Sample records for long-term solar activity

  1. Long-term ionospheric cooling: Dependency on local time, season, solar activity, and geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shun-Rong; Holt, John M.

    2013-06-01

    Ionospheric ion temperature Ti is an excellent approximation to neutral temperature Tn in the thermosphere, especially for altitudes below 300 km. This analysis of long?term Ti trends in the F region over different local times is based on a database of incoherent scatter radar (ISR) observations spanning more than three solar cycles during 1968-2006 at Millstone Hill and represents an extended effort to a prior study focusing on noon?time only. This study provides important information for understanding the difference between the ISR and other results. A gross average of the Ti trend at heights of Ti ˜ Tn (200-350 km) is ˜ -4 K/decade, a cooling trend close to the Tn estimation based on the satellite neutral density data. However, there exists considerable variability in the cooling: it is strong during the day and very weak during the night with a large apparent warming at low altitudes (200-350 km); it is strong at solar minimum for both daytime and nighttime. The strongest cooling for altitudes below 375 km occurs around 90-120 solar flux units of the 10.7 cm solar flux, not at the lowest solar flux. There appears more cooling toward high magnetic activity, but this dependency is very weak. No consistent and substantial seasonal dependency across different heights was found. We speculate that a fraction of the observed cooling trend may be contributed by a gradual shifting away from the sub?auroral region at Millstone Hill, as part of the secular change in the Earth's magnetic field. In this 39 year long series of data record, two anomalous Ti drops were noticed, and we speculate on their connection to volcano eruptions in 1982 and 1991.

  2. Validation of Spacecraft Active Cavity Radiometer Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Long Term Measurement Trends Using Proxy TSI Least Squares Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert Benjamin, III; Wilson, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Long-term, incoming total solar irradiance (TSI) measurement trends were validated using proxy TSI values, derived from indices of solar magnetic activity. Spacecraft active cavity radiometers (ACR) are being used to measure longterm TSI variability, which may trigger global climate changes. The TSI, typically referred to as the solar constant, was normalized to the mean earth-sun distance. Studies of spacecraft TSI data sets confirmed the existence of a 0.1 %, long-term TSI variability component within a 10-year period. The 0.1% TSI variability component is clearly present in the spacecraft data sets from the 1984-2004 time frame. Typically, three overlapping spacecraft data sets were used to validate long-term TSI variability trends. However, during the years of 1978-1984, 1989-1991, and 1993-1996, three overlapping spacecraft data sets were not available in order to validate TSI trends. The TSI was found to vary with indices of solar magnetic activity associated with recent 10-year sunspot cycles. Proxy TSI values were derived from least squares analyses of the measured TSI variability with the solar indices of 10.7-cm solar fluxes, and with limb-darked sunspot fluxes. The resulting proxy TSI values were compared to the spacecraft ACR measurements of TSI variability to detect ACR instrument degradation, which may be interpreted as TSI variability. Analyses of ACR measurements and TSI proxies are presented primarily for the 1984-2004, Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) ACR solar monitor data set. Differences in proxy and spacecraft measurement data sets suggest the existence of another TSI variability component with an amplitude greater than or equal to 0.5 Wm-2 (0.04%), and with a cycle of 20 years or more.

  3. Latitude dependence of long-term geomagnetic activity and its solar wind drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myllys, M.; Partamies, N.; Juusola, L.

    2015-05-01

    To validate the usage of global indices in studies of geomagnetic activity, we have examined the latitude dependence of geomagnetic variations in Fennoscandia and Svalbard from 1994 to 2010. Daily standard deviation (SD) values of the horizontal magnetic field have been used as a measure of the ground magnetic disturbance level. We found that the timing of the geomagnetic minimum depends on the latitude region: corresponding to the minimum of sunspot cycle 22 (in 1996), the geomagnetic minimum occurred between the geomagnetic latitudes 57-61° in 1996 and at the latitudes 64-67° in 1997, which are the average auroral oval latitudes. During sunspot cycle 23, all latitude regions experienced the minimum in 2009, a year after the sunspot minimum. These timing differences are due to the latitude dependence of the 10 s daily SD on the different solar wind drivers. In the latitude region of 64-67°, the impact of the high-speed solar wind streams (HSSs) on the geomagnetic activity is the most pronounced compared to the other latitude groups, while in the latitude region of 57-61°, the importance of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) dominates. The geomagnetic activity maxima during ascending solar cycle phases are typically caused by CME activity and occur especially in the oval and sub-auroral regions. The strongest geomagnetic activity occurs during the descending solar cycle phases due to a mixture of CME and HSS activity. Closer to the solar minimum, less severe geomagnetic activity is driven by HSSs and mainly visible in the poleward part of the auroral region. According to our study, however, the timing of the geomagnetic activity minima (and maxima) in different latitude bands is different, due to the relative importance of different solar wind drivers at different latitudes.

  4. Global ozone long-term trends from satellite measurements and the response to solar activity variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M.; Lake, L. R.; Nicholson, J. Y., III; Natarajan, M.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of global ozone variations for the period April 1970 to December 1975 was performed by using the reprocessed Nimbus 4 backscattered ultraviolet (BUV) measurements of total ozone. A correlation coefficient of 0.97 is found between the 6-month running mean of global mean total ozone (filtered for mean semiannual, annual, and quasibiennial variations) and the 10.7-cm solar activity index. Correcting ozone for a time-dependent latitudinal bias relative to Dobson ozone measurements reduces to 2-3% the global mean ozone variation over the solar cycle. The solar ultraviolet variability required in a one-dimensional time-dependent radiative photochemical model to account for the observed ozone variation appears to be consistent with recent solar UV observations.

  5. About the nature of long-term microflare energy release in solar active regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir M. Bogod; Claude Mercier; Leonid V. Yasnov

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we compare the long-term impulsive microflares (microbursts (MB) in the range 1000 MHz) using RATAN-600 observations and impulsive noise storm (NS) emission on frequencies 233 and 164 MHz using Nancay radioheliograph data. It is shown that these processes result from destruction of current sheets at the top of a coronal loop as a result of the development

  6. Interhourly variability index of geomagnetic activity and its use in deriving the long-term variation of solar wind speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, Leif; Cliver, Edward W.

    2007-10-01

    We describe the detailed derivation of the interhourly variability (IHV) index of geomagnetic activity. The IHV index for a given geomagnetic element is mechanically derived from hourly values or means as the sum of the unsigned differences between adjacent hours over a 7-hour interval centered on local midnight. The index is derived separately for stations in both hemispheres within six longitude sectors spanning the Earth using only local night hours. It is intended as a long-term index and available data allows derivation of the index back well into the 19th century. On a timescale of a 27-day Bartels rotation, IHV averages for stations with corrected geomagnetic latitude less than 55° are strongly correlated with midlatitude range indices (R2 = 0.96 for the am index since 1959; R2 = 0.95 for the aa index since 1980). We find that observed yearly averages of aa before the year 1957 are ˜3 nT too small compared to values calculated from IHV using the regression constants based on 1980-2004. We interpret this discrepancy as an indication that the calibration of the aa index is in error before 1957. There is no systematic discrepancy between observed and similarly calculated ap values back to 1932. Bartels rotation averages of IHV are also strongly correlated with solar wind parameters (R2 = 0.79 with BV2). On a timescale of a year combining the IHV index (giving BV2 with R2 = 0.93) and the recently developed interdiurnal variability (IDV) index (giving interplanetary magnetic field magnitude, B, with R2 = 0.74) allows determination of solar wind speed, V, from 1890 to present. Over the ˜120-year series, the yearly mean solar wind speed varied from a low (inferred) of 303 km/s in 1902 to a high (observed) value of 545 km/s in 2003. The calculated yearly values of the product BV using B and V separately derived from IDV and IHV agree quantitatively with (completely independent) BV values derived from the amplitude of the diurnal variation of the horizontal component in the polar caps since 1926 (and sporadically further back).

  7. Long-term reconstructions of total solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.; Dasi Espuig, Maria

    2012-07-01

    Solar irradiance is the main external driver of the Earth's climate, although its relative contribution compared to other internal and anthropogenic factors is not yet well determined. Variations of total solar irradiance have being measured for over three decades and are relatively well understood. Reconstructions of the irradiance into the past remain, however, rather uncertain. In particular, the magnitude of the secular change is highly debated. The reason is the lack of direct and well-sampled proxies of solar magnetic activity on time scales longer than a few decades. Reconstructions on time scales of centuries rely on sunspot observations available since 1610. Reconstructions on millennial time scales use concentrations of the cosmogenic isotopes in terrestrial archives. We will review long-term reconstructions of the solar irradiance using the SATIRE set of models, compare them with other recent models and discuss the remaining uncertainties.

  8. A review on long-term sorption solar energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Edem N’Tsoukpoe; Hui Liu; Nolwenn Le Pierrès; Lingai Luo

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, long-term sorption and thermochemical heat storage has generated lot of interest. This paper presents the state of the art in this field of research, materials used in these systems and technological difficulties that researchers are set against. An emphasis is put on recent demonstrative projects including absorption and adsorption for long-term solar energy storage. It emerges

  9. Simulation of long term solar power feed-in and solar balancing potential in European countries Simulation of long term solar power feed-in and

    E-print Network

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Simulation of long term solar power feed-in and solar balancing potential in European countries Simulation of long term solar power feed-in and solar balancing potential in European countries Kabitri Nag ECAC, Prague, Czech Repulic 7 October, 2014 1 / 18 #12;Simulation of long term solar power feed

  10. Long-term north-south asymmetry in solar wind speed inferred from geomagnetic activity: A new type of century-scale solar oscillation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Mursula; B. Zieger

    2001-01-01

    A significant and very similar annual variation in solar wind speed and in geomagnetic activity was recently found around all the four solar cycle minima covered by direct SW observations since mid-1960's. We have shown that the phase of this annual variation reverses with the Sun's polarity reversal, depicting a new form of 22-year periodicity. The annual variation results from

  11. Long term evolution of super active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Ram Ajor

    In the solar cycle 23, there were some active regions (ARs) which produced energetic events, e.g. flares, CMEs, of unprecedented magnitudes during their disc passes, termed as super active regions (SARs). For example, NOAA 10486 stood unrivaled as it produced flares of unprecedented magnitude, such as X17/4B, X10/2B and X28 in quick succession. Occurrence of flares of such magnitude at this rate evidently requires extremely rapid energy buildup mechanism. Therefore, from their energetic considerations, these SARs are expected to possess distinctly different sup-photospheric flows as compared to less productive ARs. Study of such SARs is expected to provide important insights in our understanding of flare productivity, characterization of ARs, and in space-weather predictions. We derived sup-photospheric flows beneath these SARs using ring diagram technique, one of the local helioseismic techniques. We found strong and largely twisted sub-photospheric flows in the interior of SARs as compared to ARs. We present maps of sub-photospheric flows beneath some SARs and their evolution from one to next Carrington rotation.

  12. Estimation of long-term density variations in the upper atmosphere of the earth at minimums of solar activity from evolution of the orbital parameters of the earth’s artificial satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. I. Volkov; V. V. Suevalov

    2005-01-01

    Long-term data on the evolution of the parameters of motion of 15 artificial satellites of the Earth in orbits with minimal heights of 400–1100 km were used to study the density variations in the upper atmosphere at minimums of four cycles of solar activity. It was found that the density at these heights considered increased by about 7% at the

  13. Long-term stability of dye solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravi Harikisun; Hans Desilvestro

    2011-01-01

    This work provides a review of dye solar cell long-term stability under light and thermal stress factors as well as discussion on the main degradation mechanisms. Performance and EIS parameters of industrial type Z907-based cells were evaluated during the course of continuous light soaking over 25,600h at 55–60°C. Only minor degradation occurred under such conditions, with open circuit voltages dropping

  14. LONG-TERM PERIODICITY VARIATIONS OF THE SOLAR RADIUS

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Z. N.; Xie, J. L. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China)] [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China)

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the long-term periodicity variations of the solar radius, daily solar radius data from 1978 February to 2000 September at the Calern Observatory are used. Continuous observations of the solar radius are difficult due to the weather, seasonal effects, and instrument characteristics. Thus, to analyze these data, we first use the Dixon criterion to reject suspect values, then we measure the cross-correlation between the solar radius and sunspot numbers. The result indicates that the solar radius is in complete antiphase with the sunspot numbers and shows lead times of 74 months relative to the sunspot numbers. The Lomb-Scargle and date compensated discrete Fourier transform methods are also used to investigate the periodicity of the solar radius. Both methods yield similar significance periodicities around {approx}1 yr, {approx}2.6 yr, {approx}3.6 yr, and {approx}11 yr. Possible mechanisms for these periods are discussed. The possible physical cause of the {approx}11 yr period is the cyclic variation of the magnetic pressure of the concentrated flux tubes at the bottom of the solar convection zone.

  15. Long-term memories in online users' selecting activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the long-term memory effect in the behavior of online users. Two user-oriented online movie systems are used in this study. Due to the short length of the series, the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy approach is used to evaluate scaling-invariance in selecting activities of users in the two online movie systems. Our results indicate that persistence (long-term memory) exists widely in the movie selecting series. However, there is generally significant difference between a user's objective and subjective behaviors. Additionally, statistically, the long-term memory depends on activity levels, as results show that the much more active a users' group, the stronger the long-term memory will be. These findings provide a new criterion for constructing reasonable models, and can help understand how individuals' behaviors form a collective behavior of an online society.

  16. The shear-induced alpha-effect and long-term variations in solar dynamo

    E-print Network

    V. V. Pipin

    2007-12-17

    The consequences of the shear-induced alpha effect to the long-term modulation of magnetic activity are examined with the help of the axisymmetric numerical dynamo model that includes the self-consistent description of the angular momentum balance, heat transport and magnetic field generation in the spherical shell. We find that the shear contributions to alpha effect can complicate the long-term behaviour of the large-scale magnetic activity and differential rotation in nonlinear dynamo. Additionally we consider the impact secular magnetic activity variations to the secular modulations of the solar luminosity and radius.

  17. Solar pulsations and long-term solar variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Goode; J. D. Logan; H. A. Hill

    1981-01-01

    The seismology of the solar atmosphere is important in relating changes in luminosity to variations in other observables. This approach has already led to the identification of properties which were not previously observed or recognized. Equally important results from solar seismology are expected in the future.

  18. Long-term north-south asymmetry in solar wind speed inferred from geomagnetic activity: A new type of century-scale solar oscillation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Mursula; B. Zieger

    2000-01-01

    A signicant and very similar annual variation insolarwindspeedandingeomagneticactivitywasrecently found around all the four solar cycle minima covered by di- rectSWobservationssincemid-1960's. Wehaveshownthat the phase of this annual variation reverses with the Sun's polarity reversal, depicting a new form of 22-year periodic- ity. The annual variation results from a small north-south asymmetry in SW speed distribution where the minimum speed region is

  19. Long Term Activity Analysis in Surveillance Video Archives

    E-print Network

    Eskenazi, Maxine

    Long Term Activity Analysis in Surveillance Video Archives Ming-yu Chen CMU-LTI-10-015 September 12 Ming-yu Chen #12;Keywords: Activity Analysis, Surveillance Video, Computational Perception #12;For my parents, Mong-fu Chen and Yuan-ling Yu. #12;iv #12;Abstract Surveillance video recording is becoming

  20. Uncovering Camouflage: Amygdala Activation Predicts Long-Term Memory

    E-print Network

    Rubin, Nava

    Neuron Article Uncovering Camouflage: Amygdala Activation Predicts Long-Term Memory of Induced (``camouflage''), followed by brief exposures to the original images (``solution''), which led to induced as ``remembered'' if detailed perceptual knowledge was elicited from the camouflage image alone. During encoding

  1. Long term myriocin treatment increases MRP1 transport activity

    PubMed Central

    Meszaros, Peter; Klappe, Karin; van Dam, Annie; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Brown, H. Alex; Permentier, Hjalmar; Hoekstra, Dick; Kok, Jan W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of myriocin treatment, which extensively depletes sphingolipids from cells, on multidrug resistance-related protein 1 (MRP1) efflux activity in MRP1 expressing cells and isolated plasma membrane vesicles. Our data reveal that both short term (3 days) and long term (7 days) treatment effectively reduce the cellular sphingolipid content to the same level. Intriguingly, a two-fold increase in MRP1-mediated efflux activity was observed following long term treatment, while short term treatment had no impact. Very similar data were obtained with plasma membrane vesicles isolated from myriocin-treated cells. Exploiting the cell-free vesicle system, Michaelis–Menten analysis revealed that the intrinsic MRP1 activity remained unaltered; however, the fraction of active transporter molecules increased. We demonstrate that the latter effect is due to an enhanced recruitment of MRP1 into lipid raft fractions, thereby promoting MRP1 activity. PMID:23178537

  2. Long-term geomagnetic activity: Recent problems, developments and consequences for space climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mursula, K.

    2008-05-01

    Geomagnetic activity forms one of the most reliable and versatile ways to study the long-term change in the Sun and heliosphere, i.e., space climate. Continuous measurements of geomagnetic activity exist since the mid-19th century, covering more than 160 years. In addition to the long-term trend, geomagnetic activity depicts persistent patterns and periodicities, the most dominant of which are the solar cycle variation and the semiannual variation. Other significant fluctuations include the annual variation, 1.3-1.8-year variation and the 22-year variation. All these variations reflect some fundamental properties of the Sun and the Sun-Earth connection. Interestingly, although some of these patterns are known for a long time (e.g., the semiannual variation for nearly 150 years), they are properly understood only since recently. The overall level of geomagnetic activity has increased during the last 100 years although the exact amount of increase is still under debate. Also, the estimates based on geomagnetic activity about the long-term change of various solar and heliospheric parameters, like the intensity of the heliospheric magnetic field, the solar wind speed and the total solar irradiance, vary considerably. These differences are caused by problems in the quality of archival data, by inhomogeneities and errors in geomagnetic indices and by the unsatisfactory level of understanding the relations between solar, heliospheric and geomagnetic parameters. E.g., it has been noted recently that errors in archival data may lead to seriously flawed estimates of the centennial trend. Also, it is known that the longest and most used long-term geomagnetic index, the aa index, is inhomogeneous and depicts an excessively large centennial increase. Accordingly, all estimates based on the aa index yield excessively large centennial changes and need to be corrected. Taking into account the crucial role of the Sun for, e.g., the global climate, the long-term change in solar activity has considerable social interest and should be evaluated as reliably as possible. Recently, new indices of long- term geomagnetic activity have been developed based on digitally available hourly values of the geomagnetic field. These indices allow for a detailed examination of their properties, being therefore more straightformward and more reliable than earlier indices. One group of these new indices follows the traditional definition of the 3- hourly K index method, another measures hourly variability in the night sector only. Here I will review the principles and status of the traditional and new indices of geomagnetic activity, discuss the present understanding of the various systematic patterns depicted by geomagnetic activity, including the centennial change of geomagnetic activity and its implications about the long-term change of the Sun.

  3. Correcting Radial Velocities for Long-Term Magnetic Activity Variations.

    PubMed

    Saar; Fischer

    2000-05-01

    We study stars in the Lick planetary survey for correlations between simultaneous measurements of high-precision radial velocities vr and magnetic activity (as measured in an SIR emission index from Ca ii lambda8662). We find significant correlations in approximately 30% of the stars. After removing linear trends between SIR and vr, we find that the dispersion in vr in these stars is decreased by an average of 17%, or approximately 45% of the dispersion above the measurement noise. F stars and less active stars with variable Ca ii H and K lines are the most successfully corrected. The magnitude of the slope of the SIR versus vr relations increases proportional to vsini and (excepting M dwarfs) tends to decrease with decreasing Teff. We argue that the main cause of these effects is modification of the mean line bisector shape brought on by long-term, magnetic activity-induced changes in the surface brightness and convective patterns. The correlations can be used to partially correct vr data for the effects of long-term activity variations, potentially permitting study of planets around some (higher mass) younger stars and planets producing smaller stellar reflex velocities. PMID:10790082

  4. Activity-dependent long-term depression of electrical synapses.

    PubMed

    Haas, Julie S; Zavala, Baltazar; Landisman, Carole E

    2011-10-21

    Use-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity have been extensively characterized at chemical synapses, but a relationship between natural activity and strength at electrical synapses remains elusive. The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a brain area rich in gap-junctional (electrical) synapses, regulates cortical attention to the sensory surround and participates in shifts between arousal states; plasticity of electrical synapses may be a key mechanism underlying these processes. We observed long-term depression resulting from coordinated burst firing in pairs of coupled TRN neurons. Changes in gap-junctional communication were asymmetrical, indicating that regulation of connectivity depends on the direction of use. Modification of electrical synapses resulting from activity in coupled neurons is likely to be a widespread and powerful mechanism for dynamic reorganization of electrically coupled neuronal networks. PMID:22021860

  5. Long-term evolution of solar sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The large-scale structure of the solar magnetic field during the past five sunspot cycles (representing by implication a much longer interval of time) has been investigated, using the polarity (toward or away from the Sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field as inferred from polar geomagnetic observations. The polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field has previously been shown to be closely related to the polarity (into or out of the Sun) of the large-scale solar magnetic field. It appears that a solar structure with four sectors per rotation persisted through the past five sunspot cycles with a synodic rotation period near 27.0 days, and a small relative westward drift during the first half of each sunspot cycle and a relative eastward drift during the second half of each cycle. Superimposed on this four-sector structure there is another structure with inward field polarity, a width in solar longitude of about 100 deg, and a synodic rotation period of about 28 to 29 days. This 28.5-day structure is usually most prominent during a few years near sunspot maximum. Some preliminary comparisons of these observed solar structures with theoretical considerations are given.

  6. Long-term variability of solar magnetic-fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoeksema, J. Todd; Scherrer, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the variations of the solar magnetic field are reviewed. Consideration is given to the study of 600 Myr-old Australiain varve data showing the 22-yr magnetic cycle and variations with 300-400 yr periods (Williams, 1981 and Bracewell, 1985). Methods of interpreting the organization of large-scale solar field patterns are discussed. Other studies examined include the interpretation of modal structure in the photospheric field by Stenflo et al. (1988), and the study of Sheeley et al. (1987) showing that much of the large-scale surface pattern can be deduced from the measured emerging flux.

  7. 8, 453488, 2008 Long-term solar UV

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and changes of measured input data, in particular global dimming by about 1980­1990, subsequent global from measured meteorological parameters such as global radiation, aerosol optical depths Introduction Reconstruction of solar global UV radiation for the past decades has gained scientific15 interest

  8. Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Embley, R.W.; Chadwick, W.W., Jr.; Baker, E.T.; Butterfield, D.A.; Resing, J.A.; De Ronde, C. E. J.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Lupton, J.E.; Juniper, S.K.; Rubin, K.H.; Stern, R.J.; Lebon, G.T.; Nakamura, K.-I.; Merle, S.G.; Hein, J.R.; Wiens, D.A.; Tamura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact. We describe here direct observations and sampling of an eruption at a submarine arc volcano named NW Rota-1, located 60 km northwest of the island of Rota (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). We observed a pulsating plume permeated with droplets of molten sulphur disgorging volcanic ash and lapilli from a 15-m diameter pit in March 2004 and again in October 2005 near the summit of the volcano at a water depth of 555 m (depth in 2004). A turbid layer found on the flanks of the volcano (in 2004) at depths from 700 m to more than 1,400 m was probably formed by mass-wasting events related to the eruption. Long-term eruptive activity has produced an unusual chemical environment and a very unstable benthic habitat exploited by only a few mobile decapod species. Such conditions are perhaps distinctive of active arc and hotspot volcanoes. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  9. Stars as Suns: Unravelling Long-term Solar Variability by Stellar Dynamo Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, P. C.; Nandi, D.; Munoz, A.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed a very time-efficient 2.5 D dynamo code to carry out simulations of stars that are very similar, but not identical to the Sun. The main goal is to better understand the nature and evolution of the solar dynamo by studying how its main characteristics (period, activity level) vary within the parameter space close to the observed or assumed input parameters and profiles that reproduce the solar dynamo, and by comparing these results with the periods, X-ray and Ca HK activity levels, that are known for many Sun-like stars. In particular we will carry out simulations for both the Babcock-Leighton (surface) and the mean field (convection zone) alpha-effect to determine which one better reproduces the dynamo periods and activity levels of Sun-like stars, and thereby is the more likely mechanism operating in stellar (and solar) dynamos. The relevance of this work is that a better understanding of the evolution of the dynamo mechanism will enable us to make more confident predictions for the Sun's variability spanning from solar cycle-like timescales to stellar evolutionary timescales. This will provide more reliable input for space weather and Earth's climate forecasters and increases our understanding of the long term evolution of the Sun's magnetic field and its subsequent effect on the Sun-Earth connection.

  10. The Long-term Middle Atmospheric Influence of Very Large Solar Proton Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Marsh, Daniel R.; Vitt, Francis M.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Randall, Cora E.; Fleming, Eric L.; Frith, Stacey M.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term variations in ozone have been caused by both natural and humankind related processes. The humankind or anthropogenic influence on ozone originates from the chlorofluorocarbons and halons (chlorine and bromine) and has led to international regulations greatly limiting the release of these substances. Certain natural ozone influences are also important in polar regions and are caused by the impact of solar charged particles on the atmosphere. Such natural variations have been studied in order to better quantify the human influence on polar ozone. Large-scale explosions on the Sun near solar maximum lead to emissions of charged particles (mainly protons and electrons), some of which enter the Earth's magnetosphere and rain down on the polar regions. "Solar proton events" have been used to describe these phenomena since the protons associated with these solar events sometimes create a significant atmospheric disturbance. We have used the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to study the long-term (> few months) influences of solar proton events from 1963 through 2004 on stratospheric ozone and temperature. There were extremely large solar proton events in 1972, 1989,2000,2001, and 2003. These events caused very distinctive polar changes in layers of the Earth's atmosphere known as the stratosphere (12-50 km; -7-30 miles) and mesosphere (50-90 km; 30-55 miles). The solar protons connected with these events created hydrogen- and nitrogen-containing compounds, which led to the polar ozone destruction. The nitrogen-containing compounds, called odd nitrogen, lasted much longer than the hydrogen-containing compounds and led to long-lived stratospheric impacts. An extremely active period for these events occurred in the five-year period, 2000- 2004, and caused increases in odd nitrogen which lasted for several months after individual events. Associated stratospheric ozone decreases of >lo% were calculated to last for up to five months past the largest events. However, the computed total column ozone and stratospheric temperature changes connected with the solar events were not found to be statistically significant. Thus, solar proton events do not likely contribute significantly to measured total column ozone fluctuations and stratospheric temperature changes.

  11. Long-term stable polymer solar cells with significantly reduced burn-in loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jaemin; Song, Suhee; Yoo, Minji; Lee, Ga Young; Kwon, Obum; Park, Jin Kuen; Back, Hyungcheol; Kim, Geunjin; Lee, Seoung Ho; Suh, Hongsuk; Lee, Kwanghee

    2014-12-01

    The inferior long-term stability of polymer-based solar cells needs to be overcome for their commercialization to be viable. In particular, an abrupt decrease in performance during initial device operation, the so-called ‘burn-in’ loss, has been a major contributor to the short lifetime of polymer solar cells, fundamentally impeding polymer-based photovoltaic technology. In this study, we demonstrate polymer solar cells with significantly improved lifetime, in which an initial burn-in loss is substantially reduced. By isolating trap-embedded components from pristine photoactive polymers based on the unimodality of molecular weight distributions, we are able to selectively extract a trap-free, high-molecular-weight component. The resulting polymer component exhibits enhanced power conversion efficiency and long-term stability without abrupt initial burn-in degradation. Our discovery suggests a promising possibility for commercial viability of polymer-based photovoltaics towards real solar cell applications.

  12. Long-term temperature effects on GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Hong, K. H.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal degradation of AlGaAs solar cells resulting from a long-term operation in a space environment is investigated. The solar cell degradation effects caused by zinc and aluminum diffusion as well as deterioration by arsenic evaporation are presented. Also, the results are presented of experimental testing and measurements of various GaAs solar cell properties while the solar cell was operating in the temperature range of 27 C to 350 C. In particular, the properties of light current voltage curves, dark current voltage curves, and spectral response characteristics are given. Finally, some theoretical models for the annealing of radiation damage over various times and temperatures are included.

  13. A long-term strategic plan for development of solar thermal electric technology

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Burch, G.D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Chavez, J.M.; Mancini, T.R.; Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies--parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish/engine systems--can convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. These technologies currently range from developmental to early commercial stages of maturity. This paper summarizes the results of a recent strategic planning effort conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a long-term strategy for the development of STE technologies (DOE, 1996). The planning team led by DOE included representatives from the solar thermal industry, domestic utilities, state energy offices, and Sun-Lab (the cooperative Sandia National Laboratories/National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnership that supports the STE Program) as well as project developers. The plan was aimed at identifying specific activities necessary to achieve the DOE vision of 20 gigawatts of installed STE capacity by the year 2020. The planning team developed five strategies that both build on the strengths of, and opportunities for, STE technology and address weaknesses and threats. These strategies are to support future commercial opportunities for STE technologies; demonstrate improved performance and reliability of STE components and systems; reduce STE energy costs; develop advanced STE systems and applications; and address nontechnical barriers and champion STE power. The details of each of these strategies are discussed.

  14. A long-term strategic plan for development of solar thermal electric technology

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Burch, G. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Chavez, J.M.; Mancini, T.R.; Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies--parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish/engine systems--can convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. These technologies currently range from developmental to early commercial stages of maturity. This paper summarizes the results of a recent strategic planning effort conducted by the US department of Energy (DOE) to develop a long-term strategy for the development of STE technologies. The planning team led by DOE included representatives from the solar thermal industry, domestic utilities, state energy offices, and Sun{center_dot}Lab (the cooperative Sandia National laboratories/National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnership that supports the STE Program) as well as project developers. The plan was aimed at identifying specific activities necessary to achieve the DOE vision of 20 gigawatts of installed STE capability by the year 2020. The planning team developed five strategies that both build on the strengths of, and opportunities for, STE technology and address weaknesses and threats. These strategies are to: support future commercial opportunities for STE technologies; demonstrate improved performance and reliability of STE components and systems; reduce STE energy costs; develop advanced STE systems and applications; and address nontechnical barriers and champion STE power. The details of each of these strategies are discussed.

  15. Saturn suprathermal O2+ and mass-28+ molecular ions: Long-term seasonal and solar variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christon, S. P.; Hamilton, D. C.; Difabio, R. D.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Jontof-Hutter, D. S.

    2013-06-01

    Suprathermal singly charged molecular ions, O2+ (at ~32 Da/e) and the Mass-28 ion group 28M+ (ions at ~28 Da/e, with possible contributions from C2H5+, HCNH+, N2+, and/or CO+), are present throughout Saturn's ~4-20 Rs (1 Saturn radius, Rs = 60,268 km) near-equatorial magnetosphere from mid-2004 until mid-2012. These ~83-167 keV/e heavy ions measured by Cassini's CHarge-Energy-Mass Spectrometer have long-term temporal profiles that differ from each other and differ relative to the dominant water group ions, W+ (O+, OH+, H2O+, and H3O+). O2+/W+, initially ~0.05, declined steadily until equinox in mid-2009 by a factor of ~6, and 28M+/W+, initially ~0.007, declined similarly until early-2007 by a factor of ~2. The O2+/W+ decline is consistent with Cassini's in situ ring-ionosphere thermal ion measurements, and with proposed and modeled seasonal photolysis of Saturn's rings for thermal O2 and O2+. The water ice-dominated main rings and Enceladus plume depositions thereon are the two most likely O2+ sources. Enceladus' dynamic plumes, though, have no known long-term dependence. After declining, O2+/W+ and 28M+/W+ levels remained low until late-2011 when O2+/W+ increased, but 28M+/W+ did not. The O2+/W+ increase was steady and became statistically significant by mid-2012, indicating a clear increase after a decline, that is, a possibly delayed O2+ "seasonal" recovery. Ring insolation is driven by solar UV flux which itself varies with the sun's 11 year activity cycle. The O2+/W+ and 28M+/W+ declines are consistent with seasonal ring insolation. No O2+/W+ response to the late-2008 solar-cycle UV minimum and recovery is evident. However, the O2+/W+ recovery from the postequinox baseline levels in late-2011 coincided with a strong solar UV enhancement. We suggest a scenario/framework in which the O2+ observations can be understood.

  16. Impact of Radiatively Active Trace Gases on Long-Term Changes in the Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, L.; Marsh, D. R.; Merkel, A. W.; Solomon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct model simulations to examine how changes in concentration of radiatively active trace gases affect long-term changes in the middle atmosphere. We focus our model study on the impact of increases in carbon dioxide and methane, and decreases in ozone, between 1983 and 2003. The increase of carbon dioxide can cool the middle atmosphere through infrared emission at 15 microns, ozone depletion can cause cooling in the stratosphere and mesosphere through reduced solar heating, whereas the enhancement of methane, which increases water vapor, can introduce a cooling through reduced chemical heating or a warming through increased solar heating. We investigate the effect of each gas separately as well as the combined effect, using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM).

  17. Long-term reliability of screen printed CdS/CdTe solar-cell modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, A.; Ikegami, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Uda, H.; Komatsu, Y.

    1986-05-01

    Long-term reliability tests have been carried out screen-printed CdS/CdTe solar-cell modules under rooftop conditions in three countries at different latitudes (Japan, India and Australia). Test results on 118 modules, over periods of 140 to 800 days, have shown that such modules are fundamentally stable under these conditions. The only exception was one large module tested in India. The degradation of this module appears to have resulted from water which was able to enter because of poor sealing. Studies on waterproofing are necessary if the long-term reliability of screen-printed CdS/CdTe solar-cell modules is to be improved.

  18. Long-term reliability of screen printed CdS\\/CdTe solar-cell modules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nakano; S. Ikegami; H. Matsumoto; H. Uda; Y. Komatsu

    1986-01-01

    Long-term reliability tests have been carried out screen-printed CdS\\/CdTe solar-cell modules under rooftop conditions in three countries at different latitudes (Japan, India and Australia). Test results on 118 modules, over periods of 140 to 800 days, have shown that such modules are fundamentally stable under these conditions. The only exception was one large module tested in India. The degradation of

  19. A geometrical model for predicting the long-term luni-solar effects on geosynchronous satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Agneni; Carlo Ulivieri; Andrea Cardillo; Alberto Foni

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the long-term orbit evolution of uncontrolled geosynchronous satellites under the lunar-solar gravitational effects. A simplified semi-analytical model, that averages the disturbing function over the mean anomalies of the satellite and of the perturbing bodies, has been developed and applied to the orbital prediction of the no-longer-controlled Italian satellite SIRIO. The results

  20. Measurements of long-term changes in atmospheric OCS (carbonyl sulfide) from infrared solar observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Curtis P. Rinsland; Linda Chiou; Emmanuel Mahieu; Rodolphe Zander; Chris D. Boone; Peter F. Bernath

    2008-01-01

    Multi-decade atmospheric OCS (carbonyl sulfide) infrared measurements have been analyzed with the goal of quantifying long-term changes and evaluating the consistency of the infrared atmospheric OCS remote-sensing measurement record. Solar-viewing grating spectrometer measurements recorded in April 1951 at the Jungfraujoch station (46.5°N latitude, 8.0°E longitude, 3.58km altitude) show evidence for absorption by lines of the strong ?3 band of OCS

  1. Hybrid solar\\/wind power system probabilistic modelling for long-term performance assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Tina; S. Gagliano; S. Raiti

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic approach based on the convolution technique to assess the long-term performance of a hybrid solar–wind power system (HSWPS) for both stand-alone and grid-linked applications. To estimate energy performance of HSWPS the reliability analysis is performed by the use of the energy index of reliability (EIR) directly related to energy expected not supplied (EENS). Analytical expressions

  2. On a long-term dynamics of the magnetised solar tachocline

    E-print Network

    Eun-Jin Kim; Nicolas Leprovost

    2006-12-04

    We investigate the confinement and long-term dynamics of the magnetised solar tachocline. Starting from first principles, we derive the values of turbulent transport coefficients and then explore the implications for the confinement and long-term dynamics of the tachocline. For reasonable parameter values, the turbulent eddy viscosity is found to be negative, with turbulence enhancing the radial shear in the tachocline. Both magnetic diffusivity and thermal diffusivity are severely quenched, with the values much smaller than the magnitude of the eddy viscosity. The effect of the meridional circulation on momentum transport via the hyperviscosity becomes important when the radial shear becomes large (larger than the presently inferred value) due to the negative viscosity.

  3. Progress Towards Deriving an Improved Long-Term Global Solar Resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Stephen J.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Zhang, Taiping; Sorlie, Susan; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Perez, Richard; Hemker, Karl, Jr.; Schlemmer, James; Kivalov, Sergey; Renne, David; Sengupta, Manajit; Bates, John; Knapp, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing project to provide the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with a global long-term advanced global solar mapping production system for improved depiction of historical solar resources and to provide a mechanism for continual updates. This new production system is made possible by the efforts of NASA and NOAA to completely reprocess the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data set that provides satellite visible and infrared radiances together with retrieved cloud and surface properties on a 10 km, 3-hourly basis beginning July 1983. We provide a general overview of this project, samples of the new solar irradiance mapped data products, and comparisons to surface measurements. Samples of the use of the SUNY-Albany solar irradiance algorithm applied to the ISCCP data show very good agreement with high quality surface measurements. We identify the next steps in the production of the data set.

  4. The Nekhoroshev Theorem and Long-Term Stabilities in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, M.

    2015-06-01

    The Nekhoroshev theorem has been often indicated in the last decades as the reference theorem for explaining the dynamics of several systems which are stable in the long-term. The Solar System dynamics provides a wide range of possible and useful applications. In fact, despite the complicated models which are used to numerically integrate realistic Solar System dynamics as accurately as possible, when the integrated solutions are chaotic the reliability of the numerical integrations is limited, and a theoretical long-term stability analysis is required. After the first formulation of Nekhoroshev's theorem in 1977, many theoretical improvements have been achieved. On the one hand, alternative proofs of the theorem itself led to consistent improvements of the stability estimates; on the other hand, the extensions which were necessary to apply the theorem to the systems of interest for Solar System Dynamics, in particular concerning the removal of degeneracies and the implementation of computer assisted proofs, have been developed. In this review paper we discuss some of the motivations and the results which have made Nekhoroshev's theorem a reference stability result for many applications in the Solar System dynamics.

  5. Long Term Activity Analysis in Surveillance Video Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ming-yu

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance video recording is becoming ubiquitous in daily life for public areas such as supermarkets, banks, and airports. The rate at which surveillance video is being generated has accelerated demand for machine understanding to enable better content-based search capabilities. Analyzing human activity is one of the key tasks to understand and…

  6. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forroci, Michael P.; Gafka, George K.; Lutomski, Michael G.; Maher, Jacilyn S.

    2011-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity hazard level-4 materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards). Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years to come.

  7. Long-term effects of language intensity in preventive messages on planned family solar protection.

    PubMed

    Buller, D B; Burgoon, M; Hall, J R; Levine, N; Taylor, A M; Beach, B; Buller, M K; Melcher, C

    2000-01-01

    A series of sun safety messages containing highly intense language and deductive logical style achieved the most immediate compliance by parents, particularly when they intended to improve protection. Inductive messages were more successful when no intentions existed (D. B. Buller, Borland, & Burgoon, 1998; D. B. Buller et al., 2000). Interviewers recontacted 568 parents during the winter following message dissemination and assessed solar protection. A 2 (language intensity) x 2 (logical style) x 3 (behavioral intention) x 2 (person) mixed-model analysis of variance showed that parents receiving high-intensity, deductive messages reported the most improved solar protection and improvement was greatest when parents intended to improve protection. Over the long term, high language intensity may reinforce decisions to take preventive action and does not appear to provoke psychological reactance or resistance to these highly directive messages. PMID:10938916

  8. The Solar Neighborhood. XXXVI. The Long-term Photometric Variability of Nearby Red Dwarfs in the VRI Optical Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosey, Altonio D.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Dieterich, Sergio B.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Lurie, John C.; Riedel, Adric R.; Subasavage, John P.

    2015-07-01

    We present an analysis of long-term photometric variability for nearby red dwarf stars at optical wavelengths. The sample consists of 264 M dwarfs south of decl. = +30 with V-K = 3.96–9.16 and MV ? 10–20, corresponding to spectral types M2V–M8V, most of which are within 25 pc. The stars have been observed in the VRI filters for ?4–14 yr at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9 m telescope. Of the 238 red dwarfs within 25 pc, we find that only ?8% are photometrically variable by at least 20 mmag (?2%) in the VRI bands. Only four stars have been found to vary by more than 50 mmag, including GJ 1207 at 8.6 pc, which experienced a single extraordinary flare, and GJ 2006 A, TWA 8 A, and TWA 8 B, which are all young stars beyond 25 pc linked to moving groups. We find that high variability at optical wavelengths over the long term can in fact be used to identify young stars. Overall, however, the fluxes of most red dwarfs at optical wavelengths are steady to a few percent over the long term. The low overall rate of photometric variability for red dwarfs is consistent with results found in previous work on similar stars on shorter timescales, with the body of work indicating that most red dwarfs are only mildly variable. As expected, we find that the degree of photometric variability is greater in the V band than in the R or I bands, but we do not find any obvious trends in variability over the long term with red dwarf luminosity or temperature. We highlight 17 stars that show long-term changes in brightness, sometimes because of flaring activity or spots, and sometimes because of stellar cycles similar to our Sun?s solar cycle. Remarkably, two targets show brightnesses that monotonically increase (G 169-029) or decrease (WT 460AB) by several percent over a decade. We also provide long-term variability measurements for seven M dwarfs within 25 pc that host exoplanets, none of which vary by more than 20 mmag. Both as a population, and for the specific red dwarfs with exoplanets observed here, photometric variability is therefore often not a concern for planetary environments, at least at the optical wavelengths where they emit much of their light.

  9. Predicting the Long-Term Behavior of a Micro-Solar Power System JAEIN JEONG, Cisco Systems

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    35 Predicting the Long-Term Behavior of a Micro-Solar Power System JAEIN JEONG, Cisco Systems DAVID CULLER, University of California, Berkeley Micro-solar power system design is challenging because it must of design options. Several micro-solar power systems and models have been made, validating particular points

  10. Solar cycle dynamics of solar, magnetospheric, and heliospheric particles, and long-term atmospheric coupling: SAMPLEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M. (Principal Investigator); Hamilton, D. C.; Blake, J. B.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Baker, D. N.; VonRosenvinge, T. T.; Callis, L. B.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.; Scholer, M.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes science analysis activities by the SAMPEX mission science team during the period during the period July 1, 1995 through July 1, 1996. Bibliographic entries for 1995 and 1996 to date (July 1996) are included. The SAMPEX science team was extremely active, with 20 articles published or submitted to refereed journals, 18 papers published in their entirety in Conference Proceedings, and 53 contributed papers, seminars, and miscellaneous presentations. The bibliography at the end of this report constitutes the primary description of the research activity. Science highlights are given under the major activity headings of anomalous cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, magnetospheric precipitating electrons, trapped H and He isotopes, and data analysis activities.

  11. SeaWiFS long-term solar diffuser reflectance trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Patt, Frederick S.; Barnes, Robert A.; McClain, Charles R.

    2006-08-01

    The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group's Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) Team implemented daily solar calibrations of SeaWiFS to look for step-function changes in the instrument response and has used these calibrations to supplement the monthly lunar calibrations in monitoring the radiometric stability of SeaWiFS during its first year of on-orbit operations. The Team has undertaken an analysis of the mission-long solar calibration time series, with the lunar-derived radiometric corrections over time applied, to assess the long-term degradation of the solar diffuser reflectance over nine years on orbit. The SeaWiFS diffuser is an aluminum plate coated with YB71 paint. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function of the diffuser was not fully characterized before launch, so the Cal/Val Team has implemented a regression of the solar incidence angles and the drift in the node of the satellite's orbit against the diffuser time series to correct for solar incidence angle effects. An exponential function with a time constant of 200 days yields the best fit to the diffuser time series. The decrease in diffuser reflectance over the mission is wavelength-dependent, ranging from 9% in the blue (412 nm) to 5% in the red and near infrared (670-865 nm). The degradation of diffuser reflctance is similar to that observed for SeaWiFS radiometric response itself from lunar calibration time series for bands 1-5 (412-555 nm), though the magnitude of the change is four times larger for the diffuser. Evidently, the same optical degradation process has affected both the telescope optics and the solar diffuser in the blue and green. The Cal/Val Team has developed a methodology for computing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for SeaWiFS on orbit from the diffuser time series. The on-orbit change in the SNR for each band over the nine-year mission is less than 7%. The on-orbit performance of the SeaWiFS solar diffuser should offer insight into the long-term on-orbit performance of solar diffusers on other instruments, such as MODIS, VIIRS, and ABI.

  12. Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has…

  13. Effect of Long-Term Physical Activity Practice after Cardiac Rehabilitation on Some Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freyssin, Celine, Jr.; Blanc, Philippe; Verkindt, Chantal; Maunier, Sebastien; Prieur, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term physical activity practice after a cardiac rehabilitation program on weight, physical capacity and arterial compliance. The Dijon Physical Activity Score was used to identify two groups: sedentary and active. Weight, distance at the 6-min walk test and the small artery elasticity…

  14. LONG-TERM CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY IN SOUTHERN M DWARFS: Gl 229 A AND Gl 752 A

    SciTech Connect

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Luoni, MarIa Luisa; Abrevaya, Ximena C.; Mauas, Pablo J. D. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET), C.C. 67 Sucursal 28, C1428EHA-Buenos Aires (Argentina); DIaz, Rodrigo F., E-mail: abuccino@iafe.uba.ar [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis, blvd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2011-02-15

    Several late-type stars present activity cycles similar to that of the Sun. However, these cycles have been mostly studied in F to K stars. Due to their small intrinsic brightness, M dwarfs are not usually the targets of long-term observational studies of stellar activity, and their long-term variability is generally not known. In this work, we study the long-term activity of two M dwarf stars: Gl 229 A (M1/2) and Gl 752 A (M2.5). We employ medium-resolution echelle spectra obtained at the 2.15 m telescope at the Argentinian observatory CASLEO between 2000 and 2010, and photometric observations obtained from the ASAS database. We analyze Ca II K line-core fluxes and the mean V magnitude with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, and we obtain possible activity cycles of {approx}4 yr for Gl 229 A and {approx}7 yr for Gl 752 A.

  15. Long-term (solar cycle) and seasonal variations of upflowing ionospheric ion events at de 1 altitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, A.W.; Beckwith, P.H.; Peterson, W.K.; Shelley, E.G.

    1985-07-01

    A statistical analysis is presented of the long-term variations of upflowing ionosphere ion (UFI) occurrence morphology in the high-altitude (8000-23,300 km) auroral and polar cap ionosphere, using data from the Dynamics Explorer 1 Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer from 1981 to 1984. The study is based on over 100,000 data samples, each consisting of pitch angle distributions of H/sup +/ and O/sup +/ intensities at 0.001--1, 1--4, and 4--17 keV/e. The data samples were grouped into 91-day intervals (seasons). Within each interval they were sorted into altitude, invariant latitude, magnetic local time, and magnetic activity (Kp index) bins, and the occurrence frequency and intensity characteristics of H/sup +/ and O/sup +/ UFI in the respective bins were determined. The September 1981 to May 1984 period coincides with the declining phase of solar cycle 21, when the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm, F/sub 10.7/, decreased from a high of 222 ( x 10/sup -22/ W m/sup -2/ Hz/sup -1/) in September 1981 to a low of 93 in November 1983. The observed occurrence frequency, intensity, and angular characteristics of O/sup +/ UFI exhibited marked variations which correlate with variations in the solar radio flux (and which envelop those of magnetic activity and seasonal origins). In contrast, the H/sup +/ UFI morphology did not display any observable long-term variations. At both quiet (Kp< or =2+) and active times (3-< or =Kp< or =5+) the solar maximum O/sup +/ data displayed (1) a factor of 2-3 increase in the occurrence frequency of intense UFI; (2) a similar increase in the occurrence frequency of transversely accelerated ions above 8000 km; and (3) an increase in conic abundance (fraction of ion conics in UFI).

  16. Parameters of global thunderstorm activity deduced from the long-term Schumann resonance records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickolaenko, A. P.; Sátori, G.; Zieger, B.; Rabinowicz, L. M.; Kudintseva, I. G.

    1998-02-01

    Parameters of global thunderstorm activity are deduced from long-term frequency and amplitude records of the first three Schumann resonance (SR) modes performed at the Nagycenk Observatory (47.6°N, 16.7°E), Hungary, from May 1993 to May 1996. The variations of the daily frequency range of each mode, which are characteristic of the changes of the effective source width, exhibit annual and semiannual variations. Annual and semiannual variations are present in both the recorded data and the parameters of global thunderstorm activity. The effective source width varies over 3-4 h at solstices to 5-6 h during the equinox conditions. A period of about four months also appeared in the spectra of the recorded data. A similarity was found between the patterns of the annual and semiannual variations of the daily frequency range, and the changes in median solar time, apart from a three-month phase lead of the astronomical data. The similarity might be due to an unknown solar-terrestrial link. Two approaches were used for the parameterisation of the global thunderstorm activity. One of these employs the preliminary evaluation of the source-observer distance (SOD) using the ratio of individual mode amplitudes. Variations of the source intensity are obtained after dividing the amplitude recorded by that calculated for the established SOD. The second approach applies a direct summation of the individual mode intensities. Numerical simulations showed that such cumulative intensity depends on the level of the global thunderstorms rather than on the SOD. The two estimates were compared and the conclusion was made that these coincide to within +/- 30%. The maximum of the global thunderstorm activity occurs in summer, in the Northern hemisphere, and the minimum is observed in winter with a two-fold characteristic variance.

  17. 2006 Nature Publishing Group Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc

    E-print Network

    Chadwick, Bill

    © 2006 Nature Publishing Group Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano Robert W , Douglas A. Wiens12 & Yoshihiko Tamura13 Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact1­6 . We describe

  18. Episodic hypoxia evokes long-term facilitation of genioglossus muscle activity in neonatal rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leanne C. McKay; Wiktor A. Janczewski; Jack L. Feldman

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if episodic hypoxia evokes persistent increases of genioglossus muscle (GG) activity, termed long-term facilitation (LTF), in neonatal rats in vivo. Experiments were performed on anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing, intubated neonatal rats (postnatal days (P) 3-7), divided into three groups. The first group (n = 8) was subjected to three 5-min periods of hypoxia

  19. Amygdala Activity at Encoding Correlated with Long-Term, Free Recall of Emotional Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Cahill; Richard J. Haier; James Fallon; Michael T. Alkire; Cheuk Tang; David Keator; Joseph Wu; James L. McGaugh

    1996-01-01

    Positron emission tomography of cerebral glucose metabolism in adult human subjects was used to investigate amygdaloid complex (AC) activity associated with the storage of long-term memory for emotionally arousing events. Subjects viewed two videos (one in each of two separate positron emission tomography sessions, separated by 3-7 days) consisting either of 12 emotionally arousing film clips (``E'' film session) or

  20. Long-term evolution in the global distribution of solar wind speed and density fluctuations during 1997-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Kojima, Masayoshi; Fujiki, Ken'ichi

    2012-06-01

    Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations made with the 327-MHz multistation system of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL) are analyzed to investigate the global distribution of solar wind speed and density fluctuations (?Ne) and their evolution during 1997-2009. This study aims at elucidating the evolution of ?Ne distribution during the cycle 23 and subsequent extended minimum, which is useful for improving understanding of the heliospheric response to the peculiar solar activity. The computer-assisted tomography (CAT) method is used in the present study to deconvolve the line-of-sight integration of STEL IPS observations. This CAT method enables retrieval of the quasi-stationary large-scale structure of the background solar wind. The results show that the high (low)-latitude region is dominated by reduced (enhanced) ?Ne plasma, being closely associated with the fast (slow) solar wind. The solar wind speed data show a distinct change with solar activity, and an excellent positive (negative) correlation is revealed between the fast (slow) wind area and the polar field strength of the Sun. In contrast, the ?Ne data do not show such a solar cycle variation, but instead reveal a significant increase in the fractional area of low-?Ne region in 2004 preceded by a constant value with a small amount of fluctuation. This change is observed for all latitudes, distinctly after 2007 for low latitudes. Our finding is consistent with the long-term variation of the solar wind density revealed from in situ measurements at the Earth orbit, if ?Ne ? Ne (where Ne is the solar wind electron density), and also consistent with the coronal hole distribution during the last solar cycle. It is found that ?Ne is inversely correlated with the solar wind speed V. We obtain the best fit power law function ?Ne ? V-0.36±0.14 for V > 350 km/s, which is basically consistent with our earlier result. This fact suggests that the fractional density fluctuations ?Ne/Ne are greater in the fast wind than in the slow wind. There is no systematic variation in the power law index or slope during 1997-2009 except for a null slope in 2000, which may be ascribed to an insufficient resolution of the CAT analysis. Thus, the inverse relation between ?Ne and V is regarded as a general rule for solar wind turbulence. The important point to note is that a marked drop in ?Ne occurs for the slow speed wind, V < 350 km/s, particularly for 2004 and 2009. This fact may be attributed to different source conditions of the very-low-speed solar wind.

  1. A Framework for Supervising Lifestyle Diseases Using Long-Term Activity Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yongkoo; Han, Manhyung; Lee, Sungyoung; Jehad Sarkar, A. M.; Lee, Young-Koo

    2012-01-01

    Activity monitoring of a person for a long-term would be helpful for controlling lifestyle associated diseases. Such diseases are often linked with the way a person lives. An unhealthy and irregular standard of living influences the risk of such diseases in the later part of one's life. The symptoms and the initial signs of these diseases are common to the people with irregular lifestyle. In this paper, we propose a novel healthcare framework to manage lifestyle diseases using long-term activity monitoring. The framework recognizes the user's activities with the help of the sensed data in runtime and reports the irregular and unhealthy activity patterns to a doctor and a caregiver. The proposed framework is a hierarchical structure that consists of three modules: activity recognition, activity pattern generation and lifestyle disease prediction. We show that it is possible to assess the possibility of lifestyle diseases from the sensor data. We also show the viability of the proposed framework. PMID:22778589

  2. Stellar activity cycles from long-term data by robotic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oláh, K.

    2014-03-01

    All results about stellar activity cycles stem from decades-long systematic observations that were done by small telescopes. Without these equipments we would not know much, if anything, about stellar activity cycles, like those we see and observe easily on the nearest star, the Sun. In the early 80's of the last century systematic photometric monitoring of active stars began with automated photometric telescopes (APTs), some of which continue the observations to date. The Vienna-Potsdam APT now works for about two decades (Strassmeier et al. 1997), similarly to the 4-College Consortium APT (Dukes et al. 1995), while the Catania APT (Rodono et al. 2001) was closed down a few years ago. These small tools with the same setups for decades do not cost much and are relatively cheap to maintain. The longest continuous photometric datasets of a few objects from APTs span now over 30 years, which, together with earlier, manually-obtained data allow to study those activity cycles of stars which are in the order of 10 years or shorter: to be sure in the timescale of a cycle it should be observed repeatedly at least 2-3 times. The spectroscopic automated telescope STELLA (Strassmeier et al. 2004), built in the first decade of this century, measured already a few dozens of radial velocity curves for long-period binary stars and measured their activity levels (Strassmeier et al. 2012); these results can be gathered only by robotic telescopes. Only with STELLA it is possible to study the decades-long behavior of starspots on active giants with long rotational periods via Doppler Imaging. As the databases were growing it became clear that stars, just as the Sun, had multiple cycles. It was also found that stellar cycles showed systematic changes and that the cycle lengths correlated with the rotational periods of the stars. Extensive summaries of stellar activity cycles are found in Baliunas et al. (1995) using the Mt. Wilson Ca-index survey, and Oláh et al. (2009) based on automated photometry+manual data from the literature, resulting in the detection of positive correlation between the rotational rates and cycle length(s) in the sense that faster rotating stars have shorter cycle(s). The long-term, B-V and U-B color index changes of active stars were thoroughly studied by Messina (2008). Direct connection between the magnetic behavior and the orbit of a system containing an active star is seldom observed; such examples are presented by Strassmeier et al. (2011) and Oláh et al. (2013). Based on the data from the DASCH (Digital Access to a Sky Century at Harvard) project, three active K-giants' long-term variability on the timescale of decades to 100 years have beed discovered by Tang et al. (2010). The ASAS database was used to study the cyclic behavior of field M-dwarf stars by Savanov (2012) who found no correlation between the rotation rates and cycle lengths of these objects, suggesting a different type of dynamo to those that drive the dynamo in the RS CVn systems and related active stars, e.g., in Oláh et al. (2009). Recently, Vida & Oláh (2013) determined cycles on the timescale of a year on fast rotating, late-type dwarf stars measured by the Kepler space telescope. However, despite the extremely high precision and time cadence, the Kepler data do not allow to study very long- term phenomena, such as the activity cycles of solar-like stars, due to the limited lifetime of the mission. One of the most important factors in studying stellar activity cycles is time, which cannot be overtaken by any means. It needs systematic, uninterrupted observations for dozens of years, preferably with the same instrument, to avoid systematic effects in the observed long-term variations. Another point is that most of the known magnetically active stars are quite bright objects needing a small telescope to be observed. The construction of automated photometric and spectroscopic telescopes is one of the major, and at the same time low-cost, investments in astronomy. These telescopes and their equipments should be preserved and used as lon

  3. Observing Campaign to Monitor Magnetically-Active Dwarfs for Long-Term Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2009-10-01

    Dr. Styliani (Stella) Kafka of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institute of Washington, requests AAVSO observers to perform long-term photometric monitoring on a number of magnetically active dwarf stars, with an observing frequency of one observation every three days taken with one or more filters. When multiple filters are available, the preferred observations are (in order of precedence): Rc, V, Ic, and B. Please observe such that you obtain a signal to noise of at least 50 (100 or higher is preferred). These objects are all nearby dwarfs known or suspected to have magnetic activity, primarily of the UV Ceti (flare star) or BY Draconis subtypes. Long-term photometric monitoring of these objects will be used in conjunction with other multiwavelength observations from ground-based facilities including the Magellan 6.5-meter and DuPont 2.5-meter telescopes in Chile to understand the long-term magnetic activity cycles of these stars. Such a study can reveal information about the physical natures of these stars, but also about their near space environments and habitability for life. These objects are red, and the variability amplitudes are low, often well below 0.1 magnitudes. The long-term variability due to stellar activity cycles may be much lower. Photometric accuracy rather than the number of observations are key to the success of this project. Unaccounted-for atmospheric effects such as extinction will likely overwhelm any long-term signal from these stars. Observers are strongly urged to fully calibrate their systems and to carefully reduce and transform their photometry to standard photometric passbands, including corrections for airmass/atmospheric extinction. Parameters for 40 objects are given. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database.

  4. Kerava solar village - a solar assisted heat pump system with long-term heat storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Maekinen; P. D. Lund

    1983-01-01

    The Kerava solar village is the first regional building complex in Finland with a combined solar heating and heat pump system using seasonal storage. Besides the operational principles, we present the findings of a cost, performance and sensitivity analysis of the village.

