were collected from six rabbits treated with meloxicam (1 mg/kg orally once every 24 h) on days 0,6,14 and 21. Next generation sequencing of V4 16S rRNA gene products was performed. Results A total of 2589912 V4 rRNA gene sequences passed all quality control filters. Firmicutes predominated (82.0?±?6.2%). Sixteen other phyla were also identified but other than Verrucomicrobia (4.4?±?4.9%), all accounted for less than 1% of the identified sequences. Within Firmicutes, Clostridia was the dominant class, accounting for 76% of operational taxon units (OTUs). In general, there were only few differences observed between time points and different rabbits at the phylum level. A significant change was observed in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria over the 4 time points (P?=?0.02). Conclusions The gastrointestinal tract of rabbits harbors dense and diverse microbiota. Significant alteration of the hard fecal microbiota does not appear to be a considerable adverse effect expected in rabbits treated for 21 days with oral meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg. PMID:24618207

2014-01-01

34

Population Pharmacokinetic Model of THC Integrates Oral, Intravenous, and Pulmonary Dosing and Characterizes Short- and Long-term Pharmacokinetics.  

PubMed

?(9)-Tetrahydrocannobinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound of Cannabis, is known to have a long terminal half-life. However, this characteristic is often ignored in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of THC, which may affect the accuracy of predictions in different pharmacologic areas. For therapeutic use for example, it is important to accurately describe the terminal phase of THC to describe accumulation of the drug. In early clinical research, the THC challenge test can be optimized through more accurate predictions of the dosing sequence and the wash-out between occasions in a crossover setting, which is mainly determined by the terminal half-life of the compound. The purpose of this study is to better quantify the long-term pharmacokinetics of THC. A population-based PK model for THC was developed describing the profile up to 48 h after an oral, intravenous, and pulmonary dose of THC in humans. In contrast to earlier models, the current model integrates all three major administration routes and covers the long terminal phase of THC. Results show that THC has a fast initial and intermediate half-life, while the apparent terminal half-life is long (21.5 h), with a clearance of 38.8 L/h. Because the current model characterizes the long-term pharmacokinetics, it can be used to assess the accumulation of THC in a multiple-dose setting and to forecast concentration profiles of the drug under many different dosing regimens or administration routes. Additionally, this model could provide helpful insights into the THC challenge test used for the development of (novel) compounds targeting the cannabinoid system for different therapeutic applications and could improve decision making in future clinical trials. PMID:25316574

Heuberger, Jules A A C; Guan, Zheng; Oyetayo, Olubukayo-Opeyemi; Klumpers, Linda; Morrison, Paul D; Beumer, Tim L; van Gerven, Joop M A; Cohen, Adam F; Freijer, Jan

2015-02-01

35

Diminished L-arginine bioavailability in hypertension.  

PubMed

L-Arginine is the precursor of NO (nitric oxide), a key endogenous mediator involved in endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and platelet function. Although the concentration of intracellular L-arginine is well above the Km for NO synthesis, in many cells and pathological conditions the transport of L-arginine is essential for NO production (L-arginine paradox). The present study was designed to investigate the modulation of L-arginine/NO pathway in systemic arterial hypertension. Transport of L-arginine into RBCs (red blood cells) and platelets, NOS (NO synthase) activity and amino acid profiles in plasma were analysed in hypertensive patients and in an animal model of hypertension. Influx of L-arginine into RBCs was mediated by the cationic amino acid transport systems y+ and y+L, whereas, in platelets, influx was mediated only via system y+L. Chromatographic analyses revealed higher plasma levels of L-arginine in hypertensive patients (175+/-19 micromol/l) compared with control subjects (137+/-8 micromol/l). L-Arginine transport via system y+L, but not y+, was significantly reduced in RBCs from hypertensive patients (60+/-7 micromol.l(-1).cells(-1).h(-1); n=16) compared with controls (90+/-17 micromol.l(-1).cells(-1).h(-1); n=18). In human platelets, the Vmax for L-arginine transport via system y+L was 86+/-17 pmol.10(9) cells(-1).min(-1) in controls compared with 36+/-9 pmol.10(9) cells(-1).min(-1) in hypertensive patients (n=10; P<0.05). Basal NOS activity was decreased in platelets from hypertensive patients (0.12+/-0.02 pmol/10(8) cells; n=8) compared with controls (0.22+/-0.01 pmol/10(8) cells; n=8; P<0.05). Studies with spontaneously hypertensive rats demonstrated that transport of L-arginine via system y+L was also inhibited in RBCs. Our findings provide the first evidence that hypertension is associated with an inhibition of L-arginine transport via system y+L in both humans and animals, with reduced availability of L-arginine limiting NO synthesis in blood cells. PMID:15182236

Moss, Monique B; Brunini, Tatiana M C; Soares De Moura, Roberto; Novaes Malagris, Lúcia E; Roberts, Norman B; Ellory, J Clive; Mann, Giovanni E; Mendes Ribeiro, Antônio C

2004-10-01

36

Effect of L- Arginine On Electrocardiographic Changes Induced By Hypercholesterolemia And Isoproterenol In Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Hypercholesterolemia, a well-known cardiovascular risk factor, is associated with prolonged action potential duration, longer QTc intervals (rate controlled QT interval), suggested that Hypercholesterolemia may have a direct effect on ventricular repolarization. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits and L-arginine was given orally to animals for sixteen weeks. The isoproterenol was injected in all the animals to produce electrocardiographic changes. ECG was recorded in lead II at start of study, after hypercholesterolemic diet and/ or L-arginine supplementation. It is observed that L-arginine significantly reduced the hypercholesterolemia induced QTc prolongation. Isoproterenol induced increase in QTc intervals were decreased only in normolipidemic animals. No significant changes were observed in QRS complex and heart rate. Our study suggests that L-arginine definitely have effect on repolarization processes of myocardium. PMID:19165358

Kumar, Pradeep; Goyal, Manish; Agarwal, J L

2009-01-01

37

Patients’ perspectives regarding long-term warfarin therapy and the potential transition to new oral anticoagulant therapy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine patients’ perspectives regarding long-term vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy and the potential transition to new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) such as dabigatran and rivaroxaban, and to determine if factors such as residential location affect these opinions. Design, setting and participants: Patients on VKA therapy for at least 12 weeks completed a questionnaire specifically designed for the study. They were recruited while attending point-of-care international normalized ratio (INR) testing at six South Australian general practice clinics during the period July–September 2013. Main outcome measures: Opinions of current VKA therapy, level of awareness of NOACs, and ratings of potential benefits and deterrents of transition to NOACs were sought. Results: Data from 290 participants were available for analysis (response rate 95.4%). The majority of the sample (79.5%, 229/288) were either satisfied or very satisfied with current VKA therapy. The mean score for the potential benefits of transition to NOACs was 7.6 (±4.2) out of a possible 20, which was significantly lower than the mean score 10.9 (±4.5) for the perceived deterrents to transition (p < 0.001). Rural patients (82.0%, 82/100) were significantly more likely (p = 0.001) to have not heard of NOACs than metropolitan patients (50.3%, 95/189) and also perceived significant less benefits in a transition to NOACs (p = 0.001). Conclusion: When considering potential transition from VKAs to NOACs it is important for prescribers to consider that some patients, in particular those from a rural location, may not perceive a significant benefit in transitioning or may have particular concerns in this area. PMID:25436104

Gebler-Hughes, Elizabeth S.; Kemp, Linda

2014-01-01

38

Drug-Containing Gelatin Treats as an Alternative to Gavage for Long-Term Oral Administration in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

Long-term oral administration of immunosuppressive agents to transplanted rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) is one of the major challenges in such studies. To avoid the drawbacks of gavage, we tested an alternative method for oral dosing of sirolimus in rhesus monkeys by adding sirolimus, a commonly used immunosuppressant, to gelatin to create drug-containing gelatin ‘treats’ that our macaques would accept voluntarily. We evaluated the oral bioequivalence of the oral solution and drug-containing gelatin and assayed the whole-blood levels of sirolimus after long-term drug delivery. We found that time to peak concentration but not peak concentration itself or the area under the time–concentration curve differed between the 2 groups. Although the maximal concentration data did not fit the condition of bioequivalence, those for the time–concentration curves from 0 to 24 h and from 0 h to infinity did; therefore the extent of sirolimus absorption did not differ significantly between the 2 formulations. The sirolimus levels for long-term drug delivery were equivalent at 2.97 ± 1.91 ng/mL in the gelatin group and 3.13 ± 2.03 ng/mL in the solution group. The gelatin dosing technique we describe here is convenient and effective for oral administration of sirolimus in rhesus monkeys and likely can be adapted for other drugs. PMID:23294893

Zhang, Shuang; Ye, Bin; Zeng, Li; Chen, Younan; He, Sirong; Wang, Chengshi; Li, Xinli; Zhao, Jiuming; Shi, Meimei; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Cheng, Jingqiu; Wang, Wei; Lu, Yanrong

2012-01-01

39

Antithrombotic effect of L-arginine in hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of L-arginine (L-Arg) on haemostasis in stasis model of venous thrombosis in renal hypertensive rats. The effect of the single dose (i.v. 300 mg/kg bolus+300 mg/kg/h) and of the 10-day application (p.o. 1 g/kg, once daily) of L-Arg was determined. L-Arg reduced the blood pressure both in the acute and long-term application. The single dose of L-Arg decreased the occurrence rate of the thrombus whereas long-term administration reduced significantly the thrombus weight. There were no differences in prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time while the fibrinogen concentration decreased both in the acute and the long-term experiment. L-Arg shortened euglobulin clot lysis time and bleeding time in the long-term application. The chronic L-Arg treatment also inhibited significantly collagen-induced platelet aggregation. The overall haemostasis and coagulation potentials were inhibited and the fibrinolysis potential was higher in the group receiving this amino-acid. The results show that L-Arg, in a complex way, evokes the antithrombotic effect in the model of venous thrombosis in hypertensive rats. PMID:15381827

Cylwik, D; Mogielnicki, A; Kramkowski, K; Stokowski, J; Buczko, W

2004-09-01

40

L-arginine and cardiovascular system.  

PubMed

L-arginine is a basic endogenous amino acid. Its significant metabolic role as the product of ammonia detoxification, the urea cycle metabolite, the precursor of proteins, ornithine, urea and creatinine, and the amino acid involved in the formation of active enzyme centers was very well established. The current interest in this amino acid refers mainly to its close relation with an important signal molecule nitric oxide (NO). Literature review demonstrates that L-arginine, the only substrate of the NO production, affects cardiovascular system (blood vessels and heart). The majority of experimental and clinical studies clearly show a beneficial effect of L-arginine on endothelium in conditions associated with its hypofunction and thus with reduced NO synthesis. Some clinical studies involving healthy volunteers or patients suffering from hypertension and diabetes indicate that it may also regulate vascular hemostasis. Moreover, experiments performed on animals and in vitro data also suggest that L-arginine may have a complex antiaggregatory, anticoagulatory and profibrinolytic effect. Therefore, a novel therapeutic potential of L-arginine should be taken into consideration. PMID:15849373

Cylwik, Dorota; Mogielnicki, Andrzej; Buczko, W?odzimierz

2005-01-01

41

L-arginine and cardiovascular system  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-arginine is a basic endogenous amino acid. Its significant metabolic role as the product of ammonia detoxification, the urea cycle metabolite, the precursor of proteins, ornithine, urea and creatinine, and the amino acid involved in the formation of active enzyme centers was very well established. The current interest in this amino acid refers mainly to its close relation with an

Dorota Cylwik; Andrzej Mogielnicki

42

L-arginine administration reverses anemia associated with renal disease.  

PubMed

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) has proved to be remarkably safe and effective for the treatment of anemia. Despite the use of rhEpo, concerns about its cost, the need for frequent parenteral administration, and the development of anti-Epo antibodies have prompted the development of improved agents to rescue anemia. Patients with anemia associated with renal disease are usually treated by intravenous or subcutaneous rhEpo administration; however, some patients do not respond well to rhEpo, because of the presence of Epo antibody or other unknown reasons. A new, orally administered drug is needed as an economical and effective method to treat such patients. We administered 1.3 g/day of L-arginine to 8 elderly patients with anemia associated with renal disease. All 8 patients responded to the treatment with increases in hemoglobin levels. Six of the patients showed improved renal function. There were no significant adverse effects. Our data show that oral administration of 1.3 g/day of L-arginine significantly improves Epo production and reverses anemia without adverse effects in elderly patients who have anemia associated with renal disease and are in the predialysis state of chronic renal failure. PMID:17875525

Tarumoto, Takahisa; Imagawa, Shigehiko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Hirayama, Aki; Ozawa, Keiya; Nagasawa, Toshiro

2007-08-01

43

Long-Term Outcomes of a Dental Postbaccalaureate Program: Increasing Dental Student Diversity and Oral Health Care Access  

PubMed Central

The University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry established the Dental Postbaccalaureate Program in 1998 to provide reapplication assistance to students from economically and/or educationally disadvantaged backgrounds who were previously denied admission to dental school. The goals were to increase diversity in the dental school student population and improve access to dental services for underserved populations. This article assesses the program’s short-, mid-, and long-term outcomes and is the first to examine long-term practice patterns after a dental postbaccalaureate program. Data collected on all participant (n=94) demographics, pre/post-program DAT scores, and post-program dental school admission results were used to assess short- and mid-term outcomes. Long-term outcomes and practice patterns were assessed using results of a census survey administered between 2009 and 2011 to the participants who had completed dental school and been in practice for at least two years (n=57). The survey had a response rate of 93 percent (n=53). Descriptive statistical techniques were used to examine the responses and to compare them to U.S. Census Bureau data and nationally available practice data for new dental graduates. Program participants’ DAT scores improved by an average of two points, and 98 percent were accepted to dental school. All survey respondents were practicing dentistry, and 81 percent reported serving underserved populations. These participants treat more Medicaid recipients than do most dentists, and their patient population is more diverse than the general population. The outcomes demonstrate that the program’s graduates are increasing diversity in the dental student population and that their practices are providing access to care for underserved populations. PMID:23658398

Wides, Cynthia D.; Brody, Harvey A.; Alexander, Charles J.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Mertz, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

44

Long-term fluctuations of pressure pain thresholds in healthy men, normally menstruating women and oral contraceptive users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether the pressure pain threshold (PPT) in masticatory muscles of symptom-free subjects was influenced by fluctuations of the sex hormones. The PPT was measured with an electronic algometer for at least 10 consecutive menstrual cycles in 10 women using oral contraceptives and 10 women not using oral contraceptives, with a regular menstrual

Hans Isselée; Antoon De Laat; Kris Bogaerts; Roeland Lysens

2001-01-01

45

Long-term oral galactose treatment prevents cognitive deficits in male Wistar rats treated intracerebroventricularly with streptozotocin.  

PubMed

Basic and clinical research has demonstrated that dementia of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD) type is associated with dysfunction of the insulin-receptor (IR) system followed by decreased glucose transport via glucose transporter GLUT4 and decreased glucose metabolism in brain cells. An alternative source of energy is d-galactose (the C-4-epimer of d-glucose) which is transported into the brain by insulin-independent GLUT3 transporter where it might be metabolized to glucose via the Leloir pathway. Exclusively parenteral daily injections of galactose induce memory deterioration in rodents and are used to generate animal aging model, but the effects of oral galactose treatment on cognitive functions have never been tested. We have investigated the effects of continuous daily oral galactose (200 mg/kg/day) treatment on cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced (STZ-icv) rat model of sAD, tested by Morris Water Maze and Passive Avoidance test, respectively. One month of oral galactose treatment initiated immediately after the STZ-icv administration, successfully prevented development of the STZ-icv-induced cognitive deficits. Beneficial effect of oral galactose was independent of the rat age and of the galactose dose ranging from 100 to 300 mg/kg/day. Additionally, oral galactose administration led to the appearance of galactose in the blood. The increase of galactose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid was several times lower after oral than after parenteral administration of the same galactose dose. Oral galactose exposure might have beneficial effects on learning and memory ability and could be worth investigating for improvement of cognitive deficits associated with glucose hypometabolism in AD. PMID:24055495

Salkovic-Petrisic, Melita; Osmanovic-Barilar, Jelena; Knezovic, Ana; Hoyer, Siegfried; Mosetter, Kurt; Reutter, Werner

2014-02-01

46

A new era in palaeomicrobiology: prospects for ancient dental calculus as a long-term record of the human oral microbiome  

PubMed Central

The field of palaeomicrobiology is dramatically expanding thanks to recent advances in high-throughput biomolecular sequencing, which allows unprecedented access to the evolutionary history and ecology of human-associated and environmental microbes. Recently, human dental calculus has been shown to be an abundant, nearly ubiquitous, and long-term reservoir of the ancient oral microbiome, preserving not only microbial and host biomolecules but also dietary and environmental debris. Modern investigations of native human microbiota have demonstrated that the human microbiome plays a central role in health and chronic disease, raising questions about changes in microbial ecology, diversity and function through time. This paper explores the current state of ancient oral microbiome research and discusses successful applications, methodological challenges and future possibilities in elucidating the intimate evolutionary relationship between humans and their microbes. PMID:25487328

Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.

2015-01-01

47

A new era in palaeomicrobiology: prospects for ancient dental calculus as a long-term record of the human oral microbiome.  

PubMed

The field of palaeomicrobiology is dramatically expanding thanks to recent advances in high-throughput biomolecular sequencing, which allows unprecedented access to the evolutionary history and ecology of human-associated and environmental microbes. Recently, human dental calculus has been shown to be an abundant, nearly ubiquitous, and long-term reservoir of the ancient oral microbiome, preserving not only microbial and host biomolecules but also dietary and environmental debris. Modern investigations of native human microbiota have demonstrated that the human microbiome plays a central role in health and chronic disease, raising questions about changes in microbial ecology, diversity and function through time. This paper explores the current state of ancient oral microbiome research and discusses successful applications, methodological challenges and future possibilities in elucidating the intimate evolutionary relationship between humans and their microbes. PMID:25487328

Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J

2015-01-19

48

Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a patient treated with long-term pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for recurrent ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

We present a case of a woman who developed an oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after being treated for a recurrent ovarian carcinoma with subtotal gastric resection and adjuvant pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD). She received six cycles of PLD induction and maintenance therapy, which was continued for 5?years. She was free from disease at the following visits but 3?years later she developed SCC of her left inferior edentulous gums. The patient was negative for human papillomavirus and had never smoked in her life or had a history of alcohol use or any other environmental risk factors. PLD is known to accumulate in eccrine glands of the hands and the feet and in the oral mucosa, therefore causing skin toxicity and mucositis. It is conceivable that this specific biodistribution to the oral mucosa may be responsible for the onset of SCC. PMID:25589526

Pezzoli, Matteo; Bona Galvagno, Maurizio; Bongioannini, Guido

2015-01-01

49

Regulation of immune responses by L-arginine metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-Arginine is an essential amino acid for birds and young mammals, and it is a conditionally essential amino acid for adult mammals, as it is important in situations in which requirements exceed production, such as pregnancy. Recent findings indicate that increased metabolism of L-arginine by myeloid cells can result in the impairment of lymphocyte responses to antigen during immune responses

Paola Zanovello; Vincenzo Bronte

2005-01-01

50

Tetrahydrobiopterin, l-Arginine and Vitamin C Act Synergistically to Decrease Oxidant Stress and Increase Nitric Oxide That Increases Blood Flow Recovery after Hindlimb Ischemia in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a potent vasodilator and signaling molecule that plays essential roles in neovascularization. During limb ischemia, decreased NO bioavailability occurs secondary to increased oxidant stress, decreased l-arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary cosupplementation with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), l-arginine and vitamin C acts synergistically to decrease oxidant stress, increase NO and thereby increase blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia. Rats were fed normal chow, chow supplemented with BH4 or l-arginine (alone or in combination) or chow supplemented with BH4 + l-arginine + vitamin C for 1 wk before induction of hindlimb ischemia. In the is-chemic hindlimb, cosupplementation with BH4 + l-arginine resulted in greater eNOS and phospho-eNOS (P-eNOS) expression, Ca2+-dependent NOS activity and NO concentration in the ischemic calf region (gastrocnemius), as well as greater NO concentration in the region of collateral arteries (gracilis). Rats receiving cosupplementation of BH4 + l-arginine led to greater recovery of foot perfusion and greater collateral enlargement than did rats receiving either agent separately. The addition of vitamin C to the BH4 + l-arginine regimen further increased these dependent variables. In addition, rats given all three supplements showed significantly less Ca2+-independent activity, less nitrotyrosine accumulation, greater glutathione (GSH)–to–glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio and less gastrocnemius muscle necrosis, on both macroscopic and microscopic levels. In conclusion, co-supplementation with BH4 + l-arginine + vitamin C significantly increased blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia by reducing oxidant stress, increasing NO bioavailability, enlarging collateral arteries and reducing muscle necrosis. Oral cosupplementation of BH4, l-arginine and vitamin C holds promise as a biological therapy to induce collateral artery enlargement. PMID:23212846

Yan, Jinglian; Tie, Guodong; Messina, Louis M

2012-01-01

51

Long Term Ecological Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze data on temperature and precipitation collected from 26 different Long Term Ecological Research sites and compare them with annual net primary productivity. The students then form an ecological rule to explain their results.

Cooper, Scott

52

Tetrahydrobiopterin, l-Arginine and Vitamin C Act Synergistically to Decrease Oxidative Stress, Increase Nitric Oxide and Improve Blood Flow after Induction of Hindlimb Ischemia in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a potent vasodilator and signaling molecule that plays an essential role in vascular remodeling of collateral arteries and perfusion recovery in response to hindlimb ischemia. In ischemic conditions, decreased NO bioavailability was observed because of increased oxidative stress, decreased l-arginine and tetrahy-drobiopterin. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary cosupplementation with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), l-arginine, and vitamin C acts synergistically to decrease oxidative stress, increase nitric oxide and improve blood flow in response to acute hindlimb ischemia. Rats were fed normal chow, chow supplemented with BH4 or l-arginine (alone or in combination) or chow supplemented with BH4 + l-arginine + vitamin C for 1 wk before induction of unilateral hindlimb ischemia. Cosupplementation with BH4 + l-arginine resulted in greater eNOS expression, Ca2+-dependent NOS activity and NO concentration in gastrocnemius from the is-chemic hindlimb, as well as greater recovery of foot perfusion and more collateral artery enlargement than did rats receiving either agent separately. The addition of vitamin C to the BH4 + l-arginine regimen did further increase these dependent variables, although only the increase in eNOS expression reached statistical significances. In addition, rats given all three supplements demonstrated significantly less Ca2+-independent activity, less nitrotyrosine accumulation, greater glutathione:glutathione disulfide (GSH:GSSG) ratio and less gastrocnemius muscle necrosis, on both macroscopic and microscopic levels. In conclusion, cosupplementation with BH4 + l-arginine + vitamin C significantly increased vascular perfusion after hindlimb ischemia by increasing eNOS activity and reducing oxidative stress and tissue necrosis. Oral cosupplementation of l-arginine, BH4 and vitamin C holds promise as a biological therapy to induce collateral artery enlargement. PMID:22371305

Yan, Jinglian; Tie, Guodong; Messina, Louis M

2012-01-01

53

l-Citrulline and l-arginine supplementation retards the progression of high-cholesterol-diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of ingested l-arginine, l-citrulline, and antioxidants (vitamins C and E) on the progression of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. The fatty diet caused a marked impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated thoracic aorta and blood flow in rabbit ear artery in vivo, the development of atheromatous lesions and increased superoxide anion production in thoracic aorta, and increased oxidation-sensitive gene expression [Elk-1 and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein]. Rabbits were treated orally for 12 weeks with l-arginine, l-citrulline, and/or antioxidants. l-arginine plus l-citrulline, either alone or in combination with antioxidants, caused a marked improvement in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and blood flow, dramatic regression in atheromatous lesions, and decrease in superoxide production and oxidation-sensitive gene expression. These therapeutic effects were associated with concomitant increases in aortic endothelial NO synthase expression and plasma NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) and cGMP levels. These observations indicate that ingestion of certain NO-boosting substances, including l-arginine, l-citrulline, and antioxidants, can abrogate the state of oxidative stress and reverse the progression of atherosclerosis. This approach may have clinical utility in the treatment of atherosclerosis in humans. PMID:16157883

Hayashi, Toshio; Juliet, Packiasamy A R; Matsui-Hirai, Hisako; Miyazaki, Asaka; Fukatsu, Akiko; Funami, Jun; Iguchi, Akihisa; Ignarro, Louis J

2005-09-20

54

l-Arginine Supplementation and Metabolism in Asthma  

PubMed Central

l-Arginine, the amino acid substrate for nitric oxide synthase, has been tested as a therapeutic intervention in a variety of chronic diseases and is commonly used as a nutritional supplement. In this study, we hypothesized that a subset of moderate to severe persistent asthma patients would benefit from supplementation with l-arginine by transiently increasing nitric oxide levels, resulting in bronchodilation and a reduction in inflammation. The pilot study consisted of a 3 month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of l-arginine (0.05 g/kg twice daily) in patients with moderate to severe asthma. We measured spirometry, exhaled breath nitric oxide, serum arginine metabolites, questionnaire scores, daily medication use and PEFR with the primary endpoint being the number of minor exacerbations at three months. Interim analysis of the 20 subjects showed no difference in the number of exacerbations, exhaled nitric oxide levels or lung function between groups, though participants in the l-arginine group had higher serum l-arginine at day 60 (2.0 ± 0.6 × 10?3 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 × 10?3 ?mol/L, p < 0.05), ornithine at day 30 (2.4 ± 0.9 vs. 1.2 ± 0.3 ?mol/L serum, p < 0.05) and ADMA at day 30 (6.0 ± 1.5 × 10?1 vs. 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10?1 ?mol/L serum, p < 0.05) on average compared to the placebo group. The study was terminated prematurely. Supplementing asthma subjects with l-arginine increases plasma levels; whether subgroups might benefit from such supplementation requires further study.

Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Last, Michael; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Kwan, Vivian W.; O'Roark, Erin; Linderholm, Angela

2011-01-01

55

Consequences of long-term oral administration of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ to wild-type mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondria-targeted quinone MitoQ protects mitochondria in animal studies of pathologies in vivo and is being developed as a therapy for humans. However, it is unclear whether the protective action of MitoQ is entirely due to its antioxidant properties, because long-term MitoQ administration may alter whole-body metabolism and gene expression. To address this point, we administered high levels of MitoQ

Sergio Rodriguez-Cuenca; Helena M. Cochemé; Angela Logan; Irina Abakumova; Tracy A. Prime; Claudia Rose; Antonio Vidal-Puig; Anthony C. Smith; David C. Rubinsztein; Ian M. Fearnley; Bruce A. Jones; Simon Pope; Simon J. R. Heales; Brian Y. H. Lam; Sudeshna Guha Neogi; Ian McFarlane; Andrew M. James; Robin A. J. Smith; Michael P. Murphy

2010-01-01

56

DIETARY L-ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN GILTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary L-arginine supplementation on the production performance of pregnant gilts. A total of 53 pregnant gilts with an initial body weight of 166.25 plus or minus 1.81 kg and backfat thickness of 13.26 plus or minus 0.21 mm were housed individual...

57

Reference Intervals for Plasma l-Arginine and the l-Arginine:Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Ratio in the Framingham Offspring Cohort123  

PubMed Central

l-Arginine, as a precursor of NO synthesis, has attracted much scientific attention in recent years. Experimental mouse models suggest that l-arginine supplementation can retard, halt, or even reverse atherogenesis. In human studies, supplementation with l-arginine improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation. However, l-arginine levels are best interpreted in the context of levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a competitive inhibitor of NO synthase. Thus, reference limits for circulating l-arginine and the l-arginine:ADMA ratio may help to determine the nutritional state of individuals at high cardiovascular risk in light of increased ADMA levels. We defined reference limits for plasma l-arginine in 1141 people and for the l-arginine:ADMA ratio in 1138 relatively healthy individuals from the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Plasma l-arginine and ADMA concentrations were determined by using a stable isotope-based LC-MS/MS method. The reference limits (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) for plasma l-arginine were 41.0 ?mol/L (95% CI = 39.5–42.5 ?mol/L) and 114 ?mol/L (95% CI = 112–115 ?mol/L), whereas corresponding reference limits (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) for the l-arginine:ADMA ratio were 74.3 ?mol/L (95% CI = 71.1–77.3 ?mol/L) and 225 ?mol/L (95% CI = 222–228 ?mol/L). Plasma l-arginine was positively associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and blood glucose levels, whereas the l-arginine:ADMA ratio was positively associated with eGFR and diastolic blood pressure but inversely associated with homocysteine and (log)C-reactive protein. We report reference levels for plasma l-arginine and for the l-arginine:ADMA ratio that may be helpful for evaluation of the effects of l-arginine supplementation in participants with an impaired l-arginine/NO pathway. PMID:22031661

Lüneburg, Nicole; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Maas, Renke; Anderssohn, Maike; Riederer, Ulrich; Glazer, Nicole L.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Böger, Rainer H.

2011-01-01

58

Cost-effectiveness of oral alitretinoin in patients with severe chronic hand eczema - a long-term analysis from a Swiss perspective  

PubMed Central

Background The impact on patients suffering from chronic hand eczema (CHE) is enormous, as no licensed systemic treatment option with proven efficacy for CHE is available. Alitretinoin is a novel agent which showed high clinical efficacy in patients with severe, refractory CHE. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of alitretinoin for CHE patient treatment from a Swiss third party payer perspective. A further objective of this study was to determine the burden of disease in Switzerland. Methods A long-term Markov cohort simulation model was used to estimate direct medical costs (€) and clinical effectiveness (quality adjusted life years, QALYs) of treating severe CHE patients with alitretinoin. Comparison was against the standard treatment of supportive care (optimised emollient therapy). Information on response rates were derived from a randomized controlled clinical trial. Costs were considered from the perspective of the Swiss health system. Swiss epidemiological data was derived from official Swiss Statistic institutions. Results Annual costs of alitretinoin treatment accounted for €2'212. After a time horizon of 22.4 years, average remaining long-term costs accounted for €42'208 or €38'795 in the alitretinoin and the standard treatment arm, respectively. Compared with the standard therapy, the addition of alitretinoin yielded an average gain of 0.230 QALYs at the end of the simulation. Accordingly, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio resulted in €14'816/QALY gained. These results were robust to changes in key model assumptions. Conclusion The therapy for CHE patients is currently insufficient. In our long-term model we identified the treatment with alitretinoin as a cost-effective alternative for the therapy of CHE patients in Switzerland. PMID:20579358

2010-01-01

59

L-arginine increases nitric oxide and attenuates pressor and heart rate responses to change in posture in sickle cell anemia subjects.  

PubMed

Pressor and heart rate changes following change in posture without or with L-arginine supplementation (1g/day for 6 weeks) were studied in 28 sickle cell anemia (SCA) and 32 non-sickle cell anemia (NSCA) subjects. Change in posture increased HR (p<0.01), RPP (p<0.05) in both groups of subjects, MABP (p<0.05) in SCAS but reduced MABP (p<0.01) in NSCAS and PP (p<0.01) in SCAS. L-Arginine supplementation increased plasma L-Arginine concentration ([R]) in both groups of subjects (p<0.001 in each group) and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration ([NOx]) (p<0.01 in each group). Change (?) [R] correlated positively with ? [NOx] in both groups (+ 0.7 in each group). L-Arginine supplementation caused greater reduction of MABP (p<0.001) in NSCAS than in SCAS. However, reduction in HR was greater (p<0.001) in SCAS than in NSCAS. After supplementation, MABP and PP responses to change in posture were attenuated in the two groups. However, while HR and RPP responses in SCAS were attenuated, the same responses were enhanced in NSCAS by change in posture after supplementation. In conclusion, study shows that oral, low dose, chronic supplementation with L-arginine increased NO availability and attenuated pressor and heart rate responses to change in posture in sickle cell anemia subjects. PMID:23955406

Ogungbemi, S I; Anigbogu, C N; Kehinde, M O; Jaja, S I

2013-01-01

60

Effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine and L-arginine on regional cerebral blood flow in the cat.  

PubMed Central

1. We studied the effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA), a potent inhibitor of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway, and L-arginine, the precursor of nitric oxide, on regional cerebral blood flow, electrocortical activity and ex vivo cerebrovascular reactivity in the cat. Flow was measured via radiolabelled microspheres, and vascular responses were studied by measuring isometric tension of isolated middle cerebral arterial rings. 2. NOLA (30 mg kg-1 bolus followed by 1 mg kg-1 min-1 infusion) caused an approximately 40 mmHg elevation in the mean arterial blood pressure, a regionally heterogenous increase of the regional cerebrovascular resistance and a decrease in the regional cerebral blood flow 15 and 40 min after the start of its administration. In contrast L-arginine (30 mg kg-1 bolus followed by 10 mg kg-1 min-1 infusion) did not alter blood pressure, cerebrovascular resistance nor regional cerebral blood flow 15 min after the start of its administration. The NOLA-induced changes in tissue flow were the most pronounced in the cerebellum, pituitary and medulla oblongata, whereas there was no decrease in the flow of the cortex and white matter. 3. NOLA caused characteristic changes in total fronto-occipital EEG power and in power spectra which were unlikely to have been due to cerebral ischaemia. In addition, the ex vivo reactivity of the middle cerebral arteries showed signs of impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthesis: there were enhanced noradrenaline-induced contractions and N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1)-induced relaxations and markedly attenuated acetylcholine- and ATP-induced relaxations after NOLA treatment. 4. The present data indicate that resting cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular resistance are regulated by nitric oxide derived from L-arginine in a regionally heterogenous way and that exogenous L-arginine availability is not a limiting factor in this nitric oxide generation. Possibly, both the vascular endothelium and the neurons contribute to this basal nitric oxide release. PMID:1522509

Kovách, A G; Szabó, C; Benyó, Z; Csáki, C; Greenberg, J H; Reivich, M

1992-01-01

61

Enhancement of interleukin-2 immunotherapy with L-arginine.  

PubMed Central

Nutrient substrates have been shown to enhance cell-mediated immunity, but their role as adjuvants to immunotherapy has not been previously determined. This study evaluated L-arginine as an essential substrate for optimal generation of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. This experiment also assessed supplemental dietary L-arginine as a means to potentiate the host antitumor response to interleukin-2 (IL-2) in a murine neuroblastoma (NRB) model. A/J mice received 1% arginine or isonitrogenous 1.7% glycine in addition to a regular diet 14 days before subcutaneous inoculation with C1300 NRB cells. Twenty-four hours later, animals received low (1 x 10(6) U/kg three times a day) or high (3 x 10(6) U/kg three times a day) doses of IL-2 or saline intraperitoneally for 4 days. On days 4 and 10 post-C1300 NRB inoculation, mice were killed for assessment of natural killer cell and tumor specific cytotoxicity. Remaining animals were followed for tumor incidence, tumor growth, and duration of host survival. Interleukin-2 therapy in mice receiving dietary arginine compared with those receiving glycine resulted in significantly augmented natural killer cell cytotoxicity (day 4) and generation of specific tumoricidal mechanisms (day 10). The addition of dietary arginine to low-dose IL-2 therapy significantly diminished C1300 NRB engraftment (p less than 0.05) and growth (p less than 0.001) and prolonged the duration of host survival (p less than 0.05) compared with the glycine treatment group. In vitro studies demonstrated that L-arginine is an essential substrate for optimal generation of LAK cells. Thus, supplemental dietary L-arginine enhances lymphocyte cytotoxic mechanisms and potentiates IL-2 immunotherapy. PMID:1546902

Lieberman, M D; Nishioka, K; Redmond, H P; Daly, J M

1992-01-01

62

Methylglyoxal (MG) and Cerebro-Renal Interaction: Does Long-Term Orally Administered MG Cause Cognitive Impairment in Normal Sprague-Dawley Rats?  

PubMed Central

Methylglyoxal (MG), one of the uremic toxins, is a highly reactive alpha-dicarbonyl compound. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated the close associations of cognitive impairment (CI) with plasma MG levels and presence of kidney dysfunction. Therefore, the present study aims to examine whether MG is a direct causative substance for CI development. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two groups: control (n = 9) and MG group (n = 10; 0.5% MG in drinking water), and fed a normal diet for 12 months. Cognitive function was evaluated by two behavioral tests (object exploration test and radial-arm maze test) in early (4–6 months of age) and late phase (7–12 months of age). Serum MG was significantly elevated in the MG group (495.8 ± 38.1 vs. 244.8 ± 28.2 nM; p < 0.001) at the end of study. The groups did not differ in cognitive function during the course of study. No time-course differences were found in oxidative stress markers between the two groups, while, antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly increased in the MG group compared to the control. Long-term MG administration to rats with normal kidney function did not cause CI. A counter-balanced activation of the systemic anti-oxidant system may offset the toxicity of MG in this model. Pathogenetic significance of MG for CI requires further investigation. PMID:24402234

Watanabe, Kimio; Okada, Kana; Fukabori, Ryoji; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Asahi, Koichi; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Nakayama, Masaaki

2014-01-01

63

A novel L-arginine salt nonlinear optical crystal: L-arginine p-nitrobenzoate monohydrate (LANB)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel L-arginine salt nonlinear optical single crystal, L-arginine p-nitrobenzoate monohydrate (LANB) has been grown by slow cooling method from aqueous solution. Its solubility at different temperatures in water was measured. The grown crystal was characterized by the elemental analyses, X-ray single crystal and powder diffractions, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra. The structure analysis revealed that LANB belongs to the monoclinic crystallographic system, space group P21, with unit cell parameters: a = 8.566(3), b = 5.817(2), c = 17.131(7) Å, ? = 101.223(5)°, Z = 2 and V = 837.2(6) Å3. The proton and carbon configurations of L-arginine were confirmed through 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra analyses. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of LANB crystal were studied by the use of transmission spectrum and second harmonic generation (SHG). The thermal properties were investigated by using thermo gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA).

Wang, L.; Zhang, G. H.; Liu, X. T.; Wang, L. N.; Wang, X. Q.; Zhu, L. Y.; Xu, D.

2014-01-01

64

l-citrulline and l-arginine supplementation retards the progression of high-cholesterol-diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of ingested l-arginine, l-citrulline, and antioxidants (vitamins C and E) on the progression of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. The fatty diet caused a marked impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated thoracic aorta and blood flow in rabbit ear artery in vivo, the development of atheromatous lesions and increased superoxide anion production in thoracic aorta, and increased oxidation-sensitive gene expression [Elk-1 and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein]. Rabbits were treated orally for 12 weeks with l-arginine, l-citrulline, and/or antioxidants. l-arginine plus l-citrulline, either alone or in combination with antioxidants, caused a marked improvement in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and blood flow, dramatic regression in atheromatous lesions, and decrease in superoxide production and oxidation-sensitive gene expression. These therapeutic effects were associated with concomitant increases in aortic endothelial NO synthase expression and plasma \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{N}}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2}^{-}+{\\mathrm{N}}{\\mathrm{O}}_{3}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} and cGMP levels. These observations indicate that ingestion of certain NO-boosting substances, including l-arginine, l-citrulline, and antioxidants, can abrogate the state of oxidative stress and reverse the progression of atherosclerosis. This approach may have clinical utility in the treatment of atherosclerosis in humans. PMID:16157883

Hayashi, Toshio; Juliet, Packiasamy A. R.; Matsui-Hirai, Hisako; Miyazaki, Asaka; Fukatsu, Akiko; Funami, Jun; Iguchi, Akihisa; Ignarro, Louis J.

