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Sample records for long-term tc immobilization

  1. Biogeochemical Coupling of Fe and Tc Speciation in Subsurface Sediments: Implications to Long-Term Tc Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Jim K. Fredrickson; C. I. Steefel; R. K. Kukkadapu; S. M. Heald

    2006-06-01

    The project has been focused on biochemical processes in subsurface sediments involving Fe that control the valence state, solubility, and effective mobility of 99Tc. Our goal has been to understand the Tc biogeochemistry as it may occur in suboxic and biostimulated subsurface environments. Two objectives have been pursued: (1) To determine the relative reaction rates of 99Tc(VII)O2(aq) with metal reducing bacteria and biogenic Fe(II); and to characterize the identity, structure, and molecular speciation of Tc(IV) products formed through reaction with both biotic and abiotic reductants. (2) To quantify the biogeochemical factors controlling the reaction rate of O2 with Tc(IV)O2?nH2O in sediment resulting from the direct enzymatic reduction of Tc(VII) by DIRB and/or the reaction of Tc(VII) with the various types of biogenic Fe(II) produced by DIRB.

  2. Biogeochemical Coupling of Fe and Tc Speciation in Subsurface Sediments: Implications to Long-Term Tc Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Heald, Steve M.; McKinley, James P.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Fredrickson, James K.; Byong-Hun Jeon

    2006-04-05

    The overall project has been investigating the reactivity of pertechnetate [Tc(VII)] with Fe(II) forms in model mineral and mineral-microbe systems, and with sediments from the Oak Ridge FRC and the Hanford site. Past project results with Hanford and Oak Ridge sediments have been published in Fredrickson et al., (2004) and Kukkadapu et al., (2006). This poster summarizes a series of model system experiments that investigates whether microbes or biogenic Fe(II) were more important in the reduction of Tc(VII) in an anoxic suspension of ferrihydrite, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Tc(VII), and electron donor. Ferrihydrite is used to represent a bioavailable Fe(III) oxide present in small amounts in Oak Ridge and Hanford sediments. In order to address this overall goal, Tc(VII) reduction rates and redox products were studied in less complex systems where individual abiotic and biotic reactions were isolated for rigorous characterization. The specific objectives of the individual experiments in the series were as follows: (1) Identify the rates and products of the reaction of Tc(VII) with aqueous Fe(II) at circumneutral pH values (homogeneous reduction). (2) Identify the rates and products of the reaction of Tc(VII) with surface complexed Fe(II) on goethite and hematite in the circumneutral pH range (heterogeneous reduction). (3) Identify the rates and products of the reaction of Tc(VII) with MR-1 under anoxic conditions individually with hydrogen and lactate as electron donors (biologic reduction). (4) Use insights from the above experiments to determine which of the three above, potentially parallel reactions determine the final speciation of Tc in a mixture of ferrihydrite, respiring MR-1, and Tc(VII).

  3. Long-term retrievability and safeguards for immobilized weapons plutonium in geologic storage

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.

    1996-05-01

    If plutonium is not ultimately used as an energy source, the quantity of excess weapons plutonium (w-Pu) that would go into a US repository will be small compared to the quantity of plutonium contained in the commercial spent fuel in the repository, and the US repository(ies) will likely be only one (or two) locations out of many around the world where commercial spent fuel will be stored. Therefore excess weapons plutonium creates a small perturbation to the long-term (over 200,000 yr) global safeguard requirements for spent fuel. There are details in the differences between spent fuel and immobilized w-Pu waste forms (i.e. chemical separation methods, utility for weapons, nuclear testing requirements), but these are sufficiently small to be unlikely to play a significant role in any US political decision to rebuild weapons inventories, or to change the long-term risks of theft by subnational groups.

  4. Long Term Recordings with Immobile Silicon Probes in the Mouse Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Michael; Lak, Armin; Carandini, Matteo; Harris, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    A key experimental approach in neuroscience involves measuring neuronal activity in behaving animals with extracellular chronic recordings. Such chronic recordings were initially made with single electrodes and tetrodes, and are now increasingly performed with high-density, high-count silicon probes. A common way to achieve long-term chronic recording is to attach the probes to microdrives that progressively advance them into the brain. Here we report, however, that such microdrives are not strictly necessary. Indeed, we obtained high-quality recordings in both head-fixed and freely moving mice for several months following the implantation of immobile chronic probes. Probes implanted into the primary visual cortex yielded well-isolated single units whose spike waveform and orientation tuning were highly reproducible over time. Although electrode drift was not completely absent, stable waveforms occurred in at least 70% of the neurons tested across consecutive days. Thus, immobile silicon probes represent a straightforward and reliable technique to obtain stable, long-term population recordings in mice, and to follow the activity of populations of well-isolated neurons over multiple days. PMID:26959638

  5. Long-term phosphorus immobilization by a drinking water treatment residual.

    PubMed

    Agyin-Birikorang, Sampson; O'Connor, George A; Jacobs, Lee W; Makris, Konstantinos C; Brinton, Scott R

    2007-01-01

    Excessive soluble P in runoff is a common cause of eutrophication in fresh waters. Evidence indicates that drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can reduce soluble P concentrations in P-impacted soils in the short term (days to weeks). The long-term (years) stability of WTR-immobilized P has been inferred, but validating field data are scarce. This research was undertaken at two Michigan field sites with a history of heavy manure applications to study the longevity of alum-based WTR (Al-WTR) effects on P solubility over time (7.5 yr). At both sites, amendment with Al-WTR reduced water-soluble P (WSP) concentration by >or=60% as compared to the control plots, and the Al-WTR-immobilized P (WTR-P) remained stable 7.5 yr after Al-WTR application. Rainfall simulation techniques were utilized to investigate P losses in runoff and leachate from surface soils of the field sites at 7.5 yr after Al-WTR application. At both sites, amendment with Al-WTR reduced dissolved P and bioavailable P (BAP) by >50% as compared to the control plots, showing that WTR-immobilized P remained nonlabile even 7.5 yr after Al-WTR amendment. Thus, WTR-immobilized P would not be expected to dissolve into runoff and leachate to contaminate surface waters or groundwater. Even if WTR-P is lost via erosion to surface waters, the bioavailability of the immobilized P should be minimal and should have negligible effects on water quality. However, if the WTR particles are destroyed by extreme conditions, P loss to water could pose a eutrophication risk. PMID:17215241

  6. Collagen Type III and VI Turnover in Response to Long-Term Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shu; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A.; Byrjalsen, Inger; Rittweger, Jörn; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Belavy, Daniel L.; Felsenberg, Dieter; Nedergaard, Anders F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Muscle mass and function are perturbed by immobilization and remobilization. When muscle mass changes, the quality and quantity of the extracellular matrix protein, particularly the collagens, change with it. In this study, we investigated the temporal profile of three peptide biomarkers derived from turnover of collagen type III and type VI in a long-term immobilization and remobilization study. We also compared individual biomarker levels with Lean body Mass (LBM) and changes therein, hypothesizing that these biomarkers would be biomarkers of the remodeling processes associated with immobilization and/or remobilization. Methods In the Berlin bed rest study, 20 young men were recruited and randomly assigned to 8-week’s strict bed rest with or without resistive vibration exercise countermeasure. We measured three neo-epitope ELISA kits in the serum samples of this study: Pro-C3, measured the synthesis of collagen type III; Pro-C6, measured the synthesis of collagen type VI; and C6M measured the degradation of collagen type VI induced by MMP-2 and MMP-9 cleavage. Results Pro-C3 and Pro-C6 biomarkers are up-regulated with both immobilization and remobilization, whereas C6M is hardly affected at all. We found that Pro-C3 and C6M levels are related to LBM at baseline and that high levels of Pro-C6 are associated with smaller changes in muscle mass during both immobilization and remobilization. Conclusion The Pro-C3 and–C6 biomarkers change likely reflect remodeling changes in response to unloading or reloading, whereas C6M does not appear to respond to unloading. Pro-C3 and C6M levels correlate with LBM at baseline, while Pro-C6 is related to the anabolic and catabolic responses to unloading and reloading. PMID:26641456

  7. Tc1 mouse model of trisomy-21 dissociates properties of short- and long-term recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jessica H.; Wiseman, Frances K.; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L.J.; Harwood, John L.; Good, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined memory function in Tc1 mice, a transchromosomic model of Down syndrome (DS). Tc1 mice demonstrated an unusual delay-dependent deficit in recognition memory. More specifically, Tc1 mice showed intact immediate (30 sec), impaired short-term (10-min) and intact long-term (24-h) memory for objects. A similar pattern was observed for olfactory stimuli, confirming the generality of the pattern across sensory modalities. The specificity of the behavioural deficits in Tc1 mice was confirmed using APP overexpressing mice that showed the opposite pattern of object memory deficits. In contrast to object memory, Tc1 mice showed no deficit in either immediate or long-term memory for object-in-place information. Similarly, Tc1 mice showed no deficit in short-term memory for object-location information. The latter result indicates that Tc1 mice were able to detect and react to spatial novelty at the same delay interval that was sensitive to an object novelty recognition impairment. These results demonstrate (1) that novelty detection per se and (2) the encoding of visuo-spatial information was not disrupted in adult Tc1 mice. The authors conclude that the task specific nature of the shortterm recognition memory deficit suggests that the trisomy of genes on human chromosome 21 in Tc1 mice impacts on (perirhinal) cortical systems supporting short-term object and olfactory recognition memory. PMID:26868479

  8. Reduction and long-term immobilization of technetium by Fe(II) associated with clay mineral nontronite.

    SciTech Connect

    Jaisi, D. P.; Dong, H.; Plymale, A. E.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Zachara, J. M.; Heald, S.; Liu, C.; Miami Univ.; PNNL

    2009-01-01

    also resulted in the decreased extent of Tc(IV) reoxidation. The results were attributed to the effect of NAu-2 aggregation that effectively retained Tc(IV) in the solid and decreased its vulnerability to reoxidation. Overall, our results implied that bioreduced clay minerals could play an important role in reducing Tc(VII) and in maintaining the long-term stability of reduced Tc(IV).

  9. Immobilized Contrast Enhanced (ICE) MRI: Gadolinium-based long-term MR Contrast Enhancement of the Vein Graft Vessel Wall*

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Yu, Peng; Tao, Ming; Nguyen, Binh T.; Campagna, Christina M.; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Mulkern, Robert V.; Ozaki, C. Keith; Rybicki, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    An implantable MR contrast agent that can be covalently immobilized on tissue during surgery has been developed. The rationale is that a durable increase in tissue contrast using an implantable contrast agent can enhance post-surgical tissue differentiation using MRI. For small vessel (e.g., vein graft) MRI, the direct benefit of such permanent “labeling” of the vessel wall by modification of its relaxation properties is to achieve more efficient imaging. This efficiency can be realized as either increased contrast leading to more accurate delineation of vessel wall and lesion tissue boundaries, or, faster imaging without penalizing contrast-to-noise ratio, or a combination thereof. We demonstrate, for the first time, stable long-term MRI enhancement using such an exogenous contrast mechanism based on immobilizing a modified Gd-DTPA complex on a human vein using a covalent amide bond. Signal enhancement due to the covalently immobilized contrast agent is demonstrated for excised human vein specimens imaged at 3T, and its long-term stability is demonstrated during a 4-month incubation period. PMID:20859994

  10. Morphological changes in neurons of the hind limb reflex arc during long term immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkachenko, Z. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Twelve adult rabbits were immobilized for 9 to 31 days, followed by histological study of the nerve processes of lumbar vertebra 7 and sacral vertebra 1, the sciatic nerve and the motor endings of the thigh muscles. In the spinal ganglia, dystrophic changes of increasing severity with immobilization time were found, including pericellular edema, vacuolized neuroplasm, pycnotic changes, cytolysis and destruction. Chromatophilic matter decreased and was partly bleached, and amitotic division occurred. A portion of the sciatic nerve fibers were argentophilic, and some fragmentary decomposition occurred. Considerable dystrophic changes occurred in the motor nerve endings.

  11. A homeostatic, chip-based platform for zebrafish larvae immobilization and long-term imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Timo; Zhu, Feng; Wlodkowic, Donald; Kaslin, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Zebrafish larvae are ideal for toxicology and drug screens due to their transparency, small size and similarity to humans on the genetic level. Using modern imaging techniques, cells and tissues can be dynamically visualised and followed over days in multiple zebrafish. Yet continued imaging experiments require specialized conditions such as: moisture and heat control to maintain specimen homeostasis. Chambers that control the environment are generally very expensive and are not always available for all imaging platforms. A highly customizable mounting configuration with built-in means of controlling temperature and media flow would therefore be a valuable tool for long term imaging experiments. Rapid prototyping using 3D printing is particularly suitable as a production method as it offers high flexibility in design, is widely available and allows a high degree of customizing. We study neural regeneration in zebrafish. Regeneration is limited in humans, but zebrafish recover from neural damage within days. Yet, the underlying regenerative mechanisms remain unclear. We developed an agarose based mounting system that holds the embryos in defined positions along removable strips. Homeostasis and temperature control is ensured by channels circulating buffer and heated water. This allows to image up to 120 larvae simultaneously for more than two days. Its flexibility and the low-volume, high larvae ratio will allow screening of small compound libraries. Taken together, we offer a low cost, highly adaptable solution for long term in-vivo imaging.

  12. Immobilization and cold stress affect sympatho-adrenomedullary system and pituitary-adrenocortical axis of rats exposed to long-term isolation and crowding.

    PubMed

    Dronjak, Sladjana; Gavrilović, Ljubica; Filipović, Dragana; Radojcić, Marija B

    2004-05-01

    Changes in plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT), as well as in cytosol glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70) in hippocampus of adult rat males exposed to two long-term types of psychosocial stress, both under basal conditions and in response to immobilization and cold as heterotypic additional stressor were studied. Long-term isolation produced a significant elevation of basal plasma ACTH and CORT levels, but did not affect that of NA and A, while long-term crowding conditions did not elevate the basal plasma levels of these hormones. Long-term isolation of rats exposed to 2 h of immobilization or cold led to a significant elevation of plasma NA, A and CORT in comparison with the controls. Long-term crowding conditions and exposure of animals to immobilization or cold also resulted in an increased plasma NA, A and CORT levels, but to a lesser extent in comparison with the long-term isolation. At the same time, plasma ACTH was significantly more elevated in long-term crowded than in long-term isolated rats. Both kinds of long-term psychosocial stresses (isolation and crowding) had similar but less pronounced effects on cytosol GR and Hsp 70 concentrations in hippocampus comparing to acute immobilization and cold stress. It seems that long-term psychosocial stresses attenuate the effects of an additional stress on hippocampal GR and Hsp 70 concentrations. These data suggest that individual housing of rats appear to act as a stronger stressor than crowding conditions. When the animals suffering a long-term isolation were exposed to either acute immobilization or cold, a stronger activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system (SAS) was recorded in comparison with that found in the long-term crowded group subjected to short-term immobilization or cold. No significant differences in the activity of hypotalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were observed between long-term

  13. Development of a bioartificial pancreas: II. Effects of oxygen on long-term entrapped betaTC3 cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Papas, K K; Long, R C; Sambanis, A; Constantinidis, I

    1999-01-01

    Tissue-engineered pancreatic constructs based on immunoisolated, insulin-secreting cells are promising in providing an effective, relatively inexpensive, long-term treatment for type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes. An in vitro characterization of construct function under conditions mimicking the in vivo environment is essential prior to any extensive animal experimentation. Encapsulated cells may experience hypoxic conditions postimplantation as a result of one or more of the following: the design of the construct; the environment at the implantation site; or the development of fibrosis around the construct. In this work, we studied the effects of 3- and 4-day-long hypoxic episodes on the metabolic and secretory activities and on the levels of intracellular metabolites detectable by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) of alginate/poly-L-lysine/alginate entrapped betaTC3 mouse insulinomas continuously perfused with culture medium. Results show that, upon decreasing the oxygen concentration in the surrounding medium, the encapsulated cell system reached a new, lower metabolic and secretory state. Hypoxia drove the cells to a more anaerobic glycolytic metabolism, increased the rates of glucose consumption (GCR) and lactate production (LPR), and reduced the rates of oxygen consumption (OCR) and insulin secretion (ISR). Furthermore, hypoxia reduced the levels of intracellular nucleotide triphosphates (NTP) and phosphorylcholine (PC) and caused a rapid transient increase in inorganic phosphate (P(i)). Upon restoration of the oxygen concentration in the perfusion medium, all parameters returned to their prehypoxic levels within 2 to 3 days following either gradual unidirectional changes (ISR, NTP, PC) or more complicated dynamic patterns (OCR, GCR, LPR). A further increase in oxygen concentration in the perfusion medium drove OCR, ISR, NTP, PC, and P(i) to new, higher levels. It is concluded that (31)P NMR spectroscopy can be used for the prolonged

  14. Iron phosphate glass for immobilization of 99Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Kai; Hrma, Pavel R.; Um, Wooyong; Heo, Jong

    2013-06-15

    Technetium-99 (99Tc) can bring serious environmental threats because of its long half-life (t1/2 = ~2.1 x 105 years), high fission yield (~6%), and high solubility and mobility in the ground water. The high volatility makes it difficult to immobilize 99Tc in continuous melters vitrifying 99Tc-containing nuclear wastes in borosilicate glasses. This work explores a possibility of incorporating a high concentration of 99Tc, surrogated by the non-radioactive Re, in an iron phosphate glass by melting mixtures of iron phosphate glass frits with 1.5-6 mass% KReO4 at ~1000 C. The retention of Re achieved was ~1.1 mass%. The normalized Re release by the 7-day Product Consistency Test was <10*2 g/m2. Surprisingly, the Re escaped from the melt within a short time of heating, especially when the temperature was increased. Therefore, 99Tc volatilization would still be a challenging task for its immobilization in iron phosphate glasses.

  15. Immobilization and long-term recovery results in large changes in bone structure and strength but no corresponding alterations of osteocyte lacunar properties.

    PubMed

    Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Wittig, Nina Kølln; Brüel, Annemarie; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Birkedal, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    The ability of osteocytes to demineralize the perilacunar matrix, osteocytic osteolysis, and thereby participate directly in bone metabolism, is an aspect of osteocyte biology that has received increasing attention during the last couple of years. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether osteocyte lacunar properties change during immobilization and subsequent recovery. A rat cortical bone model with negligible Haversian remodeling effects was used, with temporary immobilization of one hindlimb induced by botulinum toxin. Several complementary techniques covering multiple length scales enabled correlation of osteocyte lacunar properties to changes observed on the organ and tissue level of femoral bone. Bone structural parameters measured by μCT and mechanical properties were compared to sub-micrometer resolution SR μCT data mapping an unprecedented number (1.85 million) of osteocyte lacunae. Immobilization induced a significant reduction in aBMD, bone volume, tissue volume, and load to fracture, as well as the muscle mass of rectus femoris. During the subsequent recovery period, the bone structural and mechanical properties were only partly regained in spite of a long-term (28weeks) study period. No significant changes in osteocyte lacunar volume, density, oblateness, stretch, or orientation were detected upon immobilization or subsequent recovery. In conclusion, the bone architecture and not osteocyte lacunar properties or bone material characteristics dominate the immobilization response as well as the subsequent recovery. PMID:27404494

  16. Feasibility and long-term results of focused radioguided parathyroidectomy using a "low" 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi protocol.