  5. Long-Term Modeling of Solar Energy: Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and PV Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.

    2007-08-16

    This report presents an overview of research conducted on solar energy technologies and their implementation in the ObjECTS framework. The topics covered include financing assumptions and selected issues related to the integration of concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics PV technologies into the electric grid. A review of methodologies for calculating the levelized energy cost of capital-intensive technologies is presented, along with sensitivity tests illustrating how the cost of a solar plant would vary depending on financing assumptions. An analysis of the integration of a hybrid concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) system into the electric system is conducted. Finally a failure statistics analysis for PV plants illustrates the central role of solar irradiance uncertainty in determining PV grid integration characteristics.

  6. Identifying Feasible Physical Activity Programs for Long-Term Care Homes in the Ontario Context

    PubMed Central

    Shakeel, Saad; Newhouse, Ian; Malik, Ali; Heckman, George

    2015-01-01

    Background Structured exercise programs for frail institutionalized seniors have shown improvement in physical, functional, and psychological health of this population. However, the ‘feasibility’ of implementation of such programs in real settings is seldom discussed. The purpose of this systematic review was to gauge feasibility of exercise and falls prevention programs from the perspective of long-term care homes in Ontario, given the recent changes in funding for publically funded physiotherapy services. Method Six electronic databases were searched by two independent researchers for randomized controlled trials that targeted long-term care residents and included exercise as an independent component of the intervention. Results A total of 39 studies were included in this review. A majority of these interventions were led by physiotherapist(s), carried out three times per week for 30–45 minutes per session. However, a few group-based interventions that were led by long-term care staff, volunteers, or trained non-exercise specialists were identified that also required minimal equipment. Conclusion This systematic review has identified ‘feasible’ physical activity and falls prevention programs that required minimal investment in staff and equipment, and demonstrated positive outcomes. Implementation of such programs represents cost-effective means of providing long-term care residents with meaningful gains in physical, psychological, and social health. PMID:26180563

  7. Diverse impact of neuronal activity at ? frequency on hippocampal long-term plasticity.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Tomasz; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2015-09-01

    Brain oscillatory activity is considered an essential aspect of brain function, and its frequency can vary from <1 Hz to >200 Hz, depending on the brain states and projection. Episodes of rhythmic activity accompany hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in vivo. Therefore, long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression, which are considered viable substrates of learning and memory, are often experimentally studied in paradigms of patterned high-frequency (>50 Hz) and low-frequency (<5 Hz) stimulation. However, the impact of intermediate frequencies on neuronal plasticity remains less well understood. In particular, hippocampal neurons are specifically tuned for activity at ? frequency (4-8 Hz); this band contributes significantly to electroencephalographic signals, and it is likely to be involved in shaping synaptic strength in hippocampal circuits. Here, we review in vitro and in vivo studies showing that variation of ?-activity duration may affect long-term modification of synaptic strength and neuronal excitability in the hippocampus. Such ?-pulse-induced neuronal plasticity 1) is long-lasting, 2) may be built on previously stabilized potentiation in the synapse, 3) may produce opposite changes in synaptic strength, and 4) requires complex molecular machinery. Apparently innocuous episodes of low-frequency synaptic activity may have a profound impact on network signaling, thereby contributing to information processing in the hippocampus and beyond. In addition, ?-pulse-induced LTP might be an advantageous protocol in studies of specific molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25789967

  8. Coincident Activity of Converging Pathways Enables Simultaneous Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression in Hippocampal CA1 Network In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jun; Zhang, Xia; Xu, Lin

    2008-01-01

    Memory is believed to depend on activity-dependent changes in the strength of synapses, e.g. long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), which can be determined by the sequence of coincident pre- and postsynaptic activity, respectively. It remains unclear, however, whether and how coincident activity of converging efferent pathways can enable LTP and LTD in the pathways simultaneously. Here, we report that, in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, stimulation (600 pulses, 5 Hz) to Schaffer preceding to commissural pathway within a 40-ms timing window induced similar magnitudes of LTP in both pathways onto synapses of CA1 neurons, with varied LTP magnitudes after reversal of the stimulation sequence. In contrast, in urethane-anesthetized or freely-moving rats, the stimulation to Schaffer preceding to commissural pathway induced Schaffer LTP and commissural LTD simultaneously within a 40-ms timing window, without affecting synaptic efficacy in the reversed stimulation sequence. Coincident activity of Schaffer pathways confirmed the above findings under pentobarbital and urethane anesthesia. Thus, coincident activity of converging afferent pathways tends to switch the pathways to be LTP only or LTP/LTD depending on the activity states of the hippocampus. This network rule strengthens the view that activity-dependent synaptic plasticity may well contribute to memory process of the hippocampal network with flexibility or stability from one state to another. PMID:18682723

  9. Soil microbial biomass and activity in long-term grassland: Effects of management changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Lovell; S. C. Jarvis; R. D. Bardgett

    1995-01-01

    The effects of long-term N fertilizer management history and field drainage on soil microbial biomass N and C and its activity in the surface soil of a poorly-drained pasture soil in S.W. England were examined periodically for 1 year. The immediate effects of changes in N fertilizer inputs were also determined. In general, there were few differences in the trends

  10. Long-term correlation in single calcium-activated potassium channel kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos de Oliveira, R. A.; Barbosa, C. T. F.; Consoni, L. H. A.; Rodrigues, A. R. A.; Varanda, W. A.; Nogueira, R. A.

    2006-05-01

    Ion channels are protein molecules found in biological membranes, which can assume distinct open and closed conformational states, a phenomenon called ion channel kinetics. The transitions from one state to another are dependent on the potential energy barrier that separates them and can be controlled by the electrical field, ions and/or drugs. Both Markovian and fractal models have been used for modeling the ion channel kinetics. Ion single channel records are characterized by successive openings and closings, which are correlated in time. Here the rescaled range analysis ( R/S Hurst analysis) is used to test for the occurrence of long-term correlation in the kinetics of a calcium-activated potassium channel of Leydig cells. A Hurst coefficient H=0.640±0.064 ( n=5) was found for the single calcium-activated potassium channel clamped at -80 mV and exposed to a free Ca 2+ concentration equal to 10 nM. This numerical value indicates the presence of long-term correlation (memory) in this kinetic process. However, when the R/ S analysis was applied to ion channel data simulated using Markovian and fractal models, it could not account for the long-term correlation previously found in the experimental data. In summary, in this work we show that: (i) opening and closing dwell times for the single calcium-activated potassium channel of Leydig cells present long-term correlation and (ii) Markovian and fractal models, which describe well the dwell time distributions, are not adequate to describe the memory found in the kinetics of this channel.

  11. Immune activation and autoantibodies in humans with long-term inhalation exposure to formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Thrasher, J.D.; Broughton, A.; Madison, R. (Thrasher Associates, Northridge, CA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Four groups of patients with long-term inhalation exposure to formaldehyde (HCHO) were compared with controls who had short-term periodic exposure to HCHO. The following were determined for all groups: total white cell, lymphocyte, and T cell counts; T helper/suppressor ratios; total Ta1+, IL2+, and B cell counts; antibodies to formaldehyde-human serum albumin (HCHO-HSA) conjugate and autoantibodies. When compared with the controls, the patients had significantly higher antibody titers to HCHO-HSA. In addition, significant increases in Ta1+, IL2+, and B cells and autoantibodies were observed. Immune activation, autoantibodies, and anti-HCHO-HSA antibodies are associated with long-term formaldehyde inhalation.

  12. Select Soil Enzyme Activities In The Historic Sanborn Field As Affected By Long-term Cropping Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Eivazi; M. R. Bayan; K. Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Long-term experimental sites are expected to provide important information regarding soil properties as affected by management practices. Recent studies have shown that soil enzyme activities are sensitive in discriminating among soil management effects. This study was designed to examine the effects of long-term fertilization, tillage and crop rotation on the activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, ?-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, and urease

  13. Long-term Variation in the Sun’s Activity Caused by Magnetic Rossby Waves in the Tachocline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Oliver, Ramon; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Carbonell, Marc; Ballester, Jose Luis; Gachechiladze, Tamar; Usoskin, Ilya G.

    2015-06-01

    Long-term records of sunspot number and concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides (10Be and 14C) on the Earth reveal the variation of the Sun's magnetic activity over hundreds and thousands of years. We identify several clear periods in sunspot, 10Be, and 14C data as 1000, 500, 350, 200, and 100 years. We found that the periods of the first five spherical harmonics of the slow magnetic Rossby mode in the presence of a steady toroidal magnetic field of 1200–1300 G in the lower tachocline are in perfect agreement with the timescales of observed variations. The steady toroidal magnetic field can be generated in the lower tachocline either due to the steady dynamo magnetic field for low magnetic diffusivity or due to the action of the latitudinal differential rotation on the weak poloidal primordial magnetic field, which penetrates from the radiative interior. The slow magnetic Rossby waves lead to variations of the steady toroidal magnetic field in the lower tachocline, which modulate the dynamo magnetic field and consequently the solar cycle strength. This result constitutes a key point for long-term prediction of the cycle strength. According to our model, the next deep minimum in solar activity is expected during the first half of this century.

  14. Long term endurance test and contact degradation of CIGS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Thomas; Schönberger, Francillina; Walter, Thomas; Hariskos, Dimitrios; Kiowski, Oliver; Schäffler, Raymund

    2013-09-01

    CIGS is the most promising technology for thin-film solar cells with record efficiencies of 20.4 % on laboratory scale and 17.8 % aperture area efficiency on a 900 cm² module. Another important factor besides the cell efficiency is the reliability and long term stability of the manufactured modules, which can be assessed by accelerated ageing. In this contribution the accelerated ageing of CIGS mini modules has been investigated. Therefore, modules were dark annealed under dry heat conditions at different temperatures. During the endurance test a positive or negative bias was applied to the cells. In regular intervals the IV- and CV-characteristics were measured at room temperature. After an overall stress time of 3500 h the IV-characteristics were determined under different illumination conditions (intensity, spectral illumination). Our previous publications suggest a barrier at the back contact to explain the observed parameter drifts. This contribution is focused on the influence of different bias conditions during the endurance test on the generation of a back diode and on the change of the acceptor concentration. These parameter drifts have an impact on the open circuit voltage, fill factor and on the appearance of a cross over between dark and illuminated IV-characteristics. The interpretation of the observed parameter drifts was supported by SCAPS simulations based on the above mentioned back barrier model. As an outcome of the simulations signatures for the existence of a back barrier diode were established. IVmeasurements, temperature dependent Voc measurements and SunsVoc measurements are helpful means to detect such back diodes.

  15. Determining the amount of physical activity needed for long-term weight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Jackson, A. S.; Rossum, A. C.; Poston, W. S.; Foreyt, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the influence of habitual physical activity on body weight of men and women and to develop a model that defines the role of physical activity on longitudinal weight change. DESIGN AND SETTING: Occupational cohort study conducted for a mean of 5.5 y. SUBJECTS: A total of 496 (341 male and 155 female) NASA/Johnson Space Center employees who completed the 3 month education component of the employee health-related fitness program and remained involved for a minimum of 2 y. MEASUREMENTS: Body weights were measured at baseline (T1) and follow-up (T2), and habitual physical activity was obtained from the mean of multiple ratings of the 11-point (0-10) NASA Activity Scale (NAS) recorded quarterly between T1 and T2. Other measures included age, gender, VO(2 max) obtained from maximal treadmill testing, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage. RESULTS: Multiple regression demonstrated that mean NAS, T1 weight, aging and gender all influence long-term T2 weight. T1 age was significant for the men only. Independently, each increase in mean NAS significantly (P<0.01) reduced T2 weight in men (b=-0.91 kg; 95% CI:-1.4 to-0.42 kg) and women (b=-2.14 kg; 95% CI:-2.93 to-1.35 kg). Mean NAS had a greater effect on T2 weight as T1 weight increased, and the relationship was dose-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Habitual physical activity is a significant source of long-term weight change. The use of self-reported activity level is helpful in predicting long-term weight changes and may be used by health care professionals when counseling patients about the value of physical activity for weight control.

  16. Solar Cycle Dynamics of Solar, Magnetospheric, and Heliospheric Particles, and Long-Term Atmospheric Coupling: SAMPEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Blake, J. B.; Mazur, J. E.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Baker, D. N.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Callis, L. B.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.; Scholer, M.

    2000-01-01

    This final technical report summarizes science analysis activities by the SAMPEX mission science team during the period July 1, 1995 through September 30, 2000. Bibliographic entries for 1995 to date (October 2000) are included. The SAMPEX science team was extremely active, with 72 articles published or submitted to referred journals, 38 papers published in their entirety in Conference Proceedings, and 260 contributed papers, seminars, and miscellaneous presentations. The bibliography at the end of this report constitutes the primary description of the research activity. Science highlights are given under the major activity headings, as well as other activities of the team. One Ph.D. student, Mr. Daniel Williams, completed his thesis at California Institute of Technology based on data from the MAST instrument.

  17. Long-term modulations of Saturn's auroral radio emissions by the solar wind and seasonal variations controlled by the solar ultraviolet flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, T.; Lamy, L.; Tao, C.; Badman, S. V.; Kasahara, S.; Cecconi, B.; Zarka, P.; Morioka, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Maruno, D.; Kasaba, Y.; Fujimoto, M.

    2013-11-01

    Saturn's auroral activities have been suggested to be controlled by the seasonal variations of the polar ionospheric conductivities and atmospheric conditions associated with the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux. However, they have not yet been explained self-consistently by only the seasonal solar EUV effects. This study investigates the long-term variations of Saturnian Kilometric Radiation (SKR) as a proxy of the auroral activities, which were observed by Cassini's Radio and Plasma Wave Science experiment mostly during the southern summer (DOY (day of year) 001 2004 to DOY 193 2010). We deduced the height distribution of the SKR source region in the Northern (winter) and Southern (summer) Hemispheres from the remote sensing of SKR spectra. The peak spectral density of the southern (summer) SKR was found to be up to 100 times greater than that of the northern (winter) SKR, and the altitude of the peak flux was similar (˜ 0.8 Rs) in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The spectral densities in both hemispheres became comparable with each other around equinox in August 2009. These results suggest a stronger SKR source region during the summer than the winter related to the seasonal EUV effect, which is opposite to the trend observed in the Earth's kilometric radiation. A long-term correlation analysis was performed for the SKR, solar EUV flux, and solar wind parameters extrapolated from Earth's orbit by an magnetohydrodynamical simulation focusing on variations on timescales longer than several weeks. We confirmed clear positive correlations between the solar wind dynamic pressure and peak flux density in both the Southern and Northern Hemispheres during the declining phase of the solar cycle. We conclude that the solar wind variations on the timescale of the solar cycle control the SKR source region. In addition, it was also confirmed that the south-to-north ratios of SKR power flux and source altitudes are positively correlated with the solar EUV flux. This result strongly supports a seasonal EUV effect on the SKR source region. The variations of SKR activity over both seasonal and solar cycles are discussed in comparison to the terrestrial case.

  18. Long-term reproductive and behavioral toxicity of anthracene to fish in the presence of solar ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, A.T. [Sandoz Agro, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Oris, J.T. [Miami Univ. Oxford, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The long-term, low-level effects of anthracene in the presence of solar ultraviolet radiation (SUVR) were examined in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Adult fish exposed to anthracene exhibited reduced egg laying capacity, with altered oocyte maturation as a potential mechanism of action. Eggs and larvae maternally exposed to anthracene exhibited reduced hatching success and severe developmental abnormalities when incubated under SUVR. The combination of reduced egg output and developmental effects resulted in an inhibition in reproductive capacity in the range of 70--100%. Maternal transfer of anthracene to eggs was efficient; the BCF was 717 for maternally exposed eggs. However, anthracene deputation from eggs after oviposition with only maternal PAH exposure was rapid; anthracene half-life from eggs equaled 1.3 days. Exposure to anthracene under SUVR altered locomotor activity patterns in fathead minnows by inducing hyperactivity or hypoactivity during the light or dark phases of the photoperiod, respectively. Altered activity patterns indicated potential effects of anthracene on the nervous system and/or pineal gland. These alterations disrupted normal activity patterns and reproductive behaviors, and thus have major implications on a fish`s ability to survive and reproduce. Anthracene, a model phototoxic PAH, has many potential sites of toxic action, and any organism exposed to such contaminants will be an considerable SUVR-enhanced risk in the environment.

  19. Criminal Activity of Adjudicated Youth Long-term Follow-up of Criminal Activity with Adjudicated Youth in Ontario

    E-print Network

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    , and Tidd (2004) used a novel approach to estimate the cost of crime, based on the "contingent valuationCriminal Activity of Adjudicated Youth Long-term Follow-up of Criminal Activity with Adjudicated 2K3, dday@psych.ryerson.ca. 1 #12;Criminal Activity of Adjudicated Youth ABSTRACT This article

  20. Caspase-3 Activation via Mitochondria Is Required for Long-Term Depression and AMPA Receptor Internalization

    E-print Network

    Li, Zheng

    NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic modifications, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), are essential for brain development and function. LTD occurs mainly by the removal of AMPA receptors from ...

  1. An Approach for Long Term Forecasting with an Application to Solar Electric Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh K. Sarin

    1979-01-01

    An approach is proposed that is useful for long term forecasting of market penetration of new technologies, fuel price and availability, business performance, etc. The central idea is to systematically solicit experts' opinion in the form of subjective probability distributions in making future projections. The approach has two basic ingredients. One is the decomposition of the problem so that each

  2. Application of micro-porous polycarbonate membranes in dye-sensitized solar cells: Cell performance and long-term stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shingjiang Jessie Lue; Pei Wen Lo; Ling-Yung Hung; Yung Liang Tung

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the cell performance and long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) containing micro-porous polycarbonate (PC) film as the frame work material to stabilize the electrolyte solution. The track-etched PC film has cylindrical pore geometry, which is beneficial for ion transport in the electrolyte trapped inside the PC film. The photovoltaic efficiency of the DSSC with 0.2-?m PC

  3. Energetic auroral and polar ion outflow at DE 1 altitudes: Magnitude, composition, magnetic activity dependence, and long-term variations

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, A.W.; Shelley, E.G.; Peterson, W.K.; Lenchyshyn, L.

    1985-09-01

    Data from Dynamics Explorer 1 Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer (DE 1 EICS) in the period from September 1981 to May 1984 were used to determine the mass composition, magnitude, magnetic activity dependence, long-term variations, and topology (MLT-invariant latitude distribution) of energetic (0.01-17 keV/el) terrestrial outflow. The September 1981 to May 1984 period coincided with the declining phase of the current solar cycle (cycle 21), when the monthly average of the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm, F/sub 10.7/, decreased from a high of 222 ( x 10/sup -22/ W m/sup -2/ Hz/sup -1/) in September 1981 to a low of 93 in November 1983. At both magnetically quiet and active times, the O/sup +/ outflow rate exhibited long-term variations which correlated with the declining solar radio flux. Overall, the O/sup +/ outflow rate in the 1981-1982 period was a factor of 2 larger than the 1983--1984 rate. Any corresponding variation in the H/sup +/ outflow rate, if present, was much smaller and not statistically significant. At solar maximum (in 1981--1982), the total ion outflow rate (H/sup +/ and O/sup +/) was 1.5 x 10/sup 26/ ions s/sup -1/ at active times (3< or =Kp< or =5) and 5 x 10/sup 25/ ions s/sup -1/ at quiet times (Kp< or =2). The active time flow was predominantly O/sup +/; the O/sup +//H/sup +/ ratio was 3. At quiet times, H/sup +/ and O/sup +/ flows were comparable, and the ratio was 0.9. In 1983--1984, a period of reduced solar activity, the total ion outflow rate was 1.0 x 10/sup 26/ ions s/sup -1/ at active times and 4 x 10/sup 25/ ions s/sup -1/ at quiet times. The O/sup +//H/sup +/ ratio was 1.1 and 0.6, respectively. In both H/sup +/ and O/sup +/, the outflow was dominated by <1-keV ions.

  4. Activation of CaMKII in single dendritic spines during long-term potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seok-Jin R.; Escobedo-Lozoya, Yasmin; Szatmari, Erzsebet M.; Yasuda, Ryohei

    2009-01-01

    Ca2+ / Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) plays a central role in long-term potentiation (LTP), which underlies some forms of learning and memory. Here we monitored the spatiotemporal dynamics of CaMKII activation in individual dendritic spines during LTP using 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in combination with 2-photon glutamate uncaging. Induction of LTP and associated spine enlargement in single spines triggered transient (? 1 min) CaMKII activation restricted to the stimulated spines. CaMKII in spines was specifically activated by NMDA receptors and L-type voltage sensitive calcium channels, presumably via nanodomain Ca2+ near the channels, in response to glutamate uncaging and depolarization, respectively. The high degree of compartmentalization and channel specificity of CaMKII signalling allow stimuli-specific spatiotemporal patterns of CaMKII signalling and may be important for synapse-specificity of synaptic plasticity. PMID:19295602

  5. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Lennox/Honeywell (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program of the Lennox/Honeywell double covered liquid solar collector. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The Lennox/Honeywell collector is a flat-plate solar collector. The absorber plate is steel with copper tubes bonded on the upper surface, and is coated with black chrome. Visual inspection of the collector indicated slight discoloration of the absorber plate. Results indicate that performance degradation had occurred. Absorptivity and/or transmissivity decreased as a result of the weathering.

  6. Biomaterial modification of urinary catheters with antimicrobials to give long-term broadspectrum antibiofilm activity.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Leanne E; Hook, Andrew L; Ashraf, Waheed; Yousef, Anfal; Barrett, David A; Scurr, David J; Chen, Xinyong; Smith, Emily F; Fay, Michael; Parmenter, Christopher D J; Parkinson, Richard; Bayston, Roger

    2015-03-28

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the commonest hospital-acquired infection, accounting for over 100,000 hospital admissions within the USA annually. Biomaterials and processes intended to reduce the risk of bacterial colonization of the catheters for long-term users have not been successful, mainly because of the need for long duration of activity in flow conditions. Here we report the results of impregnation of urinary catheters with a combination of rifampicin, sparfloxacin and triclosan. In flow experiments, the antimicrobial catheters were able to prevent colonization by common uropathogens Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli for 7 to 12weeks in vitro compared with 1-3days for other, commercially available antimicrobial catheters currently used clinically. Resistance development was minimized by careful choice of antimicrobial combinations. Drug release profiles and distribution in the polymer, and surface analysis were also carried out and the process had no deleterious effect on the mechanical performance of the catheter or its balloon. The antimicrobial catheter therefore offers for the first time a means of reducing infection and its complications in long-term urinary catheter users. PMID:25639970

  7. SWAP Observations of the Long-Term, Large-Scale Evolution of the EUV Solar Corona

    E-print Network

    Seaton, Daniel B; Shearer, Paul; Berghmans, David; Nicula, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) EUV solar telescope on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy 2 (PROBA2) spacecraft has been regularly observing the solar corona in a bandpass near 17.4 nm since February 2010. With a field-of-view of 54x54 arcmin, SWAP provides the widest-field images of the EUV corona available from the perspective of the Earth. By carefully processing and combining multiple SWAP images it is possible to produce low-noise composites that reveal the structure of the EUV corona to relatively large heights. A particularly important step in this processing was to remove instrumental stray light from the images by determining and deconvolving SWAP's point spread function (PSF) from the observations. In this paper we use the resulting images to conduct the first ever study of the evolution of the large-scale structure of the corona observed in the EUV over a three-year period that includes the complete rise phase of solar cycle 24. Of particular note is the persiste...

  8. The AVHRR component of a long-term global active fire data record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Giglio, L.; Schroeder, W.; Justice, C. O.

    2010-12-01

    The increased thermal signal in the 3.7 µm channel, together with radiometric measurements in the longwave and shortwave channels, enable the detection of thermal anomalies from AVHRR for a wide range of environmental and observing conditions. The AVHRR has been used worldwide for operational fire monitoring and for research purposes since at least the early 1990s. The long data record of AVHRR makes it an essential part of a long-term, multisensor record of fire activity. Fire Disturbance is an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). Within the Fire Disturbance ECV, active fire occurrence is one of the supplementary variables. General requirements for long-term satellite-based data records for ECVs are articulated in the GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles for satellite measurements, which specify requirements both for observing systems and for product generation and distribution. In this paper we provide an overview of the history of fire monitoring from AVHRR, and the potential and limitations for establishing a long-term data record in the context of the GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles. Major sensor-related challenges include the relatively low saturation level of the 3.7 µm channel, the orbital drift of the early NOAA satellites and pixel geolocation inaccuracies. Additionally, fire detection requires full resolution observations and therefore the globally and systematically available Global Area Coverage (GAC) data are inadequate for global active fire monitoring. The need for the compilation and reprocessing of full resolution measurements from on-board Local Area Coverage (LAC) data and direct-readout High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) receiving stations is articulated by the Fire Mapping and Monitoring Implementation Team of the Global Observation of Forest and Landcover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) program, in collaboration with the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites. As fire detection capabilities strongly depend on the observing system, establishing a continuity is also needed among AVHRR and other major observing systems, such as the (Advanced) Along-Track Scanning Radiometer ((A)ATSR), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the upcoming Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR). Such continuity can be established by improved understanding of detection capabilities through product validation and simulations and by using geostationary fire observations as a reference to account for differences in satellite overpass times and the consequent different sampling of the diurnal cycle of fire activity from polar orbiters.

  9. Long Term Seismic Observation in Mariana by OBSs : Activity of Deep Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Ohki, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Sugioka, H.; Suyehiro, K.

    2003-12-01

    In order to obtain the deep arc structural image of Mariana, a large-scale seismic observation by using 58 long-term ocean bottom seismometers (LTOBS) has been started since June 2003 for about one year. It is a part of the MARGINS program (US-JAPAN COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: MULTI-SCALE SEISMIC IMAGING OF THE MARIANA SUBDUCTION FACTORY), and the aim of this observation is the crustal and mantle structure modeling by using passive and active seismic sources. The 50 and 8 LTOBSs are owned by LDEO and ERI, respectively, and they were deployed during the cruise of R/V Kaiyo (Jamstec), KY03-06. Prior to this experiment, we made a pilot long-term seismic array observation in the same area by using 10 LTOBSs, deployed in Oct. 2001 by R/V Yokosuka (Jamstec) and recovered in Feb. 2003 by R/V Kaiyo. This LTOBS has been developed by ERI, which has the PMD sensor (WB2023LP) and a titanium sphere housing (D=50cm) and was already used in several long-term observations (ex. trans-PHS array observation presented at the AGU fall meeting, 2000, S51B-02). Two of 10 LTOBSs could not be recovered due to malfunction of the releasing system, and one recovered had a trouble in the sensor control unit. But, seven others have obtained more than 11 months long data continuously. As passive source studies of these observations use characteristic deep earthquakes in this area, the activity of them will be introduced in this presentation, from the data obtained just above them. At the first step, difference of hypocenters of known events, listed on the PDE catalog, is examined. There are 59 events of epicenters within a circular area centered at 19° N, 145° E with radius of 1000km from the catalog during the observation. P and S arrivals are picked by using the WIN system, and the iasp91 model (only {VP} with {{VP}/{V_S}=1.732}) is used for the hypocenter determination. Station corrections are applied only for the sediment layer, estimated from several arrival time data of P and P-S converted phase at the sediment-basement interface below the OBS. The major result is a systematic shift of epicenters with about 200km depth to SE direction below the island chain, and those relocated hypocenters show concentration.

  10. Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP Enhances Long-Term Memory Formation Independent of Protein Kinase A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Nan; Abel, Ted; Hernandez, Pepe J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories--signaling thought to proceed through protein kinase A (PKA). However, here we show that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) is able to enhance the formation of long-term memory in the hippocampus and appears to do so…

  11. Long-term trends of tropospheric carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide from analysis of high resolution infrared solar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Goldman, Aaron; Hannigan, James W.; Wood, Stephen W.; Chiou, Linda S.; Mahieu, Emmanuel

    2007-03-01

    Long-term trend and seasonal variation of the mean free tropospheric volume mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) have been derived from analysis of a time series of solar absorption spectra recorded from the US National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak (31.9°N, 111.6°W, 2.09 km altitude) spanning almost three decades. The results of a fit to the CO 258 daily averages from May 1977 to April 2005 as a function of time with a model that assumes a sinusoidal seasonal cycle and a linear long-term trend with time yield a mean volume mixing ratio of 102±3) parts per billion (10 per unit volume) below 10 km altitude, 1 sigma. The CO measurements show a seasonal cycle with a maximum in March and a minimum in September with an amplitude of (22.3±1.5)% relative to the mean. The best-fit corresponds to a long-term CO trend of (0.15±0.14)%yr, 1 sigma, relative to the mean. To quantify the possible impact of periods of intense fires, the CO measurements have been compared with the measurements of HCN, a well-documented emission product of biomass burning with a lifetime of ˜5 months. The best fit to the full HCN time series of 208 daily averages from May 1978 to April 2005 results in a mean volume mixing ratio of (0.219±0.007)ppbv below 10 km altitude with a similar seasonal cycle, though with a lower relative amplitude than for CO. Although same-day enhancements up to a factor of 1.87 for HCN and 1.24 for CO were measured relative to values predicted by a fit to the time series that accounts for the seasonal cycles and trends of both molecules, excluding time periods of elevated fire emissions has no significant impact on the best-fit long-term free tropospheric CO and HCN trends. Our result of no long-term CO trend since the late 1970s suggests that the global average long-term decline reported from 1990 through 1995 measurements has not continued in the free troposphere. Similarly, a fit to the full time series of 208 HCN free tropospheric daily averages with the same model yields an average 2.09 10 km mixing ratio of 0.219 ppbv and a long-term trend of (-0.12±0.14)%yr, 1 sigma, relative to the mean since 1978, also indicating no significant long-term trend above the lower mid-latitude continental US Kitt Peak station. The results for both molecules suggest the site was not significantly impacted by summer boreal fires during the time span of the measurements that in some years cause widespread pollution above northern higher latitude sites.

  12. Activated mTORC1 promotes long-term cone survival in retinitis pigmentosa mice.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Aditya; Ma, Shan; Le, Yun Z; Hall, Michael N; Rüegg, Markus A; Punzo, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited photoreceptor degenerative disorder that results in blindness. The disease is often caused by mutations in genes that are specific to rod photoreceptors; however, blindness results from the secondary loss of cones by a still unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrated that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is required to slow the progression of cone death during disease and that constitutive activation of mTORC1 in cones is sufficient to maintain cone function and promote long-term cone survival. Activation of mTORC1 in cones enhanced glucose uptake, retention, and utilization, leading to increased levels of the key metabolite NADPH. Moreover, cone death was delayed in the absence of the NADPH-sensitive cell death protease caspase 2, supporting the contribution of reduced NADPH in promoting cone death. Constitutive activation of mTORC1 preserved cones in 2 mouse models of RP, suggesting that the secondary loss of cones is caused mainly by metabolic deficits and is independent of a specific rod-associated mutation. Together, the results of this study address a longstanding question in the field and suggest that activating mTORC1 in cones has therapeutic potential to prolong vision in RP. PMID:25798619

  13. Activated mTORC1 promotes long-term cone survival in retinitis pigmentosa mice

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Aditya; Ma, Shan; Le, Yun Z.; Hall, Michael N.; Rüegg, Markus A.; Punzo, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited photoreceptor degenerative disorder that results in blindness. The disease is often caused by mutations in genes that are specific to rod photoreceptors; however, blindness results from the secondary loss of cones by a still unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrated that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is required to slow the progression of cone death during disease and that constitutive activation of mTORC1 in cones is sufficient to maintain cone function and promote long-term cone survival. Activation of mTORC1 in cones enhanced glucose uptake, retention, and utilization, leading to increased levels of the key metabolite NADPH. Moreover, cone death was delayed in the absence of the NADPH-sensitive cell death protease caspase 2, supporting the contribution of reduced NADPH in promoting cone death. Constitutive activation of mTORC1 preserved cones in 2 mouse models of RP, suggesting that the secondary loss of cones is caused mainly by metabolic deficits and is independent of a specific rod-associated mutation. Together, the results of this study address a longstanding question in the field and suggest that activating mTORC1 in cones has therapeutic potential to prolong vision in RP. PMID:25798619

  14. The chromospherically active binary star EI Eridani II. Long-term Doppler imaging

    E-print Network

    A. Washuettl; K. G. Strassmeier; M. Weber

    2008-11-19

    Data from 11 years of continuous spectroscopic observations of the active RS CVn-type binary star EI Eridani - gained at NSO/McMath-Pierce, KPNO/Coude Feed and during the MUSICOS 98 campaign - were used to obtain 34 Doppler maps in three spectroscopic lines for 32 epochs, 28 of which are independent of each other. Various parameters are extracted from our Doppler maps: average temperature, fractional spottedness, and longitudinal and latitudinal spot-occurrence functions. We find that none of these parameters show a distinct variation nor a correlation with the proposed activity cycle as seen from photometric long-term observations. This suggests that the photometric brightness cycle may not necessarily be due to just a cool spot cycle. The general morphology of the spot pattern remains persistent over the whole period of 11 years. A large cap-like polar spot was recovered from all our images. A high degree of variable activity was noticed near latitudes of approx. 60-70 degrees where the appendages of the polar spot emerged and dissolved.

  15. Therapeutic intraspinal stimulation to generate activity and promote long-term recovery

    PubMed Central

    Mondello, Sarah E.; Kasten, Michael R.; Horner, Philip J.; Moritz, Chet T.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprosthetic approaches have tremendous potential for the treatment of injuries to the brain and spinal cord by inducing appropriate neural activity in otherwise disordered circuits. Substantial work has demonstrated that stimulation applied to both the central and peripheral nervous system leads to immediate and in some cases sustained benefits after injury. Here we focus on cervical intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) as a promising method of activating the spinal cord distal to an injury site, either to directly produce movements or more intriguingly to improve subsequent volitional control of the paretic extremities. Incomplete injuries to the spinal cord are the most commonly observed in human patients, and these injuries spare neural tissue bypassing the lesion that could be influenced by neural devices to promote recovery of function. In fact, recent results have demonstrated that therapeutic ISMS leads to modest but sustained improvements in forelimb function after an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). This therapeutic spinal stimulation may promote long-term recovery of function by providing the necessary electrical activity needed for neuron survival, axon growth, and synaptic stability. PMID:24578680

  16. Persistence and activation of malaria hypnozoites in long-term primary hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Dembélé, Laurent; Franetich, Jean-François; Lorthiois, Audrey; Gego, Audrey; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Kocken, Clemens H M; Le Grand, Roger; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Sauerwein, Robert; Vaillant, Jean-Christophe; Hannoun, Laurent; Fuchter, Matthew J; Diagana, Thierry T; Malmquist, Nicholas A; Scherf, Artur; Snounou, Georges; Mazier, Dominique

    2014-03-01

    Malaria relapses, resulting from the activation of quiescent hepatic hypnozoites of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale, hinder global efforts to control and eliminate malaria. As primaquine, the only drug capable of eliminating hypnozoites, is unsuitable for mass administration, an alternative drug is needed urgently. Currently, analyses of hypnozoites, including screening of compounds that would eliminate them, can only be made using common macaque models, principally Macaca rhesus and Macaca fascicularis, experimentally infected with the relapsing Plasmodium cynomolgi. Here, we present a protocol for long-term in vitro cultivation of P. cynomolgi-infected M. fascicularis primary hepatocytes during which hypnozoites persist and activate to resume normal development. In a proof-of-concept experiment, we obtained evidence that exposure to an inhibitor of histone modification enzymes implicated in epigenetic control of gene expression induces an accelerated rate of hypnozoite activation. The protocol presented may further enable investigations of hypnozoite biology and the search for compounds that kill hypnozoites or disrupt their quiescence. PMID:24509527

  17. Long-term climbing fibre activity induces transcription of microRNAs in cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Barmack, Neal H; Qian, Zuyuan; Yakhnitsa, Vadim

    2014-09-26

    Synaptic activation of central neurons is often evoked by electrical stimulation leading to post-tetanic potentiation, long-term potentiation or long-term depression. Even a brief electrical tetanus can induce changes in as many as 100 proteins. Since climbing fibre activity is often associated with cerebellar behavioural plasticity, we used horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) to naturally increase synaptic input to floccular Purkinje cells in mice for hours, not minutes, and investigated how this activity influenced the transcription of microRNAs, small non-coding nucleotides that reduce transcripts of multiple, complementary mRNAs. A single microRNA can reduce the translation of as many as 30 proteins. HOKS evoked increases in 12 microRNA transcripts in floccular Purkinje cells. One of these microRNAs, miR335, increased 18-fold after 24 h of HOKS. After HOKS stopped, miR335 transcripts decayed with a time constant of approximately 2.5 h. HOKS evoked a 28-fold increase in pri-miR335 transcripts compared with an 18-fold increase in mature miR335 transcripts, confirming that climbing fibre-evoked increases in miR335 could be attributed to increases in transcription. We used three screens to identify potential mRNA targets for miR335 transcripts: (i) nucleotide complementarity, (ii) detection of increased mRNAs following microinjection of miR335 inhibitors into the cerebellum, and (iii) detection of decreased mRNAs following HOKS. Two genes, calbindin and 14-3-3-?, passed these screens. Transfection of N2a cells with miR335 inhibitors or precursors inversely regulated 14-3-3-? transcripts. Immunoprecipitation of 14-3-3-? co-immunoprecipitated PKC-? and GABAA?2. Knockdown of either 14-3-3-? or PKC-? decreased the serine phosphorylation of GABAA?2, suggesting that 14-3-3-? and PKC-? under the control of miR335 homeostatically regulate the phosphorylation and insertion of GABAA?2 into the Purkinje cell post-synaptic membrane. PMID:25135969

  18. Long-term solar UV radiation reconstructed by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Feister; J. Junk; M. Woldt

    2008-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are efficient tools to derive solar UV radiation from measured meteorological parameters such as global radiation, aerosol optical depths and atmospheric column ozone. The ANN model has been tested with different combinations of data from the two sites Potsdam and Lindenberg, and used to reconstruct solar UV radiation at eight European sites by more than 100

  19. Long-term non-invasive and continuous measurements of legume nodule activity.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Ricardo A; Liese, Rebecca; Fischinger, Stephanie A; Sulieman, Saad; Avenhaus, Ulrike; Lingner, Annika; Hein, Hans; Koester, Beke; Baumgarten, Vanessa; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is a process of considerable economic, ecological and scientific interest. The central enzyme nitrogenase reduces H(+) alongside N2 , and the evolving H2 allows a continuous and non-invasive in vivo measurement of nitrogenase activity. The objective of this study was to show that an elaborated set-up providing such measurements for periods as long as several weeks will produce specific insight into the nodule activity's dependence on environmental conditions and genotype features. A system was developed that allows the air-proof separation of a root/nodule and a shoot compartment. H2 evolution in the root/nodule compartment can be monitored continuously. Nutrient solution composition, temperature, CO2 concentration and humidity around the shoots can concomitantly be maintained and manipulated. Medicago truncatula plants showed vigorous growth in the system when relying on nitrogen fixation. The set-up was able to provide specific insights into nitrogen fixation. For example, nodule activity depended on the temperature in their surroundings, but not on temperature or light around shoots. Increased temperature around the nodules was able to induce higher nodule activity in darkness versus light around shoots for a period of as long as 8 h. Conditions that affected the N demand of the shoots (ammonium application, Mg or P depletion, super numeric nodules) induced consistent and complex daily rhythms in nodule activity. It was shown that long-term continuous measurements of nodule activity could be useful for revealing special features in mutants and could be of importance when synchronizing nodule harvests for complex analysis of their metabolic status. PMID:25640854

  20. Bryostatin-1 promotes long-term potentiation via activation of PKC? and PKC? in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Han, S H; Quan, H Y; Jung, Y-J; An, J; Kang, P; Park, J-B; Yoon, B-J; Seol, G H; Min, S S

    2012-12-13

    Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by bryostatin-1 affects various functions of the central nervous system. We explored whether bryostatin-1 influenced synaptic plasticity via a process involving PKC. Our purpose was to examine whether bryostatin-1 affected the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in Schaffer-collateral fibers (CA1 fibers) of the hippocampus, and/or influenced the intracellular Ca(2+) level of hippocampal neurons. We also determined the PKC isoforms involved in these processes. We found that bryostatin-1 strongly facilitated LTP induction, in a dose-dependent manner, upon single-theta burst stimulation (TBS). Further, intracellular Ca(2+) levels also increased with increasing concentration of bryostatin-1. The facilitative effects of bryostatin-1 in terms of LTP induction and enhancement of intracellular Ca(2+) levels were blocked by specific inhibitors of PKC? and PKC?, but not of PKC?. Our results suggest that bryostatin-1 is involved in neuronal functioning and facilitates induction of LTP via activation of PKC? and/or PKC?. PMID:22986161

  1. Mouse Short- and Long-term Locomotor Activity Analyzed by Video Tracking Software

    PubMed Central

    York, Jason M.; Blevins, Neil A.; McNeil, Leslie K.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2013-01-01

    Locomotor activity (LMA) is a simple and easily performed measurement of behavior in mice and other rodents. Improvements in video tracking software (VTS) have allowed it to be coupled to LMA testing, dramatically improving specificity and sensitivity when compared to the line crossings method with manual scoring. In addition, VTS enables high-throughput experimentation. While similar to automated video tracking used for the open field test (OFT), LMA testing is unique in that it allows mice to remain in their home cage and does not utilize the anxiogenic stimulus of bright lighting during the active phase of the light-dark cycle. Traditionally, LMA has been used for short periods of time (mins), while longer movement studies (hrs-days) have often used implanted transmitters and biotelemetry. With the option of real-time tracking, long-, like short-term LMA testing, can now be conducted using videography. Long-term LMA testing requires a specialized, but easily constructed, cage so that food and water (which is usually positioned on the cage top) does not obstruct videography. Importantly, videography and VTS allows for the quantification of parameters, such as path of mouse movement, that are difficult or unfeasible to measure with line crossing and/or biotelemetry. In sum, LMA testing coupled to VTS affords a more complete description of mouse movement and the ability to examine locomotion over an extended period of time. PMID:23851627

  2. Covalent functionalization of graphene by azobenzene with molecular hydrogen bonds for long-term solar thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yiyu; Liu, Hongpo; Luo, Wen; Liu, Enzuo; Zhao, Naiqin; Yoshino, Katsumi; Feng, Wei

    2013-11-01

    Reduced graphene oxide-azobenzene (RGO-AZO) hybrids were prepared via covalent functionalization for long-term solar thermal storage. Thermal barrier (?Ea) of cis to tran reversion and thermal storage (?H) were improved by molecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) through ortho- or para-substitution of AZO. Intramolecular H-bonds thermally stabilized cis-ortho-AZO on RGO with a long-term half-life of 5400 h (?Ea = 1.2 eV), which was much longer than that of RGO-para-AZO (116 h). RGO-para-AZO with one intermolecular H-bond showed a high density of thermal storage up to 269.8 kJ kg-1 compared with RGO-ortho-AZO (149.6 kJ kg-1) with multiple intra- and intermolecular H-bonds of AZO according to relaxed stable structures. Thermal storage in experiment was the same order magnitude to theoretical data based on ?H calculated by density functional theory and packing density. Photoactive RGO-AZO hybrid can be developed for high-performance solar thermal storage by optimizing molecular H-bonds.

  3. Covalent functionalization of graphene by azobenzene with molecular hydrogen bonds for long-term solar thermal storage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yiyu; Liu, Hongpo; Luo, Wen; Liu, Enzuo; Zhao, Naiqin; Yoshino, Katsumi; Feng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide-azobenzene (RGO-AZO) hybrids were prepared via covalent functionalization for long-term solar thermal storage. Thermal barrier (?Ea) of cis to tran reversion and thermal storage (?H) were improved by molecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) through ortho- or para-substitution of AZO. Intramolecular H-bonds thermally stabilized cis-ortho-AZO on RGO with a long-term half-life of 5400 h (?Ea = 1.2 eV), which was much longer than that of RGO-para-AZO (116 h). RGO-para-AZO with one intermolecular H-bond showed a high density of thermal storage up to 269.8 kJ kg(-1) compared with RGO-ortho-AZO (149.6 kJ kg(-1)) with multiple intra- and intermolecular H-bonds of AZO according to relaxed stable structures. Thermal storage in experiment was the same order magnitude to theoretical data based on ?H calculated by density functional theory and packing density. Photoactive RGO-AZO hybrid can be developed for high-performance solar thermal storage by optimizing molecular H-bonds. PMID:24247355

  4. Effect of long-term fertiliser use on acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities in managed grassland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Colvan; J. K. Syers; A. O'Donnell

    2001-01-01

    Soil phosphatase activities play an important role in the mineralisation of soil phosphorus (P). In this study acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities of soils under long-term fertiliser management (ca. 100 years) were measured to determine the effects of fertiliser inputs on the cycling and availability of P. Enzyme activities were compared with microbial biomass P, determined by fumigation-extraction,

  5. Long term solar induced variations in total ozone, stratospheric temperatures and the tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerefos, C. S.; Tourpali, K.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Schuurmans, C. J. E.

    The variations of total ozone, stratospheric temperature and tropopause temperature are presented for the past 3 solar cycles for the summer months of the northern hemisphere. Ground-based, 30-year total column ozone series, filtered from its seasonal, QBO, El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and trend components are found to be correlated to the 11-year solar cycle. Model calculations with a 2D chemical transport model are consistent with the observations. Mean stratospheric temperature variations, between levels 100 and 10 hPa, show also the same variation, correlated with the observed 11-year solar cycle, and the tropopause temperature increases in the same manner, in response to a warmer stratosphere during solar maxima.

  6. Long-term health-enhancing physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis - the PARA 2010 study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer increased risk of disability andpremature mortality. Health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) could be one importantfactor to reduce this risk. Rising health care costs call for the development and evaluation ofnew modes of rehabilitation, including physical activity in settings outside the health caresystem. Methods/Design This cohort study targets 450 patients with RA that do not currently meet HEPA recommendations, recruited from six hospitals reporting to the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Registers (SRQ). We have developed a two-year real-life intervention program including a minimum of twice-weekly circuit training, moderately intense physical activity the remaining days of the week and group meetings to support behavior change every other week. Our hypothesis is that increased physical activity and exercise will improve perceived health, reduce pain and fatigue, increase muscle function and aerobic capacity, impact psychosocial factors and prevent future cardiovascular events. Research questions regard outcomes, retention rates, dose–response matters and the exploration of responder characteristics. This protocol outlines recruitment procedure, design, assessment methods and the intervention program of the study. Discussion The PARA 2010 project is designed to expand the knowledge on HEPA in RA by a progressive approach regarding population, setting, intervention, time frames and outcome measures. To our knowledge this is the first long-term HEPA program based on Social Cognitive Theory, and performed in a real life environment to demonstrate if this new setting can promote increased and maintained physical activity in people with RA. Trial registration number ISRCTN25539102 PMID:22656861

  7. Long term solar induced variations in total ozone, stratospheric temperatures and the tropopause

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Zerefos; K. Tourpali; I. S. A. Isaksen; C. J. E. Schuurmans

    2001-01-01

    The variations of total ozone, stratospheric temperature and tropopause temperature are presented for the past 3 solar cycles for the summer months of the northern hemisphere. Ground-based, 30-year total column ozone series, filtered from its seasonal, QBO, El Nino\\/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and trend components are found to be correlated to the 11-year solar cycle. Model calculations with a 2D chemical

  8. Relationship between Relativistic Electron Flux in the Inner Magnetosphere and ULF Pulsation on the Ground Associated with Long-term Variations of Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, K.; Nagatsuma, T.; Troshichev, O. A.; Obara, T.; Koshiishi, H.; Saita, S.; Yoshikawa, A.; Yumoto, K.

    2014-12-01

    In the present study the relativistic electron flux (0.59-1.18MeV) measured by Standard Dose Monitor (SDOM) onboard DRTS (KODAMA) satellite at the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) is analyzed to investigate the long term (from 2002 to 2014) variations of the electron flux enhancement (REF) during the passage of Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) and/or Coronal Mass Ejection (CMEs). The long term variations of the REF clearly shows the 27-days period associated with the high speed solar wind velocity caused by the CIRs, whereas it is very few that the enhancement of REF lasts for several days after passage of CMEs. The 27-days period enhancement of REF represents the quite strong peak in 2003 when the high speed stream of the solar wind were quit active. We also conducted the same analysis for the Pc5 pulsations observed on the ground. The ground magnetic variations data globally observed by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and International Center for Space Weather Science and Education (ICSWSE) Kyushu University are used to investigate the long term variations of Pc5 power. The same signature in the REF variations is shown in the time variability of the Pc5 power on the ground. These results indicate that the solar wind condition strongly affects the acceleration process of the relativistic electron flux by the ULF wave. In particular the dependence of the REF and Pc5 variations on the sector structures and their seasonal variations strongly suggest that the relationship between Pc5 and REF variations could be controlled by the Russell-McPherron effect.

  9. Long-term High-Quality Deformation Observations near Active Faults in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, D. C.; Wyatt, F. K.

    2014-12-01

    For monitoring and for improved understanding of the seismic cycle we have collected continuous deformation data close to the two most active faults in Southern California over the past few decades. Pinyon Flat Observatory (PFO) is 14 km from the Anza section of the San Jacinto fault (slip rate 10-15 mm/yr), which has not produced a large earthquake in the past 200 years; Salton City (SCS) is within 15 km of the blind section of the fault further SE. Two locations (Cholame, or CHL, and Durmid Hill, or DHL) are within three km of the San Andreas fault (SAF): CHL, at the N end of the segment that ruptured in 1857, and DHL at the S end of the segment that ruptured about 1700. All these observatories use laser strainmeters (LSM's), 400 to 700 m long, and located on the surface with endpoints anchored 25 m deep. These instruments provide unique long-term high-quality measurements of strain; in geological settings from slightly weathered granite to lake-bed clay sediments, the LSM data record secular strain accumulation consistent with continuous GPS, while covering the temporal range from seismic waves to secular changes. At periods less than a few months, the LSM noise level is far below that from fault-scale GPS networks.The LSM sites near the SAF show strain-rate fluctuations over periods of months and longer of up to 20 percent of the long-term rate, and have also observed aseismic strain events lasting hours to days. At CHL these short-term signals have been observed on borehole strainmeters nearby, and there and at DHL they appear to be a few km deep. Aseismic signals observed at PFO seem to be nearer to the seismogenic zone. In most cases further interpretation has been hampered by not having similar measurements at other locations, but the existing LSM data have been used to rule out possible aseismic strains from nearby earthquake swarms (DHL) and deep tremor (CHL).The LSM data and other measurements at the observatories, confirm how important patience and persistence are for learning about the Earth: only an ongoing multiyear program can capture interesting signals and properly characterize the Earth's behavior. But it is not easy to maintain such data collection over geophysically useful timescales.

  10. Predicting the ageing and the long-term durability of organic polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardette, Jean-Luc; Rivaton, Agnès; Thérias, Sandrine; Chambon, Sylvain; Manceau, Matthieu; Gaume, Julien

    2010-06-01

    Organic solar cells based on conductive polymers exhibit a unique combination of properties which include low cost, flexibility and large surface processability. Organic photovoltaic could then prevail for some applications alongside silicon, such as nomad or indoor. To achieve this objective, the sustainability of the initial properties in conditions of use of the cell is required, since it could be a lock to the emergence of these devices in the market. The polymers used in solar cells are indeed known to exhibit low resistance to environmental constraints, in particular to the combined action of sunlight, oxygen and water. We present recent results on both the accelerated artificial and the natural outdoors ageing of MDMO-PPV (Poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-Phenylenevinylene) and P3HT/PCBM blends poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) (methano-fullerene[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester) ([60] PCBM). The influence of various parameters such as the temperature and the presence of oxygen were studied. The modifications of the chemical structure of both the components of the blend were monitored by spectroscopic analysis (infrared, UV-visible), the morphology of the blends was analysed by AFM and XRD and the photovoltaic performances all along the exposure were recorded. Two important results have been pointed out: on one hand, the Achilles heel of the chemical structure of MDMO-PPV and P3HT under the impact of light has been evidenced. On the other hand, it has been shown that P3HT:PCBM blends are much more stable than MDMO:PCBM blends whatever the conditions of ageing are. Results show that a convenient encapsulation can ensure a promising lifetime of P3HT/PCBM blends in real conditions of use. This work also focuses on this last point and proposes to study and try to understand the behavior of the materials used in the active layer when submitted to photoaging and thermal aging in the absence of oxygen. To fulfil very good encapsulation, glass substrates can be used. However, as a result, organic devices lose some of their attractive properties, such as flexibility. Organic PV cells finally need a complex layer stack as a permeation barrier to be protected from water and oxygen of the environment. Multilayer barrier coatings are required: on the one hand, there are inorganic materials applied as thin films. Those films show a preferential permeation at defects. For the most part, these inorganic materials are then used in combination with a polymeric substrate. Polymers can be considered as being homogeneous with regard to the usually utilized substrate or film thicknesses. Their barrier properties can be reinforced by nanoclays. The impermeable clay layers force a tortuous pathway for a permeant transversing the nanocomposite. It is reported that gas permeability through polymer films can be reduced by 50-500 times even with small loadings of nanoclays.

  11. Long-Term file activity patterns in a UNIX workstation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Timothy J.; Miller, Ethan L.

    1998-01-01

    As mass storage technology becomes more affordable for sites smaller than supercomputer centers, understanding their file access patterns becomes crucial for developing systems to store rarely used data on tertiary storage devices such as tapes and optical disks. This paper presents a new way to collect and analyze file system statistics for UNIX-based file systems. The collection system runs in user-space and requires no modification of the operating system kernel. The statistics package provides details about file system operations at the file level: creations, deletions, modifications, etc. The paper analyzes four months of file system activity on a university file system. The results confirm previously published results gathered from supercomputer file systems, but differ in several important areas. Files in this study were considerably smaller than those at supercomputer centers, and they were accessed less frequently. Additionally, the long-term creation rate on workstation file systems is sufficiently low so that all data more than a day old could be cheaply saved on a mass storage device, allowing the integration of time travel into every file system.

  12. Long-term effects of maternal immune activation on depression-like behavior in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Khan, D; Fernando, P; Cicvaric, A; Berger, A; Pollak, A; Monje, F J; Pollak, D D

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a debilitating mental disease affecting a large population worldwide, the pathophysiological mechanisms of which remain incompletely understood. Prenatal infection and associated activation of the maternal immune system (MIA) are prominently related to an increased risk for the development of several psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism in the offsprings. However, the role of MIA in the etiology of depression and its neurobiological basis are insufficiently investigated. Here we induced MIA in mice by challenge with polyinosinic:polycytidylic phosphate salt—a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA, which enhances maternal levels of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6)—and demonstrate a depression-like behavioral phenotype in adult offsprings. Adult offsprings additionally show deficits in cognition and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) accompanied by disturbed proliferation of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus and compromised neuronal maturation and survival. The behavioral, neurogenic and functional deficiencies observed are associated with reduced hippocampal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)A-VEGFR2. IL-6-STAT3-dependent aberrant VEGFA-VEGFR2 signaling is proposed as neurobiological mechanism mediating the effects of MIA on the developing fetal brain and ensuing consequences in adulthood. PMID:24548878

  13. Solar cell packaged by a microlens array and its long-term optical efficiency enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Minwoo; Kim, Kangho; Lee, Jaejin; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Kee-Keun

    2013-03-01

    A technique of mounting a microlens array (MLA) on a solar cell as an encapsulation layer is presented. The uniform cylinder-shaped MLA was fabricated through simple and cost-effective micromachining processes. The efficiency of the triple-junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell was considerably enhanced by replacing a bare glass cover with the developed MLA as a surface protection layer. This is attributed to efficient conveyance of the refractive light into bare photoactive regions of the solar cell to avoid the gridlines. Under the optimal mounting condition with an optimal height of optical spacer, the MLA effect was maximized resulting in a 16.8% increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of the control device. The efficiency of the MLA-packaged solar cell remained for a long time without degradation. The MLA can therefore replace a conventional glass (or film) as a means of encapsulation layer to enhance photovoltaic performances of GaAs-based solar cells.

  14. Ryanodine Receptor Activation Induces Long-Term Plasticity of Spine Calcium Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pannasch, Ulrike; Rückl, Martin; Rüdiger, Sten; Schmitz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    A key feature of signalling in dendritic spines is the synapse-specific transduction of short electrical signals into biochemical responses. Ca2+ is a major upstream effector in this transduction cascade, serving both as a depolarising electrical charge carrier at the membrane and an intracellular second messenger. Upon action potential firing, the majority of spines are subject to global back-propagating action potential (bAP) Ca2+ transients. These transients translate neuronal suprathreshold activation into intracellular biochemical events. Using a combination of electrophysiology, two-photon Ca2+ imaging, and modelling, we demonstrate that bAPs are electrochemically coupled to Ca2+ release from intracellular stores via ryanodine receptors (RyRs). We describe a new function mediated by spine RyRs: the activity-dependent long-term enhancement of the bAP-Ca2+ transient. Spines regulate bAP Ca2+ influx independent of each other, as bAP-Ca2+ transient enhancement is compartmentalized and independent of the dendritic Ca2+ transient. Furthermore, this functional state change depends exclusively on bAPs travelling antidromically into dendrites and spines. Induction, but not expression, of bAP-Ca2+ transient enhancement is a spine-specific function of the RyR. We demonstrate that RyRs can form specific Ca2+ signalling nanodomains within single spines. Functionally, RyR mediated Ca2+ release in these nanodomains induces a new form of Ca2+ transient plasticity that constitutes a spine specific storage mechanism of neuronal suprathreshold activity patterns. PMID:26098891

  15. SEASONAL PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY IN THREE CHARACTERISTIC SOILS OF THE ENGLISH UPLANDS POLLUTED BY LONG-TERM ATMOSPHERIC NITROGEN DEPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphomonoesterase activities were determined monthly during a seasonal cycle in three characteristic soil types of the English uplands that have been subject to long-term atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Activities (µmol para-nitrophenol per gram soil dry wt per hour) ranged between 83.9 - 307 in...