2005-01-01

65

Clinical controlled study on plaque and gingivitis reduction under long-term use of low-dose chlorhexidine solutions in a population exhibiting good oral hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, blind clinical study was to examine the dental plaque and the gingivitis inhibitory effects of two low-dose 0.06% chlorhexidine (CHX) preparations in comparison to a commercially available 0.1% CHX solution, an amine fluoride\\/stannous fluoride (ASF) solution and a water control as an adjunct to the daily mechanical oral-hygiene measures. After prophylaxis, 81 medical

T. Hoffmann; G. Bruhn; S. Richter; L. Netuschil; M. Brecx

2001-01-01

66

Long-term testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

67

L-Arginine Metabolism in Dog Kidney and Isolated Nephron Segments Olivier Levillain1  

E-print Network

- 1 - L-Arginine Metabolism in Dog Kidney and Isolated Nephron Segments Olivier Levillain1 , Daniel Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H2L 4M1, Canada short title : L-Arginine Metabolism in Dog Kidney the pivotal role of L-arginine and L-ornithine in several metabolic pathways and the fact that the dog

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

Measurement of L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal nucleation kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleation parameters such as critical radius, critical free energy change, and critical free energy barrier have been estimated for L-arginine trifluoroacetate single crystals on the basis of the classical homogeneous nucleation theory. Metastable zonewidth ranging in the extent of 7-10° was determined employing the polythermal method. The induction period measurements were also made and it was observed that the induction period decreases with increase in the supersaturation, and hence the nucleation is more probable for the higher value of supersaturation. Bulk crystals were grown successfully from the optimized growth nucleation parameters.

Liu, Xiaojing; Wang, Zeyan; Duan, Aidong; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xinqiang; Sun, Zhihua; Zhu, Luyi; Yu, Gang; Sun, Guihua; Xu, Dong

2008-05-01

69

Effects of manganese forms on biogenic amines in the brain and behavioral alterations in the mouse: Long-term oral administration of several manganese compounds  

SciTech Connect

This work has identified the relative toxicity of four forms of manganese, using biogenic amine levels, tissue retention, weight gain, and activity scores as criteria. Male mice were chronically treated with four forms of manganese administered orally, mixed with the diet, for 12 months. The Mn levels were higher in some parts of brain after feeding insoluble salts than after the soluble salts. The concentration of manganese was significantly increased in the liver and spleen of the manganese carbonate-exposed group, compared with the concentration in the control group. Manganese dioxide feeding lowered dopamine and increased homovanilic acid. Since manganese dioxide is a powerful oxidizing agent in organic chemistry, it possibly enhanced the oxidative metabolite of dopamine. Accumulation of manganese in the brain correlated with reduced hypothalamic dopamine levels in the manganese acetate-exposed group; and the amount of manganese accumulated correlated with the intensity of suppression of motor activity. These findings indicate that manganese dioxide is more toxic than divalent manganese. Of the divalent manganese compounds, manganese acetate seemed to have the greatest toxic effect.

Komura, Junko; Sakamoto, Michiko (Hokuriku Univ., Kanazawa (Japan))

1992-02-01

70

Differences between acute and long-term metabolic and endocrine effects of oral beta-adrenoceptor agonist therapy with pirbuterol for cardiac failure.  

PubMed Central

The metabolic, hormonal and haemodynamic effects of oral pirbuterol, a new beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, were studied acutely (n = 19) and after 3 months treatment (n = 11) in patients with severe heart failure receiving chronic frusemide therapy. In the acute study fasted patients (n = 10) showed reductions in plasma K+ (P less than 0.005) and cortisol (P less than 0.01) and increases in plasma glucose (P less than 0.005), insulin (P less than 0.01), lactate (P less than 0.005) and pyruvate (P less than 0.0025). These acute changes were less in unfasted subjects (n = 9). Maximal increase in stroke volume occurred at approximately half the plasma pirbuterol concentration required for maximal effect on plasma insulin. Treatment with pirbuterol for 3 months was associated with sustained increases in stroke volume and fasting plasma glucose and insulin, but there was loss of all other acute metabolic effects. Despite concurrent frusemide and digoxin therapy acute hypokalaemia caused no adverse effects. Hypokalaemia did not occur with chronic pirbuterol administration. PMID:3828194

Canepa-Anson, R; Dawson, J R; Kuan, P; Poole-Wilson, P A; Sutton, G C; Cockrill, B; Reuben, S R

1987-01-01

71

Intracellular L-arginine concentration does not determine NO production in endothelial cells: implications on the "L-arginine paradox".  

PubMed

We examined the relative contributory roles of extracellular vs. intracellular L-arginine (ARG) toward cellular activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were incubated with different concentrations of (15)N(4)-ARG, ARG, or L-arginine ethyl ester (ARG-EE) for 2h. To modulate ARG transport, siRNA for ARG transporter (CAT-1) vs. sham siRNA were transfected into cells. ARG transport activity was assessed by cellular fluxes of ARG, (15)N(4)-ARG, dimethylarginines, and L-citrulline by an LC-MS/MS assay. eNOS activity was determined by nitrite/nitrate accumulation, either via a fluorometric assay or by(15)N-nitrite or estimated (15)N(3)-citrulline concentrations when (15)N(4)-ARG was used to challenge the cells. We found that ARG-EE incubation increased cellular ARG concentration but no increase in nitrite/nitrate was observed, while ARG incubation increased both cellular ARG concentration and nitrite accumulation. Cellular nitrite/nitrate production did not correlate with cellular total ARG concentration. Reduced (15)N(4)-ARG cellular uptake in CAT-1 siRNA transfected cells vs. control was accompanied by reduced eNOS activity, as determined by (15)N-nitrite, total nitrite and (15)N(3)-citrulline formation. Our data suggest that extracellular ARG, not intracellular ARG, is the major determinant of NO production in endothelial cells. It is likely that once transported inside the cell, ARG can no longer gain access to the membrane-bound eNOS. These observations indicate that the "L-arginine paradox" should not consider intracellular ARG concentration as a reference point. PMID:21986532

Shin, Soyoung; Mohan, Srinidi; Fung, Ho-Leung

2011-11-01

72

Malaria-Associated l-Arginine Deficiency Induces Mast Cell-Associated Disruption to Intestinal Barrier Defenses against Nontyphoidal Salmonella Bacteremia  

PubMed Central

Coinfection with malaria and nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can cause life-threatening bacteremia in humans. Coinfection with malaria is a recognized risk factor for invasive NTS, suggesting that malaria impairs intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated mechanisms and strategies for prevention of coinfection pathology in a mouse model. Our findings reveal that malarial-parasite-infected mice, like humans, develop l-arginine deficiency, which is associated with intestinal mastocytosis, elevated levels of histamine, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Prevention or reversal of l-arginine deficiency blunts mastocytosis in ileal villi as well as bacterial translocation, measured as numbers of mesenteric lymph node CFU of noninvasive Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the latter of which is naturally invasive in mice. Dietary supplementation of malarial-parasite-infected mice with l-arginine or l-citrulline reduced levels of ileal transcripts encoding interleukin-4 (IL-4), a key mediator of intestinal mastocytosis and macromolecular permeability. Supplementation with l-citrulline also enhanced epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the ilea of coinfected mice. These data suggest that increasing l-arginine bioavailability via oral supplementation can ameliorate malaria-induced intestinal pathology, providing a basis for testing nutritional interventions to reduce malaria-associated mortality in humans. PMID:23690397

Chau, Jennifer Y.; Tiffany, Caitlin M.; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Lawrence, Jessica A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Mooney, Jason P.; Lokken, Kristen L.; Caughey, George H.; Tsolis, Renee M.

2013-01-01

73

Malaria-associated L-arginine deficiency induces mast cell-associated disruption to intestinal barrier defenses against nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia.  

PubMed

Coinfection with malaria and nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can cause life-threatening bacteremia in humans. Coinfection with malaria is a recognized risk factor for invasive NTS, suggesting that malaria impairs intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated mechanisms and strategies for prevention of coinfection pathology in a mouse model. Our findings reveal that malarial-parasite-infected mice, like humans, develop L-arginine deficiency, which is associated with intestinal mastocytosis, elevated levels of histamine, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Prevention or reversal of L-arginine deficiency blunts mastocytosis in ileal villi as well as bacterial translocation, measured as numbers of mesenteric lymph node CFU of noninvasive Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the latter of which is naturally invasive in mice. Dietary supplementation of malarial-parasite-infected mice with L-arginine or L-citrulline reduced levels of ileal transcripts encoding interleukin-4 (IL-4), a key mediator of intestinal mastocytosis and macromolecular permeability. Supplementation with L-citrulline also enhanced epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the ilea of coinfected mice. These data suggest that increasing L-arginine bioavailability via oral supplementation can ameliorate malaria-induced intestinal pathology, providing a basis for testing nutritional interventions to reduce malaria-associated mortality in humans. PMID:23690397

Chau, Jennifer Y; Tiffany, Caitlin M; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Lawrence, Jessica A; Pakpour, Nazzy; Mooney, Jason P; Lokken, Kristen L; Caughey, George H; Tsolis, Renee M; Luckhart, Shirley

2013-10-01

74

Naringenin adds to the protective effect of L-arginine in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats: favorable modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation and nitric oxide.  

PubMed

The present study was directed to investigate the possible modulatory effect of naringenin when co-administered with L-arginine in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg). L-arginine (500 mg/kg) and naringenin (50 mg/kg) were orally administered daily, alone and in combination, for 3 weeks. Mean arterial blood pressure, electrocardiography and echocardiography were then recorded and rats were sacrificed and serum was separated for determination of total nitrate/nitrite level. Right ventricles and lungs were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, total nitrate/nitrite and transforming growth factor-beta. Myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities in addition to endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression were also determined. Moreover, histological analysis of pulmonary arteries and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area was performed. Combined therapy provided a significant improvement in L-arginine protective effect toward preserving hemodynamic changes and alleviating oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers induced by monocrotaline treatment. Furthermore, combined therapy prevented monocrotaline-induced changes in endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression as well as histological analysis compared with either treatment alone. In conclusion, naringenin significantly adds to the protective effect of L-arginine in pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline in rats. PMID:24878387

Ahmed, Lamiaa A; Obaid, Al Arqam Z; Zaki, Hala F; Agha, Azza M

2014-10-01

75

Patients undergoing long-term treatment with antihypertensive eye drops responded positively with respect to their ocular surface disorder to oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential fatty acids  

PubMed Central

Background Glaucoma and dry eye disorders (DEDs) are frequent comorbidities. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied in relation to eye diseases. Objective Our objective was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with a combined formulation of antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of cytokines and chemokines in tears from patients with DEDs or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods Participants (n = 97) were distributed into three groups: (1) individuals with nonsevere DEDs (DEDG), (2) individuals with nonadvanced POAG (POAGG), and (3) healthy controls. These groups were randomized into two subgroups: one received a daily antioxidant and essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (two pills) for 3 months (+S), and the other did not (?NS). Participants were interviewed and ophthalmologically examined. Concentrations of specific cytokines and chemokines in reflex tears were determined by multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry. The data were analyzed statistically (SPSS version 15.0). Results Comparison of the results from the DEDG and POAGG patients showed significant differences in tear expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P = 0.008), tumor necrosis factor ? (P = 0.005), vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.038), interleukin-4 (P = 0.030), and interleukin-6 (P = 0.044). The main signs and symptoms of dry eyes such as dryness, burning, photophobia, eye heaviness, and blurred vision, as well as positive changes in eyelashes, hair, nails and skin, were significantly improved in DEDG +S and POAGG +S patients relative to unsupplemented patients. Conclusion Inflammation biomarkers were differentially expressed in glaucomatous tears, but the differences changed upon antioxidant/essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. Chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops must be considered for integrating protocols to glaucoma standards of care. PMID:23818768

Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Pinazo-Durán, Maria D; Cantú-Dibildox, Jorge; Marco-Ramírez, Carla; Díaz-Llópis, Manuel; Benítez-del-Castillo, Javier

2013-01-01

76

Long-term follow-up of a phase 2 study of oral teriflunomide in relapsing multiple sclerosis: safety and efficacy results up to 8.5 years  

PubMed Central

Background: Teriflunomide, an oral disease-modifying therapy in development for patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS), was well tolerated and effective in reducing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in 179 RMS patients in a phase 2 36-week, placebo-controlled study. Methods: A total of 147 patients who completed the core study entered an open-label extension. Teriflunomide patients continued their assigned dose, and placebo patients were re-allocated to teriflunomide, 7 mg/day or 14 mg/day. An interim analysis was performed at a cut-off on January 8 2010. Results: The mean and median duration of study treatment, including both the core and extension phase, from baseline to the interim cut-off, was 5.6 years (standard deviation: 2.7 years) and 7.1 years (range: 0.05–8.5 years), respectively. Of 147 patients, 62 (42.2%) discontinued (19% due to treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs)). The most common TEAEs were mild infections, fatigue, sensory disturbances and diarrhoea. No serious opportunistic infections occurred, with no discontinuations due to infection. Asymptomatic alanine aminotransferase increases (?3× upper limit of normal (ULN)) were common (7 mg, 64.2%; 14 mg, 62.1%); increases >3×ULN were similar across groups (7 mg, 12.3%; 14 mg, 12.1%). Mild decreases in neutrophil counts occurred; none led to discontinuation. The incidence of malignancies was comparable to that of the general population, and cases were not reminiscent of those observed in immunocompromised patients. Annualised relapse rates remained low, minimal disability progression was observed, with a dose-dependent benefit with teriflunomide 14 mg for several MRI parameters. Conclusion: Teriflunomide had a favourable safety profile for up to 8.5 years. PMID:22307384

Li, David K; Freedman, Mark S; Truffinet, Philippe; Benzerdjeb, Hadj; Wang, Dazhe; Bar-Or, Amit; Traboulsee, Anthony L; Reiman, Lucy E; O’Connor, Paul W

2012-01-01

77

Long-term environmental stewardship.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

Nagy, Michael David

2010-08-01

78

Protective effect of L-arginine on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction: L-arginine has a protective effect on gentamicin-induced renal failure and it may decrease the tubular reabsorption of another cationic substance, gentamicin due to its cationic structure. The aim of this study is to compare the possible protective effects of L-arginine and its inactive isomer D-arginine on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino rats were housed in metabolic cages and assigned to six groups as: control group, gentamicin (100 mg/kg), gentamicin + L-arginine (2 g/l), gentamicin + D-arginine (2 g/l), gentamicin + L-arginine + Nv-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (100 mg/l) and gentamicin + D-arginine + L-NAME. Gentamicin was administered by subcutaneous injections and the other drugs were added in drinking water for seven consecutive days. The animals were killed by decapitation and intracardiac blood and urine samples were obtained on the seventh day. Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, sodium, potassium, urine gamma glutamyl transferase, creatinine, sodium, potassium and gentamicin levels were measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique. Results: Gentamicin treated group had significant increase in blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, fractional Na excretion and urine gamma glutamyl transferase levels, and significant decrease in creatinine clearance compared to the control group. L-arginine and D-arginine reversed these findings. L-NAME abolished the nephroprotective effect of L-arginine. The urinary levels of gentamicin were significantly increased in rats treated with L-arginine or D-arginine compared to those treated with gentamicin. L-arginine and D-arginine reversed the advanced degenerative changes due to gentamicin administration in histopathological examination. Conclusion: Our study revealed the protective effect of L-arginine on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity, the contribution of the cationic feature of L-arginine, and the major role of NO in this protective effect.

Ba?han, ?brahim; Ba?han, Perihan; Seçilmi?, Mehmet Ata; ?ingirik, Ergin

2014-01-01

79

Electronic Supporting Information NMR Crystallography of L-Arginine: Disentangling Crystallographic  

E-print Network

Electronic Supporting Information NMR Crystallography of L-Arginine: Disentangling Crystallographic Inequivalence and Polymorphism by One- and Two-Dimensional Solid- State NMR Spectroscopy Jose-Enrique Herbert, France Figure S1. Expansions of the 13 C CP/MAS spectrum of L-arginine (sample 1). The resonance lines

80

Ethnicity-specific differences in L-arginine status in South African men.  

PubMed

The aetiology for an increasing incidence of hypertensive cardiovascular disease amongst Africans in southern Africa is unclear. Hypertension may be induced by inadequate release of L-arginine-derived nitric oxide impairing vascular tone regulation. In addition, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is associated with cardiovascular disease. We compared profiles of L-arginine in African and Caucasian men of similar age with cardiovascular risk factors. We studied 163 Caucasian and 132 African men, respectively, (20 to 70 years) measuring serum L-arginine, ADMA, creatinine, urea, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and blood pressure. L-arginine levels were significantly lower, whereas blood pressure and pulse wave velocity were significantly higher in African men. Simple linear regression showed ADMA more strongly associated with L-arginine in Caucasians (r=0.59 vs 0.19), whereas association of SDMA with L-arginine was significant only in Caucasians (r=0.43 vs 0.001). The stronger association of L-arginine with ADMA in Caucasian men was confirmed by multiple regression analysis (?=0.46 vs 0.25).Our findings show that the relationship of cardiovascular risk factors with serum L-arginine and some of its catabolites is different in African and Caucasian men and that this may be associated with a relatively higher prevalence of hypertension in African men. PMID:22129611

Glyn, M C; Anderssohn, M; Lüneburg, N; Van Rooyen, J M; Schutte, R; Huisman, H W; Fourie, C M T; Smith, W; Malan, L; Malan, N T; Mels, C M C; Böger, R H; Schutte, A E

2012-12-01

81

L-Arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2 independent pathway.  

PubMed

In cases of arginine depletion, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and CD3? chain expression are all diminished. In addition to myeloid suppressor cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) also exert T-cell immune suppressive effects through arginase-induced l-arginine depletion, especially during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated how arginase/l-arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the neonatal plasma l-arginine level was lower than in adults (48·1 ± 11·3 versus 86·5 ± 14·6 ?m; P = 0·003). Neonatal PMN had a greater abundance of arginase I protein than adult PMN. Both transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation were responsible for the higher arginase I expression of neonatal PMN. Exogenous l-arginine enhanced neonate lymphocyte proliferation but not that of adult cells. The RNA-binding protein HuR was important but was not the only modulation factor in l-arginine-regulated neonatal T-cell proliferation. l-Arginine-mediated neonatal lymphocyte proliferation could not be blocked by interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibodies. These results suggest that the altered arginase/l-arginine cascade may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to altered neonatal immune responses. Exogenous l-arginine could enhance neonate lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2-independent pathway. PMID:24697328

Yu, Hong-Ren; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Li-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Yang, Kuender D; Ou, Chia-Yo; Hsu, Te-Yao

2014-10-01

82

Nucleation studies of ZTC doped with l-arginine in supersaturated aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metastable zonewidth studies are carried out for various temperatures for supersaturated aqueous solutions of zinc thiourea chloride added with 1mole % of l-arginine. The metastable zonewidth is increased with the addition of l-arginine. The induction period is experimentally determined and various critical nucleation parameters such as radius of critical nucleus, number of molecules in the critical nucleus, critical free

T. Balu; T. R. Rajasekaran; P. Murugakoothan

2009-01-01

83

Nucleation studies of ZTC doped with L-arginine in supersaturated aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metastable zonewidth studies are carried out for various temperatures for supersaturated aqueous solutions of zinc thiourea chloride added with 1 mole % of L-arginine. The metastable zonewidth is increased with the addition of L-arginine. The induction period is experimentally determined and various critical nucleation parameters such as radius of critical nucleus, number of molecules in the critical nucleus, critical free energy of nucleus and interfacial tension are also calculated based on the classical theory for homogeneous crystal nucleation. The induction period is increased with the increase of L-arginine addition. The critical nucleation parameters vary with increase in doping concentration. It is also observed that the nucleation rate increases with the increase of supersaturation. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurements are carried out with different doping concentration of L-arginine reveal that nonlinear optical (NLO) property is enhanced by L-arginine dopant.

Balu, T.; Rajasekaran, T. R.; Murugakoothan, P.

2009-06-01

84

[L-arginine assay with the use of arginase I].  

PubMed

A highly selective and sensitive method for the quantitative determination of L-arginine (Arg) with a fluorescent detection of the reaction product has been developed. The method is based on the use of human liver arginase I isolated from a recombinant producer strain, yeast Hansenula polymorpha, and 2,3-butanedione monoxime, which is used to detect carbamide--the product of enzymatic reactions. The linear concentration range for determining Arg in the final reaction mixture varies from 0.2 to 250 ?M, and the detection limit is 0.16 ?M. Tests of the new method using commercial Arg-containing pharmaceutical preparations showed a high correlation (R = 1.0) of the results with the manufacturer's data and the results of other methods for Arg detection. PMID:25474877

Stasiuk, N E; Ga?da, G Z; Gonchar, M V

2013-01-01

85

[L-arginine assay with the use of arginase I].  

PubMed

A highly selective and sensitive method for the quantitative determination of L-arginine (Arg) with a fluorescent detection of the reaction product has been developed. The method is based on the use of human liver arginase I isolated from a recombinant producer strain, yeast Hansenula polymorpha, and 2,3-butanedione monoxime, which is used to detect carbamide--the product of enzymatic reactions. The linear concentration range for determining Arg in the final reaction mixture varies from 0.2 to 250 ?M, and the detection limit is 0.16 ?M. Tests of the new method using commercial Arg-containing pharmaceutical preparations showed a high correlation (R = 1.0) of the results with the manufacturer's data and the results of other methods for Arg detection. PMID:25508656

2013-01-01

86

L-arginine-NO-cGMP signalling pathway in pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the human pancreas and in pancreatitis still remains controversial. Furthermore, conflicting conclusions have been reached by different laboratories about the localization of the NO-generating enzyme (NO synthase, NOS) in the pancreas. Here, we investigated the co-expression of NOS with enzymes involved in regulation of NO signalling in the normal human pancreas and in pancreatitis. We found that the whole NO signalling machinery was up-regulated in pancreatitis, especially within the exocrine compartment. Furthermore, the exocrine parenchymal cells revealed higher levels of oxidative stress markers, nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxyguanosine, in pancreatitis, which reflects the exceptional susceptibility of the exocrine parenchyma to oxidative stress. This study provides a direct link between oxidative stress and the enzymatic control of the NO bioavailability at the cellular level and endows with further insight into fundamental mechanisms underlying pancreatic disorders associated with disruptions in the L-arginine-NO-cGMP signalling enzyme cascade. PMID:23712581

Buchwalow, Igor; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Tiemann, Katharina; Samoilova, Vera; Bankfalvi, Agnes; Poremba, Christopher; Schleicher, Christine; Neumann, Joachim; Boecker, Werner

2013-01-01

87

Characterization of casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films.  

PubMed

Thin films containing casein appear to be a promising material for coatings used in the medical area to promote biomineralization. ?- and ?-casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films were formed by the layer-by layer technique and their thickness and mass were analyzed by ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). (PLArg/casein) films deposited in 0.15M NaCl exhibit fast (exponential-like) growth of the film thickness with the number of layers. The resulting films were c.a. 10 times thicker than obtained for poly-L-arginine and natural polyanions. We investigated the effect of the type of casein used for the film formation, finding that films with ?-casein were slightly thicker than ones with ?-casein. The effect of polyethylene imine anchoring layer on the thickness and mass of adsorbed films was similar as for linear polyelectrolyte pairs. Thickness of "wet" films was c.a. two times larger than measured after drying that suggests their large hydration. The analysis of the mass of films during their post-treatment with the solutions of various ionic strength and pH provided the information concerning films stability. Films remain stable in the neutral and weakly basic conditions that includes HEPES buffer, which is widely used in cell culture and biomedical experiments. At the conditions of high ionic strength films swell but their swelling is reversible. Films containing caseins as polyanion appear to be more elastic and the same time more viscous than one formed with polyelectrolyte pairs. XPS elemental analysis confirmed binding of calcium ions by the casein embedded in the multilayers. PMID:24703671

Szyk-Warszy?ska, Lilianna; Kilan, Katarzyna; Socha, Robert P

2014-06-01

88

Dimethyl Fumarate Protects Pancreatic Islet Cells and Non-Endocrine Tissue in L-Arginine-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive disorder resulting in the destruction and fibrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma which ultimately leads to impairment of the endocrine and exocrine functions. Dimethyl Fumarate (DMF) was recently approved by FDA for treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. DMF's unique anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties make it an interesting drug to test on other inflammatory conditions. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of DMF on islet cells and non-endocrine tissue in a rodent model of L-Arginine-induced CP. Methods Male Wistar rats fed daily DMF (25 mg/kg) or vehicle by oral gavage were given 5 IP injections of L-Arginine (250 mg/100 g×2, 1 hr apart). Rats were assessed with weights and intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT, 2 g/kg). Islets were isolated and assessed for islet mass and viability with flow cytometry. Non-endocrine tissue was assessed for histology, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lipid peroxidation level (MDA). In vitro assessments included determination of heme oxygenase (HO-1) protein expression by Western blot. Results Weight gain was significantly reduced in untreated CP group at 6 weeks. IPGTT revealed significant impairment in untreated CP group and its restoration with DMF therapy (P <0.05). Untreated CP rats had pancreatic atrophy, severe acinar architectural damage, edema, and fatty infiltration as well as elevated MDA and MPO levels, which were significantly improved by DMF treatment. After islet isolation, the volume of non-endocrine tissue was significantly smaller in untreated CP group. Although islet counts were similar in the two groups, islet viability was significantly reduced in untreated CP group and improved with DMF treatment. In vitro incubation of human pancreatic tissue with DMF significantly increased HO-1 expression. Conclusion Administration of DMF attenuated L-Arginine-induced CP and islet function in rats. DMF treatment could be a possible strategy to improve clinical outcome in patients with CP. PMID:25198679

Robles, Lourdes; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Li, Shiri; Masuda, Yuichi; Takasu, Chie; Takasu, Mizuki; Vo, Kelly; Farzaneh, Seyed H.; Stamos, Michael J.; Ichii, Hirohito

2014-01-01

89

Asymmetric dimethylarginine and l-arginine levels in neonatal sepsis and septic shock.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Nitric oxide (NO) formed by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS) from l-arginine, is an important mediator for pathogen elimination. Being a potent vasodilator NO is implicated in hypotension and decreased organ perfusion in sepsis. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous NOS inhibitor. We investigated ADMA and l-arginine levels in neonatal sepsis and their relation to disease severity. Methods: A prospective controlled study was conducted including 31 neonates with sepsis and 20 controls. Serum ADMA and l-arginine levels were measured within 24?h of sepsis diagnosis. Clinical and laboratory data including clinical risk index for babies (CRIB) score, presence of septic shock, organ dysfunction and death were recorded. Results: l-Arginine and ADMA levels were higher in neonates with sepsis compared to controls (p?=?0.029 and p?=?0.001, respectively). Neonates with septic shock had higher ADMA levels compared to septic neonates without shock (p?=?0.026) and controls (p?l-Arginine levels were higher in neonates with septic shock compared to septic neonates without shock (p?=?0.012) and controls (p?l-arginine and ADMA levels. ADMA levels were correlated with CRIB score (rho?=?0.320, p?=?0.025). Conclusion: l-arginine and ADMA levels are elevated in neonatal sepsis and even higher levels are observed in septic shock. PMID:24983667

Aydemir, Ozge; Ozcan, Beyza; Yucel, Husniye; Yagmur Bas, Ahmet; Demirel, Nihal

2014-07-22

90

Metabolic fate of L-arginine in relation to microbiostatic capability of murine macrophages.  

PubMed Central

L-arginine is required for the fungistatic action of murine macrophages in vitro. To further investigate this requirement, L-arginine metabolism by macrophages was measured under conditions where fungistasis either succeeded or failed. Macrophage fungistasis correlated with metabolism of L-arginine to citrulline, nitrite, and nitrate. The metabolic rate was dependent on extracellular L-arginine concentration, reaching a maximum of 67 nmol nitrite/h per mg protein. It accounted for one-third of arginine consumed by fungistatic macrophages. Equimolar amounts of citrulline and total nitrite plus nitrate accumulated in medium. This was consistent with the hypothesis that one of the equivalent guanidino nitrogens of L-arginine was oxidized to both nitrite and nitrate leaving L-citrulline as the amino acid reaction product. The analogue, NG-mono-methyl-L-arginine, selectively inhibited nitrogen oxidation and it was shown previously that it inhibited fungistatic capability. Resident macrophages were not fungistatic and their nitrogen oxidation was low. Once macrophages began producing nitrite/nitrate, protein synthesis was not required during the next 8 h for either fungistasis or nitrogen oxidation. Two-thirds of L-arginine consumption was due to macrophage arginase yielding L-ornithine and urea, which accumulated in medium. This activity was dissociated from macrophage fungistasis. Nitrogen oxidation metabolism by macrophages is linked to a mechanism that inhibits proliferation of fungi. This may involve synthesis of an intermediate compound(s) that has antimicrobial properties. PMID:2404026

Granger, D L; Hibbs, J B; Perfect, J R; Durack, D T

1990-01-01

91

Arabidopsis chloroplasts dissimilate L-arginine and L-citrulline for use as N source.  

PubMed Central

When aseptically grown on defined medium with either L-arginine, L-citrulline, or nitrate as the sole N source, Arabidopsis plants grew and developed normally. Three catabolic activities, L-arginine iminohydrolase, L-ornithine carbamoyltransferase, and carbamate kinase, were found in stromal fractions of purified Arabidopsis chloroplasts. These activities dissimilate L-arginine and/or L-citrulline into L-ornithine, ammonium, bicarbonate, and ATP. In physiological tests with purified, intact Arabidopsis chloroplasts, L-[guanido-14C]arginine was rapidly taken up and about 10% was decomposed, releasing 14CO2. Therefore, chloroplasts can take up and dissimilate L-arginine. In principle, chloroplast arginine dissimilation allows Arabidopsis to use L-arginine and/or L-citrulline as general N sources for growth. However, plants rarely encounter exogenous L-arginine and/or L-citrulline in amounts exceeding their biosynthetic needs. Therefore, L-arginine and L-citrulline might serve as endogenous N sources. PMID:8278506

Ludwig, R A

1993-01-01

92

Long-term data archiving  

SciTech Connect

Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web Consortium, an independent standards body) as a new data interchange tool is being investigated and implemented. In order to facilitate data archiving, Raman data needs calibration as well as some other kinds of data treatment. Figure 1 illustrates schematically the present situation for Raman data calibration in the world-wide Raman spectroscopy community, and presents some of the terminology used.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

93

L-Arginine Availability Modulates Local Nitric Oxide Production and Parasite Killing in Experimental Trypanosomiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important effector molecule of the immune system in eliminating numerous pathogens. Peritoneal macrophages from Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected mice express type II NO synthase (NOS-II), produce NO, and kill parasites in the presence of L-arginine in vitro. Nevertheless, parasites proliferate in the vicinity of these macrophages in vivo. The present study shows that L-arginine availability modulates

ALAIN P. GOBERT; SYLVIE DAULOUEDE; MICHEL LEPOIVRE; JEAN LUC BOUCHER; BERNARD BOUTEILLE; ALAIN BUGUET; RAYMOND CESPUGLIO; BERNARD VEYRET; PHILIPPE VINCENDEAU

2000-01-01

94

Beneficial effects of l -arginine on reducing obesity: potential mechanisms and important implications for human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 20 years, growing interest in the biochemistry, nutrition, and pharmacology of l-arginine has led to extensive studies to explore its nutritional and therapeutic roles in treating and preventing human metabolic\\u000a disorders. Emerging evidence shows that dietary l-arginine supplementation reduces adiposity in genetically obese rats, diet-induced obese rats, finishing pigs, and obese\\u000a human subjects with Type-2 diabetes mellitus. The

Jason R. McKnight; M. Carey Satterfield; Wenjuan S. Jobgen; Stephen B. Smith; Thomas E. Spencer; Cynthia J. Meininger; Catherine J. McNeal; Guoyao Wu

2010-01-01

95

Effects of inhaled L-arginine administration in a murine model of acute asthma.  

PubMed

Increased arginase activity in the airways decreases L-arginine and causes deficiency of bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory nitric oxide (NO) in asthma. As, it is suggested that L-arginine may have therapeutic potential in asthma treatment, we aimed to investigate the effects of inhaled L-arginine on oxygen saturation (SaO2) and airway histology in a murine model of acute asthma. Twenty eight BALB/c mice were divided into four groups; I, II, III and IV (control). All groups except the control were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. After establishement of acute asthma attack by metacholine administration, the mice were treated with inhaled L-arginine (Group I), saline (Group II) and budesonide (Group III), respectively. SaO2 was measured by pulse oximeter just before and 5 min after methacholine. A third measurement of SaO2 was also obtained 15 min after drug administration in these study groups. Inflammation in the lung tissues of the sacrificed animals were scored to determine the effects of the study drugs. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was determined. The results indicated that inflammatory scores significantly improved in groups receiving study drugs when compared with placebo and L-arginine was similar in decreasing scores when compared with budesonide. SaO2 had a tendency to increase after L-arginine administration after acute asthma attack and this increase was statistically significant (p=0.043). Eosinophilia in BAL significantly reduced in group receiving L-arginine when compared with placebo (p<0.05). Thus in this study we demonstrated that L-arginine improved SaO2 and inflammatory scores in an acute model of asthma. PMID:25150072

Arikan-Ayyildiz, Zeynep; Karaman, Meral; Firinci, Fatih; Kiray, Muge; Bagriyanik, Alper; Yilmaz, Osman; Uzuner, Nevin; Karaman, Ozkan

2014-10-01

96

Long-term outcomes in patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone long-acting injection or oral antipsychotics in Spain: Results from the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR) is a prospective, observational study of patients with schizophrenia designed to evaluate long-term treatment outcomes in routine clinical practice.

J. M. Olivares; A. Rodriguez-Morales; J. Diels; M. Povey; A. Jacobs; Z. Zhao; A. Lam

2009-01-01

97

Increased symmetrical dimethylarginine in ischemic acute kidney injury as a causative factor of renal L-arginine deficiency.  

PubMed

Availability of L-arginine, the exclusive substrate for nitric oxide synthases, plays an important role in kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury. The endogenous L-arginine derivatives asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA) block cellular L-arginine uptake competitively, thereby inhibiting the production of nitric oxide. ADMA also blocks nitric oxide synthase activity directly. Here, we investigate the pathomechanistic impact of ADMA and SDMA on ischemic acute kidney injury. Rats were subject to bilateral renal ischemia (60 minutes)/reperfusion (24 hours) injury. Impairment of renal function was determined with inulin clearance (glomerular filtration rate) and para-aminohippurate (PAH) clearance (renal plasma flow). L-arginine, ADMA, and SDMA levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. L-arginine was extracted from renal tissue and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and protein and messenger RNA expressions were determined by Western blot and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Renal function deteriorated severely after ischemia/reperfusion injury, as demonstrated by inulin and PAH clearance. Serum ADMA and SDMA increased, but tissue expression of specific ADMA or SDMA synthesizing and metabolizing enzymes (protein arginine methyltransferases and dimethyl arginine dimethylaminohydrolases) did not alter. Serum L-arginine increased as well, whereas intracellular L-arginine concentration diminished. Renal messenger RNA expression of cationic amino acid transporters, which mediate L-arginine uptake, remained unchanged. In serum, the ratio of L-arginine to ADMA did not alter after ischemia/reperfusion injury, whereas the ratios of L-arginine to SDMA and ADMA to SDMA decreased. A marked increase in serum SDMA, especially when accompanied by a diminished L-arginine-to-SDMA ratio, might reflect competitive inhibition of cellular L-arginine uptake by SDMA. As a consequence, a pathologic renal L-arginine deficiency in ischemic acute kidney injury results. PMID:23707198

Betz, Boris; Möller-Ehrlich, Kerstin; Kress, Tobias; Kniepert, Joachim; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Böger, Rainer H; Wanner, Christoph; Sauvant, Christoph; Schneider, Reinhard

2013-08-01

98

Calcification in coronary artery disease can be reversed by EDTA-tetracycline long-term chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is a complex process with multiple mechanisms and factors contributing to its initiation and progression. Detection and quantification of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores with electron beam tomography has been shown to correlate with obstructive and nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Pathogen-triggered calcification could play a role in CAD. Recent reports suggest that infectious blood nanobacteria (NB) emerge to be such a trigger. So far, minimal or no reversal of atherosclerosis has been claimed by therapies with iv ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA), antibiotics, or other regimens, and therapies for atherosclerosis remain non-curative. We have now combined EDTA with antibiotic tetracycline (comET), an in vitro proven nanobacteriocidal treatment, and tested comET therapy in patients with documented CAD. Three hypotheses were probed: (1) Are NB present in patients with CAD?; (2) Does treatment with comET affect blood NB antigen and serology?; (3) Does a comET decrease CAC scores? One hundred patients with stable CAD and positive CAC scores were enrolled into a 4 month study of comET therapy. ComET therapy is composed of (1) Nutraceutical Powder (Vitamin C, Vitamin B6, Niacin, Folic Acid, Selenium, EDTA, l-Arginine, l-Lysine, l-Ornithine, Bromelain, Trypsin, CoQ10, Grapeseed Extract, Hawthorn Berry, Papain) 5cm(3) taken orally every evening; (2) Tetracycline HCl 500mg taken orally every evening; (3) EDTA 1500mg taken in a rectal suppository base every evening. CAC scoring was repeated at 4 months and serum samples were analyzed for NB antigen and serology at baseline, 2 and 4 months. Complete blood count, metabolic panel, liver function, C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipids were analyzed at baseline and 4 months. Seventy-seven patients completed the study and all patients were positive for NB serology, antigen or both. Responders (n = 44; 57%) had significant decreases in total CAC scores (P = 0.001), the average decrease being 14%. Non-responders (n = 33; 44%) had no change or had increases in CAC scores. Angina was decreased or ablated in 16 of 19 patients (84%). Lipid profiles improved to non-atherogenic direction significantly (P = 0.001), a remarkable finding in a patient group where 86% were on continuous statin medication already before the trial. No adverse physiologic effects were seen in renal, hepatic, or hematopoetic systems. In conclusion, CAC scores decreased during ComET therapy trial in most CAD patients inferring regression of calcified coronary artery plaque volume. The patients tolerated the therapy well and their angina and lipid profiles improved. Further treatment trials for long term therapy with matched controls are warranted. PMID:15364120

Maniscalco, Benedict S.; Taylor, Karen A.