    PubMed

    Rubello, Domenico; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Mariani, Giuliano; Gross, Milton D; Rampin, Lucia; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and long-term results of focused radioguided parathyroidectomy using a "low" 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi dose protocol compared to conventional "high 740 MBq (20 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi dose protocol" in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). The data of focused radioguided surgery obtained in a group of 320 consecutive PHPT patients with high probability of the presence of a solitary parathyroid adenoma (PA) were studied. All patients underwent preoperative imaging work-up of double-tracer 99mTc-pertechnetate/99mTc-sestamibi subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy (Sestamibi scintigraphy) and high resolution neck ultrasound (US). In 301/320 patients (96.6%) focused minimally invasive radioguided surgery was successfully performed by administering a "low" 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi dose in the operating room 10 minutes before operation. No major intraoperative complications were recorded. Focused radioguided surgery required a mean time of 32 min and a mean hospital stay of 1.2 days. Local anesthesia was applied in 75 patients, 66 of whom (88%) were patients older than 65 years with comorbidities contraindicating general anesthesia. No case of persistent or recurrent PHPT was observed during post-surgical follow-up (range = 18-70 months; mean +/- SD = 15.3 +/- 9.1 months). Radiation exposure dose to the operating surgeon was 1.2 microSi/hour with the "low 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi dose", and less than 1.0 microSi/hour for the other operating-room personnel. Focused low dose radioguided parathyroidectomy is a safe and effective means to localize parathyroid adenomas in patients affected by solitary PA thus reducing by 20 fold the radiation exposure dose to the patients and operating room personnel. PMID:16978398

  17. Immobilized rennin in TC/SG composite in cheese production.

    PubMed

    Barouni, Eleftheria; Petsi, Theano; Kolliopoulos, Dionysios; Vasileiou, Dimitrios; Panas, Panagiotis; Bekatorou, Argyro; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-06-01

    The object of the current study was to develop a new process for continuous Feta-type cheese production using a biocatalyst consisting of immobilized rennin on a tubular cellulose/starch gel (TC/SG) composite, which has been proven to be an appropriate carrier for enzyme immobilization. Different methodologies were used in order to prepare four biocatalysts. The most effective was selected for cheese production in a 1L continuous system, providing two economically useful results for the dairy industries: (i) increase of productivity by the continuous coagulation of milk, and (ii) saving of the rennin enzyme expenses of the batch coagulation of milk. The criteria used to choose the appropriate biocatalyst was based on the time of coagulation in successive batches, the concentration of immobilized rennin combined with the filter efficiency and its application in the continuous system. Physicochemical analyses of the cheeses at various stages of the ripening were performed. No significant differences compared to cheeses prepared with the traditional method were found. Aroma compounds were determined by SPME GC-MS. PMID:26830563

  18. Immobilization of Cd(II) in acid soil amended with different biochars with a long term of incubation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Yunguo; Gu, Yanling; Zeng, Guangming; Wang, Xin; Hu, Xinjiang; Sun, Zhichao; Yang, Zhongzhu

    2015-08-01

    Biochars derived from bamboo, coconut shell, pine wood shavings, and sugarcane bagasse were applied into Ultisol to investigate their effects on Cd(II) immobilization. After 360 days of incubation, the physical/chemical properties of the Ultisol were improved by the addition of different biochars. As a result, the maximum adsorption capacities of soil for Cd(II) were increased from 8.02 to 9.07-11.51 mmol/kg, and bamboo biochar showed the highest effect on Cd(II) immobilization. The Langmuir model (R(2) > 0.983) fitted the data better than the Freundlich model (R (2) were 0.902-0.937). Column leaching experiments suggested that biochar can also increase the immobilization of Cd(II) under leaching conditions. Biochar mainly increased the weak/unstable binding force of Cd(II) by soil, such as ion exchange, electrostatic attraction, physical adsorption, and carbonate precipitation. In addition, a significant enhancement of surface complexation was also observed. PMID:25911285

  19. Long-term production of bioethanol in repeated-batch fermentation of microalgal biomass using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    El-Dalatony, Marwa M; Kurade, Mayur B; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Kim, Hoo; Salama, El-Sayed; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2016-11-01

    Separate hydrolysis fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) processes were studied for bioethanol production from microalgal biomass. SSF was selected as an efficient process to enhance the bioethanol yield through repeated-batches using immobilized yeast cells. Combined sonication and enzymatic hydrolysis of Chlamydomonas mexicana generated 10.5 and 8.48g/L of ethanol in SSF and SHF, respectively. Yeast utilized maximum portion of total reducing sugar (TRS) reaching a consumption efficiency of 91-98%. A bioethanol yield of 0.5g/g (88.2% of theoretical yield) and volumetric productivity of 0.22g/L/h was obtained after 48h of SSF. Immobilized yeast cells enabled repetitive production of ethanol for 7 cycles displaying a fermentation efficiency up to 79% for five consecutive cycles. The maximum ethanol production was 9.7g/L in 2nd-4th cycles. A total energy recovery of 85.81% was achieved from microalgal biomass in the form of bioethanol. Repeated-batch SSF demonstrated the possibility of cost-effective bioethanol production. PMID:27479800

  20. Final Scientific/Technical Report--In-Situ Generation of Iron-Chromium Precipitates for Long Term Immobilization of Chromium at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Elizabeth C.; Krumholz, Lee R.; Madden, Andrew S.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2013-12-13

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a toxic ground water contaminant widespread at the Hanford site and many other industrial facilities. A common remediation method for Cr(VI) is in situ reduction/immobilization, in which soluble Cr(VI) is reduced to the less soluble trivalent Cr (Cr(III)). If iron (Fe) minerals are present during the process, Cr(III) precipitates as a mixed Fe(III)-Cr(III) (Fe-Cr) solid. The objective of this exploratory research was to obtain preliminary evidence about the relationships among the method of Cr(VI) reduction (i.e., abiotic or microbial), the properties of the resulting Fe-Cr precipitates, and their tendencies to release soluble Cr(VI) in the presence of the common manganese oxide birnessite. The results of this exploratory research project show that the conditions of Cr(VI) reduction—specifically the ratio of Cr to Fe, and/or whether the Cr(VI) reductant is a mineral or a microorganism—can significantly affect the tendency of the resulting Fe-Cr precipitate to release Cr(VI) to the environment in the presence of birnessite. These results suggest the chosen remediation conditions have the potential to strongly influence not only the initial success of in situ Cr(VI) reduction/immobilization, but also the potential for successful long term sequestration of Cr in the form of stable soil precipitates.

  1. High Affinity Immobilization of Proteins Using the CrAsH/TC Tag.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Zweckel, Janine; Rosi, Federica; Sreenu, Domalapally; Schröder, Hendrik; Niemeyer, Christof M; Triola, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    Protein microarrays represent important tools for biomedical analysis. We have recently described the use of the biarsenical-tetracysteine (TC) tag for the preparation of protein microarrays. The unique feature of this tag enables the site-specific immobilization of TC-containing proteins on biarsenical-modified surfaces, resulting in a fluorescence enhancement that allows the direct quantification of the immobilized proteins. Moreover, the reversibility of the binding upon incubation with large quantities of thiols permits the detachment of the proteins from the surface, thereby enabling recovery of the substrate to extend the life time of the slide. Herein, we describe our recent results that further extend the applicability of the CrAsH/TC tag to the fabrication of biochips. With this aim, the immobilization of proteins on surfaces has been investigated using two different spacers and two TC tags, the minimal TC sequence (CCPGCC) and an optimized motif (FLNCCPGCCMEP). While the minimal peptide motif enables a rapid recycling of the slide, the optimized TC sequence reveals an increased affinity due to its greater resistance to displacement by thiols. Moreover, the developed methodology was applied to the immobilization of proteins via on-chip ligation of recombinant protein thioesters. PMID:27338319

  2. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

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  3. Preservation of Long-Term Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Despite Short-Term Impairments in the Tc1 Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Elise; Andreae, Laura C.; Cooke, Sam F.; Vanes, Lesley; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Bliss, Timothy V. P.

    2008-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder arising from the presence of a third copy of the human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Recently, O'Doherty and colleagues in an earlier study generated a new genetic mouse model of DS (Tc1) that carries an almost complete Hsa21. Since DS is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation, we have undertaken a…

  4. Long-Term Regeneration and Functional Recovery of a 15 mm Critical Nerve Gap Bridged by Tremella fuciformis Polysaccharide-Immobilized Polylactide Conduits.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shan-Hui; Chan, Shan-Ho; Weng, Chih-Tsung; Yang, Shu-Hui; Jiang, Ching-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Novel peripheral nerve conduits containing the negatively charged Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (TF) were prepared, and their efficacy in bridging a critical nerve gap was evaluated. The conduits were made of poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) with asymmetric microporous structure. TF was immobilized on the lumen surface of the nerve conduits after open air plasma activation. The TF-modified surface was characterized by the attenuated total reflection Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscopy. TF modification was found to enhance the neurotrophic gene expression of C6 glioma cells in vitro. TF-modified PLA nerve conduits were tested for their ability to bridge a 15 mm gap of rat sciatic nerve. Nerve regeneration was monitored by the magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that TF immobilization promoted the nerve connection in 6 weeks. The functional recovery in animals receiving TF-immobilized conduits was greater than in those receiving the bare conduits during an 8-month period. The degree of functional recovery reached ~90% after 8 months in the group of TF-immobilized conduits. PMID:24027599

  5. Long-Term Regeneration and Functional Recovery of a 15 mm Critical Nerve Gap Bridged by Tremella fuciformis Polysaccharide-Immobilized Polylactide Conduits

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shan-hui; Chan, Shan-Ho; Weng, Chih-tsung; Yang, Shu-Hui; Jiang, Ching-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Novel peripheral nerve conduits containing the negatively charged Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (TF) were prepared, and their efficacy in bridging a critical nerve gap was evaluated. The conduits were made of poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) with asymmetric microporous structure. TF was immobilized on the lumen surface of the nerve conduits after open air plasma activation. The TF-modified surface was characterized by the attenuated total reflection Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscopy. TF modification was found to enhance the neurotrophic gene expression of C6 glioma cells in vitro. TF-modified PLA nerve conduits were tested for their ability to bridge a 15 mm gap of rat sciatic nerve. Nerve regeneration was monitored by the magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that TF immobilization promoted the nerve connection in 6 weeks. The functional recovery in animals receiving TF-immobilized conduits was greater than in those receiving the bare conduits during an 8-month period. The degree of functional recovery reached ~90% after 8 months in the group of TF-immobilized conduits. PMID:24027599

  6. HIPed Tailored Ceramic Waste Forms for the Immobilization of Cs, Sr and Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Melody L. Carter; Martin W. A. Stewart; Eric R. Vance; Bruce D. Begg; Sam Moricca; Julia Tripp

    2007-09-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is developing advanced technologies to allow for the safe and economical disposal of waste from nuclear reactors. An important element of this initiative is the separation of key radionuclides . One of the systems being developed to separate key radionuclides is the UREX+1 process. The Tc and Cs/Sr solutions from UREX+1 process will require treatment and solidification for managed storage. This paper illustrates the benefits of HIPed tailored ceramic waste forms, to provide for the immobilization of separated Cs, Sr and Tc. Experimental data are presented for a Cs and Sr-bearing hollandite-rich tailored ceramic prepared with 12 wt% waste (on an oxide basis). Normalized MCC-1 type leach testing at 90oC for 28 days revealed extremely low Cs and Sr release rates of 0.003 and 0.004 g/m2/day respectively. Experimental data on the immobilization of Tc in titanate ceramics containing up to 40wt% TcO2 are also be presented.

  7. Effects of short- and long-term rat hind limb immobilization on spinal cord insulin-like growth factor-I and its receptor.

    PubMed

    Suliman, I A; Lindgren, J U; Elhassan, A M; Diab, K M; Adem, A

    2001-08-31

    In this study we investigated changes in the spinal cord insulin-like growth factor-I peptide (IGF-I) and its receptors (IGF-IR) after hind limb immobilization for 5 days, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Moreover, effects on IGF-I and nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs) in two types of skeletal muscle were also investigated. IGF-I levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) whereas IGF-IR and nAChRs were measured by quantitative receptor autoradiography. Spinal cord IGF-I levels decreased significantly after 5 days, 2 and 4 weeks of immobilization, whereas IGF-IR increased significantly after 4 and 8 weeks compared to controls. In skeletal muscles, nAChRs increased significantly after 5 days and 2 weeks in the soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TIB) muscles, respectively, and continued up to 8 weeks in both muscles. IGF-I concentration decrease significantly after 4 and 8 weeks in the SOL and TIB muscles, respectively. Despite the normal levels of IGF-I in both muscles at the early time points (5 days and 2 weeks), low levels of IGF-I were observed concurrently in the spinal cord ipsilateral to the immobilized limb. Our findings suggest that the early decrease in the IGF-I level and the late upregulation in the IGF-IR in the spinal cord might represent a nervous system response to disuse. PMID:11520489

  8. Foam as a Delivery Vehicle in Vadose Zone Remediation: Transport; Amendment Distribution; and Tc-99 Immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Szecsody, J.; Wellman, D. M.; Zhang, Z. F.; Mattigod, S.; Pierce, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    sediment swept by foam flow was negligibly affected by the initial water content. Very low surfactant concentration was observed in the accumulated liquid ahead of the foam front, indicating the initial moisture in the sediment was pushed forward by foam flow. In the foam-delivery of (poly)phosphate column tests, the delivery of phosphate was retarded slightly compare to the foam front and the distribution of surfactant in the sediment. The profile of pore water electric conductivity was similar to the phosphate distribution profile. Immobilization of Tc-99 by foam-delivered calcium polysulfide (CPS) in sediments under vadose zone conditions was evaluated. Foams generated from 0.5 wt% STEOL CS-330 surfactant solution at quality of 98% was used to deliver CPS sediment in columns for reductive immobilization of Tc-99. The foaming solution contained 5 wt% of calcium polysulfide. Using the foam-delivered calcium polysulfide, 66% of the total Tc-99 in the contaminated sediment was immobilized in the sediment. No technetium remobilization was observed when up to 6 pore volume of synthetic ground water was flushed through the treated sediment column.

  9. Long-term testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  10. Long-term testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000--10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  11. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  12. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  13. Impact of Mobile-Immobile Water Domains on the Retention of Technetium (Tc-99) in the Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansik, D. P.; Wellman, D. M.; Cordova, E.; Wildenschild, D.

    2009-12-01

    The transport of technetium (Tc-99), like many other radionuclides, is of interest due to the potential for human exposure and impact on ecosystems. Technetium has been released to the environment through nuclear weapons testing, nuclear power production, and nuclear fuel reprocessing; as a result, further spreading of Tc-99 is a concern at DOE sites across the US. Specifically, technetium is a contaminant of concern at Hanford, Savannah River, Idaho, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The current body of work conducted on Tc-99 has provided a wealth of information regarding the redox relationship and stability of the mineral phases, however little work has been conducted on the physical transport of the highly soluble pertechnetate oxyanion, in the subsurface. Current conceptual models do not explain the presence and persistence of the anion in deep vadose zone environments such as the Hanford site. In an oxic reducing environment with low organic content, the residence time of technetium in the soil would be expected to be near zero, due to its low sorption. Surprisingly, nearly 50 years after the release of contamination at the site, much of the element has persisted in the subsurface in its most mobile form. As new in situ remediation technologies are developed and remediation continues, it is necessary to understand implications for Tc-99 transport and mobilization in unsaturated systems. Specifically, foam and gas phase remediation could potentially alter established flow regimes by changing moisture content and surface reactivity of sediments; therefore, it is imperative to understand fundamental transport properties of Tc-99 in the context of physical and chemical constraints. Using an Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA) we have conducted a series of experiments to examine the impact of mobile-immobile domains on the transport of Tc-99. By varying sand/silt ratios and saturations we examined how changes in pore morphology and moisture content impact the

  14. Long term complications of diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long term complications of diabetes To use the sharing ... sores and infections. If it goes on too long, your toes, foot, or leg may need to ...

  15. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  16. Long Term Illness and Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

  17. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  18. Technetium Removal Using Tc-Goethite Coprecipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Jung, Hun Bok; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-18

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Low temperature waste forms coupled with technetium removal using an alternative immobilization process such as Fe(II) treated-goethite precipitation” to increase our understanding of 99Tc long-term stability in goethite mineral form and the process that controls the 99Tc(VII) reduction and removal by the final Fe (oxy)hydroxide forms. The overall objectives of this task were to 1) evaluate the transformation process of Fe (oxy)hydroxide solids to the more crystalline goethite (α-FeOOH) mineral for 99Tc removal and 2) determine the mechanism that limits 99Tc(IV) reoxidation in Fe(II)-treated 99Tc-goethite mineral and 3) evaluate whether there is a long-term 99Tcoxidation state change for Tc sequestered in the iron solids.

  19. Stapedectomy - long-term report.

    PubMed

    Shea, J J

    1982-01-01

    The long-term results with large fenestra stapedectomy with vein graft and Teflon piston are compared with results with the small fenestra stapedectomy with teflon piston directly into the vestibule. There were 1,943 operations in the former group and 2,155 in the latter when compared in 1970. One hundred consecutive patients from the beginning of each group with follow-up to present were compared. Results were generally the same with no great change in 15 and 20 years as compared to those at 5 years. The complication of perilymph fistula was caused by creating an opening in the footplate much larger than the prosthesis and was eliminated by interposing a living oval window seal if the opening was much larger than the prosthesis and a flap of lining membrane from the promontory when it was not. Other factors that influence a good result are discussed, including the type and the diameter of the piston used, the type of living oval window seal and the method of attachment to the incus. The small fenestra operation was found to be superior to the large, not only for the hearing gain achieved, but the case of performance and the freedom from complications due to migration of the prosthesis and/or the oval window seal. At present we have done about all that can be done for the conductive components. What remains is the sensorineural component which our studies indicate may be due to an autoimmune response. PMID:6897157

  20. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  1. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  2. Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

  3. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  4. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  5. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  6. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  7. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic ... and sprinkle forms are available for young children. Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists Medications in the beta 2 - ...

  8. Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

  9. Iron Oxide Waste Form for Stabilizing 99Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Qafoku, Nikolla; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2012-06-09

    Crystals of goethite were synthesized with reduced technetium [{sup 99}Tc(IV)] incorporated within the solid lattice. The presence of {sup 99}Tc(IV) as a substituting cation in the matrix and 'armoring' by an additional layer of precipitated goethite isolated the reduced {sup 99}Tc(IV) from oxidizing agents. These products were used to make monolithic pellets to quantify an effective diffusion coefficient for {sup 99}Tc from goethite waste form contacted with a synthetic Hanford IDF (integrated disposal facility) pore water solution (pH = 7.2, I = 0.05 M) at room temperature for up to 120 days in static reactors. XANES analysis of the goethite solids recovered post-run demonstrated that the {sup 99}Tc in the goethite crystals remains in the reduced {sup 99}Tc(IV) state. The slow release of pertechnetate concentration with time in the static experiments with the monolith followed a square root of time dependence, consistent with diffusion control for {sup 99}Tc release. An apparent diffusion coefficient of 6.15 x 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/s was calculated for the {sup 99}Tc-goethite pellet sample and the corresponding leaching index (LI) was 10.2. The results of this study indicate that technetium can be immobilized in a stable, low-cost Fe oxide matrix that is easy to fabricate and these findings can be useful in designing long-term solutions for nuclear waste disposal.

  10. Iron oxide waste form for stabilizing 99Tc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Wooyong; Chang, Hyunshik; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Jeffrey Serne, R.; Qafoku, Nik; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2012-10-01

    Crystals of goethite were synthesized with reduced technetium [99Tc(IV)] incorporated within the solid lattice. The presence of 99Tc(IV) as a substituting cation in the matrix and "armoring" by an additional layer of precipitated goethite isolated the reduced 99Tc(IV) from oxidizing agents. These products were used to make monolithic pellets to quantify an effective diffusion coefficient for 99Tc from goethite waste form contacted with a synthetic Hanford IDF (Integrated Disposal Facility) pore water solution (pH = 7.2 and I = 0.05 M) at room temperature for up to 120 days in static reactors. XANES analysis of the goethite solids recovered post-run demonstrated that the 99Tc in the goethite crystals remains in the reduced 99Tc(IV) state. The slow release of pertechnetate concentration with time in the static experiments with the monolith followed a square root of time dependence, consistent with diffusion control for 99Tc release. An apparent diffusion coefficient of 6.15 × 10-11 cm2/s was calculated for the 99Tc-goethite pellet sample and the corresponding leaching index (LI) was 10.2. The results of this study indicate that technetium can be immobilized in a stable, low-cost Fe oxide matrix that is easy to fabricate and these findings can be useful in designing long-term solutions for nuclear waste disposal.

  11. LONG-TERM TECHNETIUM INTERACTIONS WITH REDUCING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.; Lilley, M.; Almond, P.; Powell, B.

    2011-03-15

    Technetium is among the key risk drivers at the Saltstone Facility. The way that it is immobilized in this cementitious waste form is by converting its highly mobile Tc(VII) form to a much less mobile Tc(IV) form through reduction by the cement's blast furnace slag. This report includes a review of published data and experimental results dealing with Tc leaching from Portland cement waste forms. The objectives for the literature study were to document previous reports of Tc interactions with slag-containing cementitious materials. The objectives for the laboratory study were to measure Tc-saltstone Kd values under reducing conditions. From the literature it was concluded: (1) Spectroscopic evidence showed that when Tc(IV) in a slag-cement was exposed to an oxidizing environment, it will convert to the more mobile Tc(VII) species within a short time frame, 2.5 years. (2) SRS saltstone will reduce Tc(VII) in the absence of NaS or sodium dithionite in a reducing atmosphere. (3) Only trace concentrations of atmospheric oxygen (30 to 60 ppm O{sub 2}; Eh 120 mV) at the high pH levels of cementitious systems is required to maintain Tc as Tc(VII). (4) Experimental conditions must be responsible for wide variability of measured K{sub d} values, such that they are either very low, {approx}1 mL/g, or they are very high {approx}1000 mL/g, suggesting that Tc(VII) or Tc(IV) dominate the systems. Much of this variability appears to be the result of experimental conditions, especially direct controls of oxygen contact with the sample. (5) A field study conducted at SRS in the 1980s indicated that a slag-saltstone immobilized Tc for 2.5 years. Below background concentrations of Tc leached out of the slag-containing saltstone, whereas Tc leached out of the slag-free saltstone at the rate of nitrate loss. One possible explanation for the immobilization of Tc in this study was that the slag-saltstone maintained reducing conditions within the core of the 55-gallon sample, whereas in

  12. Long-term Multiwavelength Observations of Polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Joshua; Mason, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Polars are cataclysmic variables with the highest magnetic field strengths (10-250 MG). Matter is accreted after being funneled by the strong magnetic field of the white dwarf. We perform a meta-study of multi-wavelength data of polars. Many polars have been observed in surveys, such as SDSS, 2MASS, ROSAT, just to name a few. Some polars have now been detected by the JVLA, part of an expanding class of radio CVs. A large subset of polars have long-term optical light curves from CRTS and AAVSO. We suggest that the long term light curves of polars display a variety of signature behaviors and may be grouped accordingly. Additional characteristics such a binary period, magnetic field strengths, X-ray properties, and distance estimates are examined in context with long-term observations.