  16. Predicting the ageing and the long-term durability of organic polymer solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Luc Gardette; Agnès Rivaton; Sandrine Thérias; Sylvain Chambon; Matthieu Manceau; Julien Gaume

    2010-01-01

    Organic solar cells based on conductive polymers exhibit a unique combination of properties which include low cost, flexibility and large surface processability. Organic photovoltaic could then prevail for some applications alongside silicon, such as nomad or indoor. To achieve this objective, the sustainability of the initial properties in conditions of use of the cell is required, since it could be

  17. Long-term and solar cycle changes in the atmospheric sodium layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Clemesha; P. P. Batista; D. M. Simonich

    1997-01-01

    A new analysis of atmospheric sodium measurements, made at São José dos Campos (23 °S, 46 °W) since 1972, confirms the previously detected trend in the centroid height of the layer (near 92 km altitude) and shows the existence of a 10-yr solar-cycle related oscillation. The centroid height fell at an average rate of 37 ± 9m yr?1 between 1972

  18. Hot Jupiters and Hot Spots: The Short- and Long-term Chromospheric Activity on Stars with Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    E. Shkolnik; G. A. H. Walker; D. A. Bohlender; P. -G. Gu; M. Kürster

    2004-11-24

    We monitored the chromospheric activity in the Ca II H & K lines of 13 solar-type stars (including the Sun); 8 of them over three years at the CFHT and 5 in a single run at the VLT. Ten of the 13 targets have close planetary companions. All of the stars observed at the CFHT show long-term (months to years) changes in H & K intensity levels. Four stars display short-term (days) cyclical activity. For two, HD 73256 and kappa^1 Ceti, the activity is likely associated with an active region rotating with the star, however, the flaring in excess of the rotational modulation may be associated with a hot jupiter. A planetary companion remains a possibility for kappa^1 Ceti. For the other two, HD 179949 and upsilon And, the cyclic variation is synchronized to the hot jupiter's orbit. For both stars this synchronicity with the orbit is clearly seen in two out of three epochs. The effect is only marginal in the third epoch at which the seasonal level of chromospheric activity had changed for both stars. Short-term chromospheric activity appears weakly dependent on the mean K-line reversal intensities for the sample of 13 stars. Also, a suggestive correlation exists between this activity and the M_p sin(i) of the star's hot jupiter. Because of their small separation (<= 0.1 AU), many of the hot jupiters lie within the Alfv\\'en radius of their host stars which allows a direct magnetic interaction with the stellar surface. We discuss the conditions under which a planet's magnetic field might induce activity on the stellar surface and why no such effect was seen for the prime candidate, tau Boo. This work opens up the possibility of characterizing planet-star interactions, with implications for extrasolar planet magnetic fields and the energy contribution to stellar atmospheres.

  19. An hybrid neuro-wavelet approach for long-term prediction of solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoli, Christian; Bonanno, Francesco; Capizzi, Giacomo

    2011-06-01

    Nowadays the interest for space weather and solar wind forecasting is increasing to become a main relevance problem especially for telecommunication industry, military, and for scientific research. At present the goal for weather forecasting reach the ultimate high ground of the cosmos where the environment can affect the technological instrumentation. Some interests then rise about the correct prediction of space events, like ionized turbulence in the ionosphere or impacts from the energetic particles in the Van Allen belts, then of the intensity and features of the solar wind and magnetospheric response. The problem of data prediction can be faced using hybrid computation methods so as wavelet decomposition and recurrent neural networks (RNNs). Wavelet analysis was used in order to reduce the data redundancies so obtaining representation which can express their intrinsic structure. The main advantage of the wavelet use is the ability to pack the energy of a signal, and in turn the relevant carried informations, in few significant uncoupled coefficients. Neural networks (NNs) are a promising technique to exploit the complexity of non-linear data correlation. To obtain a correct prediction of solar wind an RNN was designed starting on the data series. As reported in literature, because of the temporal memory of the data an Adaptative Amplitude Real Time Recurrent Learning algorithm was used for a full connected RNN with temporal delays. The inputs for the RNN were given by the set of coefficients coming from the biorthogonal wavelet decomposition of the solar wind velocity time series. The experimental data were collected during the NASA mission WIND. It is a spin stabilized spacecraft launched in 1994 in a halo orbit around the L1 point. The data are provided by the SWE, a subsystem of the main craft designed to measure the flux of thermal protons and positive ions.

  20. Seasonal cycle and long-term trend of solar energy fluxes through Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, S.; Nicolaus, M.

    2014-11-01

    Arctic sea ice has not only decreased in volume during the last decades, but has also changed in its physical properties towards a thinner and more seasonal ice cover. These changes strongly impact the energy budget, and might affect the ice-associated ecosystems. In this study, we quantify solar shortwave fluxes through sea ice for the entire Arctic during all seasons. To focus on sea-ice-related processes, we exclude fluxes through open water, scaling linearly with sea ice concentration. We present a new parameterization of light transmittance through sea ice for all seasons as a function of variable sea ice properties. The maximum monthly mean solar heat flux under the ice of 30 × 105 Jm-2 occurs in June, enough heat to melt 0.3 m of sea ice. Furthermore, our results suggest that 96% of the annual solar heat input through sea ice occurs during only a 4-month period from May to August. Applying the new parameterization to remote sensing and reanalysis data from 1979 to 2011, we find an increase in transmitted light of 1.5% yr-1 for all regions. This corresponds to an increase in potential sea ice bottom melt of 63% over the 33-year study period. Sensitivity studies reveal that the results depend strongly on the timing of melt onset and the correct classification of ice types. Assuming 2 weeks earlier melt onset, the annual transmitted solar radiation to the upper ocean increases by 20%. Continuing the observed transition from a mixed multi-year/first-year sea ice cover to a seasonal ice cover results in an increase in light transmittance by an additional 18%.

  1. SeaWiFS long-term solar diffuser reflectance trend analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Eplee Jr.; Frederick S. Patt; Robert A. Barnes; Charles R. McClain

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group's Calibration and Validation (Cal\\/Val) Team implemented daily solar calibrations of SeaWiFS to look for step-function changes in the instrument response and has used these calibrations to supplement the monthly lunar calibrations in monitoring the radiometric stability of SeaWiFS during its first year of on-orbit operations. The Team has undertaken an analysis of the mission-long

  2. Glucocorticoid- and long-term stress-induced aberrant synaptic plasticity are mediated by activation of the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Jin; Lee, Seungheon; Jung, Ji Wook; Kim, Byeong C; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Long-term stress is known to cause aberrant synaptic plasticity and to impair learning and memory. Recent studies show that acute high concentration of glucocorticoids exerts similar effects to those of long-term stress. In the present study, we conducted an electrophysiological study, western blot analysis, and behavioral study to examine whether long-term stress and acute high concentration of corticosterone share common mechanisms. Acute corticosterone (1 ?M) impaired LTP in the acute hippocampal slices, and this impairment was blocked by RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist. In the two-week restraint stress-treated rats, object recognition memory and hippocampal LTP were impaired and these impairments were restored by RU486 co-treatment. Moreover, the hippocampal BDNF level was also significantly reduced in the corticosterone- or long-term stress-treated hippocampus and restored by RU486 co-treatment. These results suggest that corticosterone and long-term stress induce aberrant synaptic plasticity, memory impairment, and reduction in the hippocampal BDNF level through GR activation. Taken together, we suggest that acute high concentration of glucocorticoid-induced LTP impairment study may be a good tool for screening the treatments for stress-induced psychiatric disorders including memory impairment. PMID:25564339

  3. Long-term changes in indices of geomagnetic activity at the auroral station Sodankylä

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, D.; Mursula, K.; Ulich, T.; Pandey, V. S.; Kim, K.-H.; Lee, D.-H.

    2012-09-01

    Here we compare the traditional analog measure of geomagnetic activity, Ak, with the more recent digital indices of IHV and Ah based on hourly mean data, and their derivatives at the auroral station Sodankylä. By this selection of indices we study the effects of (i) analog vs. digital technique, and (ii) full local-time vs. local night-time coverage on quantifying local geomagnetic activity. We find that all other indices are stronger than Ak during the low-activity cycles 15-16 suggesting an excess of very low scalings in Ak at this time. The full-day indices consistently depict stronger correlation with the interplanetary magnetic field strength, while the night-time indices have higher correlation with solar wind speed. The Ak index correlates better with the digital indices of full-day coverage than with any night-time index. However, Ak depicts somewhat higher activity levels than the digital full-day indices in the declining phase of the solar cycle, indicating that, due to their different sampling rates, the latter indices are less sensitive to high-frequency variations driven by the Alfvén waves in high-speed streams. On the other hand, the night-time indices have an even stronger response to solar wind speed than Ak. The results strongly indicate that at auroral latitudes, geomagnetic indices with different local time coverage reflect different current systems, which, by an appropriate choice of indices, allows studying the century-scale dynamics of these currents separately.

  4. The Solar Energy Institute: A long-term investment in America's youth

    SciTech Connect

    Arwood, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Unlike students of a generation ago, today's high school students have had limited personal experience with the energy issues that influence their everyday lives. They have no personal knowledge of the Arab Oil Embargo or the long lines at gas pumps that students in the 1970s encountered. Unlike their counterparts of the 1980s, who demonstrated against nuclear power plant construction projects, today's students have had very little exposure to energy debates of any national or international consequence. What's more, they have only vague memories of the Persian Gulf War and the fight over energy supplies. Fearing that the absence of crucial, real-life experiences has negatively impacted the energy literacy of today's students, numerous entities have implemented programs designed to introduce young people to a cornucopia of diverse energy issues that affect every aspect of daily life. As part of this educational movement, the Arizona Department of Commerce Energy Office recognized the fact that young people face an increasingly uncertain energy picture and, as such, one must provide them an education that will allow them to make informed energy decisions in the future. To this end, the Energy Office founded the Solar Energy Institute. What the author has gathered from his two years of experience operating the Solar Energy Institute is that the energy IQ of America's youth, specifically their solar energy IQ, is deficient. The other conclusion he has been able to draw from the program of study is that this summer camp is having a positive impact on students' energy literacy as measured by test scores and a follow-up survey of participants.

  5. Long-term stability of amorphous silicon solar cells and modules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Eser; K. R. Ramaprasad; H. Volltrauer; F. Ramos; S. C. Gau; R VOS

    1987-01-01

    The thermal stability of the Al-a-Si:H and Al-SnO2 interfaces in the hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells and submodules and the photostability of the a-Si:H in these cells were investigated. The kinetics of thermal degradation was studied by heat-treating Al\\/a-Si\\/Mo\\/Cr\\/glass and Al\\/SNO2 samples at various temperatures, and then analyzing them by Auger depth profiling. The rapid diffusion of Si through

  6. Prefrontal activity associated with working memory and episodic long-term memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charan Ranganath; Marcia K. Johnson; Mark D’Esposito

    2003-01-01

    Many recent neuroimaging studies have highlighted the role of prefrontal regions in the sustained maintenance and manipulation of information over short delays, or working memory (WM). In addition, neuroimaging findings have highlighted the role of prefrontal regions in the formation and retrieval of memories for events, or episodic long-term memory (LTM), but it remains unclear whether these regions are distinct

  7. Effects of an active accelerator pedal on driver behaviour and traffic safety after long-term use in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    András Várhelyi; Magnus Hjälmdahl; Christer Hydén; Magda Draskóczy

    2004-01-01

    The long-term effects of the active accelerator pedal (AAP) were evaluated in the city of Lund in 2000 and 2001. The system, installed in 284 vehicles, produced a counterforce in the accelerator pedal at the speed limit. It could, however be overridden by pressing the accelerator pedal harder. The results showed that test drivers’ compliance with the speed limits improved

  8. Atmospheric science is the study of short-term weather and long-term climate, involving activities such as weather

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Atmospheric science is the study of short-term weather and long-term climate, involving activities such as weather forecasting, climate projections, air quality modeling, data analysis, and basic and applied. The program maintains strong ties with regional employers in both the private sector and the National Weather

  9. Cortical Activation Patterns during Long-Term Memory Retrieval of Visually or Haptically Encoded Objects and Locations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Oliver; Roder, Brigitte; Burke, Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Rosler, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to delineate cortical networks that are activated when objects or spatial locations encoded either visually (visual encoding group, n = 10) or haptically (haptic encoding group, n = 10) had to be retrieved from long-term memory. Participants learned associations between auditorily…

  10. Cortical Activation Patterns during Long-term Memory Retrieval of Visually or Haptically Encoded Objects and Locations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Stock; Brigitte Röder; Michael Burke; Siegfried Bien; Frank Rösler

    2009-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to delineate cortical networks that are activated when objects or spatial locations encoded either visually (visual encoding group, n = 10) or haptically (haptic encoding group, n = 10) had to be retrieved from long-term memory. Participants learned associations between auditorily presented words and either meaningless objects or locations in a 3-D

  11. Cortical Activation Patterns during Long-term Memory Retrieval of Visually or Haptically Encoded Objects and Locations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Stock; Michael Burke; Siegfried Bien; Frank Rosler

    2008-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to delineate cortical networks that are activated when objects or spatial locations encoded either visually (visual encoding group, n = 10) or haptically (haptic encoding group, n = 10) had to be retrieved from long-term memory. Participants learned associations between auditorily presented words and either meaningless objects or locations in a 3-D

  12. Threshold responses of songbirds to long-term timber management on an active industrial forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, D.A.; Wood, P.B.; Keyser, P.D.; Wigley, T.B.; Dellinger, R.; Weakland, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Forest managers often seek to balance economic benefits from timber harvesting with maintenance of habitat for wildlife, ecosystem function, and human uses. Most research on the relationship between avian abundance and active timber management has been short-term, lasting one to two years, creating the need to investigate long-term avian responses and to identify harvest thresholds when a small change in habitat results in a disproportionate response in relative abundance and nest success. Our objectives were to identify trends in relative abundance and nest success and to identify landscape-scale disturbance thresholds for avian species and habitat guilds in response to a variety of harvest treatments (clear-cuts, heavy and light partial harvests) over 14 years. We conducted point counts and monitored nests at an industrial forest in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during 1996-1998, 2001-2003, and 2007-2009. Early successional species increased in relative abundance across all three time periods, whereas interior-edge and forest-interior guilds peaked in relative abundance mid-study after which the forest-interior guild declined. Of 41 species with >10 detections, four (10%) declined significantly, 13 (32%) increased significantly (only three species among all periods), and 9 (22%) peaked in abundance mid-study (over the entire study period, four species had no significant change in abundance, four declined, and one increased). Based on piecewise linear models, forest-interior and interior-edge guilds' relative abundance harvest thresholds were 28% total harvests (all harvests combined), 10% clear-cut harvests, and 18% light partial harvests, after which abundances declined. Harvest thresholds for the early successional guild were 42% total harvests, 11% clear-cut harvest, and 10% light partial harvests, and relative abundances increased after surpassing thresholds albeit at a reduced rate of increase after the clear-cut threshold. Threshold confidence intervals for individual species overlapped their guild threshold intervals 91% of the time. Even though relative abundance of most species (80%) did not decline as the area affected by timber management increased, implementing management at or below our approximate forest-interior and interior-edge harvest thresholds would reduce the number of declining species by half, maintain higher relative abundances of four species with a net decline in abundance but that peaked in abundance mid-study, and maintain higher relative abundances of ten additional species. In contrast, this management strategy also would prevent the increase in relative abundance of seven species and limit the increase in abundance of three species that increased throughout the study. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Deciphering the Long-Term Trend of Atlantic Basin Intense Hurricanes: More Active Versus Less Active During the Present Epoch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    During the interval of 1944-1997, 120 intense hurricanes (i.e., those of category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane damage potential scale) were observed in the Atlantic basin, having an annual frequency of 0-7 events per year, being more active prior to the mid 1960's than thereafter (hence a possible two-state division: more active versus less active), and being preferentially lower during El Nino years as compared to non-El Nino years. Because decadal averages of the frequency of intense hurricanes closely resemble those of average temperature anomalies for northern hemispheric and global standards and of the average temperature at the Armagh Observatory (Northern Ireland), a proxy for climatic change, it is inferred that the long-term trends of the annual frequency of intense hurricanes and temperature may be statistically related. Indeed, on the basis of 4- and 10-yr moving averages, one finds that there exists strong linear associations between the annual frequency of intense hurricanes in the Atlantic basin and temperature (specially, when temperature slightly leads). Because the long-term leading trends of temperature are now decidedly upward, beginning about the mid 1980's, it is inferred that the long-term consequential trends of the annual frequency of intense hurricanes should now also be upward, having begun near 1990, suggesting that a return to the more active state probably has already occurred. However, because of the anomalous El Nino activity of the early to mid 1990's, the switch from the less active to the more active state essentially went unnoticed (a marked increase in the number of intense hurricanes was not observed until the 1995 and 1996 hurricane seasons, following the end of the anomalous El Nino activity). Presuming that a return to the more active state has, indeed, occurred, one expects the number of seasonal intense hurricanes during the present epoch (continuing through about 2012) to usually be higher than average (i.e., greater than or equal to 2), except during El Nino-related seasons when the number usually will be less than average.

  14. Naringin Enhances CaMKII Activity and Improves Long-Term Memory in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Mei; Yang, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Lian-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The Amyloid-? (A?)-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity is an underlying mechanism of memory loss in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in human and mouse models. The inhibition of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation plays an important role in long-term memory. In this study, we isolated naringin from Pomelo peel (a Citrus species) and studied its effect on long-term memory in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Three-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a vehicle group, two naringin (either 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight/day) groups, or an Aricept (2 mg/kg body weight/day) group. After 16 weeks of treatment, we observed that treatment with naringin (100 mg/kg body weight/day) enhanced the autophosphorylation of CaMKII, increased the phosphorylation of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPA) receptor at a CaMKII-dependent site and improved long-term learning and memory ability. These findings suggest that the increase in CaMKII activity may be one of the mechanisms by which naringin improves long-term cognitive function in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. PMID:23478434

  15. Long-term-average, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed

    E-print Network

    examine solar cycle and seasonal effects using an 8-year-long database of Solar, Anomalous interactions; 2788 Magnetospheric Physics: Storms and substorms; 2740 Magnetospheric Physics: Magnetospheric, relativistic electrons, magnetic storms 1. Introduction [2] The mechanism of energetic particle production

  16. Short-term and long-term reproducibility of lung tumor position using active breathing control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Koshani, Rojano [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: rkashani@umich.edu; Balter, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Henning, George T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Joseph Mercy Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the short-term and long-term reproducibility of lung tumor position for scans acquired using an active breathing control (ABC) device. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with lung cancer were scanned over three sessions during the course of treatment. For each session, two scans were acquired at deep inhale, and one scan each at half of deep inhale and at exhale. Long-term reproducibility was evaluated by comparing the same breathing state scans from two sessions, with setup variation removed by skeletal alignment. Tumor alignment was based on intensity matching of a small volume around the tumor. For short-term reproducibility, the two inhale volumes from the same session were compared. Results: For the short-term reproducibility, the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of the displacement of the center of tumor were 0.0 (1.5) mm in anteroposterior (AP), 0.3 (1.4) mm in superior/inferior (SI), and 0.2 (0.7) mm in right/left (RL) directions. For long-term reproducibility, the mean (SD) were -1.3 (3.1) mm AP, -0.5 (3.8) mm SI, and 0.3 (1.6) mm RL for inhale and -0.2 (2.8) mm AP, 0.2 (2.1) mm SI, and -0.7 (1.1) mm RL for exhale. Conclusion: The ABC device demonstrates very good short-term and long-term reproducibility. Increased long-term variability in position, primarily in the SI and AP directions, indicates the role of tumor-directed localization in combination with breath-held immobilization.

  17. Calcium-Stimulated Adenylyl Cyclase Activity Is Critical for Hippocampus-Dependent Long-Term Memory and Late Phase LTP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott T Wong; Jaime Athos; Xavier A Figueroa; Victor V Pineda; Michele L Schaefer; Charles C Chavkin; Louis J Muglia; Daniel R Storm

    1999-01-01

    It is hypothesized that Ca2+ stimulation of calmodulin (CaM)–activated adenylyl cyclases (AC1 or AC8) generates cAMP signals critical for late phase LTP (L-LTP) and long-term memory (LTM). However, mice lacking either AC1 or AC8 exhibit normal L-LTP and LTM. Here, we report that mice lacking both enzymes (DKO) do not exhibit L-LTP or LTM. To determine if these defects are

  18. Long-term effects of municipal solid waste compost application on soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C Garc??a-Gil; C Plaza; P Soler-Rovira; A Polo

    2000-01-01

    A long-term field experiment utilising barley received four different treatments prior to sowing: municipal solid waste (MSW) compost at either 20tha?1 (C20) or 80tha?1 (C80); cow manure (MA) at 20tha?1; mineral fertilizer (MIN) or NPK (400kgha?1); and NH4NO3 (150kgha?1). The effects of these applications on soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass at crop harvest were measured after nine years. In

  19. The effects of long term nitrogen deposition on extracellular enzyme activity in an Acer saccharum forest soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Saiya-Cork; R. L. Sinsabaugh; D. R. Zak

    2002-01-01

    Anthropogenic N deposition affects litter decomposition and soil organic matter (SOM) storage through multiple mechanisms. Microbial community responses to long-term N deposition were investigated in a sugar maple-dominated forest in northern Michigan during the 1998–2000 growing seasons. Litter and soil were collected from three fertilized plots (30kg N ha?1y?1) and three control plots. The activities of 10 extracellular enzymes (EEA)

  20. Long-term NMDA receptor inhibition affects NMDA receptor expression and alters glutamatergic activity in developing rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Sinner, Barbara; Friedrich, Oliver; Lindner, Regina; Bundscherer, Anika; Graf, Bernhard M

    2015-07-01

    Ketamine and its stereoisomer S(+)-ketamine are widely used for sedation in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care medicine. Numerous experimental studies indicate that ketamine is potentially toxic to the developing brain. Here, we examined the long-term effects of NMDA receptor blockade on NMDA receptor subunit expression, alterations in neuronal Ca(2+)-oscillations and apoptosis. Hippocampal neurons, 15 days in culture, were exposed to either S(+)-ketamine or the NMDA receptor blocker MK801 for 24h. Cytosolic Ca(2+)-concentration was determined by fluorescence microscopy and the expression of the NMDA subunits NR1, NR2A and 2B was assessed by qRT-PCR, whereas Western blots and activated Caspase-3 served to measure the extent of apoptosis. Long-term incubation with MK801 or higher doses of S(+)-ketamine resulted in a dose-dependent decreased ability of MK801 to reduce amplitude and frequency of the Ca(2+)-oscillations 15min following washout of the drug. This was accompanied by an increase in NR1 mRNA but not the NR2A and B subunit expression at the same time point. 24h following washout of the specific drug, a significant elevation of the pro-apoptotic marker BAX, as well as activated Caspase-3 positive neurons, could be detected in cultures exposed to 100?M MK801 and 25?M S(+)-ketamine. Here, we show that long-term blockade of the NMDA receptor in developing rat hippocampal neurons significantly increased NR1 subunit expression, and that this was associated with an alteration in neuronal activity. Apoptosis was only induced 24h after withdrawal of long-term blockade for high doses of S(+)-ketamine. PMID:25937004

  1. The Long-Term Dust Activity of Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, M.; Rauer, H.; Knollenberg, J.; Jorda, L.; Helbert, J.

    2003-04-01

    The comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) was observed in an optical long-term observation program between April 1995 and January 2001 at heliocentric distances between 4.6 AU pre- perihelion and 12.8 AU post-perihelion. From longslit spectra and broadband filter images, the dust color and the Af? parameter was determined. A gasdynamical model was applied to compute a particle size dependent dust ejection velocity and the maximum radius for dust grains to be released from the comets nucleus as functions of heliocentric distance. The dust production rate and the dust to gas mass ratio was determined. No significant variation in dust color with changing heliocentric distance was found. A dust to gas mass ratio of approximately 1.3 was found, showing a slight decrease with increasing heliocentric distance.

  2. Solar radiation pressure perturbations for Earth satellites II. an approximate method to model penumbra transitions and their long-term orbital effects on LAGEOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Vokrouhlicky; P. Farinella; F. Mignard

    1994-01-01

    We have developed an approximate version of our theory (Vokrouhlicky et al. 1993c) for the perturbing force due to solar radiation pressure undergone by artificial Earth satellites when they cross the penumbra zones. The relative discrepancies in the instantaneous acceleration values with respect to the complete theory are generally smaller than 1%, and no systematic pattern resulting into spurious long-term

  3. Montessori-based activities for long-term care residents with advanced dementia: effects on engagement and affect.

    PubMed

    Orsulic-Jeras, S; Judge, K S; Camp, C J

    2000-02-01

    Sixteen residents in long-term care with advanced dementia (14 women; average age = 88) showed significantly more constructive engagement (defined as motor or verbal behaviors in response to an activity), less passive engagement (defined as passively observing an activity), and more pleasure while participating in Montessori-based programming than in regularly scheduled activities programming. Principles of Montessori-based programming, along with examples of such programming, are presented. Implications of the study and methods for expanding the use of Montessori-based dementia programming are discussed. PMID:10750318

  4. Short- and long-term effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on the red algae Porphyridium cruentum (S. F. Gray) Nägeli.

    PubMed

    Villafañe, Virginia E; Gao, Kunshan; Helbling, E Walter

    2005-04-01

    During spring 2002 and fall 2003 we carried out experiment in tropical southern China to determine the short- and long-term effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) on photosynthesis and growth in the unicellular red alga Porphyridium cruentum. During the experimentation, cells of P. cruentum were exposed to three radiation treatments: (a) samples exposed to PAR (400-700 nm) + UV-A (315-400 nm) + UV-B (280-315 nm)(PAB treatment); (b) samples exposed to PAR + UV-A (PA treatment) and, (c) samples exposed only to PAR (P treatment). To assess the short-term impact of UVR as a function of irradiance, we determined photosynthesis versus irradiance (Pvs.E) curves. From these curves the maximum carbon uptake rate (P(max)) and the light saturation parameter (E(k)) were obtained, with values of approximately 12.8-14.4 microg C (microg chl a)(-1) h(-1), and approximately 250 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. A significant UVR effect on assimilation numbers was observed when samples were exposed at irradiances higher than E(k), with samples exposed to full solar radiation having significant less carbon fixation than those exposed only to PAR. Biological weighting functions of P. cruentum were used to evaluate the UVR impact per unit energy received by the cells; the data indicate that the species is as sensitive as natural phytoplankton from the southern China Sea; however, it is much more resistant than Antarctic assemblages. When evaluating the combined effects of mixing speed and UVR, it was seen that samples rotating fast within the upper mixed layer were less inhibited by UVR as compared to those under slow mixing or in fixed samples. Growth of P. cruentum over a week-long experiment was not affected by neither UVR nor UV-A; additionally, low photoinhibition was found at the end as compared to that at the beginning of this experiment. Our results thus indicate that, although on short-term basis P. cruentum is affected by solar UVR, it can acclimate to minimize UVR-induced effects when given enough time. PMID:15803208

  5. Addressing solar modulation and long-term uncertainties in scaling secondary cosmic rays for in situ cosmogenic nuclide applications [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Bieber, John W.; Clem, John M.; Duldig, Marc L.; Evenson, Paul; Humble, John E.; Pyle, Roger

    2005-10-01

    Solar modulation affects the secondary cosmic rays responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide (CN) production the most at the high geomagnetic latitudes to which CN production rates are traditionally referenced. While this has long been recognized (e.g., D. Lal, B. Peters, Cosmic ray produced radioactivity on the Earth, in: K. Sitte (Ed.), Handbuch Der Physik XLVI/2, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967, pp. 551-612 and D. Lal, Theoretically expected variations in the terrestrial cosmic ray production rates of isotopes, in: G.C. Castagnoli (Ed.), Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics 95, Italian Physical Society, Varenna 1988, pp. 216-233), these variations can lead to potentially significant scaling model uncertainties that have not been addressed in detail. These uncertainties include the long-term (millennial-scale) average solar modulation level to which secondary cosmic rays should be referenced, and short-term fluctuations in cosmic ray intensity measurements used to derive published secondary cosmic ray scaling models. We have developed new scaling models for spallogenic nucleons, slow-muon capture and fast-muon interactions that specifically address these uncertainties. Our spallogenic nucleon scaling model, which includes data from portions of 5 solar cycles, explicitly incorporates a measure of solar modulation ( S), and our fast- and slow-muon scaling models (based on more limited data) account for solar modulation effects through increased uncertainties. These models improve on previously published models by better sampling the observed variability in measured cosmic ray intensities as a function of geomagnetic latitude, altitude, and solar activity. Furthermore, placing the spallogenic nucleon data in a consistent time-space framework allows for a more realistic assessment of uncertainties in our model than in earlier ones. We demonstrate here that our models reasonably account for the effects of solar modulation on measured secondary cosmic ray intensities, within the uncertainties of our combined source datasets. We also estimate solar modulation variations over the last 11.4 ka from a recent physics-based sunspot number reconstruction derived from tree-ring 14C data. This approximation suggests that spallogenic nucleon scaling factors in our model for sea level and high geomagnetic latitudes can differ by up to ˜ 10%, depending on the time step over which the model sunspot numbers are averaged. The potential magnitude of this difference supports our contention that incorporating long-term solar modulation into secondary cosmic ray scaling is important. Although millennial-scale solar modulation clearly requires further study, we believe it is reasonable at present to use our S value record for scaling spallogenic nucleons during the last 11.4 ka, and the weighted mean S value for that period of 0.950 for longer exposure times. By accounting for solar modulation effects on the global variations in nucleon and muon fluxes, these models thus provide a useful framework on which to base CN production rate scaling functions.

  6. Evaluating, Migrating, and Consolidating Databases and Applications for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Rocky Flats Site

    SciTech Connect

    Surovchak, S. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Broomfield, Colorado (United States); Marutzky, S.; Thompson, B.; Miller, K.; Labonte, E. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is assuming responsibilities for long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) during fiscal year 2006. During the transition, LM is consolidating databases and applications that support these various functions into a few applications which will streamline future management and retrieval of data. This paper discussed the process of evaluating, migrating, and consolidating these databases and applications for LTS and M activities and provides lessons learned that will benefit future transitions. (authors)

  7. Effect of the long-term care prevention project on the motor functions and daily life activities of the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Yoshihiro; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Kubota, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of the long-term care prevention project and develop an effective program. [Subjects] A total of 81 elderly people (age, 79 ± 5.1?years; height, 149.2 ± 9.2?cm; weight, 54.2 ± 11.4?kg). [Methods] Grip, knee extension muscular strength, 10?m walking speed, and Timed Up and Go time were measured for evaluation of motor functions, and the “Locomo 25”, a 25-question risk assessment questionnaire, was used as the judgment criterion for evaluation of daily life activities, with measurements being taken at the beginning of the project and after three months. [Results] In the motor functions evaluation, significant differences were observed in 10?m walking speed, Timed Up and Go time, and knee extension strength. In the daily life activities evaluation, scores for pain, rising movement, standing movement, indoor walking, outdoor walking, and fear of falling were significantly reduced. In addition, a significant correlation was also observed between motor functions and daily life activities. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the long-term care prevention project is effective in maintaining or improving muscular strength and mitigating pain in the elderly and that it is an effective program for maintaining daily life activities. We were also able to show that it would be effective to develop programs with a low exercise intensity that can be performed on a continuing by the elderly. PMID:25642073

  8. Energetic auroral and polar ion outflow at DE 1 altitudes Magnitude, composition, magnetic activity dependence, and long-term variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, A. W.; Lenchyshyn, L.; Shelley, E. G.; Peterson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Data acquired from the Dynamics Explorer I Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer in the period from September 1981 to May 1984 are used to determine the magnitude of the terrestrial ion outflow in the 0.01-17 keV/el range. The data are also employed to investigate the mass composition and topology (local time and invariant latitude distributions) of the ion outflow, as well as the outflow's magnetic activity dependence and long-term variation. The relative importance of auroral versus polar cap upflowing ions as a source of energetic plasma for various parts of the magnetosphere is examined.

  9. Synoptic data for solar-terrestrial physics: The U.K. contribution to long-term monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, D. M.; Hewish, A.; Rishbeth, H.; Rycroft, M. J.

    1994-05-01

    In 1989 the Council of the Royal Society of London established a Study Group to investigate the current status and future requirements of solar-terrestrial monitoring in the United Kingdom. This paper summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of the U.K. Study Group. The rationale for regular synoptic monitoring of the solar terrestrial environment is reviewed briefly. Instruments used for solar-terrestrial monitoring in U.K.-supported research programs are listed, with special emphasis on research instruments that produce monitoring data. Some important applications of solar-terrestrial monitoring are outlined and criteria are presented for determining the priorities of various monitoring operations. High priority is attached to monitoring operations that are important for: (1) deriving geophysical models and reference systems; (2) calculating the principal solar-geophysical indices; (3) producing long time series of good data, especially at sites of particular geophysical interest; (4) detecting global changes; (5) contributing to real-time forecasts of solar-terrestrial conditions, or to longer-term predictions and planning; and (6) providing background data for other observations and experiments. The existing U.K. programs of solar-terrestrial monitoring make a highly prestigious contribution to national and international scientific activity. Synoptic measurements of the solar-terrestrial environment are crucial for underpinning present and future programs of basic, strategic and applied research. Therefore, a core program of synoptic monitoring must be maintained in the U.K. It is recommended that this core program should be financed centrally through the Research Councils and reviewed quinquennially.

  10. Barriers to physical activity and restorative care for residents in long-term care: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Kathleen; Edwards, Nancy; Ploeg, Jenny; Legault, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Despite the benefits of physical activity, residents living in long-term care (LTC) are relatively sedentary. Designing successful physical activity and restorative care programs requires a good understanding of implementation barriers. A database search (2002-2013) yielded seven studies (nine articles) that met our inclusion criteria. We also reviewed 31 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine if the authors explicitly discussed the barriers encountered while implementing their interventions. Eleven RCTs (13 articles) included a discussion of the barriers. Hence, a total of 18 studies (22 articles) were included in this review. Barriers occurred at resident (e.g., health status), environmental (e.g., lack of space for physical activity), and organizational (e.g., staffing and funding constraints) levels. These barriers intersect to adversely affect the physical activity of older people living in LTC. Future studies targeting physical activity interventions for residents living in LTC are needed to address these multiple levels of influence. PMID:23434919

  11. A novel cysteine-rich neurotrophic factor in Aplysia facilitates growth, MAPK activation, and long-term synaptic facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Lu; Kopec, Ashley M.; Boyle, Heather D.; Carew, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophins are critically involved in developmental processes such as neuronal cell survival, growth, and differentiation, as well as in adult synaptic plasticity contributing to learning and memory. Our previous studies examining neurotrophins and memory formation in Aplysia showed that a TrkB ligand is required for MAPK activation, long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF), and long-term memory (LTM) for sensitization. These studies indicate that neurotrophin-like molecules in Aplysia can act as key elements in a functionally conserved TrkB signaling pathway. Here we report that we have cloned and characterized a novel neurotrophic factor, Aplysia cysteine-rich neurotrophic factor (apCRNF), which shares classical structural and functional characteristics with mammalian neurotrophins. We show that apCRNF (1) is highly enriched in the CNS, (2) enhances neurite elongation and branching, (3) interacts with mammalian TrkB and p75NTR, (4) is released from Aplysia CNS in an activity-dependent fashion, (5) facilitates MAPK activation in a tyrosine kinase dependent manner in response to sensitizing stimuli, and (6) facilitates the induction of LTF. These results show that apCRNF is a native neurotrophic factor in Aplysia that can engage the molecular and synaptic mechanisms underlying memory formation. PMID:24639488

  12. Alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content in pea leaves under long-term drought stress.

    PubMed

    Karata?, Ilhami; Öztürk, Lokman; Demir, Yavuz; Unlükara, Ali; Kurunç, Ahmet; Düzdemir, Oral

    2014-09-01

    The effects of long-term drought stress on chlorophyll, proline, protein and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents, malondialdehyde (MDA) in terms of lipid peroxidation and on the changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POX; EC 1.11.1.7) in the leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field conditions. Chlorophyll and protein contents in leaves decreased significantly with increased drought stress. The proline content increased markedly under water deficit. MDA amounts were elevated as a result of water shortage, whereas H(2)O(2) content changed slightly in pea leaves exposed to drought stress. Drought stress markedly enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POX but slightly changed the activity of APX. We conclude that in field conditions, long-term water shortage increased the susceptibility to drought in peas. PMID:23047611

  13. A novel nucleolar transcriptional activator ApLLP for long-term memory formation is intrinsically unstructured but functionally active.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingxian; Song, Jianxing

    2008-02-01

    A novel Aplysia nucleolar protein ApLLP has been recently characterized to be a transcriptional activator that binds to the cAMP-response element (CRE) and thus induces ApC/EBP expression required for establishing long-term memory. So far, no structural information is available for both ApLLP and its homologs. Here, we expressed the entire ApLLP and its two dissected fragments, followed by structural and binding studies using CD and NMR spectroscopy. The study leads to two interesting findings: (1) all three ApLLP proteins are highly disordered, owning no predominant secondary and tertiary structures; (2) ApLLP is capable of binding the CRE DNA element but this induces no significant change in its secondary and tertiary structures. Intriguingly, it appears that the DNA-binding residues are mainly located on the C-half of the ApLLP molecule. Taken together, our results define ApLLP as an intrinsically unstructured protein and may bear important implications in understanding the molecular mechanism underlying ApLLP functions. PMID:18078811

  14. SWAP Observations of the Long-term, Large-scale Evolution of the Extreme-ultraviolet Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, Daniel B.; De Groof, Anik; Shearer, Paul; Berghmans, David; Nicula, Bogdan

    2013-11-01

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) EUV solar telescope on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy 2 spacecraft has been regularly observing the solar corona in a bandpass near 17.4 nm since 2010 February. With a field of view of 54 × 54 arcmin, SWAP provides the widest-field images of the EUV corona available from the perspective of the Earth. By carefully processing and combining multiple SWAP images, it is possible to produce low-noise composites that reveal the structure of the EUV corona to relatively large heights. A particularly important step in this processing was to remove instrumental stray light from the images by determining and deconvolving SWAP's point-spread function from the observations. In this paper, we use the resulting images to conduct the first-ever study of the evolution of the large-scale structure of the corona observed in the EUV over a three year period that includes the complete rise phase of solar cycle 24. Of particular note is the persistence over many solar rotations of bright, diffuse features composed of open magnetic fields that overlie polar crown filaments and extend to large heights above the solar surface. These features appear to be related to coronal fans, which have previously been observed in white-light coronagraph images and, at low heights, in the EUV. We also discuss the evolution of the corona at different heights above the solar surface and the evolution of the corona over the course of the solar cycle by hemisphere.

  15. Long-term Trends in Interplanetary Magnetic Field Strength and Solar Wind Structure during the 20th Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Lockwood et al have recently reported an approximately 40% increase in the radial component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at Earth between 1964 and 1996. We argue that this increase does not constitute a secular trend but is largely the consequence of lower than average fields during solar cycle 20 (1964-1976) in comparison with surrounding cycles. For times after 1976 the average IMF strength has actually decreased slightly. Examination of the cosmic ray intensity, an indirect measure of the IMF strength, over the last five solar cycles (19-23) also indicates that cycle averages of the IMF strength have been relatively constant since approximately 1954. We also consider the origin of the well-documented increase in the geomagnetic alphaalpha index that occurred primarily during the first half of the twentieth century. We surmise that the coronal mass ejection (CME) rate for recent solar cycles was approximately twice as high as that for solar cycles 100 years ago. However, this change in the CME rate and the accompanying increase in 27-day recurrent storm activity reported by others are unable to account completely for the increase in alphaalpha. Rather, the CMEs and recurrent high-speed streams at the beginning of the twentieth century must have been embedded in a background of slow solar wind that was less geoeffective (having, for example, lower IMF strength and/or flow speed) than its modern counterpart.

  16. Increasing small conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channel activity reverses ischemia-induced impairment of long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Orfila, J E; Shimizu, K; Garske, A K; Deng, G; Maylie, J; Traystman, R J; Quillinan, N; Adelman, J P; Herson, P S

    2014-10-01

    Global cerebral ischemia following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) causes injury to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and impairs cognition. Small conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels type 2 (SK2), expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons, have been implicated as potential protective targets. Here we showed that, in mice, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired as early as 3 h after recovery from CA/CPR and LTP remained impaired for at least 30 days. Treatment with the SK2 channel agonist 1-Ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO) at 30 min after CA provided sustained protection from plasticity deficits, with LTP being maintained at control levels at 30 days after recovery from CA/CPR. Minimal changes in glutamate release probability were observed at delayed times after CA/CPR, implicating post-synaptic mechanisms. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction indicated that CA/CPR did not cause a loss of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor mRNA at 7 or 30 days after CA/CPR. Similarly, no change in synaptic NMDA receptor protein levels was observed at 7 or 30 days after CA/CPR. Further, patch-clamp experiments demonstrated no change in functional synaptic NMDA receptors at 7 or 30 days after CA/CPR. Electrophysiology recordings showed that synaptic SK channel activity was reduced for the duration of experiments performed (up to 30 days) and that, surprisingly, treatment with 1-EBIO did not prevent the CA/CPR-induced loss of synaptic SK channel function. We concluded that CA/CPR caused alterations in post-synaptic signaling that were prevented by treatment with the SK2 agonist 1-EBIO, indicating that activators of SK2 channels may be useful therapeutic agents to prevent ischemic injury and cognitive impairments. PMID:25080203

  17. The Solar Neighborhood XXXVI: The Long-Term Photometric Variability of Nearby Red Dwarfs in the VRI Optical Bands

    E-print Network

    Hosey, Altonio D; Jao, Wei-Chun; Dieterich, Sergio B; Winters, Jennifer G; Lurie, John C; Riedel, Adric R; Subasavage, John P

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of long-term photometric variability for nearby red dwarfs at optical wavelengths. The sample consists of 264 M dwarfs south of DEC = +30 with V-K = 3.96-9.16 and Mv~10-20 (spectral types M2V-M8V), most of which are within 25 pc. The stars have been observed in the VRI filters for ~4-14 years at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9m telescope. Of the 238 red dwarfs within 25 pc, we find that only ~8% are photometrically variable by at least 20 mmag (~2%) in the VRI bands. We find that high variability at optical wavelengths over the long-term can be used to identify young stars. Overall, however, the fluxes of most red dwarfs at optical wavelengths are steady to a few percent over the long term. The low overall rate of photometric variability for red dwarfs is consistent with results found in previous work on similar stars on shorter timescales, with the body of work indicating that most red dwarfs are only mildly variable. We highlight 17 stars that show long-term changes in brightness, sometimes becau...

  18. Effects of load connection in accelerated aging of aSi:H solar cell for long term reliability test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Hyun Park; Kyung Min Kim; Jun-Sik Cho; Jeong Chul Lee; Gi-Hwan Kang; Duck-Kyun Choi; Kyung Hoon Yoon; Jinsoo Song

    2010-01-01

    To establish reliable model for long term reliability of a-Si:H PV module, outdoor field aging results and indoor light soaking test has been investigated. For the appropriate comparisons, one type of outdoor system modules and test cells has been fabricated from the same commercial module production line. Severe early stage degradation in outdoor site has been resulted and compared to

  19. Long-term study of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation of the atmospheric aerosol in Vienna

    PubMed Central

    Burkart, J.; Steiner, G.; Reischl, G.; Hitzenberger, R.

    2011-01-01

    During a total of 11 months, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN at super-saturation S 0.5%) and condensation nuclei (CN) concentrations were measured in the urban background aerosol of Vienna, Austria. For several months, number size distributions between 13.22 nm and 929 nm were also measured with a scanning mobility particle spectrometer (SMPS). Activation ratios (i.e. CCN/CN ratios) were calculated and apparent activation diameters obtained by integrating the SMPS size distributions. Variations in all CCN parameters (concentration, activation ratio, apparent activation diameter) are quite large on timescales of days to weeks. Passages of fronts influenced CCN parameters. Concentrations decreased with the passage of a front. No significant differences were found for fronts from different sectors (for Vienna mainly north to west and south to east). CCN concentrations at 0.5% S ranged from 160 cm?3 to 3600 cm?3 with a campaign average of 820 cm?3. Activation ratios were quite low (0.02–0.47, average: 0.13) and comparable to activation ratios found in other polluted regions (e.g. Cubison et al., 2008). Apparent activation diameters were found to be much larger (campaign average: 169 nm, range: (69–370) nm) than activation diameters for single-salt particles (around 50 nm depending on the salt). Contrary to CN concentrations, which are influenced by source patterns, CCN concentrations did not exhibit distinct diurnal patterns. Activation ratios showed diurnal variations counter-current to the variations of CN concentrations. PMID:21977003

  20. Mineralogical impact on long-term patterns of soil nitrogen and phosphorus enzyme activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikutta, Robert; Turner, Stephanie; Meyer-Stüve, Sandra; Guggenberger, Georg; Dohrmann, Reiner; Schippers, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Soil chronosequences provide a unique opportunity to study microbial activity over time in mineralogical diverse soils of different ages. The main objective of this study was to test the effect of mineralogical properties, nutrient and organic matter availability over whole soil pro-files on the abundance and activity of the microbial communities. We focused on microbio-logical processes involved in nitrogen and phosphorus cycling at the 120,000-year Franz Josef soil chronosequence. Microbial abundances (microbial biomass and total cell counts) and enzyme activities (protease, urease, aminopeptidase, and phosphatase) were determined and related to nutrient contents and mineralogical soil properties. Both, microbial abundances and enzyme activities decreased with soil depth at all sites. In the organic layers, microbial biomass and the activities of N-hydrolyzing enzymes showed their maximum at the intermediate-aged sites, corresponding to a high aboveground biomass. In contrast, the phosphatase activity increased with site age. The activities of N-hydrolyzing enzymes were positively correlated with total carbon and nitrogen contents, whereas the phosphatase activity was negatively correlated with the phosphorus content. In the mineral soil, the enzyme activities were generally low, thus reflecting the presence of strongly sorbing minerals. Sub-strate-normalized enzyme activities correlated negatively to clay content as well as poorly crystalline Al and Fe oxyhydroxides, supporting the view that the evolution of reactive sec-ondary mineral phases alters the activity of the microbial communities by constraining sub-strate availability. Our data suggest a strong mineralogical influence on nutrient cycling par-ticularly in subsoil environments.

  1. Theoretical investigation on optimum bandgap energies of Ge-Based III–V Triple-Junction solar cells for long-term energy production on mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hoheisel; S. P. Philipps; F. Dimroth; A. W. Bett

    2009-01-01

    Based on theoretical considerations, optimum triple-junction bandgap combinations are determined to achieve highest electrical energy production for a long-term mission on the Martian surface. The solar cell structures analyzed in this contribution are based on the GaInP\\/GaInAs\\/Ge material system. Realistic ambient temperature and atmospheric dust profiles as well as spectral illumination conditions as observed on the Martian surface are considered.

  2. Direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations. Addendum to the Insolation Data Manual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Knapp; T. L. Stoffel

    1982-01-01

    Average monthly data are presented that depict the long-term geographic distribution of direct normal solar radiation in the US. Some terms are defined, the model for estimating hourly direct normal insolation is described, and its validation is discussed. Direct normal radiation is then tabulated for 235 National Weather Service Stations, given as monthly and annual averages in units of kJ\\/m(2)-day,

  3. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... 8 sec Click to watch this video Most Care Provided at Home Click for more information Long- ...

  4. Barriers to Physical Activity for People with Long-Term Neurological Conditions: A Review Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Hilda F.; Hale, Leigh A.; Whitehead, Lisa; Baxter, G. David

    2012-01-01

    People with disability are insufficiently physically active for health. This study identified the volume, quality, and findings of research that exposes environmental and personal barriers of physical activity participation for people with neurological conditions. CINAHL, Sport Discus, EMBASE, Medline, and AMED were systematically searched between…

  5. Effects of long term irrigation with polluted water and sludge amendment on some soil enzyme activities

    SciTech Connect

    Topac, F.O.; Baskaya, H.S.; Alkan, U.; Katkat, A.V. [Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wastewater sludge-fly ash mixtures on urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase activities in soils. In order to evaluate the probable effects of previous soil management practices (irrigation with polluted water) on soil enzymes, two different soil samples which were similar in physical properties, but different in irrigation practice were used. The application of wastewater sludges supplemented with varying doses of fly ash increased potential enzyme activities for a short period of time (3 months) in comparison to unamended soils. However, the activity levels generally showed a decreasing trend with increasing ash ratios indicating the inhibitory effect of fly ash. The urease and dehydrogenase activities were particularly lower in soils irrigated from a polluted stream, indicating the negative effects of the previous soil management on soil microbial activity.

  6. Long-term starspot activity of short-period RS Canum Venaticorum stars. III - BH Virginis

    SciTech Connect

    Zeilik, M.; Ledlow, M.; Rhodes, M.; Arevalo, M.J.; Budding, E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque (USA) Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, CO (USA) Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, La Laguna (Spain) Carter Observatory, Wellington (New Zealand))

    1990-05-01

    The photometric distortion waves in the light curves of the short-period RS CVn system BH Vir by a dark, circular spot model for the active regions on the primary star is parameterized. Recent observations and archival sources are used to infer the positions and areas of the active regions. For light curves with simultaneous B and R or V and I data, the temperatures of the spotted regions relative to the photospheres can be evaluated. For BH Vir in 1986, T(spot) = 4900 + or - 500 K. The active regions tend to occur at high latitudes and at preferred longitudes near 90 and 270 deg. 32 refs.

  7. A mathematical model of long-term renal sympathetic nerve activity inhibition during an increase in sodium intake

    PubMed Central

    Denizhan, Yagmur; Hester, Robert

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that renal nerves directly affect renal vascular resistance, tubular sodium reabsorption, and renin secretion. Inhibition of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) decreases renal vascular resistance, tubular sodium reabsorption, and renin secretion, leading to an increase in sodium excretion. Although several studies show that inhibition of RSNA promotes sodium excretion during an acute blood volume expansion, there is limited research relating to the importance of RSNA inhibition that contributes to sodium homeostasis during a long-term increase in sodium intake. Therefore, to dissect the underlying mechanisms of sodium excretion, a mathematical model of a cardiovascular system consisting of two kidneys, each with an independent RSNA, was developed. Simulations were performed to determine the responses of RSNA and sodium excretion to an increased sodium intake. In these simulations, RSNA in the left kidney was fixed at its normal steady-state value, while RSNA in the contralateral kidney was allowed to change normally in response to the increased sodium intake. The results demonstrate that the fixed-RSNA kidney excretes less sodium than the intact-RSNA collateral kidney. Because each kidney is exposed to the same arterial pressure and circulatory hormones, the impaired sodium excretion in the absence of RSNA inhibition supports the hypothesis that RSNA inhibition contributes to natriuresis in response to a long-term increase in sodium intake. PMID:24285363

  8. Interferon-beta-1b-induced short- and long-term signatures of treatment activity in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Croze, E; Yamaguchi, K D; Knappertz, V; Reder, A T; Salamon, H

    2013-10-01

    Interferon beta (IFN?) reduces disease burden in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In this study, IFN?-1b-treated MS patient gene expression profiles and biological knowledgebases were integrated to study IFN?'s pleiotropic mechanisms of action. Genes involved in immune regulation, mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant activity were discovered. Plausible mediators of neuronal preservation included NRF2, downregulation of OLA1, an antioxidant suppressor, and the antioxidant gene ND6, implicated in optic neuropathy and MS-like lesions. Network analysis highlighted IKBKE, which likely has a role in both viral response and energy metabolism. A comparative analysis of therapy-naive MS- and IFN?-associated gene expression suggests an IFN? insufficiency in MS. We observed more gene expression changes in long-term treatment than during acute dosing. These distinct short- and long-term effects were driven by different transcription factors. Multi-gene biomarker signatures of IFN? treatment effects were developed and subsequently confirmed in independent IFN?-1b-treated MS studies, but not in glatiramer acetate-treated patients. PMID:22711062

  9. Long-term starspot activity of short-period RS Canum Venaticorum stars. IV. WY Cancri

    SciTech Connect

    Zeilik, M.; Cox, D.A.; Ledlow, M.J.; Rhodes, M.; Heckert, P.A. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque (USA) U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, CO (USA) Western Carolina Univ., Cullowhee, NC (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The photometric distortion waves in the short-period RS CVn system WY CnC are parametrized by a dark, circular spot model for the active regions on the primary star. From recent observations and archival sources, the changes in positions and areas of the active regions are inferred. For light curves with simultaneous visual and red or infrared data, the average temperatures of the spotted regions relative to the photosphere are evaluated. In 1989, it is found that T(spot) = 3970 + or - 300 K for a primary star temperature of 5520 K. Some indication is found of a nonuniform temperature distribution in longitude across the spotted area at this time. The active regions tend to occur at low latitudes, in contrast to the high latitudes previously found for SV Cam, RT And, and BH Vir. It is found again that the active regions fall into preferred longitudes near 90 and 270 deg. 27 refs.

  10. Long-Term Global Morphology of Gravity Wave Activity Using UARS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckermann, Stephen D.; Bacmeister, Julio T.; Wu, Dong L.

    1998-01-01

    Progress in research into the global morphology of gravity wave activity using UARS data is described for the period March-June, 1998. Highlights this quarter include further progress in the analysis and interpretation of CRISTA temperature variances; model-generated climatologies of mesospheric gravity wave activity using the HWM-93 wind and temperature model; and modeling of gravity wave detection from space-based platforms. Preliminary interpretations and recommended avenues for further analysis are also described.

  11. Predator and prey activity levels jointly influence the outcome of long-term foraging bouts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Consistent interindividual differences in behavior (i.e., “behavioral types”) may be a key factor in determining the outcome of species interactions. Studies that simultaneously account for the behavioral types of individuals in multiple interacting species, such as predator–prey systems, may be particularly strong predictors of ecological outcomes. Here, we test the predator–prey locomotor crossover hypothesis, which predicts that active predators are more likely to encounter and consume prey with the opposing locomotor tendency. We test this hypothesis using intraspecific behavioral variation in both a predator and prey species as predictors of foraging outcomes. We use the old field jumping spider, Phidippus clarus (Araneae, Salticidae), and the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), as a model predator–prey system in laboratory mesocosm trials. Stable individual differences in locomotor tendencies were identified in both P. clarus and A. domesticus, and the outcome of foraging bouts depended neither on the average activity level of the predator nor on the average activity level of prey. Instead, an interaction between the activity level of spiders and crickets predicted spider foraging success and prey survivorship. Consistent with the locomotor crossover hypothesis, predators exhibiting higher activity levels consumed more prey when in an environment containing low-activity prey items and vice versa. This study highlights 1) the importance of intraspecific variation in determining the outcome of predator–prey interactions and 2) that acknowledging behavioral variation in only a single species may be insufficient to characterize the performance consequences of intraspecific trait variants. PMID:23935257

  12. Predator and prey activity levels jointly influence the outcome of long-term foraging bouts.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Kayla; Cusack, Brian; Armagost, Fawn; O'Brien, Timothy; Keiser, Carl N; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2013-09-01

    Consistent interindividual differences in behavior (i.e., "behavioral types") may be a key factor in determining the outcome of species interactions. Studies that simultaneously account for the behavioral types of individuals in multiple interacting species, such as predator-prey systems, may be particularly strong predictors of ecological outcomes. Here, we test the predator-prey locomotor crossover hypothesis, which predicts that active predators are more likely to encounter and consume prey with the opposing locomotor tendency. We test this hypothesis using intraspecific behavioral variation in both a predator and prey species as predictors of foraging outcomes. We use the old field jumping spider, Phidippus clarus (Araneae, Salticidae), and the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), as a model predator-prey system in laboratory mesocosm trials. Stable individual differences in locomotor tendencies were identified in both P. clarus and A. domesticus, and the outcome of foraging bouts depended neither on the average activity level of the predator nor on the average activity level of prey. Instead, an interaction between the activity level of spiders and crickets predicted spider foraging success and prey survivorship. Consistent with the locomotor crossover hypothesis, predators exhibiting higher activity levels consumed more prey when in an environment containing low-activity prey items and vice versa. This study highlights 1) the importance of intraspecific variation in determining the outcome of predator-prey interactions and 2) that acknowledging behavioral variation in only a single species may be insufficient to characterize the performance consequences of intraspecific trait variants. PMID:23935257

  13. Long-Term Effects of a Community-Based Program on Contraceptive Use Among Sexually Active Unmarried Youth in Shanghai, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaowen Tu; Chaohua Lou; Ersheng Gao; Iqbal H. Shah

    2008-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the long-term (48-month) sustainable effect of a set of community-based interventions to promote contraceptive use among sexually active unmarried youth in suburban Shanghai, China.

  14. Long-term starvation and subsequent reactivation of a high-rate partial nitrification activated sludge pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Torà, Josep A; Lafuente, Javier; Baeza, Juan A; Carrera, Julián

    2011-11-01

    The starvation process of a high-rate partial nitrification system during 30 days and its controlled recovery were studied in an activated sludge pilot plant. Four ammonium-starved reactors under anoxic, aerobic and two different alternating aerobic/anoxic conditions were evaluated. The highest and the lowest decay rates of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were obtained under full aerobic (0.24 d(-1)) and full anoxic (0.11 d(-1)) conditions, respectively. The evolution of biomass activity correlated well with the AOB quantification using FISH technique. AOB fractions lower than 1% were measured in the four reactors after 23 days of starvation. The recovery of the system was achieved in only 5 days using a nitrogen loading rate (NLR) control loop, obtaining the same conditions than before the long-term starvation period with a NLR of 1.2 g N L(-1)d(-1) and 98% of nitrite accumulation in the effluent. PMID:21890345

  15. Long-Term Norms and Cognitive Structures as Shapers of Television Viewer Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Margaret; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study of high school students that examined responses to a music video dealing with teenage pregnancy. Students' motivations for viewing music videos, experiences with sex and pregnancy, and family communication patterns are related to the cognitive activities of thinking about the video content and relating it to their own lives. (20…

  16. Reviewing or Retrieving: What Activity Best Promotes Long-Term Retention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies repeatedly emphasize the importance of vocabulary capabilities to a large variety of academic activities. This study compared a learning strategy that exclusively involved the visual review of vocabulary word-definition pairs to a strategy that, in addition, prompted participants to attempt free-recall retrieval of words to match…

  17. Long-Term, Non-Computer, Communication Simulations as Course Integration Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, James P.