2004-10-01

99

The effect of chronic administration of l-arginine on the learning and memory of estradiol-treated ovariectomized rats tested in the morris water maze  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of l-arginine on the learning and memory of estradiol-treated ovariectomized (OVX) rats. METHODS: Forty-eight rats were divided into six groups: (1) sham, (2) OVX, (3) sham-Est, (4) OVX-Est, (5) sham-Est-LA, and (6) OVX-Est-LA. The animals of the sham-Est and OVX-Est groups were treated by weekly injection of estradiol valerate (2mg/kg). The sham-Est-LA and OVX-Est-LA groups were treated in the same manner but with an additional daily injection of l-arginine (200mg/kg). After eight weeks, animals of all groups were tested in the Morris water maze. The escape latency and path traveled to reach the platform were compared between groups. RESULTS: Time latency and path length in the OVX group were significantly higher than in the sham group (P<0.05). The OVX-Est group had a significantly shorter traveled path length and time latency compared to the OVX group (P<0.001). Time latency and path length in the sham-Est group was significantly higher than in the sham group (P<0.001). Time latency and path length in the OVX-Est-LA group were significantly higher than in the OVX-Est group. CONCLUSIONS: These results allow us to propose that chronic treatment with estradiol enhances the spatial learning and memory of OVX rats, and that long term l-arginine treatment attenuates the effects of improvement produced by estradiol in OVX rats. PMID:20835559

Hosseini, Mahmoud; Headari, Raheleh; Oryan, Sharbanoo; Hadjzadeh, Mosa Alreza; Saffarzadeh, Fatima; Khazaei, Majid

2010-01-01

100

Abnormal Mitochondrial L-Arginine Transport Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Heart Failure and Rexoygenation Injury  

PubMed Central

Background Impaired mitochondrial function is fundamental feature of heart failure (HF) and myocardial ischemia. In addition to the effects of heightened oxidative stress, altered nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, generated by a mitochondrial NO synthase, has also been proposed to impact upon mitochondrial function. However, the mechanism responsible for arginine transport into mitochondria and the effect of HF on such a process is unknown. We therefore aimed to characterize mitochondrial L-arginine transport and to investigate the hypothesis that impaired mitochondrial L-arginine transport plays a key role in the pathogenesis of heart failure and myocardial injury. Methods and Results In mitochondria isolated from failing hearts (sheep rapid pacing model and mouse Mst1 transgenic model) we demonstrated a marked reduction in L-arginine uptake (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively) and expression of the principal L-arginine transporter, CAT-1 (p<0.001, p<0.01) compared to controls. This was accompanied by significantly lower NO production and higher 3-nitrotyrosine levels (both p<0.05). The role of mitochondrial L-arginine transport in modulating cardiac stress responses was examined in cardiomyocytes with mitochondrial specific overexpression of CAT-1 (mtCAT1) exposed to hypoxia-reoxygenation stress. mtCAT1 cardiomyocytes had significantly improved mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration and ATP turnover together with significantly decreased reactive oxygen species production and cell death following mitochondrial stress. Conclusion These data provide new insights into the role of L-arginine transport in mitochondrial biology and cardiovascular disease. Augmentation of mitochondrial L-arginine availability may be a novel therapeutic strategy for myocardial disorders involving mitochondrial stress such as heart failure and reperfusion injury. PMID:25111602

Byrne, Melissa; Joshi, Mandar; Horlock, Duncan; Lam, Nicholas T.; Gregorevic, Paul; McGee, Sean L.; Kaye, David M.

2014-01-01

101

[Enteral nutrition through long-term jejunostomy].  

PubMed

We present the case of a female patient suffering a peritonitis episode after subtotal gastrectomy due to gastric neoplasm in relation to lesser curvature necrosis extending to the anterior esophageal wall. This an uncommon andsevere complication that made mandatory further aggressive surgery: transection of the abdominal esophagus, transection of the gastric stump, and cervical esophagostomy with creation of a jejunostomy with a needle catheter for feeding. This digestive tube access technique is generally used during major abdominal post-surgery until oral intake is reestablished. Our patient has been 187 days with this therapy since reconstruction of the GI tract was ruled out due to tumoral infiltration of the colon and tumor recurrence at the gastrohepatic omentum. To date, there has been no complication from permanence and/or long-term use of this technique. PMID:18372950

Fernández, T; Neira, P; Enríquez, C

2008-01-01

102

Physiological cyclic stretch directs L-arginine transport and metabolism to collagen synthesis in vascular smooth muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of cyclic stretch (10% at 1 hertz) to vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) in- creased L-arginine uptake and this was associated with a specific increase in cationic amino acid trans- porter-2 (CAT-2) mRNA. In addition, cyclic stretch stimulated L-arginine metabolism by inducing argi- nase I mRNA and arginase activity. In contrast, cyclic stretch inhibited the catabolism of L-arginine to

WILLIAM DURANTE; LAN LIAO; SYLVIA V. REYNA; KELLY J. PEYTON; ANDREW I. SCHAFER

2000-01-01

103

Manipulation of the l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in airway inflammation induced by diesel exhaust particles in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in bronchial asthma that is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation has not yet been established. We investigated the effects of three different agents on eosinophilic airway inflammation induced by the intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in mice: l-Arginine, the substrate for NO synthases; l-NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a relatively selective

Hirohisa Takano; Heung-Bin Lim; Yuichi Miyabara; Takamichi Ichinose; Toshikazu Yoshikawa; Masaru Sagai

1999-01-01

104

[Extradural lipomatosis after long-term treatment with steroids].  

PubMed

Epidural lipomatosis is a rare but severe complication of long-term corticoid treatment. A female who was treated with oral corticoids for more than 4 years developed progressive paraparesis over the course of 2 years. As causal for the clinical symptoms we found a massive epidural lipoma of the thoracic spine. Neurosurgical intervention was necessary. PMID:17093956

Burkhardt, N; Hamann, G F

2006-12-01

105

Novel metabolic roles of L-arginine in body energy metabolism and possible clinical applications.  

PubMed

Although the body can synthesize L-arginine, exogenous supplementation may be sometimes necessary, especially in particular conditions which results in depleted endogenous source. Among diseases and states when exogenous supplementation may be necessary are: burns, severe wounds, infections, insufficient circulation, intensive physical activity or sterility. In recent time, the attention was paid to the use of L-arginine supplementation by athletes during intensive sport activity, to enhance tissue growth and general performance, to potentiate the ergogenic potential and muscle tolerance to high intensive work and gas exchange threshold, to decrease ammonia liberation and recovery performance period and to improve wound healing. High-intensity exercise produces transient hyperammoniemia, presumably due to AMP catabolism. Catabolic pathways of AMP may involve its deamination or dephosphorylation, mainly in order to compensate fall in adenylate enrgy charge (AEC), due to AMP rise. The enzymes of purine metabolism have been documented to be particularly sensitive to the effect of dietary L-arginine supplementation. L-arginine supplementation leads to redirection of AMP deamination on account of increased AMP dephosphorylation and subsequent adenosine production and may increase ATP regeneration via activation of AMP kinase (AMPK) pathway. The central role of AMPK in regulating cellular ATP regeneration, makes this enzyme as a central control point in energy homeostasis. The effects of L-arginine supplementation on energy expenditure were successful independently of age or previous disease, in young sport active, elderly, older population and patients with angina pectoris. PMID:24522477

Hristina, K; Langerholc, T; Trapecar, M

2014-01-01

106

Mechanism of Allosteric Inhibition of N-Acetyl-L-glutamate Synthase by L-Arginine  

SciTech Connect

N-Acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) catalyzes the first committed step in L-arginine biosynthesis in plants and micro-organisms and is subject to feedback inhibition by L-arginine. This study compares the crystal structures of NAGS from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ngNAGS) in the inactive T-state with L-arginine bound and in the active R-state complexed with CoA and L-glutamate. Under all of the conditions examined, the enzyme consists of two stacked trimers. Each monomer has two domains: an amino acid kinase (AAK) domain with an AAK-like fold but lacking kinase activity and an N-acetyltransferase (NAT) domain homologous to other GCN5-related transferases. Binding of L-arginine to the AAK domain induces a global conformational change that increases the diameter of the hexamer by {approx}10 {angstrom} and decreases its height by {approx}20{angstrom}. AAK dimers move 5{angstrom} outward along their 2-fold axes, and their tilt relative to the plane of the hexamer decreases by {approx}4{sup o}. The NAT domains rotate {approx}109{sup o} relative to AAK domains enabling new interdomain interactions. Interactions between AAK and NAT domains on different subunits also change. Local motions of several loops at the L-arginine-binding site enable the protein to close around the bound ligand, whereas several loops at the NAT active site become disordered, markedly reducing enzymatic specific activity.

Min, Li; Jin, Zhongmin; Caldovic, Ljubica; Morizono, Hiroki; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel; Shi, Dashuang (GUW); (Maryland); (GWU); (Georgia)

2010-01-07

107

Dietary L-arginine supplementation affects the skeletal longissimus muscle proteome in finishing pigs.  

PubMed

Forty-eight Duroc x Landrace x Large White gilts were used to determine the relationship between proteome changes of longissimus muscle and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in arginine-supplemented pigs. Beginning at 60 kg BW, pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented or not with 1% L-arginine until they reached a BW of 100 kg. Supplementation with 1% L-arginine did not affect the growth performance or carcass traits, while it increased IMF content by 32% (P < 0.01), it also decreased the drip loss at 48 h post-mortem and the b* meat color value at 24 h post-mortem; supplementation with 1% dietary L-arginine did not change the proportion of SFA and MUFA in muscle lipids. The proteome changes in longissimus muscle between the control and supplemented pigs showed that L-arginine significantly influenced the abundance of proteins related to energy metabolism, fiber type and structure. The increase in IMF content was positively correlated with the increased abundance of slow twitch troponin I (TNNI1) protein and negatively correlated with myosin heavy chain IIb (MyHC IIb) protein content. It is suggested that the proteome changes in longissimus muscle contributed to the greater IMF content in L-arginine supplemented pigs. PMID:25635834

Ma, Xianyong; Zheng, Chuntian; Hu, Youjun; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuefen; Jiang, Zongyong

2015-01-01

108

Dietary L-Arginine Supplementation Affects the Skeletal Longissimus Muscle Proteome in Finishing Pigs  

PubMed Central

Forty-eight Duroc x Landrace x Large White gilts were used to determine the relationship between proteome changes of longissimus muscle and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in arginine-supplemented pigs. Beginning at 60 kg BW, pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented or not with 1% L-arginine until they reached a BW of 100 kg. Supplementation with 1% L-arginine did not affect the growth performance or carcass traits, while it increased IMF content by 32% (P < 0.01), it also decreased the drip loss at 48 h post-mortem and the b* meat color value at 24 h post-mortem; supplementation with 1% dietary L-arginine did not change the proportion of SFA and MUFA in muscle lipids. The proteome changes in longissimus muscle between the control and supplemented pigs showed that L-arginine significantly influenced the abundance of proteins related to energy metabolism, fiber type and structure. The increase in IMF content was positively correlated with the increased abundance of slow twitch troponin I (TNNI1) protein and negatively correlated with myosin heavy chain IIb (MyHC IIb) protein content. It is suggested that the proteome changes in longissimus muscle contributed to the greater IMF content in L-arginine supplemented pigs. PMID:25635834

Ma, Xianyong; Zheng, Chuntian; Hu, Youjun; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuefen; Jiang, Zongyong

2015-01-01

109

Long-term oxygen therapy.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the status of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). In the United States, payment cutbacks are occurring as a result of congressionally mandated competitive bidding and capped rental programs. These Medicare programs are discussed. These legislative and regulatory changes may result in reduced patient access to appropriate oxygen-delivery systems that meet medical needs, including optimal ambulation. Prescribing LTOT is addressed in this article, as is the need for adequate patient education. The importance of appropriate monitoring and reassessment is presented. The use of an LTOT collaborative care model is discussed. Although the new intermittent flow oxygen-delivery systems have potential benefits, there is consensus that each patient should be tested on the specific device because of variability in delivery and patient response. Feasible locations for patient education and monitoring are identified. PMID:21285057

Christopher, Kent L; Porte, Phillip

2011-02-01

110

Biotransformation of L-ornithine from L-arginine using whole-cell recombinant arginase.  

PubMed

A recombinant arginase was generated for a whole-cell biotransformation system to convert L-arginine to L-ornithine in Escherichia coli. The gene ARG1 coding arginase from Bos taurus liver was synthesized and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) via pETDuet-1. The recombinant arginase was used to catalyze L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. The reaction was optimal at pH 9.5 and 37 °C. Manganese (10(-5 )M) and Emulsifier OP-10 [0.033 % (v/v)] could promote arginase activity. In a scale up study, L-arginine conversion rate reached 98 % with a final concentration of 111.52 g L-ornithine/l. PMID:23700128

Zhan, Yueping; Liu, Junzhong; Mao, Pingting; Zhang, Hongjuan; Liu, Qian; Jiao, Qingcai

2013-11-01

111

Optical properties of L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) exhibits superior nonlinear-optical properties and it has been exploited for variety of applications. Single crystals of organic nonlinear optical material of pure and L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) were grown by slow evaporation technique from its aqueous solution. The crystal structures of the grown crystals were determined using powder XRD. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns indicated a single phase with the unit cell parameters being unaltered by doping. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies were employed to study the active doping of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals with L-arginine amino acid. IR absorption spectra confirmed that the successful doping of L-arginine was achieved by exhibiting the presence of vibrational lines at 1401 cm-1, 1637 cm-1, 1716 cm-1 and 3127 cm-1. This affirmation is supported with more evidences from FT-Raman measurements

Govani, Jayesh; Manciu, Felicia; Joshi, Mihir; Parikh, Ketan; Dave, Dipak

2008-03-01

112

Synthesis, thermal and nonlinear optical characterization of L-arginine semi-oxalate single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically good quality L-arginine semi-oxalate, an organic nonlinear optical crystal, has been synthesized from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the synthesized L-arginine semi-oxalate crystal possesses triclinic structure with unit cell dimensions as a=5.05Å, b=9.73Å, c=13.12Å, ?=111.030, ?=92.790 and ?=91.910. The Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy was analyzed and the presence of functional groups of L-arginine semi-oxalate was confirmed. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies show that the material is thermally stable up to 1460C and the melting point is 1500C. Kurtz and Perry powder technique confirms that the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency is 0.32 times that of standard organic materials urea and KDP.

Vasudevan, P.; Gokulraj, S.; Sankar, S.

2012-06-01

113

Spectroscopic and structural studies of L-arginine doped Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report in this study the spectroscopic and structural characterization of standard and L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals synthesized by a solution growth technique. The infrared absorption and Raman results demonstrate chemical functionalization between the amino (NH3^+) groups of the organic material and the phosphate units of the inorganic crystals. This affirmation, which also implies the achievement of successful doping, is supported by the existence of extra vibrational lines in the IR and Raman spectra of L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals; these vibrational lines exhibit shifting towards lower frequencies as compared with the characteristic bands of L-arginine. Incorporation of the amino acid into the structure of the inorganic material is revealed by X-ray diffraction results also, where the shifting of diffraction lines and the appearance of a new one are observed.

Govani, Jayesh; Botez, Cristian; Durrer, William; Manciu, Felicia

2009-03-01

114

Dietary l -arginine supplementation enhances placental growth and reproductive performance in sows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suboptimal embryonic\\/fetal survival and growth remains a significant problem in mammals. Using a swine model, we tested the\\u000a hypothesis that dietary l-arginine supplementation during gestation may improve pregnancy outcomes through enhancing placental growth and modulating\\u000a hormonal secretions. Gestating pigs (Yorkshire × Landrace, n = 108) were assigned randomly into two groups based on parity and body weight, representing dietary supplementation with\\u000a 1.0% l-arginine–HCl or

Kaiguo Gao; Zongyong Jiang; Yingcai Lin; Chuntian Zheng; Guilian Zhou; Fang Chen; Lin Yang; Guoyao Wu

115

Theoretical calculation and vibrational spectral analysis of L-arginine trifluoroacetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the nonlinear optical crystal, L-arginine trifluoroacetate ( L-arginine·CF 3COOH, abbreviated as LATF) have been calculated by the first-principles calculation and investigated in experiment. The calculated results are slightly different from those experimental values because of the distinction resulted from the intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The role of this type of intermolecular interaction on the crystal vibrational spectra and nonlinear optical properties has been discussed. The absorption-edge on the IR side has been estimated by the theoretical approach on basis of the calculated infrared spectrum, which will be meaningful for further research on NLO crystal.

Sun, Z. H.; Zhang, L.; Xu, D.; Wang, X. Q.; Liu, X. J.; Zhang, G. H.

2008-11-01

116

The Metabolism of L-Arginine and Its Significance for the Biosynthesis of Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor: Cultured Endothelial Cells Recycle L- Citrulline to L-Arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the mechanism by which cultured endothelial cells generate L-arginine (L-Arg), the substrat for the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. When Arg-depleted endothelial cells were incubated in Krebs' solution for 60 min, L-Arg levels were significantly (9.7-fold) elevated. The generation of L-Arg coincided with a substantial decrease (90%) in intracellular L-glutamine (L-Gln), whereas all other amino acids were

Markus Hecker; William C. Sessa; Hayley J. Harris; Erik E. Anggard; John R. Vane

1990-01-01

117

L-Arginine supplementation enhances diabetic wound healing: Involvement of the nitric oxide synthase and arginase pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes impairs wound healing and there are few therapeutic options to reverse it. Previous work has demonstrated the importance of nitric oxide for successful wound healing. In diabetes, NO synthesis is reduced in the wound milieu. The amino acid L-arginine is the only substrate for NO synthesis. We hypothesized that L-arginine supplementation would enhance wound healing by restoring NO synthesis.

Maria B. Witte; Frank J. Thornton; Udaya Tantry; Adrian Barbul

2002-01-01

118

L-arginine enhances cell proliferation and reduces apoptosis in human endometrial RL95-2 cells  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

L-arginine is considered to be one of the most versatile amino acids due to the fact that it serves as a precursor for many important molecules in cellular physiology. When supplemented in the diet, L-arginine can increase the number of implantation sites in mice and rats, suggesting an effect at th...

119

EFFECTS OF L-ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION ON LACTATION PERFORMANCE OF FIRST PARITY SOWS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to determine the effects of L-arginine (ARG) supplementation (1.0%) on lactation performance using 27 'rst parity sows with litter size greater than 9. An isonitrogenous diet (1.7% L-alanine, ALA) served as the control. Sows were allotted to four dietary treatments which con...

120

L-Arginine decreases fluid-percussion injury-induced neuronal nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in rats.  

PubMed

Peroxynitrite is a powerful oxidant capable of nitrating phenolic moieties, such as tyrosine or tyrosine residues in proteins and increases after traumatic brain injury (TBI). First, we tested the hypothesis that TBI increases nitrotyrosine (NT) immunoreactivity in the brain by measuring the number of NT-immunoreactive neurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to parasagittal fluid-percussion TBI. Second, we tested the hypothesis that treatment with L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide synthase, further increases NT immunoreactivity over TBI alone. Rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and subjected to TBI, sham TBI, or TBI followed by treatment with L-arginine (100 mg/kg). Twelve, 24, or 72 h after TBI, brains were harvested. Coronal sections (10 microm) were incubated overnight with rabbit polyclonal anti-NT antibody, rinsed, and incubated with a biotinylated secondary antibody. The antigen-antibody complex was visualized using a peroxidase-conjugated system with diaminobenzidine as the chromagen. The number of NT-positive cortical and hippocampal neurons increased significantly in both ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres up to 72 h after TBI compared with the sham-injured group. Remarkably, treatment with L-arginine reduced the number of NT-positive neurons after TBI in both cortex and hippocampus. Our results indicate that L-arginine actually prevents TBI-induced increases in NT immunoreactivity. PMID:18612319

Avila, Marcela A; Sell, Stacy L; Kadoi, Yuji; Prough, Donald S; Hellmich, Helen L; Velasco, Marco; Dewitt, Douglas S

2008-10-01

121

Effects of the cationic protein poly-L-arginine on airway epithelial cells in vitro.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is associated with an increased number of eosinophils in the airway wall. Eosinophils secrete cationic proteins, particularly major basic protein (MBP). AIM: To investigate the effect of synthetic cationic polypeptides such as poly-L-arginine, which can mimic the effect of MBP, on airway epithelial cells. METHODS: Cultured airway epithelial cells were exposed to poly-L-arginine, and effects were determined by light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Poly-L-arginine induced apoptosis and necrosis. Transmission electron microscopy showed mitochondrial damage and changes in the nucleus. The tight junctions were damaged, as evidenced by penetration of lanthanum. Scanning electron microscopy showed a damaged cell membrane with many pores. Microanalysis showed a significant decrease in the cellular content of magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and chlorine, and an increase in calcium. Plakoglobin immunoreactivity in the cell membrane was decreased, indicating a decrease in the number of desmosomes CONCLUSIONS: The results point to poly-L-arginine induced membrane damage, resulting in increased permeability, loss of cell-cell contacts and generalized cell damage. PMID:12137242

Shahana, Shahida; Kampf, Caroline; Roomans, Godfried M

2002-01-01

122

AFM investigation of the {101} surface morphology of l-arginine trifluoroacetate (LATF) crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The {101} surface of l-arginine trifluoroacetate (LATF) crystals has been investigated by ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The main step sources were observed in the form of growth spirals. The growth spirals are rounded and highly anisotropic. Microcrystals transferred from aggregates deposit at the step-edged on the facets. It is suggested that the microcrystals may lead to the formation

X. J. Liu; Z. Y. Wang; A. D. Duan; G. Yu; G. H. Zhang; G. W. Yu; X. Q. Wang; Z. H. Sun; D. Xu

2007-01-01

123

Reduction of N(?)-hydroxy-L-arginine by the mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component (mARC).  

PubMed

NOSs (nitric oxide synthases) catalyse the oxidation of L-arginine to L-citrulline and nitric oxide via the intermediate NOHA (N(?)-hydroxy-L-arginine). This intermediate is rapidly converted further, but to a small extent can also be liberated from the active site of NOSs and act as a transportable precursor of nitric oxide or potent physiological inhibitor of arginases. Thus its formation is of enormous importance for the nitric-oxide-generating system. It has also been shown that NOHA is reduced by microsomes and mitochondria to L-arginine. In the present study, we show for the first time that both human isoforms of the newly identified mARC (mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component) enhance the rate of reduction of NOHA, in the presence of NADH cytochrome b? reductase and cytochrome b?, by more than 500-fold. Consequently, these results provide the first hints that mARC might be involved in mitochondrial NOHA reduction and could be of physiological significance in affecting endogenous nitric oxide levels. Possibly, this reduction represents another regulative mechanism in the complex regulation of nitric oxide biosynthesis, considering a mitochondrial NOS has been identified. Moreover, this reduction is not restricted to NOHA since the analogous arginase inhibitor NHAM (N(?)-hydroxy-N(?)-methyl-L-arginine) is also reduced by this system. PMID:21029045

Kotthaus, Jürke; Wahl, Bettina; Havemeyer, Antje; Kotthaus, Joscha; Schade, Dennis; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Mendel, Ralf; Bittner, Florian; Clement, Bernd

2011-01-15

124

DIETARY L-ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION AFFECTS IMMUNE STATUS OF PREGNANT GILTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary L-arginine supplementation on the immune status of pregnant gilts. A total of 53 pregnant gilts with an initial body weight of 166.25, plus or minus 1.81 kg, and backfat thickness of 13.26, plus or minus 0.21 mm, were housed individually in...

125

Dietary L-arginine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in broiler chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation on inflammatory response and innate immunity of broilers. Experiment 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatment; 6 birds/cage) with 3 dietary Arg concentrations (1.05, 1.4...

126

Role of Environmental Conditions on the Interaction of L-Arginine with Oxide Mineral Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study is focused on surface interactions between L-arginine, the most basic protein amino acid, and rutile in NaCl media over a wide range of solution pH conditions, amino acid concentrations, and solution ionic strengths.

Klochko, K.; Jonsson, C. M.; Jonsson, C. L.; Lee, N.; Cleaves, H. J., II; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

2010-04-01

127

Dietary L-arginine supplementation modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response in broiler chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response through LPS/TLR-4 signaling pathway in broilers. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatm...

128

Long-term solar-terrestrial observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

1988-01-01

129

Supplementation with apple enriched with L-arginine may improve metabolic control and survival rate in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Supplementation with L-arginine or fresh food with high content of this amino acid is associated with favorable effects in the metabolic control of diabetes. We aimed to determine whether supplementation with apples enriched with L-arginine offer additional benefits compared to L-arginine by itself in a preclinical study of diabetes. This study combines food-engineer technologies with in vivo and in vitro analysis. In vitro experiments show that cells derived from non-diabetic animals and exposed to high glucose (25 mM, 12 H) and cells isolated from alloxan-induced diabetic animals exhibited a reduction (?50%) in the L-arginine uptake. This effect was reverted by L-arginine pretreatment (12 H) in both the normal and diabetes-derived cells. In preclinical studies, normoglycemic (n = 25) and diabetic groups (n = 50) were divided into subgroups that received either L-arginine (375 mg/kg per 10 days) or apple enriched with L-arginine or vehicle (control). In a preliminary analysis, supplementation with L-arginine by itself (50%) or apple enriched with L-arginine (100%) improve survival rate in the diabetic group compared to control (0%) at the end of the follow up (17 days). This phenomenon was associated with a partial but sustained high plasma level of L-arginine, as well as plasma concentration of nitrites and insulin in the L-arginine or apple + L-arginine groups after supplementation. Apple + L-arginine supplementation in diabetic animals induced the highest and longest effects in the level of these three markers among the studied groups. Therefore, apple enriched by L-arginine offers more benefits than L-arginine by itself in this preclinical study. PMID:23553786

Escudero, Andrea; Petzold, Guillermo; Moreno, Jorge; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Junod, Julio; Aguayo, Claudio; Acurio, Jesenia; Escudero, Carlos

2013-01-01

130

Virtual Models of Long-Term Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

2012-01-01

131

Long Term TOA - M Data and Information  

A Long-Term TOA and Constrained Surface Radiation Budget Project ... (TOA) and surface is a fundamental quantity governing climate variability and, for that reason, NASA has been making concerted ... utilizes knowledge gained in the last 10 years through CERES data analyses and apply the knowledge to existing data to develop long-term ...

2014-08-06

132

Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  

MedlinePLUS

Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program (OAA, Title VII, Chapter 2, Sections 711/712) The Purpose of the Program and How it ... Services Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2013 indicate that ...

133

A Randomized Pilot Study of L-Arginine Infusion in Severe Falciparum Malaria: Preliminary Safety, Efficacy and Pharmacokinetics  

PubMed Central

Background Decreased nitric oxide (NO) and hypoargininemia are associated with severe falciparum malaria and may contribute to severe disease. Intravenous L-arginine increases endothelial NO in moderately-severe malaria (MSM) without adverse effects. The safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of L-arginine or other agents to improve NO bioavailability in severe malaria have not been assessed. Methods In an open-label pilot study of L-arginine in adults with severe malaria (ARGISM-1 Study), patients were randomized to 12 g L-arginine hydrochloride or saline over 8 hours together with intravenous artesunate. Vital signs, selected biochemical measures (including blood lactate and L-arginine) and endothelial NO bioavailability (using reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry [RH-PAT]) were assessed serially. Pharmacokinetic analyses of L-arginine concentrations were performed using NONMEM. Results Six patients received L-arginine and two saline infusions. There were no deaths in either group. There were no changes in mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or other vital signs with L-arginine, although a transient but clinically unimportant mean maximal decrease in SBP of 14 mmHg was noted. No significant changes in mean potassium, glucose, bicarbonate, or pH were seen, with transient mean maximal increases in plasma potassium of 0.3 mmol/L, and mean maximal decreases in blood glucose of 0.8 mmol/L and bicarbonate of 2.3 mEq/L following L-arginine administration. There was no effect on lactate clearance or RH-PAT index. Pharmacokinetic modelling (n?=?4) showed L-arginine concentrations 40% lower than predicted from models developed in MSM. Conclusion In the first clinical trial of an adjunctive treatment aimed at increasing NO bioavailability in severe malaria, L-arginine infused at 12 g over 8 hours was safe, but did not improve lactate clearance or endothelial NO bioavailability. Future studies may require increased doses of L-arginine. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NTC00616304 PMID:23922746

Yeo, Tsin W.; Lampah, Daniel A.; Rooslamiati, Indri; Gitawati, Retno; Tjitra, Emiliana; Kenangalem, Enny; Price, Ric N.; Duffull, Stephen B.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

2013-01-01

134

Protective effect of lawsone on L-Arginine induced acute pancreatitis in rats.  

PubMed

The efficacy of lawsone against L-arginine induced acute pancreatitis was determined at 24 h by determination of serum levels of amylase, lipase and proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, C-reactive proteins and interleukin (IL)], pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], nitrate/nitrite levels, and the wet weight/body weight ratio. Lawsone and methylprednisolone treatments significantly attenuated the L-arginine- induced increases in pancreatic wet weight/body weight ratio, and decreased the serum levels of amylase and lipase, and TNF-alpha and IL-6 and significantly lowered pancreatic levels of MPO, TBARS, and nitrate/nitrite. The histoimmunological findings further proved the amelioration of pancreatic injury by lawsone and further proved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent property of lawsone. PMID:23678547

Biradar, Sandeep; Veeresh, B

2013-03-01

135

Synthesis and characterization of nonlinear optical L-arginine semi-oxalate single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-arginine semi-oxalate single crystals have been synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses has been made to confirm the triclinic structure with non-centrosymmetric space group P1. The presence of functional groups of L-arginine semi-oxalate crystals was identified and confirmed by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Molecular structure of the grown crystal was analyzed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR studies. Optical absorption studies carried out in wavelength range from 250 nm to 1200 nm have revealed that the material is completely transparent for the entire wavelength range studied. Thermal characterization using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry studies show that the crystal is thermally stable up to 146 °C. The presence of second harmonic generation of the grown crystal was tested and its efficiency was determined by using Kurtz and Perry powder technique.

Vasudevan, P.; Gokul Raj, S.; Sankar, S.

2013-04-01

136

Growth and characterization of L-arginine sulphate: A new nanocrystal with non linear optical behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-arginine combines with a variety of salts and acids to form a potential non-linear optical material. Nano crystals of L-arginine-Sulphate (LAS) have been grown from solution by the slow evaporation technique for the first time. The single phase formation has been verified by XRD studies. TEM studies confirm the formation of nanocrystallites of particle size of about 34nm. The optical absorption studies shows presence of a sharp UV cut-off region at 239.57nm. Further the presence of wide transparency window in the entire visible region shows its use for optoelectronic applications. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) confirms the presence of potassium and sulphur in the grown nanocrystal of LAS. Fungus growth has been avoided by subjecting the solution to pre-heat treatment. Preliminary studies indicate presence of non-linear optical (NLO) response.

Khandpekar, M. M.; Patil, Smita S.

2013-06-01

137

Rapid, one-pot synthesis of highly-soluble carbon nanotubes functionalized by L-arginine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a necessary step to exploit their valuable properties. Due to having several steps and especially acid treatment, most of current methods of functionalization result in irrecoverable defects on CNTs structure. Here, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with L-arginine in a simple, one-pot and rapid microwave-assisted technique without any acid treatment step. The CNT functionalities were analyzed with infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results confirmed the covalent functionalization of L-arginine with very low defects on CNTs. Also it is found that increase of input powers of microwave in the range 500-900 W, monotonically increase the degree of functionalization. The maximum dispersibility of MWCNT was found ˜1.03 mg/mL corresponding to 900 W irradiation. Accounting considerable low treatment time, the method may be applied for large-scale solubilization of MWCNTs in an industrial scale.

Ghiadi, Behnam; Baniadam, Majid; Maghrebi, Morteza; Amiri, Ahmad

2013-04-01

138

Long-term care in North Carolina.  

PubMed

Much of long-term care is not considered health care, as it is custodial, social, and supportive. But excellent long-term care is also preventive, timely, and accessible, and it provides space for long-term care recipients to find joy and meaning in their lives. This issue of the NCMJ provides abroad overview of long-term care, practical information about programs in our state, and tips for how to make use of these programs. Commentaries and sidebars in this issue also highlight new ideas, innovation, and transformation. This issue brief sets the stage by describing major events that have shaped the current framework of long-term care services and supports. It also discusses current trends that are influencing long-term care, including the emphasis on quality improvement methods, culture change, health care reform, the influence of geriatrics in primary care, and the desire for home-based care. Although we are not yet where we want to be in North Carolina, we are moving toward a long-term care system that will serve all North Carolinians well. PMID:25237870

White, Heidi K

2014-01-01

139

Macrophage oxidation of L-arginine to nitrite and nitrate: nitric oxide is an intermediate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that murine macrophages immunostimulated with interferon ..gamma.. and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide synthesize NOâ⁻, NOâ⁻, and citrulline from L-arginine by oxidation of one of the two chemically equivalent guanido nitrogens. The enzymatic activity for this very unusual reaction was found in the 100,000g supernatant isolated from activated RAW 264.7 cells and was totally absent in unstimulated cells.

Michael A. Marletta; Poksyn S. Yoon; Radha Iyengar; Cynthia D. Leaf; John S. Wishnok

1988-01-01

140

Excess L-arginine restores endothelium-dependent relaxation impaired by monocrotaline pyrrole  

SciTech Connect

The pyrrolizidine alkaloid plant toxin monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP) causes pulmonary hypertension in experimental animals. The present study aimed to examine the effects of MCTP on the endothelium-dependent relaxation. We constructed an in vitro disease model of pulmonary hypertension by overlaying MCTP-treated bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPAEs) onto pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell-embedded collagen gel lattice. Acetylcholine (Ach) induced a relaxation of the control CPAEs-overlaid gels that were pre-contracted with noradrenaline, and the relaxation was inhibited by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). In contrast, when MCTP-treated CPAEs were overlaid, the pre-contracted gels did not show a relaxation in response to Ach in the presence of 0.5 mM L-arginine. Expression of endothelial NOS protein, Ach-induced Ca{sup 2+} transients and cellular uptake of L-[{sup 3}H]arginine were significantly smaller in MCTP-treated CPAEs than in control cells, indicating that these changes were responsible for the impaired NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. Since cellular uptake of L-[{sup 3}H]arginine linearly increased according to its extracellular concentration, we hypothesized that the excess concentration of extracellular L-arginine might restore NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. As expected, in the presence of 10 mM L-arginine, Ach showed a relaxation of the MCTP-treated CPAEs-overlaid gels. These results indicate that the impaired NO production in damaged endothelial cells can be reversed by supplying excess L-arginine.

Cheng Wei [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan); Oike, Masahiro [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan)]. E-mail: moike@pharmaco.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Hirakawa, Masakazu [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan); Ohnaka, Keizo [Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan); Koyama, Tetsuya [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan); Ito, Yushi [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82 (Japan)

2005-09-15

141

Regulation of Tracheal Ciliary Beat Frequency by Nitric Oxide Synthase Substrate L-Arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Our purpose was to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) synthase substrate L-arginine (L-arg) in the regulation of airway ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Methods: We studied the effects of L-arg on CBF of rabbit tracheal epithelial cells by using high-speed digital microscopy and determined the expression and distribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase

Jian Jiao; Demin Han; Na Meng; Shanzhe Jin; Luo Zhang

2010-01-01

142

Thermal, mechanical, electrical, linear and nonlinear optical properties of L-arginine dihydrofluoride single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-arginine dihydrofluoride of dimensions upto 15×10×9 mm 3 was successfully grown by slow evaporation technique from aqueous solution. The crystal was characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, thermal and microhardness studies. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the crystal were studied as function of frequency. Photoconductivity studies were also carried out on the sample. Kurtz powder SHG measurement confirms the NLO property of the grown crystals.

Sankar, D.; Menon, Vinay Raj; Sagayaraj, P.; Madhavan, J.

2010-01-01

143

Synthesis and characterization of bis(thiourea)zinc chloride doped with l-arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystals of bis(thiourea)zinc chloride (BTZC) doped with basic amino acid l-arginine were grown successfully by slow evaporation method at ambient temperature. The doped crystals are optically better and more transparent than the pure ones having wide transmission spectra lying between 280 and 2000nm. The comparative study of solubility curve shows a slight reduction in the solubility of the doped

Sweta Moitra; Tanusree Kar

2009-01-01

144

Construction and phenotypic characterization of an auxotrophic mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis defective in L-arginine biosynthesis.  

PubMed

A mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis defective in the metabolism of L-arginine was constructed by allelic exchange mutagenesis. The argF mutant strain required exogenous L-arginine for growth in vitro, and in the presence of 0.96 mM L-arginine, it achieved a growth rate and cell density in stationary phase comparable to those of the wild type. The mutant strain was also able to grow in the presence of high concentrations of argininosuccinate, but its auxotrophic phenotype could not be rescued by L-citrulline, suggesting that the DeltaargF::hyg mutation exerted a polar effect on the downstream argG gene but not on argH. The mutant strain displayed reduced virulence in immunodeficient SCID mice and was highly attenuated in immunocompetent DBA/2 mice, suggesting that L-arginine availability is restricted in vivo. PMID:12011001

Gordhan, Bhavna G; Smith, Debbie A; Alderton, Heidi; McAdam, Ruth A; Bancroft, Gregory J; Mizrahi, Valerie

2002-06-01

145

One-Pot Green Synthesis and Bioapplication of l-Arginine-Capped Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-soluble l-arginine-capped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using a one-pot and green method. Nontoxic, renewable and inexpensive reagents including FeCl3, l-arginine, glycerol and water were chosen as raw materials. Fe3O4 nanoparticles show different dispersive states in acidic and alkaline solutions for the two distinct forms of surface binding l-arginine. Powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the structure of Fe3O4 nanocrystals. The products behave like superparamagnetism at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 49.9 emu g-1 and negligible remanence or coercivity. In the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride, the anti-chloramphenicol monoclonal antibodies were connected to the l-arginine-capped magnetite nanoparticles. The as-prepared conjugates could be used in immunomagnetic assay.

Lai, Yongchao; Yin, Weiwei; Liu, Jinting; Xi, Rimo; Zhan, Jinhua

2010-02-01

146

Comparative study of two ATP : L-arginine phosphotransferases of molecular weight 84 000.  

PubMed

Solen ensisensis muscle arginine kinase (ATP : L-arginine phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.3.3) was isolated in an homogeneous state. Its molecular weight was found to be about 80 000. The properties of this enzyme were compared with those of arginine kinase from Sipunculus nudus, an enzyme which also has a molecular weight of about 80 000. Both enzymes have several reactive thiol groups (8 thiol groups in the Solen kinase and 12 in the Sipunculus enzyme were titrateable with 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic) acid and histidine residues (both enzymes have 6 reactive histidine residues). These kinases were, therefore, highly susceptible to oxidation. Both enzymes show the same pH optimum and absolute specificity towards the guanidine substrate, L-arginine. The reaction kinetics of both enzymes are of the sequential type. In the presence of alpha-aminoacids of Mg2+-ADP, similar spectral effects were obtained. The enzymes differ in their enzymic activities and in their rate of recovery following urea denaturation. The most important difference that appeared to be a special feature of the Sipunculus enzyme is that the spectrum of the Mg2+-ADP-enzyme complex is strongly intensified by L-arginine. PMID:164227

Thiem, N V; Lacombe, G; Thoai, N V

1975-01-23

147

Improvement of L-arginine production by overexpression of a bifunctional ornithine acetyltransferase in Corynebacterium crenatum.  

PubMed

Ornithine acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.35; OATase) gene (argJ) from the L-arginine-producing mutant Corynebacterium crenatum SYPA5-5 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Analysis of the argJ sequence revealed that the argJ coded a polypeptide of 388 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 39.7 kDa. In this study, the function of the OATase (argJ) of C. crenatum SYPA5-5 has been identified as a conserved ATML sequence for the autolysis of the protein to ?- and ?-subunits. When the argJ regions corresponding to the ?- and ?-subunits were cloned and expressed separately in E. coli BL21, OATase activities were abolished. At the same time, a functional study revealed that OATase from C. crenatum SYPA5-5 was a bifunctional enzyme with the functions of acetylglutamate synthase (EC 2.3.1.1, NAGS) and acetylornithine deacetylase (EC 3.5.1.16, AOase) activities. In order to investigate the effects of the overexpression of the argJ gene on L: -arginine production, the argJ gene was inserted into pJCtac to yield the recombinant shuttle plasmid pJCtac-argJ and then transformed into C. crenatum SYPA5-5. The results showed that the engineered strains could not only express more OATase (90.9%) but also increase the production of L: -arginine significantly (16.8%). PMID:21785983

Dou, Wenfang; Xu, Meijuan; Cai, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Rao, Zhiming; Xu, Zhenghong

2011-10-01

148

Interleukin 1 induces prolonged L-arginine-dependent cyclic guanosine monophosphate and nitrite production in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed Central

The cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) inhibits contractile responses in rat aorta by causing endothelium-independent and prolonged activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. The present study tested whether IL-1 activates guanylate cyclase by inducing prolonged production of nitric oxide in cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). IL-1 induced a marked time-dependent increase in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in VSMC which was significant at 6 h, and increased progressively for up to 36 h. This effect of IL-1 was abolished when protein synthesis was inhibited with cycloheximide or actinomycin D, suggesting that the effect of IL-1 involves new protein synthesis. IL-1-induced cGMP accumulation was inhibited by the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitors, methylene blue, LY83583, and hemoglobin and by the L-arginine analogue NGmonomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). The inhibitory effect of L-NMMA was reversed by a 10-fold excess of L-arginine, but not by D-arginine. Nitrite, an oxidation product of nitric oxide, accumulated in the media of VSMC incubated with IL-1 for 24 h in the presence of L-arginine, whereas both IL-1-induced cGMP accumulation and nitrite production were attenuated in VSMC incubated in L-arginine-deficient medium. In L-arginine-depleted VSMC, IL-1-induced cGMP accumulation was restored to control levels by a 15-min incubation with L-arginine. These results demonstrate that IL-1 activates guanylate cyclase in rat VSMC by inducing production of nitric oxide via a pathway dependent on extracellular L-arginine. Images PMID:1671393

Beasley, D; Schwartz, J H; Brenner, B M

1991-01-01

149

[The effect of agmatine on L-arginine metabolism in erythrocytes under streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats].  