  13. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VII. Long-term risk analysis of the geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, S.E.; Conarty, R.L.; Ng, H.S.; Rahal, L.J.; Shirley, C.G.

    1980-09-01

    This report supports the overall assessment by Oak Ridge National Laboratory of actinide partitioning and transmutation by providing an analysis of the long-term risks associated with the terminal storage of wastes from a fuel cycle which incorporates partitioning and transmutation (P-T) and wastes from a cycle which does not. The system model and associated computer code, called AMRAW (Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste), are used for the analysis and are applied to the Los Medanos area in southeastern New Mexico. Because a conservative approach is used throughout, calculated results are believed to be consistently higher than reasonable expectations from actual disruptive incidents at the site and therefore are not directly suited for comparison with other analyses of the particular geologic location. The assessment is made with (1) the probabilistic, or risk, mode that uses combinations of reasonable possible release incidents with their probability of occurrence distributed and applied throughout the assessment period, and (2) the consequence mode that forces discrete release events to occur at specific times. An assessment period of 1 million years is used. The principal results are: (1) In all but the expulsive modes, /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I completely dominate cumulative effects based on their transport to man through leaching and movement with groundwater, effecting about 33,000 health effects (deaths) over the 1 million years; (2) P-T has only limited effectiveness in reducing long-term risk from a radionuclide waste repository under the conditions studied, and such effectiveness is essentially confined to the extremely unlikely (probability of occurrence 10/sup -12//year) expulsive events; (3) Removal or immobilization of /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I might provide benefits sufficiently tangible to warrant special consideration.

  14. Scenarios for long-term analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis of High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments data is described and summarized in this talk. The summary covers information presented at the First Workshop on Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis. Experiments representing e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions (LEP, B Factories and CLEO), ep collisions (H1 and ZEUS), p{bar p} collisions (CDF and D0) and others presented interesting information related to utilizing the large datasets collected over many years at these HEP facilities. Many questions and issues remain to be explored.

  15. Long-Term Use of Benzodiazepines

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Nicholas L.S.; Krishnan, K. Ranga R.

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with physical dependence and abuse of benzodiazepines by a small percentage of patients have reduced their popularity from the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in the 1970s to being prescribed for mainly short periods. Patients who benefit from long-term benzodiazepine use are nearly ignored by the medical community as a whole. This article details what patient population can improve from long-term benzodiazepine therapy, the risks and benefits of treatment, and how to select appropriate candidates. PMID:21229127

  16. Long-term Outcomes after Severe Shock

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Cristina M.; Hirshberg, Eliotte L.; Jones, Jason P.; Kuttler, Kathryn G.; Lanspa, Michael J.; Wilson, Emily L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Brown, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Methods Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 mcg/kg/min of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured three-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. Results The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years: 82% (62/76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of five years after hospital admission. The patients’ Physical Functioning scores were below US population norms (p<0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full time. Conclusions Early survivors of severe shock had a high three-year survival rate. Patients’ long term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill ICU survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term

  17. GEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL REACTIONS AFFECTING THE LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF IN SITU 'IRON BARRIERS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The in situ application of granular iron (Fe0) has become popular for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds for the immobilization of specific metals in groundwater. However, a knowledge gap exists concerning the long-term performance of the Fe0-barriers. The corrosi...

  18. Long Term Care Aide. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbee, Judy

    This course outline is intended to assist the instructor in the development of a curriculum for a long-term care aide program by specifying one component of the curriculum--the objectives. These objectives, or competencies expected as outcomes for student performance on completion of the program, describe the capabilities an individual must…

  19. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  20. Long-term fixed income market structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Luca

    2004-02-01

    Long-term fixed income market securities present a strong positive correlation in daily returns. By using a metrical approach and considering “modified” time series, I show how it is possible to show a more complex structure which depends strictly on the maturity date.

  1. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  2. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  3. NATIONAL LONG TERM CARE SURVEY (NLTCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...

  4. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  5. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  6. Long term mortality in burned children

    PubMed Central

    Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  7. Long term mortality in burned children.

    PubMed

    Rosanova, María Teresa; Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  8. Long-term safety of retinoid therapy.

    PubMed

    Vahlquist, A

    1992-12-01

    The concern about long-term toxicity of oral synthetic retinoids has developed because many patients, especially those with genodermatoses, require lifelong therapy. Several organ systems are at risk, especially the hepatic, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Although acute hepatotoxicity is a rare side effect of etretinate and acitretin therapy, prospective studies have not demonstrated chronic liver toxicity. The frequency of bone changes induced by retinoids is difficult to estimate, because this adverse effect is usually asymptomatic and requires x-ray or scintigraphic examination for detection. Atherosclerosis develops in many patients who receive long-term retinoid therapy, but the extent to which the process is aggravated by drug-induced hyperlipidemia is not known. Many patients have now been treated with either etretinate or isotretinoin continuously for as many as 15 years and have not developed any signs of severe chronic toxicity. However, continued intense surveillance is recommended for patients expected to require lifelong therapy. PMID:1460122

  9. [Taiwan long-term care insurance and the evolution of long-term care in Japan].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Wen; Liu, Shu-Hui; Pai, Yu-Chu

    2010-08-01

    The proportion of elderly (65 years of age and older) in Taiwan has exceeded 10% since 2008. With more elderly, the number of patients suffering from dementia and disabilities has also been rapidly increasing. Japan also has been facing increasing demand for long-term care due to an aging society. Prior to 2000, social welfare programs in Japan, working to cope with changing needs, typically provided insufficient services, and geriatric patients were hospitalized unnecessarily, wasting medical resources and causing undue patient hardship. In response, Japan launched its long-term care insurance program in April 2000. Under the program, city, town and village-based organizations should take responsibility for providing care to the elderly in their place of residence. The program significantly improved previous financial shortfalls and long-term care supply and demand has been met by existing social welfare organization resources. In Taiwan, the provision of long-term care by county / city authorities has proven inconsistent, with performance deemed poor after its first decade of long-term care operations. Service was found to be affected by differences in available resources and insufficient long-term care administration. The cultures of Taiwan and Japan are similar. The authors visited the Japan Long-Term Care Insurance Institute in August 2009. Main issues involved in the implementation and evolution of the Japan long-term Care Insurance are reported on in this paper. We hope such may be useful information to those working to develop long-term care programs in Taiwan. PMID:20661859

  10. Long-term orbital lifetime predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreher, P. E.; Lyons, A. T.

    1990-10-01

    Long-term orbital lifetime predictions are analyzed. Predictions were made for three satellites: the Solar Max Mission (SMM), the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), and the Pegasus Boiler Plate (BP). A technique is discussed for determining an appropriate ballistic coefficient to use in the lifetime prediction. The orbital decay rate should be monitored regularly. Ballistic coefficient updates should be done whenever there is a significant change in the actual decay rate or in the solar activity prediction.

  11. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  12. Long-term Variation of AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Xie, G. Z.; Adam, G.; Copin, Y.; Lin, R. G.; Bai, J. M.; Quin, Y. P.

    In this paper we will present the long-term variation in the optical and the infrared bands for some selected AGNs. 1. Some new optical data observed by us have been presented for BL Lacertae (1995-1996) and OJ 287 (1994-1995), and new infrared data are presented for OJ 287 (Nov=2E 1995), which corresponds to the second optical peak (Sillanpaa et al. 1996; Takalo et al. 1996) and during last outburst. 2. For objects with long term observations, the Jurkevich's method has been used to analyses the long-term variation period. It is interesting that the reported periods of AGNs are of the similar value of about 10 years: 3C 345 11.4 years (Webb et al. 1988), 3C 120 15 years (Belokon et al. 1987; Hagen-Thorn et al. 1997), ON 231 13.6 years (Liu et al. 1995), OJ 287 12 years (Sillanpaa et al. 1988; Kidger et al. 1992), PKS 0735+178 14 years (Fan et al. 1997), NGC 4151 15 years (Fan et al. 1998a), BL Lacertae 14.0 years (Fan et al. 1998b). Is the mechanism for the long-term variation the same for different AGNs? 3. The DCF method has been adopted to analysis the variation correlation in the optical and infrared bands for BL Lac object OJ 287, the results show that these two bands are strongly correlated, which suggest that the emission mechanism in the two bands is the same. 4. For the optical and infrared bands, the maximum variations are correlated.

  13. Long-term home hemodialysis in children

    PubMed Central

    Borra, Sonia; Kaye, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Experience with chronic hemodialysis as a definitive form of therapy is described for six children aged 11 to 15 years at the onset. Duration on dialysis in the home has been between one and 4½ years. All patients are alive and rehabilitated without serious complications. It is concluded that although transplantation is the most desirable form of treatment for children, long-term hemodialysis is an alternative acceptable second choice. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:5150193

  14. Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

  15. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  16. [Long-term survival after severe trauma].

    PubMed

    Mutschler, W; Mutschler, M; Graw, M; Lefering, R

    2016-07-01

    Long-term survival after severe trauma is rarely addressed in German trauma journals although knowledge of life expectancy and identification of factors contributing to increased mortality are important for lifetime care management, development of service models, and targeting health promotion and prevention interventions. As reliable data in Germany are lacking, we compiled data mainly from the USA and Australia to describe life expectancy, risk factors, and predictors of outcome in patients experiencing traumatic spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma. Two years after trauma, life expectancy in all three categories was significantly lower than that of the general population. It depends strongly on severity of disability, age, and gender and is quantifiable. Whereas improvements in medical care have led to a marked decline in short-term mortality, surprisingly long-term survival in severe trauma has not changed over the past 30 years. Therefore, there is need to intensify long-term trauma patient care and to find new strategies to limit primary damage. PMID:27342106

  17. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be

  18. Timber beams subjected to long - term loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sógel, K.

    2010-09-01

    Wood is a significant structural material, which is often used for timber bearing structures. Elements of timber structures must especially satisfy safety requirements, which are expressed by the ultimate limit states in the established standards. The structure must also satisfy the serviceability limit states. Local and global deformations make it impossible for the structure to serve the purpose it was designed for. It is important to take the deflections and their possible increase into account in the design to provide a structure which can be used during the whole period of service. Based on earlier examinations, it is known that a timber element over the course of long-term loading shows creep behavior. The structure of wood is able to adapt to the conditions of the surrounding environment. The properties of wood are especially affected by the relative humidity of the air and then by the type, intensity and duration of the loading. The most important factors affecting the serviceability of timber structures are volume changes caused by humidity and additional deflections caused by the effects of long-term loading. These phenomena emphasize the importance of serviceability limit states for timber structures. The paper deals with a long-term experimental investigation of timber girders that are currently often used. The aim was to obtain the deflection curves and mark the time dependence and the final deflections. The paper will also define the approximations for simulating the time-dependent deflections and obtain the creep coefficients for calculating the final deflections of the girders investigated.

  19. [Long-term treatment with amiodarone].

    PubMed

    Baedeker, W; Goedel-Meinen, L; Schmidt, G; Hofmann, M; Barthel, P; Blömer, H

    1991-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and the side effects of a long-term treatment with amiodarone. We analyzed the data of 41 patients in whom amiodarone therapy had been initiated between 1974 and 1984. Twenty-one patients had dilative cardiomyopathy, 14 patients had chronic myocardial infarction, four patients suffered from WPW syndrome with intermittent atrial fibrillation, one patient had aortic valve surgery, whereas in one patient there was no clinical evidence of a heart disease. All patients had salvos of ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular tachycardia or documented intermittent ventricular fibrillation. There have been seven drop-outs up to the present time. In each patient, the lowest antiarrhythmically effective dose was applied, which was generally higher in patients with low ejection fraction. Effective treatment of the ventricular tachycardia was achieved in 55-92% of patients and did not depend on the duration of treatment. In 10 patients in whom amiodarone therapy had to be stopped for various reasons. Sudden cardiac death was slightly more frequent than in the 24 patients treated with amiodarone, though the difference was not significant. In cases with a history of syncope the prognosis was poor, even with amiodarone therapy. Due to side effects, a dosage reduction or discontinuation of amiodarone treatment became necessary in 14 patients. Amiodarone proved to be an effective drug also for the long-term treatment of ventricular tachycardia, and possibly for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. With the exception of blue skin color, there was no accumulation of side effects, even during long-term treatment of several years. PMID:1711739

  20. Long Term Archiving and CCSDS Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucon, Danièle

    This article presents some conceptual and implementation CCSDS -Consultative Committee for Space Data Systemsstandards for long term archiving. It focuses on the most recent one, the Producer Archive Interface Specification (PAIS) standard. This standard, currently available as a draft on the CCSDS web site, will be published by the beginning of 2014. It will enable the Producer to share with the Archive a sufficiently precise and unambiguous formal definition of the Digital Objects to be produced and transferred, by means of a model. It will also enable a precise definition of the packaging of these objects in the form of Submission Information Packages (SIPs), including the order in which they should be transferred.

  1. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  2. Long-term outcomes in multiple gestations.

    PubMed

    Rand, Larry; Eddleman, Keith A; Stone, Joanne

    2005-06-01

    Children born from a multiple gestation are at increased risk for cerebral palsy, learning disability, and language and neurobehavioral deficits. With the increased incidence of multiple pregnancies and use of assisted reproductive technology (ART), these issues are more commonly affecting parents. Long-term outcomes are a critical part of preconceptual and early pregnancy counseling for parents faced with a multiple gestation or considering ART, and the provider should be well versed on issues surrounding zygosity, gestational age, higher-order multiples, and the effects of options such as multifetal pregnancy reduction. PMID:15922795

  3. Long-Term Solar Irradiance Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the solar energy throughout the solar spectrum and understanding its variability provide important information about the physical processes and structural changes in the solar interior and in the solar atmosphere...The aim of this paper is to discuss the solar-cycle-related long-term changes in solar total and UV irradiances. The spaceborne irradiance observations are compared to ground-based indices of solar magnetic activity, such as the Photometric Sunspot Index, full disk magnetic flux, and the Mt. Wilson Magnetic Plage Strength Index.

  4. Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

  5. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  6. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support....

  7. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support....

  8. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  9. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Raja, Waseem K.; Wang, Rebecca Y.; Stinson, Jordan A.; Glettig, Dean L.; Burke, Kelly A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogensis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  10. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  11. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers. PMID:26808468

  12. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  13. Long-term intracranial pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    de Jong, D A; Maas, A I; den Ouden, A H; de Lange, S A

    Continuous or intermittent measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is important in patients at risk for raised ICP. Indications exist for short- and long-term measurements. The various methods used for short-term monitoring are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages. For long-term measurements of ICP use of a completely implantable telemetric epidural pressure transducer is indicated. No such device is commercially available. We have developed an inexpensive passive telemetric transducer for this purpose. Results obtained up till now have demonstrated its reliability for measurements of two to three months duration. The life span of the device is limited by degrading of the epoxy utilized for sealing of the titanium pressure sensing part to the radiolucent ceramic cap of the transducer, causing leakage of water into the transducer and false low measurements. Because of these problems new hermetic sealing techniques were tested. Both active metal brazing and glass bonding yielded good results and hermetic sealing could be obtained. The metal to ceramic bonding presented is generally applicable within the design of implants. Besides the technical progress reported, the experience with clinical use in 12 patients is presented. PMID:6674738

  14. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil

  15. Long-term U. S. energy outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, G.

    1984-01-01

    Each year Chase Econometrics offers its clients a brief summary of the assumptions underlying the long-term energy forecast for the U.S. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they choose to compare forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Particular emphasis is placed on Scenario B, which is the mid-range reference case. As the introduction to the supplement emphasizes, the NEPP projections should not be considered a statement of the policy goals of the Reagan Administration. They represent an analysis of the possible evolution of U.S. energy markets, given current information and existing policies. The purpose of providing Scenario B as a reference case as well as Scenarios A and C as alternate cases is to show the sensitivity of oil price projections to small swings in energy demand.

  16. Long-term control of root growth

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  17. Long-term control of root growth

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin. 7 figs.

  18. Long term thermoelectric module testing system.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy

    2009-10-01

    Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period. PMID:19895086

  19. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  20. Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Petursson, H; Lader, M H

    1981-01-01

    Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels over the next two to four weeks. Other features of the withdrawal included disturbance of sleep and appetite and noticeable weight loss. Electroencephalography showed appreciable reduction in fast-wave activity as the drugs were withdrawn, and an improvement in psychological performance was recorded by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Because of the risk of dependence on benzodiazepines these agents should probably not be given as regular daily treatment for chronic anxiety. PMID:6114776

  1. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  2. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, John V.; Gueretta, Jeanie

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy

  3. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  4. Long-term criticality concerns associated with disposition of weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.S.

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a very brief description of criticality concerns resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons. Two plutonium disposal options, and associated criticality considerations, are described: (1) irradiating it into reactor-grade spent fuel, and (2) immobilization and burial, either in a geologic repository or in deep, sealed boreholes. Mixed oxide spent fuel could contain 3 to 4 wt% of reactor-grade plutonium. For the immobilization and the deep borehole options to be economically viable, a plutonium content of 3 to 7 wt% would be required. A study is proposed to evaluate the long-term criticality safety concerns for disposition of fissionable material in a geologic setting. 2 refs.

  5. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Timothy V.P.; Cooke, Sam F

    2011-01-01

    Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke. PMID:21779718

  6. Cisplatin based chemotherapy in testicular cancer patients: long term platinum excretion and clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Hohnloser, J H; Schierl, R; Hasford, B; Emmerich, B

    1996-09-20

    Patients with advanced testicular cancer (TC) have a very good long-term prognosis owing to cisplatin-based polychemotherapy. Platinum is believed to be excreted at a rapid rate via urine within weeks after chemotherapy. As a new, highly sensitive method has become available detecting even natural background platinum levels in body fluids, this study was set up to analyze urinary and serum platinum levels in long-term survivors of testicular neoplasm after cisplatin based polychemotherapy and to correlate clinical data with urinary and serum platinum levels. Urinary platinum concentrations were measured in 64 healthy controls (C) and 22 male patients (TC) 150 to 3022 days after the last application of i.v. cisplatin using voltammetry after UV-photolysis. In the latter group (TC), serum platinum levels were measured as well. Clinical data were analysed as to long-term organ toxicity. Mean urinary platinum levels were 2700 times higher in the patient group (TC) than natural background noise (p < 0.0001). There was a decline of urinary and serum platinum levels over time, being significantly above normal even 8 years after cisplatin exposure. The only significant variables related to the urine platinum concentration were a) the interval between the last i.v. cisplatin application and time of study and b) the total dose given. Not significant were the number of chemotherapy cycles, pre-therapy renal disease, patient age, tumour resection before/after chemotherapy, site of pre/post therapy resection, clinical staging, histological subtypes or tumour markers. Post-therapy renal disease or peripheral nerve damage were not significantly associated with urinary platinum levels. Our data indicate that even 8 years after cisplatin based chemotherapy 500 times elevated urinary and serum platinum levels can be measured in testicular cancer patients. No organ toxicity related to long-term platinum excretion could be detected. This may be due to our small sample size. PMID

  7. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-07-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  8. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  9. Treatment for childhood cancer -- long-term risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000849.htm Treatment for childhood cancer - long-term risks To use the sharing features on ... has. Being aware of your child's risk of long-term health problems can help you follow-up ...

  10. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  11. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  12. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  14. [Long term adherence to HAART in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Bastard, M; Fall, M Basty Koita

    2014-10-01

    Adherence is one of the main predictors of antiretroviral treatment success. A governmental initiative was launched in 1998 for HIV-infected patients in Senegal to provide access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Adherence measurements, defined as pills taken/pills prescribed, were assessed between November 1999 and June 2010 using a pill count along with a questionnaire for 330 patients. Predictors of adherence and identification of adherence trajectories were explored through latent class mixed model. We also performed a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard model. Three adherence behaviours were revealed as well as a better adherence for women. A third of patients had a high adherence trajectory over time and a third had an intermediate one. Male gender and low adherence behaviour over time were independently associated with a higher mortality rate. This study shows that an overall good adherence can be obtained in the long term in Senegal, suggests a better adherence for women and points out a large subsample of patients with intermediate level of adherence behaviour who are at risk for developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:24615434

  15. Long-term outcome in aqueductal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Villani, R; Tomei, G; Gaini, S M; Grimoldi, N; Spagnoli, D; Bello, L

    1995-03-01

    In this study, 78 patients with aqueductal stenosis were submitted to detailed neurodevelopmental assessment with a follow-up of 5-25 years. Sixty-eight percent of patients were categorized as normal; they either attended normal school courses or had regular jobs. Among these, 34% had some motor abnormalities (ataxia, mild hemiparesis, visual disturbances). Twenty-four percent (19 cases) were moderately disabled (trainable retardation) and 8% (6 cases) were severely handicapped. Epilepsy was observed in 13% of the cases. Incidence of recurrent and generalized seizures paralleled neurodevelopmental outcome (5% in normal, 16% in moderately disabled and 50% in severely disabled patients). Endocrine dysfunctions were evident in 28% of the cases and were characterized by precocious or delayed puberty, amenorrhea and somatic underdevelopment. No patient with ventricular enlargement and a cortical mantle width below 20 mm showed a good outcome. Large ventricles were compatible with normal mental development when compensated with a corresponding cranial vault enlargement. In patients with normal mental status and motor abnormalities, long-term CT scan findings revealed the presence of focal brain abnormalities (poroencephaly, brain atrophy, calcifications, extracerebral collections). PMID:7773981

  16. Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestroy, O.