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a few guidelines for constructing effective simulations. It presents a sample class activity called simulated public hearing which aims to integrate the various elements of a public speaking course into a more comprehensive whole. Properly designed, simulated hearings have elements of persuasive, informative, and impromptu…

  18. Hippocampal Inactivation with TTX Impairs Long-Term Spatial Memory Retrieval and Modifies Brain Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Conejo, Nélida María; Cimadevilla, José Manuel; González-Pardo, Héctor; Méndez-Couz, Marta; Arias, Jorge Luis

    2013-01-01

    Functional inactivation techniques enable studying the hippocampal involvement in each phase of spatial memory formation in the rat. In this study, we applied tetrodotoxin unilaterally or bilaterally into the dorsal hippocampus to evaluate the role of this brain structure in retrieval of memories acquired 28 days before in the Morris water maze. We combined hippocampal inactivation with the assessment of brain metabolism using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. Several brain regions were considered, including the hippocampus and other related structures. Results showed that both unilateral and bilateral hippocampal inactivation impaired spatial memory retrieval. Hence, whereas subjects with bilateral hippocampal inactivation showed a circular swim pattern at the side walls of the pool, unilateral inactivation favoured swimming in the quadrants adjacent to the target one. Analysis of cytochrome oxidase activity disclosed regional differences according to the degree of hippocampal functional blockade. In comparison to control group, animals with bilateral inactivation showed increased CO activity in CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus during retrieval, while the activity of the dentate gyrus substantially decreased. However, unilateral inactivated animals showed decreased CO activity in Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus. This study demonstrated that retrieval recruits differentially the hippocampal subregions and the balance between them is altered with hippocampal functional lesions. PMID:23724089

  19. Long-Term Trends in Life Expectancy and Active Life Expectancy in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth G. Manton; XiLiang Gu; Vicki L. Lamb

    2006-01-01

    Changes in life expectancy and in active life expectancy may have effects on the fiscal integrity of both the Social Security and Medicare programs. Analysis of the fiscal stability of these programs shows that the most serious problem may be the growth of Medicare expenditures projected to surpass, in about 2024, Social Security costs. This is aggravated by the associated

  20. Effects of long term irrigation with polluted water and sludge amendment on some soil enzyme activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. O. Topac; H. S. Baskaya; U. Alkan; A. V. Katkat

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wastewater sludge-fly ash mixtures on urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase activities in soils. In order to evaluate the probable effects of previous soil management practices (irrigation with polluted water) on soil enzymes, two different soil samples which were similar in physical properties, but different in irrigation practice were

  1. Long-Term Heavy Ketamine Use is Associated with Spatial Memory Impairment and Altered Hippocampal Activation

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Celia J. A.; Dodds, Chris M.; Furby, Hannah; Pepper, Fiona; Fam, Johnson; Freeman, Tom P.; Hughes, Emer; Doeller, Christian; King, John; Howes, Oliver; Stone, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, is rising in popularity as a drug of abuse. Preliminary evidence suggests that chronic, heavy ketamine use may have profound effects on spatial memory but the mechanism of these deficits is as yet unclear. This study aimed to examine the neural mechanism by which heavy ketamine use impairs spatial memory processing. In a sample of 11 frequent ketamine users and 15 poly-drug controls, matched for IQ, age, years in education. We used fMRI utilizing an ROI approach to examine the neural activity of three regions known to support successful navigation; the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and the caudate nucleus during a virtual reality task of spatial memory. Frequent ketamine users displayed spatial memory deficits, accompanied by and related to, reduced activation in both the right hippocampus and left parahippocampal gyrus during navigation from memory, and in the left caudate during memory updating, compared to controls. Ketamine users also exhibited schizotypal and dissociative symptoms that were related to hippocampal activation. Impairments in spatial memory observed in ketamine users are related to changes in medial temporal lobe activation. Disrupted medial temporal lobe function may be a consequence of chronic ketamine abuse and may relate to schizophrenia-like symptomatology observed in ketamine users. PMID:25538631

  2. Long-term growth of human WGA-activated T-lymphocytes without feeder cells.

    PubMed

    Siwicki, J K

    1989-09-01

    Human wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-activated T-lymphocytes from either peripheral blood or spleen could be propagated for several weeks in the presence of culture supernatants from human mononuclear cells obtained after a 1-day stimulation with WGA and after a subsequent 3-day culture without mitogen. The continuous T-cell growth in this culture system required alternate exposition of the cells to the above supernatants, both with and without WGA, but proceeded in the absence of feeder cells. After 3 weeks of propagation most cells displayed the CD4+ phenotype, expressed IL2 receptors, and responded to PHA, Con A, and WGA. It has been shown that WGA-activated T-cells could be cloned by limiting dilution and propagated using the above culture system. PMID:2569939

  3. Effects of drying on nitrification activity in zeoponic medium used for long-term space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGilloway, R. L.; Weaver, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    One component of a proposed life support system is the use of zeoponic substrates, which slowly release NH4+ into "soil" solution, for the production of plants. Nitrifying bacteria that convert NH4+ to NO3- are among the important microbial components of these systems. Survival of nitrifying bacteria in dry zeoponic substrates is needed, because the substrate would likely be stored in an air-dry state between croppings. Substrate was enriched for nitrifying bacteria and allowed to air-dry in a laminar flow hood. Stored substrate was analyzed for nitrifier survivability by measuring nitrifier activity at the beginning, 3 days, 1, 2, and 3 weeks. After rewetting, activity was approximately 9 micrograms N g-1 h-1 regardless of storage time. Nitrification rates did not decrease during storage. It seems unlikely that drying between plantings would result in practical reductions in nitrification, and reinoculation with nitrifying bacteria would not be necessary.

  4. IgG immunoadsorption reduces systemic lupus erythematosus activity and proteinuria: a long term observational study

    PubMed Central

    Stummvoll, G; Aringer, M; Smolen, J; Schmaldienst, S; Jimenez-Boj, E; Horl, W; Graninger, W; Derfler, K

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the effects of rigorous immunoglobulin removal by immunoadsorption (IAS) on proteinuria (primary outcome variable), disease activity (SIS, SLEDAI, ECLAM), and autoantibodies to double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) in active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: 16 patients with severe SLE and renal disease, in whom cyclophosphamide was contraindicated or failed to halt disease progression, were treated with IAS for 3 months. Patients achieving at least 20% improvement in two or more of the outcome measures were considered responders and offered a 9 months' extension period. Results: Within 3 months, 14 patients responded and 11 opted for an extension. Proteinuria decreased from 6.7 (4.6) g/day (mean (SD)) at baseline to 4.3 (3.5) g/day at 3 months and 2.9 (2.4) g/day at 12 months (p<0.001). From baseline to 3 and 12 months, disease activity improved independently of scoring by SIS (15 (5) to 5 (2) and to 5 (2), p<0.0001), SLEDAI (21 (7) to 5 (4) and to 5 (4), p<0.0001), or ECLAM (7 (2) to 2 (1) and to 3 (1), p<0.0001). Anti-dsDNA fell from 391 (647) IU/ml to 146 (218) and to 53 (50) IU/ml at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Steroids could be tapered from 117 (159) mg/day at baseline to 29 (17) mg/day at 3 months and 9 (2) mg/day at 12 months. IAS was not associated with an excess of infections. However, one patient died of septicaemia after 1 month of treatment. Conclusion: In this negatively selected cohort of patients with SLE, IAS was associated with a significant response shown by reduced proteinuria, improved global disease activity, decreased anti-dsDNA, and lower glucocorticoid dosages, suggesting therapeutic benefit. PMID:15640267

  5. Long-term antidiabetic activity of vanadyl after treatment withdrawal: Restoration of insulin secretion?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard H. Cros; Margaret C. Cam; Jean-Jacques Serrano; Gerard Ribes; John H. McNeill

    1995-01-01

    In its vanadate (V5+) or vanadyl (V4+) forms, vanadium has been demonstrated to possess antidiabetic activity. Oral treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic animals with either form is associated with correction of hyperglycemia, and prevention of diabetes-induced complications, although weight gain is unaffected. Vanadium treatment of non-diabetic animals lowers plasma insulin levels by reducing insulin demand, as these animals remain normoglycemic. These

  6. Long-term antibacterial efficacy of air plasma-activated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traylor, Matthew J.; Pavlovich, Matthew J.; Karim, Sharmin; Hait, Pritha; Sakiyama, Yukinori; Clark, Douglas S.; Graves, David B.

    2011-11-01

    Indirect air dielectric barrier discharge in close proximity to water creates an acidified, nitrogen-oxide containing solution known as plasma-activated water (PAW), which remains antibacterial for several days. Suspensions of E. coli were exposed to PAW for either 15 min or 3 h over a 7-day period after PAW generation. Both exposure times yielded initial antibacterial activity corresponding to a ~5-log reduction in cell viability, which decreased at differing rates over 7 days to negligible activity and a 2.4-log reduction for 15 min and 3 h exposures, respectively. The solution remained at pH ~2.7 for this period and initially included hydrogen peroxide, nitrate and nitrite anions. The solution composition varied significantly over this time, with hydrogen peroxide and nitrite diminishing within a few days, during which the antibacterial efficacy of 15 min exposures decreased significantly, while that of 3 h exposures produced a 5-log reduction or more. These results highlight the complexity of PAW solutions where multiple chemical components exert varying biological effects on differing time scales.

  7. Long-term ¹³?Cs activity monitoring of mushrooms in forest ecosystems of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Škrkal, J; Rulík, P; Fantínová, K; Burianová, J; Helebrant, J

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on results of activity mass concentration analyses performed in various forest mushrooms in the Czech Republic within 1986 and 2011. The estimated effective half-life of (137)Cs and its environmental half-life (i.e. the effective half-life minus the effect of physical decay) were found to be 5.6 ± 0.6 and 6.9 ± 0.7 y, respectively. Non-homogeneity in (137)Cs surface contamination over the country's territory and fungus species-based (137)Cs accumulation capacity then account for a span of up to 4 orders of magnitude in activity mass concentrations measured each year after the Chernobyl accident. The highest geometric activity mass concentration (Bq kg(-1) of dry weight) means of (137)Cs (obtained from samples between years 2004 and 2011) were measured in Suillaceae (1050 Bq kg(-1)) and Boletus badius (930 Bq kg(-1)), the lowest in Agaricus (1 Bq kg(-1)). The geometric mean of all mushrooms amounted to 230 Bq kg(-1), being 440 Bq kg(-1) in Boletales, 150 Bq kg(-1) in Russulales and 21 Bq kg(-1) in Agaricales. Geometric standard deviation levels were generally high. The highest Cs accumulation capacity was observed in Boletales (namely in Suillaceae), while the lowest in Agaricales, being over 3 orders of magnitude lower than in Suillaceae. PMID:23838098

  8. Occupational Physical Activities and Long-Term Functional and Radiographic Outcomes in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Michael M.; Reveille, John D.; Learch, Thomas J.; Davis, John C.; Weisman, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We sought to identify specific occupational activities associated with functional limitations and radiographic damage in patients with longstanding ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods We asked patients diagnosed with AS for ?20 years to report all past occupations, which we mapped to specific physical activities using the Occupational Information Network, which is the US Department of Labor job classification database. For each occupation reported, we obtained ratings for 13 physical abilities of the worker and 13 aspects of the work environment or work tasks (work context) thought to be most relevant to patients with AS. Averages for each measure, weighted by the number of years in each job, were related to the degree of functional limitation as assessed by the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) and to the extent of spinal radiographic damage as assessed by the Bath AS Radiology Index for the spine (BASRI-s). Results Among 397 patients, those with a history of jobs requiring dynamic flexibility (the ability to repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach) had more functional limitations than those whose past jobs required little or no dynamic flexibility (adjusted mean BASFI score 48.3 in the top quartile versus 38.1 in all others). Those whose past jobs required more dynamic flexibility, extent flexibility, and exposure to whole body vibration also had significantly higher BASRI-s scores. Conclusion Bending, twisting, and stretching are the occupational activities associated with greater functional limitations and radiographic damage in patients with longstanding AS. Exposure to whole body vibration was also associated with more radiographic damage. PMID:18512723

  9. Long-term intermittent hypoxia increases sympathetic activity and chemosensitivity during acute hypoxia in humans.

    PubMed

    Lusina, Sarah-Jane C; Kennedy, Paul M; Inglis, J Timothy; McKenzie, Donald C; Ayas, Najib T; Sheel, A William

    2006-09-15

    We determined the effects of 10 daily exposures of intermittent hypoxia (IH; 1 h day(-1); oxyhaemoglobin saturation = 80%) on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, peroneal nerve) and the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) before, during and after an acute 20 min isocapnic hypoxic exposure. We also assessed the potential parallel modulation of the ventilatory and sympathetic systems following IH. Healthy young men (n = 11; 25 +/- 1 years) served as subjects and pre- and post-IH measures of MSNA were obtained on six subjects. The IH intervention caused HVR to significantly increase (pre-IH = 0.30 +/- 0.03; post-IH = 0.61 +/- 0.12 l min(-1) %S(aO(2)) (-1)). During the 20 min hypoxic exposure sympathetic activity was significantly greater than baseline and remained above baseline after withdrawal of the hypoxic stimulus, even though oxyhaemoglobin saturation had normalized and ventilation and blood pressure had returned to baseline levels. When compared to the pre-IH trial, burst frequency increased (P < 0.01), total MSNA trended towards higher values (P = 0.06), and there was no effect on burst amplitude (P = 0.82) during the post-IH trial. Following IH the rise in MSNA burst frequency was strongly related to the change in HVR (r = 0.79, P < 0.05) suggesting that these sympathetic and ventilatory responses may have common central control. PMID:16809359

  10. Long-term starspot activity of short-period RS Canum Venaticorum stars. II. RT Andromedae

    SciTech Connect

    Zeilik, M.; Cox, D.A.; De Blasi, C.; Rhodes, M.; Budding, E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque (USA) Carter Observatory, Wellington (New Zealand))

    1989-10-01

    The photometric distortion waves in the light curves of the short-period RS CVn system RT And are parameterized by means of a dark, circular starspot model. The light curves are drawn from archival sources and 1987 and 1989 observations. The longitudes, latitudes, and areas of the active regions are inferred and the information content of the archival data is evaluated. It is concluded that one large starspot region on the primary star at high latitude and near quadrature longitudes can account for the major maculation effects since 1920. The temperature difference between the spotted region and the photosphere is 1100 to 1200 K. Good quality light curves result in an eccentricity (e = 0.026) and major axis orientation consistent with those reported by others using different procedures. 36 refs.

  11. Long-Term Dynamical Constraints on Pharmacologically Evoked Potentiation Imply Activity Conservation within In Vitro Hippocampal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dzakpasu, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a long-term study of network dynamics from in vitro, cultured hippocampal neurons after a pharmacological induction of synaptic potentiation. We plate a suspension of hippocampal neurons on an array of extracellular electrodes and record electrical activity in the absence of the drugs several days after treatment. While previous studies have reported on potentiation lasting up to a few hours after treatment, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize the network effects of a potentiating mechanism several days after treatment. Using this reduced, two-dimensional in vitro network of hippocampal neurons, we show that the effects of potentiation are persistent over time but are modulated under a conservation of spike principle. We suggest that this conservation principle might be mediated by the appearance of a resonant inter-spike interval that prevents the network from advancing towards a state of hyperexcitability. PMID:26070215

  12. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 activation is required for long-term depression in medial prefrontal cortex and fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Walker, Adam G; Wenthur, Cody J; Xiang, Zixiu; Rook, Jerri M; Emmitte, Kyle A; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2015-01-27

    Clinical studies have revealed that genetic variations in metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGlu3) affect performance on cognitive tasks dependent upon the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and may be linked to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and addiction. We have performed a series of studies aimed at understanding how mGlu3 influences PFC function and cognitive behaviors. In the present study, we found that activation of mGlu3 can induce long-term depression in the mouse medial PFC (mPFC) in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo administration of a selective mGlu3 negative allosteric modulator impaired learning in the mPFC-dependent fear extinction task. The results of these studies implicate mGlu3 as a major regulator of PFC function and cognition. Additionally, potentiators of mGlu3 may be useful in alleviating prefrontal impairments associated with several CNS disorders. PMID:25583490

  13. Solar Week Monday: Do the Activity - Measuring Solar Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an online lesson associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is an activity about measurements of solar activity. Learners will observe an image of the Sun and sketch major features, plot data to begin to recognize patterns of solar activity, look for long-term patterns in graphed data, compare X-ray and visible light images of the Sun to find solar features common to both sets of images, and make a prediction of what the Sun will look like in a visible light image after observing an X-ray image taken on the same day. This activity is scheduled to occur during Monday of Solar Week.

  14. Long-Term Gene Therapy with Thrombospondin 2 Inhibits TGF-? Activation, Inflammation and Angiogenesis in Chronic Allograft Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Christoph; Vogelbacher, Regina; Stief, Andrea; Grigo, Christina; Hugo, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We recently identified Thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) as a regulator of matrix remodelling and inflammation in experimental kidney disease by using TSP-2 null mice and successfully proved TSP-2 overexpression as a therapeutic concept in a short term glomerulonephritis model in the rat. In this current study, we investigated if long-term TSP-2 overexpression is also capable to ameliorate the progression of chronic kidney disease in the setting of the chronic allograft nephropathy F344-Lewis model in the rat. Two weeks after renal transplantation, two rat thigh muscles were transfected once only with either a TSP-2 overexpressing plasmid (n?=?8) or a luciferase-expressing plasmid as control (n?=?8). Rats were monitored for renal function, histological changes and gene expression in the graft for up to 30 weeks after transplantation. Unexpectedly, only in the TSP-2 treated group 2 rats died before the end of the experiment and renal function tended to be worsened in the TSP-2 group compared to the luciferase-treated controls. In addition, glomerular sclerosis and tubular interstitial injury as well as cortical fibronectin deposition was significantly increased in the TSP-2 treated kidneys despite reduced TGF-? activation and marked anti-inflammatory (macrophages, T-cells and B-cells) effects in this group. Long-term TSP-2 therapy impaired repair of renal endothelium, as demonstrated by significant higher glomerular and peritubular endothelial rarefaction and reduced endothelial cell proliferation in the transplanted kidneys from TSP-2 treated rats compared to controls. This TSP-2 effect was associated with decreased levels of renal VEGF but not VEGF1 receptor. In conclusion, despite its anti-inflammatory and TGF-? activation blocking effects, TSP-2 gene therapy did not ameliorate but rather worsened experimental chronic allograft nephropathy most likely via its anti-angiogenic properties on the renal microvasculature. PMID:24376766

  15. Persistent Long-Term Facilitation at an Identified Synapse Becomes Labile with Activation of Short-Term Heterosynaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Schacher, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity are cellular correlates of learning and memory of different durations. Little is known, however, how these two forms of plasticity interact at the same synaptic connection. We examined the reciprocal impact of short-term heterosynaptic or homosynaptic plasticity at sensorimotor synapses of Aplysia in cell culture when expressing persistent long-term facilitation (P-LTF) evoked by serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]. Short-term heterosynaptic plasticity induced by 5-HT (facilitation) or the neuropeptide FMRFa (depression) and short-term homosynaptic plasticity induced by tetanus [post-tetanic potentiation (PTP)] or low-frequency stimulation [homosynaptic depression (HSD)] of the sensory neuron were expressed in both control synapses and synapses expressing P-LTF in the absence or presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. All forms of short-term plasticity failed to significantly affect ongoing P-LTF in the absence of protein synthesis inhibitors. However, P-LTF reversed to control levels when either 5-HT or FMRFa was applied in the presence of rapamycin. In contrast, P-LTF was unaffected when either PTP or HSD was evoked in the presence of either rapamycin or anisomycin. These results indicate that synapses expressing persistent plasticity acquire a “new” baseline and functionally express short-term changes as naive synapses, but the new baseline becomes labile following selective activations—heterosynaptic stimuli that evoke opposite forms of plasticity—such that when presented in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors produce a rapid reversal of the persistent plasticity. Activity-selective induction of a labile state at synapses expressing persistent plasticity may facilitate the development of therapies for reversing inappropriate memories. PMID:24695698

  16. Physical Activity Improves Long-Term Stroke Outcome via Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase-Dependent Augmentation of Neovascularization and Cerebral Blood Flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Gertz; Josef Priller; Golo Kronenberg; Klaus B. Fink; Benjamin Winter; Helmut Schrock; Shengbo Ji; Milan Milosevic; Christoph Harms; Michael Bohm; Ulrich Dirnagl; Ulrich Laufs; Matthias Endres

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity upregulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), improves endothelium function, and protects from vascular disease. Here, we tested whether voluntary running would enhance neovascularization and long-term recovery following mild brain ischemia. Wild-type mice were exposed to 30 minutes of middle-cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and reperfusion. Continuous voluntary running on wheels conferred long-term upregulation of eNOS in the vasculature and

  17. The long-term hospitalization experience following military service in the 1991 Gulf War among veterans remaining on active duty, 1994–2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoko I Hooper; Samar F DeBakey; Barbara E Nagaraj; Kimberly S Bellis; Besa Smith; Tyler C Smith; Gary D Gackstetter

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite more than a decade of extensive, international efforts to characterize and understand the increased symptom and illness-reporting among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, concern over possible long-term health effects related to this deployment continue. The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term hospitalization experience of the subset of U.S. Gulf War veterans still on active

  18. Locus Coeruleus Stimulation Facilitates Long-Term Depression in the Dentate Gyrus That Requires Activation of ?-Adrenergic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Niels; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity comprises a cellular mechanism through which the hippocampus most likely enables memory formation. Neuromodulation, related to arousal, is a key aspect in information storage. The activation of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons by novel experience leads to noradrenaline release in the hippocampus at the level of the dentate gyrus (DG). We explored whether synaptic plasticity in the DG is influenced by activation of the LC via electrical stimulation. Coupling of test-pulses that evoked stable basal synaptic transmission in the DG with stimulation of the LC induced ?-adrenoreceptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD) at perforant path–DG synapses in adult rats. Furthermore, persistent LTD (>24 h) induced by perforant path stimulation also required activation of ?-adrenergic receptors: Whereas a ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol) prevented, an agonist (isoproterenol) strengthened the persistence of LTD for over 24 h. These findings support the hypothesis that persistent LTD in the DG is modulated by ?-adrenergic receptors. Furthermore, LC activation potently facilitates DG LTD. This suggests in turn that synaptic plasticity in the DG is tightly regulated by activity in the noradrenergic system. This may reflect the role of the LC in selecting salient information for subsequent synaptic processing in the hippocampus. PMID:24464942

  19. Long-term effects of fertilizer on soil enzymatic activity of wheat field soil in Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weigang; Jiao, Zhifang; Wu, Fasi; Liu, Yongjun; Dong, Maoxing; Ma, Xiaojun; Fan, Tinglu; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2014-12-01

    The effects of long-term (29 years) fertilization on local agro-ecosystems in the Loess Plateau of northwest China, containing a single or combinations of inorganic (Nitrogen, N; Phosphate, P) and organic (Mature, M Straw, S) fertilizer, including N, NP, SNP, M, MNP, and a control. The soil enzymes, including dehydrogenase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase and glomalin, were investigated in three physiological stages (Jointing, Dough, and Maturity) of wheat growth at three depths of the soil profile (0-15, 16-30, 31-45 cm). We found that the application of farmyard manure and straw produced the highest values of soil enzymatic activity, especially a balanced applied treatment of MNP. Enzymatic activity was lowest in the control. Values were generally highest at dough, followed by the jointing and maturity stages, and declined with soil profile depth. The activities of the enzymes investigated here are significantly correlated with each other and are correlated with soil nutrients, in particular with soil organic carbon. Our results suggest that a balanced application of fertilizer nutrients and organic manure (especially those containing P) has positive effects on multiple soil chemical parameters, which in turn enhances enzyme activity. We emphasize the role of organic manure in maintaining soil organic matter and promoting biological activity, as its application can result in a substantial increase in agricultural production and can be sustainable for many years. PMID:25134679

  20. Remote long-term registrations of sleep-wake rhythms, core body temperature and activity in marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Kerstin; Coolen, Alex; Schlumbohm, Christina; Meerlo, Peter; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2012-12-01

    Initial studies in the day active marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) indicate that the sleep-wake cycle of these non-human primates resembles that of humans and therefore conceivably represent an appropriate model for human sleep. The methods currently employed for sleep studies in marmosets are limited. The objective of this study was to employ and validate the use of specific remote monitoring system technologies that enable accurate long-term recordings of sleep-wake rhythms and the closely related rhythms of core body temperature (CBT) and locomotor activity in unrestrained group-housed marmosets. Additionally, a pilot sleep deprivation (SD) study was performed to test the recording systems in an applied experimental setup. Our results show that marmosets typically exhibit a monophasic sleep pattern with cyclical alternations between NREM and REM sleep. CBT displays a pronounced daily rhythm and locomotor activity is primarily restricted to the light phase. SD caused an immediate increase in NREM sleep time and EEG slow-wave activity as well as a delayed REM sleep rebound that did not fully compensate for REM sleep that had been lost during SD. In conclusion, the combination of two innovative technical approaches allows for simultaneous measurements of CBT, sleep cycles and activity in multiple subjects. The employment of these systems represents a significant refinement in terms of animal welfare and will enable many future applications and longitudinal studies of circadian rhythms in marmosets. PMID:22850608

  1. Locus Coeruleus Stimulation Facilitates Long-Term Depression in the Dentate Gyrus That Requires Activation of ?-Adrenergic Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Niels; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2015-07-01

    Synaptic plasticity comprises a cellular mechanism through which the hippocampus most likely enables memory formation. Neuromodulation, related to arousal, is a key aspect in information storage. The activation of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons by novel experience leads to noradrenaline release in the hippocampus at the level of the dentate gyrus (DG). We explored whether synaptic plasticity in the DG is influenced by activation of the LC via electrical stimulation. Coupling of test-pulses that evoked stable basal synaptic transmission in the DG with stimulation of the LC induced ?-adrenoreceptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD) at perforant path-DG synapses in adult rats. Furthermore, persistent LTD (>24 h) induced by perforant path stimulation also required activation of ?-adrenergic receptors: Whereas a ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol) prevented, an agonist (isoproterenol) strengthened the persistence of LTD for over 24 h. These findings support the hypothesis that persistent LTD in the DG is modulated by ?-adrenergic receptors. Furthermore, LC activation potently facilitates DG LTD. This suggests in turn that synaptic plasticity in the DG is tightly regulated by activity in the noradrenergic system. This may reflect the role of the LC in selecting salient information for subsequent synaptic processing in the hippocampus. PMID:24464942

  2. Constitutive Caspase Activation and Impaired Death-Inducing Signaling Complex Formation in CD95Resistant, Long-Term Activated, Antigen-Specific T Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun Strauss; Ingrid Knape; Ingo Melzner; Klaus-Michael Debatin

    Elimination of T cells during an immune response is mediated by activation-induced cell death (AICD) and CD95-mediated apoptosis. Chronic graft-vs-host disease and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases are caused by the persistence of activated T cells that escaped tolerance induction by deletion or silencing. To mimic the in vivo situation of long-term activated T cells, we generated an in vitro system

  3. Characteristics of long-term variation in the amlitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation using the Inter-university Upper atmosphere Gobal Observation NETwork (IUGONET) data analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics of long-term variation in the amplitude of solar quiet geomagnetic field daily variation (Sq) have been investigated using 1-hour geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic stations in a period of 1947-2013. In the present data analysis, we took advantage of the IUGONET data analysis system. The Sq amplitude clearly showed a 10-12 year solar activity dependence and it tended to enhance during each solar maximum. During the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008-2009, the Sq amplitude became the smallest in the investigated period. The relationship between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude is approximately linear but 64 percent of geomagnetic stations show a weak nonlinear dependence on the solar F10.7 index. In order to remove the effect of solar activity seen in the long-term variation of the Sq amplitude, we calculated a linear or second order fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude during 1947-2013, and examined the residual Sq amplitude, which is defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. As a result, a majority of the trends in the residual Sq amplitude that passed through a trend test showed a negative value in a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. The relationship between the magnetic field intensity and residual Sq amplitude showed an anti-correlation for about 71 percent of geomagnetic stations. On the other hand, the residual Sq amplitude in the equatorial station (Addis Ababa) was anti-correlated with the absolute value of the magnetic field inclination. This implies the movement of the equatorial electrojet due to the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field.

  4. Testing promotes long-term learning via stabilizing activation patterns in a large network of brain areas.

    PubMed

    Keresztes, Attila; Kaiser, Daniel; Kovács, Gyula; Racsmány, Mihály

    2014-11-01

    The testing effect refers to the phenomenon that repeated retrieval of memories promotes better long-term retention than repeated study. To investigate the neural correlates of the testing effect, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging methods while participants performed a cued recall task. Prior to the neuroimaging experiment, participants learned Swahili-German word pairs, then half of the word pairs were repeatedly studied, whereas the other half were repeatedly tested. For half of the participants, the neuroimaging experiment was performed immediately after the learning phase; a 1-week retention interval was inserted for the other half of the participants. We found that a large network of areas identified in a separate 2-back functional localizer scan were active during the final recall of the word pair associations. Importantly, the learning strategy (retest or restudy) of the word pairs determined the manner in which the retention interval affected the activations within this network. Recall of previously restudied memories was accompanied by reduced activation within this network at long retention intervals, but no reduction was observed for previously retested memories. We suggest that retrieval promotes learning via stabilizing cue-related activation patterns in a network of areas usually associated with cognitive and attentional control functions. PMID:23796945

  5. Postsynaptic activity reverses the sign of the acetylcholine-induced long-term plasticity of GABAA inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Soledad; Fernández de Sevilla, David; Buño, Washington

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) regulates forms of plasticity that control cognitive functions but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. ACh controls the intrinsic excitability, as well as the synaptic excitation and inhibition of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells (PCs), cells known to participate in circuits involved in cognition and spatial navigation. However, how ACh regulates inhibition in function of postsynaptic activity has not been well studied. Here we show that in rat PCs, a brief pulse of ACh or a brief stimulation of cholinergic septal fibers combined with repeated depolarization induces strong long-term enhancement of GABAA inhibition (GABAA-LTP). Indeed, this enhanced inhibition is due to the increased activation of ?5??2 subunit-containing GABAA receptors by the GABA released. GABAA-LTP requires the activation of M1-muscarinic receptors and an increase in cytosolic Ca2+. In the absence of PC depolarization ACh triggered a presynaptic depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), revealing that postsynaptic activity gates the effects of ACh from presynaptic DSI to postsynaptic LTP. These results provide key insights into mechanisms potentially linked with cognitive functions, spatial navigation, and the homeostatic control of abnormal hyperexcitable states. PMID:24938789

  6. Postsynaptic activity reverses the sign of the acetylcholine-induced long-term plasticity of GABAA inhibition.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Soledad; Fernández de Sevilla, David; Buño, Washington

    2014-07-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) regulates forms of plasticity that control cognitive functions but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. ACh controls the intrinsic excitability, as well as the synaptic excitation and inhibition of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells (PCs), cells known to participate in circuits involved in cognition and spatial navigation. However, how ACh regulates inhibition in function of postsynaptic activity has not been well studied. Here we show that in rat PCs, a brief pulse of ACh or a brief stimulation of cholinergic septal fibers combined with repeated depolarization induces strong long-term enhancement of GABAA inhibition (GABAA-LTP). Indeed, this enhanced inhibition is due to the increased activation of ?5??2 subunit-containing GABAA receptors by the GABA released. GABAA-LTP requires the activation of M1-muscarinic receptors and an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+). In the absence of PC depolarization ACh triggered a presynaptic depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), revealing that postsynaptic activity gates the effects of ACh from presynaptic DSI to postsynaptic LTP. These results provide key insights into mechanisms potentially linked with cognitive functions, spatial navigation, and the homeostatic control of abnormal hyperexcitable states. PMID:24938789

  7. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in North Croatia after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Frani?, Zdenko; Marovi?, Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carp decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of (137)Cs was estimated to be about 1 year during 1987-2002 and 5 years during 1993-2005. The observed (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio in carp was found to be similar to the ratio observed in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for carp (wet weight) was estimated to be 128+/-74 Lkg(-1), which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K(+) concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective dose received by adult members of the Croatian population due to consumption of carp contaminated with (134)Cs and (137)Cs are small: per capita dose from this source during 1987-2005 was estimated to be 0.5+/-0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp, it can be concluded that carp consumption was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to humans after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:17343962

  8. L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels: a single molecular switch for long-term potentiation/long-term depression-like plasticity and activity-dependent metaplasticity in humans.

    PubMed

    Wankerl, Katharina; Weise, David; Gentner, Reinhard; Rumpf, Jost-Julian; Classen, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    The ability of synapses to undergo persistent activity-dependent potentiation or depression [long-term potentiation (LTP)/long-term depression (LTD)] may be profoundly altered by previous neuronal activity. Although natural neuronal activity can be experimentally manipulated in vivo, very little is known about the in vivo physiological mechanisms involved in regulating this metaplasticity in models of LTP/LTD. To examine whether Ca(2+) signaling may influence metaplasticity in vivo in humans, we used continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) (Huang et al., 2005), a noninvasive novel repetitive magnetic stimulation protocol known to induce persistent alterations of corticospinal excitability whose polarity is changed by previous voluntary motor activity. When directed to the naive motor cortex, cTBS induced long-lasting potentiation of corticospinal excitability, but depression under the influence of nimodipine (NDP), an L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (L-VGCC) antagonist. Both aftereffects were blocked by dextromethorphan, an NMDA receptor antagonist, supporting the notion that these bidirectional cTBS-induced alterations of corticospinal excitability map onto LTP and LTD as observed in animal studies. A short period of voluntary contraction and a small dose of NDP were each ineffective in blocking the cTBS-induced potentiation. However, when both interventions were combined, a depression was induced, and the magnitude of this depression increased with the dose of NDP. These findings suggest that Ca(2+) dynamics determine the polarity of LTP/LTD-like changes in vivo. L-VGCCs may act as molecular switches mediating metaplasticity induced by endogenous neuronal activation. PMID:20445045

  9. Multi-decade Measurements of the Long-Term Trends of Atmospheric Species by High-Spectral-Resolution Infrared Solar Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Chiou, Linda; Goldman, Aaron; Hannigan, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Solar absorption spectra were recorded for the first time in 5 years with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer at the US National solar Observatory on Kitt Peak in southern Arizona, USA (31.91 N latitude, 111.61 W longitude, 2.09 km altitude). The solar absorption spectra cover 750-1300 and 1850-5000 cm(sup -1) and were recorded on 20 days during March-June 2009. The measurements mark the continuation of a long-term record of atmospheric chemical composition measurements that have been used to quantify seasonal cycles and long-term trends of both tropospheric and stratospheric species from observations that began i 1977. Fits to the measured spectra have been performed, and they indicate the spectra obtained since return to operational status are nearly free of channeling and the instrument line shape function is well reproduced taking into account the measurement parameters. We report updated time series measurements of total columns for six atmospheric species and their analysis for seasonal cycles and long-term trends. An sn example, the time series fit shows a decrease in the annual increase rate i Montreal-Protocol-regulated chlorofluorocarbon CCL2F2 from 1.51 plus or minus 0.38% yr(sup -1) at the beginning of the time span to -1.54 plus or minus 1.28 yr(sup -1) at the end of the time span, 1 sigma, and hence provides evidence for the impact of those regulations on the trend.

  10. Cortical activation patterns during long-term memory retrieval of visually or haptically encoded objects and locations.

    PubMed

    Stock, Oliver; Röder, Brigitte; Burke, Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Rösler, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to delineate cortical networks that are activated when objects or spatial locations encoded either visually (visual encoding group, n=10) or haptically (haptic encoding group, n=10) had to be retrieved from long-term memory. Participants learned associations between auditorily presented words and either meaningless objects or locations in a 3-D space. During the retrieval phase one day later, participants had to decide whether two auditorily presented words shared an association with a common object or location. Thus, perceptual stimulation during retrieval was always equivalent, whereas either visually or haptically encoded object or location associations had to be reactivated. Moreover, the number of associations fanning out from each word varied systematically, enabling a parametric increase of the number of reactivated representations. Recall of visual objects predominantly activated the left superior frontal gyrus and the intraparietal cortex, whereas visually learned locations activated the superior parietal cortex of both hemispheres. Retrieval of haptically encoded material activated the left medial frontal gyrus and the intraparietal cortex in the object condition, and the bilateral superior parietal cortex in the location condition. A direct test for modality-specific effects showed that visually encoded material activated more vision-related areas (BA 18/19) and haptically encoded material more motor and somatosensory-related areas. A conjunction analysis identified supramodal and material-unspecific activations within the medial and superior frontal gyrus and the superior parietal lobe including the intraparietal sulcus. These activation patterns strongly support the idea that code-specific representations are consolidated and reactivated within anatomically distributed cell assemblies that comprise sensory and motor processing systems. PMID:18476766

  11. Projections of long-term changes in solar radiation based on CMIP5 climate models and their influence on energy yields of photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris; Henschel, Florian; Müller, Björn

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, for the planning and assessment of solar energy systems, the amount of solar radiation (sunlight) incident on the Earth's surface is assumed to be constant over the years. However, with changing climate and air pollution levels, solar resources may no longer be stable over time and undergo substantial decadal changes. Observational records covering the past decades confirm long-term changes in this quantity. Here we examine, how the latest generation of climate models used for the 5th IPCC report projects potential changes in surface solar radiation over the coming decades, and how this may affect, in combination with the expected greenhouse warming, solar power output from photovoltaic (PV) systems. For this purpose, projections up to the mid 21th century from 39 state of the art climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) are analysed globally and for selected key regions with major solar power production capacity. The large model ensemble allows to assess the degree of consistency of their projections. Models are largely consistent in the sign of the projected changes in solar radiation under cloud-free conditions as well as in surface temperatures over most of the globe, while still reasonably consistent over a considerable part of the globe in the sign of changes in cloudiness and associated changes in solar radiation. A first order estimate of the impact of solar radiation and temperature changes on energy yields of PV systems under the RPC8.5 scenario indicates statistically significant decreases in PV outputs in large parts of the world, but notable exceptions with positive trends in parts of Europe and the South-East of China. Projected changes between 2006 and 2049 under the RCP8.5 scenario overall are on the order of 1 % per decade for horizontal planes, but may be larger for tilted or tracked planes as well as on shorter (decadal) timescales. Related References: Wild, M., Folini, D., Henschel, F., and Müller, B. 2015: Projections of long-term changes in solar radiation based on CMIP5 climate models and their influence on energy yields of photovoltaic systems, submitted. Muller, B., Wild, M., Driesse, A., and Behrens, K., 2014: Rethinking solar resource assessments in the context of global dimming and brightening, Solar Energy, 99, 272-282. Wild, M. 2012: Enlightening Global Dimming and Brightening. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 27-37, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00074.1

  12. Long term efficacy of high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone pulses in active lupus nephritis. A 21-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, M; Brugnolo, F; Bertoni, E; Salvadori, M; Romagnani, S; Emmi, L

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of a single course of three high dose intravenous (i.v.) methylprednisolone (MP) pulses followed by low dose oral prednisone (PRED) was assessed in a group of patients with active lupus nephritis (LN). At 21 months after such therapeutic regimen in 10 out of 12 patients a complete clinical remission was found, in one patient a partial response with persistent moderate renal failure occurred, while one patient was refractory even to the additional administration of cyclophosphamide. The statistical analysis of repeated measures of a series of biological markers of LN, monitored over the course of the study, evidenced a significant improvement of serum creatinine (p < 0.05), C3 and C4 complement components (p < 0.05), 24-hour proteinuria (p < 0.02) and ESR values (p < 0.05). Moreover, a progressive and significant reduction of mean daily PRED dosage was reported (p < 0.05). We conclude that i.v. MP pulse therapy may exert a substantial long-term control of active LN and may induce steroid-sparing effects. PMID:8165443

  13. Long-Term Effects of Ammonia on the Behavioral Activity of the Aquatic Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Álvaro Alonso; Julio A. Camargo

    2009-01-01

    An appropriate approach to assess the effect of toxicants on aquatic animals is to monitor behavioral endpoints, as they are\\u000a a link between physiological and ecological processes. A group that can be exposed long-term to low toxic concentrations is\\u000a benthic macroinvertebrates, as their mobility in aquatic ecosystems is relatively limited. Therefore, the study of behavioral\\u000a long-term effects in this group

  14. Short-lived tectonic switch mechanism for long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Eruptive rates in volcanic arcs increase significantly after subduction mega-thrust earthquakes. Over short to intermediate time periods the link between mega-thrust earthquakes and arc response can be attributed to dynamic triggering processes or static stress changes, but a fundamental mechanism that controls long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes has not been proposed yet. Using geomechanical, geological, and geophysical arguments, we propose that increased eruption rates over longer timescales are due to the relaxation of the compressional regime that accompanies mega-thrust subduction zone earthquakes. More specifically, the reduction of the horizontal stress ?h promotes the occurrence of short-lived strike-slip kinematics rather than reverse faulting in the volcanic arc. The relaxation of the pre-earthquake compressional regime facilitates magma mobilisation by providing a short-circuit pathway to shallow depths by significantly increasing the hydraulic properties of the system. The timescale for the onset of strike-slip faulting depends on the degree of shear stress accumulated in the arc during inter-seismic periods, which in turn is connected to the degree of strain-partitioning at convergent margins. We performed Coulomb stress transfer analysis to determine the order of magnitude of the stress perturbations in present-day volcanic arcs in response to five recent mega-thrust earthquakes; the 2005 M8.6, 2007 M8.5, and 2007 M7.9 Sumatra earthquakes; the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake; and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake. We find that all but one the shallow earthquakes that occurred in the arcs of Sumatra, Chile and Japan show a marked lateral component. We suggests that the long-term response of volcanic arcs to subduction zone mega-thrust earthquakes will be manifested as predominantly strike-slip seismic events, and that these future earthquakes may be followed closely by indications of rising magma to shallower depths, e.g. surface inflation and seismic swarms.

  15. Long-term solar UV radiation reconstructed by ANN modelling with emphasis on spatial characteristics of input data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Feister; J. Junk; M. Woldt; A. Bais; A. Helbig; M. Janouch; W. Josefsson; A. Kazantzidis; A. Lindfors; P. N. den Outer; H. Slaper

    2008-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are efficient tools to derive solar UV radiation from measured meteorological parameters such as global radiation, aerosol optical depths and atmospheric column ozone. The ANN model has been tested with different combinations of data from the two sites Potsdam and Lindenberg, and used to reconstruct solar UV radiation at eight European sites by more than 100

  16. Long-term changes in solar wind elemental and isotopic ratios: A compairosn of two lunar ilmenites of different antiquities

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.H.; Pepin, R.O. (Univ. of Minneapolis, MN (USA))

    1989-05-01

    An ilmenite separate from lunar regolith breccia 79035, a sample presumed to have been exposed to solar wind more than 2 Ga ago, was analyzed for noble gas and nitrogen elemental and isotopic abundances by stepwise oxidation and pyrolysis. The gases appear to be distributed between two distinct reservoirs in the ilmenite, defined by release patterns and isotopic considerations. One of the reservoirs, near grain surfaces, yields elemental ratios that for the most part are solar while the other, sited at greater depths within grains, has severely fractionated elemental abundances and generally heavier isotopic ratios as well. Xenon provides an exception to the solar abundance pattern in the near-surface reservoir, being enhanced by about a factor of 2 relative to the expected value. A comparison of the 79035 separate with a previously analyzed ilmenite from soil 71501, which received its solar wind exposure much more recently, indicates that the two-fold xenon enhancement occurs in the fractionated reservoir as well as the solar one, and that it may therefore be attributable to a change in the solar wind elemental abundances. Other differences between the two ilmenites occur in helium and neon isotopic ratios and in He/Ar elemental ratios. Since mineralogical influences on retentivities of the gases in the two samples should be the same, and possible contributions of non-solar wind components to one ilmenite in preference to the other can generally be eliminated or accounted for, all of these differences may reflect changes in the solar wind over time.

  17. Long-Term Community Dynamics of Small Landbirds with and Without Exposure to Extensive Disturbance from Military Training Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, James W.; Gipson, Philip S.; Althoff, Donald P.; Pontius, Jeffrey S.

    2010-02-01

    Military training activities are known to impact individual species, yet our understanding of how such activities influence animal communities is limited. In this study, we used long-term data in a case study approach to examine the extent to which the local small landbird community differed between a site in northeast Kansas that experienced intensive disturbance from military training activities (Ft. Riley Military Installation) and a similar, nearby site that experienced minimal human disturbance (Konza Prairie Biological Station). In addition, we characterized how the regional pool of potential colonizers influenced local community dynamics using Breeding Bird Survey data. From 1991 to 2001, most species of small terrestrial landbirds (73%) recorded during breeding surveys were found at both sites and the mean annual richness at Ft. Riley (39.0 ± 2.86 [SD]) was very similar to that of Konza Prairie (39.4 ± 2.01). Richness was maintained at relatively constant levels despite compositional changes because colonizations compensated local extinctions at both sites. These dynamics were driven primarily by woodland species that exhibited stochastic losses and gains and were present at a low local and regional abundance. Our results suggest that military training activities may mimic natural disturbances for some species in this area because the small landbird community did not differ markedly between sites with and sites without extensive human disturbance. Although our results suggest that military training is not associated with large changes in the avian community, additional studies are needed to determine if this pattern is found in other ecological communities.

  18. Regeneration-associated WNT Signaling Is Activated in Long-term Reconstituting AC133bright Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Beghini, Alessandro; Corlazzoli, Francesca; Del Giacco, Luca; Re, Matteo; Lazzaroni, Francesca; Brioschi, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio; Ferrazzi, Fulvia; Ghilardi, Anna; Righi, Marco; Turrini, Mauro; Mignardi, Marco; Cesana, Clara; Bronte, Vincenzo; Nilsson, Mats; Morra, Enrica; Cairoli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous clonal disorder characterized by two molecularly distinct self-renewing leukemic stem cell (LSC) populations most closely related to normal progenitors and organized as a hierarchy. A requirement for WNT/?-catenin signaling in the pathogenesis of AML has recently been suggested by a mouse model. However, its relationship to a specific molecular function promoting retention of self-renewing leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) in human remains elusive. To identify transcriptional programs involved in the maintenance of a self-renewing state in LICs, we performed the expression profiling in normal (n = 10) and leukemic (n = 33) human long-term reconstituting AC133+ cells, which represent an expanded cell population in most AML patients. This study reveals the ligand-dependent WNT pathway activation in AC133bright AML cells and shows a diffuse expression and release of WNT10B, a hematopoietic stem cell regenerative-associated molecule. The establishment of a primary AC133+ AML cell culture (A46) demonstrated that leukemia cells synthesize and secrete WNT ligands, increasing the levels of dephosphorylated ?-catenin in vivo. We tested the LSC functional activity in AC133+ cells and found significant levels of engraftment upon transplantation of A46 cells into irradiated Rag2-/-?c-/- mice. Owing to the link between hematopoietic regeneration and developmental signaling, we transplanted A46 cells into developing zebrafish. This system revealed the formation of ectopic structures by activating dorsal organizer markers that act downstream of the WNT pathway. In conclusion, our findings suggest that AC133bright LSCs are promoted by misappropriating homeostatic WNT programs that control hematopoietic regeneration. PMID:23308055

  19. Long Term Ecological Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scott Cooper

    Students analyze data on temperature and precipitation collected from 26 different Long Term Ecological Research sites and compare them with annual net primary productivity. The students then form an ecological rule to explain their results.

  20. Activation instead of blocking mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuitry is a preferred modality in the long term treatment of reward deficiency syndrome (RDS): a commentary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Blum; Amanda Chen; Thomas JH Chen; Eric R Braverman; Jeffrey Reinking; Seth H Blum; Kimberly Cassel; Bernard W Downs; Roger L Waite; Lonna Williams; Thomas J Prihoda; Mallory M Kerner; Tomas Palomo; David E Comings; Howard Tung; Patrick Rhoades; Marlene Oscar-Berman

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Based on neurochemical and genetic evidence, we suggest that both prevention and treatment of multiple addictions, such as dependence to alcohol, nicotine and glucose, should involve a biphasic approach. Thus, acute treatment should consist of preferential blocking of postsynaptic Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) dopamine receptors (D1-D5), whereas long term activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system should involve activation

  1. Constancy and variability of Strombolian eruptive activity: long-term analysis of infrared surveillance videos from Stromboli Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddeucci, J.; Palladino, D. M.; Bernini, D.; Sottili, G.; Andronico, D.; Cristaldi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Persistent Strombolian activity characterizes open-conduit volcanoes worldwide. Among these, Stromboli (Italy) is one of the best monitored by permanent networks that include visible and infrared cameras. Continuous surveillance videos from the INGV archive allow us to parameterize the dynamics of explosive events in the period 2005-2009. Here we focus on three consecutive days per each year, by analyzing a total of 4275 explosive events from the different active vents. Via image analysis of the video frames, we obtained the time lapse among consecutive events, and duration and geometrical parameters (maximum height, width, and ejection angle) of individual jets. Long-term average values of the above parameters quantitatively define the activity baseline, as follows: inter-event time lapse 5 minutes (standard deviation 5 minutes); jet duration 15 s (5 s); jet height 70 m (24 m); jet width 33 m (10 m); jet axis at angle of 3° (16°) to the vertical. Significant deviations from these baseline values are observed over different (minute to year) time-scales, e.g.: peak jet durations and heights may reach up to 120 s and 251 m, respectively. The analysis of the mutual relationships among the eruptive parameters, and their temporal variation patterns at the different vents, provide a statistically based groundwork to define the dynamics of Strombolian activity. In this regard, a higher aspect ratio (height over width) of the jet seems to reflect increasing depth of the bubble burst beneath the magma free surface in the conduit, to be compared with seismic- and acoustic-derived information. Also, the remarkable constancy of jet angles at specific vents, notwithstanding the occurrence of a significant collapse of the whole crater area during the 2007 eruptive crisis, reveals self-similar resumption of the branching, shallow conduit system and provides insights into its connection to the feeder dike. The robust statistically based definition of the Stromboli behaviour can be helpful to determine the intensity thresholds of the activity and the areas prone to ejecta dispersal, relevant for hazard assessment.

  2. Solar cycle variation of stratospheric ozone: Multiple regression analysis of long-term satellite data sets and comparisons with models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Soukharev; L. L. Hood

    2006-01-01

    Previous multiple regression analyses of the solar cycle variation of stratospheric ozone are improved by (1) analyzing three independent satellite ozone data sets with lengths extending up to 25 years and (2) comparing column ozone measurements with ozone profile data during the 1992–2003 period when no major volcanic eruptions occurred. Results show that the vertical structure of the tropical ozone

  3. Long-term changes in solar wind elemental and isotopic ratios: A compairosn of two lunar ilmenites of different antiquities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Becker; R. O. Pepin

    1989-01-01

    An ilmenite separate from lunar regolith breccia 79035, a sample presumed to have been exposed to solar wind more than 2 Ga ago, was analyzed for noble gas and nitrogen elemental and isotopic abundances by stepwise oxidation and pyrolysis. The gases appear to be distributed between two distinct reservoirs in the ilmenite, defined by release patterns and isotopic considerations. One

  4. Solar cycle variation of stratospheric ozone: Multiple regression analysis of long-term satellite data sets and comparisons with models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Soukharev; L. L. Hood

    2006-01-01

    Previous multiple regression analyses of the solar cycle variation of stratospheric ozone are improved by (1) analyzing three independent satellite ozone data sets with lengths extending up to 25 years and (2) comparing column ozone measurements with ozone profile data during the 1992-2003 period when no major volcanic eruptions occurred. Results show that the vertical structure of the tropical ozone

  5. Influence of NAO and clouds on long-term seasonal variations of surface solar radiation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiacchio, Marc; Wild, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This study is an analysis of the seasonal all-sky surface solar radiation variability in Europe during 1970-2000 using surface observations from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA). On the basis of the annual means period 1970-1985, there is a statistically significant decline of -3.0% decade-1 (-3.8 Wm-2 decade-1) followed by a nonsignificant rise of 0.3% decade-1 (0.4 Wm-2 decade-1) during 1985-2000. The behavior of the solar radiation for spring is similar to the annual series and has the strongest increase of 1.6% decade-1 (2.5 Wm-2 decade-1) during 1985-2000. In summer a similar evolution to the annual and spring time series is shown but has a stronger decline of -3.2% decade-1 (-6.8 Wm-2 decade-1) during 1970-1985. A small positive nonsignificant trend is reported for the winter means time series while a statistically significant negative trend of -2.5% decade-1 (-2.1 Wm-2 decade-1) was found in autumn during 1970-2000. By comparing variations in all-sky solar radiation with changes in cloud cover and NAO, we attribute the winter and autumn trends mainly to the NAO through the modification of mid-to-low cloud cover in southern Europe and the spring and summer trends to mid-to-low cloud cover in northern Europe. However, because the cloud cover and solar radiation relationship weakens in the low-frequency variability, it suggests that other effects such as aerosols may also play a role. In addition, aerosols could be interfering with the relationship between solar radiation and NAO, contributing to a strengthening of their correlation in the low-frequency variability during winter and autumn.

  6. Establishing a Long-term 30 Year Global Solar Resource at 10 km Resolution: Preliminary Results From Test Processing and Continuing Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Mikovitz, J. C.; Cox, S. J.; Zhang, T.; Perez, R.; Schlemmer, J.; Sengupta, M.; Knapp, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    As renewable energy system become more prevalent, improved global long-term, up-to-date records are needed to better understand and quantify the solar resource and variability. Toward this end, a project involving NASA, DOE NREL, SUNY-Albany and the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) was initiated to provide NREL with a solar resource mapping production system for improved depiction of global long-term solar resources that provides the capacity for continual updates. This new production system is made possible by the efforts of NOAA and NASA to completely reprocess the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data set that provides satellite visible and infrared radiances together with retrieved cloud and surface properties on a 3-hourly basis beginning from July 1983 at an effective 10 km resolution. Thus, working with SUNY and NCDC, NASA will develop and test an improved production system that will yield an operational production system for NREL to continually update the Earth's solar resource. In this presentation, we provide a general overview of this project together with samples of the new solar irradiance mapped data products and comparisons to surface measurements at various locations across the world. Here, a three-year prototype of the anticipated ISCCP data set called GridSat is used to assess the algorithms and demonstrate the production system. GridSat maps together cross-calibrated visible and IR reflectances from all the world's geosynchronous satellites at 10 km and 3-hourly respectively. The results are shown and discussed in comparison to existing solar data products. Additionally, the solar irradiance values are compared to various Baseline Surface Radiation Network surface site measurements and other high quality surface measurements. The statistics of the agreement between the measurements and new satellite estimates are also reviewed. The team is now testing a beta release of the revised ISCCP data set through the NOAA NCDC. This data set also includes the cross-calibrated AVHRR polar orbiter imager measurements that will allow a true global coverage. Lastly, we will identify the next steps in the production of the data set including some accuracy goals as the current production system is adapted to the new ISCCP data products.

  7. Role of morphology and crystallinity of nanorod and planar electron transport layers on the performance and long term durability of perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakharuddin, Azhar; Di Giacomo, Francesco; Ahmed, Irfan; Wali, Qamar; Brown, Thomas M.; Jose, Rajan

    2015-06-01

    High efficiency is routinely reported in CH3NH3PbI3-xClx sensitized mesoscopic solar cells (PSCs) employing planar and scaffold architectures; however, a systematic comparison of their photovoltaic performance under similar experimental conditions and their long term stability have so far not been discussed. In this paper, we compare the performance and durability of PSCs employing these two device configurations and conclude that although a planar architecture routinely provides high initial photoconversion efficiency (PCE), particularly high open-circuit voltage (VOC), a scaffold is crucial to achieve long term durable performance of such devices. In a comparative study of scaffold (rutile nanorods, NRs) vs. planar devices, the efficiency in latter dropped off by one order of magnitude in ?300 h despite their similar initial PCE of ?12%. We compared the performance and the durability of two types of scaffolds, i.e., pristine and TiCl4 treated NRs, and observed that the pristine NRs showed >10% improvement in the PCE after ?1300 h whereas the cells employing post-treated NR scaffold retained ?60% of initial value. We address the origin of the different photovoltaic performance of planar and scaffold devices in the context of photoanode morphology and its possible effect on the cell durability.

  8. Long-term soil microbial community and enzyme activity responses to an integrated cropping-livestock system in a semi-arid region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study is part of a larger long-term project to develop and evaluate integrated crop and livestock systems in order to reduce dependence on underground water sources by optimizing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) production in the Texas High Plains of U.S. Microbial communities and activities were e...

  9. Exploring Behavioral Markers of Long-Term Physical Activity Maintenance: A Case Study of System Identification Modeling within a Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hekler, Eric B.; Buman, Matthew P.; Poothakandiyil, Nikhil; Rivera, Daniel E.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Aiken Morgan, Adrienne; McCrae, Christina S.; Roberts, Beverly L.; Marsiske, Michael; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Efficacious interventions to promote long-term maintenance of physical activity are not well understood. Engineers have developed methods to create dynamical system models for modeling idiographic (i.e., within-person) relationships within systems. In behavioral research, dynamical systems modeling may assist in decomposing intervention effects…

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of a Long-Term Internet-Delivered Worksite Health Promotion Programme on Physical Activity and Nutrition: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robroek, Suzan J. W.; Polinder, Suzanne; Bredt, Folef J.; Burdorf, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a long-term workplace health promotion programme on physical activity (PA) and nutrition. In total, 924 participants enrolled in a 2-year cluster randomized controlled trial, with departments (n = 74) within companies (n = 6) as the unit of randomization. The intervention was compared with a…

  11. CdTe thin film solar cells - direct evidence for high performance and long-term stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, D.

    Ten years ago thin-film CdTe/CdS p-n heterojunction solar cells were prepared by physical vapor deposition of p-CdTe films at atmospheric pressure in an inert atmosphere. Under simulated space illumination efficiencies of around 6 percent - corresponding to values of nearly 7 percent under terrestrial illumination - were measured at that time. After storage of the unencapsulated cells at normal atmosphere for over 10 years, no degradation was observed. Constant internal quantum efficiency of over 90 percent between 520 and 820 nm and short-circuit-current densities of more than 20 mA/sq cm under Am1 solar radiation have recently been measured on these 'historic' cells. Additional illumination tests for 170 days gave no indication for any light degradation.

  12. Long-term variations in solar activity and a fossil solar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlatov, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    An analysis of sunspot groups from 1610 to the present has indicated that the Gnevyshev-Ohl (G-O) rule has reversal cycles with periods of 200 years (Tlatov, 2013). The next G-O rule reversal took place in the N22-23 Hale pair of cycles. In the following several pairs, odd cycles can be weaker than in the previous even cycles. Even and odd cycles differ because a magnetic field is added to the dynamo field. The value of such a field (about 5% of the dynamo field intensity) has been estimated based on latitudinal differences in the sunspot characteristics between even and odd cycles.

  13. Short and long-term determination of the TDRS solar reflectivity parameter using the Goddard trajectory determination system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bobrowsky; P. Y. Kay; A. K. Drew; S. L. Hoge; O. O. Cuevas

    1988-01-01

    Two aspects of the orbit determination of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-East (TDRS-E) are considered. The TDRS-E solar reflectivity parameter, as it affects the accuracy of the determination and propagation of the TDRS-E geosynchronous orbit, varies seasonally due to the changing declination of the sun. Orbit solutions are carried out using varying tracking data arc lengths to ascertain the

  14. Effects of long-term elevated CO2, warming, and prolonged drought on Pleurozium-associated diazotrophic activity and abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrnum, Kristine; Priemé, Anders; Michelsen, Anders

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation is the primary natural influx of N to terrestrial ecosystems, and changes in N2 fixation may have consequences for primary productivity and thus ecosystem function. We studied the activity and abundance of diazotrophs associated with the feather moss Pleurozium schreberi in a temperate heathland, after seven years of global change manipulations, including elevated atmospheric CO2 (510 ppm), increased temperature (0.5-1.5 ° C), and prolonged pre-summer droughts (4-6 weeks /year). Acetylene reduction assay was carried out monthly to monitor N2 fixation rates throughout one year, while nif H copy abundance, serving as a diazotroph abundance estimate, was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Prolonged summer droughts significantly increased both N2 fixation and nif H copy abundance, contrasting previous studies that demonstrate a direct negative correlation between N2 fixation and water availability. A shift in the relative abundance of N2-fixing bacteria from the green, upper parts of the moss stem to the lower, brown parts was observed. This shift could make diazotrophs less sensitive to desiccation, enabling N2 fixation to be upheld for longer during drought and thus causing higher abundance. Increased temperature likewise had a positive effect on the diazotroph abundance, although this did not translate into increased activity. Possibly, warming protects diazotrophs during extreme cold events, while actual N2 fixation is limited by water, disregarding a rise in potential N2 fixation caused by higher abundance. Increased CO2 caused no significant diazotroph response. Our study showed that long-term increase in temperature and recurrent drought events cause higher diazotroph abundance in Pleurozium schreberi and thus enhance the potential N2 fixations rate. Furthermore, our results indicate that diazotrophs may alter colonization patterns and thereby actively remain in the moss fraction less likely affected by desiccation. In consequence, Pleurozium-associated N2 fixation may become an even more important contributor of N for terrestrial ecosystems in a predicted future climate.