PubMed

The effects of agmatine on oxidative and nonoxidative metabolic pathways of L-arginine were investigated both in plasma and erythrocytes under experimental diabetes mellitus. It was indicated, that agmatine prevents the development of oxidative-nitrosative stress in diabetic rats. After treatment of animals by agmatine NO-synthase methabolic pathway of L-arginine is depressed whereas arginase one increases in erythrocytes of rats with experimental diabetes mellitus. PMID:22860402

Ferents, I V; Brodiak, I V; Liuta, M Ia; Burda, V A; Fedorovych, A M; Sybirna, N O

2012-01-01

150

The effect of L-arginine and L-NAME on myocardial capillary density in normal rats  

PubMed Central

Background: This study evaluated the effect of L-arginine (Nitric Oxide (NO) precursor) and L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) (NO synthase inhibitor) on myocardial capillary density in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups: Group 1: Received L-NAME (10 mg/kg/day; ip), Group 2: Received L-arginine (50 mg/kg/day; ip), and Group 3 (control) received normal saline. After 3 weeks, blood samples were taken and myocardial capillary density was evaluated using immunohistochemistry method. Results: Serum NO concentration in control group was 6.45 ± 0.44 ?mol/lit. Treatment of animals with L-arginine increased serum NO concentration (7.90 ± 0.75 vs. 6.45 ± 0.44 ?mol/lit, respectively) and L-NAME decreased (4.86 ± 0.40 vs. 6.45 ± 0.44 ?mol/lit, respectively) compare to control group. L-arginine significantly increased serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration (353.01 ± 7.03 vs. 100.5 ± 6.61 pg/ml; P < 0.05), however, did not change myocardial capillary density. Conclusion: Although L-arginine alters some serum angiogenic factors, either L-arginine or L-NAME could not improve myocardial capillary density in normal rats. PMID:24223382

Khazaei, Majid; Moshayedi, Muhammad Amin; Jervekani, Massoud Teimouri; Aghili, Shahrzad; Montazer, Saeed; Dastjerdi, Roshanak Mehdipour; Hashemzehi, Fazlolah; Jazi, Hourossadat Hashemi

2013-01-01

151

Lessons from Long-term Studies  

E-print Network

Lessons from Long-term Studies Gordon Reeves U.S. Forest Service PNW Research Station Corvallis #12 for a watershed and reaches to produce fish depends on inherent features #12;#12;Elk River Chinook Salmon Numbers

152

State Medicaid Programs (Long-Term Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... your family by thinking ahead and making your decisions known. Costs & How to Pay Long-term care is expensive, but there are several ways ... is a joint federal and state government program that helps people with low income and ...

153

Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

154

Prevention of muscle fibers atrophy during gravitational unloading: The effect of L-arginine administration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational unloading results in pronounced atrophy of m.soleus. Probably, the output of NO is controlled by the muscle activity. We hypothesized that NO may be involved in the protein metabolism and increase of its concentration in muscle can prevent atrophic changes induced by gravitational unloading. In order to test the hypothesis we applied NO donor L-arginine during gravitational unloading. 2.5-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 220-230g were divided into sedentary control group (CTR, n=7), 14-day hindlimb suspension (HS, n=7), 14 days of hindlimb suspension+ L-arginine (HSL, n=7) (with a daily supplementation of 500 mg/kg wt L-arginine) and 14 days of hindlimb suspension+ L-NAME (HSN, n=7) (90 mg/kg wt during 14 days). Cross sectional area (CSA) of slow twitch (ST) and fast twitch (FT) soleus muscle fibers decreased by 45% and 28% in the HS group ( p<0.05) and 40% and 25% in the HSN group, as compared to the CTR group ( p<0.05), respectively. CSA of ST and FT muscle fibers were 25% and 16% larger in the HSL group in comparison with the HS group ( p<0.05), respectively. The atrophy of FT muscle fibers in the HSL group was completely prevented since FT fiber CSA had no significant differences from the CTR group. In HS group, the percentage of fibers revealing either gaps/disruption of the dystrophin layer of the myofiber surface membrane increased by 27% and 17%, respectively, as compared to the controls (CTR group, p<0.05). The destructions in dystrophin layer integrity and reductions of desmin content were significantly prevented in HSL group. NO concentration decreased by 60% in the HS group (as well as HSN group) and at the same time no changes were detectable in the HSL group. This fact indicates the compensation of NO content in the unloaded muscle under L-arginine administration. The levels of atrogin-1 mRNA were considerably altered in suspended animals (HS group: plus 27%, HSL group: minus 13%) as compared to the control level. Conclusion: L-arginine administration allows maintaining NO concentration in m.soleus at the level of cage control group, prevents from dystrophin layer destruction, decreases the atrogin mRNA concentration in the muscle and atrophy level under gravitational unloading.

Kartashkina, N.; Lomonosova, Y.; Shevchenko, T. F.; Bugrova, A. E.; Turtikova, O. V.; Kalamkarov, G. R.; Nemirovskaya, T. L.

2011-05-01

155

Who Should Buy Long-Term Bonds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to conventional wisdom, long-term bonds are appropriate for conservative long-term investors. This paper develops a model of optimal consumption and portfolio choice for infinite-lived investors with recursive utility who face stochastic interest rates, solves the model using an approximate analytical method, and evaluates conventional wisdom. As risk aversion increases, the myopic component of risky asset demand disappears but the

John Y. Campbell; Luis M. Viceira

2001-01-01

156

Long-term solar activity predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for long term solar activity predictions is addressed. The spatial organization of solar activity is described including applications for predictions, and ancient evidence for solar variability. Methods of predicting sunspot numbers are discussed. The inherent accuracy of the methods varies considerably, but a typical error bar 20%. The accuracy of sunspot cycle predictions is considered along with long term predictions of great solar events.

Mcintosh, P. S.; Brown, G. M.; Buhmann, R.; Clark, T.; Fougere, P. F.; Hunter, H.; Lincoln, J. V.; Sargent, H. H., III; Timothy, J. G.; Lin, Y. Z.

1979-01-01

157

Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516

2013-01-01

158

N(G)-nitro-L-arginine and its methyl ester inhibit brain synthesis of kynurenic acid possibly via nitric oxide-independent mechanism.  

PubMed

The effect of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on the brain production of endogenous glutamate receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid, was estimated in vitro. Under standard incubation conditions N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, but not N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, up to 5 mM, or 7-nitroindazole, up to 100 microM, inhibited de novo synthesis of kynurenic acid in cortical slices. However, during prolonged incubation, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester also reduced the production of kynurenic acid. The substrate for NOS, L-arginine (up to 5 mM), did not influence kynurenic acid synthesis and did not reverse the N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-evoked changes, suggesting that the observed effects are not related to disturbed generation of NO. Enzymatic studies revealed that N(G)-nitro-L-arginine and its methyl ester blocked the activity of brain kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) I. The activity of KAT II was diminished only by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine. Kinetic analyses have shown that N(G)-nitro-L-arginine and its methyl ester reduce Vmax and increase Km of KAT I, whereas N(G)-nitro-L-arginine diminishes Vmax of KAT II. In conclusion, we report that N(G)-nitro-L-arginine and its methyl ester impair brain synthesis of kynurenic acid, probably via NO-independent mechanism, what could contribute, at least partially, to the enhancement of neurotoxicity or seizures observed in some experimental designs based on their use. PMID:11985333

Luchowski, P; Kocki, T; Urba?ska, E M

2001-01-01

159

Evaluation of the Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Rates of Oral Antidiabetic Prescribing in Accordance with Guidelines and Manufacturer Recommendations in Type 2 Diabetic Patients within a Long-Term Care Setting  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study assessed the prevalence of moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) among nursing home (NH) residents with type 2 diabetes. The pattern of oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) use and their concordance with the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guideline and prescribing information (PI) was also assessed. About half (47%) of diabetic residents had moderate to severe CKD. A little over a quarter of the 186 residents using OADs received at least one NKF-discordant OAD prescription. Metformin was the most commonly misused OAD. PI nonconcordance was observed in 58.6% of residents and was highest in glipizide and metformin users. With the high prevalence of moderate to severe CKD in NH residents with diabetes, physicians should consider residents' renal function when choosing treatment plans and review treatments regularly to check compliance with the NKF guidelines or PIs. PMID:24719761

Wu, Ning; Greene, Mallik; Oderda, Gary

2014-01-01

160

The US Long Term Ecological Research Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience describes Long Term Ecological Research program in the US. The 24 projects of the National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research Network, whose sites range from the poles to the Tropics, from rain forests to tundras and deserts, and from offshore marine to estuarine and freshwater habitats, address fundamental and applied ecological issues that can be understood only through a long-term approach. Each project addresses different ecological questions; even the scale of research differs across sites. Projects in the network are linked by the requirement for some research at each site on five core areas, including primary production, decomposition, and trophic dynamics, and by cross-site comparisons, which are aided by the universally available databases. Many species and environmental variables are studied, and a wide range of synthetic results have been generated.

JOHN E. HOBBIE, STEPHEN R. CARPENTER, NANCY B. GRIMM, JAMES R. GOSZ, and TIMOTHY R. SEASTEDT (;)

2003-01-01

161

Long-term outcomes after severe shock.  

PubMed

Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ?1 ?g/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below US population norms (P < 0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety, and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full-time. Early survivors of severe shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely critically ill patients have similar outcomes to general intensive care unit survivor populations. PMID:25394248

Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

2015-02-01

162

Different effects of L-arginine on morphine tolerance in sham and ovariectomized female mice*  

PubMed Central

Objective: The roles of gonadal hormones and nitric oxide (NO) on the analgesic effects of morphine, tolerance to morphine, and their interactions have been widely investigated. In the present study, the effect of L-arginine (an NO precursor) on morphine tolerance in sham and ovariectomized (OVX) female mice was investigated. Methods: Forty mice were divided into sham and OVX groups. On the first day, a hot plate test ((55±0.2) °C; cut-off 30 s) was carried out as a base record 15 min before injection of morphine (10 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)) and was repeated every 15 min after injection. The sham group was then divided into two subgroups: sham-tolerance-L-arginine (Sham-Tol-LA) and sham-tolerance-saline (Sham-Tol-Sal) which received either L-arginine 50 mg/kg (intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or saline 10 ml/kg (i.p.), respectively, three times in a day for three consecutive days. Morphine tolerance was induced in animals by injecting 30 mg/kg morphine (s.c.) three times/day for three days. This treatment was also used for OVX subgroups. On the fifth day, the hot plate test was repeated. The analgesic effect of morphine was calculated as the maximal percent effect (MPE). The results were compared using repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: There was no significant difference in MPE between the OVX and sham groups. The MPEs in both the Sham-Tol-Sal and OVX-Tol-Sal groups were lower than those in both the sham and OVX groups (P<0.01). The MPE in the OVX-Tol-Sal group was greater than that in the Sham-Tol-Sal group (P<0.01). The MPE in the Sham-Tol-LA group was higher than that in the Sham-Tol-Sal group (P<0.01). However, there was no significant difference between the Sham-Tol-LA and sham groups or between the OVX-Tol-LA and OVX-Tol-Sal groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that repeated administration of morphine causes tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. L-Arginine could prevent tolerance to morphine but its effect was different in the presence of ovarian hormones. PMID:22135151

Karami, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Khodabandehloo, Fatimeh; Khatami, Leila; Taiarani, Zahra

2011-01-01

163

X-ray radiation of poly-L-arginine hydrochloride and multilayered DNA-coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to determine the chemical changes induced in thin films of the dry polypeptide poly-L-arginine hydrochloride and its mixture with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) during 5 h of soft X-ray exposure. The physical and chemical effects of the soft X-ray irradiation were studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Analysis of O1 s, N1 s and C1 s features in XPS spectra reveals the existence of several routes of radiation-induced decomposition and shows quantitative and qualitative changes.

Stypczy?ska, Agnieszka; Nixon, Tony; Mason, Nigel

2014-11-01

164

Growth and characterization of NLO based L-arginine maleate dihydrate single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of L-arginine maleate dihydrate (LAMD) were successfully grown from aqueous solution by solvent evaporation technique. As-grown crystals were analyzed by different instrumentation techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and UV-vis near infrared (NIR) transmittance spectra. Thermal behavior has been studied with TGA/DTA analyses. The optical second harmonic generation (SHG) conversion efficiency of LAMD was determined using Kurtz powder technique and found to be 1.5 times that of KDP.

Baraniraj, T.; Philominathan, P.

2010-01-01

165

Long-term survival of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension recovering to World Health Organization functional class I or II: a historical comparison between intravenous epoprostenol and oral agents  

PubMed Central

Background Intravenous epoprostenol is the only drug proved in a randomized study to reduce mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, administration of this drug has procedural difficulties and a risk of sepsis. Oral drugs provide simple treatment, but their benefit for survival has not been proven. A recovery of patients with PAH to World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC) I or II may predict favorable survival. Methods Survival analyses were performed on a historical cohort of 41 patients with PAH. The patients were 43?±?22 years old, 23 had idiopathic or heritable PAH, and 18 had connective tissue disease-associated PAH. The baseline was defined as the initial visit to a medical facility. Results The median duration of follow-up was 1276 days (108 to 5389 days) and 21 patients died during this period. The estimated survival times for patients who received intravenous epoprostenol and did and did not recover to WHO-FC I or II were 4371?±?577 days and 1172?±?404 days, respectively. These times for patients who were not treated with intravenous epoprostenol and did and did not recover to WHO-FC I or II were 4717?±?554 days and 925?±?230 days, respectively. A Cox proportional hazard analysis gave a hazard ratio for death after recovery to WHO-FC I or II of 0.07 (P?

2014-01-01

166

Effect of L-arginine on the catalytic activity and stability of nickel nanoparticles for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous nickel catalysts were synthesized by reducing the nickel(II) species in an aqueous NaBH4/NH3BH3 solution with and without L-arginine. The nickel catalyst with L-arginine maintains relatively high activity for hydrolysis of NH3BH3 to generate a stoichiometric amount of hydrogen with the cycle number up to 11 (827 mL s-1 (mol-Ni)-1 at the 11th cycle with L-arginine = 35 mg), while the reaction rate in the presence of the bare nickel catalyst was relatively low through the cycle number up to 11 (232 mL s-1 (mol-Ni)-1 at the 11th cycle). After catalytic reaction, the nickel catalyst with L-arginine possesses the high dispersion (diameters of nickel nanoparticles <5 nm), while the agglomerate of nickel in the bare nickel catalyst is observed. The results indicate that L-arginine maintains the dispersion of nickel nanoparticles (diameters of nickel nanoparticles <10 nm), leading to higher activity against cycle tests than the bare nickel catalyst.

Umegaki, Tetsuo; Xu, Qiang; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

2012-10-01

167

Evidence for down-regulation of GABA receptors following long-term gamma-butyrolactone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term oral administration (12 weeks) of ?-butyrolactone (GBL) to mice resulted in pharmacological and neurochemical changes which may be interpreted as a decrease in GABA-mediated synaptic activity. The depression in motor activity produced by the GABA-mimetic muscimol was reduced following long-term GBL. The binding of GABA to its putative receptor was reduced in the GBL group as evidenced by a

G. Gianutsos; P. D. Suzdak

1984-01-01

168

Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine,

J. Gosz

2001-01-01

169

Evaluating Long-Term Disability Insurance Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report analyzes the factors involved in reviewing benefits and services of employer-sponsored group long-term disability plans for higher education institutions. Opening sections describe the evolution of disability insurance and its shape today. Further sections looks at the complex nature of "value" within a plan, relationship between plan…

Powell, Jan

1992-01-01

170

Long-Term Impacts of Educational Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school accountability movement has led to a marked increase in the use of standardized test scores to measure school and teacher productivity, yet little is known about the correlation between test score gains and improvements in long-term outcomes. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I study the impact of a school choice policy in…

Deming, David James

2010-01-01

171

Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

Lubinski, Rosemary

2006-01-01

172

Process synchronization without long-term interlock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented for replacing long-term interlocking of shared data by the possible repetition of unprivileged code in case a version number (associated with the shared data) has been changed by another process. Four principles of operating system architecture (which have desirable effects on the intrinsic reliability of a system) are presented; implementation of a system adhering to these

William B. Easton

1972-01-01

173

Process synchronization without long-term interlock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented for replacing long-term interlocking of shared data by the possible repetition of unprivileged code in case a version number (associated with the shared data) has been changed by another process. Four principles of operating system architecture (which have desirable effects on the intrinsic reliability of a system) are presented; implementation of a system adhering to these

William B. Easton

1971-01-01

174

Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected

Dominique Robert; Laurent Argaud

2007-01-01

175

Cigarette smoking in long-term schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. – Cigarette smoking is a great health problem and prevalent among subjects with schizophrenia. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and associations of cigarette smoking in patients with long-term schizophrenia.Methods. – Seven hundred and sixty schizophrenia patients were interviewed and their cigarette smoking was recorded.Results. – Smoking was more prevalent men than in women patients. In logistic regression

R. K. R. Salokangas; T. Honkonen; E. Stengård; A.-M. Koivisto; J. Hietala

2006-01-01

176

NATIONAL LONG TERM CARE SURVEY (NLTCS)  

EPA Science Inventory

National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...

177

Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of

Sarkis Shahin; Celso Duran

2002-01-01

178

Long-Term Stability of Social Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

2008-01-01

179

Long-term complications of chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with cancer are living longer and, therefore, are not only at risk for recurrence of the disease but also for long-term side effects of treatment. For patients treated with chemotherapy, secondary malignancies are a special concern, with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia being the most common. Although typically associated with alkylating agents, this complication is now being seen with use of

Mark A. Morgan; Stephen C. Rubin

1998-01-01

180

Long-Term Opioid Therapy Reconsidered  

PubMed Central

In the past 20 years, primary care physicians have greatly increased prescribing of long-term opioid therapy. However, the rise in opioid prescribing has outpaced the evidence regarding this practice. Increased opioid availability has been accompanied by an epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose. The rate of opioid addiction among patients receiving long-term opioid therapy remains unclear, but research suggests that opioid misuse is not rare. Recent studies report increased risks for serious adverse events, including fractures, cardiovascular events, and bowel obstruction, although further research on medical risks is needed. New data indicate that opioid-related risks may increase with dose. From a societal perspective, higher-dose regimens account for the majority of opioids dispensed, so cautious dosing may reduce both diversion potential and patient risks for adverse effects. Limiting long-term opioid therapy to patients for whom it provides decisive benefits could also reduce risks. Given the warning signs and knowledge gaps, greater caution and selectivity are needed in prescribing long-term opioid therapy. Until stronger evidence becomes available, clinicians should err on the side of caution when considering this treatment. PMID:21893626

Von Korff, Michael; Kolodny, Andrew; Deyo, Richard A.; Chou, Roger

2012-01-01

181

Long-term risks of bisphosphonate therapy.  

PubMed

The objective this study was to summarize long-term risks associated with bisphosphonate therapy. Search of relevant medical publications for data from clinical trials, trial extensions, observational studies and post-marketing reports. Trial extensions and modifications did not reveal significant long-term safety issues. Observational data suggest at least as many benefits as risks. Post-marketing reports of musculoskeletal pain, osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures have been widely circulated in the lay press. Most focus on long-terms risks has been on osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures which occur in patients who have not received bisphosphonate therapy but may be more frequent (though still uncommon) in patients who have been on treatment for 5 years or longer. Lower-risk patients may be able to stop treatment after 3-5 years for a "drug holiday," which mitigates these long-term risks; for higher risk patients, therapy through 6-10 years appears to be advisable and offers more benefits than risks. PMID:25166043

Watts, Nelson B

2014-07-01

182

Long-Term Sequelae of Stroke  

PubMed Central

Scant attention has been paid to the long-term consequences and complications resulting from a stroke. Many stroke survivors go on to develop a variety of medical, musculoskeletal, and psychosocial complications, years after the acute stroke. The family physician is regularly called upon to deal with these problems, but is often hampered by a lack of resources. PMID:21221264

Teasell, Robert W.

1992-01-01

183

Canine generalized demodicosis treated with varying doses of a 2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid spot-on and oral ivermectin: parasiticidal effects and long-term treatment outcomes.  

PubMed

Advocate(®) (2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid) (Bayer HealthCare, Leverkusen, Germany) is a multiparasiticidal spot-on authorized for treating canine demodicosis in many countries. This blinded, randomized three-phase clinical trial compared its efficacy employing different dosing regimens with that of ivermectin. In the blinded first phase, 58 dogs suffering from generalized demodicosis were randomly assigned to one of four groups and treated with monthly, biweekly or weekly applications of Advocate(®), or with oral ivermectin (IVR) at 500 ?g/kg daily. Dogs were evaluated clinically and multiple skin scrapings undertaken every 4 weeks until parasitological cure was achieved (defined as two consecutive series of deep skin scrapings at monthly intervals negative for all life forms). Forty dogs completed the 16-week initial blinded phase, with 5 cases achieving parasitological cure. Five dogs were deemed treatment failures and subsequently treated with ivermectin. The treatment protocol was then changed for the remaining 35 dogs and this cross-over phase (Phase 2) was maintained for a further 8 weeks with an additional 9 dogs achieving parasitological cure. Thereafter, all remaining animals were treated with IVR until cured (Phase 3). Overall, 26 dogs achieved parasitological cure during the clinical investigation. Of these, 23 remained disease-free for at least 12 months while two were lost to follow up and one died of unrelated causes. A total of 32 (55.2%) dogs were withdrawn at various stages of the investigation including the 5 dogs that were judged treatment failures. Other reasons for withdrawal included: non-compliance, lost to follow-up, ivermectin toxicity or reasons unrelated to the investigation. No adverse effects were attributable to the use of Advocate(®). Parasiticidal efficacy was assessed by changes in mite counts (live adult, juvenile and egg) and skin lesion extent & severity scores. Statistical significance was assessed using ANCOVA with initial mite counts or skin scores used as the covariate to account for variations in disease severity. Planned pairwise comparisons were used to identify differences between treatment groups. The efficacy of Advocate(®) increased with its rate of application across all measures of efficacy. Although ivermectin was shown to be more effective than Advocate(®) applied once weekly, both treatment protocols produced clinically satisfactory results. It was concluded that weekly application of Advocate(®) can be recommended as effective for the treatment of canine generalized demodicosis without the potential for toxicity associated with ivermectin. PMID:25262617

Paterson, Tara E; Halliwell, Richard E; Fields, Paul J; Louw, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoff; Louw, Jakobus; Pinckney, Rhonda

2014-10-15

184

Long-term biological investigations in space.  

PubMed

Missions in space within the next two decades will be of longer duration than those carried out up to the present time, and the effects of such long-term flights on biological organisms are unknown. Results of biological experiments that have been performed to date cannot be extrapolated to results in future flights because of the unknown influence of adaptation over a long period of time. Prior experiments with Axolotl, fishes, and vertebrates by our research team (in part with sounding rockets) showed that these specimens did not appear to be suitable for long-term missions on which minimization of expense, technique, and energy is required. Subsequent investigations have shown the suitability of the leech (Hirudo medicinalis), which consumes blood of mammals up to ten times its own weight (1 g) and can live more than 2 years without further food supply. Emphasis in the experiments with Hirudo medicinalis is placed on metabolic rhythm and motility. Resorption and diffusion in tissue, development, and growth under long-term effects of cosmic proton radiation and zero-gravity are other focal points. The constancy of cellular life in the mature animals is a point in favor of these specimens. We have also taken into account the synergistic effects of the space environment on the problems just mentioned. The life-support system constructed for the leech has been tested successfully in four sounding rocket flights and, on that basis, has been prepared for a long-term mission. Long-term investigations out of the terrestrial biosphere will provide us with information concerning the degree of adaptation of certain physiological and biochemical functions and as to what extent biological readjustment or repair processes can occur under the specific stress conditions of space flight. PMID:11841093

Lotz, R G; Fuchs, H; Bertsche, U

1975-01-01

185

Long-Lasting Effects of Oxy- and Sulfoanalogues of L-Arginine on Enzyme Actions  

PubMed Central

Arginine residues are very important for the structure of proteins and their action. Arginine is essential for many natural processes because it has unique ionizable group under physiological conditions. Numerous mimetics of arginine were synthesized and their biological effects were evaluated, but the mechanisms of actions are still unknown. The aim of this study is to see if oxy- and sulfoanalogues of arginine can be recognized by human arginyl-tRNA synthetase (HArgS)—an enzyme responsible for coupling of L-arginine with its cognate tRNA in a two-step catalytic reaction. We make use of modeling and docking studies of adenylate kinase (ADK) to reveal the effects produced by the incorporation of the arginine mimetics on the structure of ADK and its action. Three analogues of arginine, L-canavanine (Cav), L-norcanavanine (NCav), and L-sulfoarginine (sArg), can be recognized as substrates of HArgS when incorporated in different peptide and protein sequences instead of L-arginine. Mutation in the enzyme active center by arginine mimetics leads to conformational changes, which produce a decrease the rate of the enzyme catalyzed reaction and even a loss of enzymatic action. All these observations could explain the long-lasting nature of the effects of the arginine analogues. PMID:24282631

Dzimbova, Tatyana A.; Milanov, Peter B.; Pajpanova, Tamara I.

2013-01-01

186

The Role of Exercise on L-Arginine Nitric Oxide Pathway in Chronic Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a pathological state with high morbidity and mortality and the full understanding of its genesis remain to be elucidated. In this syndrome, a cascade of neurohormonal and hemodynamic mechanisms, as well as inflammatory mediators, are activated to improve the impaired cardiac function. Clinical and experimental observations have shown that CHF is associated with a generalized disturbance in endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which may contribute to the progression of ventricular and vascular remodelling in this syndrome. There is also accumulating evidence that disturbances in nitric oxide (NO) availability is involved in the development of heart failure at the systemic and cardiac levels. NO is a ubiquitous signalling molecule which causes potent vasodilation, inhibits platelet activation and regulates the contractile properties of cardiac myocytes. It is generated from the amino acid L-arginine via constitutive and inducible isoforms of the enzyme NO synthase (NOS). There is evidence that exercise, a nonpharmacological tool, improves symptoms, fitness (VO2peak), quality of life and NO bioavailability in CHF population. This review examines different aspects of the L-arginine-NO pathway and inflammation in the physiopathology of CHF and highlights the important beneficial effects of exercise in this disease. PMID:19911071

Mendes-Ribeiro, A.C; Mann, G.E; de Meirelles, L.R; Moss, M.B; Matsuura, C; Brunini, T.M.C

2009-01-01

187

Spectroscopic and thermal studies of L-arginine doped Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used IR transmission and Raman spectroscopy to study the active doping of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with L-arginine amino acid. In the present investigation, pure and doped KDP crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution method. Although the dominant bands observed in the infrared absorption spectra correspond to KDP crystals, the existence of vibrational lines at 1401 cm-1 (CH2), 1637 cm-1 (COO^-), 1716 cm-1 (NH3^+), and 3127 cm-1 (NH3^+) indicate that successful doping was achieved. This affirmation is further corroborated by the FT-Raman data, where strong lines are observed in the 2800 cm-1 -- 3100 cm-1 region, which is associated with C-H stretching modes of amino acids. The crystal structure and the thermal stability of the samples were also examined by powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric techniques, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrates a decrease of the thermal stability with increasing doping amount. An increase of second harmonic generation efficiency was found with more L-Arginine doping.

Govani, Jayesh; Manciu, Felicia; Joshi, Mihir; Parikh, Ketan; Dave, Dipak

2008-03-01

188

Role of L-arginine in the biological effects of blue light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid, and metabolites of arginine exert multiple biological effects. It has been known that arginine causes the release of various hormones such as insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, prolactin, and adrenal catecholamines. Arginine infusion also produces vasodilation, and in the kidney increased plasma flow accompanied by increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Recent studies have showed that blue and red light irradiation in vitro and in vivo can increase production of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, and related reactive oxygen species (ROS). These then can modulate the production and secretion of several cytokines and other mediators and play an important role as regulatory mediators in signaling processes which can then modulate the production, mobilization and homing of stem cells. It is proposed that some of the therapeutic effects of light can be considered to be due to the changes in the metabolism of L-arginine. The regulation of L-arginine turnover by the use of light at blue wavelengths between 400nm and 510nm can be the explanation for some of the observed effects of blue light: lowering of blood pressure, pain killing effect, regulating insulin production, anti-inflammatory action, and possible effects on the release and homing of stem cells.

Makela, Anu M.

2005-11-01

189

Dual effect of nickel on L-arginine/nitric oxide system in RAW 264.7 macrophages.  

PubMed

The immunogenic mechanisms of the potent contact allergen nickel are not completely clear. Nitric oxide (NO) serves as a fundamental signalling and effector molecule in the immune system, but little is known about its possible role in immune reactions elicited by nickel. We investigated the effects of nickel on the L-arginine/inducible NO synthase (iNOS) system in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Both LPS-stimulated and non-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were incubated in the presence of 0-100 ?M nickel sulphate for 24 h. Subsequently, NO production, iNOS protein expression, L-arginine uptake and gene expression of iNOS and cationic amino acid transporter systems (CAT) were measured. We found that 100 ?M NiSO4 increased LPS-induced nitrite production as well as the formation of [(3)H]-L-citrulline from [(3)H]-L-arginine in the RAW 264.7 cells. Correspondingly, the expression of iNOS gene and protein was also remarkably enhanced. Nevertheless, nickel had an inhibitory effect on L-arginine transport which disappeared gradually upon LPS-stimulation in parallel with an increase in NO output. LPS was found to significantly amplify CAT-3 as well as CAT-2 mRNA expression, mirroring the increase in L-arginine transport. In the range of 1-10 ?M, NiSO4 did not have any additional effect on CAT mRNA expression, but at 100 ?M it was able to enhance CAT-1 and CAT-3 mRNA expression upon LPS stimulation. Our data indicate that nickel interferes with macrophages' L-arginine/NOS system on multiple levels. Considering the potent biological effects of NO, these influences may contribute to nickel toxicity. PMID:23415871

Volke, Annika; Rünkorg, Kertu; Wegener, Gregers; Vasar, Eero; Volke, Vallo

2013-03-01

190

Isotopic study of L-Arginine kinetics in the lung during pseudomonas sepsis in an ovine model  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study is to investigate how L-Arginine pulmonary metabolism is altered in response Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) induced septic conditions using an ovine model. Methods: Seven female sheep were infused with a primed-constant infusion of L-[15N2-guanidino, 5, 5, 2H2] L-Arginine for 28 hs. After the initial 4 hs of the L-Arginine infusion, a continuous infusion of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria started for 24 hs. A NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-Methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA), infusion was added during the last 4 hs of the bacterial infusion. Blood samples were taken at specific time points for isotopic enrichment during control, septic and NOS blocking phases of the study. Results: We observed that the level of total delivery of L-Arginine to the lungs was significantly decreased in septic phase after 24 hours of pseudomonas infusion. In contrast, the fractional uptake and metabolism of L-Arginine by the lungs was doubled during septic phase relative to the control phase (MARG-basal = 100% vs. MARG-septic = 220 ± 56%, P < 0.05). NO production in the lungs was also significantly increased. Infusion of L-NMA markedly blunted this elevated NO production and attenuated the total arginine metabolized in the septic lungs (Mnitrate-septic = 43.6 ± 5.7 vs. Mnitrate-septic + L-NMA = 13.4 ± 5.1 umol/kg/min; p < 0.05). We demonstrated sepsis induced by P. aeruginosa infusion caused an increase in the fractional uptake and metabolic rate of arginine in the lungs. Furthermore, our data suggests that arginine was mainly consumed via arginine – NO pathway, which might be responsible for this enhanced arginine metabolic activity in the septic lungs. PMID:24273695

Xu, Hongzhi; Watson, Davin; Yu, Yong-Ming; Traber, Daniel L; Fischer, Stefani; Nichols, Joan; Deyo, Donald; Traber, Lillian L; Cortiella, Joaquin

2013-01-01

191

Isotopic study of L-Arginine kinetics in the lung during pseudomonas sepsis in an ovine model  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study is to investigate how L-Arginine pulmonary metabolism is altered in response Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) induced septic conditions using an ovine model. Methods: Seven female sheep were infused with a primed-constant infusion of L-[15N2-guanidino, 5, 5, 2H2] L-Arginine for 28 hs. After the initial 4 hs of the L-Arginine infusion, a continuous infusion of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria started for 24 hs. A NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-Methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA), infusion was added during the last 4 hs of the bacterial infusion. Blood samples were taken at specific time points for isotopic enrichment during control, septic and NOS blocking phases of the study. Results: We observed that the level of total delivery of L-Arginine to the lungs was significantly decreased in septic phase after 24 hours of pseudomonas infusion. In contrast, the fractional uptake and metabolism of L-Arginine by the lungs was doubled during septic phase relative to the control phase (MARG-basal = 100% vs. MARG-septic = 220 ± 56%, P < 0.05). NO production in the lungs was also significantly increased. Infusion of L-NMA markedly blunted this elevated NO production and attenuated the total arginine metabolized in the septic lungs (MARG-septic = 220 ± 56% vs. MARG-NO blocking = -25 ± 20%; P < 0.05). We demonstrated sepsis induced by P. aeruginosa infusion caused an increase in the fractional uptake and metabolic rate of arginine in the lungs. Furthermore, our data suggests that arginine was mainly consumed via arginine – NO pathway, which might be responsible for this enhanced arginine metabolic activity in the septic lungs. PMID:24624312

Xu, Hongzhi; Watson, Davin; Yu, Yong-Ming; Traber, Daniel L; Fischer, Stefani; Nichols, Joan; Deyo, Donald; Traber, Lillian L; Cortiella, Joaquin

2014-01-01

192

Recovery of Endothelial Function in Severe Falciparum Malaria: Relationship with Improvement in Plasma L-Arginine and Blood Lactate Concentrations  

PubMed Central

Background Severe malaria is characterized by microvascular obstruction, endothelial dysfunction, and reduced levels of L-arginine and nitric oxide (NO). L-Arginine infusion improves endothelial function in moderately severe malaria. Neither the longitudinal course of endothelial dysfunction nor factors associated with recovery have been characterized in severe malaria. Methods Endothelial function was measured longitudinally in adults with severe malaria (n = 49) or moderately severe malaria (n = 48) in Indonesia, using reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT). In a mixed-effects model, changes in RH-PAT index values in patients with severe malaria were related to changes in parasitemia, lactate, acidosis, and plasma L-arginine concentrations. Results Among patients with severe malaria, the proportion with endothelial dysfunction fell from 94% (46/49 patients) to 14% (6/42 patients) before discharge or death (P <.001). In severe malaria, the median time to normal endothelial function was 49 h (interquartile range, 20–70 h) after the start of antimalarial therapy. The mean increase in L-arginine concentrations in patients with severe malaria was 11 ?mol/L/24 h (95% confidence interval [CI], 9–13 ?mol/L/24 h), from a baseline of 49 ?mol/L (95% CI, 37–45 ?mol/L). Improvement of endothelial function in patients with severe malaria correlated with increasing levels of L-arginine (r = 0.56; P =.008) and decreasing levels of lactate (r = ?0.44; P =.001). Conclusions Recovery of endothelial function in severe malaria is associated with recovery from hypoargininemia and lactic acidosis. Agents that can improve endothelial NO production and endothelial function, such as L-arginine, may have potential as adjunctive therapy early during the course of severe malaria. PMID:18605903

Yeo, Tsin W.; Lampah, Daniel A.; Gitawati, Retno; Tjitra, Emiliana; Kenangalem, Enny; McNeil, Yvette R.; Darcy, Christabelle J.; Granger, Donald L.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Lopansri, Bert K.; Price, Ric N.; Duffull, Stephen B.; Celermajer, David S.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

2009-01-01

193

Long-term potentiation in the hippocampus.  

PubMed

Long-term potentiation of field and single neuronal responses recorded in various hippocampal fields is described on the basis of author's and literary data. Most of intrahippocampal and extrinsic connections in both in vivo and in vitro hippocampal preparations show this phenomenon after one or several conditioning trains of comparatively short duration (20 s or less) at various frequencies (from 10 to 400 Hz). Properties of hippocampal potentiation are described. The properties include long term persistence (hours and days) of the potentiated response, its low frequency depression, self-restoration after the depression, specificity of the potentiation for the tetanized pathway, necessity of activation of a sufficient number of neuronal elements ('cooperativity') to produce the potentiation, possible involvement of 'reinforcing' brain structures during conditioning tetanization. These properties are distinct from those of 'usual' short-term post-tetanic potentiation and lead to the suggestion that the neuronal mechanisms underlying long-term post-tetanic are similar to those underlying memory and behavioral-conditioned reflex. Neurophysiological mechanisms of long-term potentiation are discussed. The main mechanism consists in an increase in efficacy of excitatory synapses as shown by various methods including intracellular recording and quantal analysis. The latter favours presynaptic localization of changes of synaptic efficacy showing increase in the number of transmitter quanta released per presynaptic impulse. However, changes in the number of subsynaptic receptors or localized changes in dendritic postsynaptic membrane are not excluded. Biochemical studies indicate the increase in transmitter release and calcium-dependent phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase after tetanization. Instances of persistent response facilitations at other levels of the vertebrate central nervous system (especially at neocortical level) are considered and compared with hippocampal long-term potentiation. It is suggested that modifiable excitatory synapses necessary for learning have been identified in studies of long-term potentiation. These synapses are presumably modified as a result of close sequential activation of the following three structures: excitatory presynaptic fibers, the postsynaptic neuron and a 'reinforcing' brain system. PMID:6141538

Voronin, L L

1983-12-01

194

Solubility and dissolution kinetics of calcium oxalate renal calculi in solutions containing L-arginine: In-vitro experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of dissolution of calcium oxalate (CaOX) calculi in physiological solutions containing L-arginine at different concentrations were studied using the change in the Archimedean weight of samples immersed in the solution. It was faound that arginine, which is a normal constituent of human urine, acts at increased concentrations as a dissolving agent with respect to CaOX calculi. The possible effect of L-arginine as a natural regulator of CaOX supersaturation and crystalization in human urine is also disscused.

Atanassova, S.

2010-06-01

195

Breakthroughs in long term care design.  

PubMed

In summary, here is what design is trying to accomplish in long term care facilities: Functional access; Privacy as entitlement; Sensory optimization to improve vision and hearing; Reduced walking and wheeling distances that still allow people to be mobile; Effective or functional placement of space and equipment; The option of smaller scale, so neither residents nor staff feel like they are hanging out with a unit full of, perhaps 68, people all the time; Flexibility and adaptability PMID:10130697

Hiatt, L

1991-01-01

196

Long-Term Morbidity of PCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome, economic burden, healthcare cost, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, metabolic\\u000a syndrome, endometrial cancer The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results in a number of immediate and long-term morbidities\\u000a that are associated with a significant impact on quality of life and on economic costs. Immediate morbidities include menstrual\\u000a dysfunction and abnormal uterine bleeding, subfertility and infertility, and androgen excess-related

Ricardo Azziz

197

Emotional behavior in long-term marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction.