    2009-04-01

    Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

  17. Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.

    PubMed Central

    Todnem, K; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Svihus, R; Rinck, P; Kambestad, B K; Riise, T; Aarli, J A

    1991-01-01

    Forty commercial saturation divers, mean age 34.9 (range 24-49) years, were examined one to seven years after their last deep dive (190-500 metres of seawater). Four had by then lost their divers' licence because of neurological problems. Twenty seven (68%) had been selected by neurological examination and electroencephalography before the deep dives. The control group consisted of 100 men, mean age 34.0 (range 22-48) years. The divers reported significantly more symptoms from the nervous system. Concentration difficulties and paraesthesia in feet and hands were common. They had more abnormal neurological findings by neurological examination compatible with dysfunction in the lumbar spinal cord or roots. They also had a larger proportion of abnormal electroencephalograms than the controls. The neurological symptoms and findings were highly significantly correlated with exposure to deep diving (depth included), but even more significantly correlated to air and saturation diving and prevalence of decompression sickness. Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show more abnormal findings in the divers. Four (10%) divers had had episodes of cerebral dysfunction during or after the dives; two had had seizures, one had had transitory cerebral ischaemia and one had had transitory global amnesia. It is concluded that deep diving may have a long term effect on the nervous system of the divers. PMID:2025592

  18. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Cristina; Montanari, Alberto; José Polo, María

    2016-05-01

    How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  19. The long-term variability of Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkovskaya, V.; Plachinda, S.; Valyavin, G.; Baklanova, D.; Lee, B.-C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the time of 60 years Vega (α Lyrae = HD 172167, A0V) has been generally accepted as a standard star in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet regions. But is the spectrophotometric standard Vega really non-variable star? Researchers give very different answers to this question. We aim to search a periodicity in our results of spectropolarimetric study of Vega, namely periodic variations in equivalent width of the spectral lines and longitudinal magnetic field measurements. High-accuracy spectropolarimetric observations of Vega have been performed during 26 nights from 1997 to 2010 using the Coudé spectrograph of the 2.6-m Shain reflector at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO, Ukraine) and during 4 nights in 2007 and 2008 using the echelle spectrograph BOES at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO, South Korea). The long-term (year-to-year) variability of Vega was confirmed. It was concluded that this variability does not have magnetic nature. The paper is dedicated to the memory of V.P. Merezhin.

  20. Long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, H A; Saudek, C D; Zacur, H A

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, 21 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have been managed at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions with variable rate, remotely controlled implanted insulin pumps. To date, nearly 70 patient-years of experience has been gained with intraperitoneal delivery of a new U-400 insulin with a surfactant. All 21 patients are alive after a mean of 39.3 months (range, 10 to 65 months) after insulin pump implantation. Nineteen of the 21 patients remain on intraperitoneal insulin, for a 5-year actuarial system survival of 90%. Glucose control was improved, especially during the first 16 months after pump implantation, without an increased incidence of severe hypoglycemia. Catheter blockage has been a significant problem, occurring in nine of the 21 patients (43%). Catheter occlusion has been successfully managed, however, with laparoscopic repair in seven of 10 attempts or with catheter change in four of five patients. Nevertheless, quality of life and patient acceptance remain excellent. Moreover, pre-existing nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy have been surprisingly stable. With an aggressive policy of catheter change or laparoscopic clearance of catheter blockage, long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery is now a safe and effective treatment for type I diabetics. PMID:1417197

  1. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R

    1996-04-30

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. PMID:11607658

  2. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, L R

    1996-01-01

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

  3. Long-term adequacy of metal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Although the earth's crust contains vast quantities of metals, extraction technologies and associated costs are inextricably bound to three fundamental geological factors - the amount of metal available in the earth's crust in each range of grades, the mineralogical form and chemical state of the metal, and the spatial distribution of the metal. The energy required to recover a given amount of metal increases substantially as grade declines. Most metal is produced from sulphide or oxide minerals, whereas most metal in the crust may be locked in the structures of the more refractory silicates. Recovery from silicate minerals could require orders of magnitude more energy than that used at present as also could exploitation of small, widely scattered or thin, deeply buried deposits. Although specific information on the fundamental factors is not available, each factor must in turn tend to further restrict exploitation. Independence of average grade and tonnage for many deposit types further reduces the availability of rock as a source of metal. In the long term, effects of these factors will be large increases in price for many metals. ?? 1977.

  4. Long Term Storage of Lyophilized Liposomal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Xu, Y.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Because aqueous liposomal formulations containing multiply unsaturated lipids are susceptible to chemical degradation, these formulations are often lyophilized. Despite their limited chemical stability, interest in the use of multiply unsaturated lipids to promote intracellular delivery has increased considerably in recent years. The goal of the current study was to examine the long term storage stability of lyophilized formulations containing lipids with increasing levels of unsaturation, and various strategies which can be employed to improve stability. Aqueous lipid-trehalose formulations containing 1,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLinPC) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were lyophilized and stored at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. We observed that the lipid degradation rate increased as the storage temperature and unsaturation level were increased. Even the cleanest sugars which are available commercially contain iron contaminants, and it was observed that the chelation of these iron contaminants significantly improved the stability of DLPC during storage. However, the glass transition temperature of the sugar which was included in the formulation, the reduction of the oxygen in the aqueous sample prior to lyophilization, the inclusion of helper lipids (i.e., cholesterol), and the rate of freezing did not significantly improve stability. PMID:25308534

  5. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  6. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  7. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  8. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  9. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  10. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  11. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  12. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

  13. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

  14. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  15. 3 CFR - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 30, 2010 Long-Term Gulf Coast... help the Gulf Coast and its people recover from this tragedy. A long-term plan to restore the...

  16. 78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging 45 CFR Parts 1321 and 1327 RIN 0985-AA08 State Long-Term Care... request for comments, to implement provisions of the Older Americans Act, the State Long-Term Care... determining State compliance in carrying out the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program functions. This...

  17. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  18. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  19. A new long-term care manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for. PMID:26035606

  20. Long-term Behavior of DNAPL Residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Illangasekare, T.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding and being able to predict the long-term behavior of DNAPL (i.e., TCE) residuals in the source zone are significant in the evaluation of plume spreading. We apply both theoretical analysis and pore-scale simulations to investigate the mass transfer and the effect of reductive dechlorination, in which the contaminant behaves as electron acceptor. At the upfront of the source zone, where the boundary layer has not fully developed, the mass transfer increases as a power-law function of the Peclet number, and is enhanced by biodegradation. These results are consistent with past findings. Under certain conditions, further downstream inside the source zone, the rate of dissolution is slower due to the diluted mass from upstream. Widely applied first-order biodegradation implicitly assumes that the reaction solely depends on the concentration of the contaminant. However, in the slow dilution region, the limitation of electron donor on biodegradation is not negligible. For the reaction between an electron donor and an electron acceptor with intrinsic second-order kinetics, the late-time bio-reaction demonstrates a first-order decay macroscopically with respect to the mass of electron donor, not with respect to that of the contaminant. The late-time decay rate only depends on the intrinsic rate and the solubility of the contaminant. During the intermediate time, affecting by both the concentrations of electron donor and electron acceptor, the first-order decay is not valid. We show that the electron donor decays as exp(-t^2), instead of exp(-t). Moreover, the intermediate-time decay rate is a function of the spatial distribution of DNAPL residuals and the initial conditions.he relationship of the Sherwood number and Peclet number (Comparison of pore-scale simulations and best-fitting curve) he decay of electron donor as a function of t^2

  1. LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

    2003-07-23

    Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are

  2. Modeling Maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation in Clustered Synapses: Long-Term Memory without Bistability

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Memories are stored, at least partly, as patterns of strong synapses. Given molecular turnover, how can synapses maintain strong for the years that memories can persist? Some models postulate that biochemical bistability maintains strong synapses. However, bistability should give a bimodal distribution of synaptic strength or weight, whereas current data show unimodal distributions for weights and for a correlated variable, dendritic spine volume. Thus it is important for models to simulate both unimodal distributions and long-term memory persistence. Here a model is developed that connects ongoing, competing processes of synaptic growth and weakening to stochastic processes of receptor insertion and removal in dendritic spines. The model simulates long-term (>1 yr) persistence of groups of strong synapses. A unimodal weight distribution results. For stability of this distribution it proved essential to incorporate resource competition between synapses organized into small clusters. With competition, these clusters are stable for years. These simulations concur with recent data to support the “clustered plasticity hypothesis” which suggests clusters, rather than single synaptic contacts, may be a fundamental unit for storage of long-term memory. The model makes empirical predictions and may provide a framework to investigate mechanisms maintaining the balance between synaptic plasticity and stability of memory. PMID:25945261

  3. Thalamocortical long-term potentiation becomes gated after the early critical period in the auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Chun, Sungkun; Bayazitov, Ildar T; Blundon, Jay A; Zakharenko, Stanislav S

    2013-04-24

    Cortical maps in sensory cortices are plastic, changing in response to sensory experience. The cellular site of such plasticity is currently debated. Thalamocortical (TC) projections deliver sensory information to sensory cortices. TC synapses are currently dismissed as a locus of cortical map plasticity because TC synaptic plasticity is thought to be limited to neonates, whereas cortical map plasticity can be induced in both neonates and adults. However, in the auditory cortex (ACx) of adults, cortical map plasticity can be induced if animals attend to a sound or receive sounds paired with activation of cholinergic inputs from the nucleus basalis. We now show that, in the ACx, long-term potentiation (LTP), a major form of synaptic plasticity, is expressed at TC synapses in both young and mature mice but becomes gated with age. Using single-cell electrophysiology, two-photon glutamate uncaging, and optogenetics in TC slices containing the auditory thalamus and ACx, we show that TC LTP is expressed postsynaptically and depends on group I metabotropic glutamate receptors. TC LTP in mature ACx can be unmasked by cortical disinhibition combined with activation of cholinergic inputs from the nucleus basalis. Cholinergic inputs passing through the thalamic radiation activate M1 muscarinic receptors on TC projections and sustain glutamate release at TC synapses via negative regulation of presynaptic adenosine signaling through A1 adenosine receptors. These data indicate that TC LTP in the ACx persists throughout life and therefore can potentially contribute to experience-dependent cortical map plasticity in the ACx in both young and adult animals. PMID:23616541

  4. Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowark, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for our Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program (NRA 94-OSS-12) grant NAG 5-3225. The proposal is entitled 'Spectral and Temporal Properties of Black Hole Candidates', and began funding in May 1995, and ran through 31 Aug 2000. The project summary from the original proposal was as follows: 'We will study the spectral and temporal properties of black hole candidates (BHC) by using data from archival sources (e.g., EXOSAT, Ginga, ROSAT) and proposed follow-up observations with modern instruments (e.g., ASCA, XTE). Our spectral studies will focus on identifying the basic characteristics and luminosities of the emission components in the various 'states' of BHC. We hope to understand and quantify the global energetics of these states. Our temporal studies will focus on expanding and classifying our knowledge of BHC variability properties in each state. We will explore the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in BHC. We will combine our spectral and temporal studies by analyzing time lags and variability coherence between energy channels. In addition, we will investigate ways of correlating observed variability behavior with specific emission components.' We have accomplished many of these goals laid out within the original proposal. As originally proposed, we have utilized both archival and proprietary satellite data. In terms of archival data, we have utilized data from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), ROSAT, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We also obtained proprietary data from ASCA, RXTE, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). In terms of sources, we have examined a wide variety of both galactic black hole candidates and extra-galactic black holes. For the galactic black holes we have observed and analyzed both the low/hard state and the high/soft state. We have performed both spectral and timing analyses on all of these objects. In addition, we have also examined a number of neutron stars or

  5. Long term property prediction of polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaito, Ali Al-Abed

    properties of the nanocomposites was analyzed by examining tensile and creep-recovery behavior of the films at temperatures in the range of 25 to -100°C. Within the measured temperature range, the materials showed a nonlinear temperature dependent response. The time-temperature superposition principle was successfully used to predict the long term behavior of LLDPE nanocomposites.

  6. LOP- LONG-TERM ORBIT PREDICTOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is

  7. Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Leirisalo-Repo, M; Helenius, P; Hannu, T; Lehtinen, A; Kreula, J; Taavitsainen, M; Koskimies, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Reactive joint complications triggered by salmonella gastroenteritis are increasingly reported, but the outcome and long term prognosis of the patients is incompletely known. This study looked at the prognosis of salmonella arthritis in patients hospitalised in 1970-1986.
METHODS—Hospital records from two hospitals in southern Finland were screened for patients with the discharge diagnosis of salmonellosis or reactive, postinfectious arthritis or Reiter's disease. For the patients with confirmed diagnosis of reactive salmonella arthritis, data about the acute disease were collected from the hospital records. A follow up study was performed.
RESULTS—There were 63 patients (28 women, 35 men, mean age 36.5 years) with salmonella arthritis. Urethritis occurred in 27%, eye inflammation in 13%, and low back pain in 44% of the patients. HLA-B27 was present in 88%. More men than women were HLA-B27 positive. HLA-B27 positive patients had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mean 80.9 v 46.5 mm 1st h, p = 0.0180). Also, extra-articular features and radiological sacroiliitis were seen only in HLA-B27 positive patients. A follow up study was performed on 50 patients mean 11.0 (range 5-22 years) later. Twenty patients had recovered completely. Ten patients had mild joint symptoms, 11 patients had had a new acute transient arthritis, and five acute iritis. Eight patients had developed chronic spondyloarthropathy. Radiological sacroiliitis was seen in six of 44 patients, more frequently in male than in female patients (32% v 0%; p = 0.0289). Recurrent or chronic arthritis, iritis or radiological sacroiliitis developed only in HLA-B27 positive patients.
CONCLUSION—Joint symptoms are common after reactive salmonella arthritis. HLA-B27 contributes to the severity of acute disease and to the late prognosis.

 PMID:9370874

  8. Long-term evolution is surprisingly predictable in lattice proteins

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Michael E.; Moudgil, Arnav; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been debated whether natural selection acts primarily upon individual organisms, or whether it also commonly acts upon higher-level entities such as lineages. Two arguments against the effectiveness of long-term selection on lineages have been (i) that long-term evolutionary outcomes will not be sufficiently predictable to support a meaningful long-term fitness and (ii) that short-term selection on organisms will almost always overpower long-term selection. Here, we use a computational model of protein folding and binding called ‘lattice proteins’. We quantify the long-term evolutionary success of lineages with two metrics called the k-fitness and k-survivability. We show that long-term outcomes are surprisingly predictable in this model: only a small fraction of the possible outcomes are ever realized in multiple replicates. Furthermore, the long-term fitness of a lineage depends only partly on its short-term fitness; other factors are also important, including the ‘evolvability’ of a lineage—its capacity to produce adaptive variation. In a system with a distinct short-term and long-term fitness, evolution need not be ‘short-sighted’: lineages may be selected for their long-term properties, sometimes in opposition to short-term selection. Similar evolutionary basins of attraction have been observed in vivo, suggesting that natural biological lineages will also have a predictive long-term fitness. PMID:23466559

  9. Long-term ozone monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.

    Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov) This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.

  10. Long-term Ozone monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.

    Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov) This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.

  11. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression.

    PubMed

    Antunes, G; Roque, A C; Simoes-de-Souza, F M

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca(2+) induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca(2+) signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca(2+) thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  12. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, G.; Roque, A. C.; Simoes-de-Souza, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca2+ induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca2+ signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca2+ thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  13. Long-term care financing: options for the future.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Janemarie; Li, Annelise

    2002-01-01

    The aging of the baby boomers will have an enormous impact on the future of long-term care costs. This article projects the magnitude of that impact, discusses sources of financing, and considers the cost and feasibility of three options for financing future long-term care services. The authors investigate the alternatives of increasing personal savings, raising payroll taxes and expanding employer-sponsored private long-term care insurance coverage, respectively. PMID:12004582

  14. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. (Editor); Rossow, W. (Editor); Fung, I. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

  15. Improved Long-Term Imaging of Embryos with Genetically Encoded α-Bungarotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Swinburne, Ian A.; Mosaliganti, Kishore R.; Green, Amelia A.; Megason, Sean G.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in microscopy and genetic labeling strategies have created new opportunities for time-lapse imaging of embryonic development. However, methods for immobilizing embryos for long periods while maintaining normal development have changed little. In zebrafish, current immobilization techniques rely on the anesthetic tricaine. Unfortunately, prolonged tricaine treatment at concentrations high enough to immobilize the embryo produces undesirable side effects on development. We evaluate three alternative immobilization strategies: combinatorial soaking in tricaine and isoeugenol, injection of α-bungarotoxin protein, and injection of α-bungarotoxin mRNA. We find evidence for co-operation between tricaine and isoeugenol to give immobility with improved health. However, even in combination these anesthetics negatively affect long-term development. α-bungarotoxin is a small protein from snake venom that irreversibly binds and inactivates acetylcholine receptors. We find that α-bungarotoxin either as purified protein from snakes or endogenously expressed in zebrafish from a codon-optimized synthetic gene can immobilize embryos for extended periods of time with few health effects or developmental delays. Using α-bungarotoxin mRNA injection we obtain complete movies of zebrafish embryogenesis from the 1-cell stage to 3 days post fertilization, with normal health and no twitching. These results demonstrate that endogenously expressed α-bungarotoxin provides unprecedented immobility and health for time-lapse microscopy. PMID:26244658

  16. Ensuring climate information guides long-term development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lindsey; Dougill, Andrew; Jones, Richard G.; Steynor, Anna; Watkiss, Paul; Kane, Cheikh; Koelle, Bettina; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; Padgham, Jon; Ranger, Nicola; Roux, Jean-Pierre; Suarez, Pablo; Tanner, Thomas; Vincent, Katharine

    2015-09-01

    Many sub-Saharan countries are failing to include climate information in long-term development planning. Ensuring climate-resilient development requires a step change in how medium- to long-term climate information is produced, communicated and utilized in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere.

  17. Long Term Agroecosystem Research in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at USDA-ARS’s Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita ...

  18. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  19. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  20. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  1. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  2. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  3. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  4. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  5. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  6. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  7. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  8. Standards for Psychological Services in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Smith, Michael; Frazer, Deborah; Molinari, Victor; Rosowsky, Erlene; Crose, Royda; Stillwell, Nick; Kramer, Nanette; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Qualls, Sara; Salamon, Michael; Duffy, Michael; Parr, Joyce; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of standards for psychological practice in long-term care facilities. The standards, which were developed by Psychologists in Long-Term Care, address provider characteristics, methods of referral, assessment practices, treatment, and ethical issues. Offers suggestions for use of the standards. (MKA)

  9. [Developing the core competencies of long-term care professionals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huey-Tzy; Lee, Kuang-Ting

    2012-12-01

    Longer average life expectancies and an ageing society have made long-term care an urgent and important issue in Taiwan. Although the implementation of Long-Term Care Ten-year Project four years ago has begun showing success in terms of assessing Taiwan's needs in terms of long-term care services and resources, there has been little forward progress in terms of training, recruiting and maintaining more competent professionals in the long-term care sector. This paper explores the current state of long-term care competency in Taiwan and educational strategies in place to improve the competency of long-term care professionals. Results indicate that the term geriatric competency embraces sub-competencies in direct care, communication, assessment, teamwork, cultural sensitivities and career care competencies. The term long-term care competency embraces the sub-competencies of supervision, management, information technology, resource management, and organizational skill. As a main contributor to effective long-term care, the nursing profession must employ effective strategies to develop competency-based education. Also, the profession must have an adequate supply of competent manpower to effectively respond to Taiwan's aging society. PMID:23212250

  10. Helping People Make Better Long-Term-Care Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Boston, Krista; Chilvers, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative online system to support long-term-care decision making. Design and Methods: The Long-Term Care Choices tool is a web-based system that uses expert opinion and structures decision making. Results: The system has been well accepted, and most users find it easy to use. Implications:…

  11. LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES: A CORNUCOPIA OF VIRAL PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study sought to determine the frequency and types of respiratory viruses circulating in 33 Boston long term care facilities during a three year period and correlate rates of infection with serum zinc levels. Participants were residents of long term care that had previously participated in a tria...

  12. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  13. Long-term trends in precipitation and surface water chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter shows long-term data and trends in precipitation and surface water chemistry for each site. It contains a brief introduction to the topic, and methods of measurements, selection of variables, and their data source. It consists primarily of a large number of figures showing long-term da...

  14. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  15. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual and long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.

  16. Long-term variation of energetic electron precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asikainen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    The long-term evolution of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) is of considerable interest, e.g., because of its atmospheric and climatic effects. However, the long-term evolution of EEP over several solar cycles has been problematic due to the lack of reliable long-term data. The NOAA/POES satellites have measured energetic particles for more than 35 years. This dataset has been used widely but it has been plagued by several instrumental problems, which have restricted its use for long-term studies. However, we have recently corrected and recalibrated the entire NOAA/POES energetic particle dataset. Using this unique dataset we present here an overview of the long-term evolution of EEP paying particular attention to the role of different types of solar wind disturbances in driving the EEP.