  15. Long-Term Impacts of Fire and Mass Wasting on Solar Loading and Stream Heating in Mountain Streams of Central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welcker, C. W.; Buffington, J. M.; Rieman, B. E.; Luce, C. H.; McKean, J.

    2005-12-01

    The immediate impacts of watershed disturbances such as forest fires, debris flows, and hyperconcentrated flows to lotic systems can include the local decimation of fish, amphibian, and insect populations, but the long-term impacts to biota may have more to do with the trajectory of stream habitat recovery from disturbance. This highlights the importance of understanding the mechanisms of disturbance and the timing of recovery to evaluate the full implications of disturbance to streams. Our work in the Idaho Batholith focuses on stream temperature because the distribution of cold water habitat is a key determinant of the presence of salmonids and because previous work has shown that recently disturbed streams are significantly warmer than undisturbed streams. The present study builds upon this work by looking at the effects of fire and mass wasting separately and in combination, as compared to undisturbed reference streams. We also studied different ages of disturbance from recent (1995-2003) to older (1964). Solar radiation is expected to dominate the heat budgets of these stream reaches, so the key variables of solar loading, stream width and depth, shading (measured with hemispherical photo analysis), and estimated velocity, were compared to the reach-scale stream heating to understand the mechanisms of thermal disturbance and recovery. Preliminary results indicate that mass-wasting has a stronger impact on stream heating than fires, and that while streams return to pre-disturbance conditions after 40 years, there is little sign of recovery 10 years after fires or fires and mass wasting. These results can be used to assess the long term risks to salmonid habitat due to watershed disturbances.

  16. Cosmic Ray Hysteresis as Evidence for Time-dependent Diffusive Processes in the Long Term Solar Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogallagher, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional time-dependent diffusion-convection model for the modulation of cosmic rays is presented. This model predicts that the observed intensity at a given time is approximately equal to the intensity given by the time independent diffusion convection solution under interplanetary conditions which existed a time iota in the past, (U(t sub o) = U sub s(t sub o - tau)) where iota is the average time spent by a particle inside the modulating cavity. Delay times in excess of several hundred days are possible with reasonable modulation parameters. Interpretation of phase lags observed during the 1969 to 1970 solar maximum in terms of this model suggests that the modulating region is probably not less than 10 a.u. and maybe as much as 35 a.u. in extent.

  17. Modeling Cu Migration in CdTe Solar Cells Under Device-Processing and Long-Term Stability Conditions (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Teeter, G.; Asher, S.

    2008-05-01

    An impurity migration model for systems with material interfaces is applied to Cu migration in CdTe solar cells. In the model, diffusion fluxes are calculated from the Cu chemical potential gradient. Inputs to the model include Cu diffusivities, solubilities, and segregation enthalpies in CdTe, CdS and contact materials. The model yields transient and equilibrium Cu distributions in CdTe devices during device processing and under field-deployed conditions. Preliminary results for Cu migration in CdTe PV devices using available diffusivity and solubility data from the literature show that Cu segregates in the CdS, a phenomenon that is commonly observed in devices after back-contact processing and/or stress conditions.

  18. Modeling Cu Migration in CdTe Solar Cells Under Device-Processing and Long-Term Stability Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Teeter, G.; Asher, S.

    2008-05-01

    An impurity migration model for systems with material interfaces is applied to Cu migration in CdTe solar cells. In the model, diffusion fluxes are calculated from the Cu chemical potential gradient. Inputs to the model include Cu diffusivities, solubilities, and segregation enthalpies in CdTe, CdS and contact materials. The model yields transient and equilibrium Cu distributions in CdTe devices during device processing and under field-deployed conditions. Preliminary results for Cu migration in CdTe photovoltaic devices using available diffusivity and solubility data from the literature show that Cu segregates in the CdS, a phenomenon that is commonly observed in devices after back-contact processing and/or stress conditions.

  19. A long-term study of new particle formation in a coastal environment: meteorology, gas phase and solar radiation implications.

    PubMed

    Sorribas, M; Adame, J A; Olmo, F J; Vilaplana, J M; Gil-Ojeda, M; Alados-Arboledas, L

    2015-04-01

    New particle formation (NPF) was investigated at a coastal background site in Southwest Spain over a four-year period using a Scanning Particle Mobility Sizer (SMPS). The goals of the study were to characterise the NPF and to investigate their relationship to meteorology, gas phase (O3, SO2, CO and NO2) and solar radiation (UVA, UVB and global). A methodology for identifying and classifying the NPF was implemented using the wind direction and modal concentrations as inputs. NPF events showed a frequency of 24% of the total days analysed. The mean duration was 9.2±4.2 h. Contrary to previous studies conducted in other locations, the NPF frequency reached its maximum during cold seasons for approximately 30% of the days. The lowest frequency took place in July with 10%, and the seasonal wind pattern was found to be the most important parameter influencing the NPF frequency. The mean formation rate was 2.2±1.7 cm(-3) s(-1), with a maximum in the spring and early autumn and a minimum during the summer and winter. The mean growth rate was 3.8±2.4 nm h(-1) with higher values occurring from spring to autumn. The mean and seasonal formation and growth rates are in agreement with previous observations from continental sites in the Northern Hemisphere. NPF classification of different classes was conducted to explore the effect of synoptic and regional-scale patterns on NPF and growth. The results show that under a breeze regime, the temperature indirectly affects NPF events. Higher temperatures increase the strength of the breeze recirculation, favouring gas accumulation and subsequent NPF appearance. Additionally, the role of high relative humidity in inhibiting the NPF was evinced during synoptic scenarios. The remaining meteorological variables (RH), trace gases (CO and NO), solar radiation, PM10 and condensation sink, showed a moderate or high connection with both formation and growth rates. PMID:25618818

  20. Abdel Wahab M., El-Metwally M., Hassan R., Lefvre M., Oumbe A., Wald L., 2008. Assessing surface solar irradiance in Northern Africa desert climate and its long-term variations from Meteosat images. International

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the SSI. These long-term variations from 1985 to 2005 show that these four nations experience dimming, also called surface solar irradiance (SSI). The SSI intervenes in many aspects in human, fauna and electricity from solar radiation. The SSI is the sum of the direct radiation, i.e., received from

  1. The effects of acute and long-term lithium treatments on trkB neurotrophin receptor activation in the mouse hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomi Rantamäki; Juha E. A. Knuuttila; Marie-Estelle Hokkanen; Eero Castrén

    2006-01-01

    As brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor trkB are linked to the etiology and treatment of mood disorders, we examined the effects of acute and long-term treatment of mood-stabilizer lithium on trkB activation and signaling and BDNF levels in the mouse anterior cingulate cortex (AC) and hippocampus (HC). The trkB activity was measured using specific antibodies against the phosphorylated

  2. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Protein Kinase Activation Is Required for Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Long-Term Depression in Hippocampal Area CA1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean M. Gallagher; Christine A. Daly; Mark F. Bear; Kimberly M. Huber

    2004-01-01

    Activation of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) induces long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission that relies on dendritic protein synthesis. We investigated the signal transduction pathways required for mGluR-LTD to identify candidate mechanisms for mGluR regulation of synaptic protein synthesis. Our results demonstrate a role for extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), a subclass of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs),

  3. Long-term administering low anticoagulant activity heparin can lessen rat hepatic fibrosis induced by either CCl 4 or porcine serum injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wencai Li; Jinsheng Zhang; Quangcun Huang; Hongguang Zhu; Xuerong Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Background\\/aimHeparin or heparin-derived molecules have been demonstrated to have a renoprotective activity in a number of experimental nephropathies and anti-fibrotic effect on pulmonary fibrosis induced by Bleomycin. However, the effectiveness of low anticoagulant activity heparin (LAAH) in the treatment of liver fibrosis has not been well defined. We are here demonstrating by both biochemical and morphological methods that long term

  4. Naringin Enhances CaMKII Activity and Improves Long-Term Memory in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Mei; Yang, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Lian-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The Amyloid-? (A?)-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity is an underlying mechanism of memory loss in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in human and mouse models. The inhibition of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation plays an important role in long-term memory. In this study, we isolated naringin from Pomelo peel (a Citrus species) and studied its effect on long-term memory in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Three-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a vehicle group, two naringin (either 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight/day) groups, or an Aricept (2 mg/kg body weight/day) group. After 16 weeks of treatment, we observed that treatment with naringin (100 mg/kg body weight/day) enhanced the autophosphorylation of CaMKII, increased the phosphorylation of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPA) receptor at a CaMKII-dependent site and improved long-term learning and memory ability. These findings suggest that the increase in CaMKII activity may be one of the mechanisms by which naringin improves long-term cognitive function in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. PMID:23478434

  5. Autophagosomal I?B? Degradation Plays a Role in the Long Term Control of Tumor Necrosis Factor-?-induced Nuclear Factor-?B (NF-?B) Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Colleran, Amy; Ryan, Aideen; O'Gorman, Angela; Mureau, Coralie; Liptrot, Catherine; Dockery, Peter; Fearnhead, Howard; Egan, Laurence J.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factor NF-?B is persistently activated in many chronic inflammatory diseases and cancers. The short term regulation of NF-?B is well understood, but little is known about the mechanisms of its long term activation. We studied the effect of a single application of TNF-? on NF-?B activity for up to 48 h in intestinal epithelial cells. Results show that NF-?B remained persistently activated up to 48 h after TNF-? and that the long term activation of NF-?B was accompanied by a biphasic degradation of I?B?. The first phase of I?B? degradation was proteasome-dependent, but the second was not. Further investigation showed that TNF-? stimulated formation of autophagosomes in intestinal epithelial cells and that I?B? co-localized with autophagosomal vesicles. Pharmacological or genetic blockade of autophagosome formation or the inhibition of lysosomal proteases decreased TNF-?-induced degradation of I?B? and lowered NF-?B target gene expression. Together, these findings indicate a role of autophagy in the control of long term NF-?B activity. Because abnormalities in autophagy have been linked to ineffective innate immunity, we propose that alterations in NF-?B may mediate this effect. PMID:21454695

  6. Long-term response to highly active antiretroviral therapy with lopinavir\\/ritonavir in pre-treated vertically HIV-infected children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Larru ´; Salvador Resino; Jose M. Bellon; M. Isabel de Jose ´; Claudia Fortuny; M. Luisa Navarro; M. Dolores Gurbindo; Pere Soler Palacõ ´ n; Juan Antonio Leon; Manuel Asensi; M. JoseMellado; M. Angeles Munoz-Fernandez

    2008-01-01

    Background: Immune recovery after prolonged highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with lopinavir\\/ritonavir has been reported in adults but not in children. Our study aimed at evaluating the long-term use of lopinavir\\/ritonavir among children in a clinical setting. Methods: We carried out a retrospective study on 69 protease inhibitor (PI)-experienced vertically HIV- infected children on HAART containing lopinavir\\/ritonavir. We analysed the

  7. Long-Term Effects of a Standardized Complex Mixture of Urban Dust Particulate on the Metabolic Activation of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Human Cells in Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara Musafia-Jeknic; Brinda Mahadevan; Clifford Pereira; William M Baird

    2005-01-01

    Humans are exposed to complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. We examined the long term effects of a standard reference material (SRM) 1649a over time on the metabolic activation and DNA adduct formation by two carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and dibenzo(a,l)pyrene (DBP) in the human mammary carcinoma derived cell line MCF-7. PAH-DNA adduct analysis, cytochrome P450 (CYP)

  8. Solidphase bioassays and soil microbial activities to evaluate PAH-spiked soil ecotoxicity after a long-term bioremediation process simulating landfarming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmi Hamdi; Saoussen Benzarti; Levonas Manusadžianas; Isao Aoyama; Naceur Jedidi

    2007-01-01

    The residual ecotoxicity of long-term bioremediated soils concomitantly spiked with three PAHs at four levels (15, 75, 150, 300mg ? 3 PAHskg?1 soil) was evaluated using physico-chemical analyses, solid-phase bioassays and soil microbial activities. The pot-scale bioremediation process consisted of weekly moderate waterings in the presence or absence of sewage sludge compost (SSC) under greenhouse conditions. After 15 months, anthracene

  9. Long-term Forskolin Stimulation Induces AMPK Activation and Thereby Enhances Tight Junction Formation in Human Placental Trophoblast BeWo Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Egawa; H. Kamata; A. Kushiyama; H. Sakoda; M. Fujishiro; N. Horike; M. Yoneda; Y. Nakatsu; Guo Ying; Zhang Jun; Y. Tsuchiya; K. Takata; H. Kurihara; T. Asano

    2008-01-01

    BeWo cells, derived from human choriocarcinoma, have been known to respond to forskolin or cAMP analogues by differentiating into multinucleated cells- like syncytiotrophoblasts on the surfaces of chorionic villi of the human placenta. In this study, we demonstrated that long-term treatment with forskolin enhances the tight junction (TJ) formation in human placental BeWo cells. Interestingly, AMPK activation and phosphorylation of

  10. Long-term conditions.

    PubMed

    2015-03-25

    Technology enabled care services (TECS), which include technologies such as telehealth, telecare, telemedicine and self-care apps, are designed to help people manage long-term conditions and retain as much independence as possible. The NHS Commissioning Assembly has published TECS Resource for Commissioners, a toolkit that raises awareness of the range of TECS available and their benefits to patients and professionals, supports commissioners to collaborate with providers to implement TECS, and advises how to create a TECS strategy, oversee implementation plans and ensure effective evaluation. The publication is at tinyurl.com/khsebyr. PMID:25806457

  11. Reassessment of the long-term trends in surface solar radiation over Europe by means of a homogenized dataset (1939-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Wild, Martin; Guijarro, Jose; Brunetti, Michele; Mystakidis, Stefanos; Hakuba, Maria

    2014-05-01

    A widespread reduction of surface solar radiation (SSR) has been well established and documented from the 1950s to the 1980s, and an opposite trend has been detected in many regions of the world since the 1980s. This decrease and increase in SSR has been defined as "global dimming" and "brightening" periods, respectively. Nevertheless, the importance of the availability of high-quality SSR data in order to estimate long-term trends is well known, particularly with respect to the quality and homogeneity of the databases. This work presents a reassessment and update until December 2011 of the trends in SSR over Europe, which is based on the 56 longest and homogenized series available at the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA). The mean annual SSR series show an increase from the late 1930s to the early 1950s, followed by a reduction until mid-1980s, and ending with an increase up to 2011. During the period 1939-2011 the trend is negative and significant on annual basis, with a decrease of 3.6 Wm-2 over the whole period. This implies that the trend in SSR cannot be at the origin of the warming over Europe observed during this time. Similar results are obtained in different regions, especially in Central and Eastern Europe. On the other hand, updated records until 2013 in Potsdam (Germany) confirm that the winter 2013 was the least sunny one since the beginning of measurements in the 1930s.

  12. Sustainable development and next generation's health: a long-term perspective about the consequences of today's activities for food safety.

    PubMed

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Petrini, Carlo; Mantovani, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Development is defined sustainable when it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Pivoting on social, environmental and economic aspects of food chain sustainability, this paper presents the concept of sustainable food safety based on the prevention of risks and burden of poor health for generations to come. Under this respect, the assessment of long-term, transgenerational risks is still hampered by serious scientific uncertainties. Critical issues to the development of a sustainable food safety framework may include: endocrine disrupters as emerging contaminants that specifically target developing organisms; toxicological risks assessment in Countries at the turning point of development; translating knowledge into toxicity indexes to support risk management approaches, such as hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP); the interplay between chemical hazards and social determinants. Efforts towards the comprehensive knowledge and management of key factors of sustainable food safety appear critical to the effectiveness of the overall sustainability policies. PMID:19567981

  13. Focal epileptiform activity in the prefrontal cortex is associated with long-term attention and sociability deficits

    PubMed Central

    Hernan, Amanda E.; Alexander, Abigail; Jenks, Kyle R.; Barry, Jeremy; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Isaeva, Elena; Holmes, Gregory L.; Scott, Rod C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a well-described association between childhood epilepsy and pervasive cognitive and behavioral deficits. Often these children not only have ictal EEG events, but also frequent interictal abnormalities. The precise role of these interictal discharges in cognition remains unclear. In order to understand the relationship between frequent epileptiform discharges during neurodevelopment and cognition later in life, we developed a model of frequent focal interictal spikes (IIS). Postnatal day (p) 21 rats received injections of bicuculline methiodine into the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Injections were repeated in order to achieve 5 consecutive days of transient inhibitory/excitatory imbalance resulting in IIS. Short-term plasticity (STP) and behavioral outcomes were studied in adulthood. IIS is associated with a significant increase in STP bilaterally in the PFC. IIS rats did not show working memory deficits, but rather showed marked inattentiveness without significant alterations in motivation, anxiety or hyperactivity. Rats also demonstrated significant deficits in social behavior. We conclude that GABAergic blockade during early-life and resultant focal IIS in the PFC disrupt neural networks and are associated with long-term consequences for behavior at a time when IIS are no longer present, and thus may have important implications for ADHD and autism spectrum disorder associated with childhood epilepsy. PMID:24269731

  14. Leptin affects adenylate cyclase activity in H9c2 cardiac cell line: effects of short- and long-term exposure.

    PubMed

    Illiano, Gennaro; Naviglio, Silvio; Pagano, Mario; Spina, Annamaria; Chiosi, Emilio; Barbieri, Michelangela; Paolisso, Giuseppe

    2002-07-01

    Leptin has been hypothesized to be a pathophysiologic link between obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Because the adenylate cyclase (AC) system is a main effector of beta-adrenergic receptors and leptin has been shown to modulate AC activity in other cell lines, a leptin impact on cardiac AC activity was hypothesized. Therefore, acute and chronic effects of leptin on a rat cardiac cell line (H9c2) were investigated. Leptin affected both basal (+ 13% at 30 min and -16.4% after 18 h v untreated cells) and catecholamine-stimulated AC activity (isoproterenol + leptin at 30 min or 18 h was +21% v untreated cells; norepinephrine + leptin at 30 min was +38.8% v untreated cells; and norepinephrine + leptin at 18 h was +6% v untreated cells). Thus, long-term leptin treatment was associated with a reduced AC activity and a different responsiveness to catecholamines. The AC activity on leptin treatment was accompanied by changes in levels of proteins structurally or functionally related to AC complex (AC, Gas, Gai, p21-ras). These data indicate that the AC complex is profoundly affected at more than one level by leptin treatment in the H9c2 cardiac cell line. Differences in AC activity after short- and long-term exposure to leptin and the interaction between leptin and catecholamine might provide further insight to the understanding of the development of hypertension and congestive heart failure in obese patients. PMID:12118913

  15. Induction of long-term oscillations in the ? frequency band by nAChR activation in rat hippocampal CA3 area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Ge, X Y; Wang, J G; Wang, Y L; Wang, Y; Yu, Y; Li, P P; Lu, C B

    2015-08-20

    The hippocampal neuronal network oscillation at ? frequency band (? oscillation) is generated by the precise interaction between interneurons and principle cells. ? oscillation is associated with attention, learning and memory and is impaired in the diseased conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) plays an important role in the regulation of hippocampal neurotransmission and network activity. It is not known whether nicotine modulates plasticity of network activity at ? oscillations in the hippocampus. In this study we investigated the effects of nicotine on the long-term changes of KA-induced ? oscillations. We found that hippocampal ? oscillations can be enhanced by a low concentration of nicotine (1?M), such an enhancement lasts for hours after washing out of nicotine, suggesting a form of synaptic plasticity, named as long-term oscillation at ? frequency band (LTO?). Nicotine-induced LTO? was mimicked by the selective ?4?2 but not by ?7 nAChR agonist and was involved in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation as well as depended on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Our results indicate that nAChR activation induced plasticity in ? oscillation, which may be beneficial for the improvement of cognitive deficiency in AD and schizophrenia. PMID:26049144

  16. Long term environmental tobacco smoke activates nuclear transcription factor-kappa B, activator protein-1, and stress responsive kinases in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Sunil K.; Rangasamy, Thirumalai; Wise, Kimberly; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Shishodia, Shishir; Biswal, Shyam; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a key mediator of several diseases. Tobacco smoke contains a mixture of over 4700 chemical components many of which are toxic and have been implicated in the etiology of oxidative stress related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Parkinson’s disease, asthma, cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism of action of cigarette smoke in the onset of these diseases is still largely unknown. Previous studies have revealed that the free radicals generated by cigarette smoke may contribute to many of these chronic health problems and this study sought to address the role of environmental tobacco smoke in oxidative stress related damage in different regions of the mouse brain. In this study, male mice were exposed for 7 h/day, 7 days/week, for 6 months. Our results show that tobacco smoke led to increased generation of reactive oxygen species with an increase in NF-?B activation. Gel shift analysis also revealed the elevated level of the oxidative stress sensitive proinflammatory nuclear transcription factor-kappa B and activator protein-1 in different regions of the brain of cigarette smoke exposed mice. Tobacco smoke led to activation of COX-2 in all the regions of the brain. Activation of mitogen activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase were also observed in various regions of brain of ETS exposed mice. Overall our results indicate that exposure to long-term cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress leading to activation of stress induced kinases and activation of proinflammatory transcription factors. PMID:16569398

  17. Detection of a long-term decrease in thermospheric neutral density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. Marcos; John O. Wise; Michael J. Kendra; Neil J. Grossbard; Bruce R. Bowman

    2005-01-01

    Long-term thermospheric neutral density trends near 400 km altitude are analyzed using high accuracy satellite drag measurements over the common time period 1970-2000. Data coverage is over all latitudes and local times and an extensive range of solar and geomagnetic conditions. Densities are compared to empirical models that remove known variations related to solar activity, latitude, local time, day of

  18. Detection of a long-term decrease in thermospheric neutral density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. Marcos; John O. Wise; Michael J. Kendra; Neil J. Grossbard; Bruce R. Bowman

    2005-01-01

    Long-term thermospheric neutral density trends near 400 km altitude are analyzed using high accuracy satellite drag measurements over the common time period 1970–2000. Data coverage is over all latitudes and local times and an extensive range of solar and geomagnetic conditions. Densities are compared to empirical models that remove known variations related to solar activity, latitude, local time, day of

  19. Long-term orbital lifetime predictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Dreher; A. T. Lyons

    1990-01-01

    Long-term orbital lifetime predictions are analyzed. Predictions were made for three satellites: the Solar Max Mission (SMM), the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), and the Pegasus Boiler Plate (BP). A technique is discussed for determining an appropriate ballistic coefficient to use in the lifetime prediction. The orbital decay rate should be monitored regularly. Ballistic coefficient updates should be done whenever

  20. Relationship of long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy on salivary flow rate and CD4 Count among HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J Vijay; Baghirath, P Venkat; Naishadham, P Parameswar; Suneetha, Sujai; Suneetha, Lavanya; Sreedevi, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) therapy alters salivary flow rate and also to compare its relation of CD4 count with unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 150 individuals divided into three groups. Group I (50 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients, but not on HAART therapy), Group II (50 HIV-infected subjects and on HAART for less than 3 years called short-term HAART), Group III (50 HIV-infected subjects and on HAART for more than or equal to 3 years called long-term HAART). Spitting method proposed by Navazesh and Kumar was used for the measurement of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. Chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean CD4 count was 424.78 ± 187.03, 497.82 ± 206.11 and 537.6 ± 264.00 in the respective groups. Majority of the patients in all the groups had a CD4 count between 401 and 600. Both unstimulated and stimulated whole salivary (UWS and SWS) flow rates in Group I was found to be significantly higher than in Group II (P < 0.05). Unstimulated salivary flow rate between Group II and III subjects were also found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). ANOVA performed between CD4 count and unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva in each group demonstrated a statistically significant relationship in Group II (P < 0.05). There were no significant results found between CD4 count and stimulated whole saliva in each groups. Conclusion: The reduction in CD4 cell counts were significantly associated with salivary flow rates of HIV-infected individuals who are on long-term HAART.

  1. Long-term Outcomes of the FRESH START Trial: Exploring the Role of Self-efficacy in Cancer Survivors’ Maintenance of Dietary Practices and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Lipkus, Isaac; Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise C.; Lobach, David F.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether changes in self-efficacy explain the effects of a mailed print intervention on long-term dietary practices of breast and prostate cancer survivors. The relationship between change in self-efficacy and long-term physical activity (PA) also was examined. Methods Breast and prostate cancer survivors (N=543) from 39 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces participated in the FRESH START intervention trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a 10-month program of mailed print materials on diet and PA available in the public domain or a 10-month program of tailored materials designed to increase fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake, decrease fat intake, and/or increase PA. Changes in self-efficacy for F&V intake and fat restriction were analyzed as potential mediators of the intervention’s effects on diet at 2-year follow-up. Because we previously found that change in self-efficacy for PA did not vary by group assignment, the relationship between change in self-efficacy and PA at 2-year follow-up was examined across study conditions. Results Results suggest that change in self-efficacy for fat restriction partially explained the intervention’s effect on fat intake (mean indirect effect=-.28), and change in self-efficacy for F&V consumption partially explained the intervention’s effect on daily F&V intake (mean indirect effect=.11). Change in self-efficacy for fat restriction partially accounted for the intervention’s impact on overall diet quality among men only (mean indirect effect=.60). Finally, change in self-efficacy for PA predicted PA at 2-year follow-up. Conclusions Findings suggest that self-efficacy may influence long-term maintenance of healthy lifestyle practices among cancer survivors. PMID:22544562

  2. Long-term forskolin stimulation induces AMPK activation and thereby enhances tight junction formation in human placental trophoblast BeWo cells.

    PubMed

    Egawa, M; Kamata, H; Kushiyama, A; Sakoda, H; Fujishiro, M; Horike, N; Yoneda, M; Nakatsu, Y; Ying, Guo; Jun, Zhang; Tsuchiya, Y; Takata, K; Kurihara, H; Asano, T

    2008-12-01

    BeWo cells, derived from human choriocarcinoma, have been known to respond to forskolin or cAMP analogues by differentiating into multinucleated cells- like syncytiotrophoblasts on the surfaces of chorionic villi of the human placenta. In this study, we demonstrated that long-term treatment with forskolin enhances the tight junction (TJ) formation in human placental BeWo cells. Interestingly, AMPK activation and phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a molecule downstream from AMPK, were induced by long-term incubation (>12h) with forskolin, despite not being induced by acute stimulation with forskolin. In addition, co-incubation with an AMPK inhibitor, compound C, as well as overexpression of an AMPK dominant negative mutant inhibited forskolin-induced TJ formation. Thus, although the molecular mechanism underlying AMPK activation via the forskolin stimulation is unclear, the TJ formation induced by forskolin is likely to be mediated by the AMPK pathway. Taking into consideration that TJs are present in the normal human placenta, this mechanism may be important for forming the placental barrier system between the fetal and maternal circulations. PMID:18950855

  3. Effects of long term polyarthritis and subsequent NSAID treatment on activity with disassociation of tactile allodynia in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Suhail, Mohammed S A; Christianson, Christina; Koehrn, Fred; Malkmus, Shelle A; Mitchell, William; Corr, Maripat; Yaksh, Tony L

    2012-05-01

    Chronic pain has profound effects on activity. Previous reports indicate chronic inflammatory conditions result in reduced activity which normalizes upon pain treatment. However, there is little systematic investigation of this process. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that causes significant joint pain. The K/BxN serum transfer mouse has been characterized as a model for rheumatoid arthritis and chronic pain. We investigated the activity of mice following K/BxN serum transfer vs. control serum and observed the activity changes following delivery of an NSAID, ketorolac. Previous studies have used running wheels and laser beams to monitor activity; we chose to validate a model using cost-effective infrared sensors on individual cages. Each mouse had its baseline activity obtained, which showed significant variation between individual C57Bl/6 mice. Arthritic mice had significantly decreased activity for only the first 11 nights. Conversely, previous work has shown that these animals display tactile allodynia that persists for at least 45 days. Mice were treated with ketorolac in their drinking water (10mg/kg, 15mg/kg, or 20mg/kg) for nights 6-8. The two highest doses showed significant normalization of activity levels. Four nights after ketorolac was stopped, treated animals were still significantly more active than control. The reversal of the reduced activity provides support that the depression relates to the arthritic pain state of the animal. These results indicate the efficacy of activity monitoring to better investigate behavior in persistent pain states. However, insofar as depressed activity reflects pain and disability, the present work raises questions as to the relevance of the tactile thresholds in defining behaviorally relevant pain states. PMID:22547902

  4. Physical activity enhances long-term quality of life in older adults: Efficacy, esteem, and affective influences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steriani Elavsky; Edward McAuley; Robert W. Motl; James F. Konopack; David X. Marquez; Liang Hu; Gerald J. Jerome; Ed Diener

    2005-01-01

    Background: Physical activity has been effective in enhancing quality of life (QOL) of older adults over relatively short periods of\\u000a time. However, little is known about the longterm effects of physical activity and even less about the possible mediators\\u000a of this relationship.Purpose: We examined the mediating effects of psychological variables on the relationship between physical activity and global QOL\\u000a (satisfaction

  5. TISSUE-PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR IS INDUCED AS AN IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENE DURING SEIZURE, KINDLING, AND LONG-TERM POTENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activity-dependent genes in brain have been identified using differential screening of hippocampal cDNA library from rats exposed to metrazol seizures under conditions of superconduction. Five immediate early genes whose expression is elevated by neural activity were identified. ...

  6. Long-term monitoring of hydrogeological activation behaviour of an active landslide system using time-lapse temperature-corrected electrical resistance geophysical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Andrew; Murphy, William; Chambers, Jonathan; Wilkinson, Paul; West, Jared; Uhlemann, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    If the effects of landslides are to be mitigated and avoided then the causes of landslide activations - and re-activations - must be better understood. The most common subsurface property change in the lead up to rainfall-triggered landslide activation is the moisture content of slope material and associated pore water pressure rises and/or consistency changes. If these characteristic subsurface physical properties can be observed in advance of activation then early warning of imminent slope activation may be possible. Recent advances in geoelectrical monitoring techniques reveal that time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a useful tool, capable of observing hillslope hydrogeological processes. However, most previous studies lasted a short time-frame and compared few tomograms. Therefore, a geophysical imaging system through which the progressive wetting of the ground in response to rainfall leading to saturation and then sliding can be observed would seem to be a sensible approach to explore the forecasting of imminent landslide movement. Presented here is the analysis and interpretation of the results of a four and a half year, long-term and high temporal resolution monitoring campaign of a periodically active inland landslide, located in the UK, by a geoelectrical monitoring system called Automated time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ALERT). Time-lapse temperature-corrected transfer resistances reveal that the system responds very well to rises and falls in piezometric level and seasonal trends of soil desiccation during warmer, drier months and crack annealing and soil moisture accumulation in response to wetter periods. The existence of threshold slope moisture contents, and hence electrical resistances, above which the slope activates are not observed in resistance/resistivity results most probably due to the complex nature of the landslide system, the monitoring system resolution and a number of physical slope processes taking place. An exciting development is our improved understanding of shallow earthflow pre-activation hydrogeological behaviour. When interpreted alongside piezometry, an apparent increase in resistance in the months preceding earthflow activation reveals subtle geomechanical processes occurring, including slip surface drainage, due to soil dilation, as strain develops. Correlation between piezometric level fall and associated temperature-corrected resistance rise highlight the sensitivity of the geophysical monitoring system to landslide hydrogeological processes.

  7. Relative desirability of leisure activities and work parameters in a simulation of isolated work stations. [long term space flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullins, W. R., Jr.; Rogers, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    The kinds of activities that are attractive to man in long duration isolation are delineated considering meaningful work as major activity and a choice of leisure/living provisions. The dependent variables are the relative distribution between various work, leisure, and living activities where external constraints on the subject's freedom of choice are minimized. Results indicate that an average of at least five hours per day of significant meaningful work is required for satisfactory enjoyment of the situation; most other parameters of the situation have less effects on overall performance and satisfaction

  8. Endogenous 17?-estradiol is required for activity-dependent long-term potentiation in the striatum: interaction with the dopaminergic system

    PubMed Central

    Tozzi, Alessandro; de Iure, Antonio; Tantucci, Michela; Durante, Valentina; Quiroga-Varela, Ana; Giampà, Carmela; Di Mauro, Michela; Mazzocchetti, Petra; Costa, Cinzia; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Grassi, Silvarosa; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico; Calabresi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    17?-estradiol (E2), a neurosteroid synthesized by P450-aromatase (ARO), modulates various brain functions. We characterized the role of the locally synthesized E2 on striatal long-term synaptic plasticity and explored possible interactions between E2 receptors (ERs) and dopamine (DA) receptors in the dorsal striatum of adult male rats. Inhibition of E2 synthesis or antagonism of ERs prevented the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in both medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and cholinergic interneurons (ChIs). Activation of a D1-like DA receptor/cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway restored LTP. In MSNs exogenous E2 reversed the effect of ARO inhibition. Also antagonism of M1 muscarinic receptors prevented the D1-like receptor-mediated restoration of LTP confirming a role for ChIs in controlling the E2-mediated LTP of MSNs. A novel striatal interaction, occurring between ERs and D1-like receptors in both MSNs and ChIs, might be critical to regulate basal ganglia physiology and to compensate synaptic alterations in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26074768

  9. Long-term symbolic learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G. Kennedy; J. Gregory Trafton

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks. Long sequences of problems were run collecting data to answer fundamental questions about long-term, symbolic learning. We examined whether symbolic learning continues indefinitely, how the learned knowledge is used, and whether

  10. Referral from primary care to a physical activity programme: establishing long-term adherence? A randomized controlled trial. Rationale and study design

    PubMed Central

    Giné-Garriga, Maria; Martin, Carme; Martín, Carlos; Puig-Ribera, Anna; Antón, Juan José; Guiu, Agustí; Cascos, Ana; Ramos, Rafel

    2009-01-01

    Background Declining physical activity is associated with a rising burden of global disease. There is little evidence about effective ways to increase adherence to physical activity. Therefore, interventions are needed that produce sustained increases in adherence to physical activity and are cost-effective. The purpose is to assess the effectiveness of a primary care physical activity intervention in increasing adherence to physical activity in the general population seen in primary care. Method and design Randomized controlled trial with systematic random sampling. A total of 424 subjects of both sexes will participate; all will be over the age of 18 with a low level of physical activity (according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, IPAQ), self-employed and from 9 Primary Healthcare Centres (PHC). They will volunteer to participate in a physical activity programme during 3 months (24 sessions; 2 sessions a week, 60 minutes per session). Participants from each PHC will be randomly allocated to an intervention (IG) and control group (CG). The following parameters will be assessed pre and post intervention in both groups: (1) health-related quality of life (SF-12), (2) physical activity stage of change (Prochaska's stages of change), (3) level of physical activity (IPAQ-short version), (4) change in perception of health (vignettes from the Cooperative World Organization of National Colleges, Academies, and Academic Associations of Family Physicians, COOP/WONCA), (5) level of social support for the physical activity practice (Social Support for Physical Activity Scale, SSPAS), and (6) control based on analysis (HDL, LDL and glycated haemoglobin). Participants' frequency of visits to the PHC will be registered over the six months before and after the programme. There will be a follow up in a face to face interview three, six and twelve months after the programme, with the reduced version of IPAQ, SF-12, SSPAS, and Prochaska's stages. Discussion The pilot study showed the effectiveness of an enhanced low-cost, evidence-based intervention in increased physical activity and improved social support. If successful in demonstrating long-term improvements, this randomised controlled trial will be the first sustainable physical activity intervention based in primary care in our country to demonstrate long-term adherence to physical activity. Trial Registration A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Developed by the National Library of Medicine. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00714831. PMID:19161605

  11. Long-Term Plasticity in the Regulation of Olfactory Bulb Activity by Centrifugal Fibers from Piriform Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cauthron, Joy L.

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory bulb granule cells are activated synaptically via two main pathways. Mitral/tufted (M/T) cells form dendrodendritic synapses on granule cells that can be activated by antidromic stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT). Centrifugal fibers originating from the association fiber (AF) system in piriform cortex (PC) make axodendritic synapses on granule cells within the granule cell layer (GCL) that can be activated by orthodromic stimulation of AF axons in the PC. We explored functional plasticity in the AF pathway by recording extracellularly from individual M/T cells and presumed granule cells in male Long–Evans rats under urethane anesthesia while testing their response to LOT and AF stimulation. Presumed granule cells driven synaptically by LOT stimulation (type L cells) were concentrated in the superficial half of the GCL and were activated at short latencies, whereas those driven synaptically by AF stimulation (type A cells) were concentrated in the deep half of the GCL and were activated at longer latencies. Type A cells were readily detected only in animals in which the AF input to the GCL had been previously potentiated by repeated high-frequency stimulation. An additional bout of high-frequency stimulation administered under urethane caused an immediate increase in the number of action potentials evoked in type A cells by AF test stimulation and a concomitant increase in inhibition of M/T cells. These results underscore the importance of the role played in olfactory processing by PC regulation of OB activity and document the long-lasting potentiation of that regulation by repeated high-frequency AF activation. PMID:25031407

  12. Solar Activity Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapping, K.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Solar activity is driven by the temporally and spatially varying distribution of magnetic flux in the photosphere, chromosphere and corona. It covers a range of phenomena at all levels in the solar atmosphere and time-scales ranging from seconds and minutes (SOLAR FLARES and SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS), through months (the evolution of ACTIVE REGIONS and SOLAR ACTIVITY COMPLEXES), to the 11 (or...

  13. Choline Acetyltransferase Activity in the Hamster Central Auditory System and Long-Term Effects of Intense Tone Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Donald A.; Kaltenbach, James A.; Chen, Kejian; Ilyas, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic trauma often leads to loss of hearing of environmental sounds, tinnitus, in which a monotonous sound not actually present is heard, and/or hyperacusis, in which there is an abnormal sensitivity to sound. Research on hamsters has documented physiological effects of exposure to intense tones, including increased spontaneous neural activity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Such physiological changes should be accompanied by chemical changes, and those chemical changes associated with chronic effects should be present at long times after the intense sound exposure. Using a microdissection mapping procedure combined with a radiometric microassay, we have measured activities of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the enzyme responsible for synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, in the cochlear nucleus, superior olive, inferior colliculus, and auditory cortex of hamsters 5 months after exposure to an intense tone compared with control hamsters of the same age. In control hamsters, ChAT activities in auditory regions were never more than one-tenth of the ChAT activity in the facial nerve root, a bundle of myelinated cholinergic axons, in agreement with a modulatory rather than a dominant role of acetylcholine in hearing. Within auditory regions, relatively higher activities were found in granular regions of the cochlear nucleus, dorsal parts of the superior olive, and auditory cortex. In intense-tone-exposed hamsters, ChAT activities were significantly increased in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus granular region and the lateral superior olivary nucleus. This is consistent with some chronic upregulation of the cholinergic olivocochlear system influence on the cochlear nucleus after acoustic trauma. PMID:23605746

  14. Long-term effects of rapamycin treatment on insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and glycogen synthase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Shailly [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5 (Canada); Shrivastav, Anuraag [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5 (Canada); Health Research Division, Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, Saskatoon, SK S7N 4H4 (Canada); Changela, Sheena [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5 (Canada); Khandelwal, Ramji L. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5 (Canada)], E-mail: ramji.khandelwal@usask.ca

    2008-04-01

    Protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) is a Ser/Thr kinase that is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation/survival through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the regulation of glycogen metabolism through glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and glycogen synthase (GS). Rapamycin is an inhibitor of mTOR. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin pretreatment on the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB phosphorylation and GS activity in parental HepG2 and HepG2 cells with overexpression of constitutively active Akt1/PKB-{alpha} (HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB). Rapamycin pretreatment resulted in a decrease (20-30%) in the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 (Ser 473) in parental HepG2 cells but showed an upregulation of phosphorylation in HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Rictor levels were decreased (20-50%) in parental HepG2 cells but were not significantly altered in the HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Furthermore, rictor knockdown decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473) by 40-60% upon rapamycin pretreatment. GS activity followed similar trends as that of phosphorylated Akt and so with rictor levels in these cells pretreated with rapamycin; parental HepG2 cells showed a decrease in GS activity, whereas as HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells showed an increase in GS activity. The changes in the levels of phosphorylated Akt/PKB (Ser 473) correlated with GS and protein phoshatase-1 activity.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide generation and antioxidant enzyme activities in the leaves and roots of wheat cultivars subjected to long-term soil drought stress.

    PubMed

    Huseynova, Irada M; Aliyeva, Durna R; Mammadov, Alamdar Ch; Aliyev, Jalal A

    2015-08-01

    The dynamics of the activity of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and benzidine peroxidase, as well as the level of hydrogen peroxide in the vegetative organs of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars was studied under long-term soil drought conditions. It was established that hydrogen peroxide generation occurred at early stages of stress in the tolerant variety Barakatli-95, whereas in the susceptible variety Garagylchyg-2 its significant amounts were accumulated only at later stages. Garagylchyg-2 shows a larger reduction of photochemical activity of PS II in both genotypes at all stages of ontogenesis under drought stress than Barakatli-95. The highest activity of catalase which plays a leading role in the neutralization of hydrogen peroxide was observed in the leaves and roots of the drought-tolerant variety Barakatli-95. Despite the fact that the protection system also includes peroxidases, the activity of these enzymes even after synthesis of their new portions is substantially lower compared with catalase. Native PAGE electrophoresis revealed the presence of one isoform of CAT, seven isoforms of APX, three isoforms of GPO, and three isoforms of BPO in the leaves, and also three isoforms of CAT, four isoforms of APX, two isoforms of GPO, and six isoforms of BPO in the roots of wheat. One isoform of CAT was found in the roots when water supply was normal and three isoforms were observed under drought conditions. Stress associated with long-term soil drought in the roots of wheat has led to an increase in the heterogeneity due to the formation of two new sedentary forms of catalase: CAT2 and CAT3. PMID:26008794

  16. Effect of commercial long-term extenders on metabolic activity and membrane integrity of boar spermatozoa stored at 17 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Dzieko?ska, A; Fraser, L; Majewska, A; Lecewicz, M; Zasiadczyk, ?; Kordan, W

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to analyze the metabolic activity and membrane integrity of boar spermatozoa following storage in long-term semen extenders. Boar semen was diluted with Androhep EnduraGuard (AeG), DILU-Cell (DC), SafeCell Plus (SCP) and Vitasem LD (VLD) extenders and stored for 10 days at 17 degrees C. Parameters of the analyzed sperm metabolic activity included total motility (TMOT), progressive motility (PMOT), high mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP content, whereas those of the membrane integrity included plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal apical ridge (NAR) acrosome. Extender type was a significant (P < 0.05) source of variation in all the analyzed sperm parameters, except for ATP content. Furthermore, the storage time had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the sperm metabolic activity and membrane integrity during semen storage. In all extenders the metabolic activity and membrane integrity of the stored spermatozoa decreased continuously over time. Among the four analyzed extenders, AeG and SCP showed the best performance in terms of TMOT and PMI on Days 5, 7 and 10 of storage. Marked differences in the proportions of spermatozoa with high MMP were observed between the extenders, particularly on Day 10 of storage. There were not any marked differences in sperm ATP content between the extenders, regardless of the storage time. Furthermore, the percentage of spermatozoa with NAR acrosomes decreased during prolonged storage, being markedly lower in DC-diluted semen compared with semen diluted with either AeG or SCP extender. The results of this study indicated that components of the long-term extenders have different effects on the sperm functionality and prolonged semen longevity by delaying the processes associated with sperm ageing during liquid storage. PMID:24195287

  17. Changes in Soil Carbon and Enzyme Activity As a Result of Different Long-Term Fertilization Regimes in a Greenhouse Field

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lili; Chen, Wei; Burger, Martin; Yang, Lijie; Gong, Ping; Wu, Zhijie

    2015-01-01

    In order to discover the advantages and disadvantages of different fertilization regimes and identify the best management practice of fertilization in greenhouse fields, soil enzyme activities involved in carbon (C) transformations, soil chemical characteristics, and crop yields were monitored after long-term (20-year) fertilization regimes, including no fertilizer (CK), 300 kg N ha-1 and 600 kg N ha-1 as urea (N1 and N2), 75 Mg ha-1 horse manure compost (M), and M with either 300 or 600 kg N ha-1 urea (MN1 and MN2). Compared with CK, fertilization increased crop yields by 31% (N2) to 69% (MN1). However, compared with CK, inorganic fertilization (especially N2) also caused soil acidification and salinization. In the N2 treatment, soil total organic carbon (TOC) decreased from 14.1±0.27 g kg-1 at the beginning of the long-term experiment in 1988 to 12.6±0.11 g kg-1 (P<0.05). Compared to CK, N1 and N2 exhibited higher soil ?-galactosidase and ?-galactosidase activities, but lower soil ?-glucosidase and ?-glucosidase activities (P<0.05), indicating that inorganic fertilization had different impacts on these C transformation enzymes. Compared with CK, the M, MN1 and MN2 treatments exhibited higher enzyme activities, soil TOC, total nitrogen, dissolved organic C, and microbial biomass C and N. The fertilization regime of the MN1 treatment was identified as optimal because it produced the highest yields and increased soil quality, ensuring sustainability. The results suggest that inorganic fertilizer alone, especially in high amounts, in greenhouse fields is detrimental to soil quality. PMID:25706998

  18. The Effect of Long-Term Storage on the Physiochemical and Bactericidal Properties of Electrochemically Activated Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Gareth; Thorn, Robin; Reynolds, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS) are generated by electrolysis of NaCl solutions, and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and high environmental compatibility. The biocidal efficacy of ECAS at the point of production is widely reported in the literature, as are its credentials as a “green biocide.” Acidic ECAS are considered most effective as biocides at the point of production and ill suited for extended storage. Acidic ECAS samples were stored at 4 °C and 20 °C in glass and polystyrene containers for 398 days, and tested for free chlorine, pH, ORP and bactericidal activity throughout. ORP and free chlorine (mg/L) in stored ECAS declined over time, declining at the fastest rate when stored at 20 °C in polystyrene and at the slowest rate when stored at 4 °C in glass. Bactericidal efficacy was also affected by storage and ECAS failed to produce a 5 log10 reduction on five occasions when stored at 20 °C. pH remained stable throughout the storage period. This study represents the longest storage evaluation of the physiochemical parameters and bactericidal efficacy of acidic ECAS within the published literature and reveals that acidic ECAS retain useful bactericidal activity for in excess of 12 months, widening potential applications. PMID:23263673

  19. A tropomyosin-related kinase B ligand is required for ERK activation, long-term synaptic facilitation,

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Shiv K.

    for serotonin-induced activation of extracel- lular signal-regulated kinase, tail nerve shock-induced LTF at molecular, synaptic, and behavioral levels. Using a sequestering agent, TrkB-Fc chimera (23), we now demon in pleural SNs (which include tail SNs), (ii) tail nerve shock-induced LTF at SN­MN synapses in the CNS

  20. Glucocorticoids interact with noradrenergic activation at encoding to enhance long-term memory for emotional material in women.

    PubMed

    Segal, S K; Simon, R; McFarlin, S; Alkire, M; Desai, A; Cahill, L F

    2014-09-26

    Evidence from the animal literature suggests that post-training glucocorticoids (GCs) interact with noradrenergic activation at acquisition to enhance memory consolidation for emotional stimuli. While there is evidence that GCs enhance memory for emotional material in humans, the extent to which this depends on noradrenergic activation at encoding has not been explored. In this study, 20-mg hydrocortisone was administered to healthy young women (18-35 yrs old) in a double-blind fashion 10 min prior to viewing a series of emotional and neutral images. Saliva samples were taken at baseline, 10 min after drug or placebo administration, immediately after viewing the images, 10, 20, and 30 min after viewing the images. Participants returned 1 week later for a surprise recall test. Results suggest that, hydrocortisone administration resulted in emotional memory enhancement only in participants who displayed an increase in endogenous noradrenergic activation, measured via salivary alpha-amylase at encoding. These results support findings in the animal literature, and suggest that GC-induced memory enhancement relies on noradrenergic activation at encoding in women. PMID:25010401

  1. Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Microbiological Activities in Two Forest Sites in South Tyrol in the Italian Alps

    PubMed Central

    Margesin, Rosa; Minerbi, Stefano; Schinner, Franz

    2014-01-01

    We monitored microbiological properties in two forest sites over a period of 17 years (1993–2010) within the International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems (ICP IM). The two study sites were located in South Tyrol in the Italian Alps at altitudes of 1,737 m a.s.l. (subalpine site IT01) and 570 m a.s.l. (submontane site IT02). Soil samples were collected in the late spring and autumn of 1993, 2000, and 2010, and were characterized by measuring respiration, key enzyme activities involved in the C, N, P, and S cycles and litter degradation, and the abundance of viable bacterial and fungal populations. Over the study period, an increase in mean annual air temperatures at both sites (+0.6°C and +0.8°C at IT01 and IT02, respectively) was calculated from trendlines. Significantly lower mean annual air temperatures, higher temperature fluctuations, and higher annual precipitation rates were observed at site IT01 than at site IT02. Subalpine site IT01 was characterized by significantly lower microbial activity (respiration, enzymes) and abundance than those at submontane site IT02. The year of sampling had a significant effect on all the parameters investigated, except for nitrification. Fungal abundance decreased consistently over the study period, while no consistent trend was noted among the other parameters investigated. Season only affected a few of the measured microbiological parameters: respiration and bacterial numbers were significantly higher in the spring than in the autumn, while the opposite was noted for xylanase and phosphatase activities. Soil fungi contributed essentially to xylanase and protease activities, while soil bacteria were mainly involved in degradation processes that required the activity of sulfatase. PMID:25008018

  2. Soil microbial activity, nitrogen cycling, and long-term changes in organic carbon pools as related to fallow tillage management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W Doran; E. T Elliott; K Paustian

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments were established in 1969 and 1970 near Sidney, NE, to determine the effect of moldboard plow (plow), sub-tillage (sub-till), and no-tillage (no-till) fallow management on soil properties, biological activities, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. One experiment was on land which had been broken from sod in 1920, seeded to crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.] from 1957 to

  3. Long-term variations of the Campi Flegrei, Italy, volcanic system as revealed by the monitoring of hydrothermal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Chiodini; S. Caliro; C. Cardellini; D. Granieri; R. Avino; A. Baldini; M. Donnini; C. Minopoli

    2010-01-01

    Long-duration time series of the chemical composition of fumaroles and of soil CO2 flux reveal that important variations in the activity of the Solfatara fumarolic field, the most important hydrothermal site of Campi Flegrei, occurred in the 2000–2008 period. A continuous increase of the CO2 concentrations and a general decrease of the CH4 concentrations are interpreted to be the consequence

  4. Selection based on CD133 and high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity isolates long-term reconstituting human hematopoietic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Hess; Louisa Wirthlin; Timothy P. Craft; Phillip E. Herrbrich; Sarah A. Hohm; Ryan Lahey; William C. Eades; Michael H. Creer; Jan A. Nolta

    2006-01-01

    The development of novel cell-based therapies requires understanding of dis- tinct human hematopoietic stem and pro- genitor cell populations. We recently iso- lated reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by lineage depletion and purification based on high aldehyde dehy- drogenase activity (ALDHhiLin cells). Here, we further dissected the ALDHhi- Lin population by selection for CD133, a surface molecule expressed on progeni-

  5. Long-term monitoring of microbial biomass, N mineralisation and enzyme activities of a Chernozem under different tillage management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kandeler; D. Tscherko; H. Spiegel

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the influence of tillage (conventional, minimum and reduced) on selected soil microbial properties of a fine-sandy\\u000a loamy Haplic Chernozem over a period of 8 years. The microbial biomass and soil microbial processes were affected mostly by\\u000a type of tillage and to a lesser extent by the date of soil sampling. Whereas xylanase activity was significantly higher in\\u000a the

  6. An Important Role of Neural Activity-Dependent CaMKIV Signaling in the Consolidation of Long-Term Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyejin Kang; Linus D. Sun; Coleen M. Atkins; Thomas R. Soderling; Matthew A. Wilson; Susumu Tonegawa

    2001-01-01

    Calcium\\/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) has been implicated in the regulation of CRE-dependent transcription. To investigate the role of this kinase in neuronal plasticity and memory, we generated transgenic mice in which the expression of a dominant-negative form of CaMKIV (dnCaMKIV) is restricted to the postnatal forebrain. In these transgenic mice, activity-induced CREB phosphorylation and c-Fos expression were significantly attenuated.

  7. Leisure-time activity is an important determinant of long-term weight maintenance after weight loss in the Sibutramine Trial on Obesity Reduction and Maintenance (STORM trial)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marleen A van Baak; Edgar van Mil; V. Vastrup; Nick Finer; W. Saris

    2003-01-01

    Background: The success rate of long-term maintenance of weight loss in obese patients is usually low. To improve the success rate, determinants of long-term weight maintenance must be identified. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify determinants of long-term success in weight maintenance in obese subjects who completed the Sibutramine Trial on Obesity Reduction and Main- tenance (n

  8. Long-term depression in the adult hippocampus in vivo involves activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphorylation of Elk-1.

    PubMed

    Thiels, Edda; Kanterewicz, Beatriz I; Norman, Eric D; Trzaskos, James M; Klann, Eric

    2002-03-15

    Protein kinase cascades likely play a critical role in the signaling events that underlie synaptic plasticity and memory. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade is suited well for such a role because its targets include regulators of gene expression. Here we report that the ERK cascade is recruited during long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength in area CA1 of the adult hippocampus in vivo and selectively impacts on phosphorylation of the nuclear transcription factor Elk-1. Using a combination of in vivo electrophysiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, and immunohistochemistry, we found the following: (1) ERK phosphorylation, including phosphorylation of nuclear ERK, and ERK phosphotransferase activity are increased markedly, albeit transiently, after the induction of NMDA receptor-dependent LTD at the commissural input to area CA1 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus of anesthetized adult rats; (2) LTD-inducing paired-pulse stimulation fails to produce lasting LTD in the presence of the ERK kinase inhibitor SL327, which suggests that ERK activation is necessary for the persistence of LTD; and (3) ERK activation during LTD results in increased phosphorylation of Elk-1 but not of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein. Our findings indicate that the ERK cascade transduces signals from the synapse to the nucleus during LTD in hippocampal area CA1 in vivo, as it does during long-term potentiation in area CA1, but that the pattern of coupling of the ERK cascade to transcriptional regulators differs between the two forms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:11896145

  9. Sustainability of the Catalytic Activity of a Silica-Titania Composite (STC) for Long-Term Indoor Air Quality Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    TiO2-assisted photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is an emerging technology for indoor air quality control and is also being evaluated as an alternative trace contaminant control technology for crew habitats in space exploration. Though there exists a vast range of literature on the development of photocatalysts and associated reactor systems, including catalyst performance and performance-influencing factors, the critical question of whether photocatalysts can sustain their initial catalytic activity over an extended period of operation has not been adequately addressed. For a catalyst to effectively serve as an air quality control product, it must be rugged enough to withstand exposure to a multitude of low concentration volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over long periods of time with minimal loss of activity. The objective of this study was to determine the functional lifetime of a promising photocatalyst - the silica-titania composite (STC) from Sol Gel Solutions, LLC in a real-world scenario. A bench-scale STC-packed annular reactor under continuous irradiation by a UV-A fluorescent black-light blue lamp ((lambda)max = 365 nm) was exposed to laboratory air continuously at an apparent contact time of 0.27 sand challenged with a known concentration of ethanol periodically to assess any changes in catalytic activity. Laboratory air was also episodically spiked with halocarbons (e.g., octafluoropropane), organosulfur compounds (e.g., sulfur hexafluoride), and organosilicons (e.g., siloxanes) to simulate accidental releases or leaks of such VOCs. Total organic carbon (TOC) loading and contaminant profiles of the laboratory air were also monitored. Changes in STC photocatalytic performance were evaluated using the ethanol mineralization rate, mineralization efficiency, and oxidation intermediate (acetaldehyde) formation. Results provide insights to any potential catalyst poisoning by trace halocarbons and organosulfur compounds.