Laura L. Carstensen; John M. Gottman; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

198

Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated stimulation of hippocampal neurons can induce an immediate and prolonged increase in synaptic strength that is called long-term potentiation (LTP)-the primary cellular model of memory in the mammalian brain1. An early phase of LTP (lasting less than three hours) can be dissociated from late-phase LTP by using inhibitors of transcription and translation2-8. Because protein synthesis occurs mainly in the

Uwe Frey; Richard G. M. Morris

1997-01-01

199

Electrodes for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.  

PubMed

The emerging application of long-term and high-quality ECG recording requires alternative electrodes to improve the signal quality and recording capability of surface skin electrodes. The esophageal ECG has the potential to overcome these limitations but necessitates novel recorder and lead designs. The electrode material is of particular interest, since the material has to ensure conflicting requirements like excellent biopotential recording properties and inertness. To this end, novel electrode materials like PEDOT and silver-PDMS as well as established electrode materials such as stainless steel, platinum, gold, iridium oxide, titanium nitride, and glassy carbon were investigated by long-term electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and model-based signal analysis using the derived in vitro interfacial properties in conjunction with a dedicated ECG amplifier. The results of this novel approach show that titanium nitride and iridium oxide featuring microstructured surfaces did not degrade when exposed to artificial acidic saliva. These materials provide low electrode potential drifts and insignificant signal distortion superior to surface skin electrodes making them compatible with accepted standards for ambulatory ECG. They are superior to the noble and polarizable metals such as platinum, silver, and gold that induced more signal distortions and are superior to esophageal stainless steel electrodes that corrode in artificial saliva. The study provides rigorous criteria for the selection of electrode materials for prolonged ECG recording by combining long-term in vitro electrode material properties with ECG signal quality assessment. PMID:23649132

Niederhauser, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Jungo, Michael; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Abacherli, Roger; Vogel, Rolf

2013-09-01

200

Long-term mexiletine for ventricular arrhythmia.  

PubMed

Use of mexiletine was evaluated in 313 patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias refractory to conventional antiarrhythmic drugs. Therapy with mexiletine was continued long term in 107 patients who responded to the drug and were free of side effects during a short-term evaluation in hospital. During an average follow-up of 22.8 months (0.1 to 70 months), 19 patients died (17.8%). Eleven patients had sudden death (3.6% per year), while six patients died of progressive congestive heart failure and two of noncardiac causes. Nonfatal ventricular arrhythmia recurred in 14 patients (4.9% per year). Overall, 25 patients had recurrent arrhythmia (incidence of 5.5% per year). Side effects occurred in 13 patients after an average of 5.1 months and were primarily gastrointestinal and neurologic. Sixty-one patients (57%) have continued on mexiletine therapy for an average of 32.2 months (1 to 70 months). Outcome during long-term therapy was not related to drug dose, blood level, or presenting arrhythmia. We conclude that if therapy with mexiletine is carefully evaluated and individualized, the drug is effective and well tolerated during long-term use. PMID:6720534

Stein, J; Podrid, P J; Lampert, S; Hirsowitz, G; Lown, B

1984-05-01

201

Does L-arginine availability during the early pregnancy alters the immune response of Trypanosoma cruzi infected and pregnant Wistar rats?  

PubMed

Chagas disease induces a strong immune response and L-arginine is an essential amino acid which plays an important role in homeostasis of the immune system. The aims of this study were to evaluate parasitemia, corticosterone levels, production of nitric oxide (NO), fetal morphological measurements, and histology of heart and placenta. Twenty pregnant Wistar rats (180-220 g) were grouped in: pregnant control (PC), pregnant control and L-arginine supplied (PCA), pregnant infected (PI), pregnant infected and L-arginine supplied (PIA). Females were infected with 1×10(5) trypomastigotes of the Y strain (3rd day of pregnancy). Animals were supplied with 21 mg of L-arginine/kg/day during 14 days. PIA showed significant decreased levels of corticosterone and parasitemia. For control groups, any alteration in NO production was found with L-arginine supplementation; for PIA, enhanced nitrite concentrations were observed as compared to PI. Weights and lengths of fetuses were higher in L-arginine treated and infected pregnant rats as compared to untreated ones. Placental weight from the PIA group was significantly increased when compared to PI. In L-arginine treated animals, cardiac tissue showed reduced amastigote burdens. PIA and PI displayed similar placental parasitism. Based on these results, L-arginine supplementation may be potentially useful for the protection against Trypanosoma cruzi during pregnancy. PMID:24786713

da Costa, Cássia Mariana Bronzon; de Freitas, Murilo Rodrigues Barbosa; Brazão, Vânia; dos Santos, Carla Domingues; Sala, Miguel Angel; do Prado Júnior, José Clovis; Abrahão, Ana Amélia Carraro

2014-07-01

202

Long-term cholinesterase inhibitor therapy for Alzheimer's disease: Implications for long-term care  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the population ages and Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes more prevalent, nursing facilities will be faced with managing more AD patients than in previous decades. Managing this population will pose a significant challenge for the resources of long-term care facilities. In short-and long-term studies, cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor treatment has been shown to benefit the symptoms of mild to moderate AD.

Sharon A. Brangman

2003-01-01

203

Physicochemical and molecular modeling studies of cefixime-L-arginine-cyclodextrin ternary inclusion compounds.  

PubMed

In an attempt to improve the physicochemical properties of cefixime (CEF), its supramolecular inclusion compounds were prepared with ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) in presence and/or absence of ternary component L-arginine (ARG) using spray drying technique. Initially, the phase solubility studies revealed a stoichiometry of 1:1 molar ratio with an AL-type of phase solubility curve. The stability constants of binary systems were remarkably improved in presence of ARG, indicating positive effect of its addition. The inclusion complexes were characterized by FTIR, XRPD, DSC, SEM, particle size analysis, and dissolution studies. Further, molecular mechanic (MM) calculations were performed to investigate the possible orientations of CEF inside ?CD cavity in presence and/or absence of ternary component. In case of physicochemical studies, the ternary systems performed well as a result of comprehensive effect of ternary complexation and particle size reduction achieved by a spray drying technology. PMID:24053809

Jadhav, Priyanka; Petkar, Bhushan; Pore, Yogesh; Kulkarni, Anita; Burade, Kishorkumar

2013-11-01

204

Bioanalytical profile of the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway and its evaluation by capillary electrophoresis?  

PubMed Central

This review briefly summarizes recent progress in fundamental understanding and analytical profiling of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway. It focuses on key analytical references of NO actions and on the experimental acquisition of these references in vivo, with capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) comprising one of the most flexible and technologically promising analytical platform for comprehensive high-resolution profiling of NO-related metabolites. Second aim of this review is to express demands and bridge efforts of experimental biologists, medical professionals and chemical analysis-oriented scientists who strive to understand evolution and physiological roles of NO and to develop analytical methods for use in biology and medicine. PMID:17329176

Boudko, Dmitri Y.

2007-01-01

205

Ground based experiments on the growth and characterization of L-Arginine Phosphate (LAP) crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

L-Arginine Phosphate (LAP) is a new nonlinear optical material with higher efficiency for harmonic generation compared to KDP. Crystals of LAP were grown in the laboratory from supersaturated solutions by temperature lowering technique. Investigations revealed the presence of large dislocation densities inside the crystals which are observed to produce refractive index changes causing damage at high laser powers. This is a result of the convection during crystal growth from supersaturated solutions. It is proposed to grow these crystals in a diffusion controlled growth condition under microgravity environment and compare the crystals grown in space with those grown on ground. Physical properties of the solutions needed for modelling of crystal growth are also presented.

Rao, S. M.; Cao, C.; Batra, A. K.; Lal, R. B.; Mookherji, T. K.

1991-01-01

206

Characterization studies on the additives mixed L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP), potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) mixed LAP (LAP:KSCN) and sodium sulfite (Na 2SO 3) mixed LAP (LAP:Na 2SO 3) single crystals were grown by slow cooling technique. The effect of microbial contamination and coloration on the growth solutions was studied. The crystalline powders of the grown crystals were examined by X-ray diffraction and the lattice parameters of the crystals were estimated. From the FTIR spectroscopic analysis, various functional group frequencies associated with the crystals were assigned. Vickers microhardness studies were done on {1 0 0} faces for pure and additives mixed LAP crystals. From the preliminary surface second harmonic generation (SHG) results, it was found that the SHG intensity at (1 0 0) face of LAP:KSCN crystal was much stronger than that of pure LAP.

Haja Hameed, A. S.; Karthikeyan, C.; Ravi, G.; Rohani, S.

2011-04-01

207

The protective role of endogenous nitric oxide donor (L-arginine) in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity: Gender related differences in rat model  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin (CP) as a potential drug for solid tumors produces nephrotoxicity and disturbs endothelial function. CP induced nephrotoxicity may be gender related. Nitric oxide plays a pivotal role in endothelial function and L-arginine as endogenous NO donor promotes endothelial function. The role of L-arginine in CP induced nephrotoxicity model and its gender related was investigated in this study. METHODS: Thirty three Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups. The groups 1 (male, n = 6) and 2 (female, n = 11) received a single dose of L-arginine (300 mg/kg, ip), and the day after, they received a single dose of CP (7 mg/kg). The group 3 (male, n = 9) and 4 (female, n = 7) were assigned to the same regimen except for saline instead of L-arginine. All animals were sacrificed one week after CP administration. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and nitrite were measured. The kidneys were also removed for pathological investigations. RESULTS: Five animals died. All CP treated animals lost weight. The normalized weigh loss was significantly different between male and female in CP+L-arginine treated animals (p < 0.05). BUN and creatinine were increased significantly in male treated with CP and in female treated with CP+L-arginine (p < 0.05). L-arginine reduced BUN in male (not in female) when compared with control groups (p < 0.05). The level of nitrite was increased significantly in L-arginine treated animals. Kidney tissue damage score and normalized kidney weight were greater in females treated with CP+ L-arginine than female received CP alone (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: L-arginine may protect against CP induced nephrotoxicity in male, but it promotes the induced damage in female. The exact mechanism need to be defined. PMID:22973338

Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Nasri, Hamid; Talebi, Ardeshir; Haghighi, Maryam; Pezeshki, Zahra; Safari, Tahereh; Ashrafi, Farzaneh

2011-01-01

208

Role of Renal Nerves in the Treatment of Renovascular Hypertensive Rats with L-Arginine  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to determine the role of renal nerves in mediating the effects of antihypertensive treatment with L-arginine in a renovascular hypertension model. The 2K1C (two-kidney one-clip model) hypertensive rats were submitted to bilateral surgical-pharmacological renal denervation. The animals were subdivided into six experimental groups: normotensive control rats (SHAM), 2K1C rats, 2K1C rats treated with L-arginine (2K1C?+?L-arg), denervated normotensive (DN) rats, denervated 2K1C (2K1C?+?DN) rats, and denervated 2K1C?+?L-arg (2K1C?+?DN?+?L-arg) rats. Arterial blood pressure, water intake, urine volume, and sodium excretion were measured. The 2K1C rats exhibited an increase in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) (from 106 ± 3 to 183 ± 5.8?mmHg, P < 0.01), whereas L-arg treatment induced a reduction in the MAP (143 ± 3.4?mmHg) without lowering it to the control level. Renal nerve denervation reduced the MAP to normotensive levels in 2K1C rats with or without chronic L-arg treatment. L-arg and denervation induced increases in water intake and urine volume, and L-arg caused a significant natriuretic effect. Our results suggest that renal sympathetic activity participates in the genesis and the maintenance of the hypertension and also demonstrate that treatment with L-arg alone is incapable of normalizing the MAP and that the effect of such treatment is not additive with the effect of kidney denervation. PMID:25349722

Gouvea, Sonia Alves; Tiradentes, Renata V.; Santuzzi, Cintia H.; Mengal, Vinícius; Futuro Neto, Henrique de A.; Silva, Nyam F.; Abreu, Gláucia R.

2014-01-01

209

cellular L-arginine concentration (5, 20). The concentration ofL-arg=n-ne required for  

E-print Network

cellular L-arginine concentration (5, 20). The concentration ofL-arg=n-ne required for maximal half-maximal saturation constant (K,) = 0.21 mM; saturation after 15 s]. In contrast, L-arg=lnne uptake defect in the oxidative L-arg=lnme pathway. Indeed, diabetes mellitus has been associated with diminution

210

Dietary L-arginine supplementation during mouse gestation enhances reproductive performance and Vegfr2 transcription activity in the fetoplacental unit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Regarded as one of the most versatile amino acids, arginine serves as a precursor for many molecules and has been reported to improve the reproductive performance of rats and pigs. To this end, we sought to determine if dietary L-arginine alters fetoplacental vascular endothelial growth factor recep...

211

Long term differential consequences of miglustat therapy on intestinal disaccharidases.  

PubMed

Miglustat is an oral medication for treatment of lysosomal storage diseases such as Gaucher disease type I and Niemann Pick disease type C. In many cases application of Miglustat is associated with symptoms similar to those observed in intestinal carbohydrate malabsorption. Previously, we have demonstrated that intestinal disaccharidases are inhibited immediately by Miglustat in the intestinal lumen. Nevertheless, the multiple functions of Miglustat hypothesize long term effects of Miglustat on intracellular mechanisms, including glycosylation, maturation and trafficking of the intestinal disaccharidases. Our data show that a major long term effect of Miglustat is its interference with N-glycosylation of the proteins in the ER leading to a delay in the trafficking of sucrase-isomaltase. Also association with lipid rafts and plausibly apical targeting of this protein is partly affected in the presence of Miglustat. More drastic is the effect of Miglustat on lactase-phlorizin hydrolase which is partially blocked intracellularly. The de novo synthesized SI and LPH in the presence of Miglustat show reduced functional efficiencies according to altered posttranslational processing of these proteins. However, at physiological concentrations of Miglustat (?50 ?M) a major part of the activity of these disaccharidases is found to be still preserved, which puts the charge of the observed carbohydrate maldigestion mostly on the direct inhibition of disaccharidases in the intestinal lumen by Miglustat as the immediate side effect. PMID:24863482

Amiri, Mahdi; Naim, Hassan Y

2014-11-01

212

Long-Term Wind Power Variability  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

Wan, Y. H.

2012-01-01

213

Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

Akins, F. R.

1979-01-01

214

Long-term space flights - personal impressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a final 4-month stage of a 1-year space flight of cosmonauts Titov and Manarov, a physician, Valery Polyakov was included on a crew for the purpose of evaluating their health, correcting physical status to prepare for the spacecraft reentry and landing operations. The complex program of scientific investigations and experiments performed by the physician included an evaluation of adaptation reactions of the human body at different stages of space mission using clinicophysiological and biochemical methods; testing of alternative regimes of exercise and new countermeasures to prevent an unfavourable effect of long-term weightlessness.

Polyakov, V. V.

215

A long-term climatology of medicanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medicanes, intense and destructive mesoscale cyclones exhibiting several similarities with tropical hurricanes, are known to struck occasionally the Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to a high-resolution dynamical downscaling effort, we are able to study for the first time the long-term climatology of those rare storms in a systematic way. The distribution of medicanes frequency in space and time is discussed, and the environmental factors responsible for their formation are investigated. We find that medicanes develop in those areas of the Mediterranean region where intrusions of cold air in the upper troposphere can produce configurations of thermodynamical disequilibrium of the atmosphere similar to those associated with the formation of tropical cyclones.

Cavicchia, Leone; von Storch, Hans; Gualdi, Silvio

2014-09-01

216

[Long term prognosis after circulatory arrest].  

PubMed

24 PATIENTS HAVING SURVIVED MORE THAN 18 MONTHS AFTER AN EPISODE OF CIRCULATORY ARREST WERE EXAMINED WITH THE AIM OF ASSESSING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS TO SUCH AN INCIDENT. The results obtained were encouraging, since immediately after the circulatory arrest there were only monor troubles reflecting the simple bringing into action of defence mechanisms. Long term adaptation was deemed excellent in 80 p.cent of cases which should, nevertheless, lead to any underestimation of those sequelae which, though happily rare, are highly incapacitating. PMID:1153308

Nicolas, G; Besancon, G; Bouhour, J B; Godin, J F; Vincent, J P

1975-05-10

217

Long term thermoelectric module testing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period.

D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy

2009-10-01

218

Long-term anticoagulation. Indications and management.  

PubMed Central

Each year half a million persons in the United States receive long-term anticoagulant therapy to prevent venous and arterial thromboembolism. Unfortunately, the relative benefits and risks of anticoagulant therapy have not been adequately quantified for many thromboembolic disorders, and the decisions as to whether, for how long, and how intensely to administer anticoagulation are often complex and controversial. Several expert panels have published recommendations for anticoagulant therapy for different thromboembolic disorders; the primary area of disagreement among these panels concerns the optimal intensity of anticoagulation. Recent research and analytic reviews have helped to clarify both the risk factors for and the appropriate diagnostic evaluation of anticoagulant-induced hemorrhage. Clinicians must be aware of the nonhemorrhagic complications of anticoagulant therapy, particularly during pregnancy. The administration of anticoagulants is difficult both in relation to dosing and long-term monitoring. Knowledge of the pharmacology of the anticoagulants, an organized approach to ongoing monitoring, and thorough patient education may facilitate the safe and effective use of these drugs. PMID:2686173

Stults, B M; Dere, W H; Caine, T H

1989-01-01

219

Long-term evolution of transposable elements  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements are often considered parasitic DNA sequences, able to invade the genome of their host thanks to their self-replicating ability. This colonization process has been extensively studied, both theoretically and experimentally, but their long-term coevolution with the genomes is still poorly understood. In this work, we aim to challenge previous population genetics models by considering features of transposable elements as quantitative, rather than discrete, variables. We also describe more realistic transposable element dynamics by accounting for the variability of the insertion effect, from deleterious to adaptive, as well as mutations leading to a loss of transposition activity and to nonautonomous copies. Individual-based simulations of the behavior of a transposable-element family over several thousand generations show different ways in which active or inactive copies can be maintained for a very long time. Results reveal an unexpected impact of genetic drift on the “junk DNA” content of the genome and strongly question the likelihood of the sustainable long-term stable transposition-selection equilibrium on which numerous previous works were based. PMID:18040048

Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Boutin, Thibaud S.; Capy, Pierre

2007-01-01

220

Embryotoxic and long-term effects of cadmium exposure during embryogenesis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was performed to evaluate the long-term behavioral effect in offspring of a subteratogenic Cd dose administered by the oral route to Wistar rat during organogenesis. First, the teratogenic Cd dose was determined by treating pregnant rats with 20 mg\\/kg Cd from Day 6 to Day 14 of pregnancy and by visceral and skeletal analysis of their fetuses.

F Salvatori; C. B Talassi; S. A Salzgeber; H. S Spinosa; M. M Bernardi

2004-01-01

221

Roles of mast cells and sensory nerves in cutaneous vascular hyperpermeability and scratching behavior induced by poly-L-arginine in rats.  

PubMed

We investigated whether the polycation poly-L-arginine elicited cutaneous vascular hyperpermeability and scratching behavior and, if so, whether these responses involved mast cells and sensory nerves in rats. Intradermal injections of poly-L-arginine induced vascular hyperpermeability and scratching behavior. Combined treatment with chlorpheniramine and methysergide almost completely suppressed the poly-L-arginine (50 microg/site)-induced plasma leakage. Capsaicin desensitization and the tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist LY303870, (R)-1-[N-(2-methoxybenzyl)acetylamino]-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-[N-(2-(4-(piperidin-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl)acetyl)amino]propane, partially inhibited the leakage. In mast cell-deficient rats, poly-L-arginine only minimally induced plasma leakage. On the other hand, capsaicin desensitization and LY303870, but not chlorpheniramine or methysergide, suppressed the poly-L-arginine (200 microg/site)-induced scratching. Moreover, poly-L-arginine elicited the scratching even in mast cell-deficient rats. These results suggest that substance P is at least partly involved in both the cutaneous plasma leakage and the scratching behavior induced by poly-L-arginine. Moreover, mast cell-derived amines are suggested to be involved in the plasma extravasation but scarcely, if any, in the scratching behavior. PMID:11513841

Hayashi, K; Sato, H; Kaise, T; Ohmori, K; Ishii, A; Sano, J; Karasawa, A

2001-08-17

222

Long-term control of root growth  

SciTech Connect

A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin. 7 figs.

Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

1992-05-26

223

Long-term sequelae to foodborne disease.  

PubMed

Most of the concern about foodborne disease has been focused on the immediate effects of acute infection. Recent information has shown that many of these foodborne infections also have long-term sequelae with serious health effects and a significant economic impact. To increase the awareness of animal health professionals to these sequelae, the authors discuss two groups of sequelae which are strongly associated with preceding infection (reactive arthritides, including Reiter's syndrome, and the Guillain-Barré syndrome) as well as the possible association between Crohn's disease and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. The discussion includes a description of the disease syndromes along with epidemiological and economic information. More reliable epidemiologial and economic data on chronic sequelae to foodborne disease will be needed for future evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies to reduce the occurrence of foodborne pathogens. PMID:9501346

McDowell, R M; McElvaine, M D

1997-08-01

224

Long-term control of root growth  

DOEpatents

A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

Burton, Frederick G. (West Richland, WA); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Richland, WA)

1992-05-26

225

Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1992 by the Kentucky General Assembly, the Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center is dedicated to helping the Bluegrass State "act as a catalyst to change the way decisions are made in government." Their research has proved seminal to the state's advancement, and interested parties can learn about their publications, conferences, and other work on this site. First-time visitors should start by looking over some of their work in the "Publications" area. Here they will find full-length reports, their "Policy Notes" series, and PowerPoint presentations created by staff members. There are several hundred publications here, which can be viewed by topics, which range from "aging population" to "workforce development". The "Videos" section is quite good as well, and it features talks with 43 persons of interest from across the state, including journalist Betty Winston Baye and the mayor of Madisonville, Karen Cunningham.

226

Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy Management will keep records management as a high priority. (authors)

Montgomery, John V. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Gueretta, Jeanie [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

2012-07-01

227

Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Term Control Medications Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases Long-term control medications are taken daily to control and prevent lung disease symptoms. These medicines should be taken every ...

228

Using Life Insurance to Pay for Long-Term Care  

MedlinePLUS

... options: Combination (Life/ Long-Term Care ) Products Accelerated Death Benefits (ADBs) Life settlements Viatical settlements Combination Products Many consumers are reluctant to buy long-term care insurance because they fear that their investment will be wasted if they ...

229

Where Can You Receive Care? (Long-Term Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... may need. Share page: Where Can You Receive Care? Most long-term care is provided at home. ... in long-term care facilities. Examples of home care services include: An unpaid caregiver who may be ...

230

The metabolism of L-arginine and its significance for the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor: L-glutamine inhibits the generation of L-arginine by cultured endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism by which L-glutamine (L-Gln) inhibits the release of endothelium-derived factor from bovine aortic cultured endothelial cells was investigated. The intracellular concentration of L-arginine (L-Arg) in Arg-depleted endothelial cells was inversely related to the level of L-Gln. Removal of L-Gln from the culture medium (usually containing L-Gln at 2 mM) abolished the inhibitory effect of the culture medium on

W. C. Sessa; M. Hecker; J. R. J. A. Vane

1990-01-01

231

Long-Term Consequences of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an acute inflammatory systemic condition that involves injury not just to the skin. Historically, it has been associated with a high mortality but few long-term consequences among survivors. With improved survival, long-term consequences may be becoming more appar- ent. The objective of this study was to define these long- term consequences and their frequency.

Robert L. Sheridan; John T. Schulz; Colleen M. Ryan; Jay J. Schnitzer; David Lawlor; Daniel N. Driscoll; Matthias B. Donelan; Ronald G. Tompkins

232

78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1327 RIN 0985-AA08 State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program AGENCY: Administration...Older Americans Act, the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman program. This proposed rule...compliance in carrying out the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program functions. This...

2013-06-18

233

17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity...UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

2010-04-01

234

3 CFR - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan Presidential Documents...June 30, 2010 Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan Memorandum for the Heads...long-term economic and environmental restoration of the Gulf Coast region, in...

2011-01-01

235

Assessing Dysfunctional Behaviors in Long-term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The Geriatric Level of Dysfunction Scale (GLDS) was developed to assess the intensity, fre- quency, and duration of 19 behavioral disturbance categories that can potentially interfere with long- term care. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from res- idents in long-term care facilities. Participants: Participants were 399 adults aged 60 and older residing in one of 16 long-term care

P. Andrew Clifford; Daisha J. Cipher; Kristi D. Roper

2005-01-01

236

L-Arginine trifluoroacetate salt bridges in its solid state compound: The low-temperature three dimensional structural determination of L-arginine bis(trifluoroacetate) crystal and its vibrational spectral analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural varieties of L-arginine trifluoroacetate (abbreviated as LATF) and L-arginine bis(trifluoroacetate), LABTF, in the solid state compounds were observed and analyzed by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The guanidinium-carboxylate interaction plays an important role involving in the crystal structure construction. Conformational changes of L-Arg + and L-Arg 2+ cations result from the intrinsic structural difference by hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. The low-temperature structure of its crystalline salt, L-arginine bis(trifluoroacetate), was determined to describe the hydrogen bonding interactions. In comparison with the crystal structure at room temperature, the low-temperature L-Arg 2+ cations present tiny conformational difference and the rotational disorder of CF 3 group disappears. FT-IR and Raman spectra were investigated and hydrogen bonding interactions were analyzed on the basis of its vibrational spectra. Results indicate that this type interaction is greatly contributive to the structural features and vibrational spectral properties.

Sun, Z. H.; Sun, W. M.; Chen, C. T.; Zhang, G. H.; Wang, X. Q.; Xu, D.

2011-12-01

237

LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK  

SciTech Connect

Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart sensors housed in anti-fouling sensor chambers. The monitoring network is highly versatile and can be applied to a variety of subsurface sensing scenarios in different media. However, the current project focused on monitoring water quality parameters of pH, oxidation-reduction potential, conductivity, and temperature in groundwater.

Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

2003-10-16

238

Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh-environment surveyor (RHES) is a robotic platform with SCADA capabilities equipped with a sonar-imaging scanner, a high-resolution color CCD camera, and various combinations of sensors. The RHES is controlled remotely via a PC. This paper will discuss the development and application of this system. (authors)

Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso [Florida International University, Miami, Florida (United States)

2002-07-01

239

Transuranic waste: long-term planning  

SciTech Connect

Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Young, K.C.

1985-07-01

240

Long-term corrosion testing pan.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

2008-08-01

241

Long-term corrosion testing plan.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

2009-02-01

242

Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

Nestroy, O.

2009-04-01

243

[Long-term stability of orthodontic treatment].  

PubMed

Aim of this study was to assess long-term stability of orthodontic treatment in a sample of 1016 patients until 10 years postretention. Treatment outcome was measured with the PAR-index at 6 different stages. The mean age of the patients was 12.0 +/- 3.1 year at the start of treatment to 26.3 +/- 2.9 year 10 years postretention. The results show that 67% of the orthodontic treatment result, as measured with the PAR-index, was maintained 10 years postretention. The PAR-scores for the midline and the open bite remained about the same over the years. However, the scores for the lateral occlusion, overjet, reversed overjet, overbite, and contact point displacement of the upper and lower front teeth increased gradually over time. Nearly 50% of the total relapse took place the first two years after retention. The largest change was found for the position of the lower incisors. Ten years postretention their position was even worse than at the start of treatment. PMID:11382976

Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Al Yami, E A; van 't Hof, M A

2000-04-01

244

[Long term adherence to HAART in Senegal].  

PubMed

Adherence is one of the main predictors of antiretroviral treatment success. A governmental initiative was launched in 1998 for HIV-infected patients in Senegal to provide access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Adherence measurements, defined as pills taken/pills prescribed, were assessed between November 1999 and June 2010 using a pill count along with a questionnaire for 330 patients. Predictors of adherence and identification of adherence trajectories were explored through latent class mixed model. We also performed a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard model. Three adherence behaviours were revealed as well as a better adherence for women. A third of patients had a high adherence trajectory over time and a third had an intermediate one. Male gender and low adherence behaviour over time were independently associated with a higher mortality rate. This study shows that an overall good adherence can be obtained in the long term in Senegal, suggests a better adherence for women and points out a large subsample of patients with intermediate level of adherence behaviour who are at risk for developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:24615434

Bastard, M; Fall, M Basty Koita

2014-10-01

245

Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.  

PubMed Central

Forty commercial saturation divers, mean age 34.9 (range 24-49) years, were examined one to seven years after their last deep dive (190-500 metres of seawater). Four had by then lost their divers' licence because of neurological problems. Twenty seven (68%) had been selected by neurological examination and electroencephalography before the deep dives. The control group consisted of 100 men, mean age 34.0 (range 22-48) years. The divers reported significantly more symptoms from the nervous system. Concentration difficulties and paraesthesia in feet and hands were common. They had more abnormal neurological findings by neurological examination compatible with dysfunction in the lumbar spinal cord or roots. They also had a larger proportion of abnormal electroencephalograms than the controls. The neurological symptoms and findings were highly significantly correlated with exposure to deep diving (depth included), but even more significantly correlated to air and saturation diving and prevalence of decompression sickness. Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show more abnormal findings in the divers. Four (10%) divers had had episodes of cerebral dysfunction during or after the dives; two had had seizures, one had had transitory cerebral ischaemia and one had had transitory global amnesia. It is concluded that deep diving may have a long term effect on the nervous system of the divers. PMID:2025592

Todnem, K; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Svihus, R; Rinck, P; Kambestad, B K; Riise, T; Aarli, J A

1991-01-01

246

Long-term potentiation: peeling the onion  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP), thousands of papers have been published on this phenomenon. With this massive amount of information, it is often difficult, especially for someone not directly involved in the field, not to be overwhelmed. The goal of this review is to peel away as many layers as possible, and probe the core properties of LTP. We would argue that the many dozens of proteins that have been implicated in the phenomenon are not essential, but rather modulate, often in indirect ways, the threshold and/or magnitude of LTP. What is required is NMDA receptor activation followed by CaMKII activation. The consequence of CaMKII activation is the rapid recruitment of AMPA receptors to the synapse. This recruitment is independent of AMPA receptor subunit type, but absolutely requires an adequate pool of surface receptors. An important unresolved issue is how exactly CaMKII activation leads to modifications in the PSD to allow rapid enrichment. PMID:23439383

Nicoll, Roger A.; Roche, Katherine W.

2013-01-01

247

Increased Plasma Availability of L-arginine in the Postprandial Period Decreases the Postprandial Lipemia in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Older adults have exaggerated postprandial lipemia (PPL), which increases their risk for cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine the effects of increased plasma L-arginine availability on the oxidation of ingested fat (enriched with [1,1,1-13C]-triolein) and plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations during the postprandial period in older subjects. Methods On one day, eight healthy subjects (67.8 ± 1.3 years old) received an intravenous infusion of L-arginine during the first hour of the postprandial period (L-ARG), while on a separate day they received saline (control trial; CON). Results The 8-h area under the curve (AUC0–8h) describing the postprandial plasma TG concentrations was considerably lower in the L-ARG trial than the CON trial (?4 ± 21 vs 104 ± 21 mg·dL?1·h; P < 0.01). The rate of the postprandial oxidation of the ingested lipid was not different between the trials, but the average contribution of ingested-oleate to the oleate of TG of the plasma small TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL; Sf = 20–400) was lower in the L-ARG trial (11 ± 1 vs 18 ± 2%; P < 0.01). L-arginine infusion decreased also the AUC0–8h of the plasma free fatty acid concentrations derived from the ingested fat when compared to the saline infusion (0.77±0.09 vs 1.11 ± 0.08; mmol·L?1·h; P < 0.01). Conclusion Increasing the plasma L-arginine availability during the postprandial period decreases the PPL in older adults, in association with a decrease in the postprandial contribution of ingested lipid into TG of the plasma small TRL. PMID:22959634

Puga, Guilherme M.; Meyer, Christian; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Katsanos, Christos S.

2012-01-01

248

Opposite effects of galectin-1 on alternative metabolic pathways of L-arginine in resident, inflammatory, and activated macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence has implicated galectins and their carbo- hydrate ligands as master regulators of the inflammatory response. Galectin-1, a member of this family, has shown specific anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects. To gain insight into the potential mechanisms involved in these effects, we investigated the effects of galectin-1 in L-arginine metabolism of peritoneal rat macrophages. Pre- treatment of macrophages with galectin-1

Silvia G. Correa; Claudia E. Sotomayor; Maria P. Aoki; Cristina A. Maldonado; Gabriel A. Rabinovich

2003-01-01

249

Reabsorption of nitro-L-arginine infused into the late proximal tubule participates in modulation of TGF responsiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reabsorption of nitro-L-arginine infused into the late proximal tubule participates in modulation of TGF responsiveness. Previous studies indicate that endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) can directly modulate afferent arteriolar tone and that macula densa-derived NO can indirectly regulate afferent arteriolar tone by modulating the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism. The present in vivo micropuncture study evaluated whether the effect of late proximal

Branko Braam; Hein A Koomans

1995-01-01

250

Tandem antifibrotic actions of L-arginine supplementation and low protein diet during the repair phase of experimental glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tandem antifibrotic actions of L-arginine supplementation and low protein diet during the repair phase of experimental glomerulonephritis.BackgroundBased upon the central role transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) overexpression appears to play in renal fibrotic diseases, we have recently advocated reduction of TGF-? as a therapeutic target. As part of efforts to determine the strength of this approach, we have undertaken studies to

Harm Peters; Wayne A Border; Nancy A Noble

2000-01-01

251

Realising long-term data sets of land surfaceRealising long-term data sets of land surface temperature  

E-print Network

Realising long-term data sets of land surfaceRealising long-term data sets of land surface Long-term dataset, independent of buoys, for global climate change studies;Outline of the talk Space observations increasingly perform a key role in climate dataSpace observations

252

Bi-enzyme L-arginine-selective amperometric biosensor based on ammonium-sensing polyaniline-modified electrode.  

PubMed

A novel L-arginine-selective amperometric bi-enzyme biosensor based on recombinant human arginase I isolated from the gene-engineered strain of methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha and commercial urease is described. The biosensing layer was placed onto a polyaniline-Nafion composite platinum electrode and covered with a calcium alginate gel. The developed sensor revealed a good selectivity to L-arginine. The sensitivity of the biosensor was 110 ± 1.3 nA/(mM mm(2)) with the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(M)(app)) derived from an L-arginine (L-Arg) calibration curve of 1.27 ± 0.29 mM. A linear concentration range was observed from 0.07 to 0.6mM, a limit of detection being 0.038 mM and a response time - 10s. The developed biosensor demonstrated good storage stability. A laboratory prototype of the proposed amperometric biosensor was applied to the samples of three commercial pharmaceuticals ("Tivortin", "Cytrarginine", "Aminoplazmal 10% E") for L-Arg testing. The obtained L-Arg-content values correlated well with those declared by producers. PMID:22626826

Stasyuk, Nataliya; Smutok, Oleh; Gayda, Galina; Vus, Bohdan; Koval'chuk, Yevgen; Gonchar, Mykhailo

2012-01-01

253

Mass spectrometric quantification of L-arginine and its pathway related substances in biofluids: the road to maturity.  

PubMed

The amino acid L-arginine together with its metabolites and related substances is in the center of many biologically important pathways, especially the urea cycle and the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Therefore, the concentrations of these substances in various biological fluids are of great interest as predictive markers for health and disease. Yet, they provide major analytical difficulties as they are very polar in nature and therefore not easily to be separated on standard reversed phase HPLC stationary phases. Furthermore, as endogenous substances, no analyte-free matrix is available, a fact that results in complicated calibration procedures. This review evaluates the analytical literature for the determination of L-arginine, symmetric dimethylarginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, monomethylarginine, L-citrulline, L-ornithine, L-homoarginine, agmatine and dimethylguanidinovaleric acid in biological fluids. Papers are discussed, which were published since 2007 and describe methods applying capillary electrophoresis (CE), gas chromatography (GC), reversed phase HPLC or polar phase HPLC, coupled to mass spectrometric quantification. Nowadays, many carefully developed and validated methods for L-arginine and its related substances are available to the scientific community. The use of stable isotope labeled internal standards enables high precision and accuracy in mass spectrometry-based quantitative analysis. PMID:24210895

Martens-Lobenhoffer, Jens; Bode-Böger, Stefanie M

2014-08-01

254

Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol® and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction.  

PubMed

A double-blind parallel group comparison design clinical study was conducted in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction to investigate the efficacy of a supplement containing Pycnogenol® and L-arginine. Subjects were instructed to take a supplement (Pycnogenol® 60?mg/day, L-arginine 690?mg/day and aspartic acid 552?mg/day) or an identical placebo for 8?weeks, and the results were assessed using the five-item erectile domain (IIEF-5) of the International Index of Erectile Function. Additionally, blood biochemistry, urinalysis and salivary testosterone were measured. Eight weeks of supplement intake improved the total score of the IIEF-5. In particular, a marked improvement was observed in 'hardness of erection' and 'satisfaction with sexual intercourse'. A decrease in blood pressure, aspartate transaminase and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GTP), and a slight increase in salivary testosterone were observed in the supplement group. No adverse reactions were observed during the study period. In conclusion, Pycnogenol® in combination with L-arginine as a dietary supplement is effective and safe in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. PMID:21618639

Aoki, Hiromitsu; Nagao, Junji; Ueda, Taro; Strong, Jeffry M; Schonlau, Frank; Yu-Jing, Song; Lu, Yan; Horie, Shigeo

2012-02-01

255

The neuronal response at extended timescales: long-term correlations without long-term memory  

PubMed Central

Long term temporal correlations frequently appear at many levels of neural activity. We show that when such correlations appear in isolated neurons, they indicate the existence of slow underlying processes and lead to explicit conditions on the dynamics of these processes. Moreover, although these slow processes can potentially store information for long times, we demonstrate that this does not imply that the neuron possesses a long memory of its input, even if these processes are bidirectionally coupled with neuronal response. We derive these results for a broad class of biophysical neuron models, and then fit a specific model to recent experiments. The model reproduces the experimental results, exhibiting long term (days-long) correlations due to the interaction between slow variables and internal fluctuations. However, its memory of the input decays on a timescale of minutes. We suggest experiments to test these predictions directly. PMID:24744724

Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron

2014-01-01

256

Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage estuaries below by removing all incoming freshwater. At Toolik Lake, long-term experiments of removing top predators from the good web of lakes showed dramatic alterations of lake populations of small fish and zooplankton. In New Mexico, LTER research on small mammal populations is successfully predicting rodent increases and the potential for increased zoonotic diseases such as Hantavirus and bubonic plague. This ability to forecast based on El Nino prediction is being used to increase scientific awareness and public health awareness through media based communication with the public. In Oregon, the Andrews Forest LTER program has had long, strong links with natural resource policy and management. Basic understanding of forest-stream interactions, characteristics of old-growth forests, roles of woody debris in temperate forest ecosystems, invertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function have been incorporated in management guidelines, plans and regulations for public and private lands throughout the Pacific Northwest. Other examples of the values of long-term research and monitoring will be presented.

Gosz, J.

2001-12-01

257

Hydrosolidarity intergenerational challenges: long-term commitment for long-term issues.  