  17. Prenatally diagnosed urinary tract abnormalities: long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D F M

    2008-06-01

    The long-term outcomes of prenatally detected uropathies are poorly documented. Limited data on fetal intervention show a possible reduction in early mortality from pulmonary hypoplasia, but no beneficial effect on long-term prognosis for renal function. Prenatally detected vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is characterised by males with high-grade primary reflux, who are at long-term risk of renal impairment. Prenatal diagnosis and surgical intervention have contributed to a reduction in long-term morbidity in children with pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction. By the same token, many children have almost certainly undergone unnecessary early pyeloplasty for an obstruction that would have resolved spontaneously. Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) carries a low (1%) risk of hypertension in childhood. The limited evidence on the long-term outcome of mild dilatation (pelvicaliectasis) indicates this is a largely innocent finding, which carries no increased risk of morbidity. PMID:18037084

  18. Long-Term Dynamics of Autonomous Fractional Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Yong; Han, Qun

    This paper aims to investigate long-term dynamic behaviors of autonomous fractional differential equations with effective numerical method. The long-term dynamic behaviors predict where systems are heading after long-term evolution. We make some modification and transplant cell mapping methods to autonomous fractional differential equations. The mapping time duration of cell mapping is enlarged to deal with the long memory effect. Three illustrative examples, i.e. fractional Lotka-Volterra equation, fractional van der Pol oscillator and fractional Duffing equation, are studied with our revised generalized cell mapping method. We obtain long-term dynamics, such as attractors, basins of attraction, and saddles. Compared with some existing stability and numerical results, the validity of our method is verified. Furthermore, we find that the fractional order has its effect on the long-term dynamics of autonomous fractional differential equations.

  19. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  20. An international initiative on long-term behavior of high-level nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Gin, Stephane; Criscenti, Louise J.; Ebert, W. L.; Ferrand, Karine; Geisler, Thorsten; Harrison, Mike T.; Inagaki, Yaohiro; Mitsui, Seiichiro; Mueller, Karl T.; Marra, James C.; Pantano, Carlo G.; Pierce, Eric M.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Schofield, James M.; Steefel, Carl I.; Vienna, John D.

    2013-06-01

    Nations producing borosilicate glass as an immobilization material for radioactive wastes resulting from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing have reinforced scientific collaboration to obtain consensus on mechanisms controlling the long-term dissolution rate of glass. This goal is deemed to be crucial for the development of reliable performance assessment models for geological disposal. The collaborating laboratories all conduct fundamental and/or applied research with modern materials science techniques. The paper briefly reviews the radioactive waste vitrification programmes of the six participant nations and summarizes the state-of-the-art of glass corrosion science, emphasizing common scientific needs and justifications for on-going initiatives.

  1. ''Minimizing tacrolimus'' strategy and long-term survival after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jun-Jun; Lin, Bin-Yi; He, Jiang-Juan; Geng, Lei; Kadel, Dhruba; Wang, Li; Yu, Dong-Dong; Shen, Tian; Yang, Zhe; Ye, Yu-Fu; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of the ‘‘minimizing tacrolimus’’ strategy on long-term survival of patients after liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 319 patients who received LT between January 2009 and December 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. Following elimination of ineligible patients, 235 patients were included in the study. The relationship between early tacrolimus (TAC) exposure and survival period was analyzed by Kaplan Meier curves. Adverse effects related to TAC were evaluated by the χ2 test. Routine monitoring of blood TAC concentration (TC) was performed using the PRO-TracTM II Tacrolimus Elisa Kit (Diasorin, United States). RESULTS: Of 235 subjects enrolled in the study, 124 (52.8%) experienced adverse effects due to TAC. When evaluating mean TC, the survival time of patients with a mean TC < 5 ng/mL was significantly shorter than that in the other groups (911.3 ± 131.6 d vs 1381.1 ± 66.1 d, 911.3 ± 131.6 d vs 1327.3 ± 47.8 d, 911.3 ± 131.6 d vs 1343.2 ± 83.1 d, P < 0.05), while the survival times of patients with a mean TC of 5-7, 7-10 and 10-15 ng/mL were comparable. Adverse effects due to TAC in all four groups were not significantly different. When comparing the standard deviation (SD) of TC among the groups, the survival time of patients with a SD of 2-4 was significantly longer than that in the other groups (1388.8 ± 45.4 d vs 1029.6 ± 131.3 d, 1388.8 ± 45.4 d vs 1274.9 ± 57.0 d, P < 0.05), while in patients with a SD < 2 and SD > 4, the survival time was not statistically different. Adverse effects experienced in all three groups were not statistically different. In Cox regression analysis, male patients and those with a primary diagnosis of benign disease, mean TC > 5 ng/mL and TC SD 2-4 had better outcomes. CONCLUSION: The early ‘‘minimizing tacrolimus’’ strategy with a mean TC of 5-10 ng/mL and SD of 2-4 was beneficial in terms of

  2. Abstracts 1987. New Horizons in Long Term Care: A Report on the Long Term Care Research and Demonstration Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Aid, Springfield.

    This booklet provides a description of 14 projects which were awarded funds during fiscal year 1987 for collaborative research in long-term care to find new ways to treat long-term care patients in Illinois nursing homes. It includes the organization or institution receiving the award, an abstract of the research proposal, and the name of the…

  3. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  4. Relationships Between Basin-Wide and Landfalling Atlantic Tropical Cyclones: Comparing Long-Term Simulations with Paleoevidence (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, M. E.; Kozar, M. E.; Emanuel, K.

    2013-12-01

    Substantial uncertainties exist regarding the long-term relationships between various measures of Atlantic Tropical Cyclone (TC) activity, e.g. annual total named storm counts vs. major landfalling U.S. hurricanes. Evaluating relationships from historical observations is perilous, as the records are short, spanning little more than a century, and observational biases potentially become quite substantial in earlier decades. Comparisons are further hampered by the fact that these biases may have differential impacts on different quantities. Here, we instead examine the relationships between various measures of Atlantic TC activity using the idealized framework provided by a climate model simulation subject to estimated natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing over the past millennium (AD 850-1999). Following the downscaling approach of Emanuel et al, we use the large-scale fields of the climate model simulation to force a model of tropical cyclone genesis, tracking, and intensification. This process yields synthetic long-term basin-wide seasonal TC histories with realistic statistical attributes. Using the simulated TC histories, we examine relationships between basin-wide TC activity, landfalling TCs, hurricanes, landfalling hurricanes, and major U.S. landfalling hurricanes on timescales ranging from the interannual through centennial. We also use these synthetic TC histories to assess the limitations of inferences that can be drawn from networks of geological records of past landfalling hurricanes.

  5. Biogeochemical Cycling and Environmental Stability of Pu Relevant to Long-Term Stewardship of DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Honeyman, Bruce D.; Francis, A.J.; Gillow, Jeffrey B.; Dodge, Cleveland J.; Santschi, Peter H.; Chin-Chang Hung; Diaz, Angelique; Tinnacher, Ruth; Roberts, Kimberly; Schwehr, Kathy

    2006-04-05

    The overall objective of this research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Central to Pu cycling (transport initiation and immobilization) is the role of microorganisms. The hypothesis underlying this work is that microbial activity is the causative agent in initiating the mobilization of Pu in near-surface environments: through the transformation of Pu associated with solid phases, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) carrier phases and the creation of microenvironments. Also, microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for Pu transport retardation.

  6. Biogeochemical Cycling and Environmental Stability of Pu Relevant to Long-Term Stewardship of DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Santschi, Peter H.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2005-06-01

    The overall objective of this proposed research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Central to Pu cycling (transport initiation to immobilization) is the role of microorganisms. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that microbial activity is the causative agent in initiating the mobilization of Pu in near-surface environments: through the transformation of Pu associated with solid phases, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) carrier phases, and the creation of microenvironments. Also, microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for Pu transport retardation.

  7. Biogeochemical Cycling and Environmental Stability of Pu Relevant to Long-Term Stewardship of DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Santschi, Peter H.

    2006-06-01

    The overall objective of this proposed research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Central to Pu cycling (transport initiation to immobilization) is the role of microorganisms. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that microbial activity is the causative agent in initiating the mobilization of Pu in near-surface environments: through the transformation of Pu associated with solid phases, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) carrier phases, and the creation of microenvironments. Also, microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for Pu transport retardation.

  8. The Long-Term Outcome of Four-Corner Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Trail, Ian A.; Murali, Raj; Stanley, John Knowles; Hayton, Michael John; Talwalkar, Sumedh; Sreekumar, Ramankutty; Birch, Ann

    2015-01-01

    , a functional range of motion, and a satisfactory functional outcome. The bulk of the complications appear to occur in the first 2 years after surgery. Thereafter, analysis shows long-term satisfaction with little deterioration. Nonunion, particularly around the triquetrum, continues to be a problem, but it may be that this bone should be excised along with the scaphoid, resulting in a three-part fusion only. Alternatively, a simple capitolunate fusion may be satisfactory. PMID:25945298

  9. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  10. Long-term Fate of Arsenic under the Oxidation of Ferrous Iron by Nitrate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J.; Prommer, H.; Siade, A. J.; Chillrud, S. N.; Mailloux, B. J.; Bostick, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    In situ precipitation of iron (Fe) minerals can be an effective means of remediating groundwater arsenic (As) contamination. Among different Fe minerals, magnetite is promising as a host-mineral for As in situ immobilization in that it is stable under a wide range of geochemical conditions, including Fe(III) reducing conditions under which As are often mobilized. Our previous laboratory studies suggest that the formation of nanoparticulate magnetite can be achieved by the oxidation of ferrous Fe with nitrate. Magnetite can incorporate As into its structure during formation, in which case desorption and As(V) reduction are less likely. Nanoparticulate magnetite, once formed, can also immobilize As by surface adsorption, and thus serve as a reactive filter when contaminated groundwater migrates through the treatment zone. In this study, a reactive transport model is develop for the magnetite based As immobilization strategy. The initial numerical model development was guided by experimental data and hypothesized processes from the laboratory one-dimensional column studies. Our modeling results suggest that the ratio between Fe(II) and nitrate in the injectant regulates the extent and distribution of magnetite and ferrihydrite formation, and thus regulates the long-term potential of As immobilization. Based on these results, two-dimensional field-scale model scenarios were developed to predict and compare the impact of chemical and operational parameters on the efficiency of the remediation technology. The modeling results, which suggest that long-term groundwater As removal is feasible, favor scenarios that rely on the chromatographic mixing of Fe(II) and nitrate after injection. This study highlights the importance of combining laboratory studies and reactive transport modeling for elucidating the complex hydro-biogeochemical processes that control the fate of As and for up-scaling of the technology.

  11. What nursing diagnoses do nurses use in long term care?

    PubMed

    Daly, J M; Maas, M; Buckwalter, K

    1995-01-01

    The results of this survey validate that the NANDA nursing diagnoses classification is appropriate for use in long term care. Although ninety three percent of the current NANDA nursing diagnoses are used in practice, there remains a need for the development and testing of additional nursing diagnoses to describe patient problems encountered in long term care. Nurses in education and practice settings must work collaboratively to continue to identify, refine and validate the nursing diagnoses that are most appropriate for frail, older and/or chronically ill residents of long term care facilities. PMID:7648273

  12. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  13. Thermoregulatory effects of chlorpyrifos in the rat: long-term changes in cholinergic and noradrenergic sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J

    1994-01-01

    Subcutaneous injection of a sublethal dose of chlorpyrifos (CHLP), an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, causes long-term inhibition in cholinesterase activity (ChE) of brain, blood, and other tissues. Such prolonged inhibition in ChE should lead to marked behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory patterns, especially in terms of altered noradrenergic and cholinergic sensitivity. To evaluate the behavioral and autonomic effects of long-term ChE inhibition, Long-Evans rats were implanted with radiotelemetry transmitters that continuously monitored core temperature (Tc), heart rate (HR), and motor activity (MA). These parameters were monitored for 7 days following a single injection of peanut oil (vehicle control) or 280 mg/kg CHLP. CHLP led to a significant reduction in Tc during the first night after treatment but had no other effects on Tc. CHLP also resulted in a significant elevation in HR which lasted for approximately 72 h. Motor activity was unaffected by CHLP. Cholinergic and noradrenergic drug sensitivity was assessed between 7 and 25 days after CHLP. CHLP-treated rats were more sensitive to norepinephrine as based on a greater hyperthermic response. MA of CHLP-treated rats was more sensitive to scopolamine. On the other hand, the hypothermic effects of oxotremorine (0.4 mg/kg) were nearly abolished by CHLP treatment, indicating tolerance to cholinergic stimulation. The tachycardic effects of methyscopolamine were also greater in the CHLP group. Overall, the acute effects of CHLP are unusual compared to other OP's in that there is no hypothermic response, an attenuated nocturnal elevation in Tc and a prolonged elevation in HR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7514260

  14. Long-Term Safe Storage and Disposal of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Borehole Type Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Ojovan, M. I.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Sobolev, I. A.

    2003-02-26

    Russian Federation has the leading experience in applying borehole storage/disposal method for SRS. A new immobilization technology for sources being disposed of in underground repositories was mastered by 1986 and since then it is used in the country. This method uses all advantages of borehole type repositories supplementing them with metal encapsulation of sources. Sources being uniformly allocated in the volume of underground vessel are fixed in the metal block hence ensuring long-term safety. The dissipation of radiogenic heat from SRS is considerably improved, radiation fields are reduced, and direct contact of sources to an environment is completely eliminated. The capacity of a typical borehole storage/disposal facility is increased almost 6 times applying metal immobilization. That has made new technology extremely favourable economically. The metal immobilization of SRS is considered as an option in Belarus and Ukraine as well as Bulgaria. Immobilization of sources in metal matrices can be a real solution for retrieval of SRS from inadequate repositories.

  15. Strategies to meet the need for long-term data.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Borghi, Claudio; Manolis, Athanasios; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Chronic diseases afflict patients for many years, often to the end of life, and there is increasing need for estimating lifelong risk and for evaluating the effects of treatment in the long term. Yet recommendations for lifelong treatment are most frequently based on findings from randomized clinical trials lasting only a few years. There is therefore a clear need for much longer term data, and here we present the advantages and disadvantages of many strategies, including the use of long-term posttrial follow-up, of long-term prospective cohort studies, registry databases, and of administrative databases. We also emphasize the need for long-term cost-effectiveness studies. One of the most promising strategies comes from linkage of data gathered through the ever-expanding pool of administrative databases worldwide with data from other sources, including randomized trials and the many forms of observational study. PMID:27270189

  16. Long-term monitoring for nanomedicine implants and drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michaela; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-01

    Increasing globalization means that traditional occupational epidemiological approaches may no longer apply, suggesting a need for an alternative model to assess the long-term impact of nanomaterial exposure on health.

  17. Earth's Long-Term Warming Trend, 1880-2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization illustrates Earth’s long-term warming trend, showing temperature changes from 1880 to 2015 as a rolling five-year average. Orange colors represent temperatures that are warmer th...

  18. Long-term Career Goals for Professional Women in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, Betty

    1986-01-01

    Encourages the formation of long-term career goals for women in agronomy. Offers perspectives and practical suggestions for obtaining positions, maintaining professional credentials, and managing personal and career related obligations. (ML)

  19. Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160606.html Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects Early head ... 000 Swedes who suffered at least one traumatic brain injury (TBI) before age 25 with their unaffected ...

  20. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  1. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated. PMID:27252935

  2. The market for long-term care services.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, David C

    2008-01-01

    Although a large literature has established the importance of market and regulatory forces within the long-term care sector, current research in this field is limited by a series of data, measurement, and methodological issues. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these issues with an emphasis on identifying initiatives that will increase the volume and quality of long-term care research. Recommendations include: the construction of standard measures of long-term care market boundaries, the broader dissemination of market and regulatory data, the linkage of survey-based data with market measures, the encouragement of further market-based studies of noninstitutional long-term care settings, and the standardization of Medicaid cost data. PMID:18524292

  3. Long term combination treatment for severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Affuso, Flora; Cirillo, Plinio; Ruvolo, Antonio; Carlomagno, Guido; Fazio, Serafino

    2010-01-01

    We report the long-term follow-up of 3 cases of severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, in whom tadalafil plus sitaxentan combination therapy improved the clinical condition and exercise performance without any relevant adverse event. PMID:21160759

  4. Long-Term Quiescent Fibroblast Cells Transit into Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Hemmerich, Peter; Klement, Karolin; Diekmann, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development. PMID:25531649

  5. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  6. Influenza in long-term care facilities: preventable, detectable, treatable.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2009-09-01

    Influenza in long-term care facilities is an ever more challenging problem. Vaccination of residents and health care workers is the most important preventive measure. Although vaccine efficacy has been questioned, the preponderance of data favors vaccination. Antiviral resistance complicates postexposure chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Factors that limit the choice of antiviral agents in this patient population include limited vaccine supplies and impaired dexterity and confusion in long-term care residents. PMID:19726556

  7. Endoscopic Management of Attic Cholesteatoma: Long-Term Results.

    PubMed

    Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Marchioni, Daniele; Kakehata, Seiji; Presutti, Livio; Villari, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The main application of endoscopic surgery relies on the middle ear cholesteatoma surgical treatment, although for a definitive validation and acceptance by scientific community, long-term results are needed about recurrent and residual rates of the pathology. The aim of the present paper was to analyze the single institution experience with the long-term results of surgical treatment of attic cholesteatoma. PMID:27565391

  8. Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

  9. Long-term effects of sludge application to land

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, W.S. ); Knocke, W.R.; Novak, J.T.; Dove, D. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term environmental effects of applying alum sludge to land. Investigations at the original field site included soil analysis, soil water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and analysis of tissues from pine needles. No long-term (30 months) effects were observed, and the authors conclude that alum coagulant sludges can be applied to forest lands at loading rates of at least 1.5 to 2.5% by dry weight without adverse effect.

  10. Long-term moderate exercise accelerates the recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yuan-Chang; Tsai, Sheng-Feng; Yu, Lung; Chuang, Jih-Ing; Wu, Fong-Sen; Jen, Chauying J; Kuo, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is an important global health problem. It is well documented that stress increases the incidences of various cardiovascular disorders. Regular exercise is known to reduce resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). This study was designed to clarify the effects of long-term exercise on stress-evoked cardiovascular responses and to emphasize post-stress recovery effects. Male Wistar rats underwent 8 weeks of moderate treadmill training, with cardiovascular responses, autonomic nervous system activities and local Fos reactivity changes in the cardiovascular regulation center were monitored before, during and after immobilization stress. A spectral analysis of cardiovascular parameters was used to examine autonomic nervous activities. We found that long-term exercise (i) lowered resting BP, HR and sympathetic activity, but increased resting parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS); (ii) accelerated post-stress recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular and sympathetic responses along with increased BRS and (iii) accelerated post-stress recovery of stress-evoked neuron activations in the paraventricular nucleus, but delayed it in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius. We conclude that, in rats, long-term exercise accelerated recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses differentially altering hypothalamic and medullar neuron activities. PMID:26473638

  11. Superior long-term stability of a glucose biosensor based on inserted barrel plating gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Teng; Hsiao, Hung-Chan; Fang, Mei-Yen; Zen, Jyh-Myng

    2009-10-15

    Disposable one shot usage blood glucose strips are routinely used in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus and their performance can vary greatly. In this paper we critically evaluated the long-term stability of glucose strips made of barrel plating gold electrodes. Compared to other glucose biosensing platforms of vapor deposited palladium and screen printed carbon electrodes, the proposed glucose biosensor was found to show the best stability among the three biosensing platforms in thermal acceleration experiments at 40 degrees C for 6 months with an average bias of 3.4% at glucose concentrations of 5-20 mM. The precision test of this barrel plating gold glucose biosensor also showed the best performance (coefficients of variation in the range of 1.4-2.4%) in thermal acceleration experiments at 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C and 70 degrees C for 27 days. Error grid analysis revealed that all measurements fell in zone A and zone B. Regression analysis showed no significant difference between the proposed biosensor and the reference method at 99% confidence level. The amperometric glucose biosensor fabricated by inserting two barrel plating gold electrodes onto an injection-molding plastic base followed by immobilizing with a bio-reagent layer and membrane was very impressive with a long-term stability up to 2.5 years at 25 degrees C. Overall, these results indicated that the glucose oxidase/barrel plating gold biosensing platform is ideal for long-term accurate glycemic control. PMID:19729292

  12. Long-term geochemical evolution of acidic mine wastes under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenzhou; Lin, Chuxia; Ma, Yingqun

    2013-08-01

    A nearly 5-year anaerobic incubation experiment was conducted to observe the geochemical evolution of an acidic mine waste. Long-term storage of the mine waste under strict anaerobic conditions caused marked increase in aqueous sulfur, while aqueous iron showed no remarkable change. Co-existing oxidation and reduction of elemental sulfur appeared to play a central role in controlling the evolutionary trends of aqueous sulfur and iron. Addition of organic matter increased the aqueous Fe concentration, possibly due to enhanced iron mobilization by microbial iron reduction and increased iron solubility by forming organically complexed Fe species. Further addition of CaCO3 resulted in immobilization of aqueous iron and sulfur due to elevated pH and gypsum formation. The chemical behaviors of environmentally significant metals were markedly affected by the added organic matter; Al, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn tended to be immobilized probably due to elevated pH and complexation with insoluble organic molecules, while As and Pb tended to be mobilized. Jarosite exhibited high stability after nearly 5 years of anaerobic incubation and even under circumneutral pH conditions. Long-term weathering of aluminosilicate through acid attack raised pH, while continuous reaction between the added CaCO3 and mine waste-borne stored acid decreased pH. PMID:23529626

  13. Private Financing Options for Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Barbara L.; Simon, Harold J.; Smallwood, Dennis E.