  10. Similar neutralizing activity in the HIV-1 infected long term non-progressors(LTNPs) and typical progressors(TPs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Li, Tian-yi; Li, Jing-yun; Chen, Li-li; Liu, Yong-jian; Li, Han-ping; Bao, Zuo-yi; Wang, Xiao-lin; Zhuang, Dao-min; Liu, Si-yang; Li, Lin

    2012-06-01

    Neutralizing antibodies are considered to be an important protective parameter used in HIV-1 vaccine evaluation. However, the exact role that neutralizing antibodies plays in controlling the disease progression of HIV-1 infected peoples is still undetermined. In this paper, we compared the protective function of the neutralizing antibody response in the plasma from LTNP and TP against clade B and clade C pseudoviruses. No difference in the neutralizing activities between the plasma from LTNP and TP was found, which was consistent with the most recent reports. In addition, no correlations between the titer or breadth and CD(4+) or viral load in HIV-1 infected individuals were found. The protective roles played by neutralizing antibodies in controlling disease progression of HIV-1 infected people need to be considered in a new viewpoint. PMID:22684470

  11. Anti-anhedonic activity of long-term lithium treatment in rats exposed to repeated unavoidable stress.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Giovanna; Scheggi, Simona; Secci, Maria Elena; De Montis, Maria Graziella; Gambarana, Carla

    2013-08-01

    Behavioural and neurochemical responses to palatable food exposure represent an index of hedonic competence. In rats, a palatable meal increases extra-neuronal dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS) that confers to it incentive salience and reinforcing value. Repeated stress exposure decreases dopamine output and impairs the NAcS dopaminergic response to palatable food and the competence to acquire a vanilla sugar (VS)-reinforced instrumental behaviour [VS-sustained appetitive behaviour (VAB)]. Moreover, chronic stress exposure disrupts reactivity to aversive stimuli. A 3-wk treatment with lithium, the gold-standard treatment in bipolar disorder, tonically reduces NAcS dopamine output and the reactivity to aversive stimuli. However, it does not affect the dopaminergic response to VS and the competence to acquire VAB. This study investigated whether repeated lithium administration is endowed with anti-anhedonic activity. The NAcS dopaminergic response to VS and the competence to acquire VAB and sucrose self-administration (SA), in terms of fixed-ratio (FR)1, FR5 and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, were studied in saline or lithium-treated groups of non-food-deprived rats exposed or not to repeated unavoidable stress. Chronic stress exposure impaired the NAcS dopaminergic response to VS, acquisition of VAB and sucrose SA, in terms of FR1 and FR5 schedules of reinforcement and breaking point score. Repeated lithium treatment restored these parameters to control group values, even when treatment began in rats already showing an anhedonia-like condition. Since the breaking point defines the reinforcement efficacy of a hedonic stimulus, the present data suggest that lithium treatment is endowed with anti-anhedonic activity in rats. PMID:23363811

  12. Assessment of sperm viability, mitochondrial activity, capacitation and acrosome intactness in extended boar semen during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Huo, Li-Jun; Ma, Xing-Hong; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2002-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess sperm quality in extended boar semen during in vitro storage in order to determine which extender should be used and how long boar semen can be stored. Freshly ejaculated boar semen was diluted with equal volumes of Beltsville thaw solution (BTS), Androhep, KIEV or Zorlesco extenders and stored at 17 degrees C for up to 15 days. Sperm quality was evaluated by examining viability using SYBR-14/PI and Hoechst 33258 staining, mitochondrial activity using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) staining, acrosome intactness by Coomassie blue staining, and capacitation status by chlortetracycline (CTC) staining. There were over 50% viable spermatozoa in boar semen extended with Zorlesco and Androhep extenders on Day 13 of storage. The percentage of JC-1-stained spermatozoa was 53.8 +/- 2.1% for Zorlesco and 57.7 +/- 1.60% for Androhep extenders on Day 13 of storage. The percentage of acrosome-intact spermatozoa detected by Coomassie blue staining was higher than that in the SYBR-14PI-, Hoechst 33258-, and JC-1-stained samples in our study. The results from SYBR-14/PI, Hoechst 33258, JC-1, and Coomassie blue staining were highly correlated (r > or = 0.9461). There were less than 15% capacitated spermatozoa in the semen extended with BTS, Androhep and Zorlesco extenders during 9 days of storage. However, most viable boar spermatozoa became capacitated by Day 13 of storage. The rank order of four extenders for maintaining sperm viability and mitochondrial activity was as follows: Androhep, Zorlesco, BTS, KIEV. PMID:12387348

  13. Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Long-Term Dialysis Patients Display Downregulation of PCAF Expression and Poor Angiogenesis Activation

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Yokote, Shinya; Yamada, Akifumi; Katsuoka, Yuichi; Izuhara, Luna; Shimada, Yohta; Omura, Nobuo; Okano, Hirotaka James; Ohki, Takao; Yokoo, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into functional kidney cells capable of urine and erythropoietin production, indicating that they may be used for kidney regeneration. However, the viability of MSCs from dialysis patients may be affected under uremic conditions. In this study, we isolated MSCs from the adipose tissues of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients undergoing long-term dialysis (KD-MSCs; mean: 72.3 months) and from healthy controls (HC-MSCs) to compare their viability. KD-MSCs and HC-MSCs were assessed for their proliferation potential, senescence, and differentiation capacities into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. Gene expression of stem cell-specific transcription factors was analyzed by PCR array and confirmed by western blot analysis at the protein level. No significant differences of proliferation potential, senescence, or differentiation capacity were observed between KD-MSCs and HC-MSCs. However, gene and protein expression of p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) was significantly suppressed in KD-MSCs. Because PCAF is a histone acetyltransferase that mediates regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), we examined the hypoxic response in MSCs. HC-MSCs but not KD-MSCs showed upregulation of PCAF protein expression under hypoxia. Similarly, HIF-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression did not increase under hypoxia in KD-MSCs but did so in HC-MSCs. Additionally, a directed in vivo angiogenesis assay revealed a decrease in angiogenesis activation of KD-MSCs. In conclusion, long-term uremia leads to persistent and systematic downregulation of PCAF gene and protein expression and poor angiogenesis activation of MSCs from patients with ESKD. Furthermore, PCAF, HIF-1?, and VEGF expression were not upregulated by hypoxic stimulation of KD-MSCs. These results suggest that the hypoxic response may be blunted in MSCs from ESKD patients. PMID:25025381

  14. Long-Term Impact of Community-Based Information, Education and Communication Activities on Food Hygiene and Food Safety Behaviors in Vietnam: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Takanashi, Kumiko; Quyen, Dao To; Le Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-01

    Background Ingestion of contaminated water or food is a major contributor to childhood diarrhea in developing countries. In Vietnam, the use of community-based information, education and communication (IEC) activities could be a sustainable strategy to improve food hygiene and food safety behaviors. This study thus examined the long-term impact of community-based IEC activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors. Methods In this longitudinal study, we interviewed caregivers of children aged between six months and four years in suburban Hanoi. Baseline data were collected in January 2006 (n?=?125). After conducting IEC interventions, we collected a 1st set of evaluation data in January 2007 (n?=?132). To examine the long-term impact of the interventions, we then collected a 2nd set of evaluation data in January 2008 (n?=?185). Changes in childhood diarrhea prevalence, IEC coverage, and food hygiene and food safety behaviors were assessed over a two-year period using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Effective IEC channels were determined through multiple linear regression analysis. Results Childhood diarrhea was significantly reduced from 21.6% at baseline to 7.6% at the 1st post-intervention evaluation (P?=?0.002), and to 5.9% at the 2nd evaluation. Among 17 food hygiene and food safety behaviors measured, a total of 11 behaviors were improved or maintained by the 2nd evaluation. Handwashing after toilet use was significantly improved at both evaluation points. Overall, 3 food safety behaviors and 7 food hygiene behaviors were found to have significantly improved at the 1st and at the 2nd evaluations, respectively. Flip chart communication administered by community groups was identified to be the most effective IEC channel for effecting behavior change (P?=?0.018). Conclusions Flip chart communication administered by community groups is effective for improving multiple food hygiene and food safety behaviors in sustainable ways, and should be included in water and health promotion programs. PMID:23950978

  15. Long-term fish oil supplementation attenuates seizure activity in the amygdala induced by 3-mercaptopropionic acid in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mancilla, L E; Hernández-González, M; Guevara, M A; Benavides-Haro, D E; Martínez-Arteaga, P

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have provided evidence of significant effects of omega-3 fatty acids on brain functionality, including seizures and disorders such as epilepsy. Fish oil (FO) is a marine product rich in unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. Considering that the amygdala is one of the brain structures most sensitive to seizure generation, we aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term chronic FO supplementation (from embryonic conception to adulthood) on the severity of seizures and amygdaloid electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA)-induced seizure model using adult rats. Female Wistar rats were fed a commercial diet supplemented daily with FO (300mg/kg) from puberty through mating, gestation, delivery, and weaning of the pups. Only the male pups were then fed daily with a commercial diet supplemented with the same treatment as the dam up to the age of 150days postpartum, when they were bilaterally implanted in the amygdala to record behavior and EEG activity before, during, and after seizures induced by administering 3-MPA. Results were compared with those obtained from rats supplemented with palm oil (PO) and rats treated with a vehicle (CTRL). The male rats treated with FO showed longer latency to seizure onset, fewer convulsive episodes, and attenuated severity compared those in the PO and CTRL groups according to the Racine scale. Moreover, long-term FO supplementation was associated with a reduction of the absolute power (AP) of the fast frequencies (12-25Hz) in the amygdala during the seizure periods. These findings support the idea that chronic supplementation with omega-3 of marine origin may have antiseizure properties as other studies have suggested. PMID:24657504

  16. Verapamil does not modify catalytic activity of CYP450 in rainbow trout after long-term exposure.

    PubMed

    Burkina, V; Zamaratskaia, G; Randak, T; Li, Z H; Fedorova, G; Pickova, J; Zlabek, V

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the effects of the cardiovascular drug verapamil (VRP) on metabolic processes in fish. Most calcium channel blockers including VRP are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. In this study we investigated the in vivo effect of VRP on some CYP450-mediated reactions in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of VRP (0.5, 27 and 270 ?g l(-1)) for 0, 21, and 42 day. The following CYP450-mediated reactions were studied in hepatic microsomes: O-dealkylation of ethoxyresorufin, methoxyresorufin, and pentoxyresorufin, hydroxylation of coumarin, tolbutamide, and p-nitrophenol, and O-debenzylation of 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin. The amounts of products of these reactions did not differ among fish exposed to different levels of VRP and control fish. This suggests that the levels of VPR used did not alter catalytic activity of the selected CYP450 enzymes. In conclusion, none of the investigated CYP450-mediated reactions has potential as a biomarker to monitor VRP contamination of the aquatic environment. PMID:22244749

  17. Long term operation of high concentration powdered activated carbon membrane bio-reactor for advanced water treatment.

    PubMed

    Seo, G T; Moon, C D; Chang, S W; Lee, S H

    2004-01-01

    A pilot scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of a membrane bioreactor filled with high concentration powdered activated carbon. This hybrid system has great potential to substitute for existing GAC or O3/BAC processes in the drinking water treatment train. The system was installed at a water treatment plant located downstream of the Nakdong river basin, Korea. Effluent of rapid sand filter was used as influent of the system which consists of PAC bio-reactor, submerged MF membrane module and air supply facility. PAC concentration of 20 g/L was maintained at the beginning of the experiment and it was increased to 40 g/L. The PAC has not been changed during the operational periods. The membrane was a hollow fiber type with pore sizes of 0.1 and 0.4 microm. It was apparent that the high PAC concentration could prevent membrane fouling. 40 g/L PAC was more effective to reduce the filtration resistance than 20 g/L. At the flux of 0.36 m/d, TMP was maintained less than 40 kPa for about 3 months by intermittent suction type operation (12 min suction/3 min idling). Adsorption was the dominant role to remove DOC at the initial operational period. However the biological effect was gradually increased after around 3 months operation. Constant DOC removal could be maintained at about 40% without any trouble and then a tremendous reduction of DBPs (HAA5 and THM) higher than 85% was achieved. Full nitrification was observed at the controlled influent ammonia nitrogen concentration of 3 and 7 mg/L. pH was an important parameter to keep stable ammonia oxidation. From almost two years of operation, it is clear that the PAC membrane bioreactor is highly applicable for advanced water treatment under the recent situation of more stringent DBPs regulation in Korea. PMID:15566190

  18. Long-term deforestation in NW Spain: linking the Holocene fire history to vegetation change and human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaal, Joeri; Carrión Marco, Yolanda; Asouti, Eleni; Martín Seijo, Maria; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Costa Casáis, Manuela; Criado Boado, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    The Holocene fire regime is thought to have had a key role in deforestation and shrubland expansion in Galicia (NW Spain) but the contribution of past societies to vegetation burning remains poorly understood. This may be, in part, due to the fact that detailed fire records from areas in close proximity to archaeological sites are scarce. To fill this gap, we performed charcoal analysis in five colluvial soils from an archaeological area (Campo Lameiro) and compared the results to earlier studies from this area and palaeo-ecological literature from NW Spain. This analysis allowed for the reconstruction of the vegetation and fire dynamics in the area during the last ca 11 000 yrs. In the Early Holocene, Fabaceae and Betula sp. were dominant in the charcoal record. Quercus sp. started to replace these species around 10 000 cal BP, forming a deciduous forest that prevailed during the Holocene Thermal Maximum until ?5500 cal BP. Following that, several cycles of potentially fire-induced forest regression with subsequent incomplete recovery eventually led to the formation of an open landscape dominated by shrubs (Erica sp. and Fabaceae). Major episodes of forest regression were (1) ?5500-5000 cal BP, which marks the mid-Holocene cooling after the Holocene Thermal Maximum, but also the period during which agropastoral activities in NW Spain became widespread, and (2) ?2000-1500 cal BP, which corresponds roughly to the end of the Roman Warm Period and the transition from the Roman to the Germanic period. The low degree of chronological precision, which is inherent in fire history reconstructions from colluvial soils, made it impossible to distinguish climatic from human-induced fires. Nonetheless, the abundance of synanthropic pollen indicators (e.g. Plantago lanceolata and Urtica dioica) since at least ?6000 cal BP strongly suggests that humans used fire to generate and maintain pasture.

  19. Linking short- and long-term deformation along an active margin: regional tectono-geomorphic patterns in light of the 2010 Maule Chile earthquake (M8.8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jara-Muñoz, Julius; Melnick, Daniel; Brill, Dominik; Strecker, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Strongly coupled subduction zones are known to have generated some of the largest earthquakes on Earth (megathrust earthquakes). These regions are also associated with an array of tectonic landforms, including multiple marine and fluvial terraces, which are intimately coupled with the long-term effects of seismogenic processes. Thus understanding the parameters that control the along-strike propagation of megathrust earthquake ruptures combined with the analysis of tectonic landforms is fundamental for the assessment of seismic hazards and risk mitigation. Here we report on the 2010 Maule earthquake that ruptured ~500 km of the central Chile margin. Modeling of GPS data during the interseismic and co-seismic periods have revealed segmentation in two main areas of high slip release and coupling. However, the spatiotemporal persistence of these segments and their relation with mechanical properties of the forearc is still poorly understood. To elucidate the relationships between short-term rupture segments and long-term tectono-geomorphic entities of the forearc we quantified permanent, long-term deformation using marine terraces in the Maule rupture zone and evaluate its relation with inter- and co-seismic patterns. We used the MIS-5 marine terrace, an ubiquitous geomorphic reference surface along the coast of central Chile, which we correlated with LiDAR images, field observations and new OSL ages. Furthermore, we evaluated the mechanisms of uplift by forward modeling of plate boundary slip. Coeval terraces are sharply offset across discrete crustal faults and also deformed in areas of broad crustal warping with wavelengths of ~100 km, reflecting activity of deep-seated structures within the interplate zone, both at the southern and northern sectors of the Maule rupture, where uplift rates reach 1.8 mm/yr. The central part, in turn, is characterized by a lesser degree of permanent uplift. Based on the similarities between seismic-cycle deformation and historical earthquake ruptures we propose that the southern sector of the Maule rupture zone constitutes a stable, discrete seismotectonic boundary. In contrast, the northern sector constitutes a rather diffuse boundary that may prevent rupture propagation of some earthquakes. Our modeling results suggest that in the north slip at the plate interface must be deeper than that inferred for the 2010 event to uplift the coast.

  20. Long-term changes in neocortical activity after chemical kindling with systemic pentylenetetrazole: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Barkai, E; Grossman, Y; Gutnick, M J

    1994-07-01

    1. Rats were chemically kindled by systemic administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) every 48 h. An initially subthreshold dose that did not elicit a motor response when first applied caused severe epileptiform seizures when the animal was kindled. Once kindled, animals continued to respond to the initially subthreshold dose with a full-blown seizure for > 2 mo, even when regular administration ceased for > or = 1 mo. 2. In neocortical slices taken from kindled rats, low-intensity electrical stimulation evoked generation of prolonged (hundreds of milliseconds) paroxysmal extracellular field potentials and intracellular depolarizing potentials, indicating synchronized activity of large populations of neurons. This hyperexcitability usually appeared as an all-or-none event of variable latency. In a few cases it increased gradually with increasing stimulus intensity. The intensity of the paroxysmal response was greatly enhanced by application of gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAa) receptor blockers to the bath. 3. Intracellular recordings revealed that PTZ-kindled cells differ from normal cells in their higher input resistance (42.4 + 13.6 vs. 26.4 + 9.2 M omega, mean +/- SE). Spikes generated by kindled cells differed significantly from those in normal cells in that they were of longer duration (1.65 + 0.3 vs. 1.40 + 0.15 ms) and had a slower maximal rate of fall (103 + 29.7 vs. 126 + 20.8 volts/s). 4. Injection of the lidocaine derivative QX-314 to the recorded neurons (100 mM) blocked the fast Na+ spikes. Under these conditions slow spikes, probably Ca2+ mediated, were evoked from the soma in neurons from kindled but not from normal cortex. 5. The role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in generating paroxysmal events was evaluated by application of 20 microM 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid, a specific blocker of this glutamate receptor type. Blockage of NMDA receptors cut short the paroxysmal field potentials but did not prevent their generation. Intracellularly recorded paroxysmal responses were also cut short but not abolished by intracellular hyperpolarization. 6. In slices from kindled animals intracellular responses in neurons of deeper layers differed markedly from those of superficial cells. In deep neurons, responses resembled those generated by neocortical neurons exposed to GABAergic blockers. A low-intensity stimulus to the white matter evoked an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) followed with variable latency by a paroxysmal depolarizing shift that reversed at suprathreshold membrane potentials and on which superimposed repetitive firing was always evident.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7965034

  1. Linking Historical Earthquake Records to Long Term Fault Slip Rates Using Cosmogenic 36Cl: Evidence for Migrating Earthquake Activity on a Millenial Timescale Across the Central Italian Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G.; Cowie, P. A.; Phillips, R. J.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Gregory, L. C.; Faure Walker, J.; Dunai, T. J.; Binnie, S. A.; Freeman, S. P. H. T.; Wilcken, K.; Wedmore, L. N. J.; Watson, Z.; Papanikolaou, I.

    2014-12-01

    Where deformation is accommodated by complex arrays of interacting faults, individual fault strands often show fluctuating levels of activity through time with intervals of high, or low, slip rate corresponding to earthquake clusters or quiescence, respectively. Thus earthquakes may occur on structures other than those defined as active based on historical events and paleoseismic records, confounding attempts to map seismic hazard with such datasets. A major challenge is to identify which faults are ahead of their long-term slip rate, which faults are behind their long term rate but still active, and which faults are no longer active. We show that cosmogenic 36Cl depth profiles measured systematically along the fault plane in trenches excavated below the base of bedrock scarps as well as along the exhumed scarp formed by extensional fault slip can be used to estimate both the average Holocene slip rate and the elapsed time since the last earthquake. Specifically, the increase in 36Cl concentration with height immediately above and below the ground surface at the scarp base reveals whether the elapsed time is anomalously long (or short) compared to the expected mean earthquake recurrence. For an area of active extension in Italy, we demonstrate that independent constraints on Holocene slip rates and elapsed times of historical earthquakes show a close correspondence with estimates derived from the 36Cl profiles. However, some faults slipped at rates higher than their Holocene-averaged rate from ~5 ka to the Middle Ages, indicating greater strain accumulation on the SW flank of the central Apennines in a zone that is now quiescent. The historical catalogue shows that, since the earthquake of 1349 A.D., activity has been concentrated in a 50km wide zone of faults further to the NE. In contrast, when viewed over the whole Holocene, strain is symmetrically distributed across the whole array. When taken together, along with documented earthquake shaking since Roman times, these data suggest that the locus of strain accumulation has migrated from one crustal scale fault system to another over a distance of several 10's of km over a time scale of several thousand years and that deformation in this area is more variable in both space and time than the geodetically-determined interseismic strain accumulation would predict.

  2. Long term anti-tumour necrosis factor ? monotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis: effect on radiological course and prognostic value of markers of cartilage turnover and endothelial activation

    PubMed Central

    den Broeder, A A; Joosten, L; Saxne, T; Heinegard, D; Fenner, H; Miltenburg, A; Frasa, W; van Tits, L J; Buurman, W; van Riel, P L C M; van de Putte, L B A; Barrera, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of prolonged neutralisation of tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) on the radiological course in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To assess whether the radiological course can be predicted by clinical variables or biological markers of cartilage and synovium turnover and of endothelial activation. Patients and methods: Forty seven patients with active RA enrolled at our centre in monotherapy trials with adalimumab (D2E7), a fully human anti-TNF? monoclonal antibody, were studied for two years. Radiographs of hands and feet obtained at baseline and after one and two years were scored in chronological order by a single, blinded observer using the modified Sharp method. Radiological course was classified as stable or progressive using the smallest detectable difference as cut off point. The relation between radiological course and serum markers of cartilage and synovium turnover (metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-3), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), human cartilage glycoprotein-39 (HC gp-39)), endothelial activation (soluble E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1)), and integrated measures of disease activity were assessed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Radiological evaluation was performed in 36 patients with paired sets of radiographs at baseline and two years. After two years a total of 15/36 (42%) presented no radiological progression. More patients with stable radiological course were still receiving anti-TNF? treatment after two years (13/15 (87%) v 11/21 (52%); p=0.03) and had lower baseline COMP and sICAM-1 levels (p=0.01 and 0.04, respectively) than those in the group with progressive disease. In a logistic regression model the combination of sustained TNF neutralisation and baseline COMP and sICAM-1 levels was predictive for radiological outcome (p=0.03). C reactive protein and disease activity score area under the curve were significantly correlated with changes in radiological scores after two years (r=0.40 and 0.37, p<0.05). Long term TNF? neutralisation decreased the levels of COMP, sICAM, MMPs, and HC gp-39, but not sE-selectin. Conclusion: The results suggest that long term monotherapy with anti-TNF? has a positive effect on radiological outcome and modulates cartilage and synovium turnover as measured by biological markers. Baseline serum sICAM-1 levels and COMP levels may be helpful to identify patients with progressive or non-progressive radiological outcome. PMID:11874832

  3. Microcalorimetric study of the effects of long-term fertilization on soil microbial activity in a wheat field on the Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Liu, Xiaomei; Ma, Xiaojun; Fang, Jian; Fan, Tinglu; Wu, Fasi; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2014-12-01

    The effects of the long-term inorganic (nitrogen, N; phosphate, P) and organic (manure, M; straw, S) fertilizers/managemenet individually and in combinations (N, NP, SNP, M, and MNP) on soil microbial activity were investigated in a wheat field on the Loess Plateau, China. Microcalorimetry was used to determine microbial activity under different treatments. Nearly 30 years of consecutive fertilization has altered the culturable population of soil bacteria and fungi, the highest ones were detected in the treatments of manure and MNP, followed by the NP and SNP treatments. The microbial growth rate constant (?/h(-1)) was significantly greater in the MNP treatment than all the other treatments. The total heat exchange values (Q/J) were the highest in the MNP and NP treatments, which were significantly different from the N and M treatments. The peak height (P(t)/?W) were significantly higher in MNP and NP treatments than in the remaining treatments. The peak time values (t(p)/h) among the MNP, NP, SNP and M, N and CK treatments were significantly different. In general, comparing with control, soil microbial activity was much higher in MNP, NP and SNP treatments, all including the phosphate fertilizer. Our results showed that the application of inorganic fertilizer and organic manure have positive effects on multiple soil chemical parameters, soil microorganism abundance and activity, and hence crop yield. PMID:25134677

  4. The Inhibitory Effect of Interleukin1b on Long-Term Potentiation Is Coupled with Increased Activity of Stress-Activated Protein Kinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Vereker; E. O'Donnell; M. A. Lynch

    2000-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) in perforant path-granule cell synapses is decreased in aged rats, stressed rats, and rats injected intracerebroventricularly with the proinflammatory cy- tokine interleukin-1b (IL-1b). One factor that is common to these experimental conditions is an increase in the concentration of IL-1b in the dentate gyrus, suggesting a causal relationship between the compromise in LTP and increased IL-1b concentra-

  5. Glossary (Long-Term Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not as intensive as care offered at a nursing home. Types and sizes of facilities vary, ranging from ... a cognitive impairment. Community Spouse Spouse of a nursing home resident applying for or receiving Medicaid long-term ...

  6. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor contributes to spinal long-term potentiation and mechanical hypersensitivity by activation of spinal microglia in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Yang, Tao; Wei, Xiao; Liu, Yong; Xin, Wen-Jun; Chen, Yuan; Pang, Rui-Ping; Zang, Ying; Li, Yong-Yong; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2011-02-01

    It has been shown that following peripheral nerve injury brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) released by activated microglia contributes to neuropathic pain, but whether BDNF affects the function of microglia is still unknown. In the present work we found that spinal application of BDNF, which induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of C-fiber evoked field potentials, activated spinal microglia in naïve animals, while pretreatment with microglia inhibitor minocycline blocked BDNF-induced LTP. In addition, following LTP induction by BDNF, both phosphorylated Src-family kinases (p-SFKs) and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) were up-regulated only in spinal microglia but not in neurons and astrocytes, whilst spinal application of SFKs inhibitor (PP2 or SU6656) or p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) blocked BDNF-induced LTP and suppressed microglial activation. As spinal LTP at C-fiber synapses is considered to underlie neuropathic pain, we subsequently examined whether BDNF may contribute to mechanical hypersensitivity by activation of spinal microglia using spared nerve injury (SNI) model. Following SNI BDNF and TrkB receptor were up-regulated mainly in dorsal horn neurons and in activated microglia, and p-SFKs and p-p38 MAPK were increased exclusively in microglia. Intrathecal injection of BDNF scavenger TrkB-Fc starting before SNI, which prevented the behavioral sign of neuropathic pain, suppressed both microglial activation and the up-regulation of p-SFKs and p-p38 MAPK produced by SNI. Thus, the increased BDNF/TrkB signaling in spinal dorsal horn may contribute to neuropathic pain by activation of microglia following peripheral nerve injury and inhibition of SFKs or p38 MAPK may selectively inhibit microglia in spinal dorsal horn. PMID:20933591

  7. Long-term information and distributed neural activation are relevant for the "internal features advantage" in face processing: electrophysiological and source reconstruction evidence.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Ela I; Saavedra, Cristina; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J; Iglesias, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    In face processing tasks, prior presentation of internal facial features, when compared with external ones, facilitates the recognition of subsequently displayed familiar faces. In a previous ERP study (Olivares & Iglesias, 2010) we found a visibly larger N400-like effect when identity mismatch familiar faces were preceded by internal features, as compared to prior presentation of external ones. In the present study we contrasted the processing of familiar and unfamiliar faces in the face-feature matching task to assess whether the so-called "internal features advantage" relies mainly on the use of stored face-identity-related information or if it might operate independently from stimulus familiarity. Our participants (N = 24) achieved better performance with internal features as primes and, significantly, with familiar faces. Importantly, ERPs elicited by identity mismatch complete faces displayed a negativity around 300-600 msec which was clearly enhanced for familiar faces primed by internal features when compared with the other experimental conditions. Source reconstruction showed incremented activity elicited by familiar stimuli in both posterior (ventral occipitotemporal) and more anterior (parahippocampal (ParaHIP) and orbitofrontal) brain regions. The activity elicited by unfamiliar stimuli was, in general, located in more posterior regions. Our findings suggest that the activation of multiple neural codes is required for optimal individuation in face-feature matching and that a cortical network related to long-term information for face-identity processing seems to support the internal feature effect. PMID:24025156

  8. Social activity decreases risk of placement in a long-term care facility for a prospective sample of community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lyndsey M; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Mattek, Nora C; Lyons, Karen S; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of modifiable factors in the risk of long-term care (LTC) placement. Using data from a cohort of community-residing older adults (N = 189), a secondary analysis was conducted of the contribution of social activity, sleep disturbances, and depressive symptoms to the risk of LTC placement. Analyses controlled for cognitive and functional impairment, age, and medical conditions. Within 5 years, 20% of participants were placed in a LTC facility. Each unit increase in social activity was associated with a 24% decrease in the risk of placement (odds ratio [OR] = 0.763, p = 0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.65, 0.89]). Cognitive impairment (OR = 3.05, p = 0.017, 95% CI [1.23, 7.59]), medical conditions (OR = 1.22, p = 0.039, 95% CI [1.01, 1.47]), and age (OR = 1.101, p = 0.030, 95% CI [1.01, 1.20]) were also significant individual predictors of placement. Although many of the strongest risk factors for placement are not modifiable, older adults who engage in more social activity outside the home may be able to delay transition from independent living. PMID:24444452

  9. Long-term operation of a novel pilot-scale six tanks alternately operating activated sludge process in treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, R N; Abu-Alhail, S; Xi-Wu, L

    2014-08-01

    The performance of a new pilot-scale six tanks activated sludge process has been evaluated for 303 d, receiving real domestic wastewater with a flow rate of 15-24.4 L/h. Partial nitrification via nitrite and microbial community structure were investigated in this system. The result shows that the nitrite accumulation rate was achieved successfully over 94% in the last aerobic compartment through a combination of short hydraulic retention time and low dissolved oxygen (DO) level. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was used to correlate ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) numbers with nutrient removal via nitrite. It was shown that in response to complete and partial nitrification modes, the numbers of AOB population were 7.7 x 10(7) cells/g mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and 5.31 x 10(8) cells/g MLSS, respectively. The morphology of the sludge indicated that there is a small rod-shaped and spherical cluster which was mainly dominantly bacterial according to scanning electron microscope. Higher pollutant removal efficiencies of 86.2%, 98%, and 96.1%, for total nitrogen, NH4+ - N, and total phosphorus, respectively, were achieved by a long-term operation of the six tanks activated sludge process at a low DO concentration and low chemical oxygen demand to nitrogen ratio which were approximately equal to the complete nitrification-ldenitrification with the addition of an external carbon source at a concentration of 1.5-2.5 mg/L. PMID:24956781

  10. Diversity and activity of cellulose-decomposing bacteria, isolated from a sandy and a loamy soil after long-term manure application.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Andreas; Klimke, Gabriele; Wirth, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    The community of culturable cellulolytic bacteria was analyzed in two long-term experimental field sites on Albic Luvisol (silty sand) and Haplic Phaeozem (loam), with and without farmyard manure treatment. Against the backdrop of significant differences in soil properties, the bacterial community structure differed clearly between sites and was affected by manure application as analyzed by T-RFLP of 16S rDNA. The population densities of cellulolytic bacteria were significantly increased by manure application in Phaeozem. Cellulose decomposing potentials of 537 isolates were tested on soluble, colloidal, and crystalline cellulose. The results showed some evidence of a greater proportion of isolates with high decomposition activity in Luvisol, but no impact from manure application could be observed in both soils. Restriction analysis and sequencing of 16S rDNA of isolates revealed a rather simple community composition that was dominated by Streptomyces (67%). The composition of the RFLP groups was affected by manure application, which was most evident in Luvisol, whereas an effect of the soil type could not be found. Although abundant RFLP groups were assigned to phylogenetically different bacterial classes (Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria), cellulolytic activity could not consistently be differentiated. All in all, cellulolytic capabilities of the isolates were highly variable and did not map to phylogenetic affiliation. PMID:17665240

  11. Encapsulated Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells Actively Protect Against Intrahippocampal A?-induced Long-Term Memory Dysfunction; Upregulation of Effective Neurogenesis with the Abrogated Apoptosis and Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Aliaghaei, Abbas; Digaleh, Hadi; Khodagholi, Fariba; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2015-07-01

    Choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) as a secretory epithelium are responsible for the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Beyond this classical tenet, CPECs also synthesize and release many neurotrophic factors such as antioxidants into the CSF, participating in brain homeostasis. In this study, CPECs were isolated from rat's brain and encapsulated in alginate microcapsules. Firstly, functional properties of alginate microcapsules and encapsulated CPECs were examined in vitro. Following, micro-encapsulated CPECs were grafted into rats' brains that were pretreated with A?. The in vivo studies include western blotting against Caspase-3 and Terminal-Transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling test that were performed to detect apoptosis in brain tissues. The in vivo part also included immunohistochemistry against Iba-1, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and Brdu to detect microglial migration, gliosis, and neurogenesis, respectively. Moreover, the activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme in hippocampi also was measured, and the memory was assessed by shuttle box apparatus. Our data suggest that transplantation of encapsulated CPECs resulted in a significant decrease in apoptosis, reduced migration microglia, diminished gliosis, increased neurogenesis, and improved long-term memory as well as upregulated antioxidant activity. Since microencapsulated CPECs do not need immunosuppression following implantation, and also we showed their neuroprotective effects against A? toxicity and oxidative stress, this may be a suitable candidate for cell therapy in neurological disorders. PMID:25634726

  12. Posttraining activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus impairs object recognition long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julia R; Rossato, Janine I; Monteiro, Siomara; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-09-01

    Evidence indicates that brain endocannabinoids are involved in memory processing. However, the participation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in recognition memory has not been yet conclusively determined. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the posttraining activation of hippocampal cannabinoid receptors on the consolidation of object recognition memory. Rats with infusion cannulae stereotaxically aimed to the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus were trained in an object recognition learning task involving exposure to two different stimulus objects. Memory retention was assessed at different times after training. In the test sessions, one of the objects presented during training was replaced by a novel one. When infused in the CA1 region immediately after training, the non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2 and the endocannabinoid membrane transporter inhibitor VDM-11 blocked long-term memory retention in a dose-dependent manner without affecting short-term memory, exploratory behavior, anxiety state or the functionality of the hippocampus. The amnesic effect of WIN-55,212-2 and VDM-11 was not due to state-dependency and was completely reversed by co-infusion of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM-251 and mimicked by the CB1 receptor agonist ACEA but not by the CB2 receptor agonists JWH-015 and palmitoylethanolamide. Our data indicate that activation of hippocampal CB1 receptors early after training hampers consolidation of object recognition memory. PMID:18524639

  13. Solid-phase bioassays and soil microbial activities to evaluate PAH-spiked soil ecotoxicity after a long-term bioremediation process simulating landfarming.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Helmi; Benzarti, Saoussen; Manusadzianas, Levonas; Aoyama, Isao; Jedidi, Naceur

    2007-11-01

    The residual ecotoxicity of long-term bioremediated soils concomitantly spiked with three PAHs at four levels (15, 75, 150, 300 mg Sigma 3 PAHs kg(-1) soil) was evaluated using physico-chemical analyses, solid-phase bioassays and soil microbial activities. The pot-scale bioremediation process consisted of weekly moderate waterings in the presence or absence of sewage sludge compost (SSC) under greenhouse conditions. After 15 months, anthracene and pyrene were almost completely degraded whereas benzo[a]pyrene was still persisting, most apparently in SSC-amended soil treatments. However, no apparent toxic effects of the residual PAHs could be detected. SSC application at 40 t ha(-1) was performed to valorize the biowaste and stimulate PAH biodegradation but caused soil salinization and pH reduction at the end of the bioremediation process. Consequently, SSC-amended soils were characterized by strong phytotoxicity to lettuce and had adverse effects on the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens. Despite the smaller number of culturable bacterial populations in SSC-amended soils, soil enzymatic activities were not affected by the organic amendment and residual PAHs; and the bioremediation efficiency was likely to be more limited by the bioavailability of PAHs rather than by the total number of PAH-degraders. PMID:17686508

  14. The importance of earthquake-induced landslides to long-term slope erosion and slope-failure hazards in seismically active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefer, David K.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes a general method for determining the amount of earthquake-induced landsliding that occurs in a seismically active region over time; this determination can be used as a quantitative measure of the long-term hazard from seismically triggered landslides as well as a measure of the importance of this process to regional slope-erosion rates and landscape evolution. The method uses data from historical earthquakes to relate total volume of landslide material dislodged by an earthquake to the magnitude, M, and seismic moment, M0, of the earthquake. From worldwide data, a linear-regression relation between landslide volume, V, and M0 is determined as: V = M0/10 18.9(± 0.13), where V is measured in m 3 and M0 is in dyn-cm. To determine the amount of earthquake-generated landsliding over time, this relation is combined with data on seismic-moment release for a particular region, which may be derived from either earthquake-history or fault-slip data. The form of the M0- V relation allows the rate of production of earthquake-induced landslides over time to be determined from total rate of seismic-moment release without regard to the distribution of individual events, thus simplifying and generalizing the determination. Application of the method to twelve seismically active regions, with areas ranging from 13,275 to 2,308,000 km 2, shows that erosion rates from earthquake-induced landslides vary significantly from region to region. Of the regions studied, the highest rates were determined for the island of Hawaii, New Zealand, western New Guinea, and the San Francisco Bay region of California. Significantly lower rates were determined for Iran, Tibet, the Sierra Nevada-Great Basin region of California, and central Japan (for the time period from 715 AD to the present). Intermediate rates were determined for Peru, southern California, onshore California, Turkey, and central Japan (for the time period from 1586 AD to the present). To determine the relative, long-term importance of seismically triggered landslides, these erosion rates are compared to erosion rates calculated for other slope processes and to rates calculated from fluvial sediment discharge. Comparisons with other slope processes indicate that earthquake-induced landslides are the predominant agents of slope erosion on the island of Hawaii, in the San Francisco Bay region, and in western New Guinea. For Hawaii, the San Francisco Bay region, and Sierra Nevada-Great Basin region of California, the erosion rates calculated for earthquake-induced landslides also exceed the regional erosion rates calculated from fluvial sediment discharge.

  15. Long-term increase of fat mass after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limitation of physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A sedentary lifestyle and increased consumption of energy dense food have become more common in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to study long term effects on body composition after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limited physical activity in young normal weight subjects. Methods Eighteen subjects, mean age 26 (6.6) years, increased their energy intake with in average 70% and physical activity were not to exceed 5000 steps/day. Body composition was measured by Dual energy x-ray (DXA) at baseline, after the intervention and after 12 months. A matched control group was also included. ANOVA and Student's paired and unpaired t-test were used. Results During the intervention body weight increased with 6.4 (2.8) kg and DXA measurements showed increases of both fat free mass and fat mass. Six months after the intervention the subjects had lost most of the weight gain, - 4.7 (3.1) kg. Twelve months after the intervention body weight had increased with 1.5 (2.4) kg compared to baseline (p = 0.018). DXA measurements at 12 months showed unchanged fat free mass compared to baseline but higher fat mass, + 1.4 (1.9) kg (p = 0.01). After 2.5 years the increase of body weight was 3.1 (4.0) kg (p = 0.01) while there was no change in controls compared to baseline, + 0.1(2.5) kg (p = 0.88). Conclusion One year after a short term intervention with increased fast food based hyper-alimentation there was an increase of fat mass but unchanged fat free mass. As the change of fat mass was larger than expected from prospective epidemiological studies and as there was no increase of body weight in controls it raises the issue whether there is a long-term effect to increase fat mass of a short period of hyper-alimentation. PMID:20738843

  16. IHV: a new long-term geomagnetic index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, Leif; Cliver, Edward W.; Le Sager, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    We derive a new daily index of geomagnetic activity, the Inter-Hour Variability index (IHV), for investigations of the long-term variability of the solar wind-magnetosphere system. The IHV index is used to successfully reconstruct yearly-averages of the range indices am, ap, and aa from 1959 through 2000. When we attempt to reconstruct the aa index back to 1901, however, the reconstructed aa lies above the observed aa for years before 1957, with the difference between the two curves being the greatest (˜5-10 nT) during the first two decades of the 20th century.

  17. Long term ionospheric electron content variations over Delhi J. K. Gupta and Lakha Singh

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in high solar activity. IECmax (daytime maximum value of IEC, one per day) shows winter anomaly onlyLong term ionospheric electron content variations over Delhi J. K. Gupta and Lakha Singh Radio Received: 10 May 2000 / Revised: 5 September 2000 / Accepted: 25 September 2000 Abstract. Ionospheric

  18. Long-term variation of energetic electron precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asikainen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    The long-term evolution of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) is of considerable interest, e.g., because of its atmospheric and climatic effects. However, the long-term evolution of EEP over several solar cycles has been problematic due to the lack of reliable long-term data. The NOAA/POES satellites have measured energetic particles for more than 35 years. This dataset has been used widely but it has been plagued by several instrumental problems, which have restricted its use for long-term studies. However, we have recently corrected and recalibrated the entire NOAA/POES energetic particle dataset. Using this unique dataset we present here an overview of the long-term evolution of EEP paying particular attention to the role of different types of solar wind disturbances in driving the EEP.

  19. Long-Term Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Response to Lamivudine-Containing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-HBV Co-Infected Patients in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Khamduang, Woottichai; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Jourdain, Gonzague; Moreau, Alain; Luekamlung, Nuananong; Halue, Guttiga; Buranawanitchakorn, Yuwadee; Kunkongkapan, Sura; Buranabanjasatean, Sudanee; Lallemant, Marc; Sirirungsi, Wasna; Goudeau, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background Approximately 4 million of people are co-infected with HIV and Hepatitis B virus (HBV). In resource-limited settings, the majority of HIV-infected patients initiate first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy containing lamivudine (3TC-containing-HAART) and long-term virological response of HBV to lamivudine-containing HAART in co-infected patients is not well known. Methodology/Principal Finding HIV-HBV co-infected patients enrolled in the PHPT cohort (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00433030) and initiating a 3TC-containing-HAART regimen were included. HBV-DNA, HIV-RNA, CD4+ T-cell counts and alanine transaminase were measured at baseline, 3 months, 12 months and then every 6 months up to 5 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the cumulative rates of patients who achieved and maintained HBV-DNA suppression. Of 30 co-infected patients, 19 were positive for HBe antigen (HBeAg). At initiation of 3TC-containing-HAART, median HBV DNA and HIV RNA levels were 7.35 log10 IU/mL and 4.47 log10 copies/mL, respectively. At 12 months, 67% of patients achieved HBV DNA suppression: 100% of HBeAg-negative patients and 47% of HBeAg-positive. Seventy-three percent of patients had HIV RNA below 50 copies/mL. The cumulative rates of maintained HBV-DNA suppression among the 23 patients who achieved HBV-DNA suppression were 91%, 87%, and 80% at 1, 2, and 4 years respectively. Of 17 patients who maintained HBV-DNA suppression while still on 3TC, 4 (24%) lost HBsAg and 7 of 8 (88%) HBeAg-positive patients lost HBeAg at their last visit (median duration, 59 months). HBV breakthrough was observed only in HBeAg-positive patients and 6 of 7 patients presenting HBV breakthrough had the rtM204I/V mutations associated with 3TC resistance along with rtL180M and/or rtV173L. Conclusions All HBeAg-negative patients and 63% of HBeAg-positive HIV-HBV co-infected patients achieved long-term HBV DNA suppression while on 3TC-containing-HAART. This study provides information useful for the management of co-infected patients in resource-limited countries where the vast majority of co-infected patients are currently receiving 3TC. PMID:22860080

  20. Asymmetric behavior of different solar activity features over solar cycles 20-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankoti, Neeraj Singh; Joshi, Navin Chandra; Pande, Bimal; Pande, Seema; Uddin, Wahab; Pandey, Kavita

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the study of normalized north-south asymmetry, cumulative normalized north-south asymmetry and cumulative difference indices of sunspot areas, solar active prominences (at total, low (?40°) and high (?50°) latitudes) and H ? solar flares from 1964 to 2008 spanning the solar cycles 20-23. Three different statistical methods are used to obtain the asymmetric behavior of different solar activity features. Hemispherical distribution of activity features shows the dominance of activities in northern hemisphere for solar cycle 20 and in southern hemisphere for solar cycles 21-23 excluding solar active prominences at high latitudes. Cumulative difference index of solar activity features in each solar cycle is observed at the maximum of the respective solar cycle suggesting a cyclic behavior of approximately one solar cycle length. Asymmetric behavior of all activity features except solar active prominences at high latitudes hints at the long term periodic trend of eight solar cycles. North-south asymmetries of SAP (H) express the specific behavior of solar activity at high solar latitudes and its behavior in long-time scale is distinctly opposite to those of other activity features. Our results show that in most cases the asymmetry is statistically highly significant meaning thereby that the asymmetries are real features in the N-S distribution of solar activity features.

  1. Targeted omics analyses, and metabolic enzyme activity assays demonstrate maintenance of key mucociliary characteristics in long term cultures of reconstituted human airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Andrew; Thain, Simon; Banerjee, Anisha; Haswell, Linsey; Parmar, Aleesha; Phillips, Gary; Minet, Emmanuel

    2015-08-01

    3D reconstituted respiratory epithelia have emerged as better in?vitro models for toxicological testing compared to cell lines due to the conservation of key morphological features and functions. MucilAir™ is a commercially available human airway epithelia system that can potentially maintain functional attributes for up to a year, however, detailed mucociliary characteristics and xenobiotic metabolism relevant to inhaled pro-toxicant bioactivation is lacking. Here, we assessed in MucilAir™ some key biomarkers that are characteristic of the respiratory epithelia including morphology, function and xenobiotics metabolism. The end points that were measured included targeted proteomics using a panel of 243 airway surface liquid (ASL) proteins, cilia beat frequency (CBF), a qRT-PCR screen of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and CYP2A6/13, CYP1A1/1B1 activity. Comparison of ASL proteomics with human sputum identified key proteins common to both matrices, but present at different levels. Xenobiotic metabolism gene profiling demonstrated strong similarities with the normal human lung and did not reveal any consistent changes when assessed over a 6month period. Inducibility and activity of CYP1A1/1B1 and activity of CYP2A6/2A13 were present at one month in culture and maintained in one tested MucilAir™ donor for several months. In conclusion, MucilAir™ presented important morphological and metabolic characteristics of a mucociliary epithelium in short and long term culture. MucilAir™ is therefore a potentially useful model to test repeated sub-cytotoxic doses of toxicants. PMID:25863282

  2. Early free access to hypertonic NaCl solution induces a long-term effect on drinking, brain cell activity and gene expression of adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Macchione, A F; Beas, C; Dadam, F M; Caeiro, X E; Godino, A; Ponce, L F; Amigone, J L; Vivas, L

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to an altered osmotic environment during a pre/postnatal period can differentially program the fluid intake and excretion pattern profile in a way that persists until adulthood. However, knowledge about the programing effects on the underlying brain neurochemical circuits of thirst and hydroelectrolyte balance, and its relation with behavioral outputs, is limited. We evaluated whether early voluntary intake of hypertonic NaCl solution may program adult offspring fluid balance, plasma vasopressin, neural activity, and brain vasopressin and angiotensinergic receptor type 1a (AT1a)-receptor gene expression. The manipulation (M) period covered dams from 1week before conception until offspring turned 1-month-old. The experimental groups were (i) Free access to hypertonic NaCl solution (0.45M NaCl), food (0.18% NaCl) and water [M-Na]; and (ii) Free access to food and water only [M-Ctrol]. Male offspring (2-month-old) were subjected to iv infusion (0.15ml/min) of hypertonic (1.5M NaCl), isotonic (0.15M NaCl) or sham infusion during 20min. Cumulative water intake (140min) and drinking latency to the first lick were recorded from the start of the infusion. Our results indicate that, after systemic sodium overload, the M-Na group had increased water intake, and diminished neuronal activity (Fos-immunoreactivity) in the subfornical organ (SFO) and nucleus of the solitary tract. They also showed reduced relative vasopressin (AVP)-mRNA and AT1a-mRNA expression at the supraoptic nucleus and SFO, respectively. The data indicate that the availability of a rich source of sodium during the pre/postnatal period induces a long-term effect on drinking, neural activity, and brain gene expression implicated in the control of hydroelectrolyte balance. PMID:25872186

  3. N-cadherin{sup +} HSCs in fetal liver exhibit higher long-term bone marrow reconstitution activity than N-cadherin{sup -} HSCs

    SciTech Connect

    Toyama, Hirofumi; Arai, Fumio; Hosokawa, Kentaro; Ikushima, Yoshiko Matsumoto [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Suda, Toshio, E-mail: sudato@z3.keio.jp [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High N-cad expression was detected in E12.5 mouse FL LT-HSCs (EPCR{sup +} LSK cells). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immunohistochemically, N-cad{sup +} HSCs co-localized with sinusoidal ECs (Lyve-1{sup +} cells) in E12.5 FL, but these gradually detached in E15.5 and E18.5 FL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-cad{sup +} LSK cells in E12.5 FL exhibited higher LTR activity versus N-cad{sup -} LSK cells, which decreased in E15.5 and E18.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-cad expression may confer high LTR activity to HSCs by facilitating interactions with the perisinusoidal niche in FL. -- Abstract: Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a microenvironment known as the stem cell niche. The regulation of HSCs in fetal liver (FL) and their niche, however, remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of N-cadherin (N-cad) in the maintenance of HSCs during FL hematopoiesis. By using anti-N-cad antibodies (Abs) produced by our laboratory, we detected high N-cad expression in embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) mouse FL HSCs, but not in E15.5 and E18.5 FL. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that N-cad{sup +}c-Kit{sup +} and N-cad{sup +} endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR){sup +} HSCs co-localized with Lyve-1{sup +} sinusoidal endothelial cells (ECs) in E12.5 FL and that some of these cells also expressed N-cad. However, N-cad{sup +} HSCs were also observed to detach from the perisinusoidal niche at E15.5 and E18.5, concomitant with a down-regulation of N-cad and an up-regulation of E-cadherin (E-cad) in hepatic cells. Moreover, EPCR{sup +} long-term (LT)-HSCs were enriched in the N-cad{sup +}Lin{sup -}Sca-1{sup +}c-Kit{sup +} (LSK) fraction in E12.5 FL, but not in E15.5 or E18.5 FL. In a long-term reconstitution (LTR) activity assay, higher engraftment associated with N-cad{sup +} LSK cells versus N-cad{sup -} LSK cells in E12.5 FL when transplanted into lethally irradiated recipient mice. However, the higher engraftment of N-cad{sup +} LSK cells decreased subsequently in E15.5 and E18.5 FL. It is possible that N-cad expression conferred higher LTR activity to HSCs by facilitating interactions with the perisinusoidal niche, especially at E12.5. The down-regulation of N-cad during FL hematopoiesis may help us better understand the regulation and mobility of HSCs before migration into BM.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Solar Array Fragments Degradation at Different Structure Scales during and after Long-Term Exposure Overboard the ‘Mir’ Space Station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir A Letin; Petr G Babayevsky

    2001-01-01

    Generalized comparative analysis of the results of model specimens and fragments of standard solar array degradation studies before and after prolonged exposure and during operation in low Earth orbits (LEOs) is made. The studies gave a unique opportunity to reveal new information on the influence of the space environment on solar array materials and components, determine the degree of degradation

  5. Increased long-term recreational physical activity is associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers: the California Teachers Study

    PubMed Central

    Emaus, Aina; Dieli-Conwright, Christina; Xu, Xinxin; Lacey, James V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Reynolds, Peggy; Bernstein, Leslie; Henderson, Katherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although physical activity modulates the hypothalamic-ovarian-pituitary axis, the few studies investigating whether physical activity is associated with age at natural menopause have had mixed results. We set out to determine whether physical activity is associated with the timing of natural menopause in a large cohort of California women, overall, and by smoking history. Methods We investigated the association between long-term physical activity (hours/week/year) and age at natural menopause among 97,945 women in the California Teachers Study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The impact of cigarette smoking (never smoker, former-light smoker, former-heavy smoker, current-light smoker, current-heavy smoker) as an effect modifier was evaluated. Results In a multivariable model adjusting for body mass index at age 18, age at menarche, race/ethnicity, and age at first full-term pregnancy, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause (ptrend=0.005). Higher body mass index at age 18 (ptrend=0.0003) and older age at menarche (ptrend=0.0003) were also associated with older age at natural menopause. Hispanic ethnicity (vs. non-Hispanic whites, HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09–1.26), current smokers (vs. never smokers, HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.60–1.75 for current-light smokers; HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.33–1.44 for current-heavy smokers) and older age at first full-term pregnancy (HR?29, 2+ full-term pregnancies vs. <29, 2+ full-term pregnancies 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.14) were associated with earlier age at natural menopause. Upon stratification by smoking history, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older natural menopause among heavy smokers only (HRHighest vs. Lowest quartile 0.88, 95% CI 0.81–0.97, ptrend=0.02 for former-heavy smokers; HRHighest vs. Lowest quartile 0.89, 95% CI 0.80–0.99, ptrend=0.04 for current-heavy smokers). Conclusion Age at natural menopause is a complex trait; the determinants of age at natural menopause, including physical activity, may differ by smoking status. PMID:23435025

  6. Posterior urethral valves: long-term outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Caione; Simona Gerocarni Nappo

    Posterior urethral valves represent the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infancy that impairs renal and\\u000a bladder function. Long-term outcome of patients with previous PUV is evaluated. Patients over 18 years of age, treated from\\u000a 1982 to 1995 before the age of 3 years were considered. Previous surgery, renal function, bladder activity, urinary incontinence,\\u000a and fertility\\/sexual activity were evaluated. Clinical

  7. ? Carinae long-term variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damineli, Augusto; Teodoro, Mairan; Corcoran, Michael F.; Groh, Jose H.

    2011-07-01

    We present preliminary results of our analysis on the long-term variations observed in the optical spectrum of the LBV star ? Carinae. Based on the hydrogen line profiles, we conclude that the physical parameters of the primary star did not change in the last 15 years.

  8. Long-Term Reduction of Cocaine Self-Administration in Rats Treated with Adenoviral Vector-Delivered Cocaine Hydrolase: Evidence for Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zlebnik, Natalie E; Brimijoin, Stephen; Gao, Yang; Saykao, Amy T; Parks, Robin J; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2014-01-01

    A new pharmacokinetic approach treating cocaine addiction involves rapidly metabolizing cocaine before it reaches brain reward centers using mutated human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) or cocaine hydrolase (CocH). Recent work has shown that helper-dependent adenoviral (hdAD) vector-mediated plasma CocH reduced the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine and prevented reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior up to 6 months in rats. The present study investigated whether hdAD-CocH could decrease ongoing intravenous cocaine (0.4?mg/kg) self-administration. The hdAD-CocH vector was injected into self-administering rats, and after accumulation of plasma CocH, there was a dramatic reduction in cocaine infusions earned under a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement that lasted for the length of the study (>2 months). Pretreatment with the selective BChE and CocH inhibitor iso-OMPA (1.5?mg/kg) restored cocaine intake; therefore, the decline in self-administration was likely due to rapid CocH-mediated cocaine metabolism. Direct measurements of cocaine levels in plasma and brain samples taken after the conclusion of behavioral studies provided strong support for this conclusion. Further, rats injected with hdAD-CocH did not experience a deficit in operant responding for drug reinforcement and self-administered methamphetamine (0.05?mg/kg) at control levels. Overall, these outcomes suggest that viral gene transfer can yield plasma CocH levels that effectively diminish long-term cocaine intake and may have potential treatment implications for cocaine-dependent individuals seeking to become and remain abstinent. PMID:24407266

  9. Ibuprofen-in-cyclodextrin-in-W/O/W emulsion - Improving the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency of a model active ingredient.

    PubMed

    Hattrem, Magnus N; Kristiansen, Kåre A; Aachmann, Finn L; Dille, Morten J; Draget, Kurt I

    2015-06-20

    A challenge in formulating water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions is the uncontrolled release of the encapsulated compound prior to application. Pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals usually have amphipathic nature, which may contribute to leakage of the active ingredient. In the present study, cyclodextrins (CyDs) were used to impart a change in the relative polarity and size of a model compound (ibuprofen) by the formation of inclusion complexes. Various inclusion complexes (2-hydroxypropyl (HP)-?-CyD-, ?-CyD- and ?-CyD-ibuprofen) were prepared and presented within W/O/W emulsions, and the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency was investigated. HP-?-CyD-ibuprofen provided the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen in comparison to a W/O/W emulsion with unassociated ibuprofen confined within the inner water phase, with a four-fold increase in the encapsulation efficiency. An improved, although lower, encapsulation efficiency was obtained for the inclusion complex ?-CyD-ibuprofen in comparison to HP-?-CyD-ibuprofen, whereas ?-CyD-ibuprofen had a similar encapsulation efficiency to that of unassociated ibuprofen. The lower encapsulation efficiency of ibuprofen in combination with ?-CyD and ?-CyD was attributed to a lower association constant for the ?-CyD-ibuprofen inclusion complex and the ability of ?-CyD to form inclusion complexes with fatty acids. For the W/O/W emulsion prepared with HP-?-CyD-ibuprofen, the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen was obtained at hyper- and iso-osmotic conditions and by using an excess molar ratio of CyD to ibuprofen. In the last part of the study, it was suggested that the chemical modification of the HP-?-CyD molecule did not influence the encapsulation of ibuprofen, as a similar encapsulation efficiency was obtained for an inclusion complex prepared with mono-1-glucose-?-CyD. PMID:25839416

  10. Is long term virological response related to CCR 5 32 deletion in HIV infected patients started on highly active antiretroviral therapy?

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Is long term virological response related to CCR 5 32 deletion in HIV infected patients started, antiretroviral therapy, CCR5 32 deletion, virological response Corresponding author : Dr. Jean to have a sustained virological response if all plasma HIV-RNA measurements between month 4 and years 3

  11. Impact of land-use and long-term (>150 years) charcoal accumulation on microbial activity, biomass and community structure in temperate soils (Belgium).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Dufey, Joseph E.

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade, biochar has been increasingly investigated as a soil amendment for long-term soil carbon sequestration while improving soil fertility. On the short term, biochar application to soil generally increases soil respiration as well as microbial biomass and activity and affects significantly the microbial community structure. However, such effects are relatively short-term and tend to vanish over time. In our study, we investigated the long-term impact of charcoal accumulation and land-use on soil biota in temperate haplic Luvisols developed in the loess belt of Wallonia (Belgium). Charcoal-enriched soils were collected in the topsoil of pre-industrial (>150 years old) charcoal kilns in forest (4 sites) and cropland (5 sites). The topsoil of the adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils was sampled in a comparable way. Soils were characterized (pH, total, organic and inorganic C, total N, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na, cation exchange capacity and available P) and natural soil organic matter (SOM) and black carbon (BC) contents were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. After rewetting at pF 2.5, soils were incubated during 140 days at 20 °C. At 70 days of incubation, 10 g of each soil were freeze dried in order to measure total microbial biomass and community structure by PLFA analysis. The PLFA dataset was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) while soil parameters were used as supplementary variables. For both agricultural and forest soils, the respiration rate is highly related to the total microbial biomass (R²=0.90). Both soil respiration and microbial biomass greatly depend on the SOM content, which indicates that the BC pool is relatively inert microbiologically. Land-use explains most of the variance in the PLFA dataset, largely governing the first principal component of the ACP. In forest soils, we observe a larger proportion of gram + bacteria, actinomycetes and an increased bacteria:fungi ratio compared to cropland, where gram - bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and 18:2 and 18:3 fungi are more present. BC is quite well represented (R=-0.765) by the third principal component of the PCA, representing 12.2 % of the total variance. It has limited impact on the community structure, particularly in cropland. However, in forest BC is negatively correlated (R=-0.785) with 18:1 fungi. The more pronounced effect of BC on community structure under forest could result from modified trophic conditions at kiln site (e.g. higher pH, lower available P content, …) while cultivation practices attenuated such differences over time in cropland. In conclusion, our survey tends to confirm that the influence of BC on the soil microbiological parameters is governed by indirect effects on trophic conditions. On the other hand, land-use affects dramatically soil microbial community structure.

  12. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web Consortium, an independent standards body) as a new data interchange tool is being investigated and implemented. In order to facilitate data archiving, Raman data needs calibration as well as some other kinds of data treatment. Figure 1 illustrates schematically the present situation for Raman data calibration in the world-wide Raman spectroscopy community, and presents some of the terminology used.

  13. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K\\/sub T\\/ for 248 national weather service stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Knapp; T. L. Stoffel; S. D. Whitaker

    1980-01-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling

  14. Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Knapp; T. L. Stoffel; S. D. Whitaker

    1980-01-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling

  15. Is there a planetary influence on solar activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, J. A.; Beer, J.; Ferriz-Mas, A.; McCracken, K. G.; Steinhilber, F.

    2012-12-01

    Context. Understanding the Sun's magnetic activity is important because of its impact on the Earth's environment. Direct observations of the sunspots since 1610 reveal an irregular activity cycle with an average period of about 11 years, which is modulated on longer timescales. Proxies of solar activity such as 14C and 10Be show consistently longer cycles with well-defined periodicities and varying amplitudes. Current models of solar activity assume that the origin and modulation of solar activity lie within the Sun itself; however, correlations between direct solar activity indices and planetary configurations have been reported on many occasions. Since no successful physical mechanism was suggested to explain these correlations, the possible link between planetary motion and solar activity has been largely ignored. Aims: While energy considerations clearly show that the planets cannot be the direct cause of the solar activity, it remains an open question whether the planets can perturb the operation of the solar dynamo. Here we use a 9400 year solar activity reconstruction derived from cosmogenic radionuclides to test this hypothesis. Methods: We developed a simple physical model for describing the time-dependent torque exerted by the planets on a non-spherical tachocline and compared the corresponding power spectrum with that of the reconstructed solar activity record. Results: We find an excellent agreement between the long-term cycles in proxies of solar activity and the periodicities in the planetary torque and also that some periodicities remain phase-locked over 9400 years. Conclusions: Based on these observations we put forward the idea that the long-term solar magnetic activity is modulated by planetary effects. If correct, our hypothesis has important implications for solar physics and the solar-terrestrial connection.