PubMed

The year 2000 Young Professionals Seminar focused on long-term intergenerational challenges. Water related problems are symptoms of complex and ultimately societal problems linked to human behaviour, political support and managerial and institutional structures. Although integrated water resources management is presented as a solution, it is not always well understood, and can create a sense of hopelessness among professionals. To make it operational requires long-term commitments among various professionals and the involvement of new actors. A number of key topics crystallised as needing further attention, including ethical dimensions in policy making, the development of a framework for a "Future Generation Impact Assessment" (FGIA), and efforts to achieve true dialogue among stakeholders. Young water professionals must become more involved in political processes and take active part in institutional changes. Such engagement will require changes in the working environment facing many young professionals that causes frustration due to inefficient and conservative hierarchical structures and the lack of transparency. PMID:11379221

Kuylenstierna, J; Rockström, J

2001-01-01

258

Long-Term Incarceration Impacts and Characteristics of Long-Term OffendersAn Empirical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses long-and short-term inmates make to incarceration and differences in the responses made by distinct subgroups were examined. Prison inmates in three large maximum security institutions reported their levels of stress (anxiety, depression, psychosomatic illnesses, fear), adjustment (prisonization), criminal history, self-esteem, and demographic characteristics. Inmates new to prison who anticipated serving long terms in prison were found to report

DORIS LAYTON MacKENZIE; LYNNE GOODSTEIN

1985-01-01

259

Mg2+Induced Vasodilation in Human Forearm Vasculature Is Inhibited by NG-Monomethyl- L-Arginine but Not by Indometacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the mechanism of the vasodilator action of Mg2+ in human forearm resistance vasculature. Venous occlusion plethysmography was used to measure vasodilator responses to Mg2+ infused via the brachial artery in healthy men, and to determine effects on Mg2+ responses of indometacin (an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase) and of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, an inhibitor of the L-arginine\\/nitric oxide, L-arg\\/NO, pathway).

Matthew Dawes; James M. Ritter

2000-01-01

260

Long-term outcome in Susac syndrome.  

PubMed

Susac syndrome is characterized by the clinical triad of encephalopathy, hearing loss, and retinal artery branch occlusions, mostly in young women. To our knowledge, long-term outcome and impact of pregnancy have not been specifically addressed. We report a series of 9 patients (7 female, 2 male) followed at the same institution, with special emphasis on clinical outcome including pregnancy and long-term sequelae. Clinical, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), funduscopy, retinal angiography, and audiogram data were recorded every 3-12 months. We also analyzed the 92 previously reported cases of Susac syndrome. Mean follow-up was 6.4 years. Age at onset was 30.4 years. The first symptom occurred between April and September in 7 of 9 patients in the current study, and in 68% of all patients. The complete triad at onset was clinically obvious in only 1 of 9 patients. Brain involvement was heralded by headache and symptoms of encephalopathy. Cerebrospinal fluid was abnormal in 5 patients showing pleocytosis (mean, 24.6; range, 6-85 cells/mL) and elevated protein level (mean, 210; range, 113-365 mg/dL). Over time, quantitative brain MRI analysis showed that the number of lesions diminished and did not parallel clinical flares, and MRI never normalized. At the end of follow-up, no patient had severe impairment, and all but 1 returned to work. Inner ear involvement was present at onset in 2 patients and occurred in others with a mean delay of 11 months. Initially unilateral in 3, it became bilateral in all. Mean hearing loss was 34 dB (range, 15-70 dB). Hearing loss never improved, either spontaneously or under treatment. The eye was involved at onset in 8 patients, and after 3 years in 1. All had multiple bilateral retinal artery branch occlusions and/or dye leakage with hyperfluorescence of the arterial wall on fluorescein angiography. Over time, angiography normalized in 3 patients. In others, it was still abnormal at the end of follow-up (range, 1.5-10 yr). On late findings, fluorescein leakage was more frequent than true arterial occlusion. Eye involvement was mostly asymptomatic, unilateral, peripheral, and resumed spontaneously to remit in other sites over time. Corticosteroids were efficient to treat encephalopathy, with relapses occurring when the dosage was tapered. Steroid treatment did not improve hearing loss or prevent new retinal arteriolar occlusions. Anticoagulation had a role in treating encephalopathy and retinal arteriolar occlusions. Three patients had 4 pregnancies. Two pregnancies needed induced abortion. One pregnancy was uneventful. One pregnancy was complicated with Susac disease flare in the early postpartum period. In conclusion, at the end of follow-up, most patients had returned to work and none had severe impairment. Pregnancy may affect the course of Susac syndrome, with relapse of encephalopathy postpartum. Our main finding was that the course of Susac syndrome is not self-limited as previously thought, since isolated retinal arteriolar involvement may occur as a very late manifestation. PMID:17435589

Aubart-Cohen, Fleur; Klein, Isabelle; Alexandra, Jean-François; Bodaghi, Bahram; Doan, Serge; Fardeau, Christine; Lavallée, Philippa; Piette, Jean-Charles; Hoang, Phuc Le; Papo, Thomas

2007-03-01

261

LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are also presented.

ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

2003-07-23

262

Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.  

PubMed

Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones. PMID:14722779

Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

2004-05-01

263

Effect of nitroglycerin and long-term electrical stimulation on nitrergic relaxation in the pig gastric fundus  

PubMed Central

The effect of incubation with the nitric oxide (NO) donor nitroglycerin and of long-term electrical stimulation on relaxations induced by non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve stimulation, exogenous NO, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and lemakalim was investigated in the pig gastric fundus.In physiological salt solution containing 10?6?M atropine and 4×10?6?M guanethidine, electrical field stimulation (40?V, 0.1?ms, 0.5–8?Hz) for periods of 10?s at 5?min intervals (train stimulation) and administration of NO (2×10?6–10?4?M) at 5?min intervals (NO boli) induced frequency- and concentration-dependent transient relaxations, respectively. Continuous electrical field stimulation with stepwise increase of the frequency (0.5–8?Hz; cumulative stimulation) induced frequency-dependent sustained relaxations. VIP (10?7?M), lemakalim (10?5?M) and an infusion of NO induced a sustained relaxation.Pretreatment for 30?min with 5×10?4?M nitroglycerin reduced the relaxations induced by train and cumulative stimulation, but also the relaxant responses to NO, both when given in boli or as an infusion. The relaxations to VIP and lemakalim were not influenced by pretreatment with nitroglycerin.Long-term electrical stimulation at 4?Hz for 40?min induced a sustained relaxation of the tissues. Administration of 3×10?4?M NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester after 10, 20 or 30?min reversed the relaxation to a similar extent (approximately 70%). Previous long-term electrical stimulation at 4?Hz for 30?min did not affect the responses to stimulation, NO and VIP.These results illustrate that nitroglycerin can induce a postjunctional tolerance to nitrergic stimuli in the pig gastric fundus but evidence for a prejunctional inhibition of neuronal NO synthase by NO was not obtained. PMID:9484865

Lefebvre, R A; Vandekerckhove, K

1998-01-01

264

Concentration of dimethyl-L-arginine in the plasma of patients with end-stage renal failure.  

PubMed

Abstract. NGNG dimethyl-L-arginine (asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine; ADMA) and NGNG dimethyl-L-arginine (symmetric dimethyl-L-arginine; SDMA) are naturally occurring analogues of L-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. ADMA is a potent inhibitor of NO synthesis, and accumulates in the plasma of patients with renal failure. However the precise concentration of ADMA and SDMA in renal patients is still controversial. This study was performed to measure plasma ADMA and SDMA concentrations by two different HPLC techniques in nine healthy controls and 10 uraemic subjects, and to investigate the effects of haemodialysis. In controls, the mean (+/-SEM) plasma concentrations of ADMA and SDMA were 0.36 +/- 0.09 and 0.39 +/- 0.05 mumol/l respectively, yielding an ADMA/SDMA ratio of 1.2 +/- 0.17. In uraemic patients, the plasma concentrations of ADMA and SDMA were 0.9 +/- 0.08 mumol/l (P < 0.001 compared to controls) and 3.4 +/- 0.3 mumol/l (P < 0.001 compared to controls) with an ADMA/SDMA ratio of 0.27 +/- 0.015 (P < 0.001). In the course of one 4 h haemodialysis session, ADMA concentrations decreased from 0.99 +/- 0.13 to 0.77 +/- 0.3 mumol/l and SDMA concentrations from 3.38 +/- 0.44 to 2.27 +/- 0.21 mumol/l. The plasma ADMA/creatinine ratio tended to increase from 1.26 +/- 0.20 x 10(-3) to 2.01 +/- 0.41 x 10(-3). It is concluded that there is a modest (3-fold) but definite increase in plasma ADMA concentration in uraemic patients compared to controls. SDMA accumulates to a greater degree (8-fold increase) and more closely parallels creatinine concentration than ADMA. The change in the ADMA/SDMA ratio is not accounted for by greater renal or dialysis clearance of ADMA, and, even though alternative explanations are not excluded, greater metabolism of ADMA than SDMA is the most likely explanation. Although small in magnitude, the increase in ADMA concentration might by biologically significant. PMID:9017621

MacAllister, R J; Rambausek, M H; Vallance, P; Williams, D; Hoffmann, K H; Ritz, E

1996-12-01

265

Nitric Oxide Is Associated with Long-Term Zinc Tolerance in Solanum nigrum1[W  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as a signal molecule that interplays with reactive oxygen species in response to heavy metal stresses. Roles of NO in regulating cadmium toxicity and iron deficiency have been proposed; however, the function of NO in zinc (Zn) tolerance in plants remains unclear. Here, we investigated NO accumulation and its role in plant Zn tolerance. Zn-induced NO production promoted an increase in reactive oxygen species accumulation in Solanum nigrum roots by modulating the expression and activity of antioxidative enzymes. Subsequently, programmed cell death (PCD) was observed in primary root tips. Inhibiting NO accumulation by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (a specific NO scavenger) or NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (a NO synthase inhibitor) prevented the increase of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide as well as the subsequent cell death in the root tips, supporting the role of NO in Zn-induced PCD in the root tips. Zn-induced NO production affected the length of primary roots, the number of lateral roots, and root hair growth and thereby modulated root system architecture and activity. Investigation of metal contents in Zn-treated roots suggests that NO is required for metal (especially iron) uptake and homeostasis in plants exposed to excess Zn. Taken together, our results indicate that NO production and the subsequent PCD in root tips exposed to excess Zn are favorable for the S. nigrum seedling response to long-term Zn toxicity by modulating root system architecture and subsequent adaptation to Zn stress. PMID:20855519

Xu, Jin; Yin, Hengxia; Li, Yulong; Liu, Xiaojing

2010-01-01

266

Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats  

SciTech Connect

Molecular hydrogen, which reacts with the hydroxyl radical, has been considered as a novel antioxidant. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by giving two intraperitoneal injections of L-Arg, each at concentrations of 250 mg/100 g body weight, with an interval of 1 h. Hydrogen-rich saline (>0.6 mM, 6 ml/kg) or saline (6 ml/kg) was administered, respectively, via tail vein 15 min after each L-Arg administration. Severity of AP was assessed by analysis of serum amylase activity, pancreatic water content and histology. Samples of pancreas were taken for measuring malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase. Apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cell was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling technique (TUNEL). Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) were detected with immunohistochemistry. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of L-Arg-induced AP by ameliorating the increased serum amylase activity, inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, lipid oxidation and pancreatic tissue edema. Moreover, hydrogen-rich saline treatment could promote acinar cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis and NF-{kappa}B activation. These results indicate that hydrogen treatment has a protective effect against AP, and the effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit oxidative stress, apoptosis, NF-{kappa}B activation and to promote acinar cell proliferation.

Chen, Han; Sun, Yan Ping; Li, Yang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu, Wen Wu [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xiang, Hong Gang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Fan, Lie Ying [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai East Hospital, Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200120 (China)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai East Hospital, Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200120 (China); Sun, Qiang [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xu, Xin Yun [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Cai, Jian Mei [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ruan, Can Ping; Su, Ning; Yan, Rong Lin [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Sun, Xue Jun, E-mail: sunxjk@hotmail.com [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wang2929@hotmail.com [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

2010-03-05

267

Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of L-arginine and its derivatives.  

PubMed

L-arginine (ARG) is an important amino acid for both medicinal and industrial applications. For almost six decades, the research has been going on for its improved industrial level production using different microorganisms. While the initial approaches involved random mutagenesis for increased tolerance to ARG and consequently higher ARG titer, it is laborious and often leads to unwanted phenotypes, such as retarded growth. Discovery of L-glutamate (GLU) overproducing strains and using them as base strains for ARG production led to improved ARG production titer. Continued effort to unveil molecular mechanisms led to the accumulation of detailed knowledge on amino acid metabolism, which has contributed to better understanding of ARG biosynthesis and its regulation. Moreover, systems metabolic engineering now enables scientists and engineers to efficiently construct genetically defined microorganisms for ARG overproduction in a more rational and system-wide manner. Despite such effort, ARG biosynthesis is still not fully understood and many of the genes in the pathway are mislabeled. Here, we review the major metabolic pathways and its regulation involved in ARG biosynthesis in different prokaryotes including recent discoveries. Also, various strategies for metabolic engineering of bacteria for the overproduction of ARG are described. Furthermore, metabolic engineering approaches for producing ARG derivatives such as L-ornithine (ORN), putrescine and cyanophycin are described. ORN is used in medical applications, while putrescine can be used as a bio-based precursor for the synthesis of nylon-4,6 and nylon-4,10. Cyanophycin is also an important compound for the production of polyaspartate, another important bio-based polymer. Strategies outlined here will serve as a general guideline for rationally designing of cell-factories for overproduction of ARG and related compounds that are industrially valuable. PMID:25467280

Shin, Jae; Lee, Sang

2014-12-01

268

A theoretical investigation of electric properties of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate including environment polarization effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dipole moment (?), linear polarizability (?¯), and first hyperpolarizability (?tot) of the asymmetric unit of L-arginine phosphate (LAP) monohydrate crystal are investigated using the supermolecule approach in combination with an iterative electrostatic polarization scheme. Environment polarization effects are attained by assuring the convergence of the dipole moment of LAP embedded in the polarization field of the surrounding molecules whose atomic sites are treated as point charges. The results obtained show that in the presence of the embedding charges, the value of ? is increased by 9% but the static values of ?¯ and ?tot are decreased, respectively, by 3% and 13%, as compared with the isolated situation. The MP2/6-311+G(d) model predicts for the in-crystal dipole moment the converged value of 33 D, in good concordance with the available experimental result of 32 D. Our estimates for the converged results of ?¯ and ?tot are, respectively, 22.51×10-24 and 5.01×10-30 esu. Dispersion effects are found to have a small impact on the nonlinear optical responses of LAP in the visible region. In addition, MP2/6-311G results obtained for ?tot by using isolated and embedded LAP dimers show that crystal packing effects have a significant contribution of the electrostatic interactions. Our results suggest that the role of the crystal environment is to minimize the effects of the intermolecular interactions in the electric properties. That is, ? and ?tot gain a more additive character in the presence of the field of the embedding charges. This is specially marked for ?tot.

Fonseca, T. L.; Sabino, J. R.; Castro, M. A.; Georg, H. C.

2010-10-01

269

Long term property prediction of polyethylene nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amorphous fraction of semicrystalline polymers has long been thought to be a significant contributor to creep deformation. In polyethylene (PE) nanocomposites, the semicrystalline nature of the maleated PE compatibilizer leads to a limited ability to separate the role of the PE in the nanocomposite properties. This dissertation investigates blown films of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and its nanocomposites with montmorillonite-layered silicate (MLS). Addition of an amorphous ethylene propylene copolymer grafted maleic anhydride (amEP) was utilized to enhance the interaction between the PE and the MLS. The amorphous nature of the compatibilizer was used to differentiate the effect of the different components of the nanocomposites; namely the matrix, the filler, and the compatibilizer on the overall properties. Tensile test results of the nanocomposites indicate that the addition of amEP and MLS separately and together produces a synergistic effect on the mechanical properties of the neat PE. Thermal transitions were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine if the observed improvement in mechanical properties is related to changes in crystallinity. The effect of dispersion of the MLS in the matrix was investigated by using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical measurements were correlated to the dispersion of the layered silicate particles in the matrix. The nonlinear time dependent creep of the material was analyzed by examining creep and recovery of the films with a Burger model and the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) relation. The effect of stress on the nonlinear behavior of the nanocomposites was investigated by analyzing creep-recovery at different stress levels. Stress-related creep constants and shift factors were determined for the material by using the Schapery nonlinear viscoelastic equation at room temperature. The effect of temperature on the tensile and creep properties of the nanocomposites was analyzed by examining tensile and creep-recovery behavior of the films at temperatures in the range of 25 to -100°C. Within the measured temperature range, the materials showed a nonlinear temperature dependent response. The time-temperature superposition principle was successfully used to predict the long term behavior of LLDPE nanocomposites.

Shaito, Ali Al-Abed

270

Long-term recovery from alcoholism.  

PubMed

AA has demonstrated success in steadily increasing membership, with no loss of the proportion of those with over 5 years of sobriety. It has been recognized as effective long-term treatment for alcoholism by psychiatrists and psychoanalysts experienced in treatment of the addictions. The triennial membership surveys of AA have shown stability in 1. A 50% dropout rate within the first 3 months of starting AA. Only 41% of those in the first year will remain in the Fellowship for another year. 2. Roughly equal numbers of those with less than 1 year, 1 to 5 years, and over 5 years of sobriety, with an average length of sobriety of about 4 years. 3. Members having a sponsor (85%) and belonging to a home group (88%). 4. Attendance by members of about three meetings a week, regardless of duration of sobriety. 5. Members telling their doctor that they are in AA, but not helping him or her learn about the program. The survey data also indicate that AA is changing in the following ways: 1. The number of women members has increased to more than one third the total membership. 2. An increasing number of young people, under 30 years of age, to more than one fifth the total. 3. A decreasing number of older people, over 50 years of age, to just under one fourth the total. 4. An increasing number of members who were also addicted to other drugs (46%). Psychiatrists can use these data and knowledge of AA to 1. Increase the effectiveness of referrals of alcoholic patients to AA regardless of age, sex, race, or other characteristics. All are welcome and can benefit. 2. Deal with resistance, which occurs when patients begin to make contact with AA. 3. Help alcoholic patients through the difficult first year of sobriety. 4. Encourage their alcoholic patients to use AA as a program for personal growth and development. 5. Helping dually addicted patients use AA's singleness of purpose to facilitate their recovery. 6. Cooperate with alcohol and drug treatment programs in helping patients transfer to AA and work on an effective program of recovery. 7. Work with members of the local AA Treatment Facilities and Cooperation with the Professional Community Committees in helping alcoholic patients enter and use AA. 8. Provide psychiatric treatment for AA members in ways that support and sustain their program of recovery, especially by avoiding dependence-producing medications. PMID:8456043

Chappel, J N

1993-03-01

271

PKMf Maintains Spatial, Instrumental, and Classically Conditioned Long-Term  

Microsoft Academic Search

How long-term memories are stored is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The first molecular mechanism for long-term memory storage in the brain was recently identified as the persistent action of protein kinase Mzeta (PKMf), an autonomously active atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform critical for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP). PKMf maintains aversively conditioned associations, but what general form

Eugenia L. Friedman; Jana Kenney; Stephen M. Taubenfeld; Joshua M. Zimmerman; John Hanna; Cristina Alberini; Ann E. Kelley; Stephen Maren; Jerry W. Rudy; Jerry C. P. Yin; Todd C. Sacktor; Andre A. Fenton

272

Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

Hansen, J. (editor); Rossow, W. (editor); Fung, I. (editor)

1993-01-01

273

Oral citrulline as arginine precursor may be beneficial in sickle cell disease: early phase two results.  

PubMed Central

L-Arginine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, particularly as required substrate in the arginine-nitric oxide pathway for endogenous nitrovasodilation and vasoprotection. Vasoprotection by arginine is mediated partly by nitric oxide-induced inhibition of endothelial damage and inhibition of adhesion and activation of leukocytes. Activated leukocytes may trigger many of the complications, including vasoocclusive events and intimal hyperplasias. High blood leukocyte counts during steady states in the absence of infection are significant laboratory risk factors for adverse complications. L-Citrulline as precursor amino acid was given orally twice daily in daily doses of approximately 0.1 g/kg in a pilot Phase II clinical trial during steady states in four homozygous sickle cell disease subjects and one sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease patient (ages 10-18). There soon resulted dramatic improvements in symptoms of well-being, raised plasma arginine levels, and reductions in high total leukocyte and high segmented neutrophil counts toward or to within normal limits. Continued L-citrulline supplementation in compliant subjects continued to lessen symptomatology, to maintain plasma arginine concentrations greater than control levels, and to maintain nearly normal total leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Side effects or toxicity from citrulline were not experienced. Oral L-citrulline may portend very useful for palliative therapy in sickle cell disease. Placebo-controlled, long-term trials are now indicated. PMID:11688916

Waugh, W. H.; Daeschner, C. W.; Files, B. A.; McConnell, M. E.; Strandjord, S. E.

2001-01-01

274

Long-term results of isotretinoin in the treatment of 68 patients with hidradenitis suppurativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Oral isotretinoin has been used to treat mild to severe hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Objective: We reviewed the results of low-dose isotretinoin for 4 to 6 months in the treatment of 68 patients with HS. Methods: This is a retrospective study. Data are presented in terms of response rate, long-term follow-up, and the relation between response rate and severity. Results:

Jurr Boer; Mirjan J. P. van Gemert

1999-01-01

275

Effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and oxidative status in platelets.  

PubMed

Several studies have suggested an increase of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk on periodontitis patients. An enhancement has been demonstrated on both platelet activation and oxidative stress on periodontitis patients, which may contribute for this association. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway and oxidative status in platelets. A total of eight periodontitis patients and eight controls were included in this study. Clinical, laboratory and experimental evaluations were performed on baseline and 90 days after periodontal treatment (except for western blot analysis). The clinical periodontal evaluation included measurements of probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), % of sites with plaque and % of sites with bleeding on probing. We evaluated: l-[(3)H]arginine influx; nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and arginase enzymes activity and expression; expression of guanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase-5 enzymes; cGMP levels; platelet aggregation; oxidative status through superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The initial results showed an activation of both l-arginine influx and via system y?(+?)L associated with reduced intraplatelet cGMP levels in periodontitis patients and increased systemic levels of CRP. After periodontal treatment, there was a significant reduction of the % of sites with PPD 4-5mm, % of sites with CAL 4-5?mm, and an enhancement in cGMP levels and SOD activity. Moreover, CRP levels were reduced after treatment. Therefore, alterations in the intraplatelet l-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway and oxidant-antioxidant balance associated with a systemic inflammatory response may lead to platelet dysfunction, which may contribute to a higher risk of CVD in periodontitis. PMID:23918883

Siqueira, Mariana Alves de Sá; Fischer, Ricardo Guimarães; Pereira, Natália Rodrigues; Martins, Marcela Anjos; Moss, Monique Bandeira; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio Cláudio; Figueredo, Carlos Marcelo da Silva; Brunini, Tatiana Marlowe Cunha

2013-06-01

276

Renal Response to L-Arginine in Diabetic Rats. A Possible Link between Nitric Oxide System and Aquaporin-2  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether L-Arginine (L-Arg) supplementation modifies nitric oxide (NO) system and consequently aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression in the renal outer medulla of streptozotocin-diabetic rats at an early time point after induction of diabetes. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Control, Diabetic, Diabetic treated with L-Arginine and Control treated with L-Arginine. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was estimated by [14C] L-citrulline production in homogenates of the renal outer medulla and by NADPH-diaphorase staining in renal outer medullary tubules. Western blot was used to detect the expression of AQP2 and NOS types I and III; real time PCR was used to quantify AQP2 mRNA. The expression of both NOS isoforms, NOS I and NOS III, was decreased in the renal outer medulla of diabetic rats and L-Arg failed to prevent these decreases. However, L-Arg improved NO production, NADPH-diaphorase activity in collecting ducts and other tubular structures, and NOS activity in renal homogenates from diabetic rats. AQP2 protein and mRNA were decreased in the renal outer medulla of diabetic rats and L-Arg administration prevented these decreases. These results suggest that the decreased NOS activity in collecting ducts of the renal outer medulla may cause, at least in part, the decreased expression of AQP2 in this model of diabetes and constitute additional evidence supporting a role for NO in contributing to renal water reabsorption through the modulation of AQP2 expression in this pathological condition. However, we cannot discard that another pathway different from NOS also exists that links L-Arg to AQP2 expression. PMID:25111608

Ortiz, María C.; Albertoni Borghese, María F.; Balonga, Sabrina E.; Lavagna, Agustina; Filipuzzi, Ana L.; Elesgaray, Rosana; Costa, María A.; Majowicz, Mónica P.

2014-01-01

277

Interaction of poly(L-arginine) with negatively charged DPPG membranes: calorimetric and monolayer studies.  

PubMed

The interaction of poly(L-arginine) (PLA) with dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) bilayer membranes and monolayers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and monolayer experiments. The binding of PLA affected the main transition temperature of lipid bilayers (T(m)) only marginally. Depending on the PLA chain length, T(m) was slightly increased or decreased. This finding was attributed to the superposition of two counteracting effects on the transition after PLA binding. The main transition enthalpy (DeltaH(m)) was decreased upon PLA binding and the formation of a ripple phase (P(beta)') was suppressed. ITC experiments showed that two distinct processes are involved in binding of PLA to gel phase (L(beta)') membranes. At low peptide content the binding reaction is endothermic, and at high peptide concentration the binding becomes exothermic. However, the enthalpy of binding to fluid (L(alpha)) membranes was exothermic for all peptide-to-lipid ratios. The temperature dependence of PLA binding to fluid palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) membranes showed a decrease in binding enthalpy with increasing temperature (Delta(R)C(p) < 0), indicating hydrophobic contributions to the free energy of binding. For longer PLA chains, the binding enthalpy for L(alpha) membranes was more exothermic than for shorter chains. Monolayer adsorption experiments showed two consecutive binding processes. At low initial surface pressures (pi(0)) a condensation of the lipid film (Deltapi < 0) is first observed after PLA injection into the subphase, followed by an increase in film pressure (Deltapi > 0) due to insertion of peptide side chains into the monolayer. At higher pi(0) only an increase in film pressure can be observed due to the insertion of the side chains. Deltapi increases with increasing pi(0). The insertion of the peptide into the monolayer is corroborated by the observed shift of pi-A isotherms to higher molecular areas. All presented experiments show that the binding of PLA to DPPG membranes has not only electrostatic but also nonelectrostatic contributions. PMID:19603784

Schwieger, Christian; Blume, Alfred

2009-08-10

278

Single crystal growth, crystal structure and characterization of a novel crystal: L-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dehydrate (LAPP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel organic crystal, L-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dehydrate (LAPP), synthesized and grown from aqueous solution, is presented. X-ray single diffraction shows that LAPP belongs to the monoclinic crystallographic system with space group P2 1. FT-IR and UV/vis/NIR transmission spectra have been employed to characterize the crystal. The computational calculation based on the density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level has been used to compute the first-order hyperpolarizability of LAPP relating to different molecular models. The morphology, nonlinear characteristic and thermal stability of the crystal have also been investigated.

Wang, L. N.; Wang, X. Q.; Zhang, G. H.; Liu, X. T.; Sun, Z. H.; Sun, G. H.; Wang, L.; Yu, W. T.; Xu, D.

2011-07-01

279

Effect of H + ion implantation on structural, morphological, optical and dielectric properties of L-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate (LAHCl) single crystals have been implanted with 100 keV H + ions at different ion fluence ranging from 10 12 to 10 15 ions/cm 2. Implanted LAHCl single crystals have been investigated for property changes. Crystal surface and crystalline perfection of the pristine and implanted crystals were analyzed by atomic force microscope and high-resolution X-ray diffraction studies, respectively. Optical absorption bands induced by colour centers, refractive index and birefringence, mechanical stability and dielectric constant of implanted crystals were studied at different ion fluence and compared with that of pristine LAHCl single crystal.

Sangeetha, K.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Kumar, P.; Bhagvannarayana, G.; Ramamurthi, K.

2011-06-01

280

Long-term outcomes five years after selective dorsal rhizotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a well accepted neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity interfering with motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The goal is to improve function, but long-term outcome studies are rare. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term functional outcomes, safety and side effects during five postoperative years in

Eva Nordmark; Annika Lundkvist Josenby; Jan Lagergren; Gert Andersson; Lars-Göran Strömblad; Lena Westbom

2008-01-01

281

Pediatric Facial Fractures and Potential Long-Term Growth Disturbances  

PubMed Central

Fractures of the pediatric craniofacial skeleton can be challenging to manage. The initial injury and subsequent treatment can cause long-term growth disturbances yielding problematic secondary deformities. This review considers the normal growth of the craniofacial skeleton and typical facial fracture presentations in children and discusses the potential long-term sequelae from these injuries and their management. PMID:22379506

Wheeler, Jonathan; Phillips, John

2011-01-01

282

LONG-TERM CADMIUM STRESS IN THE CUNNER, TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS  

E-print Network

LONG-TERM CADMIUM STRESS IN THE CUNNER, TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS J. R. MAcINNES, F. P. THURBERG, R; Dawson et al. in press; Gould in press; Thurberg et al. in press). Such long-term physiological stress chemistry, and immune response (National Oceanic and At- mospheric Administration 1974). In the present

283

Long-term climate monitoring and extreme events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems with long-term monitoring of various extreme meteorological events (including tropical and extratropical cyclones, extreme winds, temperatures and precipitation, and mesoscale events) are examined. For many types of extreme events, the maintenance of long-term homogeneity of observations is more difficult than is the case for means of variables. In some cases, however, a strategy of using more than a single

Neville Nicholls

1995-01-01

284

Reuse Requirements for Generating Long Term Climate Data Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating long term climate data sets from remotely sensed data requires a specialized form of code reuse. To detect long term trends in a geophysical parameter, such as global ozone amount or mean sea surface temperature, it is essential to be able to differentiate between real changes in the measurement and artifacts related to changes in processing algorithms or instrument

A. J. Fleig

2007-01-01

285

Long-term changes in the invertebrate communities of SUDS  

E-print Network

Long-term changes in the invertebrate communities of SUDS ponds Rob Briers Edinburgh Napier Current study · Long term monitoring of development of invertebrate communities across 4 SUDS sites. (2006) Methods: invertebrates · Two phases of study: ­ 1999-2003: 5 x 30s pond net sampling annually

Heal, Kate

286

Mexican American Elders with Dementia in Long Term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicates the older Hispanic population is one of the fastest growing groups in the United States, and this increase presents unique problems in long-term care delivery for the dementia patient. Late interface with long-term care services results in delayed diagnosis, significant impairments, and prolonged caregiver burden. Understanding the unique cultural influences in this population will assist the gerontologist

David V. Espino; Charles P. Mouton; David Del Aguila; Robert W. Parker; Richard M. Lewis; Toni P. Miles

2001-01-01

287

Long-term field experiments of the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term field experiments are indispensable sources of knowledge. They are vitally important in monitoring, understanding and proving the changes in soil fertility occurring as a result of long-term agrotechnical operations, first of all that of fertilization. Because of longevity, it is fairly costly to maintain them. Their scientific and practical value is, however, immeasurable and keeps growing with their age.

Katalin Debreczeni; Martin Körschens

2003-01-01

288

Long-term Ecological Monitoring in Schools and Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value and difficulties of long-term ecological monitoring studies undertaken in schools and colleges are reviewed. Rookeries, stream ecology, sand dune succession, fish population, and seed production and survival are presented as examples of successful studies. This is followed by a discussion of points to consider when setting up a long-term…

Doberski, Julian; Brodie, Iain D. S.

1991-01-01

289

Morphodynamic length scale and long term river meandering dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fully nonlinear simulation of the lateral migration of meandering channels, combined with an analytical description of the linearized flow field, gives a powerful and yet computationally accessible tool to investigate short and long term evolution of alluvial rivers. In the present contribution we focus on the long term behavior of meandering rivers. This class of dynamical systems is driven

S. Lanzoni; A. Frascati

2009-01-01

290

Alterations in the liver histology and markers of metabolic syndrome associated with inflammation and liver damage in L-arginine exposed female Wistar albino rats.  

PubMed

Metabolic Syndrome (MES), a cluster of metabolic disorders, is pandemic and more prevalent in females. It was associated with inflammation, liver damage and reduced nitric oxide concentration. Since L-arginine (ARG) may enhance nitric oxide synthesis, this study investigated the effect of ARG on the liver histology and selected serum markers of MES related to inflammation and liver damage. Two groups (n = 8) of female Wistar albino rats were exposed to 60 mg kg(-1) b. wt. of ARG and 3 mL kg(-1) b.wt. of distilled water, respectively as treated and control groups. Per oral exposure to ARG for twenty eight days caused a non-significant increase (p > 0.05) in the neutrophils count (22.50 +/- 10.35%, representing 38.46%) but a decrease (p > 0.05) in the lymphocytes count (77.50 +/- 10.35%, representing 8.82%) and in the total bilirubin concentration (0.40 +/- 0.19 mg/100 mL, representing 52.38%) of the rats, suggesting non-treatment related influence on these parameters. However, the exposure elicited a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity (66.47 +/- 0.37 IU L(-1), representing 18.55%) and in the total White Blood Cell (WBC) count (2.73 +/- 0.75 x 10(9) L(-1), representing 43.24%), suggesting absence of inflammation and liver damage. ALT had a significant positive correlation with WBC (r = 0.01), while the liver histology revealed possible benefit in the ARG-fed rats, seeminlgly confirming benefit on these markers of inflammation and liver damage that could improve related MES features in the rats. Further studies using ARG rich nuts are required to harness insight gained from this study. PMID:24498813

Egbuonu, A C C; Ezeanyika, L U S; Ijeh, I I

2013-05-15

291

Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with L-arginine ( L-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for L-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.

Liu, Yun; Yang, Yun; Wu, Feng

2010-04-01

292

Crystal growth, structural, thermal and mechanical behavior of L-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of L-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) have been grown successfully from the solution of L-arginine and 4-nitrophenol. Slow evaporation of solvent technique was adopted to grow the bulk single crystals. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the grown crystal has monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis shows the good crystalline nature. The crystalline perfection of the grown single crystals was analyzed by HRXRD by employing a multicrystal X-ray diffractometer. The functional groups were identified from proton NMR spectroscopic analysis. Linear and nonlinear optical properties were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Kurtz powder technique respectively. It is found that the grown crystal has no absorption in the green wavelength region and the SHG efficiency was found to be 2.66 times that of the standard KDP. The Thermal stability of the crystal was found by obtaining TG/DTA curve. The mechanical behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by Vicker's microhardness method.

Mahadevan, M.; Ramachandran, K.; Anandan, P.; Arivanandhan, M.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Hayakawa, Y.

2014-12-01

293

Fracture risk assessment in long-term care: a survey of long-term care physicians  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of frail elderly who live in long-term care (LTC) are not treated for osteoporosis despite their high risk for fragility fractures. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis provide guidance for the management of individuals 50 years and older at risk for fractures, however, they cannot benefit LTC residents if physicians perceive barriers to their application. Our objectives are to explore current practices to fracture risk assessment by LTC physicians and describe barriers to applying the recently published Osteoporosis Canada practice guidelines for fracture assessment and prevention in LTC. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with the Ontario Long-Term Care Physicians Association using an online questionnaire. The survey included questions that addressed members’ attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour with respect to fracture risk assessment in LTC. Closed-ended responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic framework analysis for open-ended responses. Results We contacted 347 LTC physicians; 25% submitted completed surveys (81% men, mean age 60 (Standard Deviation [SD] 11) years, average 32 [SD 11] years in practice). Of the surveyed physicians, 87% considered prevention of fragility fractures to be important, but a minority (34%) reported using validated fracture risk assessment tools, while 33% did not use any. Clinical risk factors recommended by the OC guidelines for assessing fracture risk considered applicable included; glucocorticoid use (99%), fall history (93%), age (92%), and fracture history (91%). Recommended clinical measurements considered applicable included: weight (84%), thyroid-stimulating hormone (78%) and creatinine (73%) measurements, height (61%), and Get-Up-and-Go test (60%). Perceived barriers to assessing fracture risk included difficulty acquiring necessary information, lack of access to tests (bone mineral density, x-rays) or obtaining medical history; resource constraints, and a sentiment that assessing fracture risk is futile in this population because of short life expectancy and polypharmacy. Conclusion Perceived barriers to fracture risk assessment and osteoporosis management in LTC have not changed recently, contributing in part to the ongoing care gap in osteoporosis management. Our findings highlight the importance to adapt guidelines to be applicable to the LTC environment, and to develop partnerships with stakeholders to facilitate their use in clinical practice. PMID:24138565

2013-01-01

294

Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance  

SciTech Connect

Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

Kristofferson, Keith

2001-11-01

295

Long-term results of the standard Wagner cup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cementless acetabular components gained popularity because of the increased rate of loosening associated with cemented cups\\u000a after intermediate and long-term follow-up. There are few long-term follow-up studies of cementless acetabular components.\\u000a This study aims to evaluate the clinical and radiological long-term results of the press-fit standard Wagner Cup. Between\\u000a January 1, 1994 and June 30, 1994, 118 implantations of a

Uwe Demmelmeyer; Annemarie Schraml; Wolfgang Hönle; Alexander Schuh

2010-01-01

296

Space ventures and society long-term perspectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

Brown, W. M.

1985-01-01

297

Long-term correlations in the surface behavior of dolphins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we study the sequences of surface behavioral patterns of dolphins (Tursiops sp.) and find long-term correlations. We show that the long-term correlations are not of a trivial nature, i.e. they cannot be explained by the repetition of the same surface behavior many times in a row. Our findings suggest that dolphins have a long collective memory extending back at least to the 7-th past behavior. As far as we know, this is the first evidence of long-term correlations in the behavior of a non-human species.

Cancho, R. Ferrer i.; Lusseau, D.

2006-06-01

298

Effect of supplementation during pregnancy with L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins in medical food on pre-eclampsia in high risk population: randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that a relative deficiency in L-arginine, the substrate for synthesis of the vasodilatory gas nitric oxide, may be associated with the development of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk. Design Randomised, blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial. Setting Tertiary public hospital in Mexico City. Participants Pregnant women with a history of a previous pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia, or pre-eclampsia in a first degree relative, and deemed to be at increased risk of recurrence of the disease were studied from week 14-32 of gestation and followed until delivery. Interventions Supplementation with a medical food—bars containing L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins, antioxidant vitamins alone, or placebo—during pregnancy. Main outcome measure Development of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Results 222 women were allocated to the placebo group, 228 received L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins, and 222 received antioxidant vitamins alone. Women had 4-8 prenatal visits while receiving the bars. The incidence of pre-eclampsia was reduced significantly (?2=19.41; P<0.001) in women randomised to L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins compared with placebo (absolute risk reduction 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.21). Antioxidant vitamins alone showed an observed benefit, but this effect was not statistically significant compared with placebo (?2=3.76; P=0.052; absolute risk reduction 0.07, 0.005 to 0.15). L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins compared with antioxidant vitamins alone resulted in a significant effect (P=0.004; absolute risk reduction 0.09, 0.05 to 0.14). Conclusions Supplementation during pregnancy with a medical food containing L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins reduced the incidence of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk of the condition. Antioxidant vitamins alone did not have a protective effect for prevention of pre-eclampsia. Supplementation with L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins needs to be evaluated in a low risk population to determine the generalisability of the protective effect, and the relative contributions of L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins to the observed effects of the combined treatment need to be determined. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00469846. PMID:21596735

2011-01-01

299

Toxicity and blood ammonia rise resulting from intravenous amino acid administration in man: the protective effect of L-arginine,” The  

E-print Network

A study of amino acid toxicity was undertaken following the observation that a mixture of intravenously administered L-amino acids that had been nutritionally adequate in a patient became toxic when L-arginine was deleted. This toxicity was unexpected for the amino acid mixture, even without arginine, contained all of the amino acids determined by Rose (1) to be essential to man. Readdition of L-arginine, however, prevented the toxicity. Subsequent studies by Guillino, Winitz, Birnbaum, Otey, Cornfield, and Greenstein suggested that the toxicity of arginine deficient L-amino acid mixtures might be attributable to a blood ammonia rise (2, 3). Investigation of the arginine-deficient amino

L. Fahey

1957-01-01

300

42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients...building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite of the...