    1987-01-01

    Private financing for long-term care now comes almost exclusively from out-of-pocket payments. Long-term-care costs quickly impoverish most elderly, resulting in Medicaid dependency. The consequences are profound for the western Sun Belt with its rapidly growing elderly population. Key private financing options are long-term-care individual retirement accounts (LTC/IRAs), home equity conversion, social-health maintenance organizations and long-term-care insurance. Study of data from the past half century suggests that the LTC/IRA approach would prove unsatisfactory for the purpose despite the intuitive appeal of this mechanism. Experience with home equity conversions is still very limited, and unresolved questions limit this approach to the role of a reserve option for now. While promising, social-health maintenance organizations are still in the experimental stages and not yet commercially available. Long-term-care insurance is currently sold on a thin market and emphasizes nursing home coverage. New approaches to private financing through long-term-care insurance seem to offer the best approach for immediate implementation. PMID:3118576

  14. Commentary: The Broader Context of Long-Term Care Ethics.

    PubMed

    Lesandrini, Jason; O'Connell, Carol

    2016-07-01

    Ethical issues in long-term care settings, although having received attention in the literature, have not in our opinion received the appropriate level they require. Thus, we applaud the Cambridge Quarterly for publishing this case. We can attest to the significance of ethical issues arising in long-term care facilities, as Mr. Hope's case is all too familiar to those practicing in these settings. What is unique about this case is that an actual ethics consult was made in a long-term care setting. We have seen very little in the published literature on the use of ethics structures in long-term care populations. Our experience is that these healthcare settings are ripe for ethical concerns and that providers, patients, families, and staff need/desire ethics resources to actively and preventively address ethical concerns. The popular press has begun to recognize the ethical issues involved in long-term care settings and the need for ethics structures. Recently, in California a nurse refused to initiate CPR for an elderly patient in a senior residence. In that case, the nurse was quoted as saying that the facility had a policy that nurses were not to start CPR for elderly patients. 1 Although this case is not exactly the same as that of Mr. Hope, it highlights the need for developing robust ethics program infrastructures in long-term care settings that work toward addressing ethical issues through policy, education, and active consultation. PMID:27348841

  15. Patterns and Drivers of Soil Respiration under Long-Term Citrus reticulate in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Su-Yan; Yang, Jie; Yan, Yue; Fu, Xiang-Ping; Lu, Shun-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is a major source of carbon emission in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that the influence of land use practice on Rs has been widely studied, the patterns and drivers on Rs of Citrus reticulata cultivation, a worldwide land use practice are unclear. In this current study, we investigated the influence of long-term cultivation of Citrus reticulata (CO) and of CO intercropped with soybean (CB) on soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs in southern China. Results indicated that after 21 years of cultivation, CO and CB significantly increased total soil carbon (TC), total soil nitrogen (TN), and soil organic matter (OM) at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm, both at upslope and downslope compared with bare soil (CK). However, soil moisture (SM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) decreased under CB. In addition, no significant variation was found in soil pH between CK, CO, and CB. Across incubation time (56 days), Rs decreased exponentially with incubation time and CB showed the highest Rs rate irrespective of soil depth or topography. Linear regression further showed TC and TN as the two major factors influencing Rs upslope, while DOC was the dominant factor in regulating Rs downslope. These findings demonstrated that long-term cultivation of citrus significantly changed soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs rate. PMID:26368561

  16. Patterns and Drivers of Soil Respiration under Long-Term Citrus reticulate in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Su-Yan; Yang, Jie; Yan, Yue; Fu, Xiang-ping; Lu, Shun-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is a major source of carbon emission in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that the influence of land use practice on Rs has been widely studied, the patterns and drivers on Rs of Citrus reticulata cultivation, a worldwide land use practice are unclear. In this current study, we investigated the influence of long-term cultivation of Citrus reticulata (CO) and of CO intercropped with soybean (CB) on soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs in southern China. Results indicated that after 21 years of cultivation, CO and CB significantly increased total soil carbon (TC), total soil nitrogen (TN), and soil organic matter (OM) at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm, both at upslope and downslope compared with bare soil (CK). However, soil moisture (SM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) decreased under CB. In addition, no significant variation was found in soil pH between CK, CO, and CB. Across incubation time (56 days), Rs decreased exponentially with incubation time and CB showed the highest Rs rate irrespective of soil depth or topography. Linear regression further showed TC and TN as the two major factors influencing Rs upslope, while DOC was the dominant factor in regulating Rs downslope. These findings demonstrated that long-term cultivation of citrus significantly changed soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs rate. PMID:26368561

  17. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO(4) precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P. PMID:22982614

  18. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual andmore » long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.« less

  19. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  20. Method for Water Management Considering Long-term Probabilistic Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Kang, J.; Suh, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    This research is aimed at predicting the monthly inflow of the Andong-dam basin in South Korea using long-term probabilistic forecasts to apply long-term forecasts to water management. Forecasted Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of monthly precipitation are plotted by combining the range of monthly precipitation based on proper Probability Density Function (PDF) in past data with probabilistic forecasts in each category. Ensembles of inflow are estimated by entering generated ensembles of precipitation based on the CDFs into the 'abcd' water budget model. The bias and RMSE between averages in past data and observed inflow are compared to them in forecasted ensembles. In our results, the bias and RMSE of average precipitation in the forecasted ensemble are bigger than in past data, whereas the average inflow in the forecasted ensemble is smaller than in past data. This result could be used for reference data to apply long-term forecasts to water management, because of the limit in the number of forecasted data for verification and differences between the Andong-dam basin and the forecasted regions. This research has significance by suggesting a method of applying probabilistic information in climate variables from long-term forecasts to water management in Korea. Original data of a climate model, which produces long-term probabilistic forecasts should be verified directly as input data of a water budget model in the future, so that a more scientific response in water management against uncertainty of climate change could be reached.

  1. Characteristics of Long-Term Survivors of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Rosemary D.; Chen, Yingjia S.; Morris, Cyllene R.; Petersen, Megan; Leiserowitz, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with long-term survival forepithelial ovarian cancer patients using the California Cancer Registry. Methods A descriptive analysis of survival of all California residents diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 1994 and 2001 was conducted using patients identified through the cancer registry with follow up through 2011. Characteristics of the patients who survived more than 10 years (long-term survivors) were compared to three other cohorts: patients who survived less than 2 years, those who survived at least 2 but no more than 5 years, and those who survived at least 5 but no more than 10 years. Results A total of 3,582 out of 11,541 (31% CI=30.2%, 31.8%) of the patients survived more than 10 years. Younger age, early stage, low-grade, and non-serous histology were significant predictors of long-term survival, but long-term survivors also included women with high-risk cancer. Conclusion Long-term survival is not unusual in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, even in those with high-risk disease. Many of the prognostic factors are well known, but it remains to be determined why some patients with advanced stage high-grade cancers survive longer than others with the same histology. These findings are important for patient counseling. PMID:26244529

  2. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22 years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO4 precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P.

  3. Short- and long-term (trophic) purinergic signalling.

    PubMed

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2016-08-01

    There is long-term (trophic) purinergic signalling involving cell proliferation, differentiation, motility and death in the development and regeneration of most systems of the body, in addition to fast purinergic signalling in neurotransmission, neuromodulation and secretion. It is not always easy to distinguish between short- and long-term signalling. For example, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can sometimes act as a short-term trigger for long-term trophic events that become evident days or even weeks after the original challenge. Examples of short-term purinergic signalling during sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric neuromuscular transmission and in synaptic transmission in ganglia and in the central nervous system are described, as well as in neuromodulation and secretion. Long-term trophic signalling is described in the immune/defence system, stratified epithelia in visceral organs and skin, embryological development, bone formation and resorption and in cancer. It is likely that the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) in response to both P2X and P2Y purinoceptor activation participates in many short- and long-term physiological effects.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377731

  4. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  5. Rural long-term care work, gender, and restructuring.

    PubMed

    Leach, Belinda; Joseph, Gillian

    2011-06-01

    Restructuring--the introduction of changes that alter the way health care is delivered for maximum efficiency and least cost--layered with rurality and with rural gender ideologies and practices, results in rural long-term care settings that have particular consequences for the women working in them, and for the residents and communities that they serve. This research investigated how rurality affects the implementation of patient classification in Ontario long-term care homes. Methods involved interviews and focus groups with front-line long-term care workers, administrators, and key participants. The findings revealed that rural long-term care delivery takes place when a restructured work environment intersects with gender ideologies and practices that take on particular characteristics when developed and sustained in a rural context. These factors shape the labor market and working conditions for rural women. We argue that this produces a uniquely rural experience for long-term care workers and conclude that those implementing classification systems must consider contextual factors as well as practical and financial exigencies. PMID:24650670

  6. Impact of Short- and Long-term Tai Chi Mind-Body Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: Results From a Hybrid Observational Study and Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis; Gow, Brian; Macklin, Eric A.; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive decline amongst older adults is a significant public health concern. There is growing interest in behavioral interventions, including exercise, for improving cognition. Studies to date suggest tai chi (TC) may be a safe and potentially effective exercise for preserving cognitive function with aging; however, its short-term and potential long-term impact on physically active, healthy adults is unclear. Objective: To compare differences in cognitive function among long-term TC expert practitioners and age-matched and gender-matched TC-naïve adults and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on measures of cognitive function in healthy, nonsedentary adults. Design: A hybrid design including an observational comparison and a 2-arm randomized clinical trial (RCT) Participants: Healthy, nonsedentary, TC-naive adults (50 y-79 y) and age-matched and gender-matched long-term TC experts Methods: A cross-sectional comparison of cognitive function in healthy TC-naïve (n=60) and TC expert (24.5 y ÷ 12 y experience; n=27) adults: TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, 2-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Six measures of cognitive function were assessed for both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. Results: TC experts exhibited trends towards better scores on all cognitive measures, significantly so for category fluency (P=.01), as well as a composite z score summarizing all 6 cognitive assessments (P=.03). In contrast, random assignment to 6 months of TC training in TC-naïve adults did not significantly improve any measures of cognitive function. Conclusions: In healthy nonsedentary adults, long-term TC training may help preserve cognitive function; however, the effect of short-term TC training in healthy adults remains unclear. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340365 PMID:26331103

  7. Encapsulation of a Nerve Agent Detoxifying Enzyme by a Mesoporous Zirconium Metal-Organic Framework Engenders Thermal and Long-Term Stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Moon, Su-Young; Guelta, Mark A; Harvey, Steven P; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2016-07-01

    Immobilized enzymes typically have greater thermal and operational stability than their soluble form. Here we report that for the first time, a nerve agent detoxifying enzyme, organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA), has been successfully encapsulated into a water-stable zirconium metal-organic framework (MOF). This MOF features a hierarchical mesoporous channel structure and exhibits a 12 wt % loading capacity of OPAA. The thermal and long-term stabilities of OPAA are both significantly enhanced after immobilization. PMID:27341436

  8. Injection of Emulsified Vegetable Oil for Long-Term Bioreduction of Uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Schadt, C. W.; Jardine, P. M.; Gihring, T. M.; Zhang, G.; Mehlhorn, T.; Lowe, K.; Phillips, J.; Earles, J.; Wu, W.; Criddle, C. S.; Kemner, K. M.; Boyanov, M.

    2011-12-01

    In situ bioremediation of a uranium and nitrate-contaminated aquifer with the slow-release electron donor, emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), was tested at the US DOE Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program (SBR) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, in Oak Ridge, TN. The EVO injection took place in Area 2 of the IFRC located about 300 m downgradient of the former S-3 disposal ponds. Liquid wastes, disposed in the ponds from 1951 to 1983, were primarily composed of nitric acid, plating wastes containing various metals (Cr, Ni) radionuclides (U, Tc), inorganics (nitrate, sulfate) and organic contaminants (tetrachloroethylene, acetone). Prior pond closure in 1987, large volumes of waste fluids migrated into the subsurface, down Bear Creek Valley and into Bear Creek. Contaminants detected at Area 2 were transported through a high permeability gravelly fill that is considered a preferred transport pathway for U to Bear Creek. Groundwater in the gravelly fill is contaminated with U (1-3 mg/L), sulfate (95-130 mg/L), and nitrate (20-40 mg/L) and 500 mg/kg or higher U has been detected on the solid phase of the fill material. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and long-term sustainability of U(VI) reduction and immobilization, and nitrate degradation in the high permeability, high flow gravel fill using EVO as the electron donor. A one-time EVO injection was conducted over a 2 hour period in the highly permeable gravel (hydraulic conductivity 0.08 cm/sec) in the well instrumented IFRC Area 2 field plot. Extensive monitoring of geochemical parameters, dissolved gases and microbial populations were conducted during the test. A bromide tracer test was conducted prior to the injection of the EVO to assess transport pathways and rates. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential bioreduction of oxygen, nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III) and sulfate. Transient accumulation of acetate was observed as an intermediate in the oil

  9. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long term care and presents two case examples. A semi-structured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing needs for protection with needs for autonomy. PMID:24354331

  10. Long-term urological outcomes in cloacal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Brian T; Wilcox, Duncan T

    2016-04-01

    Cloacal anomalies are the most complex and severe form of congenital anorectal malformations (ARM) and urogenital malformations, and it has been well documented that increased severity of ARM leads to worse outcomes. While short-term data on persistent cloaca are available, a paucity of data on long-term outcomes exists, largely because of a lack of uniform terminology, inclusion with other ARM and evolution of the operative technique. On comprehensive review of the published literature on long-term urological outcomes in patients with cloacal anomalies, we found a significant risk of chronic kidney disease and incontinence, however, with improvements in surgical technique, outcomes have improved. Continence often requires intermittent catheterization and in some cases, bladder augmentation. The complexity of cloacal malformations and associated anomalies make long-term multidisciplinary follow-up imperative. PMID:26969235

  11. Data Analysis in the LOFAR Long Term Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holties, H. A.; van Diepen, G.; van Dok, D.; Dijkstra, F.; Loose, M.; Renting, G. A.; Schrijvers, C.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2012-09-01

    The LOFAR Long Term Archive (LTA) is a distributed information system that provides integrated services for data analysis as well as long term preservation of astronomical datasets and their provenance. The data analysis capabilities are provided by a federated system that integrates a central catalog and client user interfaces provided by Astro-Wise with processing pipelines running on Grid based and University HPC clusters. The framework used for data analysis ensures that proper authorization and access rules are applied and that generated data products are ingested into the storage part of the Long Term Archive. The ingest process includes information about data provenance. This paper presents the architecture of the processing framework of the LTA.

  12. Long-term survival following emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Milner, Q J; Burchett, K R

    2000-05-01

    Survival following emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm remains poor and is in stark contrast to that for elective repair. We have carried out a 5-year retrospective observational study to determine the long-term (5-year) survival of patients following emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm at a district general hospital in East Anglia. A total of 99 patients presented to the operating theatre for emergency repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in this 5-year study period. In-hospital mortality was 70% and was unchanged over the 5 years. Overall long-term survival in those patients discharged from hospital was good. The ICU cost per long-term survivor was calculated to be pound sterling 36750. PMID:10792133

  13. Forecasting demand for long-term care services.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, D; Uyeno, D; Stark, A; Kliewer, E; Gutman, G

    1985-01-01

    This article analyzes three methods used to forecast the transition of long-term care clients through a variety of possible home and facility placements and levels of care. The test population (N = 1,653) is derived from the larger population of clients admitted in 1978 to British Columbia's newly established Long-Term Care program. The investigators have accumulated 5 years of service-generated data on moves, discharges, and deaths of these clients. Results show that the first-order Markov chain with stationary transition probabilities yields a superior forecast to state-by-state moving average growth and state-by-state regression analyses. The results of these analyses indicate that the Markov method should receive serious consideration as a tool for resource planning and allocation in long-term care. PMID:3932260

  14. [Long-term evolution and complications of eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Isabelle

    2008-01-31

    Eating disorders long-term evolution is good in 50% of cases, middle in 25% (recovery from eating disorders, but still psychological suffering) and bad in 25% of cases, with chronic eating disorders, anxious or depressive comorbid disorder, and bad consequences in social patients' life. Anorexia nervosa has a considerably worse long-term outcome than bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorders. Never the less, purging bulimia nervosa is often associated with other impulsive symptoms, such as addictions and suicide attempts. Chronic undernutrition leads to main long-term medical complications of eating disorders: linear growth in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, infertility, and osteoporosis. These complications need a specific medical follow up, at least once a year, added to the psychiatric and psychotherapist follow-up. PMID:18361276

  15. Long-term Internship through Cooperative Education with Regional Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Hase, Hiroyuki

    The long term internship is one of special educational programs for graduate students of Graduate School of Engineering in University of Fukui. This is a collaborative program between university and industries where selected post-graduate students are dispatched to companies for a long term and educated in real business environments. It is the final goal of the program to develop sophisticated specialists who would be able to catch the business strategy in industries and solve any problems by themselves. The program is managed in a semester (6 months) and contains 1.5 month prior education of preliminary special knowledge, ethics and secrecy, about 3 month dispatch with long-term internship, and 1.5 month post-education for complementary education and presentation. This paper presents the effect of this program which has been evolving since 2005.

  16. Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J.

    2007-08-15

    A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield.

  17. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  18. Long-term Use of Opioids for Complex Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Von Korff, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased opioid prescribing for back pain and other chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions has been accompanied by dramatic increases in prescription opioid addiction and fatal overdose. Opioid-related risks appear to increase with dose. While short-term randomized trials of opioids for chronic pain have found modest analgesic benefits (a one-third reduction in pain intensity on average), the long-term safety and effectiveness of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain is unknown. Given the lack of large, long-term randomized trials, recent epidemiologic data suggests the need for caution when considering long-term use of opioids to manage chronic musculoskeletal pain, particularly at higher dosage levels. Principles for achieving more selective and cautious use of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain are proposed. PMID:24315147

  19. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application. PMID:10179063

  20. The long-term alteration of borosilicate waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Brown, N.R.

    1993-06-01

    Prediction of the long-term durability of glass waste forms under potential disposal conditions is based on a mechanistic model of glass corrosion which has been derived from short-term laboratory tests. The model of glass reaction that has evolved identifies the hydrolysis of an Si-0 bond to release silicic acid as the step which controls the long-term glass reactivity. This reaction step is initially fast under dilute solution conditions, but slows as the silicic acid concentration in solution increases. An increase in the solution concentrations of glass components will occur with progressive glass corrosion, and so the solutions which contact waste glasses over long reaction times will have high concentrations of glass components. Therefore, the glass reactivity is usually expected to decrease with the reaction progress as the contacting solution becomes more concentrated. The corrosion behavior of glasses contacted by highly concentrated solutions must be characterized to assess the long-term glass stability.

  1. Fast and long term lipid droplet tracking with CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jüngst, Christian; Winterhalder, Martin J; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Photobleaching of organic fluorophores commonly used in fluorescence microscopy puts a limit to the number of images which can be acquired. Label-free imaging techniques therefore offer advantages both for rapid image acquisition and for long-term observations. CARS microscopy is a label-free imaging technique offering molecule specific contrast. Here we demonstrate that CARS microscopy allows video-rate tracking of intracellular transport of lipid droplets, but also continuous long-term observation of cells over several hours. PMID:21445955

  2. [Long-term effects of uterine cesarean section scar].

    PubMed

    Tihtonen, Kati; Nyberg, Reita

    2014-01-01

    During the last few decades the cesarean delivery rate has been around 15% in Finland. It has remained moderate compared with USA where 30% of women deliver by cesarean section. Compared with vaginal delivery, cesarean section is associated with a three- to sixfold risk of severe complications. Furthermore, it increases also long term gynecological morbidity, including intermenstrual bleeding, chronic pelvic pain and risk of secondary infertility. Scar pregnancy, uterine rupture, placenta previa and accrete are known risks after cesarean section. Because cesarean delivery is associated with increased long-term morbidity, the decision of performing cesarean section should always be carefully considered. PMID:24730196

  3. Leadership: the Winnipeg Community and Long-Term Care Authority.

    PubMed

    Suski, M; Hack, T; Heaman, M

    1999-01-01

    The Winnipeg Community and Long Term Care Authority (WCA) was established in 1998 under the Regional Health Authorities Act of the Province of Manitoba. The WCA's role is to provide for the successful integration of Winnipeg's community-based healthcare delivery services through its three main portfolios: Community Care and Public Health, Home Care and Mental Health, and Long Term Care and Specialized Services. The WCA is dedicated to building a quality health future for Winnipeg. Various initiatives undertaken in the pursuit of quality are described. PMID:10538544

  4. [Drug-eluting stents: long-term safety].