  16. Solar Terrestrial Activity Report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This chock-full of data page is hosted by the DX-listeners club (folks who search for distant radio signals). At the top is a graph of solar flux, sunspot number, and planetary A index, measured every five days, from October 30, 2000 to the present. Next come links to more data and graphs on solar energy, cycles, etc. Recent Solar and Geomagnetic Data, Solar Wind, and Electron Fluence Charts are updated daily. Also on-site are data for Solar Cycles 1-23; a Graphical Comparison of Cycles 21, 22 and 23; a Graphical Comparison of Cycles 10, 13, 17, 20 and 23; and Historical Solar and Geomagnetic data charts 1954-2000. In addition, users will find data and data links including active solar region maps, geomagnetic forecasts, and reports of recent solar activities such as flares and coronal mass injections.

  17. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be important for cognitive behavioral control necessary for complex APA learning. PMID:23505432

  18. Long-term soil microbial community and enzyme activity responses to an integrated cropping-livestock system in a semi-arid region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Acosta-Martínez; C. W. Bell; B. E. L. Morris; J. Zak; V. G. Allen

    2010-01-01

    Water availability is a primary limiting factor facing agricultural systems in most semi-arid regions across the world. This study is part of a larger long-term project to develop and evaluate integrated crop and livestock systems in order to reduce dependence on underground water sources by optimizing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) production in the Texas High Plains of U.S. Selected microbial, chemical

  19. Spreading of HIV-specific CD8 + T-cell repertoire in long-term nonprogressors and its role in the control of viral load and disease activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Propato; Enrico Schiaffella; Elisa Vicenzi; Vittorio Francavilla; Letizia Baloni; Marino Paroli; Luigi Finocchi; Nobuyuki Tanigaki; Silvia Ghezzi; Rosa Ferrara; Robert Chesnut; Brian Livingston; Alessandro Sette; Roberto Paganelli; Fernando Aiuti; Guido Poli; Vincenzo Barnaba

    2001-01-01

    Long-term non-progressors (LTNP) represent a minority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals characterized by stable or even increasing CD4+ T-cell count and by stronger immune responses against HIV than progressors. In this study, HIV-specific effector CD8+ T cells, as detected by both a sensitive ex vivo enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay and specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) peptide tetramers, were

  20. Long-Term Depression in the Adult Hippocampus In Vivo Involves Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase and Phosphorylation of Elk1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edda Thiels; Beatriz I. Kanterewicz; Eric D. Norman; James M. Trzaskos; Eric Klann

    2002-01-01

    Protein kinase cascades likely play a critical role in the signaling events that underlie synaptic plasticity and memory. The extra- cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade is suited well for such a role because its targets include regulators of gene expression. Here we report that the ERK cascade is recruited during long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength in area CA1 of

  1. Changes in antioxidant activity in sub-cellular fractions of tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes in response to long term salt stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K Sairam; G. C Srivastava

    2002-01-01

    Effects of long term, medium level (electrical conductivity of extract (ECe)=6.85 dS m?1) sodium chloride (NaCl) salinity were studied in tolerant (Kharchia 65) and susceptible (HD 2687) wheat genotypes. NaCl salinity caused decrease in relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll (CHL), membrane stability index (MSI) and ascorbic acid (AA) content, and increased the contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thiobarbituric acid reactive

  2. A relationship between solar activity and frequency of natural disasters in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongrui Wang; Feng Song; Maocang Tang

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between the length of the solar cycle, a good indicator of long-term change in solar activity, and natural\\u000a disasters (drought, flood, and strong earthquakes) in China during the last 108 years is analyzed. The results suggest that\\u000a the length of solar cycle may be a useful indicator for drought\\/flood and strong earthquakes. When the solar activity strengthens,\\u000a we

  3. Long-term trends in the concentrations of SF6, CHClF2, and COF2 in the lower stratosphere from analysis of high-resolution infrared solar occultation spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Kosters, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term trends in the concentrations of SF6, CHClF2 in the lower stratosphere are derived using results from analyses of the 1980 and of several more recently obtained IR solar occultation spectra. Results show that the increase rates of SF6 and CHClF2 were about 7.4/yr and 9.4/yr, respectively, which correspond to cumulative increases by factors of about 1.7 and 2.0 in the concentrations of these gases over the 7.2 yr measurement period. The average increase rate for COF2 was 10.3/yr over the same time period. The present results are compared with previously reported observations and trends and with one-dimensional model calculations.

  4. On the Possibility to Simultaneously Determine the Long-Term Average Fluxes of Solar pp-NEUTRINOS and Cosmic Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anicin, I. V.; Pejovi?, V.; Pavi?evi?, M. K.; Amthauer, G.; Boev, B.; Bosch, F.; Brüchle, W.; Djurci?, Z.; Henning, W. F.; Faestermann, T.; Jelenkovi?, R.; Niedermann, S.; Weiss, A.

    The Allchar mine in the southern FYR Macedonia contains the world's largest known concentration of thallium bearing minerals. LOREX (acronym for the geo-chemical LORandite EXperiment) is an international collaboration exploring the opportunity to use the rare mineral lorandite (TlAsS2) for the determination of the solar pp-neutrino flux, averaged over the 4.3 million year age of the deposit. Here we discuss the possibility to determine simultaneously both the solar neutrino and the cosmic ray muon flux, averaged over the same period of time. Cosmic-ray muons participate in the reaction 205Tl(?p, n)205Pb, whereas the neutrinos induce the capture reaction 205Tl(?e, e)205Pb* ? 205Pb. Both fluxes can in principle be determined by counting the number of atoms of the long-lived 205Pb present in the mineral, produced by both muons and neutrinos in the reactions with the most abundant stable isotope, 205Tl.

  5. The Sun's Role in Long-Term Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Hansen

    2000-01-01

    Evidence suggests that changes of solar irradiance in recent centuries have provided a significant climate forcing and that the sun has been one of the principal causes of long-term climate change. During the past two decades the solar forcing has been much smaller than the climate forcing caused by increasing greenhouse gases. But it is incorrect to assume that the

  6. Solar Week 2001 Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource offers a week of online curriculum with daily topics on the Sun, including Sun as a Star, the Sun Close Up, Solar Activity, Eclipses, and Careers organized for Solar Week 2011. Each day contains a game, an activity, topical questions, a related Life Science topic, teacher information, and an Ask the Scientist page.

  7. Autophagosomal IkappaB alpha degradation plays a role in the long term control of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity.

    PubMed

    Colleran, Amy; Ryan, Aideen; O'Gorman, Angela; Mureau, Coralie; Liptrot, Catherine; Dockery, Peter; Fearnhead, Howard; Egan, Laurence J

    2011-07-01

    Transcription factor NF-?B is persistently activated in many chronic inflammatory diseases and cancers. The short term regulation of NF-?B is well understood, but little is known about the mechanisms of its long term activation. We studied the effect of a single application of TNF-? on NF-?B activity for up to 48 h in intestinal epithelial cells. Results show that NF-?B remained persistently activated up to 48 h after TNF-? and that the long term activation of NF-?B was accompanied by a biphasic degradation of I?B?. The first phase of I?B? degradation was proteasome-dependent, but the second was not. Further investigation showed that TNF-? stimulated formation of autophagosomes in intestinal epithelial cells and that I?B? co-localized with autophagosomal vesicles. Pharmacological or genetic blockade of autophagosome formation or the inhibition of lysosomal proteases decreased TNF-?-induced degradation of I?B? and lowered NF-?B target gene expression. Together, these findings indicate a role of autophagy in the control of long term NF-?B activity. Because abnormalities in autophagy have been linked to ineffective innate immunity, we propose that alterations in NF-?B may mediate this effect. PMID:21454695

  8. Stabilizing chromophore binding on TiO2 for long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells using multicomponent atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Han; Losego, Mark D; Hanson, Kenneth; Alibabaei, Leila; Lee, Kyoungmi; Meyer, Thomas J; Parsons, Gregory N

    2014-05-14

    Ambient humidity and high temperature are known to degrade dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) via chromophore desorption. Recently, enhanced dye-attachment to TiO2 surfaces has been realized by coating molecularly functionalized surfaces with inorganic atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings. Here, we apply this ALD approach to DSSCs and demonstrate that high energy conversion efficiencies can be maintained while significantly extending device lifetimes. While single component ALD layers show improved high-temperature stability, it significantly degraded up to 45% of initial DSSC performance right after ALD. We, however, find that mixed component ALD layers provide initial efficiencies within 90% of their untreated counterparts while still extending device lifetimes. Optimized ALD protection schemes maintain 80% of their initial efficiency after 500 h of thermal aging at 80 °C whereas efficiency of DSSCs with no ALD protection drop below 60% of their initial efficiencies. IR spectroscopy conducted in situ during ALD reveals that carboxylate linker groups transition from unbound or weakly-bound states, respectively, to more strongly bound bidentate structures. This strategy to improve dye-attachment by ALD while maintaining high performance is novel and promising for extending the functional lifetime for DSSCs and other related devices. PMID:24676056

  9. Mark I containment long-term program safety evaluation report, resolution of generic technical activity A-7. Report for February 1977-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    During testing for an advanced Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) containment system design (Mark III), suppression pool hydrodynamic loads were identified which had not been considered in the original design of the Mark I containment system. To address this issue, a Mark I Owners Group was formed and the assessment was divided into a short-term and long-term program. The results of the NRC staff's review of the Mark I Containment Short Term Program are described in NUREG-0408. This report describes the results of the NRC staff's review of the generic Mark I Containment Long Term Program (LTP). The LTP was conducted to provide a generic basis to define suppression pool hydrodynamic loads and the related structural acceptance criteria, such that a comprehensive reassessment of each Mark I containment system would be performed. A series of experimental and analytical programs were conducted by the Mark I Owners Group to provide the necessary bases for the generic load definition and structural assessment techniques. The generic methods proposed by the Mark I Owners Group, as modified by the NRC staff's requirements, will be used to perform plant-unique analyses, which will identify the plant modifications, if any, that will be needed to restore the originally intended margin of safety in the Mark I containment designs.

  10. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Is Necessary in the Development of Arteriosclerosis by Recruiting\\/Activating Monocytes in a Rat Model of Long-Term Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingwei Zhao; Kensuke Egashira; Shujiro Inoue; Makoto Usui; Shiro Kitamoto; Weihua Ni; Minako Ishibashi; Ken-ichi Hiasa; Toshihiro Ichiki; Masabumi Shibuya; Akira Takeshita

    Background—It remains unclear whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a proarteriosclerotic or an antiarteriosclerotic factor. We recently reported that long-term inhibition of nitric oxide by administering N-nitro-L- arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induces coronary vascular inflammation and arteriosclerosis. Methods and Results—We used this animal model to investigate the role of VEGF in arteriosclerosis. We blocked VEGF activity in vivo by

  11. Long-term effects of aided phytostabilisation of trace elements on microbial biomass and activity, enzyme activities, and composition of microbial community in the Jales contaminated mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Renella, Giancarlo; Landi, Loretta; Ascher, Judith; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Pietramellara, Giacomo; Mench, Michel; Nannipieri, Paolo

    2008-04-01

    We studied the effectiveness of remediation on microbial endpoints, namely microbial biomass and activity, microbial and plant species richness, of an As-contaminated mine spoil, amended with compost (C) alone and in combination with beringite (B) or zerovalent iron grit (Z), to increase organic matter content and reduce trace elements mobility, and to allow Holcus lanatus and Pinus pinaster growth. Untreated spoil showed the lowest microbial biomass and activity and hydrolase activities, and H. lanatus as sole plant species, whereas the presented aided phytostabilisation option, especially CBZ treatment, significantly increased microbial biomass and activity and allowed colonisation by several plant species, comparable to those of an uncontaminated sandy soil. Microbial species richness was only increased in spoils amended with C alone. No clear correlation occurred between trace element mobility and microbial parameters and plant species richness. Our results indicate that the choice of indicators of soil remediation practices is a bottleneck. PMID:17692442

  12. Radiation risk during long-term spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Petrov, V M

    2002-01-01

    Cosmonauts' exposure to cosmic rays during long-term spaceflight can cause unfavorable effects in health and risk for the crew members' lives. All unfavorable effects induced by exposure should be taken into consideration for the risk estimation. They should include both the acute deterministic effects and delayed effects called stochastic. On the ground the limitation of unfavorable consequences of acute exposure is achieved by means of establishing dose limits. But in space applications this approach can't be acceptable. Establishing a fixed dose limit is adequate to introducing indefinite reserve coefficient and therefore ineffective usage of spacecraft resource. The method of radiation risk calculation caused by acute and delayed effects of cosmonauts' exposure is discussed and substantiated in the report. Peculiarities of the impact of permanent radiation sources (galactic cosmic rays and trapped radiation) and the variable one (solar cosmic rays) are taken into consideration. PMID:12539775

  13. Long-term environmental exposure to metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn) activates the immune cell stress response in the common European sea star (Asterias rubens).

    PubMed

    Matranga, V; Pinsino, A; Randazzo, D; Giallongo, A; Dubois, P

    2012-05-01

    The common sea star Asterias rubens represents a key-species of the North-Eastern Atlantic macro benthic community. The cells of their immune system, known as coelomocytes, are the first line of defence against environmental hazards. Here, we report the results of investigations on the immune cells response of sea stars exposed to marine environmental pollution for long periods. We show that levels of the heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) in coelomocytes from A. rubens, which were collected during a field study in the S?rfjord (North Sea, SW coast of Norway) along a contamination gradient, are directly associated with the long-term accumulation of Cd, Cu heavy metals exclusively in the tegument. Conversely, Pb and Zn accumulation in the tegument did not relate to HSC70 levels and none of the metals were found accumulated in the pyloric coeca. In addition the coelomocytes from A. rubens, collected in high and low metal impacted stations were examined by a proteomic approach using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). By comparison of the proteomic maps, we observed that 31 protein spots differed in their relative abundance, indicating a gene expression response to the metal mixture exposure. All together, our results confirm that the echinoderm immune cells are a suitable model for the assessment of long-term exposure to environmental pollution, moreover that the increased level of HSC70 can be considered a signal of an acquired tolerance within a large spectrum of protein profile changes occurring in response to metal contamination. PMID:22000270

  14. Peripheral Axotomy Induces Long-Term c-Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase-1 Activation and Activator Protein-1 Binding Activity by c-Jun and junD in Adult Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Anna Marie; Kocsis, Jeffery D.

    2008-01-01

    One of the earliest documented molecular events after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats is the rapid, long-term upregulation of the immediate early gene transcription factor c-Jun mRNA and protein in lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, suggesting that c-Jun may regulate genes that are important both in the early post-injury period and during later peripheral axonal regeneration. However, neither the mechanism through which c-Jun protein is increased nor the level of its post-injury transcriptional activity in axotomized DRGs has been characterized. To determine whether transcriptional activation of c-Jun occurs in response to nerve injury in vivo and is associated with axonal regeneration, we have assayed axotomized adult rat DRGs for evidence of jun kinase activation, c-Jun phosphorylation, and activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding. We report that sciatic nerve transection resulted in chronic activation of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase-1 (JNK) in L4/L5 DRGs concomitant with c-Jun amino-terminal phosphorylation in neurons, and lasting AP-1 binding activity, with both c-Jun and JunD participating in DNA binding complexes. The timing of JNK activation was dependent on the distance of the axotomy site from the DRGs, suggesting the requirement for a retrograde transport-mediated signal. AP-1 binding and c-Jun protein returned to basal levels in DRGs as peripheral regeneration was completed but remained elevated in the case of chronic sprouting, indicating that c-Jun may regulate target genes that are involved in axonal outgrowth. PMID:9454841

  15. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

  16. A measure of the network radiative properties over the solar activity cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Ermolli; F. Berrilli; A. Florio

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic activity contributes to solar irradiance variations, both on short and long time scales. While sunspots and active region faculae are the dominant contributors to irradiance changes on time scales of days to weeks, the origin of the long term increase of the irradiance between activity minimum and maximum (~0.1%) is still debated. It has been proposed that the small-scale

  17. Long-term injectable progestogens.

    PubMed

    Tyler, E T

    1967-01-01

    Prof. Edward T. Tyler, medical director of the Family Planning Clinics of Los Angeles, gave an interim report on a study into the use of unjectable progestogens as a long-term method of contraception. An intramuscular injection of medroxy-progesterone acetate (150 mg.) is given three-monthly, with no supplementary oestrogen. Over the past two years about 150 women began this form of contraception in a continuing study. There have been no pregnancies in the series. The most frequent side-effect has been bleeding. An attempt was made to see how soon the contraceptive effects cease after treatment is stopped. The injections were therefore stopped in 36 women, who were then fitted with various mechanical forms of contraception, including IUDs. Tests for the re-establishment of ovulation were undertaken, including basal temperature studies, frequent pelvic examinations, cervical and vagianl smears, endometrial biopsies, gonadotrophin and pregnanediol estimations. It appeared that the earliest return of ovulation is a little under six months from the time of the last injection. The early results of this study, presented here, suggest that long-acting injectable progestogens are an extremely effective form of contraception. While the delay in return of fertility for some months may be a problem in certain areas, this method may well be of importance in general population control. PMID:12254706

  18. NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTP/LTD).

    PubMed

    Lüscher, Christian; Malenka, Robert C

    2012-06-01

    Long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTP/LTD) can be elicited by activating N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, typically by the coincident activity of pre- and postsynaptic neurons. The early phases of expression are mediated by a redistribution of AMPA-type glutamate receptors: More receptors are added to potentiate the synapse or receptors are removed to weaken synapses. With time, structural changes become apparent, which in general require the synthesis of new proteins. The investigation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these forms of synaptic plasticity has received much attention, because NMDA receptor-dependent LTP and LTD may constitute cellular substrates of learning and memory. PMID:22510460

  19. Correlation of Far Ultraviolet Lunar Albedo with Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, Will; Spann, James F.; Germany, Glynn

    2004-01-01

    We present a correlative analysis between the variability of the lunar albedo in the far ultraviolet wavelength range (130- 190 nm) and various solar activity indices for a two-week period. We also report lunar albedo measurements in four separate wavelength ranges, corresponding to four filters on the Polar Ultraviolet Imager. To our knowledge this is the first reported long term measurements of the lunar albedo in this wavelength range.

  20. The fall and rise of V854 Centauri: long-term ultraviolet spectroscopy of a highly-active R Coronae Borealis star

    E-print Network

    W. A. Lawson

    1999-05-18

    We examine long-term low-dispersion IUE, SWP and LWP spectroscopy of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star V854 Cen, obtained across the deep 1991, 1992-1993 and 1994 declines. We also report the optical light curve for the star in the interval 1987-1998, including multi-color photometry obtained during 1989-1998. Analysis of the UV emission line spectra indicates most lines decay during the deep declines on characteristic timescales comparable to that reported for optical features. Fe, Mg and neutral C lines decay on timescales of typically 50-100 d. Other lines, notably ionized C lines, decay on longer timescales (> 200 d) or appear to be unaffected by the declines. The general nature of the UV emission lines and other UV features during the declines is consistent with the E1/E2/BL line-region model developed from the behavior of optical spectral features during declines. However, the detailed line-behavior indicates large intrinsic variability between decline events inconsistent with the simple E1/E2/BL model. Limited temporal coverage prevents detailed examination of the geometry of the emission line region or the obscuring dust. We also report the first detection of the transition-region line C IV 1550 in the spectrum of an RCB star.

  1. Neurobiological problems in long-term deep space flights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Vazquez

    1998-01-01

    Future missions in space may involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, subjecting astronauts to radiation hazards posed by solar flares and galactic cosmic rays, altered gravitation fields and physiological stress. Thus, it is critical to determine if there will be any reversible or irreversible, detrimental neurological effects from this prolonged exposure to space. A question of

  2. The Long-term Rotational Behavior of Ceres and Vesta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiandan Wu; S. G. Alexander; N. P. Abel

    2007-01-01

    The DAWN mission which was launched in September of 2007 will visit both the dwarf planet Ceres and the asteroid Vesta. We have calculated the long-term (10 My) evolution of the obliquity of these two objects using a gravitational N-body simulation. For each object, we calculate the obliquity fluctuations for three cases: the first is with the entire solar system

  3. Forest site evaluation and long-term productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, D.W; Gessel, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the evaluation of factors affecting forest site and a discussion of long-term changes in site caused by human activity. Contributions include papers covering such critical issues as evaluation of site, interlaboratory comparison of chemical analyses, long-term growth effects of chemical fertilizers, influence of nitrogen fixation on soil acidification and nitrogen accumulation, potential effects of atmospheric deposition on productivity, and the reclamation of land by using municipal sewage sludge.

  4. Variation of Meteor Heights and Solar-Cycle Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porubcan, Vladimír; Bucek, Marek; Cevolani, Giordano; Zigo, Pavel

    2012-08-01

    Photographic meteor observations of the Perseid meteoroid stream compiled from the IAU Meteor Data Center catalogue are analyzed from the viewpoint of possible long-term variation of meteor heights with the solar-cycle activity, which was previously reported from radio observations. The observed beginning and end-point heights of the Perseids, normalized for the geocentric velocity and the absolute photographic magnitude, do not show a variation consistent with the solar-cycle activity. This result is valid for the mass range of larger meteoroids observed by photographic techniques, and must be still verified also for the range of smaller meteoroids observed by TV and radio methods.

  5. Functional titanium oxide nano-particles as electron lifetime, electrical conductance enhancer, and long-term performance booster in quasi-solid-state electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, Shingjiang Jessie; Wu, Yun-Ling; Tung, Yung-Liang; Shih, Chao-Ming; Wang, Yi-Chun; Li, Jun-Ruei

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the design of a quasi-solid-state electrolyte for improving the photovoltaic efficiency and long-term performance stability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this study, agarose gel and titanium oxide (TiO2) nano-particles are incorporated into an iodine/iodide electrolyte solution in a 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP)/3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN) solvent mixture to fabricate quasi-solid-state electrolytes for 2.0-cm2 DSSCs. The electrolyte also contains an ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide, and a co-additive, 1-methylbenzimidazole. The negatively charged TiO2 nano-particles exhibit an anatase crystal structure. Without agarose and TiO2, the control cell's photovoltaic efficiency drops by more than 50% over 2400 h of aging due to a significant decrease in the short-circuit current. Incorporating 1% agarose into the electrolyte not only enhances the retention of the solvent but also maintains the short-circuit current. Furthermore, adding 0.5% TiO2 to 1% agarose electrolyte provides sufficient ion and electron transfer routes and improves the fill factor of the corresponding DSSC. The photoconversion efficiency of the agarose/TiO2-containing DSSC monotonically increases from an initial value of 5.08% to 6.48% within 2400 h. The improved cell efficiency is correlated to the longer electron lifetime in the DSSC, higher ion diffusivity, and the smaller electrical resistance of the electrolyte.

  6. Novel D-?-A organic dyes with thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene unit as a ?-bridge for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells with long-term stability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Woo; Kim, Jae-Yup; Lee, Duck-Hyung; Ko, Min Jae

    2014-03-26

    This paper reports on new D-?-A organic dyes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which were developed by incorporating thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-thiophene (M9) and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-EDOT (M10) as ?-bridges. These dyes exhibited relatively small highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy gaps in spite of the short ?-conjugation lengths, resulting in broad spectral responses. As photosensitizers in DSSCs, M10 showed a broader spectral response than M9, leading to a greater short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc). In addition, M10 exhibited higher open-circuit voltage (Voc) compared to M9, because of the greater electron lifetime of the photoanode. The impedance analysis revealed that the greater electron lifetime of the photoanode with M10 was attributed to the lower electron recombination rate caused by the blocking effect of the bulky EDOT unit. As a result, M10 showed much higher conversion efficiency (? = 7.00%) than M9 (? = 5.67%) under one sun condition (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW/cm(2)). This conversion efficiency was comparable to that of the conventional Ru-based dye N719 (? = 7.24%) under the same condition. In addition, M10 exhibited a remarkable long-term stability, i.e., 95% of the initial conversion efficiency was maintained after light soaking for 45 days (1080 h). PMID:24559244

  7. Long-term intracranial pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    de Jong, D A; Maas, A I; den Ouden, A H; de Lange, S A

    Continuous or intermittent measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is important in patients at risk for raised ICP. Indications exist for short- and long-term measurements. The various methods used for short-term monitoring are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages. For long-term measurements of ICP use of a completely implantable telemetric epidural pressure transducer is indicated. No such device is commercially available. We have developed an inexpensive passive telemetric transducer for this purpose. Results obtained up till now have demonstrated its reliability for measurements of two to three months duration. The life span of the device is limited by degrading of the epoxy utilized for sealing of the titanium pressure sensing part to the radiolucent ceramic cap of the transducer, causing leakage of water into the transducer and false low measurements. Because of these problems new hermetic sealing techniques were tested. Both active metal brazing and glass bonding yielded good results and hermetic sealing could be obtained. The metal to ceramic bonding presented is generally applicable within the design of implants. Besides the technical progress reported, the experience with clinical use in 12 patients is presented. PMID:6674738

  8. Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors induces long-term depression in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult rats in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Zhi; Shang, Jing; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou; Wang, Shu; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Lu-Yong

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have implicated that long-term depression (LTD) was developmentally regulated since LTD can be readily induced by low frequency stimulation (LFS) in acute hippocampal slices prepared from juvenile but not adult animals. Here, we have examined the LTD induced by LFS (1Hz, 900 pulses) paired with a certain pattern at the Schaffer collateral-CAl synapse in adult hippocampal slices. We found that, in the 90-day-old rat hippocampus, LTD could be induced reliably by LFS paired with stronger stimulus intensity than that used during baseline recording. However, this synaptic depression could be completely abolished by application of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist (S)-amethyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) which had no effect on that induced by the same protocol in the 16-day-old rat hippocampus. Furthermore, preincubation with group I mGluR antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) and (S)-2-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (LY367385), also completely prevented the LFS-induced LTD. In contrast, group II mGluR antagonist (2S)-a-ethylglutamic acid (EGLU), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist APV and voltage-gated calcium channel antagonist nimodipine had no effect on the LFS-induced LTD. Taken together, these observations suggest that LFS paired with strong stimulus strength can efficiently induce group I mGluR-dependent LTD in the adult hippocampal CA1 region, proving insight into the functional significance of hippocampal mGluR-mediated LTD in learning and memory. PMID:18602428

  9. Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Causes Long-Term Increase in Serum Estradiol and Activation of PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway in Mouse Mammary Gland

    SciTech Connect

    Suman, Shubhankar [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Michael D. [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States)] [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States); Fornace, Albert J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States) [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States); Datta, Kamal, E-mail: kd257@georgetown.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Exposure to ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Radiation exposure during infancy, childhood, and adolescence confers the highest risk. Although radiation is a proven mammary carcinogen, it remains unclear where it acts in the complex multistage process of breast cancer development. In this study, we investigated the long-term pathophysiologic effects of ionizing radiation at a dose (2 Gy) relevant to fractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Adolescent (6-8 weeks old; n = 10) female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2 Gy total body {gamma}-radiation, the mammary glands were surgically removed, and serum and urine samples were collected 2 and 12 months after exposure. Molecular pathways involving estrogen receptor-{alpha} (ER{alpha}) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling were investigated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results: Serum estrogen and urinary levels of the oncogenic estrogen metabolite (16{alpha}OHE1) were significantly increased in irradiated animals. Immunostaining for the cellular proliferative marker Ki-67 and cyclin-D1 showed increased nuclear accumulation in sections of mammary glands from irradiated vs. control mice. Marked increase in p85{alpha}, a regulatory sub-unit of the PI3K was associated with increase in Akt, phospho-Akt, phospho-BAD, phospho-mTOR, and c-Myc in irradiated samples. Persistent increase in nuclear ER{alpha} in mammary tissues 2 and 12 months after radiation exposure was also observed. Conclusions: Taken together, our data not only support epidemiologic observations associating radiation and breast cancer but also, specify molecular events that could be involved in radiation-induced breast cancer.

  10. Long-Term Prediction of Satellite Orbit Using Analytical Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Cheol Yoon; Hyu-Hong Choi; Byonug-Sun Lee; Jong-Won Eun

    1997-01-01

    A long-term prediction algorithm of geostationary orbit was developed using the analytical method. The perturbation force models include geopotential upto fifth order and degree and luni-solar gravitation, and solar radiation pressure. All of the perturbation effects were analyzed by secular variations, short-period variations, and long-period variations for equinoctial elements such as the semi-major axis, eccentricity vector, inclination vector, and mean

  11. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  12. Time-restricted role for dendritic activation of the mTOR-p70S6K pathway in the induction of late-phase long-term potentiation in the CA1

    PubMed Central

    Cammalleri, Maurizio; Lütjens, Robert; Berton, Fulvia; King, Alvin R.; Simpson, Cindy; Francesconi, Walter; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of translational capacity. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin can prevent forms of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity such as long-term facilitation in Aplysia and late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of rodents. In the latter model, two issues remain to be addressed: defining the L-LTP phase sensitive to rapamycin and identifying the site of rapamycin-sensitive protein synthesis. Here, we show that L-LTP is sensitive to application of rapamycin only during the induction paradigm, whereas rapamycin application after the establishment of L-LTP was ineffective. Second, we observed that Thr-389-phosphorylated p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), the main active phosphoform of the mTOR effector p70S6K, was induced in an N-methyl-d-aspartateand phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner throughout the dendrites but not in the cell bodies of CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices after L-LTP induction. A similar dendrite-wide activation of p70S6K was induced in primary hippocampal neurons by depolarization with KCL or glutamate. In primary hippocampal neurons, the sites of dendritic activation of p70S6K appeared as discrete compartments along dendritic shafts like the hotspots for fast dendritic translation. Conversely, only a subset of dendritic spines also displayed activated p70S6K. Taken together, the present data suggest that the N-methyl-d-aspartate-, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent dendritic activation of the mTOR-p70S6K pathway is necessary for the induction phase of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity. Newly synthesized proteins in dendritic shafts could be targeted selectively to activity-tagged synapses. Thus, coordinated activation of dendrite-wide translation and synaptic-specific activation is likely to be necessary for long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:14623952

  13. Time-restricted role for dendritic activation of the mTOR-p70S6K pathway in the induction of late-phase long-term potentiation in the CA1.

    PubMed

    Cammalleri, Maurizio; Lütjens, Robert; Berton, Fulvia; King, Alvin R; Simpson, Cindy; Francesconi, Walter; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2003-11-25

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of translational capacity. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin can prevent forms of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity such as long-term facilitation in Aplysia and late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of rodents. In the latter model, two issues remain to be addressed: defining the L-LTP phase sensitive to rapamycin and identifying the site of rapamycin-sensitive protein synthesis. Here, we show that L-LTP is sensitive to application of rapamycin only during the induction paradigm, whereas rapamycin application after the establishment of L-LTP was ineffective. Second, we observed that Thr-389-phosphorylated p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), the main active phosphoform of the mTOR effector p70S6K, was induced in an N-methyl-D-aspartate and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner throughout the dendrites but not in the cell bodies of CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices after L-LTP induction. A similar dendrite-wide activation of p70S6K was induced in primary hippocampal neurons by depolarization with KCL or glutamate. In primary hippocampal neurons, the sites of dendritic activation of p70S6K appeared as discrete compartments along dendritic shafts like the hotspots for fast dendritic translation. Conversely, only a subset of dendritic spines also displayed activated p70S6K. Taken together, the present data suggest that the N-methyl-d-aspartate-, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent dendritic activation of the mTOR-p70S6K pathway is necessary for the induction phase of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity. Newly synthesized proteins in dendritic shafts could be targeted selectively to activity-tagged synapses. Thus, coordinated activation of dendrite-wide translation and synaptic-specific activation is likely to be necessary for long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:14623952

  14. Long-term treatment with recombinant

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Joe Henry

    Long-term treatment with recombinant nerve growth factor for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. No effective treatment is available. The au- thors investigated the long-term effect (48 weeks and significantly im- proved pain symptoms. However, there was no improvement of neuropathy severity as assessed

  15. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-01-01

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor.

  16. Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    MedlinePLUS

    Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program (OAA, Title VII, Chapter 2, Sections 711/712) The Purpose of the Program and How it ... Services Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2013 indicate that ...

  17. Veterans Affairs Benefits (Long-Term Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to obtain information about services available in your area. LTC PathFinder Long-term care is a big topic. Use the PathFinder to get to the information most relevant and useful to you now. Please fill out all questions How old are you? Less than 50 51-64 65+ Do you currently require long-term ...

  18. The solar activity cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Douglas M.; Devore, C. R.; Sheeley, Neil R., Jr.; Harvey, Karen L.; Hoeksema, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    This review emphasizes observations of photospheric magnetic flux during cycle 21 (1976-1986) and how these measurements have been used to model the cyclic variability of the heliospheric magnetic field. Indices of solar activity are discussed in terms of their potential to figure in theoretical or empirical models. Other recent data, such as measurements of large-scale surface flows and information on the sun's internal rotation from helioseismology, as well as the magnetic flux observations, are considered in the context of Babcock's phenomenological model of the solar cycle.

  19. Glossary (Long-Term Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... who are blind, disabled or in need of nursing home care. Medicaid will pay for nursing facility care, ... services, social activities and recreational opportunities. Also called "nursing homes." Social worker – Care professional committed to advancing social ...

  20. Long-term variations in sunspot characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlatov, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Relative variations in the number of sunspots and sunspot groups in activity cycles have been analyzed based on data from the Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station and international indices. The following regularities have been established: (1) The relative fraction of small sunspots decreases linearly and that of large sunspots increase with increasing activity cycle amplitude. (2) The variation in the average number of sunspots in one group has a trend, and this number decreased from ˜12 in cycle 19 to ˜7.5 in cycle 24. (3) The ratio of the sunspot index (Ri) to the sunspot group number index ( G gr) varies with a period of about 100 years. (4) An analysis of the sunspot group number index ( G gr) from 1610 indicates that the Gnevyshev-Ohl rule reverses at the minimums of secular activity cycles. (5) Ratio of the total area to area of Ssp/Sum nuclei has long-term variation with a period approximately 8 cycles. Minimum ratio falls on 16-17 cycles of activity. (6) It has been indicated that the magnetic field intensity and sunspot area in the current cycle are related to the amplitude of the next activity cycle.

  1. A pilot study on the relationship between physical impairment and activity restriction in persons with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Pantano, K J; Irrgang, J J; Burdett, R; Delitto, A; Harner, C; Fu, F H

    2001-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between impairment of the knee and activity restriction during activities of daily living and sports following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee range of motion, swelling, pain, instability, ligamentous laxity, isometric and isokinetic muscle function and performance-based measures of activity restriction were measured in 44 subjects. Four measures of patient-reported activity restrictions, including the Activities of Daily Living, Sports Activities Scales of the Knee Outcome Survey, and global ratings of function during activities of daily life and sports, were statistically combined to create a composite variable representing the level of patient-reported activity restrictions for each subject. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that 17% of the variability in patient-reported activity restrictions was accounted for by age, length of postoperative follow-up, and mechanism of injury. Addition of the one-legged hop, Lachman, anterior drawer, and varus stress tests accounted for an additional 40% of the variability of function. When pain and giving way were added to the model, 79% of the variability was explained. PMID:11734876

  2. Diminution of the O2 responsiveness of the glucagon-dependent activation of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene in rat hepatocytes by long-term culture at venous PO2.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, T; Bratke, J; Jungermann, K

    1997-02-01

    The glucagon-dependent activation of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) gene within two hours is modulated by O2 in rat hepatocytes. It was the aim of the present study to test if this short-term modulation by O2 of the glucagon induction might be influenced by long-term culture of hepatocytes for 24 hours under different O2 tensions prior to glucagon induction. Cells were precultured for 24 hours at arterial O2 (16% O2) or venous O2 (8% O2), then induced within two to four hours with 1 nM glucagon each at arterial or venous O2. In arterial O2 precultured cells PCK mRNA and activity were induced to 100% at arterial O2 and to about 60% at venous O2. In venous O2 precultured cells PCK mRNA and activity were induced only to about 70% at arterial O2 and to about 60% at venous O2. Transfected PCK promoter (-2500)-CAT constructs were activated by glucagon with the same long-term modulatory effects of oxygen as the endogenous PCK gene. Gel mobility shift assays with nuclear extracts prepared from hepatocytes and a PCK promoter fragment ranging from -149 to -42 bp revealed one complex with a higher DNA binding activity when extracts of cells precultured for 24 hours under venous O2 as compared to arterial O2 were used. Therefore, the short-term modulation by O2 of PCK gene activation by glucagon was widely lost during preculture at low O2. This diminution of O2 sensitivity of PCK induction may be due to a nuclear protein or proteins which are induced by perivenous O2 tensions and bind to the PCK promoter. PMID:9027735

  3. Changes in the biological activity of chestnut soils upon the long-term application of fertilizers in a rotation with oil-bearing crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleshev, R. E.; Bakenova, Z. B.

    2012-11-01

    Experimental studies showed that irrigated chestnut soils on the piedmont of the Zailiiskiy Alatau Range are characterized by the moderate activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. The use of these soils in the crop rotation system increases the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes (invertase, urease, and ATP synthase) by 30% in comparison with the monoculture; at the same time, it does not have a significant impact on the changes in the biological activity of the redox enzymes (catalase and dehydrogenase). The hydrolytic activity of the soils is activated to a greater extent in the crop rotation and in the monoculture against the background application of organic fertilizers. In this case, the recommended rates of mineral fertilizers do not inhibit the activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. An increase in the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes directly affects the yield of oilseed flax. Therefore, indices of the hydrolytic activity of soils can be used as a test for the diagnostics of the efficiency of fertilizers both in crop rotation and monoculture systems.

  4. Effect of Long-Term Castration and Long-Term Androgen Treatment on Sexually Dimorphic

    E-print Network

    Crews, David

    Effect of Long-Term Castration and Long-Term Androgen Treatment on Sexually Dimorphic Estrogen be modified by steroid hormone manipulation. We castrated male whiptail lizards for 1 week (short term) or 6 that in male whiptail lizards, long-term castration increases sensitivity to estradiol as measured by induction

  5. Effects of Long-Term Nitrogen Addition on Microbial Enzyme

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Effects of Long-Term Nitrogen Addition on Microbial Enzyme Activity in Eight Forested and Grassland of microbially produced extracellu- lar enzymes involved in decomposition. Specifi- cally, it is hypothesized that adding N to N-limited ecosystems increases activity of cellulose degrading enzymes and decreases

  6. Peripheral Axotomy Induces Long-Term c-Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase1 Activation and Activator Protein1 Binding Activity by c-Jun and junD in Adult Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Marie Kenney; Jeffery D. Kocsis

    One of the earliest documented molecular events after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats is the rapid, long-term upregulation of the immediate early gene transcription factor c-Jun mRNA and protein in lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, suggest- ing that c-Jun may regulate genes that are important both in the early post-injury period and during later peripheral axonal re- generation.

  7. Telechelic poly(2-oxazoline)s with a biocidal and a polymerizable terminal as collagenase inhibiting additive for long-term active antimicrobial dental materials.

    PubMed

    Fik, Christoph P; Konieczny, Stefan; Pashley, David H; Waschinski, Christian J; Ladisch, Reinhild S; Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten; Tiller, Joerg C

    2014-11-01

    Dental repair materials face the problem that the dentin below the composite fillings is actively decomposed by secondary caries and extracellular proteases. To address this problem, poly(2-methyloxazoline) with a biocidal and a polymerizable terminal was explored as additive for a commercial dental adhesive. 2.5?wt% of the additive rendered the adhesive contact-active against Streptococcus mutans and washing with water for 101 d did not diminish this effect. The adhesive with 5?wt% additive kills S. mutans cells in the tubuli of bovine dentin. Further, the additive inhibits bacterial collagenase at 0.5?wt% and reduces activity of MMP-9. Human MMPs bound to dentin are inhibited by 96% in a medium with 5?wt% additive. Moreover, no adverse effect on the enamel/dentine shear bond strength was detected. PMID:25130877

  8. Long-term fading of LiF:Mg, Cu, P and LiF:Mg, Ti thermoluminescence detectors with standard and modified activator composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Ptaszkiewicz

    2007-01-01

    Within a space experiment MATROSHKA, a human phantom with over 3000 TLDs inside, was exposed outside of the International Space Station during the period of 1.5 year to determine radiation organ doses that would be received by astronauts during the extra vehicular activities on the Earth orbit. Due to the long exposure period and unusual temperature conditions it was necessary

  9. Long-term monitoring of individual fish triggering activity on a self-feeding system: An example using European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Covès; M. Beauchaud; J. Attia; G. Dutto; C. Bouchut; M. L. Bégout

    2006-01-01

    In two experiments, a computerized on-demand feeding system coupled with a PIT tag monitoring device was used to continuously record the triggering activity by ca. 50 individual sea bass for 55 days (Exp. 1, initial average body weight and coefficient of variation, CV: 299 g, 15%) and 69 days (Exp. 2, 157 g, 13%). Each group was stocked in 1

  10. Brush border enzyme activities in the small intestine after long-term gliadin feeding in animal models of human cœliac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kozáková; R. Št?pánková; J. Kolínská; M. A. Farré; D. P. Funda; L. Tu?ková; H. Tlaskalová-Hogenová

    1998-01-01

    Cœliac disease is a human, genetically linked, disorder which develops in gluten-sensitive persons. The aim of this study\\u000a was to investigate the effect of prolonged feeding of gliadin, a major fraction of gluten, on enzyme activities of enterocyte\\u000a brush border membrane enzymes in rats, mice and pigs. Brush-border membranes were isolated from mucosal scrapings of the small\\u000a intestine of 21-d-old

  11. Influence of long-term residue management on soil enzyme activities in relation to soil chemical properties of a wheat-fallow system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Dick; P. E. Rasmussen; E. A. Kerle

    1988-01-01

    Soil enzyme activities (acid and alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, ß-glucosidase, urease and amidase) were determined (0- to 20-cm depth) after 55 years of crop-residue and N-fertilization treatment in a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system on semiarid soils of the Pacific Northwest. All residues were incorporated and the treatments were: straw (N0), straw with fall burn (N0FB), straw with spring burn

  12. Microbial degradation at a shallow coastal site: Long-term spectra and rates of exoenzymatic activities in the NE Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celussi, Mauro; Del Negro, Paola

    2012-12-01

    The degradation of organic matter along the water column is mediated by enzymes released into the environment by planktonic organisms. Variations in enzymes profiles (types and levels of activity) reflect the trophic status of the environment and could be caused by shifts in the dominant species or in the level of enzyme expression by the same species in response to changes in the spectrum of organic substrates. To explore this issue, we examined the maximum rates of hydrolysis of 6 different enzymes (protease, ?-glucosidase, ?-glucosidase, ?-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase and lipase) along the water column (4 depths) at a coastal station in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea), from 2000 to 2005. Most of the studied enzymes exhibited a pronounced seasonal variability with winter minima and maxima from April to October. During summer, alkaline phosphatase, lipase and protease reached the highest activities, while polysaccharide degradation prevailed in spring and autumn, associated to phytoplankton blooms. Phosphatase/protease activities ratio was generally low, indicating that microbial communities were rarely P-limited, possibly because of the use of organic P sources. A pronounced interannual variability of degradation patterns was found, with maximum rates of protease being the highest in most of the samples, followed by the alkaline phosphatase's ones. Water column features greatly affected hydrolysis rates, being degradation of linear polysaccharides, lipids, phosphorilated compounds and polypeptides significantly different at different depths during stratified condition. Mixing processes affected especially ?-glucosidase activity, possibly as a consequence of resuspension of organic matter from the seabed. Large-impact phenomena such as the 2003 heat wave and mucilage influenced the degradation of specific substrates. Mucilage enhanced lipase, phosphatase and protease, whereas a pronounced inhibition characterised phosphatase and protease during summer 2003.

  13. Long-Term Fungal Inhibitory Activity of Water-Soluble Extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto and Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria during Bread Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rossana Coda; Carlo G. Rizzello; Franco Nigro; Maria De Angelis; Philip Arnault; Marco Gobbetti

    2008-01-01

    The antifungal activity of proteinaceous compounds from different food matrices was investigated. In initial experiments, water-soluble extracts of wheat sourdoughs, cheeses, and vegetables were screened by agar diffusion assays with Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Water-soluble extracts of sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus brevis AM7 and Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto were selected for further study. The crude water-soluble extracts

  14. Humanized anti-interleukin-2 (IL2) receptor alpha therapy: long-term results in uveitis patients and preliminary safety and activity data for establishing parameters for subcutaneous administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B Nussenblatt; Darby J. S Thompson; Zhuqing Li; Jan S Peterson; Randy R Robinson; Richard S Shames; Sudha Nagarajan; Meina Tao Tang; Michelle Mailman; Gisela Velez; Chandra Roy; Grace A Levy-Clarke; Eric B Suhler; Ali Djalilian; Hatice Nida Sen; Shadi Al-Khatib; Roxana Ursea; Sunil Srivastava; Allison Bamji; Susan Mellow; Pushpa Sran; Thomas A Waldmann; Ronald R Buggage

    2003-01-01

    Therapy for severe uveitis is frequently long-term immunosuppression using systemic corticosteroids and cytotoxic agents, but side effects make long-term therapy difficult. A long-term (>4 year) Phase I\\/II single armed interventional study using intravenous anti-IL-2 receptor alpha treatments (daclizumab) and a short-term Phase II study evaluating the use of a subcutaneous daclizumab formulation were conducted. Patients were tapered off their systemic

  15. Influence of long-term diesel fuel pollution on nitrite-oxidising activity and population size of nitrobacter spp in soil.

    PubMed

    Deni, Jamal; Penninckx, Michel J

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that ammonia oxidation is not inhibited by diesel fuel in a soil with a long history of contamination contrary to a non-contaminated soil. As a consequence, ammonia oxidation does not constitute a Limited step in nitrification process (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65 (1999) 4008). Moreover, this type of soil also has had the opportunity to develop an abundant microbial population able to metabolise the diesel hydrocarbons. Whether the properties of soil with a long history of diesel fuel contamination may affect the activity of nitrite-oxidising bacteria was investigated. It was observed that re-exposure of soil to diesel fuel apparently stimulated the proliferation of nitrite-oxidising bacteria, as determined by most probable number (MPN) culture technique and MPN-polymerase chain reaction technique. The potential of nitrite-oxidising activity in soil treated with diesel fuel was about 4 times higher than in the control without addition. In the presence of diesel fuel and ammonium, the potential nitrite-oxidising activity was 40% higher than in presence of ammonium only. However, in the presence of hydrocarbon only, low proliferation of Nitrobacter was observed, probably because the heterotrophic bacteria were strongly limited by lack of nitrogen and did not produce sufficient organic metabolites that could be used by the Nitrobacter cells. PMID:15646378

  16. Long-term prediction of GPS satellite orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tin-An Hsu; Li-Sheng Wang; Fan-Ren Chang; Yi-Fen Tseng

    2010-01-01

    The issue of long-term prediction of GPS satellite orbit is addressed in this paper. Instead of the curve-fitting method, Newton's equations of motion for the satellite is integrated to predict the position of the GPS satellites in a few days. Various effects, including that of the non-spherical Earth, the Sun-Earth gravitational force, and Solar radiation pressure, are taken into account.

  17. Constitutively active Rap2 transgenic mice display fewer dendritic spines, reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling, enhanced long-term depression, and impaired spatial learning and fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jubin; Futai, Kensuke; Feliu, Monica; Weinberg, Richard; Sheng, Morgan

    2008-08-13

    Within the Ras superfamily of GTPases, Rap1 and Rap2 are the closest homologs to Ras. In non-neural cells, Rap signaling can antagonize Ras signaling. In neurons, Rap also seems to oppose Ras in terms of synaptic function. Whereas Ras is critical for long-term potentiation (LTP), Rap1 has been shown to be required for long-term depression (LTD), and Rap2 has been implicated in depotentiation. Moreover, active Rap1 and Rap2 cause loss of surface AMPA receptors and reduced miniature EPSC amplitude and frequency in cultured neurons. The role of Rap signaling in vivo, however, remains poorly understood. To study the function of Rap2 in the brain and in behavior, we created transgenic mice expressing either constitutively active (Rap2V12) or dominant-negative (Rap2N17) mutants of Rap2 in postnatal forebrain. Multiple lines of Rap2N17 mice showed only weak expression of the transgenic protein, and no phenotype was observed. Rap2V12 mice displayed fewer and shorter dendritic spines in CA1 hippocampal neurons, and enhanced LTD at CA3-CA1 synapses. Behaviorally, Rap2V12 mice showed impaired spatial learning and defective extinction of contextual fear, which correlated with reduced basal phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and blunted activation of ERK during fear extinction training. Our data support the idea that Rap2 opposes Ras-ERK signaling in the brain, thereby inhibiting dendritic spine development/maintenance, promoting synaptic depression rather than LTP, and impairing learning. The findings also implicate Rap2 signaling in fear extinction mechanisms, which are thought to be aberrant in anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:18701680

  18. Long-term care and the elderly

    E-print Network

    Coe, Norma B

    2005-01-01

    Long-term care expenditures represent one of the largest uninsured financial risks facing the elderly. Medicaid provides incomplete insurance against these costs: unlimited nursing home benefits with a deductible equal to ...

  19. Long Term TOA - M Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-08-06

    ... 30 years to date.   The proposed project utilizes knowledge gained in the last 10 years through CERES data analyses and apply the knowledge to existing data to develop long-term (nearly 30 years) consistent ...

  20. CHAPTER FOUR COLLABORATIVE LONG-TERM ETHNOGRAPHY

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    for the Tzintzuntzan project was begun in 1998 and is still in progress (see the Tzintzuntzan website, currently available at www.santafe.edu/tarasco/Mexican.html). Through longitudinal analysis, long-term field sites

  1. Long-term impact of land management in soil biological processes can be assessed by fingerprint of dissolved organic carbon and peroxidase activity in topsoil and subsoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C.; Maclean, Jamie L.; Dalal, Ram C.; Menzies, Neal W.; Kopittke, Peter M.

    2015-04-01

    The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a highly dynamic pool, directly related to biological functions and to the stabilization of organic carbon (OC) through interaction with the mineral phase. Therefore, the characterization of the main components of DOC can be linked to the metabolic status of soil and the turnover of OC and provides a sensitive approach to evaluate the impact of land use on OC turnover in soils. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to derive relationships between DOC characteristics and biochemical activity in soils under contrasting land management. The soil solution was isolated from topsoil and subsoil for three soils (Vertisol, Ferralsol, Acrisol, World Reference Base 2014) collected from undisturbed areas and from a location(s) immediately adjacent which has a long history of agricultural, pasture or afforestation use (>20 years) by centrifugation at 4000 rpm (20 min, 25 °C. The fingerprint of DOC was obtained to identify OC functionalities by spectrofluorometric analyses and Excitation-Emission matrices (EEM) were obtained for all samples. The excitation wavelengths were increased from 250 to 400 nm in 5-nm steps for each excitation wavelength, and emission was detected from 250 to 500 nm in 0.5-nm steps and. Humification index (HIX), freshness index (FrI), fluorescence index (FI) and redox index (RI) were derived from the EEMs. Extracellular laccase activity was examined by monitoring the oxidation of 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) at 420 nm. The EEMs revealed a depletion of the humic-like component (250activity was generally higher for topsoils collected from undisturbed areas for the three soils examined and a significant decrease in the enzyme activity was determined for soils collected from the corresponding adjacent crop land. The rate of ABTS oxidation varied for the different soils following the order Vertisol>Acrisol>Ferralsol and was always higher for the topsoils compared to the corresponding subsoils. Overall, results indicate that land management has a strong impact on soil biological activity. Importantly, such impact is directly linked to changes in the composition of soil OC, particularly the transformation of OC inputs into oxidized products that can contribute to OC build up in soil. For the first time, we have utilized DOC fingerprinting and extracellular laccase activity as complementary techniques to examine changes in OC speciation in soil solutions. This approach provides a suitable link between variations in biological functions and OC dynamics.

  2. Activation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 7 Is Required for Induction of Long-Term Potentiation at SC-CA1 Synapses in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Klar, Rebecca; Walker, Adam G; Ghose, Dipanwita; Grueter, Brad A; Engers, Darren W; Hopkins, Corey R; Lindsley, Craig W; Xiang, Zixiu; Conn, P Jeffrey; Niswender, Colleen M

    2015-05-13

    Of the eight metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor subtypes, only mGlu7 is expressed presynaptically at the Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapse in the hippocampus in adult animals. Coupled with the inhibitory effects of Group III mGlu receptor agonists on transmission at this synapse, mGlu7 is thought to be the predominant autoreceptor responsible for regulating glutamate release at SC terminals. However, the lack of mGlu7-selective pharmacological tools has hampered direct testing of this hypothesis. We used a novel, selective mGlu7-negative allosteric modulator (NAM), ADX71743, and a newly described Group III mGlu receptor agonist, LSP4-2022, to elucidate the role of mGlu7 in modulating transmission in hippocampal area CA1 in adult C57BL/6J male mice. Interestingly, although mGlu7 agonists inhibit SC-CA1 EPSPs, we found no evidence for activation of mGlu7 by stimulation of SC-CA1 afferents. However, LSP4-2022 also reduced evoked monosynaptic IPSCs in CA1 pyramidal cells and, in contrast to its effect on SC-CA1 EPSPs, ADX71743 reversed the ability of high-frequency stimulation of SC afferents to reduce IPSC amplitudes. Furthermore, blockade of mGlu7 prevented induction of LTP at the SC-CA1 synapse and activation of mGlu7 potentiated submaximal LTP. Together, these data suggest that mGlu7 serves as a heteroreceptor at inhibitory synapses in area CA1 and that the predominant effect of activation of mGlu7 by stimulation of glutamatergic afferents is disinhibition, rather than reduced excitatory transmission. Furthermore, this mGlu7-mediated disinhibition is required for induction of LTP at the SC-CA1 synapse, suggesting that mGlu7 could serve as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of cognitive disorders. PMID:25972184

  3. LONG-TERM OUTCOME AFTER PULMONARY ENDARTERECTOMY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo G. Corsico; Andrea M. D'Armini; Isa Cerveri; Catherine Klersy; Elena Ansaldo; Rosanna Niniano; Elena Gatto; Cristian Monterosso; Marco Morsolini; Salvatore Nicolardi; Corrado Tramontin; Ernesto Pozzi; Mario Viganò

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: There are few follow-up studies on long-term cardiopul- monary function after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), the oper- ation of choice for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hyperten- sion (CTEPH). Objectives: To prospectively evaluate long-term outcome of patients with CTEPH treated with PEA. Methods: Between 1994 and 2006, 157 patients (mean age 55 yr) were treated with PEA at Pavia University Hospital. The

  4. Long-term broadband technology forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KJELL STORDAHL

    The paper gives an overview of the relevant broadband technologies, describes their market positions and possibilities. Diffusion models are used to make long-term broadband forecasts for the Western European residential market. The forecasts are separated for the main broadband technologies ADSL, ADSL2+\\/VDSL, Cable modem and other technologies (FTTx, BWA) based on market share predictions for each technology. The long-term forecasts

  5. A Strategy to Conduct an Analysis of the Long-Term Performance of Low-Activity Waste Glass in a Shallow Subsurface Disposal System at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Pierce, Eric M.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-08-04

    The federal facilities located on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State have been used extensively by the U.S. government to produce nuclear materials for the U.S. strategic defense arsenal. Currently, the Hanford Site is under the stewardship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials has accumulated, mainly in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks located in the central plateau of the Hanford Site (Mann et al., 2001). The DOE-EM Office of River Protection (ORP) is proceeding with plans to immobilize and permanently dispose of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction onsite in a shallow subsurface disposal facility (the Integrated Disposal Facility [IDF]). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the IDF (the source term) as part of an immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass testing program to support future IDF performance assessments (PAs).

  6. An empirical study of the impact of human activity on long-term temperature change in China: A perspective from energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Xinyi

    2012-09-01

    Human activity is an important contributor to local temperature change, especially in urban areas. Energy consumption is treated here as an index of the intensity of human induced local thermal forcing. The relationship between energy consumption and temperature change is analyzed in China by Observation Minus Reanalysis (OMR) method. Temperature trends for observation, reanalysis and OMR are estimated from meteorological records and 2 m-temperature from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 for the period 1979-2007. A spatial mapping scheme based on the spatial and temporal relationship between energy consumption and Gross Domestic Production (GDP) is developed to derive the spatial distribution of energy consumption of China in 2003. A positive relationship between energy consumption and OMR trends is found in high and mid energy consumption region. OMR trends decline with the decreasing intensity of human activity from 0.20°C/decade in high energy consumption region to 0.13°C/decade in mid energy consumption region. Forty-four stations in high energy consumption region that are exposed to the largest human impact are selected to investigate the impact of energy consumption spatial pattern on temperature change. Results show human impact on temperature trends is highly dependent on spatial pattern of energy consumption. OMR trends decline from energy consumption center to surrounding areas (0.26 to 0.04°C/decade) and get strengthened as the spatial extent of high energy consumption area expands (0.14 to 0.25°C/decade).

  7. Epilepsy-related long-term amnesia: anatomical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Butler, Chris; Kapur, Narinder; Zeman, Adam; Weller, Roy; Connelly, Alan

    2012-11-01

    There are few clues as to the neural basis of selective long-term amnesia. We report group and single-case data to shed light on this issue. In a group study of patients with transient epileptic amnesia, there were no significant correlations between volumetric measures of the hippocampus and indices of accelerated long-term forgetting or longer-term autobiographical memory loss. Post-mortem investigations in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy who showed accelerated long-term forgetting, together with a degree of autobiographical memory loss, yielded evidence of neuronal loss and gliosis in regions of both the right and the left hippocampus. Neuronal loss and gliosis were more evident in anterior than posterior hippocampus. These results indicate that the unusual forms of long-term forgetting seen in some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have no gross anatomical correlate. The findings leave open the possibilities that subtle structural damage or subtle functional disturbance, perhaps in the form of subclinical epileptiform activity, underly epilepsy-related long-term amnesia. PMID:22841993

  8. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  9. Results of a Survey of Long-Term Archiving Implementations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurman, Joseph B.; Spencer, Jennifer L.

    2015-04-01

    NASA’s Heliophysics Data Management Policy calls for discipline-specific “final archives,” which will be responsible for the long-term archiving and service of Heliophysics mission data. Long-term archival functions, such as periodic revalidation of the data and migration to newer storage media when appropriate, have never been part of the Solar Data Analysis Center core capabilities. We also recognize that the largest space solar physics data set, the SDO AIA and HMI data at the Stanford Joint Science and Operations Center (JSOC), will eventually need preservation and long-term access, as will the potentially much larger data archive of DKIST observations. We have carried out a study of data archiving best practices in other disciplines and organizations, including NASA’s Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and private industry, and report on the lessons learned and possible cost models. We seek input from the broader solar physics community on the relative value of various levels of preservation effort.