2012-10-01

301

42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients...building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite of the...

2010-10-01

302

42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients...building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite of the...

2011-10-01

303

42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients...building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite of the...

2013-10-01

304

Acquisition of Long-Term Visual Representations: Psychological and Neural  

E-print Network

Acquisition of Long-Term Visual Representations: Psychological and Neural Mechanisms Marlene rapidly achieve an organized, coherent visual percept of our superficially chaotic world? One way human and monkey studies, which show how statistical contingencies of the visual environ- ment

Behrmann, Marlene

305

Long-term memories in online users' selecting activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the long-term memory effect in the behavior of online users. Two user-oriented online movie systems are used in this study. Due to the short length of the series, the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy approach is used to evaluate scaling-invariance in selecting activities of users in the two online movie systems. Our results indicate that persistence (long-term memory) exists widely in the movie selecting series. However, there is generally significant difference between a user's objective and subjective behaviors. Additionally, statistically, the long-term memory depends on activity levels, as results show that the much more active a users' group, the stronger the long-term memory will be. These findings provide a new criterion for constructing reasonable models, and can help understand how individuals' behaviors form a collective behavior of an online society.

Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie

2014-07-01

306

Long-term memory, sleep, and the spacing effect.  

PubMed

Many studies have shown that memory is enhanced when study sessions are spaced apart rather than massed. This spacing effect has been shown to have a lasting benefit to long-term memory when the study phase session follows the encoding session by 24 hours. Using a spacing paradigm we examined the impact of sleep and spacing gaps on long-term declarative memory for Swahili-English word pairs by including four spacing delay gaps (massed, 12 hours same-day, 12 hours overnight, and 24 hours). Results showed that a 12-hour spacing gap that includes sleep promotes long-term memory retention similar to the 24-hour gap. The findings support the importance of sleep to the long-term benefit of the spacing effect. PMID:23521365

Bell, Matthew C; Kawadri, Nader; Simone, Patricia M; Wiseheart, Melody

2014-01-01

307

Endowments and New Institutions for Long-Term Observation  

E-print Network

An ever-increasing volume of publications on the changing ocean environment underscores the requirement for long-term observations to understand and predict ocean and climate change. Such observations must be globally ...

Baker, D. James

2007-01-01

308

Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Requirements  

SciTech Connect

To ensure technology developed for long-term stewardship will meet existing requirements, a review of requirements was performed. In addition to identifying existing science and technology related requirements, gaps and conflicts of requirements were identified.

McDonald, J.K.; Nickelson, R.A.

2002-05-16

309

Long-term Stewardship Science and Technology Requirements  

SciTech Connect

To ensure technology developed for long-term stewardship will meet existing requirements, a review of requirements was performed. In addition to identifying existing science and technology related requirements, gaps and conflicts of requirements were identified.

Mcdonald, Jaimee Kristen; Nickelson, Reva Anne

2002-08-01

310

Insuring Long-Term Care in the United States  

E-print Network

Long-term care expenditures constitute one of the largest uninsured financial risks facing the elderly in the United States and thus play a central role in determining the retirement security of elderly Americans. In this ...

Finkelstein, Amy

311

Long-term Career Goals for Professional Women in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encourages the formation of long-term career goals for women in agronomy. Offers perspectives and practical suggestions for obtaining positions, maintaining professional credentials, and managing personal and career related obligations. (ML)

Klepper, Betty

1986-01-01

312

Long-Term Quiescent Fibroblast Cells Transit into Senescence  

PubMed Central

Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development. PMID:25531649

Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Hemmerich, Peter; Klement, Karolin; Diekmann, Stephan

2014-01-01

313

Long-term treatment goals: enhancing healthy outcomes.  

PubMed

The long-term management of schizophrenia with a goal of functional rehabilitation remains an enormous challenge to clinicians despite improvements in drug therapy, psychosocial treatments, and family and community interventions. The goals of long-term therapy are to preserve the gains made during acute treatment, prevent symptom exacerbation, enhance psychosocial functioning, and improve quality of life. Schizophrenia is an illness that disrupts broad areas of mental function, including thought, cognition, affect, and motor performance. The new antipsychotics should aid physicians in meeting higher treatment goals for persons with schizophrenia. These agents combine high efficacy with improved tolerability, mainly through a low liability for extrapyramidal symptoms and probably improve cognitive affect. Recent studies have demonstrated efficacy of these new antipsychotics in improving psychopathology and symptoms and in preventing relapse during long-term use. These drugs are likely to provide physicians with an increasingly viable option in the long-term treatment and rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:14978456

Casey, Daniel E

2003-11-01

314

Who Will Provide Your Care? (Long-Term Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... may need. Share page: Who Will Provide Your Care? Long-term care services and support typically come ... you live at home. About 80 percent of care at home is provided by unpaid caregivers and ...

315

How Much Care Will You Need? (Long-Term Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... care you may need. Share page: How Much Care Will You Need? The duration and level of ... in facilities. Distribution and duration of long-term care services Type of care Average number of years ...

316

St. Louis Sites Fact Sheet LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP  

E-print Network

of prohibitive costs, and worker safety issues. Long-term stewardship will be required to ensure that remedies, HISS). These sites contain soils contaminated with radium, thorium, and uranium as a result

US Army Corps of Engineers

317

Assessments of long-term uranium supply availability  

E-print Network

The future viability of nuclear power will depend on the long-term availability of uranium. A two-form uranium supply model was used to estimate the date at which peak production will occur. The model assumes a constant ...

Zaterman, Daniel R

2009-01-01

318

Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007  

SciTech Connect

This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

T. Haney

2007-07-31

319

Distinct mechanism for long-term contrast adaptation  

PubMed Central

To optimize perception, neurons in the visual system adapt to the current environment. What determines the durability of this plasticity? Longer exposures to an environment produce longer-lasting effects, which could be due to either (i) a single mechanism controlling adaptation that gains strength over time, or (ii) long-term mechanisms that become active after long-term exposure. Using recently developed technology, we tested adaptation durations an order of magnitude greater that those tested previously, and used a “deadaptation” procedure to reveal effects of a unique long-term mechanism in the longest adaptation periods. After 4 h of contrast adaptation, human observers were exposed to natural images for 15 min, which completely cancelled perceptual aftereffects of adaptation. Strikingly, during continued testing this deadaptation faded, and the original adaptation effects reappeared. This pattern strongly suggests that adaptation was maintained in a distinct long-term mechanism, whereas deadaptation affected a short-term mechanism. PMID:22454502

Bao, Min; Engel, Stephen A.

2012-01-01

320

Long-term patient survival in ANCA-associated vasculitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain.ObjectiveTo describe the long-term patient survival and possible prognostic factors at presentation in an international, multicentre, prospectively recruited representative patient cohort who were treated according to strictly defined protocols at

Oliver Flossmann; Annelies Berden; Kirsten de Groot; Chris Hagen; Lorraine Harper; Caroline Heijl; Peter Höglund; David Jayne; Raashid Luqmani; Alfred Mahr; Chetan Mukhtyar; Charles Pusey; Niels Rasmussen; Coen Stegeman; Michael Walsh; Kerstin Westman

2011-01-01

321

Long-term care insurance: an essential employee benefit.  

PubMed

Growing numbers of employers are embracing long-term care insurance (LTCI) as an important new addition to their employee benefits package due to aging baby boomers, tax favorable legislation, the need for employee retention and rising costs of care. Even the best retirement plans can be gutted by the high costs of long-term care. The authors identify key components of LTCI and offer guidelines for selecting an LTCI company. PMID:12500583

Gordon, Murray; Gordon, Brian

2002-12-01

322

Quality of life in long term survivors of colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:We aimed to determine the quality of life (QOL) for long term survivors of colorectal cancer.METHODS:Persons with colorectal cancer who had survived at least 5 yr from diagnosis were recruited from a local cancer registry to answer questions about general QOL and colon cancer-specific issues. Before the general survey, focus group interviews with long term survivors were conducted to select

Scott D Ramsey; Kristin Berry; Carol Moinpour; Antoinette Giedzinska; M. Robyn Andersen

2002-01-01

323

Chronic renal lesions following long-term treatment with lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic renal lesions following long-term treatment with lithium. Fourteen patients receiving long-term treatment with lithium carbonate for manic-depressive disease were referred to a nephrological department because of acute lithium intoxication or lithiuminduced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Renal biopsy specimens from each of these patients showed only insignificant acute lesions. In thirteen of the specimens, however, a pronounced degree of focal nephron

Jytte Hestbech; Hans Erik Hansen; Amdi Amdisen; Steen Olsen

1977-01-01

324

Seamless Long Term Learning in Agile Teams for Sustainable Leadership  

E-print Network

Seamless and continuous support for long term organizational learning needs is essential for long lasting progress of the organization. Agile process model provides an excellent opportunity to cater that specific problem and also helps in motivation, satisfaction, coordination, presentation and technical skills enhancement of agile teams. This long term learning process makes organization to sustain their current successes and lead both organization and team members to successful and dynamic market leaders.

Qureshi, M R J

2012-01-01

325

Long-term correlations in the surface behavior of dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we study the sequences of surface behavioral patterns of dolphins (Tursiops sp.) and find long-term correlations. We show that the long-term correlations are not of a trivial nature, i.e. they cannot be explained by the repetition of the same surface behavior many times in a row. Our findings suggest that dolphins have a long collective memory extending back at

326

Long-term correlations in the surface behavior of dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we study the sequences of surface behavioral patterns of dolphins (Tursiops sp.) and find long-term correlations. We show that the long-term correlations are not of a trivial nature, i.e. they cannot be explained by the repetition of the same surface behavior many times in a row. Our findings suggest that dolphins have a long collective memory extending back at

R. Ferrer i. Cancho; D. Lusseau

2006-01-01

327

Long term culture of tumour-specific cytotoxic T cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

MANY investigators have been successful in the maintenance of long term tissue culture of human bone marrow-derived (B) cells. These cell lines have been established from both normal subjects1 and from patients with lymphoproliferative disorders2. In most cases, long term B-cell lines have been shown to harbour the Epstein-Barr virus genome which some investigators feel is required for establishment and

Steven Gillis; Kendall A. Smith

1977-01-01

328

Long-term memory motion-compensated prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term memory motion-compensated prediction extends the spatial displacement vector utilized in block-based hybrid video coding by a variable time delay permitting the use of more frames than the previously decoded one for motion compensated prediction. The long-term memory covers several seconds of decoded frames at the encoder and decoder. The use of multiple frames for motion compensation in most cases

Thomas Wiegand; Xiaozheng Zhang; Bernd Girod

1999-01-01

329

Montessori-Based Dementia Activities in Long-Term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes Montessori-based activities for use with persons with dementia in long-term care settings. An overview of the Montessori method of education is presented, with emphasis on its application to geriatric populations. Individual and group activities are detailed, along with techniques for adapting Montessori materials and procedures for use in long-term care settings. A description is provided of training

Silvia Orsulic-Jeras; Nicole M. Schneider; Cameron J. Camp; Pam Nicholson; Michael Helbig

2001-01-01

330

Psychosocial interventions for dementia patients in long-term care  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial interventions in long-term care have the potential to improve the quality of care and quality of life of persons with dementia. Our aim is to explore the evidence and consensus on psychosocial interventions for persons with dementia in long-term care. METHODS: This study comprises an appraisal of research reviews and of European, U.S. and Canadian dementia guidelines. RESULTS:

M. J. F. J. Vernooij-Dassen; E. Vasse; S. U. Zuidema; J. Cohen-Mansfield; W. Moyle

2010-01-01

331

Transdermal application of methimazole in hyperthyroid cats: a long-term follow-up study.  

PubMed

Transdermal methimazole is suggested as an alternative to oral therapy for hyperthyroid cats that are difficult to pill. However, no information on long-term management with this treatment is available. Our objective was therefore to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term transdermal methimazole treatment in hyperthyroid cats. Sixty cats with newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism and available long-term follow-up information were included. Methimazole was formulated in a pluronic lecithin organogel-based vehicle and was applied to the pinna of the inner ear. Cats were re-evaluated at regular intervals. Median (range) follow-up was 22.6 months (3.6-88.4 months). Clinical improvement was observed in all cats and side effects were rare (mild transient gastrointestinal signs: n = 3; erythema of the pinna: n = 2, necessitating a switch to oral medication). Despite a significant decrease, with median T4 concentrations within the reference interval during the follow-up period, several cats repeatedly had T4 concentrations in the thyrotoxic and hypothyroid range. Maximal and minimal daily doses during the follow-up period were 15.0 and 1.0 mg, respectively; they were significantly higher than the starting dose after 24-36 months of therapy. Although the majority of owners were highly satisfied with the treatment, several admitted not treating their cat regularly. Transdermal methimazole is a safe option for the long-term management of feline hyperthyroidism. However, it seems difficult to keep the T4 concentrations constantly within the reference interval. Higher doses can be expected after prolonged treatment and, despite the convenience of transdermal application, owner compliance should be assessed regularly. PMID:24174499

Boretti, Felicitas S; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, Nadja S; Schäfer, Sandra; Gerber, Bernhard; Baumgartner, Claudia; Riond, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Reusch, Claudia E

2014-06-01

332

The metabolism of L-arginine and its significance for the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor: L-glutamine inhibits the generation of L-arginine by cultured endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism by which L-glutamine (L-Gln) inhibits the release of endothelium-derived factor from bovine aortic cultured endothelial cells was investigated. The intracellular concentration of L-arginine (L-Arg) in Arg-depleted endothelial cells was inversely related to the level of L-Gln. Removal of L-Gln from the culture medium (usually containing L-Gln at 2 mM) abolished the inhibitory effect of the culture medium on L-Arg generation. L-Gln (0.2 and 2 mM) but not D-Gln inhibited the generation of L-Arg by both Arg-depleted and nondepleted endothelial cells. L-Gln did not interfere with the uptake of L-Arg or the metabolism of L-Arg-L-Phe to L-Arg but inhibited the formation of L-Arg from L-citrulline (L-Cit), L-Cit-L-Phe, and N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine. L-Gln also inhibited the conversion of L-({sup 14}C)Cit to L-({sup 14}C)Arg by Arg-depleted endothelial cells. However, L-Gln did not inhibit the conversion of L-argininosuccinic acid to L-Arg by endothelial cell homogenates. Thus, L-Gln interferes with the conversion of L-Cit to L-Arg probably by acting on argininosuccinate synthetase rather than argininosuccinate lyase. L-Gln also inhibited the generation of L-Arg by the monocyte-macrophage cell line J774 but had no effect on the conversion of L-Cit to L-Arg by these cells. As the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor from cultured and non-cultured endothelial cells is limited by the availability of L-Arg, endogenous L-Gln may play a regulatory role in the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor.

Sessa, W.C.; Hecker, M.; Mitchell, J.A. Vane, J.R. (William Harvey Research Inst., London (England))

1990-11-01

333

INSULIN, GLUCOSE, CORTISOL, GROWTH HORMONE AND PROLACTIN RESPONSES TO ORAL L-ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION TO LACTATING SOWS UNDER HEAT STRESS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study was to determine whether dietary arginine (Arg) decreases weight loss of lactating sows via regulation of key metabolic hormones. Sows were exposed to a thermoneutral (TN = 20º C) or hot (HT = 29.4º C) environment and fed one of three dietary treatments in a 2 x 3 factori...

334

Long-Term Effects of Maternal Citrulline Supplementation on Renal Transcriptome Prevention of Nitric Oxide Depletion-Related Programmed Hypertension: The Impact of Gene-Nutrient Interactions  

PubMed Central

Maternal malnutrition can elicit gene expression leading to fetal programming. l-citrulline (CIT) can be converted to l-arginine to generate nitric oxide (NO). We examined whether maternal CIT supplementation can prevent NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (l-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor)-induced programmed hypertension and examined their effects on the renal transcriptome in male offspring using next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received l-NAME administration at 60mg/kg/day subcutaneously via osmotic minipump during pregnancy alone or with additional 0.25% l-citrulline solution in drinking water during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to three groups: control, l-NAME, and l-NAME + CIT. l-NAME exposure induced hypertension in the 12-week-old offspring, which CIT therapy prevented. Identified differentially expressed genes in l-NAME and CIT-treated offspring kidneys, including Guca2b, Hmox1, Hba2, Hba-a2, Dusp1, and Serpine1 are related to regulation of blood pressure (BP) and oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data suggests that the beneficial effects of CIT supplementation are attributed to alterations in expression levels of genes related to BP control and oxidative stress. Our results suggest that early nutritional intervention by CIT has long-term impact on the renal transcriptome to prevent NO depletion-related programmed hypertension. However, our RNA-Seq results might be a secondary phenomenon. The implications of epigenetic regulation at an early stage of programming deserve further clarification. PMID:25517031

Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Huang, Li-Tung

2014-01-01

335

The NMR and X-ray study of L-arginine derived Schiff bases and its cadmium complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure study of five Schiff bases derived from L-arginine (L-Arg) and 2-hydroxy carbonyl compounds were performed in both solution and solid state using NMR and X-ray methods. Both analytical methods applied to the solid state sample of two Schiff bases showed a significant difference in molecular structures of unsubstituted and 7-CH3 substituted compounds. This effect was explained as a steric interaction of methyl group. Additionally the structure of two Cd2+ complexes with some Schiff bases were determined by NMR methods in DMSO solution and in the solid state. On the base of heteronuclear NMR measurement (13C, 15N and 113Cd) it was possible to define the complexation site on nitrogen atom. The large set of spectral parameters: chemical shifts, homo- and heteronuclear coupling constants, were used in structure study.

Ko?odziej, B.; Grech, E.; Schilf, W.; Kamie?ski, B.; Pazio, A.; Wo?niak, K.

2014-04-01

336

Crystalline fiber growth of dye-doped L-arginine phosphate by the laser-heated pedestal growth technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 25-mm-long and ˜1-mm-diameter transparent crystalline fibers of Rd6G (0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mol wt%) doped L-arginine phosphate (LAP) have been grown by the laser-heated pedestal growth technique using ˜4 W CO 2 laser power, 36 mm/h fiber pulling speed and 14 mm/h sample rod pushing speed. TG analysis shows the improvement in the thermal properties of LAP by Rd6G doping. XRD and photoluminescence techniques have been used for the characterization of fibers. Optical transmission studies indicate that in normal laboratory conditions there is less degradation in Rd6G:LAP compared to undoped LAP.

Singh, Shivani; Lal, Bansi

2008-04-01

337

Effects of nucleotides adenosine monophosphate and adenosine triphosphate in combination with L-arginine on male rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue.  

PubMed

Purines and more specifically adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) have a strong relaxant effect on smooth muscle cells of the dog, rabbit and human corpus cavernosum, to approximately the same degree as nitric oxide (NO). However, purines are considered as modulators of erectile function rather than key mediators. This suggests that the use of purines combined with NO donors could be effective to treat some specific erectile disorders. The relaxation induced by the combination of l-arginine (Arg), a natural substrate for NO synthase, was assessed with a purine-nucleotide (AMP, ATP) on a rabbit corpus cavernosum model, to determine if these substances could potentiate each other's effect. When a pre-contraction was induced by phenylephrine, AMP alone induced a 43% CC relaxation rate and ATP alone a 26% rate. The relaxation rate induced by Arg was lower in comparison (8% at 5.10(-4) m vs. 25% at AMP 5.10(-4) m and 15% at ATP 5.10(-4) m). NO synthase inhibitor n-nitro-l-arginine did not modify the relaxing effect provoked by AMP suggesting that the mechanism of action of this nucleotide does not involve the NO pathway. The combination of Arg at 5.10(-4) m with either AMP or ATP at different doses ranging from 5.10(-4) to 10(-3) m significantly enhanced the relaxing response reaching rates of 62 and 80% respectively, leading to a synergistic effect. The present data indicate that a 'NO donor' combined with an 'adenosine donor' could be an effective therapeutic approach. PMID:22709341

Hupertan, V; Neuzillet, Y; Stücker, O; Pons, C; Leammel, E; Lebret, T

2012-12-01

338

Exercise training in doxorubicin-induced heart failure: effects on the L-arginine-NO pathway and vascular reactivity.  

PubMed

Heart failure (HF) is the end-stage of cardiovascular disease and is associated with a high incidence of thrombotic events. Nitric oxide (NO) mediates vasodilation and prevents platelet activation, providing an important antithrombotic effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic training on survival, platelet L-arginine-NO pathway, and vasodilator properties in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced HF. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to saline/sedentary (SAL/SED), saline/exercise (SAL/EX), DOX/sedentary (DOX/SED), and DOX/exercise (DOX/EX) groups. Four weeks after intraperitoneal DOX injection (1mg/kg(-1)/d(-1); 10 days), shortening fraction in DOX/SED and DOX/EX was significantly reduced. Treadmill exercise was performed during 6 weeks, 5 days/week(-1), 30minutes/day(-1), 50% to 60% of maximum velocity. Survival was higher in DOX/EX (67%) than DOX/SED (33%). No differences were observed in intraplatelet L-arginine transport assessed by incubation with L- [(3)H]-arginine, nor in NOS activity measured by the conversion of L- [(3)H]-arginine into L- [(3)H]-citrulline among the groups. Vasodilation response to acetylcholine was impaired in DOX/SED and DOX/EX; in nitroglycerine, it was limited to DOX/SED. Aerobic training reduced mortality in DOX-induced HF animals and restored vascular smooth muscle relaxation properties. However, it did not ameliorate intraplatelet NO bioavailability and endothelial function during the period studied. PMID:20374946

Matsuura, Cristiane; Brunini, Tatiana M C; Carvalho, Lenize C M M; Resende, Angela C; Carvalho, Jorge J; de Castro, João Pedro Werneck; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antonio C

2010-01-01

339

Effect of L-arginine supplementation to gestation and lactation diets on the expression of immune related genes in white blood cells of lactating sows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of L-arginine HCl supplementation on immune related gene expression in leukocytes of first parity sows. Nineteen first parity sows (BW of 180.7 ± 2.7 kg and BF of 15.3 ± 0.2 mm) were used in this study. On d 30 of gestation, pregnant gilts were assign...

340

Action Planning for Daily Mouth Care in Long-Term Care: The Brushing Up on Mouth Care Project  

PubMed Central

Research focusing on the introduction of daily mouth care programs for dependent older adults in long-term care has met with limited success. There is a need for greater awareness about the importance of oral health, more education for those providing oral care, and organizational structures that provide policy and administrative support for daily mouth care. The purpose of this paper is to describe the establishment of an oral care action plan for long-term care using an interdisciplinary collaborative approach. Methods. Elements of a program planning cycle that includes assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation guided this work and are described in this paper. Findings associated with assessment and planning are detailed. Assessment involved exploration of internal and external factors influencing oral care in long-term care and included document review, focus groups and one-on-one interviews with end-users. The planning phase brought care providers, stakeholders, and researchers together to design a set of actions to integrate oral care into the organizational policy and practice of the research settings. Findings. The establishment of a meaningful and productive collaboration was beneficial for developing realistic goals, understanding context and institutional culture, creating actions suitable and applicable for end-users, and laying a foundation for broader networking with relevant stakeholders and health policy makers. PMID:22550572

McNally, Mary E.; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Wyatt, Christopher C. L.; McNeil, Karen P.; Crowell, Sandra J.; Matthews, Debora C.; Clovis, Joanne B.

2012-01-01

341

Challenges in long-term health care for children.  

PubMed

More children with chronic conditions are surviving than in previous times, and many have serious and significant ongoing health care needs. This paper reviews 1) the population characteristics of children with chronic health conditions in terms of the epidemiology and their sociodemographic profiles; 2) the implications of children's development on their needs, on caretaker roles and responsibilities, on the concept of medical necessity, and on service systems; 3) financing issues and service options for long-term care; and 4) strengths and limitations of existing mechanisms for monitoring the quality of services provided. The following discussion highlights the need for 1) improved data on the numbers of children who need and receive different types of long-term care; 2) better coordination of services and creation of a workable system; 3) a child-specific standard of medical necessity in defining service eligibility; 4) better support systems for families caring for children with long-term needs in non institutional settings; and 5) improved consistency in the mechanisms for financing of care for these children. More attention also should be focused on developing ways of monitoring the quality of long-term care provided. Addressing these needs would go a long way toward improving the quality of long-term care for infants, children, and adolescents. PMID:11888416

Stein, R E

2001-01-01

342

An Exotic Long-Term Pattern in Stock Price Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Background To accurately predict the movement of stock prices is always of both academic importance and practical value. So far, a lot of research has been reported to help understand the behavior of stock prices. However, some of the existing theories tend to render us the belief that the time series of stock prices are unpredictable on a long-term timescale. The question arises whether the long-term predictability exists in stock price dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we analyze the price reversals in the US stock market and the Chinese stock market on the basis of a renormalization method. The price reversals are divided into two types: retracements (the downward trends after upward trends) and rebounds (the upward trends after downward trends), of which the intensities are described by dimensionless quantities, and , respectively. We reveal that for both mature and emerging markets, the distribution of either retracements or rebounds shows two characteristic values, 0.335 and 0.665, both of which are robust over the long term. Conclusions/Significance The methodology presented here provides a way to quantify the stock price reversals. Our findings strongly support the existence of the long-term predictability in stock price dynamics, and may offer a hint on how to predict the long-term movement of stock prices. PMID:23284734

Wei, Jianrong; Huang, Jiping

2012-01-01

343

Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

Kowalewski, Matthew

2004-01-01

344

Long-Term Prognosis of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

There is limited information about long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke in young adults. Giving the potentially negative impact in physical, social, and emotional aspects of an ischemic stroke in young people, providing early accurate long-term prognostic information is very important in this clinical setting. Moreover, detection of factors associated with bad outcomes (death, recurrence, moderate-to-severe disability) help physicians in optimizing secondary prevention strategies. The present paper reviews the most relevant published information concerning long-term prognosis and predictors of unfavorable outcomes of ischemic stroke affecting young adults. As a summary, we can conclude that, in the long term, stroke in the young adult increases slightly the risk of mortality, implies higher risk of future cardiovascular events, and determines functional limitations in a significant percentage of patients. Nevertheless, in every individual case the prognosis has to be considered depending on several factors (stroke subtype, initial severity, cardiovascular risk factors) that determine the long-term outcomes. PMID:21197408

Varona, Jose F.

2011-01-01

345

42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...  

... Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients...building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite of the long-term...

2014-10-01

346

Agmatine enhances the anticonvulsant effect of lithium chloride on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: Involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway.  

PubMed

After nearly 60years, lithium is still the mainstay in the treatment of mood disorders. In addition to its antimanic and antidepressant effects, lithium also has anticonvulsant properties. Similar to lithium, agmatine plays a protective role in the central nervous system against seizures and has been reported to enhance the effect of different antiepileptic agents. Moreover, both agmatine and lithium have modulatory effects on the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. This study was designed to investigate: (1) whether agmatine and lithium exert a synergistic effect against clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and (2) whether or not this synergistic effect is mediated through inhibition of the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. In our study, acute administration of a single potent dose of lithium chloride (30mg/kg ip) increased seizure threshold, whereas pretreatment with a low and independently noneffective dose of agmatine (3mg/kg) potentiated a subeffective dose of lithium (10mg/kg). N(G)-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, nonspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) at 1 and 5mg/kg and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, preferential neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) at 15 and 30mg/kg augmented the anticonvulsant effect of the noneffective combination of lithium (10mg/kg ip) and agmatine (1mg/kg), whereas several doses (20 and 40mg/kg) of aminoguanidine (inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) failed to alter the seizure threshold of the same combination. Furthermore, pretreatment with independently noneffective doses (30 and 60mg/kg) of L-arginine (substrate for nitric oxide synthase) inhibited the potentiating effect of agmatine (3mg/kg) on lithium (10mg/kg). Our findings demonstrate that agmatine and lithium chloride have synergistic anticonvulsant properties that may be mediated through the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. In addition, the role of constitutive nitric oxide synthase versus inducible nitric oxide synthase is prominent in this phenomenon. PMID:20493779

Bahremand, Arash; Ziai, Pouya; Khodadad, Tina Kabiri; Payandemehr, Borna; Rahimian, Reza; Ghasemi, Abbas; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Hedayat, Tina; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2010-07-01

347

Long-term Internship through Cooperative Education with Regional Industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long term internship is one of special educational programs for graduate students of Graduate School of Engineering in University of Fukui. This is a collaborative program between university and industries where selected post-graduate students are dispatched to companies for a long term and educated in real business environments. It is the final goal of the program to develop sophisticated specialists who would be able to catch the business strategy in industries and solve any problems by themselves. The program is managed in a semester (6 months) and contains 1.5 month prior education of preliminary special knowledge, ethics and secrecy, about 3 month dispatch with long-term internship, and 1.5 month post-education for complementary education and presentation. This paper presents the effect of this program which has been evolving since 2005.

Takahashi, Kenzo; Hase, Hiroyuki

348

Long-term RNA persistence in postmortem contexts  

PubMed Central

Ribonucleic acids (RNA) are generally considered fragile molecules that are readily degraded. However, there is growing documentation of long-term (from days to centuries) RNA persistence in a variety of contexts and tissue types, and as such a number of academic disciplines are beginning to exploit degraded RNA. While the reasons for its survival are not fully understood, there are several plausible mechanisms that would safeguard this molecule against degradation. However, after examining the literature available on the postmortem instability and decay mechanisms of RNA, it has become clear that limited experimental studies and no reviews offer an overview of these mechanisms. Hence in this review we outline molecular reasons for RNA surviving long-term postmortem, and provide specific examples of RNA survival in forensic, archival and archaeological contexts. A better understanding of the mechanisms of RNA decay will be crucial for developing expectations on its long-term survival. PMID:23618361

2013-01-01

349

Viability of Long-Term Gene Therapy in the Cochlea  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy has been investigated as a way to introduce a variety of genes to treat neurological disorders. An important clinical consideration is its long-term effectiveness. This research aims to study the long-term expression and effectiveness of gene therapy in promoting spiral ganglion neuron survival after deafness. Adenoviral vectors modified to express brain derived neurotrophic factor or neurotrophin-3 were unilaterally injected into the guinea pig cochlea one week post ototoxic deafening. After six months, persistence of gene expression and significantly greater neuronal survival in neurotrophin-treated cochleae compared to the contralateral cochleae were observed. The long-term gene expression observed indicates that gene therapy is potentially viable; however the degeneration of the transduced cells as a result of the original ototoxic insult may limit clinical effectiveness. With further research aimed at transducing stable cochlear cells, gene therapy may be an efficacious way to introduce neurotrophins to promote neuronal survival after hearing loss. PMID:24751795

Atkinson, Patrick J.; Wise, Andrew K.; Flynn, Brianna O.; Nayagam, Bryony A.; Richardson, Rachael T.

2014-01-01

350

Long-term visual associations affect attentional guidance.  

PubMed

When observers perform a visual search task, they are assumed to adopt an attentional set for what they are looking for. The present experiment investigates the influence of long-term visual memory associations on this attentional set. On each trial, observers were asked to search a display for a grayscale version of a known traffic sign. On each trial, a distractor sign was drawn in full color. This color could either be related or unrelated to the target sign. Distractors interfered more with search when their color was related (e.g. red when the target was a stop sign), implying that long-term color associations resulted in inadvertent attentional guidance, even though color was irrelevant to the task. The results add to the growing body of evidence that long-term memory representations automatically affect attentional orienting. PMID:20673859

Olivers, Christian N L

2011-06-01

351

Sexuality and physical intimacy in long-term care.  

PubMed

Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long-term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long-term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders, it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long-term care, and presents two case examples. A semistructured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing the needs for protection with the needs for autonomy. PMID:24354331

Lichtenberg, Peter A

2014-01-01

352

Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems  

SciTech Connect

A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield.

Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J. [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Parque Cientifico Universitat de Valencia, Poligono 'La Coma' s/n, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Departamento de Comunicaciones, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo - ICMUV, Universitat de Valencia c/ Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Comunicaciones, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Parque Cientifico Universitat de Valencia, Poligono 'La Coma' s/n, 46980 Paterna (Spain)

2007-08-15

353

Long-term efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of ibandronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Several second-generation bisphosphonates (BPs) are approved in osteoporosis treatment. Efficacy and safety depends on potency of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) inhibition, hydroxyapatite affinity, compliance and adherence. The latter may be influenced by frequency and route of administration. A literature search using "ibandronate", "postmenopausal osteoporosis", "fracture", and "bone mineral density" (BMD) revealed 168 publications. The Phase III BONE study, using low dose 2.5 mg daily oral ibandronate demonstrated 49% relative risk reduction (RRR) in clinical vertebral fracture after 3 years. Non-vertebral fracture (NVF) reduction was demonstrated in a subgroup (pretreatment T-score ? -3.0; RRR 69%) and a meta-analysis of high annual doses (150 mg oral monthly or intravenous equivalent of ibandronate; RRR 38%). Hip fracture reduction was not demonstrated. Long-term treatment efficacy has been confirmed over 5 years. Long term safety is comparable to placebo over 3 years apart from flu-like symptoms which are more common with oral monthly and intravenous treatments. No cases of atypical femoral fracture or osteonecrosis of the jaw have been reported in randomized controlled trial studies. Ibandronate inhibits FPPS more than alendronate but less than other BPs which could explain rate of action onset. Ibandronate has a higher affinity for hydroxyapatite compared with risedronate but less than other BPs which could affect skeletal distribution and rate of action offset. High doses (150 mg oral monthly or intravenous equivalent) were superior to low doses (oral 2.5 mg daily) according to 1 year BMD change. Data are limited by patient selection, statistical power, under-dosing, and absence of placebo groups in high dose studies. Ibandronate treatment offers different doses and modalities of administration which could translate into higher adherence rates, an important factor when the two main limitations of BP treatment are initiation and adherence rates. However, lack of consistency in NVF reduction and absence of hip fracture data limits more generalized use of this agent. PMID:25565901

Inderjeeth, Charles A; Glendenning, Paul; Ratnagobal, Shoba; Inderjeeth, Diren Che; Ondhia, Chandni

2015-01-01

354

Long-term efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of ibandronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Several second-generation bisphosphonates (BPs) are approved in osteoporosis treatment. Efficacy and safety depends on potency of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) inhibition, hydroxyapatite affinity, compliance and adherence. The latter may be influenced by frequency and route of administration. A literature search using “ibandronate”, “postmenopausal osteoporosis”, “fracture”, and “bone mineral density” (BMD) revealed 168 publications. The Phase III BONE study, using low dose 2.5 mg daily oral ibandronate demonstrated 49% relative risk reduction (RRR) in clinical vertebral fracture after 3 years. Non-vertebral fracture (NVF) reduction was demonstrated in a subgroup (pretreatment T-score ? ?3.0; RRR 69%) and a meta-analysis of high annual doses (150 mg oral monthly or intravenous equivalent of ibandronate; RRR 38%). Hip fracture reduction was not demonstrated. Long-term treatment efficacy has been confirmed over 5 years. Long term safety is comparable to placebo over 3 years apart from flu-like symptoms which are more common with oral monthly and intravenous treatments. No cases of atypical femoral fracture or osteonecrosis of the jaw have been reported in randomized controlled trial studies. Ibandronate inhibits FPPS more than alendronate but less than other BPs which could explain rate of action onset. Ibandronate has a higher affinity for hydroxyapatite compared with risedronate but less than other BPs which could affect skeletal distribution and rate of action offset. High doses (150 mg oral monthly or intravenous equivalent) were superior to low doses (oral 2.5 mg daily) according to 1 year BMD change. Data are limited by patient selection, statistical power, under-dosing, and absence of placebo groups in high dose studies. Ibandronate treatment offers different doses and modalities of administration which could translate into higher adherence rates, an important factor when the two main limitations of BP treatment are initiation and adherence rates. However, lack of consistency in NVF reduction and absence of hip fracture data limits more generalized use of this agent. PMID:25565901

Inderjeeth, Charles A; Glendenning, Paul; Ratnagobal, Shoba; Inderjeeth, Diren Che; Ondhia, Chandni

2015-01-01

355

Oral Appliances  

MedlinePLUS

... weeks or months to complete. This includes examination, evaluation to determine the most appropriate oral appliance, fitting, maximizing adaptation of the appliance, and the function. Ongoing care, including short- and long-term follow-up is an essential step in the ...

356

Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Orthopedic Biodegradable Implants  

PubMed Central

Presently, orthopedic and oral/maxillofacial implants represent a combined $2.8 billion market, a figure expected to experience significant and continued growth. Although traditional permanent implants have been proved clinically efficacious, they are also associated with several drawbacks, including secondary revision and removal surgeries. Non-permanent, biodegradable implants offer a promising alternative for patients, as they provide temporary support and degrade at a rate matching tissue formation, and thus, eliminate the need for secondary surgeries. These implants have been in clinical use for nearly 25 years, competing directly with, or maybe even exceeding, the performance of permanent implants. The initial implantation of biodegradable materials, as with permanent materials, mounts an acute host inflammatory response. Over time, the implant degradation profile and possible degradation product toxicity mediate long-term biodegradable implant-induced inflammation. However, unlike permanent implants, this inflammation is likely to cease once the material disappears. Implant-mediated inflammation is a critical determinant for implant success. Thus, for the development of a proactive biodegradable implant that has the ability to promote optimal bone regeneration and minimal detrimental inflammation, a thorough understanding of short- and long-term inflammatory events is required. Here, we discuss an array of biodegradable orthopedic implants, their associated short- and long- term inflammatory effects, and methods to mediate these inflammatory events. PMID:22043969

Amini, Ami R.; Wallace, James S.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.

2012-01-01

357

Long-term efficacy and limitations of cyclophosphamide in myasthenia gravis.  

PubMed

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic autoimmune disorder with a fluctuating clinical course. The aim of immunotherapy is to bring about long-term remission. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of cyclophosphamide in generalized MG. We also highlight the limitations of cyclophosphamide therapy in inducing long-term remission. Data from 22 patients with generalized MG who received cyclophosphamide therapy were analyzed in terms of its safety and outcome. Twelve patients completed at least six pulses of intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy, and all improved symptomatically at 6 months. At 1 year, only seven patients reported sustained benefit and five had discontinued oral pyridostigmine. During a follow-up period of 56.67 months, all but one patient relapsed and required alternative immunomodulatory therapy. The average time to remission after the initiation of intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide (n=12) was 3.6 months (standard deviation [SD] 1.6 months, range 1-6 months), while the mean duration of remission was 20.3 months (SD 8.8 months, range 12-39 months). Forty-six adverse events were documented in 11 patients over 127 cyclophosphamide pulses. Most of the adverse events were managed symptomatically. In four patients, cyclophosphamide had to be discontinued due to adverse events. Intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide is effective in the management of MG; however remission may be short, necessitating long-term follow-up and alternative immunomodulation. Careful monitoring for adverse events should be mandatory. PMID:25043165

Nagappa, M; Netravathi, M; Taly, A B; Sinha, S; Bindu, P S; Mahadevan, A

2014-11-01

358

Long-term results of the Fontan operation.  

PubMed

Modifications of the Fontan operation can afford excellent palliation for many patients with a variety of forms of single ventricle. In properly selected patients who are good candidates, early and late survival can be as high as 95-97%. However, mortality is considerably higher for patients with risk factors for poor outcome. For high-risk patients, inclusion of a fenestration may reduce morbidity and mortality. Important long-term undesirable events include the ongoing risk of death, arrhythmias, protein-losing enteropathy, and cardiac failure. The key to excellent long-term outcome is proper selection of patients for the operation. PMID:17768650

Driscoll, D J

2007-01-01

359

[Why use long-term macrolide therapy in pediatric pulmonology?].  