    PubMed

    Karpov, Iu A; Samko, A N; Buza, V V

    2009-01-01

    The review concerns the problem of late thromboses of drug-eluting stents and their influence on late prognosis of the patients; presents long-term results of the trial of sirolimus-eluting stents implanted to patients with coronary heart disease; analyses mechanisms of development of late stent thrombosis, data from different meta-analyses and registers comparing long-term outcomes in patients with implanted sirolimus-eluting stents and metallic stents; suggests risk factors of late thromboses of drug-eluting stents; presents original evidence on 3.5-year follow-up of patients with implanted sirolimus-eluting stents and metallic stents. PMID:19537584

  5. Early sound deprivation and long-term hearing.

    PubMed

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1996-11-01

    The long-term effects of hearing loss in early life were analyzed by tests of central auditory function. A majority of individuals failed the Compressed Speech identification with statistically significant results. There was an impact on a minority of individuals evaluated by Dichotic Sentences; little impairment was noted through Speech Reception in Noise. Delayed maturation of the central auditory complex may improve these findings, although during the period of investigation a negative impact was measured. Other issues of diagnosis, remediation, and the consequences of short- and long-term deafness are discussed. PMID:8916863

  6. Long-term preservation of native arteriovenous dialysis fistulas.

    PubMed

    Mallios, Alexandros; Costanzo, Alessandro; Boura, Benoit; Combes, Myriam; Alomran, Faris; de Blic, Romain; Jennings, William C

    2014-04-01

    Preservation of native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in the long term can be technically challenging. Various anatomic or functional problems can occur and multiple open and/or endovascular interventions may be required for extended preservation of native accesses. In this report, we review vascular access maintenance in a 72-year-old woman during a 5-year period. Multiple complications of her native radiocephalic AVF included recurrent occlusions, a central venous stent fracture and symptomatic venous outflow stenosis. We present this case to illustrate the various techniques and combination of approaches used in the long-term preservation of a native AVF. PMID:24360937

  7. Instrumentation of bridges for long-term performance monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Maria Q.; Kim, Doo-Kie; Sheng, Li-Hong; Fiji, Leonard M.; Kim, Yoo J.

    2001-08-01

    As the state of the art in bridge design is advancing toward the performance-based design, it becomes increasingly important to monitor and evaluate the long-term structural performance of bridges, including strains in critical structural members, soil pressures on the abutment back walls and footings, accelerations on the decks and bents, etc. Such information is essential in developing new performance criteria for design. In this research, sensor systems for long-term structural performance monitoring have been installed on two new highway bridges on Orange County, California: the Jamboree Road Overcrossing and the West Street On-Ramp.

  8. Long-term noise statistics from the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, Anthony I.; Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.; Larue, James P.

    2003-04-01

    Long-term, omnidirectional acoustic noise measurements were conducted in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico during the summer of 2001. These efforts were a part of the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center project, Phase I. Initial looks at the noise time series, processed in standard one-third-octave bands from 10 to 5000 Hz, show noise levels that differ substantially from customary deep-water noise spectra. Contributing factors to this highly dynamic noise environment are an abundance of marine mammal emissions and various industrial noises. Results presented here address long-term temporal variability, temporal coherence times, the fluctuation spectrum, and coherence of fluctuations across the frequency spectrum. [Research supported by ONR.

  9. Long-term plasma exchange in pediatric CIDP.

    PubMed

    Lucchetta, Marta; Vidal, Enrico; Sartori, Stefano; Campagnolo, Marta; Torre, Chiara Dalla; Marson, Piero; Manara, Renzo; Briani, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is not frequently used in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) because it usually gives only a short-term benefit. We report on a 16-year-old boy with renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis who developed CIDP and underwent TPE with dramatic long-term response to therapy. Nerve ultrasound and MRI findings are also reported. In our patient TPE was chosen because he was already undergoing hemodialysis. Though it is not considered a first-line therapy in pediatric CIDP, TPE may be a good therapeutic choice also in long-term period. PMID:25663075

  10. The assessment of long-term orbital debris models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonas, F. M.; Yates, K. W.

    1992-01-01

    Existing long-term orbital debris models are assessed as a first step in the Air Force's effort to develop an Air Force long-term orbital debris model which can perform the following functions: (1) operate with the necessary accuracy at the relevant altitudes and orbital parameters; (2) benefit from new Air Force and non-Air Force debris measurements; and (3) accommodate current and future Air Force space scenarios. Model assessment results are shown for the NASA engineering model. The status of the NASA EVOLVE model assessment is discussed.

  11. [Long-term-management of organ transplant recipients].

    PubMed

    Bürger, Christin; Schmidt, Martina; Maschmeier, Miriam; Stella, Jaqueline; Hüsing, Anna; Wilms, Christian; Schmidt, Hartmut Hans-Jürgen; Kabar, Iyad

    2016-07-01

    Due to advances in immunosuppressive therapy and surgical techniques, survival rates after solid organ transplantation have constantly improved over the last decades. In long-term care after transplantation, physicians need to focus as much on diagnosis and treatment of allograft-related complications as they should consider comorbidities and evaluate risk-factors and adverse events of immunosuppressive agents to prevent secondary diseases. In particular, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, malignancy and infection play a major role in long-term survival. Therefore, screening of organ transplant recipients in regard to these complications and adverse events is a crucial part of follow up in these patients. PMID:27359310

  12. Long-term results of compartmental arthroplasties of the knee: Long term results of partial knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Parratte, S; Ollivier, M; Lunebourg, A; Abdel, M P; Argenson, J-N

    2015-10-01

    Partial knee arthroplasty (PKA), either medial or lateral unicompartmental knee artroplasty (UKA) or patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) are a good option in suitable patients and have the advantages of reduced operative trauma, preservation of both cruciate ligaments and bone stock, and restoration of normal kinematics within the knee joint. However, questions remain concerning long-term survival. The goal of this review article was to present the long-term results of medial and lateral UKA, PFA and combined compartmental arthroplasty for multicompartmental disease. Medium- and long-term studies suggest reasonable outcomes at ten years with survival greater than 95% in UKA performed for medial osteoarthritis or osteonecrosis, and similarly for lateral UKA, particularly when fixed-bearing implants are used. Disappointing long-term outcomes have been observed with the first generation of patellofemoral implants, as well as early Bi-Uni (i.e., combined medial and lateral UKA) or Bicompartmental (combined UKA and PFA) implants due to design and fixation issues. Promising short- and med-term results with the newer generations of PFAs and bicompartmental arthroplasties will require long-term confirmation. PMID:26430081

  13. The impact of private long-term care insurance on the use of long-term care.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Jensen, Gail A

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of privately purchased long-term care insurance (LTCI) on three major types of long-term care services: nursing home care, paid home care, and informal care received from Family and friends. Using 2002-2008 data from the ongoing Health and Retirement Study, we analyze the determinants of long-term care utilization simultaneously with the determinants of holding LTCI. We find that LTCI has modest effects on the likelihood of using long-term care services. For the very frail elderly, private LTCI enhances their access to nursing home care. For those with moderate disability, LTCI makes it more likely that they can remain at home and receive home care services, instead of going to a nursing home. We find no evidence that formal care substitutes for informal care in the presence of LTCI. These findings suggest that if LTCI becomes much more prevalent in the future, many older adults will be able to choose the type of long-term care arrangement that best suits their needs. PMID:21634261

  14. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  15. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  16. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  17. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  18. Current Perspectives on Long-term Obesity Pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 4 adult Canadians are obese and, thus, are at an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other conditions. Current treatment guidelines recommend that obese individuals lose 5% to 10% of their starting weights to minimize the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and reduce the risk for developing type 2 diabetes or hypertension. All obesity-management strategies involve lifestyle management, but few patients will lose a significant amount of weight and manage to keep it off over the long term using just this strategy. Bariatric surgery is associated with significant long-term weight loss but is restricted to subjects with very high body mass indices, who often wait many years to undergo the procedure. Recent breakthroughs in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of elevated body fat have led to the arrival of new obesity pharmacotherapies. These novel antiobesity therapies, which work by reducing energy intake or through increasing satiety, decreasing hunger, or reducing absorption of calories, may be used indefinitely once patients have demonstrated significant responses (usually defined as ≥5% weight loss) over the first 12 weeks of treatment. To date, 2 long-term obesity pharmacotherapies have been approved and are available in Canada: liraglutide and orlistat. Here, I summarize the mechanisms and clinical features of medications for long-term obesity management that are available in Canada, as well as those available in other jurisdictions or are currently in development. PMID:26507402

  19. Immediate and Long-Term Impacts of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briere, John N.; Elliott, Diana M.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes what is currently known about the potential, immediate, and long-term impact of child sexual abuse. The various problems and symptoms described in the literature on child sexual abuse are reviewed in a series of broad categories including posttraumatic stress, cognitive distortions, emotional pain, avoidance, an impaired sense of self,…

  20. Relating Granger causality to long-term causal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Dmitry A.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2015-10-01

    In estimation of causal couplings between observed processes, it is important to characterize coupling roles at various time scales. The widely used Granger causality reflects short-term effects: it shows how strongly perturbations of a current state of one process affect near future states of another process, and it quantifies that via prediction improvement (PI) in autoregressive models. However, it is often more important to evaluate the effects of coupling on long-term statistics, e.g., to find out how strongly the presence of coupling changes the variance of a driven process as compared to an uncoupled case. No general relationships between Granger causality and such long-term effects are known. Here, we pose the problem of relating these two types of coupling characteristics, and we solve it for a class of stochastic systems. Namely, for overdamped linear oscillators, we rigorously derive that the above long-term effect is proportional to the short-term effects, with the proportionality coefficient depending on the prediction interval and relaxation times. We reveal that this coefficient is typically considerably greater than unity so that small normalized PI values may well correspond to quite large long-term effects of coupling. The applicability of the derived relationship to wider classes of systems, its limitations, and its value for further research are discussed. To give a real-world example, we analyze couplings between large-scale climatic processes related to sea surface temperature variations in equatorial Pacific and North Atlantic regions.

  1. Long-Term Care: Common Issues and Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine; Miake, Naoko; Farag, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    All industrialized countries are grappling with a common problem--how to provide assistance of various kinds to their rapidly aging populations. The problem for countries searching for models of efficient and high-quality long-term care (LTC) policies is that fewer than a dozen countries have government-organized, formal LTC policies. Relatively…

  2. Long-Term Repetition Priming of Briefly Identified Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Andreas T.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide evidence that long-term memory encoding can occur for briefly viewed objects in a rapid serial visual presentation list, contrary to claims that the brief presentation and quick succession of objects prevent encoding by disrupting a memory consolidation process that requires hundreds of milliseconds of uninterrupted processing.…

  3. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  4. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  5. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  6. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  7. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  8. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  9. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  10. Long-term functionalization of optical resonance sensor spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Saetchnikov, Anton V.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    New approach to increase density of sensing units for higher precision as well as the selectivity of biological components under investigation in microcavity evanescent wave optical sensor systems is proposed. Long-term functionalization results of array sensor cells by different agents are represented.

  11. Long-Term Psychosomatic Effects of Biofeedback vs. Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowlis, David P.; Borzone, Ximena C.

    Differences were compared in the short-term and long-term responses of subjects with headache, insomnia, or hypertension to biofeedback training, relaxation, or a combination of both. Headache sufferers, insomniacs, and hypertensives were randomly assigned in equal numbers to biofeedback, relaxation training or a record-keeping control. Over 2…

  12. The Basics of Long-Term Debt Issuance and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Issuing long-term debt can be a complex, multifaceted process. Although the process varies by stare, typically the school business official and the district solicitor work with the financing ream, which includes a financial adviser, bond counsel, underwriter, raring agency, and possibly a bond insurance agent, paying agent, and architect.…

  13. Using Technology in Reggio-Inspired Long-Term Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepanier-Street, Mary L.; Hong, Seong B.; Bauer, Jennifer C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes examples of use of technology in the implementation and documentation of long-term projects conducted as a part of the Reggio Emilia preschool curriculum. Considers use of digital camera, videotapes, and video prints; documentation of graphics with the computer scanner; use of computer software as a tool for representing ideas; and use…

  14. An Empirical Study of Long Term Effects of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnqvist, Kjell

    A large-scale study of Swedish men and women, each of whose intelligence level at age 13 was above the 25th percentile and whose father's education was only at the elementary level, was conducted in order to determine what educational level the participants had achieved and to study long-term effects of schooling. Subjects were sent questionnaires…

  15. Long-Term Marriage and Late-Life Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Elana

    Projections, based on current rates, are that 40% of recent marriages will end in divorce. To investigate the factors associated with long term marriage stability and satisfaction among elderly persons, 60 California older adults (30 married, 30 divorced) were interviewed about their perceptions of the role of companionship, alternatives to…

  16. Post-Learning Arousal Change and Long-Term Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, V.K.; Farley, Frank H.

    This study examined the effects on long-term retention of variations in intensity and of temporal parameters of arousal following a single learning trial in a paired-associate task. The subjects were 56 female university students. Intensity of arousal was manipulated by using two levels of white noise--75 decibels and 90 decibels sound pressure…

  17. Consolidation of Long-Term Memory: Evidence and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, Martijn; Murre, Jaap M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Memory loss in retrograde amnesia has long been held to be larger for recent periods than for remote periods, a pattern usually referred to as the Ribot gradient. One explanation for this gradient is consolidation of long-term memories. Several computational models of such a process have shown how consolidation can explain characteristics of…

  18. Children's Long-Term Memory for Autobiographical Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole

    2002-01-01

    Traces the origins of children's autobiographical memories, discussing research on infantile amnesia and young children's memory skills. Focuses on studies of children's long-term memory for autobiographical events that investigate delays of 1-2 years and delays of 4 years or more. Reports that a few studies have documented remarkably robust…

  19. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  20. Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J..; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y…

  1. Long-Term Parental Illness and Children: Perils and Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Mona; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses effects of long-term parental illness, focusing on effects on children. Describes effects on family homeostasis and family coping mechanisms. Discusses school counselor's role in bringing about a more balanced viewpoint of power and sharing within the family. Recommends establishing a strong therapeutic bond, assessing what the child is…

  2. A Plea for Long-term Orientation in Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaninger, Markus; Ambroz, Kristjan

    2010-11-01

    The stress field between short- and long-term orientations is the epitome of organizational problematics: In many enterprises the latter is dominated by the former. The consequences of a dominant short-term orientation are negative in the best case, but the cases that result in destruction and catastrophe are legion. Few sustainable solutions for the conflict between the short- and long-term perspectives have been developed, and among those concerned many have not sufficiently reflected on this shortfall, or even become aware of it. Frequently, practical constraints obstruct a balance between short- and long-term orientations. The aim of this contribution is to enquire into this dilemma and to find a way of coping with it. Any progress in that direction would help to further the viability of organizations and the quality of life within them. As a pertinent contribution we present the Model of Systemic Control, a framework with a long-term view for the governance of organizations. Even though we are emphasizing the conceptual aspect, our theoretical statement is underpinned by an empirical approach and simulation experiments.

  3. Long-term field studies: positive impacts and unintended consequences.

    PubMed

    Strier, Karen B

    2010-09-01

    Long-term field studies of wild primates can have far-reaching impacts that transcend their contributions to science. These impacts can benefit not only the study animals, study areas, and local human communities, but they can also have unintended, potentially negative consequences. Examples of some of the positive impacts from the Northern Muriqui Project of Caratinga, in Minas Gerais, Brazil, include contributions to conservation efforts on behalf of this critically endangered species, capacity building through the training of Brazilian students, and employment opportunities for local people through our collaboration with a locally administered NGO that is facilitating ecotourism, education, and reforestation programs. Some concerns about unintended consequences of the research include the effects of our trails and trail traffic on surrounding vegetation and other aspects of the environmental "footprints" that both long-term researchers and short-term visitors may leave. In addition, although precautions against potential health risks from routine exposure to human observers are now standard protocol, little is known about the other ways in which our long-term research presence can affect the primates' experiences or alter their perceptions of their social and ecological environments. Risk analysis, which weighs both the positive and negative impacts can provide useful perspectives for addressing the ethical considerations that can arise during long-term field studies. PMID:20653002

  4. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and 2006); and…

  5. Long-Term Effects of Peace Workshops in Protracted Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Deepak; Liyanage, Sumanasiri

    2005-01-01

    The current study evaluates the efficacy of an intensive four-day contact intervention (a peace workshop) organized in Sri Lanka and represents an initial step toward understanding the long-term impact of such interventions on attitudes and behaviors in the context of protracted ethnic conflict. Compared with two control groups, the participant…

  6. Long-Term Adaptation to Institutionalization in Dementia Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Pot, Anne Margriet; Zarit, Steven H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Longitudinal research in dementia has acknowledged the importance of transitions during the course of family caregiving. However, long-term adaptation to institutionalization has received little attention. This study attempts to describe caregivers' adaptation (changes in stress, well-being, and psychosocial resources) to placement up to…

  7. The Insider's Experience of Long-Term Peer Victimisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Graham J.; Carey, Timothy A.; Stevens, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools continues to be a problem despite the best efforts of educators, researchers, and clinicians. Of most concern for the present study is that some children experience long-term victimisation by their peers. To improve our understanding in this area, the phenomenology of being bullied over the course of the school year was…

  8. Managing Tribal Assets: Developing Long-Term Strategic Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Joseph S.; Smith, Dean Howard

    1998-01-01

    The National Executive Education Program for Native American Leadership and the Center for American Indian Economic Development developed a method to help tribes create a long-term strategic community-development plan. Based on integrated analysis of six community subsystems, the method includes extensive interviews, secondary research, a workshop…

  9. FRESHWATER POTOMAC LONG-TERM BENTHIC MONITORING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maryland Department of the Environments Freshwater Potomac Long-Term Benthic Monitoring Program provides seasonal information on abundance and composition for the benthic fauna of the freshwater portion of the Potomac River for use in recommendations to State agencies accordi...

  10. Predictors of Home Based Long-Term Care Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppens, Jean; And Others

    An attempt was made to determine predictors of service need, use, and outcome among chronically impaired adults and aged who were living in the community and using the home-based, long term care services of the Chronic Illness Center (CIC) of the Cuyahoga County Hospitals (Ohio). Randomly selected consumer service records (N=200) were coded for…

  11. The Jornada Basin long term ecological research program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chihuahuan Desert landscapes exemplify the ecological conditions, vulnerability, and management challenges in arid and semi-arid regions around the world. The goal of the Jornada Basin Long Term Ecological Research program (JRN LTER) established in 1982 is to understand and quantify the key factors ...

  12. Continental diatoms as indicators of long-term environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, J. Platt

    1999-01-01

    It is curious that diatoms, whose short lifespans and capacity for rapid regeneration make them especially suitable for short-term paleoenvironmental studies, would also have a significant role as indicators of long-term environmental change. This chapter explores the nature of long diatom records, their relation to global environmental changes, guidelines for their interpretation, and problems common to such records.

  13. Increasing long term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  14. Long-Term Effects of First-Grade Multitier Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of 2 first-grade Response to Intervention (RTI) models (Dynamic and Typical RTI) on the reading performance of students in second and third grade. Participants included 419 first-grade students (352 in second grade and 278 in third grade after attrition). Students were classified based…

  15. Areas of Marital Dissatisfaction among Long-Term Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duba, Jill D.; Hughey, Aaron W.; Lara, Tracy; Burke, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand relational dissatisfaction and duration of long-term married couples, this study surveyed 30 couples married at least 40 years with the Marital Satisfaction Inventory. Findings suggest various areas of dissatisfaction (e.g., affective communication, conflict over child rearing) and relationship among and link to other areas of…

  16. Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

  17. Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

  18. Going Solar Yields Long-Term Economical, Educational Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Moos, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Going solar is not an easy decision, but a long-term investment with a potentially substantial up-front cost. While some schools have enough capital in reserve, can raise bond money, or can solicit sufficient donations, many schools rely on creative financial programs to make a solar energy system economically feasible. Thinking about going solar…

  19. Long-term Toxicity of Cancer Treatment in Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Shahrokni, Armin; Wu, Abraham J; Carter, Jeanne; Lichtman, Stuart M

    2016-02-01

    With earlier cancer diagnosis among older patients with cancer, the possibility of curing cancer increases. However, cancer treatment may have a long-lasting impact on older cancer survivors. It is vital to screen, diagnose, and properly manage the long-term toxicities of cancer treatment in order to maintain the quality of life of older cancer survivors. PMID:26614861

  20. Long-term Ecological Monitoring in Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doberski, Julian; Brodie, Iain D. S.