  10. Effect of short- and long-term treatment with antidepressant drugs on the activity of rat CYP2A in the liver.

    PubMed

    Haduch, Anna; Wójcikowski, Jacek; Daniel, W?adys?awa A

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of tricyclic antidepressants (TADs: imipramine, amitriptyline, clomipramine, desipramine), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs: fluoxetine, sertraline) and novel antidepressant drugs (mirtazapine, nefazodone) on the activity of CYP2A measured as a rate of testosterone 7alpha-hydroxylation. The reaction was studied in control liver microsomes in the presence of the antidepressants, as well as in microsomes of rats treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) for one day or two weeks with pharmacological doses of the drugs (imipramine, amitriptyline, clomipramine, nefazodone 10 mg/kg i.p.; desipramine, fluoxetine, sertraline 5 mg/kg i.p.; mirtazapine 3 mg/kg i.p.), in the absence of the antidepressants in vitro. Most of the investigated drugs directly inhibited the CYP2A activity when added in vitro to control liver microsomes. Their inhibitory effects were strong (clomipramine, fluoxetine and desipramine: Ki = 15, 20 and 25 microM, respectively), moderate (sertraline and imipramine: Ki = 50 and 75 microM, respectively) or weak (amitriptyline, nefazodone and mirtazapine: Ki = 107, 127 and 250 microM, respectively). A one-day (i.e. 24-h) exposure to the investigated antidepressant drugs did not produce any significant changes in the rate of 7alpha-hydroxylation of testosterone in the rat liver microsomes, while chronic treatment with clomipramine or sertraline significantly increased the activity of CYP2A, which suggests enzyme induction. In summary, two different mechanisms of the antidepressant-CYP2A interaction have been found in rat liver: 1) the direct inhibition of CYP2A by most of the investigated TADs and SSRIs; 2) the in vivo weak induction of CYP2A by clomipramine and sertraline. This observation may be important to the interpretation of the results of pharmacological tests carried out on rats. It seems of primary importance to determine whether the influence of antidepressants on CYP2A6 in humans is analogous as on CYP2A1/2 in rats. PMID:16382196

  11. Long-term performance of side-stream deammonification in a continuous flow granular-activated sludge process for nitrogen removal from high ammonium wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Babak; Mavinic, Donald S; Kelly, Harlan G

    2015-01-01

    An innovative granular sludge deammonification system was incorporated into a conventional-activated sludge process. The process incorporated an internal baffle in the bioreactor for continuous separation of granular biomass from flocculent biomass, which allowed for controlling the solids retention time of flocculent sludge. The process was evaluated for ammonium removal from municipal digested sludge dewatering centrate under various operating conditions lasting over 450 days. The process successfully removed, on average, 90% of the ammonium from centrate at various ammonium loading reaching 1.4 kg/m(3)d at 20 hours hydraulic retention time. Controlling the retention time of the flocculent biomass and maintaining low nitrite concentration were both found to be effective for nitrite oxidizing bacteria management, resulting in a low nitrate concentration (below 50 mg/L) over a wide range of flocculent biomass concentration in the bioreactor. PMID:25909736

  12. Long-term potentiation and memory.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard G M

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP) transformed research on the neurobiology of learning and memory. This did not happen overnight, but the discovery of an experimentally demonstrable phenomenon reflecting activity-driven neuronal and synaptic plasticity changed discussions about what might underlie learning from speculation into something much more concrete. Equally, however, the relationship between the discovery of LTP and research on the neurobiology of learning and memory has been reciprocal; for it is also true that studies of the psychological, anatomical and neurochemical basis of memory provided a developing and critical intellectual context for the physiological discovery. The emerging concept of multiple memory systems, from 1970 onwards, paved the way for the development of new behavioural and cognitive tasks, including the watermaze described in this paper. The use of this task in turn provided key evidence that pharmacological interference with an LTP induction mechanism would also interfere with learning, a finding that was by no means a foregone conclusion. This reciprocal relationship between studies of LTP and the neurobiology of memory helped the physiological phenomenon to be recognized as a major discovery. PMID:12740109

  13. Long term modification of cerebellar inhibition after inferior olive degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Batini; J. M. Billard; H. Daniel

    1985-01-01

    The long term effects of inferior olive destruction on the activities of the Purkinje cells and their target neurones in the cerebellar nuclei were studied in the rat. Careful observations were also made of motor behaviour throughout the study. Albino rats were injected with 3-acetylpyridine to produce a neurotoxic destruction of the inferior olive and then were used for acute

  14. Driving Ability Under Long-Term Treatment with Transdermal Fentanyl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Sabatowski; Susanne Schwalen; Klaus Rettig; Klaus W Herberg; Stephan M Kasper; Lukas Radbruch

    2003-01-01

    Clinical experience shows that neuropsychological side effects due to opioid therapy usually decrease during the first weeks of therapy. However, the effect of long-term treatment with transdermal fentanyl on complex activities, such as driving, is not yet clear. In a prospective trial, patients with continuous noncancer pain, who had received stable doses of transdermal fentanyl for at least 2 weeks,

  15. A long-term space policy for Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Creola

    1999-01-01

    This is an abridged and edited version of the second report of ESA's Long-Term Space Policy Committee, published in May 1999. Emphasizing the importance of space-based technologies to so many earthly activities, it argues that only greater European involvement in the field will ensure that the continent remains an autonomous and significant player in world affairs and illustrates this by

  16. Long-term magnetic field monitoring of the Sun-like star Ksi Bootis A

    E-print Network

    Morgenthaler, A; Auriere, M; Dintrans, B; Fares, R; Gastine, T; Lanoux, J; Lignieres, F; Morin, J; Ramirez, J; Saar, S; Solanki, S K; Theado, S; Van Grootel, V

    2010-01-01

    Phase-resolved observations of the solar-type star Ksi Bootis A were obtained using the NARVAL spectropolarimeter at the Telescope Bernard Lyot (Pic du Midi, France) during years 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. The data sets enable us to study both the rotational modulation and the long-term evolution of various magnetic and activity tracers. Here, we focus on the large-scale photospheric magnetic field (reconstructed by Zeeman-Doppler Imaging), the Zeeman broadening of the FeI 846.84 nm magnetic line, and the chromospheric CaII H and H alpha emission.

  17. microclim: Global estimates of hourly microclimate based on long-term monthly climate averages

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Michael R; Isaac, Andrew P; Porter, Warren P

    2014-01-01

    The mechanistic links between climate and the environmental sensitivities of organisms occur through the microclimatic conditions that organisms experience. Here we present a dataset of gridded hourly estimates of typical microclimatic conditions (air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, solar radiation, sky radiation and substrate temperatures from the surface to 1?m depth) at high resolution (~15?km) for the globe. The estimates are for the middle day of each month, based on long-term average macroclimates, and include six shade levels and three generic substrates (soil, rock and sand) per pixel. These data are suitable for deriving biophysical estimates of the heat, water and activity budgets of terrestrial organisms. PMID:25977764

  18. Microclim: Global estimates of hourly microclimate based on long-term monthly climate averages.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Michael R; Isaac, Andrew P; Porter, Warren P

    2014-01-01

    The mechanistic links between climate and the environmental sensitivities of organisms occur through the microclimatic conditions that organisms experience. Here we present a dataset of gridded hourly estimates of typical microclimatic conditions (air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, solar radiation, sky radiation and substrate temperatures from the surface to 1?m depth) at high resolution (~15?km) for the globe. The estimates are for the middle day of each month, based on long-term average macroclimates, and include six shade levels and three generic substrates (soil, rock and sand) per pixel. These data are suitable for deriving biophysical estimates of the heat, water and activity budgets of terrestrial organisms. PMID:25977764

  19. The Sun's Role in Long-Term Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James E.

    2000-11-01

    Evidence suggests that changes of solar irradiance in recent centuries have provided a significant climate forcing and that the sun has been one of the principal causes of long-term climate change. During the past two decades the solar forcing has been much smaller than the climate forcing caused by increasing greenhouse gases. But it is incorrect to assume that the sun necessarily will be an insignificant player in climate change of the 21st century. Indeed, I argue that moderate success in curtailing the growth of anthropogenic climate forcings could leave the sun playing a pivotal role in future climate change.

  20. Long-term Spatial and Temporal Variations of Aurora Borealis Events in the Period 1700 - 1905

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    Catalogues and other records of aurora-borealis events were used to study the long-term spatial and temporal variation of these phenomena in the period from 1700 to 1905 in the Northern Hemisphere. For this purpose, geographic and geomagnetic coordinates were assigned to approximately 27 000 auroral events with more than 80 000 observations. They were analyzed separately in three large-scale areas: i) Europe and North Africa, ii) North America, and iii) Asia. There was a clear need to fill some gaps existing in the records so as to have a reliable proxy of solar activity, especially during the 18th century. In order to enhance the long-term variability, an 11-year smoothing window was applied to the data. Variations in the cumulative numbers of auroral events with latitude (in both geographic and geomagnetic coordinates) were used to discriminate between the two main solar sources: coronal mass ejections and high-speed streams from coronal holes. The characteristics of the associated auroras correlate differently with the solar-activity cycle.

  1. Suppressive effects of long-term exposure to P-nitrophenol on gonadal development, hormonal profile with disruption of tissue integrity, and activation of caspase-3 in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Eman; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Fayez, Mostafa; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Samir, Haney; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-07-01

    P-Nitrophenol (PNP) is considered to be one of nitrophenol derivatives of diesel exhaust particles. PNP is a major metabolite of some organophosphorus compounds. PNP is a persistent organic pollutant as well as one of endocrine-disrupting compounds. Consequently, bioaccumulation of PNP potentiates toxicity. The objectives of the current study were to assess in vivo adverse effects of long-term low doses of PNP exposure on reproductive system during development stage. Twnety-eight-day-old male Japanese quails were orally administered different doses of PNP (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg body weight) daily for 2.5 months. Testicular histopathology, hormones, caspase-3 (CASP3), and claudin-1 (CLDN1) tight junction protein, as well as plasma hormones were analyzed. The results revealed that long-term PNP exposure caused testicular histopathological changes such as vacuolation of spermatogenic cell and spermatocyte with significant testicular and cloacal gland atrophy. PNP activated CASP3 enzyme that is an apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase. Besides, it disrupted the expression of CLDN1. Furthermore, a substantial decrease in plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone was observed after 2 and 2.5 months in the PNP-treated groups. Meanwhile, the pituitary LH did not significantly change. Site of action of PNP may be peripheral on testicular development and/or centrally on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis through reduction of pulsatile secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. Consequently, it may reduce the sensitivity of the anterior pituitary gland to secrete LH. In conclusion, PNP induced profound endocrine disruption in the form of hormonal imbalance, induction of CASP3, and disruption of CLDN1 expression in the testis. Hence, it may hinder the reproductive processes. PMID:25772865

  2. Idaho National Laboratory Site Long-Term Stewardship Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    B. E. Olaveson

    2006-07-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.

  3. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  4. Long Term Forecast ofLong Term Forecast of TsunamisTsunamis

    E-print Network

    Model comparisons: · Inundation field data at Seaside, Oregon · Tide gage measurement at Hilo, Hawaii 3 (Seaside Pilot Study) Long-term Forecast: #12;1- Validated Numerical Code #12;Relocation of emergency Approach (Seaside Pilot Study) Long-term Forecast: #12;2- Development of a high resolution Digital

  5. Long Term Capability Requirements as derived from the Long Term Requirements Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brownlee

    2010-01-01

    Of the 38 Long Term Capability Requirements indentified by NATO in the 2009 Long Term Requirements Study, at least four can be directly applied to waterside security research and technology. First, Area Access Control, the capability of controlling access to designated unattended areas and borders, denying or allowing access to appropriate personnel and equipment. It must be capable of monitoring

  6. Long term ground movement of TRISTAN synchrotron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Endo; Y. Ohsawa; M. Miyahara

    1989-01-01

    The long-term ground movement was estimated in a geological survey done in connection with the siting of the TRISTAN-MR (main ring). The movement of the synchrotron magnet mainly results from the structure of the tunnel. If the movement of an individual magnet exceeds a certain threshold limit, it exerts a significant influence on the particle behavior in a synchrotron. The

  7. Long-Term Oxygen Therapy in Ioannina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stamatis Katsenos; Marios E. Froudarakis; Alexandros Charisis; Miltiadis P. Vassiliou; Stavros H. Constantopoulos

    2004-01-01

    Background: Long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT) is very important, especially in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its efficacy is closely related to patient compliance. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the compliance of patients under LTOT in the Prefecture of Ioannina (north-western Greece) and to identify factors that might be involved. Methods: The

  8. Long term ecological research and information management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William K. Michener; John Porter; Mark Servilla; Kristin Vanderbilt

    2011-01-01

    The United States Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program has supported research in the ecological and environmental sciences for more than three decades. The Program has grown from six to 26 sites and has been the precursor to a worldwide network of International LTER sites. Extracting knowledge from the massive volume of disparate data collected across ecosystems and decades depends

  9. Dynamics of long-term genomic selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Luc Jannink

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simulation and empirical studies of genomic selection (GS) show accuracies sufficient to generate rapid gains in early selection cycles. Beyond those cycles, allele frequency changes, recombination, and inbreeding make analytical prediction of gain impossible. The impacts of GS on long-term gain should be studied prior to its implementation. METHODS: A simulation case-study of this issue was done for barley,

  10. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  11. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  12. Long-Term Stability of Tutor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the extent to which tutor ratings remained stable in the long term by evaluating 291 ratings of 140 tutors at Maastricht University in the Netherlands between 1992 and 1995. The results indicated that, if the aggregated score and overall judgement are used to interpret the precision of individual scores, four and two occasions,…

  13. Neonatal desensitization allows long-term

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    for long-term immune protection of human fetal and stem cell­derived neural cells transplanted into the adult rat brain, by desensitizing the host rat to similar cells in the neonatal period, without the need appropriate immunosuppression, neural xenografts in the adult rat or mouse brain are rejected within 2­4 weeks

  14. Foundation work in long-term care.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Lauren; Treanor, Katherine; Art, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Health foundations have invested in services, research, and advocacy to improve the financing and delivery of long-term services and supports. This article describes some of the broad array of approaches they have taken--in such areas as aging in place, assisted living, "culture change" in nursing homes, quality improvement, augmenting the workforce, and paying for care. PMID:20048379

  15. NATIONAL LONG TERM CARE SURVEY (NLTCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...

  16. TOXIC MODELING SYSTEM LONG-TERM (TOXLT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toxic Modeling System Long-Term (TOXLT) is a personal-computer- based model that has been developed in conjunction with the release of the new version of the EPAs Industrial Source Complex (ISC2) Dispersion Models (EPA, 1992) and the promulgation of the EPAs A Tiered Modeling...

  17. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  18. 4, 26712726, 2004 Long-term global

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with long-term climatological data from the Inter- national Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-D2 The mean monthly shortwave (SW) radiation budget at the top of atmosphere (TOA) was computed on 2 validated against Earth Radiation Budget Ex- periment (ERBE) S4 scanner satellite data (1985

  19. Coats' syndrome: long term follow up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devron H Char

    2000-01-01

    AIMTo increase the understanding of the long term results in pseudo-retinoblastoma eyes with infantile Coats' syndrome.METHODSThis study design was a retrospective case review. 10 patients were analysed who were initially referred with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma but had Coats' syndrome on the basis of ocular oncological evaluation. Vision, fundus photography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography scans were obtained and evaluated. Changes

  20. Long-term cropping systems study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This long-term study has been conducted on the Agronomy Farm at ARDC since the early 1970’s. In the beginning, the objectives were mainly related to crop production as affected by different cropping systems. The cropping systems included in the study are Continuous Corn, Soybean, and Sorghum; 2-year...

  1. Long-term US energy outlook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    Chase Econometrics summarizes the assumptions underlying long-term US energy forecasts. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they compare Chase Econometrics forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the DOE Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Scenario B, the mid-range reference case, is emphasized. The

  2. Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Robert; Laurent Argaud

    2007-01-01

    Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected

  3. Long-term variation of total ozone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Kane

    1988-01-01

    The long-term variation of total ozone is studied for 1957 up to date for different latitude zones. The 3-year running averages show that, apart from a small portion showing parallelism with sunspot cycles, the trends in different latitude zones are dissimilar. In particular, where northern latitudes show a rising trend, the southern latitudes show an opposite (decreasing) trend. In the

  4. On the Long-Term Variation of Galactic Cosmic Rays: Convection-Diffusion and Drift Modulations in the Heliosphere, Expected Radiation Hazard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lev Dorman

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of results obtained in our investigations of CR-SA hysteresis effects we determine the dimension of Heliosphere (modulation region), radial diffusion coefficient and other param-eters of convection-diffusion and drift mechanisms of cosmic ray (CR) long term variation in dependence of particles energy, level of solar activity (SA) and general solar magnetic field. This important information we obtain on

  5. Long-term variations in global ozone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Bekoryukov; V. N. Glazkov; G. A. Kokin

    2009-01-01

    Monthly mean values of the global (averaged over the Earth’s surface) total ozone content (GO) are constructed on the basis\\u000a of data of the global ozonometric network from 1964 to 2006, and their trends are calculated. A very strong relationship between\\u000a the GO and solar activity, in particular, the index F10.7, is detected. This relation considerably exceeds the relation that

  6. Long-term biological investigations in space.

    PubMed

    Lotz, R G; Fuchs, H; Bertsche, U

    1975-01-01

    Missions in space within the next two decades will be of longer duration than those carried out up to the present time, and the effects of such long-term flights on biological organisms are unknown. Results of biological experiments that have been performed to date cannot be extrapolated to results in future flights because of the unknown influence of adaptation over a long period of time. Prior experiments with Axolotl, fishes, and vertebrates by our research team (in part with sounding rockets) showed that these specimens did not appear to be suitable for long-term missions on which minimization of expense, technique, and energy is required. Subsequent investigations have shown the suitability of the leech (Hirudo medicinalis), which consumes blood of mammals up to ten times its own weight (1 g) and can live more than 2 years without further food supply. Emphasis in the experiments with Hirudo medicinalis is placed on metabolic rhythm and motility. Resorption and diffusion in tissue, development, and growth under long-term effects of cosmic proton radiation and zero-gravity are other focal points. The constancy of cellular life in the mature animals is a point in favor of these specimens. We have also taken into account the synergistic effects of the space environment on the problems just mentioned. The life-support system constructed for the leech has been tested successfully in four sounding rocket flights and, on that basis, has been prepared for a long-term mission. Long-term investigations out of the terrestrial biosphere will provide us with information concerning the degree of adaptation of certain physiological and biochemical functions and as to what extent biological readjustment or repair processes can occur under the specific stress conditions of space flight. PMID:11841093

  7. Solar activity impact on the Earth's upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutiev, Ivan; Tsagouri, Ioanna; Perrone, Loredana; Pancheva, Dora; Mukhtarov, Plamen; Mikhailov, Andrei; Lastovicka, Jan; Jakowski, Norbert; Buresova, Dalia; Blanch, Estefania; Andonov, Borislav; Altadill, David; Magdaleno, Sergio; Parisi, Mario; Miquel Torta, Joan

    2013-02-01

    The paper describes results of the studies devoted to the solar activity impact on the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere, conducted within the frame of COST ES0803 Action. Aim: The aim of the paper is to represent results coming from different research groups in a unified form, aligning their specific topics into the general context of the subject. Methods: The methods used in the paper are based on data-driven analysis. Specific databases are used for spectrum analysis, empirical modeling, electron density profile reconstruction, and forecasting techniques. Results: Results are grouped in three sections: Medium- and long-term ionospheric response to the changes in solar and geomagnetic activity, storm-time ionospheric response to the solar and geomagnetic forcing, and modeling and forecasting techniques. Section 1 contains five subsections with results on 27-day response of low-latitude ionosphere to solar extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, response to the recurrent geomagnetic storms, long-term trends in the upper atmosphere, latitudinal dependence of total electron content on EUV changes, and statistical analysis of ionospheric behavior during prolonged period of solar activity. Section 2 contains a study of ionospheric variations induced by recurrent CIR-driven storm, a case-study of polar cap absorption due to an intense CME, and a statistical study of geographic distribution of so-called E-layer dominated ionosphere. Section 3 comprises empirical models for describing and forecasting TEC, the F-layer critical frequency foF2, and the height of maximum plasma density. A study evaluates the usefulness of effective sunspot number in specifying the ionosphere state. An original method is presented, which retrieves the basic thermospheric parameters from ionospheric sounding data.

  8. On intergenerational equity and its clash with intragenerational equity and on the need for policies to guide the regulation of disposal of wastes and other activities posing very long-term risks

    SciTech Connect

    Okrent, D.

    1999-10-01

    This article begins with some history of the derivation of 40 CFR Part 191, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that governs the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes. This is followed by criticisms of the standard that were made by a Sub-Committee of the EPA Science Advisory Board, by the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and by a penal of the National Academies of Science and Engineering. The large disparity in the EPA approaches to regulation of disposal of radioactive wastes and disposal of hazardous, long-lived, nonradioactive chemical waste is illustrated. An examination of the intertwined matters of intergenerational equity and the discounting of future health effects follows, together with a discussion of the conflict between intergenerational equity and intragenerational equity. Finally, issues related to assumptions in the regulations concerning the future state of society and the biosphere are treated, as is the absence of any national philosophy or guiding policy for how to deal with societal activities that pose very long-term risks.

  9. Elderly and long-term care trends and policy in Taiwan: challenges and opportunities for health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Tsay, Shwn-Feng

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to address the trends and policy of elderly and long-term care in Taiwan. In response to the increasing demand of an aging society, healthcare professionals play crucial roles in elderly and long-term care and quality assurance of services. This article focuses on the current situation of elderly health care, demands of long-term care, long-term care policy in Taiwan, draft of the Long-term Care Services Act, and draft of the Long-term Care Insurance Act. After the 10-year long-term care project was proposed by the Taiwan government, the supply of health care services and demand for long-term care have created many challenges and opportunities for innovative health professional development. Challenges consist of low old dependency ratio caused by low birth rate, lack of elderly and long-term care related manpower, services and education reform related to long-term care for the future society, and interprofessional collaboration and team work of long-term care. Opportunities include expanding the roles and the career pathways of healthcare professionals, promoting the concepts of active aging and good quality of life, and developing industrial cooperation related to long-term care services. Under these circumstances, healthcare professonals are actively involved in practice, education and research of long-term care services that ensure elderly and disabled people can live a healthier and better life. PMID:22974664

  10. Case presentation: long-term treatment.

    PubMed

    Glucksman, Myron L

    2013-01-01

    The long-term (14 years) psychodynamic psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of a depressed, suicidal, self-mutilating female patient is described. Her diagnoses included Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Recurrent Major Depression. Treatment was punctuated with repeated hospitalizations for self-mutilation (cutting) and suicidal ideation. A major determinant for her psychopathology was sexual abuse by her father from ages 6 to 14. This resulted in feelings of guilt and rage that she repressed and acted out through self-mutilating and suicidal behavior. A prolonged negative transference gradually became ambivalent, then positive. This was associated with her internalization of the healing qualities of the therapeutic relationship. She also gained insight into the reasons for her need to punish herself. Her initial self-representation as unworthy and bad was transformed into perceiving herself as a worthwhile, loving person. This case illustrates the role of long-term treatment for a complex, life-threatening, psychiatric disorder. PMID:24001161

  11. Long term function following the central cord syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M J Bridle; K B Lynch; C M Quesenberry

    1990-01-01

    Follow-up visits were made to persons with central spinal cord injury in order to assess long term functional outcomes. An occupational therapist conducted in-home evaluations of 18 randomly selected subjects at an average time of 4 years 8 months since injury. Evaluation instruments included: the ASIA Motor Index; the Jebsen Hand Function Test; the Klein-Bell Activities of Daily Living Scale;

  12. Emotional behavior in long-term marriage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L. Carstensen; John M. Gottman; Robert W. Levenson

    1995-01-01

    In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction.

  13. Assessing long term backache after childbirth.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, R; Groves, P; Taub, N; O'Dowd, J; Reynolds, F

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate the factors associated with long term backache after childbirth, to assess all women reporting new onset long term backache, and to investigate any relation with pain relief in labour. DESIGN--Data collected from obstetric records and postal questionnaires or telephone interviews on morbidity after childbirth from all women delivering their first baby between March 1990 and February 1991, followed by analysis of data collected from outpatient consultations. SETTING--St Thomas's Hospital, London. SUBJECTS--Questionnaires were sent to 1615 women who had delivered their first baby in the defined period; 1015 either replied by post or were contacted by telephone. RESULTS--299 women (29.5% of responders) reported backache lasting more than six months and of these 156 (15.4%) said they had had no back problems previously. Those women who had received epidural analgesia in labour were significantly more likely to report new onset backache (17.8%; 95% confidence interval 14.8% to 20.8%) than those who did not (11.7%; 8.6% to 14.8%). Younger women, unmarried women, and those reporting other antenatal symptoms were significantly more likely to report new long term backache. The 156 women reporting new backache were asked to attend an outpatient clinic and 36 (23%) did so. The majority had a postural backache which was not severe. Psychological factors were present in 14 women. CONCLUSIONS--Though new long term backache is reported more commonly after epidural analgesia in labour, it tends to be postural and not severe. There were no differences in the nature of the backache between those who had or had not received epidural analgesia in labour. PMID:8518569

  14. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  15. Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-07-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

  16. Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Frey; Richard G. M. Morris

    1997-01-01

    Repeated stimulation of hippocampal neurons can induce an immediate and prolonged increase in synaptic strength that is called long-term potentiation (LTP)-the primary cellular model of memory in the mammalian brain1. An early phase of LTP (lasting less than three hours) can be dissociated from late-phase LTP by using inhibitors of transcription and translation2-8. Because protein synthesis occurs mainly in the

  17. Long-term health consequences of PCOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Wild

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance\\/diabetes and\\/or uterine pathology appears to be increased in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although more outcome studies are necessary to determine incidence. Data pertaining to some of the potential long-term health consequences associated with PCOS are summarized. Medline, Current Contents and PubMed were searched for studies from the time of our

  18. Long-term Variation of AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Xie, G. Z.; Adam, G.; Copin, Y.; Lin, R. G.; Bai, J. M.; Quin, Y. P.

    In this paper we will present the long-term variation in the optical and the infrared bands for some selected AGNs. 1. Some new optical data observed by us have been presented for BL Lacertae (1995-1996) and OJ 287 (1994-1995), and new infrared data are presented for OJ 287 (Nov=2E 1995), which corresponds to the second optical peak (Sillanpaa et al. 1996; Takalo et al. 1996) and during last outburst. 2. For objects with long term observations, the Jurkevich's method has been used to analyses the long-term variation period. It is interesting that the reported periods of AGNs are of the similar value of about 10 years: 3C 345 11.4 years (Webb et al. 1988), 3C 120 15 years (Belokon et al. 1987; Hagen-Thorn et al. 1997), ON 231 13.6 years (Liu et al. 1995), OJ 287 12 years (Sillanpaa et al. 1988; Kidger et al. 1992), PKS 0735+178 14 years (Fan et al. 1997), NGC 4151 15 years (Fan et al. 1998a), BL Lacertae 14.0 years (Fan et al. 1998b). Is the mechanism for the long-term variation the same for different AGNs? 3. The DCF method has been adopted to analysis the variation correlation in the optical and infrared bands for BL Lac object OJ 287, the results show that these two bands are strongly correlated, which suggest that the emission mechanism in the two bands is the same. 4. For the optical and infrared bands, the maximum variations are correlated.

  19. Long-term ambulatory enterogastric reflux monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Bechi; Filippo Pucciani; Francesco Baldini; Franco Cosi; Riccardo Falciai; Roberto Mazzanti; Antonio Castagnoli; Alessandro Passeri; Sergio Boscherini

    1993-01-01

    A new technique for the long-term ambulatory detection of enterogastric and nonacid gastroesophageal reflux has been conceived, developed, and validated. It is based on the use of a fiberoptic sensor that utilizes the optical properties of bile.In vitro studies have shown good precision, good stability, sensitivity of 2.5 µmol\\/liter bilirubin concentration, as well as a useful working range of 2.5–100

  20. Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Petursson; M H Lader

    1981-01-01

    Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels

  1. Solar Activity and You!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors to this site can read about sunspots, solar wind, solar flares, and coronal mass ejecions. Topics include how they interact with the Earth's magnetic field, auroras, and possible damaging effects of geomagnetic storms on satellites and ground-based technology. A list of "Would You Believe" factoids is included.

  2. Malaria prophylaxis for long-term travellers.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C; Tucker, R; Bannister, B; Bradley, D J

    2003-09-01

    These guidelines are designed to assist healthcare workers who are advising long-term travellers on malaria prophylaxis, defined for the purpose of this document as those travelling for longer than 6 months. The document focuses on long-term use of antimalarials for adults, but also identifies specific issues for women and children. However, data on the long-term use of antimalarials is limited for all travellers and few data are available on the incidence of malaria in travellers overseas or, indeed, deaths overseas from malaria. Whilst all available evidence is taken into account, the advice provided also reflects experienced professional opinion. This document has been written on behalf of the Health Protection Agency's Advisory Committee on Malaria Prevention for UK Travellers, and is designed to act as a supplement to the 'Guidelines for malaria prevention in travellers from the United Kingdom for 2003'. The latter document contains a more complete description of antimalarials and additional preventive measures, together with recommendations for malaria chemoprophylaxis for individuals countries. Decisions on the terms under which different drugs are licensed for use are the responsibility of the Committee on Safety of Medicines. This paper should also, therefore, be used in conjunction with Summary of Product Characteristics (data sheets). PMID:14708269

  3. Long-term EEG in children.

    PubMed

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

    2015-03-01

    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. PMID:25687590

  4. Long-Term Monitoring Research Needs: A DOE Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, B.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is responsible for dealing with the nation's legacy of Cold War radioactive and hazardous waste and contamination. Major efforts are underway to deal with this legacy; these are expected to last up to decades and cost up to billions of dollars at some sites. At all sites, however, active remediation must eventually cease; if hazards then remain, the site must enter into a long-term stewardship mode. In this talk we discuss aspects of long-term monitoring pertinent to DOE sites, focusing on challenges to be faced, specific goals or targets to be met, and research needs to be addressed in order to enable DOE to meet its long-term stewardship obligations. DOE LTM research needs fall into three major categories: doing what we can do now much more efficiently; doing things we cannot do now; and proving the validity of our monitoring programs. Given the enormity of the DOE obligations, it will be highly desirable to develop much more efficient monitoring paradigms. Doing so will demand developing autonomous, remote monitoring networks of in situ sensors capable of replacing (or at least supplementing to a large extent) conventional groundwater and soil gas sampling and analysis programs. The challenges involved range from basic science (e.g., inventing in situ sensors for TCE that do not demand routine maintenance) to engineering (attaining superior reliability in data reporting in remote networks) to ergonomics (developing decent ways of selecting and presenting the "right" information from the monitoring network) to regulatory affairs (presenting convincing evidence that the more efficient systems actually provide superior monitoring). We explore these challenges in some detail, focusing on the "long" in long-term monitoring as it applies to DOE sites. Monitoring system performance validation and, ultimately, regulator and stakeholder acceptance of site closure and long-term stewardship plans depend critically on the validity and uncertainty in models used to predict contaminant fate and transport. This is an area of active research at the present time. We survey joint research initiatives in this area involving DOE along with USGS, U.S. EPA, U.S. NRC, and U.S. DOA and non-Federal collaborators, and explore their potential for furthering DOE long-term monitoring needs and objectives.

  5. Development/Plasticity/Repair Simultaneous NMDA-Dependent Long-Term Potentiation of

    E-print Network

    Segal, Menahem

    Development/Plasticity/Repair Simultaneous NMDA-Dependent Long-Term Potentiation of EPSCs and Long activity-dependent long-term plasticity of neuronal networks is the interplay between excitatory, whereas a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor was ineffec- tive. Finally, network-induced plasticity

  6. Benefits and Challenges of the Passport Broadcast Intervention in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Shaunfield, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Creative activities are a challenge for long-term care facilities. The Passport intervention uses web-based video technology to provide long-term care residents with a virtual travel experience. Passport broadcasts were conducted and staff and residents were interviewed about the experience. A thematic analysis of interviews was used to discern…

  7. How long will long-term potentiation last?

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Wickliffe C

    2003-01-01

    The paramount feature of long-term potentiation (LTP) as a memory mechanism is its characteristic persistence over time. Although the basic phenomenology of LTP persistence was established 30 years ago, new insights have emerged recently about the extent of LTP persistence and its regulation by activity and experience. Thus, it is now evident that LTP, at least in the dentate gyrus, can either be decremental, lasting from hours to weeks, or stable, lasting months or longer. Although mechanisms engaged during the induction of LTP regulate its subsequent persistence, the maintenance of LTP is also governed by activity patterns post-induction, whether induced experimentally or generated by experience. These new findings establish dentate gyrus LTP as a useful model system for studying the mechanisms governing the induction, maintenance and interference with long-term memory, including very long-term memory lasting months or longer. The challenge is to study LTP persistence in other brain areas, and to relate, if possible, the properties and regulation of LTP maintenance to these same properties of the information that is actually stored in those regions. PMID:12740120

  8. Solar activity - past, present, future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, Leif

    2013-07-01

    As our civilization depends increasingly on space-borne assets and on a delicate and vulnerable earth-bound infrastructure, solar activity and its potential impact becomes of increasing importance and relevance. In his famous paper on the Maunder Minimum, Eddy (1976) introduced the notion that the Sun is a variable star on long time scales. After the recent decade of vigorous research based on cosmic ray and sunspot data as well as on geomagnetic activity, an emerging consensus reconstruction of solar wind magnetic field strength has been forged for the last century. The consensus reconstruction shows reasonable agreement among the various reconstructions of solar wind magnetic field the past ~ 170 years. New magnetic indices open further possibilities for the exploitation of historic data. The solar wind is a direct result of solar magnetic activity providing an important link to the effects on the Earth’s environment. Reassessment of the sunspot series (no Modern Grand Maximum) and new reconstructions of Total Solar Irradiance also contribute to our improved knowledge (or at least best guess) of the environment of the Earth System, with obvious implications for management of space-based technological assets or, perhaps, even climate. Several lines of evidence suggest that the Sun is entering a period of low activity, perhaps even a Grand Minimum. Average space weather might be “milder” with decreased solar activity, but the extreme events that dominate technological effects are not expected to disappear. Prediction of solar activity has a poor track record, but the progression of the current Cycle 24 is in accordance with its behavior predicted from the evolution of the solar polar fields, so perhaps there is hope.

  9. Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle ACTIVE REGIONS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle ACTIVE REGIONS Large scale (up to 100 Mm) anomalies in the structure and radiation of the solar atmosphere. Photosphere : AR = cluster of strong magnetic flux tubes of facular points. Filamentary structure due to supergranulation. #12;Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle

  10. Further evidence of long-term thermospheric density change using a new method of satellite ballistic coefficient estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Arrun; Lewis, Hugh; Swinerd, Graham

    2011-10-01

    Building on work from previous studies a strong case is presented for the existence of a long-term density decline in the thermosphere. Using a specially developed orbital propagator to predict satellite orbit evolution, combined with a new and accurate method of determining satellite ballistic coefficients, a long-term thermospheric density change has been detected using a different method compared to previous studies. Over a 40-year period between the years 1970 and 2010, thermospheric density has appeared to reduce by a few percent per decade. However, the results do not show the thermospheric density reduction to vary linearly with time. Therefore, by analyzing the derived density data over varying solar activity levels, as well as performing a Fourier spectral analysis to highlight any periodicities, connections with physical phenomena, where possible, are proposed.

  11. LONG-TERM TRENDS IN SUNSPOT MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pevtsov, Alexei A. [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Nagovitsyn, Yury A.; Rybak, Alexey L. [Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation); Tlatov, Andrey G., E-mail: apevtsov@nso.edu, E-mail: nag@gao.spb.edu, E-mail: tlatov@mail.ru [Kislovodsk Solar Station of Pulkovo Observatory, Kislovodsk 357700 (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    Recent studies indicate that a maximum field strength in sunspots shows a gradual decrease over the last several years. By extrapolating this trend, Penn and Livingston proposed that sunspots may completely disappear in the not-so-distant future. To verify these recent findings, we employ historic synoptic data sets from seven observatories in the former USSR covering the period from 1957 to 2011 (from 1998 to 2011, observations were taken at only one observatory). Our results indicate that while sunspot field strengths rise and wane with solar cycle, there is not a long-term trend that would suggest a gradual decrease in sunspot magnetic fields over the four and a half solar cycles covered by these observations.

  12. Impact of “Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor /Ligand” Genotypes on Outcome following Surgery among Patients with Colorectal Cancer: Activating KIRs Are Associated with Long-Term Disease Free Survival

    PubMed Central

    Beksac, Kemal; Beksac, Meral; Dalva, Klara; Karaagaoglu, Ergun; Tirnaksiz, M. Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 % of patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer develop recurrence following surgery. How individual regulation of host mediated anti-tumor cytotoxicity is modified by the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIRs) genotype is essential for prediction of outcome. We analyzed the frequency of KIR and KIR ligand Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I genotypes, and their effects on recurrence and disease-free survival (DFS). Out of randomly selected 87 colorectal cancer patients who underwent R0 resection operations between 2005 and 2008, 29 patients whose cancers progressed within a median five-year follow-up period were compared with 58 patients with no recurrence within the same time period. Recurrent cases shared similar tumor stages with non-recurrent cases, but had different localizations. We used DNA isolated from pathological archival lymphoid and tumor tissues for KIR and KIR ligand (HLA-C, group C1, group C2, and HLA-A-Bw4) genotyping. Among cases with recurrence, KIR2DL1 (inhibitory KIR) and A-Bw4 (ligand for inhibitory KIR3DL1) were observed more frequently (p=0.017 and p=0.024); and KIR2DS2 and KIR2DS3 (both activating KIRs) were observed less frequently (p=0.005 and p=0.043). Similarly, in the non-recurrent group, inhibitory KIR-ligand combinations 2DL1-C2 and 2DL3-C1 were less frequent, while the activating combination 2DS2-C1 was more frequent. The lack of KIR2DL1, 2DL1-C2, and 2DL3-C1 improved disease-free survival (DFS) (100% vs. 62.3%, p=0.05; 93.8% vs. 60.0%, p=0.035; 73.6% vs. 55.9%, p=0.07). The presence of KIR2DS2, 2DS3, and 2DS2-C1 improved DFS (77.8% vs. 48.5%, p=0.01; 79.4% vs. 58.5%, p=0.003; 76.9% vs. 51.4%, p=0.023). KIR2DS3 reduced the risk of recurrence (HR=0.263, 95% CI = 0.080-0.863, p=0.028). The number of activating KIRs are correlated strongly with DFS, none/ one/ two KIR : 54/77/98 months (p=0.004). In conclusion the inheritance of increasing numbers of activating KIRs and lack of inhibitory KIRs, independent of tumor localization or stage, is associated with long-term DFS. PMID:26181663

  13. Long-term outcomes of stapled hemorrhoidopexy

    PubMed Central

    Michalik, Maciej; Bobowicz, Maciej; Witzling, Mieczys?aw

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hemorrhoidal disease is one of the commonest anorectal disorders worldwide. Stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH) is a treatment modality associated with low postoperative pain and early mobilization. Aim To assess long-term outcomes after SH. Material and methods All 326 patients who underwent SH in 1999–2003 were invited by mail to participate. For each patient we analyzed their medical records, and conducted a questionnaire survey and a digital rectal examination. Results Only 91 patients attended the final examination and the mean ± SD follow-up time was 8.7 ±1.2 years. Recurrences were diagnosed in one third of the 91 subjects. There were correlations between recurrences and: the duration of disease (p = 0.047); female gender (p = 0.037); and childbirth (vaginal delivery) (p = 0.026). Sixty-seven patients (73.6%) were satisfied with the outcomes. In the group of dissatisfied patients symptoms such as pain (p = 0.0001), burning (p = 0.0002) and itching (p = 0.014) were most common. Long-term outcomes were good with 75% and 88% reductions in pain sensation and severe and moderate hemorrhoidal bleeding. Pruritus, burning and discomfort resolved in more than 50% of patients. Flatus incontinence, fecal incontinence, or soiling occurred in 21%, 11%, and 32% of patients. Conclusions Long-term results of stapled hemorrhoidopexy are satisfactory in most patients. The 36% recurrence rate correlates with the degree of hemorrhoidal prolapse before the operation, duration of the disease, female gender, and previous vaginal delivery. PMID:24729805

  14. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be presented. ACKNOWLEDGMENTs The financial support by the European Community through the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure Action under the 7th Framework Programme under ACTRIS Grant Agreement n° 262254 is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia.

    PubMed

    Talmi, Deborah; Caplan, Jeremy B; Richards, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM) despite an intact short-term memory (STM). The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR). This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors) and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only) condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant's recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation. PMID:26046770

  16. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Talmi, Deborah; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Richards, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM) despite an intact short-term memory (STM). The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR). This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors) and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only) condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant’s recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation. PMID:26046770

  17. Long-term interferon-? treatment formultiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Ruggieri; N. Settipani; L. Viviano; M. Attanasio; L. Giglia; P. Almasio; V. La Bella; F. Piccoli

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract.\\u000a   The aim of our study was to analyze the dropout rate in\\u000apatients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS)\\u000aunder long-term treatment with the three commercially available\\u000ainterferon beta (IFN) preparations. According to the drug\\u000ataken, we divided 122 RRMS patients into 4 groups: Betaferon\\u000agroup, 56 patients taking INF-1b (24 MIU weekly, subcutaneous\\u000ainjections); Avonex group, 38 patients taking

  18. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  19. Energy scavenging for long-term deployable wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Mathúna, Cian O; O'Donnell, Terence; Martinez-Catala, Rafael V; Rohan, James; O'Flynn, Brendan

    2008-05-15

    The coming decade will see the rapid emergence of low cost, intelligent, wireless sensors and their widespread deployment throughout our environment. While wearable systems will operate over communications ranges of less than a meter, building management systems will operate with inter-node communications ranges of the order of meters to tens of meters and remote environmental monitoring systems will require communications systems and associated energy systems that will allow reliable operation over kilometers. Autonomous power should allow wireless sensor nodes to operate in a "deploy and forget" mode. The use of rechargeable battery technology is problematic due to battery lifetime issues related to node power budget, battery self-discharge, number of recharge cycles and long-term environmental impact. Duty cycling of wireless sensor nodes with long "SLEEP" times minimises energy usage. A case study of a multi-sensor, wireless, building management system operating using the Zigbee protocol demonstrates that, even with a 1 min cycle time for an 864 ms "ACTIVE" mode, the sensor module is already in SLEEP mode for almost 99% of the time. For a 20-min cycle time, the energy utilisation in SLEEP mode exceeds the ACTIVE mode energy by almost a factor of three and thus dominates the module energy utilisation thereby providing the ultimate limit to the power system lifetime. Energy harvesting techniques can deliver energy densities of 7.5 mW/cm(2) from outdoor solar, 100 microW/cm(2) from indoor lighting, 100 microW/cm(3) from vibrational energy and 60 microW/cm(2) from thermal energy typically found in a building environment. A truly autonomous, "deploy and forget" battery-less system can be achieved by scaling the energy harvesting system to provide all the system energy needs. In the building management case study discussed, for duty cycles of less than 0.07% (i.e. in ACTIVE mode for 0.864 s every 20 min), energy harvester device dimensions of approximately 2 cm on a side would be sufficient to supply the complete wireless sensor node energy. Key research challenges to be addressed to deliver future, remote, wireless, chemo-biosensing systems include the development of low cost, low-power sensors, miniaturised fluidic transport systems, anti-bio-fouling sensor surfaces, sensor calibration, reliable and robust system packaging, as well as associated energy delivery systems and energy budget management. PMID:18585122

  20. Hypoglycemia in childhood: long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Flykanaka-Gantenbein, Christina

    2004-08-01

    Glucose is the main cerebral fuel throughout life. Inadequate cerebral glucose supply, due to recurrent episodes of severe hypoglycemia during the neonatal period or infancy, when the brain is still developing, lead to serious long-term neurological impairments, ranging from mild neurocognitive dysfunction to severe mental retardation, epilepsy, microcephaly or even hemiparesis or aphasia. Moreover, in the most common form of severe recurrent hypoglycemia of infancy due to hyperinsulinism, not only abnormalities in neurocognitive function, but also the later development of diabetes mellitus are observed. Furthermore, recurrent hypoglycemia, supervening as a side-effect of intensified insulin treatment in young diabetic children, may also induce mild neurocognitive dysfunction and, specifically, memory deficits that predispose these children to new hypoglycemic episodes and hypoglycemia unawareness. In conclusion, prompt and meticulous management of hypoglycemia and its prevention during the neonatal period, infancy and childhood constitute the main goal of physicians taking care of these patients in order to ascertain a long-standing quality of life devoid of long-term sequelae. PMID:16444188

  1. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  2. Pediatric HIV Long-Term Nonprogressors.

    PubMed

    Rimawi, B H; Rimawi, R H; Micallef, M; Pinckney, L; Fowler, S L; Dixon, T C

    2014-01-01

    Patients infected with HIV are best categorized along a continuum from rapid progressors to HIV long-term nonprogressors. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) are those in which AIDS develop many years after being infected with HIV, often beyond the 10-year mark, and represent 15-20% of the HIV infected patients. Many of these patients are able to control their infection and maintain undetectable viral loads for long periods of time without antiretroviral therapy. After a comprehensive literature search, we found extensive data related to HIV LTNPs in the adult population; however, very limited data was available related to LTNPs within the pediatric population. We present a case of pediatric HIV LTNPs, perinatally infected patient with undetectable viral loads, despite never receiving ART. Although there are not many instances of LTNPs among children, this child may be one, though she had intermittent viremia. She has continued to manifest serologic evidence of infection, with yearly ELISA and western blot positive tests. Based on the viral fitness studies that were performed, this case exemplifies an adolescent LTNP. PMID:25247098

  3. Pediatric HIV Long-Term Nonprogressors

    PubMed Central

    Rimawi, B. H.; Rimawi, R. H.; Micallef, M.; Pinckney, L.; Fowler, S. L.; Dixon, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Patients infected with HIV are best categorized along a continuum from rapid progressors to HIV long-term nonprogressors. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) are those in which AIDS develop many years after being infected with HIV, often beyond the 10-year mark, and represent 15–20% of the HIV infected patients. Many of these patients are able to control their infection and maintain undetectable viral loads for long periods of time without antiretroviral therapy. After a comprehensive literature search, we found extensive data related to HIV LTNPs in the adult population; however, very limited data was available related to LTNPs within the pediatric population. We present a case of pediatric HIV LTNPs, perinatally infected patient with undetectable viral loads, despite never receiving ART. Although there are not many instances of LTNPs among children, this child may be one, though she had intermittent viremia. She has continued to manifest serologic evidence of infection, with yearly ELISA and western blot positive tests. Based on the viral fitness studies that were performed, this case exemplifies an adolescent LTNP. PMID:25247098

  4. Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by <15% decrease in DMY and <30 days until return to normal (n?=?5), and 'long inflammation', characterized by >15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands. PMID:24906501

  5. Long-term mechanical ventilation and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Clini, Enrico

    2004-05-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) in chronic situations is commonly used, either delivered invasively or by means of non-invasive interfaces, to control hypoventilation in patients with chest wall, neuromuscular or obstructive lung diseases (either in adulthood or childhood). The global prevalence of ventilator-assisted individuals (VAI) in Europe ranges from 2 to 30 per 100000 population according to different countries. Nutrition is a common problem to face with in patients with chronic respiratory diseases: nonetheless, it is a key component in the long-term management of underweight COPD patients whose muscular disfunction may rapidly turn to peripheral muscle waste. Since long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) is usually prescribed in end-stage respiratory diseases with poor nutritional status, nutrition and dietary intake related problems need to be carefully assessed and corrected in these patients. This paper aims to review the most recent innovations in the field of nutritional status and food intake-related problems of VAI (both in adulthood and in childhood). PMID:15139570

  6. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy

    PubMed Central

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J; Benowitz, N; Connolly, G; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M; Boyle, P

    2005-01-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source. PMID:15923465

  7. Long-term movement patterns of a coral reef predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heupel, M. R.; Simpfendorfer, C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Long-term monitoring is required to fully define periodicity and patterns in animal movement. This is particularly relevant for defining what factors are driving the presence, location, and movements of individuals. The long-term movement and space use patterns of grey reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, were examined on a whole of reef scale in the southern Great Barrier Reef to define whether movement and activity space varied through time. Twenty-nine C. amblyrhynchos were tracked for over 2 years to define movement patterns. All individuals showed high residency within the study site, but also had high roaming indices. This indicated that individuals remained in the region and used all of the monitored habitat (i.e., the entire reef perimeter). Use of space was consistent through time with high reuse of areas most of the year. Therefore, individuals maintained discrete home ranges, but undertook broader movements around the reef at times. Mature males showed greatest variation in movement with larger activity spaces and movement into new regions during the mating season (August-September). Depth use patterns also differed, suggesting behaviour or resource requirements varied between sexes. Examination of the long-term, reef-scale movements of C. amblyrhynchos has revealed that reproductive activity may play a key role in space use and activity patterns. It was unclear whether mating behaviour or an increased need for food to sustain reproductive activity and development played a greater role in these patterns. Reef shark movement patterns are becoming more clearly defined, but research is still required to fully understand the biological drivers for the observed patterns.

  8. Blockade of BDNF signaling turns chemically-induced long-term potentiation into long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, A; Baj, G; Papadia, D; Tongiorgi, E; Sciancalepore, M

    2013-10-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is accompanied by increased spine density and dimensions triggered by signaling cascades involving activation of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cytoskeleton remodeling. Chemically-induced long-term potentiation (c-LTP) is a widely used cellular model of plasticity, whose effects on spines have been poorly investigated. We induced c-LTP by bath-application of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) coagonist glycine or by the K(+) channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) chloride in cultured hippocampal neurons and compared the changes in dendritic spines induced by the two models of c-LTP and determined if they depend on BDNF/TrkB signaling. We found that both TEA and glycine induced a significant increase in stubby spine density in primary and secondary apical dendrites, whereas a specific increase in mushroom spine density was observed upon TEA application only in primary dendrites. Both TEA and glycine increased BDNF levels and the blockade of tropomyosin-receptor-kinase receptors (TrkRs) by the nonselective tyrosine kinase inhibitor K-252a or the selective allosteric TrkB receptor (TrkBR) inhibitor ANA-12, abolished the c-LTP-induced increase in spine density. Surprisingly, a blockade of TrkBRs did not change basal spontaneous glutamatergic transmission but completely changed the synaptic plasticity induced by c-LTP, provoking a shift from a long-term increase to a long-term depression (LTD) in miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency. In conclusion, these results suggest that BDNF/TrkB signaling is necessary for c-LTP-induced plasticity in hippocampal neurons and its blockade leads to a switch of c-LTP into chemical-LTD (c-LTD). PMID:23674394

  9. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil erosion accentuates the often very low inherent fertility of many soils in the tropics. An integrated approach involving inorganic and organic inputs is required where animal and plant residues are returned, as far as practicable. Chemical fertilizers alone cannot achieve long-term productivity on many soils and organic material inputs are required to maintain soil organic matter levels and crop productivity. A major research effort is required to develop improved strategies for halting and reversing soil degradation if long-term productivity is to be secured.

  10. Long-term performance of filtration layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radfar, A.; Rockaway, T. D.

    2013-12-01

    Permeable pavements are commonly employed to capture and divert stormwater before it enters the stormwater or sewer conveyance systems. During a storm event, runoff water passes through the permeable pavement surface, enters a storage gallery and finally exfiltrates into the surrounding soil. Thus, the ability of the system to store an appropriate volume of runoff water is an important consideration for stormwater control design. Traditionally, crushed stone or other porous material has been used to provide the necessary interstitial void space to store the runoff water. Unfortunately, over time the available void space within the storage gallery is reduced due to settlement, biological growth and sediment accumulation. This gradual reduction in void space reduces the long-term effectiveness of these stormwater controls by limiting its ability to store and pass runoff water. This study examined the long-term performance of the storage gallery layer with respect to its ability to both store and pass runoff water. As the porosity within the storage gallery decreased, it was anticipated that volumetric water content within the gallery would increase and that time necessary to drain the gallery would increase as well. The effects of the gallery porosity were assessed over a one-year study using both laboratory experimentation and monitoring data from naturally occurring rain events. Changes in gallery porosity were first assessed by correlating monitoring piezometer data with surface infiltration testing; building a relation between know volume of poured water being used for the test and the associated pressure head at the base of the gallery. As a known volume of water enters the system, volume change in the gallery directly correlate to increases in pressure head. Second, the time required for water to permeate through pavers and gallery layer to trigger the TDRs in the filtration layer and the time to drain it from the crushed stone were calculated and compared by the age of permeable pavement. These data were utilized to develop a model that more appropriately considered changes in gallery porosity. By better understanding the progression of the runoff water through the storage gallery a better assessment of the long-term performance of the entire system can be developed. Future storage gallery designs can be appropriately modified to account for changes within the storage gallery so that volume and flow requirements are maintained throughout the life of the structure.

  11. [Childhood liver transplantation. Long-term results].

    PubMed

    Jara, Paloma; Hierro, Loreto

    2010-05-01

    Liver transplantation allows long-term survival (10 years or more) in 75% of children receiving transplants before 2000. The risk of mortality after the first year is 4-10% in the next 10-20 years. Chronic rejection affects 6%. The need for late retransplantation is 3-5%. However, the follow-up of these patients involves the management of diverse problems in the graft (immunological, biliary, vascular) and others related to the use of immunosuppressants (renal dysfunction, lymphoproliferative syndrome). The transition from pediatric to adult care generates special needs. Adolescence and young adulthood are associated with a lack of compliance. Adult specialists should be aware of the special features of the original diagnosis and the surgical techniques used in childhood transplantation. Final quality of life is good overall but is lower than that in healthy young persons. PMID:20122757

  12. [Strongyloidiasis following long-term corticosteroid therapy].

    PubMed

    Yamori, S; Yamamoto, M; Kawabata, A; Nakashima, K; Iinuma, Y; Satake, T; Shimokata, K

    1989-10-01

    A 64-year-old man who was born and raised in Fukuoka Prefecture was admitted because of dyspnea. The chest X-ray film showed multiple pulmonary cysts. Corticosteroid therapy was given because of repeated episodes of dyspnea and wheezing. He complained of epigastric pain 20 months after administration of corticosteroid therapy. Gastro-endoscopic examination showed inflammatory changes of the gastric mucosa and the biopsy specimens revealed the filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Furthermore, the larvae were frequently detected in both sputum specimens and stools. Pyrvinium pamoate was initially administered and was switched to thiabendazole because of the presence of hyperinfection. Although two cycles of thiabendazole treatment were given, the larvae were not eradicated. This case report suggests that long term corticosteroid therapy caused the hyperinfection syndrome of Strongyloides stercoralis in a patient who was auto-infected with this nematode. PMID:2615077

  13. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  14. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future are part of long-term site management. In response to post-closure care requirements set forth in UMTRCA, DOE Headquarters established the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Program in 1988 at the DOE office in Grand Junction, Colorado. The program assumed long-term management responsibility for sites remediated under UMTRCA and other programs. Since its inception, the LTS&M Program has evolved in response to changing stakeholder needs, improvements in technology, and the addition of more DOE sites as remediation is completed. The mission of the LTS&M Program was to fulfill DOE’s responsibility to implement all activities necessary to ensure regulatory compliance and to protect the public and the environment from long-lived wastes associated with the nation’s nuclear energy, weapons, and research activities. Key components of the LTS&M Program included stakeholder participation, site monitoring and maintenance, records and information management, and research and technology transfer. This report presents summaries of activities conducted in 2003 in fulfillment of the LTS&M Program mission. On December 15, 2003, DOE established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to allow for optimum management of DOE’s legacy responsibilities. Offices are located in Washington, DC, Grand Junction, Colorado, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to perform long-term site management, land management, site transition support, records management, and other related tasks. All activities formerly conducted under the LTS&M Program have been incorporated into the Office of Land and Site Management (LM–50), as well as management of remedies involving ground water and surface water contaminated by former processing activities.

  15. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  16. Space Resources Development: The Link Between Human Exploration and the Long-Term Commercialization of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2000-01-01

    In a letter to the NASA Administrator, Dan Goldin, in January of 1999, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) stated the following . OMB recommends that NASA consider commercialization in a broader context than the more focused efforts to date on space station and space shuttle commercialization. We suggest that NASA examine architectures that take advantage of a potentially robust future commercial infrastructure that could dramatically lower the cost of future human exploration." In response to this letter, the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise launched the BEDS Technology & Commercialization Initiative (HTCI) to link technology and system development for human exploration with the commercial development of space to emphasize the "D" (Development) in BEDS. The development of technologies and capabilities to utilize space resources is the first of six primary focus areas in this program. It is clear that Space Resources Development (SRD) is key for both long-term human exploration of our solar system and to the long-term commercialization of space since: a) it provides the technologies, products, and raw materials to support efficient space transportation and in-space construction and manufacturing, and b) it provides the capabilities and infrastructure to allow outpost growth, self-sufficiency, and commercial space service and utility industry activities.

  17. Performance Evaluation Using Expert Elicitation and Long Term Environmental Monitoring Optimization for Long Term Stewardship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Moore; Jack Ditmars; Barbara Minsker; James Bachmaier

    Long term environmental monitoring is a critical component of stewardship for three reasons: (1) data provide ongoing evidence of environmental compliance and protection of the public and the environment; (2) the monitoring program, in part, determines the life cycle cost and extent of stewardship; and (3) the monitoring program provides a framework to develop trust and agreement between the site

  18. Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression in Experience-Dependent Plasticity

    E-print Network

    Crair, Michael C

    -term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) more than 30 years ago, a great deal of experimental-dependent develop- ment and plasticity of sensory systems and addresses how LTP and LTD mechanisms at excitatory synapses might be used to mediate such changes. Mechanisms of LTP and LTD LTP and LTD are nearly ubiquitous

  19. Deciphering Solar Magnetic Activity: On Grand Minima in Solar Activity

    E-print Network

    McIntosh, Scott W

    2015-01-01

    The Sun provides the energy necessary to sustain our existence. While the Sun provides for us, it is also capable of taking away. The weather and climatic scales of solar evolution and the Sun-Earth connection are not well understood. There has been tremendous progress in the century since the discovery of solar magnetism - magnetism that ultimately drives the electromagnetic, particulate and eruptive forcing of our planetary system. There is contemporary evidence of a decrease in solar magnetism, perhaps even indicators of a significant downward trend, over recent decades. Are we entering a minimum in solar activity that is deeper and longer than a typical solar minimum, a "grand minimum"? How could we tell if we are? What is a grand minimum and how does the Sun recover? These are very pertinent questions for modern civilization. In this paper we present a hypothetical demonstration of entry and exit from grand minimum conditions based on a recent analysis of solar features over the past 20 years and their p...

  20. Where Can You Receive Care? (Long-Term Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may need. Share page: Where Can You Receive Care? Most long-term care is provided at home. ... in long-term care facilities. Examples of home care services include: An unpaid caregiver who may be ...