PubMed

Macrolides are well-known antibiotics exerting antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Since the observation of a dramatic improvement in lung disease and survival in patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis, macrolides have been used over the long term in several chronic respiratory diseases. This review describes the results of trials that have evaluated long-term macrolides in the treatment of cystic fibrosis, non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, and asthma, particularly focusing on the impact on children. It also provides new insights on the potential effects of macrolides on diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. PMID:24503457

Corvol, H; Taytard, J; Thouvenin, G; Périsson, C; Nathan, N; Clement, A

2014-03-01

360

Factors Affecting Long-term Abstinence from Substances Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term\\u000a abstinence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence.\\u000a A random survey was conducted on 62 subjects from extended care units. All participants were male

Salah Elgaily Elsheikh

2008-01-01

361

Neurohumoral reactions to long-term vestibular stimulation in man.  

PubMed

The main purposes of present work were: 1) to examine neurohumoral reactions to long-term vestibular stimulation provocative for MS symptoms in man; 2) to compare the peculiarities of neuroendocrine reactions to short-term and to long-term vestibular stimulation; 3) to analyze the received results from the position of neuroendocrine adaptive reactions biological conformity to natural laws, and its physiological importance for human organisms; 4) to make some prognostic points of neurohumoral reaction changes on health and capacity for work in subjects influenced by professional conditions, provocative for MS manifestation development. PMID:11538529

Nichiporuk, I A; Rapotkov, A N; Orlov, O I; Grigoriev, A I

1993-02-01

362

An open-label, 1-year extension study of the long-term safety and efficacy of once-daily OROS® hydromorphone in patients with chronic cancer pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Opioid analgesics have proven efficacy in the short-term management of chronic cancer pain, but data on their long-term use is more limited. OROS® hydromorphone is a controlled-release formulation of oral hydromorphone that may be particularly well suited to long-term management of chronic cancer pain because it provides stable plasma concentrations and consistent analgesia with convenient once-daily dosing. The objective

Magdi Hanna; Alberto Tuca; John Thipphawong

2009-01-01

363

Neuropsychological Performance in Long-term Cannabis Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States, its long-term cognitive effects remain inadequately studied. Methods: We recruited individuals aged 30 to 55 years in 3 groups: (1) 63 current heavy users who had smoked cannabis at least 5000 times in their lives and who were smoking daily at study entry; (2) 45 former

Harrison G. Pope; Amanda J. Gruber; James I. Hudson; Marilyn A. Huestis; Deborah Yurgelun-Todd

2001-01-01

364

Review of "The Long-Term Impacts of Teachers"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new report titled "The Long-Term Impacts of Teachers" concludes that teachers whose students tend to show high gains on their test scores (called "high value-added teachers") also contribute to later student success in young adulthood, as indicated by outcomes such as college attendance and future earnings. To support this claim, it is not…

Ballou, Dale

2012-01-01

365

Long term performance prediction of residential solar energy heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated technique to provide long term performance predictions of residential solar energy heating systems has been developed. Implementation of this interactive computer program requires inputs of generic system description, operational site characteristics, subsystem characteristics, application characteristics, and modifications (if any) to baseline generic design factors. With these inputs, either as single values or iterated over ranges of characteristics, the

J. M. Nash; J. C. Bartlett; N. J. Caiola; J. E. Irby

1976-01-01

366

Dilution as a Model of Long-Term Forgetting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a model of long term forgetting based on 3 ideas: (a) Memory for a stimulus can be described by a population of accessible traces; (b) probability of retrieval after a delay is predicted by the proportion of traces in this population that will be defined as correct if sampled; and (c) this population is diluted over time by…

Lansdale, Mark; Baguley, Thom

2008-01-01

367

Enhancing Practical Evaluation Training through Long-Term Evaluation Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests an approach to providing practical evaluation training through university-supported, long-term funded evaluation projects. Such projects are managed through a university center that provides assistance to clients in student assessment and program evaluation. Discusses the benefits and challenges of these experiences for students. (SLD)

Trevisan, Michael S.

2002-01-01

368

Long-term Stock Market Forecasting using Gaussian Processes  

E-print Network

motivation for this project comes from the presence of large amount of historical data in40 stock marketLong-term Stock Market Forecasting using Gaussian Processes Anonymous Author(s)1 Affiliation2 Address3 email4 Abstract5 Forecasting stock market prices is an attractive topic to researchers from6

de Freitas, Nando

369

Investment in Skills Must Be for the Long Term  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1980s, researchers have formed a much better understanding of how unemployment scars people's lives, not just in the short term, but sometimes for years ahead. Researchers differ on the details, but no one disagrees that the negative effects are serious and long term. In the recession of the 1980s, government schemes to improve people's…

Field, John

2009-01-01

370

Long-Term Adaptation to Institutionalization in Dementia Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Longitudinal research in dementia has acknowledged the importance of transitions during the course of family caregiving. However, long-term adaptation to institutionalization has received little attention. This study attempts to describe caregivers' adaptation (changes in stress, well-being, and psychosocial resources) to placement up to…

Gaugler, Joseph E.; Pot, Anne Margriet; Zarit, Steven H.

2007-01-01

371

Optimizing Long-Term Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis  

E-print Network

Optimizing Long-Term Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Systematic Documentation K. M. Simonic OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS The whole body is plagued with pains. They ravage the joints in particular, so that foot Baillou, Liber de rheumatismo et pleuritide (1642) Rheumatoid arthritis [1] is an inflammatory systemic

Hammerton, James

372

Long term treatment of chronic Lyme arthritis with benzathine penicillin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cases are reported of two patients with chronic Lyme arthritis resistant to the recommended antibiotic regimens who were cured by long term treatment with benzathine penicillin. It is suggested that the sustained therapeutic levels of penicillin were effective either by the inhibition of germ replication or by lysis of the spirochaetes when they were leaving their sanctuaries.

M A Cimmino; S Accardo

1992-01-01

373

GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial  

E-print Network

GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial Beyond its objective basis in natural science, understanding, discussion, and res- olution of the policy issue labeled "global warming the global warming problem. In public discussion, natu- ral scientists tend to frame the issue through

Todorov, Alex

374

Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y…

Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J..; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

2012-01-01

375

Strategic Asset Allocation: Portfolio Choice for Long-Term Investors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic finance has had a remarkable impact on many financial services. Yet long-term investors have received curiously little guidance from academic financial economists. Mean-variance analysis, developed almost fifty years ago, has provided a basic paradigm for portfolio choice. This approach usefully emphasizes the ability of diversification to reduce risk, but it ignores several critically important factors. Most notably, the analysis

John Y. Campbell; Luis M. Viceira

2002-01-01

376

Uncovering Camouflage: Amygdala Activation Predicts Long-Term Memory  

E-print Network

Neuron Article Uncovering Camouflage: Amygdala Activation Predicts Long-Term Memory of Induced (``camouflage''), followed by brief exposures to the original images (``solution''), which led to induced as ``remembered'' if detailed perceptual knowledge was elicited from the camouflage image alone. During encoding

Rubin, Nava

377

Long-term verifiability of healthcare records authenticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the long-term validation of the authenticity of electronic healthcare records (EHR). Although the attributes of data authenticity, i.e. integrity and origin verifiability, can be preserved by digital signatures, the necessary period for the retention of EHR is far beyond the lifespan of a simple digital signature. This lifespan is restricted by the validity period of the

Dimitrios Lekkas; Dimitris Gritzalis

2007-01-01

378

The Basics of Long-Term Debt Issuance and Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issuing long-term debt can be a complex, multifaceted process. Although the process varies by stare, typically the school business official and the district solicitor work with the financing ream, which includes a financial adviser, bond counsel, underwriter, raring agency, and possibly a bond insurance agent, paying agent, and architect.…

Van Meter, Christine M.

2011-01-01

379

Long-Term Effects of First-Grade Multitier Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of 2 first-grade Response to Intervention (RTI) models (Dynamic and Typical RTI) on the reading performance of students in second and third grade. Participants included 419 first-grade students (352 in second grade and 278 in third grade after attrition). Students were classified based…

Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Wagner, Richard K.

2014-01-01

380

Long-term assessment of particulate matter using CHIMERE model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter (PM) and aerosols have became a critical pollutant and object of several research applications, due to their increasing levels, especially in urban areas, causing air pollution problems and thus effects on human health. The main purpose of this study is to perform a first long-term air quality assessment for Portugal, regarding aerosols and PM pollution. The CHIMERE chemistry-transport

A. Monteiro; A. I. Miranda; C. Borrego; R. Vautard; J. Ferreira; A. T. Perez

2007-01-01

381

Complex Systems--Goals & Metrics Long-term Objective  

E-print Network

of science is about understanding how pieces fit together to form systems. For systems, the whole1 Complex Systems--Goals & Metrics Long-term Objective: Develop a world-class research complex adaptive systems in data-rich fields. Why? A nutshell: First and most plainly, systems

Hayden, Nancy J.

382

PLUME-SCALER-EVALUATING LONG-TERM MONITORING WELL NETWORKS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is developing a new computer application called PLUME-SCALER to evaluate long term monitoring well networks using typically available historical site water level data. PLUME-SCALER can be used to determine if there are enough ...

383

Planning for Long-Term Care: Concept, Definition, and Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study explores the development and testing of an instrument to measure long-term-care planning behavior. Design and Methods: Researchers operationalized proposed constructs and response styles as statements in a questionnaire. A telephone survey involved 150 randomly selected residents of Miami-Dade County, Florida who were between…

Friedemann, Marie-Luise; Newman, Frederick L.; Seff, Laura R.; Dunlop, Burton D.

2004-01-01

384

Using Technology in Reggio-Inspired Long-Term Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes examples of use of technology in the implementation and documentation of long-term projects conducted as a part of the Reggio Emilia preschool curriculum. Considers use of digital camera, videotapes, and video prints; documentation of graphics with the computer scanner; use of computer software as a tool for representing ideas; and use…

Trepanier-Street, Mary L.; Hong, Seong B.; Bauer, Jennifer C.

2001-01-01

385

Long-Term Tests of 38 Ball-Bearing Greases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perfluoroalkylpolyether lubricants performed best. Final report in series presents results of program of long-term testing of ballbearing greases in vacuum, oxidizing, and otherwise hostile environments. Earlier reports in same series described in "Tests of 38 Ball-Bearing Greases," (MFS-25624) and "Further Tests of 38 Ball-Bearing Greases." (MFS-27043)

Mcmurtrey, E.

1987-01-01

386

Long-Term Teacher Effects on Pupils' Learning Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have demonstrated that a teacher has a substantial impact on how much pupils learn. However, research on the long-term effects of teachers is scarce, and the results obtained so far are inconsistent. Some studies have concluded that teacher effects are relatively permanent, while others claim that they fade away more or less rapidly…

Bressoux, Pascal; Bianco, Maryse

2004-01-01

387

The Long-Term Impact of Interactive Exhibits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Follow-up interviews with 79 adults and children about 6 months after their visit to Launch Pad, the interactive center in London's Science Museum, provide evidence of long-term impact of the visit. Although most of the memories were episodic rather than semantic in nature, over one-quarter of the memories showed evidence that respondents…

Stevenson, John

1991-01-01

388

Consolidation of Long-Term Memory: Evidence and Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory loss in retrograde amnesia has long been held to be larger for recent periods than for remote periods, a pattern usually referred to as the Ribot gradient. One explanation for this gradient is consolidation of long-term memories. Several computational models of such a process have shown how consolidation can explain characteristics of amnesia, but they have not elucidated how

Martijn Meeter; Jaap M. J. Murre

2004-01-01

389

Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.

2013-01-01

390

Areas of Marital Dissatisfaction among Long-Term Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To better understand relational dissatisfaction and duration of long-term married couples, this study surveyed 30 couples married at least 40 years with the Marital Satisfaction Inventory. Findings suggest various areas of dissatisfaction (e.g., affective communication, conflict over child rearing) and relationship among and link to other areas of…

Duba, Jill D.; Hughey, Aaron W.; Lara, Tracy; Burke, Monica G.

2012-01-01

391

A long-term solution to fossil fuel depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that the only long-term practical alternative to sustaining a national economy on organic fuels is to convert a major source of continuously renewable nonfossil carbon to synfuels that are interchangeable with fossil fuels. The most promising source of this carbon is land- and water-based biomass produced from solar energy by photosynthesis. This paper presents an assessment of

D. L. Klass

1976-01-01

392

Note technique Long-term effects of nursery starter substrate  

E-print Network

Note technique Long-term effects of nursery starter substrate and AM inoculation of micropropagated.) mycorrhize à arbuscules / culture hors-sol / micropropagation / porte-greffe / Prunus sp. 1. Introduction, 22]. Prunus sp. rootstocks are produced in great quantities using micropropagation techniques

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

393

Long-Term Runoff Changes In Regions Of Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability is analysed by the long-term runoff trends of 27 Slovak rivers for the period 1931-2000. Comparison of the monthly runoff series allowed us to draw 4 regions with different runoff trends on the territory of Slovakia (constant trend in Northern and Eastern Slovakia, slow decrease in Central Slovakia, and rapid decrease in Southern Slovakia; Fig. 1). The length

Pavol Miklanek; Pavla Pekarova

2004-01-01

394

Long-term theranostic hydrogel system for solid tumors.  

PubMed

The long-term theranostic hydrogel system for solid tumors was prepared via simple physical mixing, which consisted of three major parts: the thermosensitive/biodegradable poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel, PEGylated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, and paclitaxel (PTX). The PEGylated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed extremely low cytotoxicity due to the surface modification using PEG chains. The long-term theranostic hydrogel system showed adequate properties to be used for long-term MR theragnosis. In particular, the theranostic hydrogel gradually degraded over 28 days, and the PTX was sustainedly released out from the theranostic hydrogel over the same period in vitro. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of long-term MR theragnosis using the theranostic hydrogel system was estimated successfully over 3 weeks by using high field (4.7 T) animal MRI and solid tumor-bearing mice. Based on our results, we expect that this system can supply multiple data regarding a) the progress of therapy and b) the treatment processes via one- or two-time i.t. administration for cases in which surgical approaches are difficult to apply. Meanwhile, cancer patients can be free from the pain of multiple surgical treatments and have the advantage of therapy through a simple i.t. administration. PMID:22189146

Kim, Jang Il; Lee, Beom Suk; Chun, Changju; Cho, Jung-Kyo; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Song, Soo-Chang

2012-03-01

395

Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01

396

Long-term reliability of the Wonderlic Personnel Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a brief measure of general intelligence, the Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) has been shown by C. B. Dodrill to render IQ scores closely resembling the WAIS Full Scale IQ (FSIQ). Long-term stability of the WPT IQ has not yet been demonstrated, however. In the present study, 30 normal adults were administered both the WPT and the WAIS on 2

Carl B. Dodrill

1983-01-01

397

Effects of Long-Term Nitrogen Addition on Microbial Enzyme  

E-print Network

Effects of Long-Term Nitrogen Addition on Microbial Enzyme Activity in Eight Forested and Grassland of microbially produced extracellu- lar enzymes involved in decomposition. Specifi- cally, it is hypothesized that adding N to N-limited ecosystems increases activity of cellulose degrading enzymes and decreases

Minnesota, University of

398

Infection Control in the Long Term Care Facility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to increase the awareness of persons working in long-term care facilities regarding the danger of infectious disease and the ways in which it can be spread. Materials in this booklet include: (1) a brief discussion of historical events in the study of microorganisms; (2) information about how microorganisms cause infection…

Morris, Sara

399

Global, long-term surface reflectance records from Landsat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global, long-term monitoring of changes in Earth’s land surface requires quantitative comparisons of satellite images acquired under widely varying atmospheric conditions. Although physically based estimates of surface reflectance (SR) ultimately provide the most accurate representation of Earth’s s...

400

Long term stability of cannabis resin and cannabis extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of cannabinoids in cannabis resin slabs and cannabis extracts upon long-term storage. The levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) on both neutral and acidic form were measured at room temperature, 4°C and ?20°C for up to 4 years. Acidic THC degrades exponentially via decarboxylation

Christian Lindholst

2010-01-01

401

Long-Term Repetition Priming of Briefly Identified Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors provide evidence that long-term memory encoding can occur for briefly viewed objects in a rapid serial visual presentation list, contrary to claims that the brief presentation and quick succession of objects prevent encoding by disrupting a memory consolidation process that requires hundreds of milliseconds of uninterrupted processing. Subjects performed a search task in which each item was presented

Andreas T. Breuer; Michael E. J. Masson; Anna-Lisa Cohen; D. Stephen Lindsay

2009-01-01

402

The Insider's Experience of Long-Term Peer Victimisation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying in schools continues to be a problem despite the best efforts of educators, researchers, and clinicians. Of most concern for the present study is that some children experience long-term victimisation by their peers. To improve our understanding in this area, the phenomenology of being bullied over the course of the school year was…

Mackay, Graham J.; Carey, Timothy A.; Stevens, Bruce

2011-01-01

403

Understanding the long-term effects of species invasions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the ecological and evolutionary processes that modulate the effects of invasive species over time, and argue that such processes are so widespread and important that ecologists should adopt a long-term perspective on the effects of invasive species. These processes (including evolution, shifts in species composition, accumulation of materials and interactions with abiotic variables) can increase, decrease, or

David L. Strayer; Valerie T. Eviner; Jonathan M. Jeschke; Michael L. Pace

2006-01-01

404

Understanding the long-term effects of species invasions  

E-print Network

Understanding the long-term effects of species invasions David L. Strayer1 , Valerie T. Eviner1 and evolutionary processes that modulate the effects of invasive species over time, and argue that such processes of invasive species. These processes (including evolution, shifts in species composition, accumulation

405

Going Solar Yields Long-Term Economical, Educational Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Going solar is not an easy decision, but a long-term investment with a potentially substantial up-front cost. While some schools have enough capital in reserve, can raise bond money, or can solicit sufficient donations, many schools rely on creative financial programs to make a solar energy system economically feasible. Thinking about going solar…

von Moos, Brian

2009-01-01

406

Long-term conservation of provability of electronically signed documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronically signed documents can lose value of evidence because the security of cryptographic algorithms decreases in the course of time. In this paper we descri be legal, technical and user-oriented requirements for long-term conservation of provability of electronicall y signed documents, which were systematically examined in the project \\

Ralf Brandner; Ulrich Pordesch

407

Post-Learning Arousal Change and Long-Term Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects on long-term retention of variations in intensity and of temporal parameters of arousal following a single learning trial in a paired-associate task. The subjects were 56 female university students. Intensity of arousal was manipulated by using two levels of white noise--75 decibels and 90 decibels sound pressure…

Kumar, V.K.; Farley, Frank H.

408

A crop profitability analysis for long-term crop investments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Crop Profitability Analysis (CPA) computer program is designed to help agricultural producers make long-run cropping decisions. CPA uses previously generated enterprise budgets to establish a base from which producers can analyze the potential profitability of perennial crops with establishment periods, such as orchard, berry, and vineyard crops, or the feasibility of long-term crop rotations. CPA permits up to a

Clark Seavert; Herbert Hinman; Karen Klonsky

2006-01-01

409

NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN LONG-TERM PERITONEAL DIALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

t is universally accepted that malnutrition is the single most important predictor of patient survival not only in the long-term patient, but also in the patient at the beginning of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) treatment. The Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines clarify that a decreased state of nutrition should be the absolute indication for initiation of dialysis (1). It

Dong-Kyu Cho

410

Continental diatoms as indicators of long-term environmental change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is curious that diatoms, whose short lifespans and capacity for rapid regeneration make them especially suitable for short-term paleoenvironmental studies, would also have a significant role as indicators of long-term environmental change. This chapter explores the nature of long diatom records, their relation to global environmental changes, guidelines for their interpretation, and problems common to such records.

Bradbury, J. Platt

1999-01-01

411

Long-Term Potentiation--A Decade of Progress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is the leading experimental model for the synaptic changes that may underlie learning and memory. This review presents a current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this long-lasting increase in synaptic strength and describes a simple model that unifies much of the data that previously were viewed as contradictory.

Robert C. Malenka; Roger A. Nicoll

1999-01-01

412

Long-Term Sodium Chloride Retention in a Rural Watershed  

E-print Network

Long-Term Sodium Chloride Retention in a Rural Watershed: Legacy Effects of Road Salt% of the input. Road salt use in the watershed did not increase during the study include road salt, oil field brine, water softeners, septic and sewage effluent, natural salt deposits

Weathers, Kathleen C.

413

Acute and long term health effects of radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers selected aspects of the acute and long term health effects excluding acute radiation syndrome and carcinogenesis, resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. The changes addressed in this paper are those witnessed within an organ or whole body rather than at the molecular or even cellular level. They include acute and late health effects. Some of these effects

Voelz

1986-01-01

414

Long-term consequences of childhood physical abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the literature on the long-term consequences of childhood physical abuse. Empirical research is discussed within 7 topic areas: aggressive and violent behavior, nonviolent criminal behavior, substance abuse, self-injurious and suicidal behavior, emotional problems, in- terpersonal problems, and academic and vocational difficulties. The studies reviewed involve primarily adult populations, although pertinent findings from literature on children and adoles-

Robin Malinosky-Rummell; David J. Hansen

1993-01-01

415

Long Term Confidentiality: a Survey Johannes Braun1  

E-print Network

, construction plans). The current trend towards cloud computing means that more and more data is being processed confidential for long periods of time. Yet encryption under a computationally secure cryptosys- tem cannot provide a guarantee of long term confidentiality, due to potential advances in computing power

416

Long-term assessment of cryopreserved vein bypass grafting success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: When autogenous vein is unavailable, cryopreserved veins have been used in patients as a means of attempted limb salvage. We evaluated the long-term patency and limb salvage rates for patients undergoing bypass grafting with cryopreserved veins. Methods: Medical records were reviewed for patients undergoing cryovein bypass grafting at two hospitals from 1992 to 1997. Follow-up data were obtained from

Linda Harris; Monica O'Brien-Irr; John J. Ricotta

2001-01-01

417

Multimethod Behavioral Treatment of Long-Term Selective Mutism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted single-subject, experimental research to examine efficacy of treating severe, long-term selective mutism in nine-year-old male using shaping, multiple reinforcers, natural consequences, stimulus fading, and mild aversives. Implemented different treatment regimens in home and school environments. Home intervention resulted in increase in…

Watson, T. Steuart; Kramer, Jack J.

1992-01-01

418

Lessons From Geriatric Psychiatry in the Long Term Care Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all long term care settings, the nursing home has served as the most productive laboratory for the study of the mental health problems of late life. Lessons from geriatric psychiatry research and practice in the nursing home have relevance to general psychiatry and to other health care settings, informing us about (a) psychiatric disorders in medically ill and disabled

Joel E. Streim; David Oslin; Ira R. Katz; Patricia A. Parmelee

1997-01-01

419

Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

MacFall, Janet

2012-01-01

420

Long-Term Parental Illness and Children: Perils and Promises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses effects of long-term parental illness, focusing on effects on children. Describes effects on family homeostasis and family coping mechanisms. Discusses school counselor's role in bringing about a more balanced viewpoint of power and sharing within the family. Recommends establishing a strong therapeutic bond, assessing what the child is…

Johnston, Mona; And Others

1992-01-01

421

Soil quality assessment in long-term direct seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Producers in the Pacific Northwest are adopting direct seed farming to reduce soil erosion, improve soil quality and increase water infiltration. Some direct seed producers are concerned with reaching the yield and profit potential expected with long-term direct seed, and this may be due to soil st...

422

Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia: Long-Term Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 16 papers from the 1974 conference held by the Pregnancy and Infancy Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to: (1) assess the photobiological processes involved in phototherapy used in treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and (2) to document long term clinical experience with the treatment…

Brown, Audrey K., Ed.; Showacre, Jane, Ed.

423

Long-Term Ecological Research and Network-Level Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With every passing year, the effects of global environmental change are becoming more pervasive and are occurring at a more accelerated pace. Climate change, land use change, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, ocean acidification and sea level rise, loss of biodiversity, and homogenization of Earth's ecosystems are all manifestations of human activities. These short- and long-term effects of environmental changes continue to mount.

Collins, Scott L.; Childers, Daniel L.

2014-08-01

424

Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin

2009-01-01

425

European Agency Leader Urges Long-Term Environmental Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 23 October agreement by European Union (EU) leaders to reduce domestic greenhouse gas emissions is a good example of developing and implementing a needed long-term, sustainable environmental policy agenda for Europe. So says Hans Bruyninckx, executive director of the European Environment Agency (EEA), an EU agency.

Showstack, Randy

2014-11-01

426

Visitors' Long-term Memories of World Expositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the outcomes of a study that investigated the nature and character of visitors' long-term memories associated with their experiences at large- scale exhibitions. The study investigated themes that characterized visitors' memo- ries of two global exhibitions: World Expo 86, hosted in Vancouver, Canada in 1986; and World Expo 88, hosted in Brisbane, Australia in 1988. There

David Anderson

2003-01-01

427

Long-term Improvement in Functional Dyspepsia Using Hypnotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

See editorial on page 2132. Background & Aims: We have shown hypnotherapy (HT) to be effective in irritable bowel syndrome, with long- term improvements in symptomatology andquality of life (QOL). This study aimed to assess the efficacy of HT in functional dyspepsia (FD). Methods: A total of 126 FD patients were randomized to HT, supportive therapy plus placebo medication, or

EMMA LOUISE CALVERT; LESLEY ANNE HOUGHTON; PATRICIA COOPER; JULIE MORRIS; PETER JAMES WHORWELL

2002-01-01

428

Long-term improvement in functional dyspepsia using hypnotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: We have shown hypnotherapy (HT) to be effective in irritable bowel syndrome, with long-term improvements in symptomatology and quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to assess the efficacy of HT in functional dyspepsia (FD). Methods: A total of 126 FD patients were randomized to HT, supportive therapy plus placebo medication, or medical treatment for 16 weeks.

Emma Louise Calvert; Lesley Anne Houghton; Patricia Cooper; Julie Morris; Peter James Whorwell

2002-01-01

429

AMPA receptor trafficking and long-term potentiation.  

PubMed Central

Activity-dependent changes in synaptic function are believed to underlie the formation of memories. A prominent example is long-term potentiation (LTP), whose mechanisms have been the subject of considerable scrutiny over the past few decades. I review studies from our laboratory that support a critical role for AMPA receptor trafficking in LTP and experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:12740116

Malinow, Roberto

2003-01-01

430

Mutual Support Groups for Long-Term Recipients of TANF  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of involvement in mutual support groups on long-term recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and other vulnerable individuals. From qualitative interviews with nine group members, the study identified key themes, benefits, and barriers related to involvement in the groups. Content analysis of the…

Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Khairallah, Angela Oliver; Race-Bigelow, Janis

2004-01-01

431

Leg ulcers associated with long-term hydroxyurea therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyurea is commonly used in the treatment of various hematologic disorders, e.g., chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), polycythemia vera, and occasionally, at lower doses, for severe psoriasis vulgaris. Cutaneous side effects such as alopecia, diffuse hyperpigmentation, poikiloderma, atrophy of the skin, or nail changes occur, especially with long-term treatment. Painful leg ulcers in association with hydroxyurea have only rarely been reported.

Georg Weinlich; Gerold Schuler; Richard Greil; Heinz Kofler; Peter Fritsch

1998-01-01

432

Long-term Effects of Hydroxyurea in Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyurea is an effective treatment for psoriasis but consistently produces macrocytosis in peripheral blood with a fall in haemoglobin levels and white cell counts. In this long-term study of 16 patients anaemia and leukopenia have proved frequent and troublesome side effects requiring discontinuance of treatment in many cases. In view of these findings hydroxyurea cannot be recommended as the drug

M. G. C. Dahl; J. S. Comaish

1972-01-01

433

Sexuality and Aging: Implications for Long Term Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increasing emphasis on treating the whole person, on the maintenance of an individual's former life style, and on patients' rights, long-term care personnel need to become aware that many nursing home residents experience needs related to their sexuality. A model two-day workshop is presented wlth a focus on the following topics: (1) a broad…

Hinkley, Nancy E.

434

Long-Term Repetition Priming of Briefly Identified Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors provide evidence that long-term memory encoding can occur for briefly viewed objects in a rapid serial visual presentation list, contrary to claims that the brief presentation and quick succession of objects prevent encoding by disrupting a memory consolidation process that requires hundreds of milliseconds of uninterrupted processing.…

Breuer, Andreas T.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Lindsay, D. Stephen

2009-01-01

435

Long-Term Study Finds Measles Vaccines Safe  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Long-Term Study Finds Measles Vaccines Safe Research included more than a half-million ... Measles WEDNESDAY, Jan. 7, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Two measles-containing vaccines are safe, according to a new 12-year ...

436

ORIGINAL PAPER Long-term physiological and morphological acclimation  

E-print Network

sempervirens L. to understory and canopy gap light intensities Matthew G. Letts · Jesu´s RodriORIGINAL PAPER Long-term physiological and morphological acclimation by the evergreen shrub Buxus and drought. To understand how the broadleaf evergreen tree-shrub Buxus sempervi- rens L. (common box

Letts, Matthew

437

Multicommodity network flow model for long-term hydrogeneration optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for long-term hydrogeneration optimization based on multicommodity network flows is presented. The problem of optimizing hydrogeneration with partially dependent water inflows in the reservoir systems is also addressed. The results obtained are consistent with the operating experience for the reservoir systems and meet expectations. The optimal results obtained for volume and discharge for one of the reservoirs is

N. Nabona

1993-01-01

438

Long-term Coalitions for the Electronic Marketplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new coalition formation mechanism for the electronic marketplace that extends the existing transaction-oriented coalitions to long -term ones based on nurturing customer-vendor relationships. Because trust is an important factor in any form of commerce and it has been an elaborated issue in Electronic Commerce applications in the last few years, we use trust based relationships between

Silvia Breban; Julita Vassileva

2001-01-01

439

Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

2008-01-01

440

Acquiring firm long-term performance and governance characteristics  

E-print Network

I examine the market reaction to merger announcements and the long-term post-merger stock price performance of newly merged firms. For a sample of 484 acquiring firms completing mergers between 1993 and 2000, the average value-weighted abnormal...

Breazeale, Jonathan Paul

2004-09-30

441

Long-Term Sleep Laboratory Evaluation of Flunitrazepam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sleep laboratory hypnotic drug evaluation study was conducted in which 2 mg flunitrazepam, a benzodiazepine with a half life of intermediate duration, was administered nightly to 6 insomniac subjects for 4 consecutive weeks. The drug was effective with short-term use. However, tolerance developed for sleep maintenance during the intermediate- and long-term drug administration periods. Following drug withdrawal, a significant

Martin B. Scharf; Edward O. Bixler; Anthony Kales; Constantin R. Soldatos

1979-01-01

442

Time of Day and Retrieval from Long-term Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three separate groups of women performed a semantic classification task during the morning, afternoon, or evening. Results were directly opposite findings that short-term memory performance declines as the day progresses. It is suggested that physiological arousal, which rises through the day, may benefit retrieval efficiency from long-term…

Millar, Keith; And Others

1980-01-01

443

Long-Term Learning, Achievement Tests, and Learner Centered Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of achievement tests to measure long-term learning at the higher education level in traditional verses learner-centered classrooms. Volunteer instructors who use comprehensive achievement tests as an important component of their grading system were asked to complete an instrument that…

Salinas, Moises F.; Kane-Johnson, Sarah E.; Vasil-Miller, Melissa A.

2008-01-01

444

Morphodynamic regime and long-term evolution of meandering rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present contribution we focus our attention on the long-term behavior of meandering rivers, a very common pattern in nature. This class of dynamical systems is driven by the coexistence of various intrinsically nonlinear mechanisms which determine the possible occurrence of two different morphodynamic regimes: the subresonant and the superresonant regimes. Investigating the full range of morphodynamic conditions, we

Alessandro Frascati; Stefano Lanzoni

2009-01-01

445

Idaho National Laboratory Site Long-Term Stewardship Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.

B. E. Olaveson

2006-07-27

446

FRESHWATER POTOMAC LONG-TERM BENTHIC MONITORING PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Maryland Department of the Environments Freshwater Potomac Long-Term Benthic Monitoring Program provides seasonal information on abundance and composition for the benthic fauna of the freshwater portion of the Potomac River for use in recommendations to State agencies accordi...

447

A Guide Through the Maze of Long-term Care  

PubMed Central

Complicated requirements regarding eligibility and coverage as well as variations in the availability of programs confuse even the most diligent physicians trying to advise elderly patients about health care services. Nevertheless, awareness of such government and community resources is critical because physicians play an essential role in assisting the elderly to receive maximum health care benefits, particularly during long-term illness. PMID:6801867

Kane, Robert L.; Kane, Rosalie A.

1981-01-01

448

Perceptions of Abuse in the Long-Term Care Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although elder abuse has received much attention in recent years, little is known about long-term care staff perceptions of active and passive abuse. Health care professionals (N=72) responsible for direct care of patients within a 275-bed skilled nursing facility completed questionnaires on elder abuse. Responses were from physicians (N=6),…

Gupta, D.; And Others

449

Establishing and Maintaining Long-Term Human-Computer Relationships  

E-print Network

Establishing and Maintaining Long-Term Human- Computer Relationships TIMOTHY W. BICKMORE ________________________________________________________________________ This research investigates the meaning of `human-computer relationship' and presents techniques for constructing and methods; Voice I/O. I.2.1 [Artificial Intelligence] Applications and Expert Systems ­ Medicine and science

450

Long Term Treatment Concepts and Proactive Therapy for Atopic Eczema  

PubMed Central

Atopic eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a frequent, highly pruritic, chronic skin disease, which is typically running in flares. The traditional treatment mainly consists of the reactive application of topical anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors. The short term benefit of this approach is well known, but long term remission between flares is difficult to achieve. Therefore, innovative long-term treatment strategies targeting flare prevention and skin barrier stabilization are needed. We and others have shown that normal looking, non-lesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients is immunobiologially not normal but characterized by an invisible inflammation and barrier defect. This has led to the novel concept of proactive therapy, which is defined as long-term, low-dose intermittent application of anti-inflammatory therapy to the previously affected skin, together with an ongoing emollient treatment of unaffected skin. This review article describes the most important long-term treatment options for atopic dermatitis, which includes emollient therapy, the novel concept of proactive treatment, the different ultraviolet light modalities and a selection of systemic immunosuppressive drugs and biologics. Current trial data, licensed indications, off-label use and relevant side effects of the different treatment modalities are summarized. PMID:22879707

Ehmann, Laura Maximiliane

2012-01-01

451

Results of Long-Term Iron-Chelating Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement in survival and quality of life of iron-overloaded patients achieved by regular subcutaneous chelation has been extensively documented over the years. A review of the long-term results allows one to establish the following points: (1) with regular subcutaneous chelation, a negative iron balance can be obtained in most patients, except very young ones; (2) severe deferoxamine (DFO) toxicity

Vilma Gabutti; Antonio Piga

1996-01-01

452

[Surgical jejunostomy as digestive tube access in the long-term].  

PubMed

Home enteral nutrition (HEN) is the choice for patients who can not mantain oral intake but have a functioning gastrointestinal tract when it isn't justify keeping the patient in the hospital. The results of the HEN registry of the NADYA group in 2010 shows information related to the enteral acces route: 51% of the cases used nasogastric tubes, 27% gastrostomies, 10% oral route and 3% jejunostomies. Placement of a needle catheter jejunostomy is recommended for candidates for enteral nutrition undergoing major abdominal surgery, but publications about long-term use of this acces are scarce. We report same cases of patients whom the selected enteral acces was surgical jejunostomy. They represents the 1,14% of our patients with HEN at this moment, with a mean dwelling time of 210 ± 222 days. There has been frequent complications, but they were sligh. PMID:23889663

Fernández López, María Teresa; Rodríguez Vázquez, Ana

2013-01-01

453

Clinical triggers for detection of fever and dehydration. Implications for long-term care nursing.  

PubMed

1. Fever is a common problem among long-term care residents, and the clinical manifestations of fever and infections may be vague or nonspecific. 2. The majority of fevers in this study were staff-detected versus resident-initiated; this implies that staff vigilance is important in the detection of fever. 3. Staff documentation of impaired oral intake during febrile episodes was associated highly with either elevated serum sodium or blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratios. Therefore, nursing assessment and interventions to hydrate residents at the first indication of impaired oral intake may prevent dehydration. 4. Routine mandated vital signs were found to be of little or no value in detecting fevers. PMID:7602052

Pals, J K; Weinberg, A D; Beal, L F; Levesque, P G; Cunningham, T J; Minaker, K L

1995-04-01

454

Genomic stability and long-term transgene expression in poplar.  

PubMed

Stable expression of foreign genes over the entire life span of a plant is important for long-lived organisms such as trees. For transgenic forest trees, very little information is available on long-term transgene expression and genomic stability. Independent transgenic lines obtained directly after transformation are initially screened in respect to T-DNA integration and transgene expression. However, very little consideration has been given to long-term transgene stability in long-lived forest trees. We have investigated possible genome wide changes following T-DNA integration as well as long-term stability of transgene expression in different transgenic lines of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) that are up to 19 years old. For studies on possible genome wide changes following T-DNA integration, four different independent rolC-transgenic lines were subjected to an extensive AFLP study and compared to the non-transgenic control line. Only minor genomic changes following T-DNA integration could be detected. To study long-term transgene expression, six different independent rolC-transgenic lines produced in 1993 and since that time have been kept continuously under in vitro conditions. In addition, 18 transgenic plants belonging to eight independent rolC-transgenic lines transferred to glasshouse between 1994 and 2004 were chosen to determine the presence and expression of the rolC gene. In all transgenic lines examined, the rolC gene could successfully be amplified by PCR tests. Both, the 19 years old tissue cultures and the up to 18 years old glasshouse-grown trees revealed expression of the rolC transgene, as demonstrated by the rolC-phenotype and/or northern blot experiments confirming long-term transgene expression. PMID:23740206

Fladung, Matthias; Hoenicka, Hans; Raj Ahuja, M

2013-12-01

455

Evaluation of long term solar activity effects on GPS performances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar activity hence the solar radiance follows a long term periodic variability with eleven years periodicity, known as solar cycle. This drives the long term variability of the ionosphere. In the present problem we investigate the long term behaviour of the ionosphere with the eleven year cyclic solar activity. Under the present study we characterize the ionospheric variability by Total Electron Content (TEC) taken measurements made by Global Positioning System (GPS) and solar cycle variability by various solar activity indices. We make use of five solar activity indices viz. sunspot number (Rz), solar radio Flux (F10.7 cm), EUV Flux (26-34 nm), flare index and CME occurrences. The long term variability of these solar activity indices were then compared and correlated with the variability of ionospheric TEC, at a mid latitude station, Usuda (36.13N, 138.36E), of Japan, during the solar cycle 23 and ascending phase of cycle 24. From our study, we found that long term changes in the ionospheric TEC vary synchronously with corresponding changes in the solar activity indices. The correlation analysis shows that all the solar activity indices exhibit a very strong correlation with TEC (R =0.76 -0.99). Moreover the correlation between the two is stronger in the descending phase of the solar cycle. The correlation is found to be remarkably strongest during the deep minimum of the solar cycle 24 i.e. between 2007- 2009. Also we noticed a hysteresis effect exists with solar radio flux (F10.7 cm) and solar EUV flux (26-34 nm). This effect is absent with other parameters. Key words: solar Cycle, TEC, Ionosphere, Solar activity

Mansoori, Azad Ahmad; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Tripathi, Sharad Chandra; Aslam A., M.; Khan, Parvaiz A.; Purohit, Pramod K.; Waheed, Malik Abdul; Bhawre, Purushottam

456

The long-term costs of career interruptions.  

PubMed

This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available. PMID:12592867

Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

2003-01-01