    1991-01-01

    The value and difficulties of long-term ecological monitoring studies undertaken in schools and colleges are reviewed. Rookeries, stream ecology, sand dune succession, fish population, and seed production and survival are presented as examples of successful studies. This is followed by a discussion of points to consider when setting up a long-term…

  1. Investment in Skills Must Be for the Long Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, researchers have formed a much better understanding of how unemployment scars people's lives, not just in the short term, but sometimes for years ahead. Researchers differ on the details, but no one disagrees that the negative effects are serious and long term. In the recession of the 1980s, government schemes to improve people's…

  2. Concept Formation Skills in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G.; Beer, Jessica; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Ditmars, Allison; Pisoni, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if a period of auditory sensory deprivation followed by degraded auditory input and related language delays affects visual concept formation skills in long-term prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. We also examined if concept formation skills are mediated or moderated by other neurocognitive domains (i.e.,…

  3. Infection Control in the Long Term Care Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara

    This booklet is intended to increase the awareness of persons working in long-term care facilities regarding the danger of infectious disease and the ways in which it can be spread. Materials in this booklet include: (1) a brief discussion of historical events in the study of microorganisms; (2) information about how microorganisms cause infection…

  4. Long-term theranostic hydrogel system for solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Il; Lee, Beom Suk; Chun, Changju; Cho, Jung-Kyo; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Song, Soo-Chang

    2012-03-01

    The long-term theranostic hydrogel system for solid tumors was prepared via simple physical mixing, which consisted of three major parts: the thermosensitive/biodegradable poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel, PEGylated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, and paclitaxel (PTX). The PEGylated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed extremely low cytotoxicity due to the surface modification using PEG chains. The long-term theranostic hydrogel system showed adequate properties to be used for long-term MR theragnosis. In particular, the theranostic hydrogel gradually degraded over 28 days, and the PTX was sustainedly released out from the theranostic hydrogel over the same period in vitro. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of long-term MR theragnosis using the theranostic hydrogel system was estimated successfully over 3 weeks by using high field (4.7 T) animal MRI and solid tumor-bearing mice. Based on our results, we expect that this system can supply multiple data regarding a) the progress of therapy and b) the treatment processes via one- or two-time i.t. administration for cases in which surgical approaches are difficult to apply. Meanwhile, cancer patients can be free from the pain of multiple surgical treatments and have the advantage of therapy through a simple i.t. administration. PMID:22189146

  5. Globalization, Women's Migration, and the Long-Term-Care Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Colette V.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    With the aging of the world's population comes the rising need for qualified direct long-term-care (DLTC) workers (i.e., those who provide personal care to frail and disabled older adults). Developed nations are increasingly turning to immigrant women to fill these needs. In this article, we examine the impact of three global trends--population…

  6. Long-Term Teacher Effects on Pupils' Learning Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressoux, Pascal; Bianco, Maryse

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that a teacher has a substantial impact on how much pupils learn. However, research on the long-term effects of teachers is scarce, and the results obtained so far are inconsistent. Some studies have concluded that teacher effects are relatively permanent, while others claim that they fade away more or less rapidly…

  7. Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximately 10% and remained at approximately that level throughout follow-up. The proportion meeting criteria for remission (Hamilton Depression score of 7 or less) rose gradually to approximately 45%. Long-term prognosis (i.e. probability of remission at 6 months and beyond) was strongly related to remission status at 3 months (odds ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.81-4.76) and only modestly related to various clinical characteristics assessed at baseline (e.g. prior history of recurrent depression, medical comorbidity, comorbid anxiety symptoms). The findings indicate that potentially modifiable risk factors influence the long-term prognosis of depression. This suggests that more systematic and effective depression treatment programmes might have an important effect on long-term course and reduce the overall burden of chronic and recurrent depression. PMID:10885162

  8. PLUME-SCALER-EVALUATING LONG-TERM MONITORING WELL NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is developing a new computer application called PLUME-SCALER to evaluate long term monitoring well networks using typically available historical site water level data. PLUME-SCALER can be used to determine if there are enough ...

  9. Long-Term Learning, Achievement Tests, and Learner Centered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Moises F.; Kane-Johnson, Sarah E.; Vasil-Miller, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of achievement tests to measure long-term learning at the higher education level in traditional verses learner-centered classrooms. Volunteer instructors who use comprehensive achievement tests as an important component of their grading system were asked to complete an instrument that…

  10. Experiences of the Long Term Stability at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, F. Q.

    2007-01-19

    The long term stability on the scale from days to a year, besides the short term stability, is one of key performance indicators of a light source. The Swiss Light Source (SLS) was installed and commissioned in 2000. It has successfully worked for more than 5 years without re-alignment of the machine. Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) and Horizontal Position System (HPS) have been added at supports of the storage ring (48 girders). They made evidence that the position of SLS Storage Ring (SR) is very stable on the time scale of a day, a week, a month and a year. The evidence for the long term stability is also provided by frequency of the RF cavity. The HLS is a powerful tool. The analysis of the HLS data shows that the vertical displacements, which are adjusted to correct average orbit deviations, of the SLS storage ring foundation and of the girder supports were in the range of 0.15 mm in 2003. The site, the building foundation, the mechanical supports and the temperature control are important pre-conditions to get the good long term stability. The experience gained with the long term stability at SLS is presented.

  11. Planning for Long-Term Care: Concept, Definition, and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedemann, Marie-Luise; Newman, Frederick L.; Seff, Laura R.; Dunlop, Burton D.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the development and testing of an instrument to measure long-term-care planning behavior. Design and Methods: Researchers operationalized proposed constructs and response styles as statements in a questionnaire. A telephone survey involved 150 randomly selected residents of Miami-Dade County, Florida who were between…

  12. Global, long-term surface reflectance records from Landsat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global, long-term monitoring of changes in Earth’s land surface requires quantitative comparisons of satellite images acquired under widely varying atmospheric conditions. Although physically based estimates of surface reflectance (SR) ultimately provide the most accurate representation of Earth’s s...

  13. Long-Term Sensitization Training Primes "Aplysia" for Further Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.; Antzoulatos, Evangelos G.; Wainwright, Marcy L.

    2006-01-01

    Repetitive, unilateral stimulation of "Aplysia" induces long-term sensitization (LTS) of ipsilaterally elicited siphon-withdrawal responses. Whereas some morphological effects of training appear only on ipsilateral sensory neurons, others appear bilaterally. We tested the possibility that contralateral morphological modifications may have…

  14. Crystalline Concepts in Long-Term Mathematical Invention and Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tall, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of "crystalline concept" as a focal idea in long-term mathematical thinking, bringing together the geometric development of Van Hiele, process-object encapsulation, and formal axiomatic systems. Each of these is a strand in the framework of "three worlds of mathematics" with its own special characteristics, but all…

  15. Marketing in the long-term care continuum.

    PubMed

    Laurence, J Nathan; Kash, Bita A

    2010-04-01

    Today, long-term care facilities are composed of independent, assisted living, and skilled nursing facilities along with many variations of those themes in between. The clientele for these various types of facilities differ because of the level of care the facility provides as well as the amenities long-term care consumers are looking for. However, there many similarities and common approaches to how reaching the target audience through effective marketing activities. Knowing who the target audience is, how to reach them, and how to communicate with them will serve any facility well in this competitive market. Developing marketing strategies for long-term care settings is as important as understanding what elements of care can be marketed individually as a niche market. Determining the market base for a facility is equally crucial since the target populations differ among the three types of facilities. By reviewing current marketing articles and applying marketing practices, we have crafted some general principles for which each facility type can learn from. Finally, we will discuss the types of marketing and how they related to the spectrum of long-term care facilities. PMID:20446138

  16. Incidental Biasing of Attention from Visual Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Judith E.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past…

  17. Coronal holes in the long-term cosmic rays modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    The present study of galactic CR modulation in the heliosphere through the 21-24 cycles continues the series of works, where long-term CR modulation was described using the multi-parametric model, including the solar activity (SA) characteristics. Initial data for modeling of CR variations are long-term observations of CR intensity, the characteristics of the solar global magnetic field and the short-time characteristic of SA (solar x-rays flares). Data of the CR intensity were obtained from the ground network of NM and stratospheric sounding. In order to improve the simulation of long-term CR variations we introduced into the model the characteristic of the regions with the open magnetic field - the coronal holes (CH). Location (latitude), the area and the magnetic flux of CHs were used. Modeling modulation is carried out for all period and separately for the periods with the same polarity of the global field of the Sun, taking into account the delay CR variations regarding changes of CA characteristics. The quality of the long-term variations description has been improved by including in the model the CH characteristics.

  18. Phytoavailability of Cadmium in Long-Term Biosolids Amended Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agronomic use of biosolids has raised concern that plant availability of biosolids-Cd will increase with time following cessation of biosolids application. But it was demonstrated that long-term biosolids-amended soils have greater sorptive capacity for Cd than non-biosolids-amended soils. This stud...

  19. A Guide Through the Maze of Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Robert L.; Kane, Rosalie A.

    1981-01-01

    Complicated requirements regarding eligibility and coverage as well as variations in the availability of programs confuse even the most diligent physicians trying to advise elderly patients about health care services. Nevertheless, awareness of such government and community resources is critical because physicians play an essential role in assisting the elderly to receive maximum health care benefits, particularly during long-term illness. PMID:6801867

  20. Long-term outcomes in MPS-IH: throwing stars.

    PubMed

    Pulsipher, Michael A

    2015-03-26

    After a herculean data-gathering effort, in this issue of Blood, Aldenhoven and colleagues from Europe and North America provide an eye-opening assessment of long-term neurocognitive, organ, joint, and tissue function after allogeneic transplantation of children with mucopolysaccharidosis type I–Hurler syndrome (MPS-IH), along with an analysis defining a path to better these outcomes. PMID:25814488

  1. Medical Foster Care: An Alternative to Long-Term Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Patricia H.; Whitworth, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a program model, Medical Foster Care, which uses registered nurses as foster parents who work closely with biological parents of abused and neglected children with acute health problems. The program reunites families, improves parenting skills, and saves money in long-term hospitalization. (Author/BB)

  2. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

  3. Experimental protocols and preparations to study respiratory long term facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mateika, Jason H.; Sandhu, Kulraj S.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory long-term facilitation is a form of neuronal plasticity that is induced following exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Long-term facilitation is characterized by a progressive increase in respiratory motor output during normoxic periods that separate hypoxic episodes and by a sustained elevation in respiratory activity for up to 90 min after exposure to intermittent hypoxia. This phenomenon is associated with increases in phrenic, hypoglossal or carotid sinus nerve inspiratory-modulated discharge. The examination of long-term facilitation has been steadily ongoing for approximately 3 decades. During this period of time a variety of animal models (e.g. cats, rats and humans), experimental preparations and intermittent hypoxia protocols have been used to study long-term facilitation. This review is designed to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the models, preparations and protocols that have been used to study LTF over the past 30 years. The review is divided into two primary sections. Initially, the models and protocols used to study LTF in animals other than humans will be discussed, followed by a section specifically focused on human studies. Each section will begin with a discussion of various factors that must be considered when selecting an experimental preparation and intermittent hypoxia protocol to examine LTF. Model and protocol design recommendations will follow, with the goal of presenting a prevailing model and protocol that will ultimately ensure standardized comparisons across studies. PMID:21292044

  4. Long term management practices influenced soil aggregation and carbon dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil aggregation protects soil organic C (SOC) against rapid decomposition, improves soil quality, and reduces soil erosion potential. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effects of long-term (21 yrs.) management practices on SOC, water stable aggregate (WSA), and aggregate-associated ...

  5. Sexuality and Aging: Implications for Long Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkley, Nancy E.

    With increasing emphasis on treating the whole person, on the maintenance of an individual's former life style, and on patients' rights, long-term care personnel need to become aware that many nursing home residents experience needs related to their sexuality. A model two-day workshop is presented wlth a focus on the following topics: (1) a broad…

  6. Long Term Treatment Concepts and Proactive Therapy for Atopic Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Ehmann, Laura Maximiliane

    2012-01-01

    Atopic eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a frequent, highly pruritic, chronic skin disease, which is typically running in flares. The traditional treatment mainly consists of the reactive application of topical anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors. The short term benefit of this approach is well known, but long term remission between flares is difficult to achieve. Therefore, innovative long-term treatment strategies targeting flare prevention and skin barrier stabilization are needed. We and others have shown that normal looking, non-lesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients is immunobiologially not normal but characterized by an invisible inflammation and barrier defect. This has led to the novel concept of proactive therapy, which is defined as long-term, low-dose intermittent application of anti-inflammatory therapy to the previously affected skin, together with an ongoing emollient treatment of unaffected skin. This review article describes the most important long-term treatment options for atopic dermatitis, which includes emollient therapy, the novel concept of proactive treatment, the different ultraviolet light modalities and a selection of systemic immunosuppressive drugs and biologics. Current trial data, licensed indications, off-label use and relevant side effects of the different treatment modalities are summarized. PMID:22879707

  7. Soil quality assessment in long-term direct seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers in the Pacific Northwest are adopting direct seed farming to reduce soil erosion, improve soil quality and increase water infiltration. Some direct seed producers are concerned with reaching the yield and profit potential expected with long-term direct seed, and this may be due to soil st...

  8. Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia: Long-Term Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Audrey K., Ed.; Showacre, Jane, Ed.

    This book contains 16 papers from the 1974 conference held by the Pregnancy and Infancy Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to: (1) assess the photobiological processes involved in phototherapy used in treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and (2) to document long term clinical experience with the treatment…

  9. Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

  10. Long term agro-ecosystem research: The Southern Plains partnership

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is coordinating ten well-established research sites as a Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network. The goal of the LTAR is to sustain a land-based infrastructure for research, environmental management testing, and education, that enables understan...

  11. Soil Quality Change in Long-Term Organic Crop Rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) site was established in 1998 on the Neely-Kinyon Research Farm near Greenfield, Iowa to evaluate agronomic and economic outcomes of certified organic and conventional grain-based cropping systems. The site was certified organic in 2000. This study evaluat...

  12. Idaho National Laboratory Site Long-Term Stewardship Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    B. E. Olaveson

    2006-07-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.

  13. Suicidal Behavior in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Nancy J.; Brant, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed administrators of 463 long-term care facilities concerning overt suicides and intentional life-threatening behaviors. Data revealed that White males were highest risk group. Refusal to eat, drink, or take medications were most common suicidal behaviors. Depression, loneliness, feelings of family rejection, and loss were significant…

  14. Research on the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, George A.; Kleist, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Explores recent quantitative and qualitative studies of the long-term effects of child abuse, specifically, how abuse in childhood affects adulthood. Many studies associate various forms of abuse experienced in childhood with a wide range of psychological, behavioral, and relational problems in adulthood. Articles reviewed may inform marriage and…

  15. Case Management Takes Hold in Long-Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephen M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Empowering Case Management Clients" (Rose); "Case Management in Rural Japan" (Maeda, Takahashi); "Coordinated-Care Teams" (Brodsky, Sobol); "Comparing Practice in the United States and the United Kingdom" (Sturges); "Business of Case Management Flourishing in the U.S." (Cress); and "Community Options Bring Change to Long-Term Care in…

  16. Architecture analysis for European Long-Term Archiving EO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Gil, I.; Perez Moreno, R.; Perez Navarro, O.; Leone, R.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last ten years there has been a strongly increased need for access to historical Earth Observation (EO) data series, mainly for long term science and environmental monitoring applications. As the contents of EO space data archives increases from a few years duration to a period of decades their scientific values increases dramatically. The main objective of this Long Term Data Preservation(LTDP) initiative is to guarantee the long term preservation of the data from all EO ESA and Third Parties ESA managed missions, while also ensuring their accessibility and usability, as part of a joint and cooperative approach in Europe aimed at preserving the EO European data from member states' missions. To allow the maximum value to be extracted from the data, it is well recognized that there is a need to preserve this data without time limitations, while keeping all archived data accessible and exploitable. This will be even more of a challenge in the coming years, as the large number of upcoming Earth Observation missions will lead to a major increase in the available volume of EO data The LTDP Impact Analysis and Architecture Definition project (for simplicity known as LTDP-IMPACTS) aims to define and consolidate the architecture of European Long-Term Archiving EO systems, especially in the context of ESA PDGS. To do this, we shall perform a complete assessment of the impacts of implementing the guidelines from the LTDP initiative. This assessment will be over all timescales, short, middle and long-term, and must take into account all systems involved, from the point of view of "System of System" (SoS), and their data flows, data sets and their related operational policies for LTDP implementation The LTDP guidelines, and the standards adopted as a result, will have various impacts on the legacy and future long term archiving systems, the systems used to access them, and on the overall operational concept. This will particularly apply to the ESA PDGS environment

  17. Long-Term Care Financing: Lessons From France

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Context An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States’ long-term care financing reform efforts. Methods We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. Findings France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income adjusted and amounts are low. Nevertheless, expenditures have exceeded projections, burdening local governments. Private supplemental insurance covers 11% of French, mostly middle-income adults (versus 3% of Americans 18 and older). Whether policyholders will maintain employer-sponsored coverage after retirement is not known. The government's interest in pursuing an explicit public/private partnership has waned under President François Hollande, a centrist socialist, in contrast to the previous center-right leader, President Nicolas Sarkozy, thereby reducing the prospects of a coordinated public/private strategy. Conclusions American private insurers are showing increasing interest in long-term

  18. The long-term costs of career interruptions.

    PubMed

    Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available. PMID:12592867

  19. Long-term change in thermospheric temperature above Saint Santin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, J. K.; Wellman, T. J.; Oliver, W. L.

    2010-11-01

    The 1966-1987 Saint Santin/Nançay incoherent scatter radar database is analyzed to determine long-term trends beyond those associated with the "natural" variations of solar and magnetic activity, season, and time of day. Trends averaging some -3 K/yr are found in the F region. Positive trends in the E region may be explained by the subsidence of an overlying warmer regime of air. The trend line seems to change slope around the "breakpoint" year 1979, with the cooling changing from -0.8 K/yr before that time to -5.5 K/yr afterward at 350 km altitude. These trends greatly exceed those predicted by model simulations for increases in greenhouse gas concentrations. Further, carbon dioxide shows no such breakpoint year, but ozone does, near the time of the change in thermospheric trend, and a surface climatic regime shift has also been reported near this time. It is not clear that greenhouse gases are driving the long-term trend in thermospheric temperature. Restriction of analysis to a particular time of day results in greatly different trends, from near zero at midnight to -6 K/yr at noon at 350 km altitude. A separate analysis to determine the long-term trend in the amplitude of the 24 h tide at 350 km altitude shows a large change, with the amplitude diminishing from 136 K in 1966 to 89 K in 1988. Our results show the great need to remove all other natural variations from long-term data sets in determining long-term trends to avoid great ambiguity in trend interpretation.

  20. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    SciTech Connect

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by

  1. Bio-immobilization of U(VI) and Tc(VII) from nitric acid-contaminated groundwater in intermediate-scale physical models of an in situ bio-barrier.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsen, M. M.; Peacock, A. D.; Smithgal, A. N.; White, D. C.; Spain, A. M.; Sanchez-Rosario, Y.; Krumholz, L. R.; Kelly, S. D.; Kemner, K. M.; McKinley, J.; Heald, S. M.; Bogle, M. A.; Watson, D. B.; Istok, J. D.; U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; Univ. of Tennessee; Univ. of Oklahoma; PNNL; ORNL; Oregon State Univ.

    2009-01-01

    Metal and hydrogen ion acidity and extreme nitrate concentrations at Department of Energy legacy waste sites pose challenges for successful in situ U and Tc bioimmobilization. In this study, we investigated a potential in situ biobarrier configuration designed to neutralize pH and remove nitrate and radionuclides from nitric acid-, U-, and Tc-contaminated groundwater for over 21 months. Ethanol additions to groundwater flowing through native sediment and crushed limestone effectively increased pH (from 4.7 to 6.9), promoted removal of 116 mM nitrate, increased sediment biomass, and immobilized 94% of total U. Increased groundwater pH and significant U removal was also observed in a control column that received no added ethanol. Sequential extraction and XANES analyses showed U in this sediment to be solid-associated U(VI), and EXAFS analysis results were consistent with uranyl orthophosphate (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O{sub (s)}, which may control U solubility in this system. Ratios of respiratory ubiquinones to menaquinones and copies of dissimilatory nitrite reductase genes, nirS and nirK, were at least 1 order of magnitude greater in the ethanol-stimulated system compared to the control, indicating that ethanol addition promoted growth of a largely denitrifying microbial community. Sediment 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that Betaproteobacteria were dominant (89%) near the source of influent acidic groundwater, whereas members of Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased along the flow path as pH increased and nitrate concentrations decreased, indicating spatial shifts in community composition as a function of pH and nitrate concentrations. Results of this study support the utility of biobarriers for treating acidic radionuclide- and nitrate-contaminated groundwater.

  2. Compensation for PKMζ in long-term potentiation and spatial long-term memory in mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsokas, Panayiotis; Hsieh, Changchi; Yao, Yudong; Lesburguères, Edith; Wallace, Emma Jane Claire; Tcherepanov, Andrew; Jothianandan, Desingarao; Hartley, Benjamin Rush; Pan, Ling; Rivard, Bruno; Farese, Robert V; Sajan, Mini P; Bergold, Peter John; Hernández, Alejandro Iván; Cottrell, James E; Shouval, Harel Z; Fenton, André Antonio; Sacktor, Todd Charlton

    2016-01-01

    PKMζ is a persistently active PKC isoform proposed to maintain late-LTP and long-term memory. But late-LTP and memory are maintained without PKMζ in PKMζ-null mice. Two hypotheses can account for these findings. First, PKMζ is unimportant for LTP or memory. Second, PKMζ is essential for late-LTP and long-term memory in wild-type mice, and PKMζ-null mice recruit compensatory mechanisms. We find that whereas PKMζ persistently increases in LTP maintenance in wild-type mice, PKCι/λ, a gene-product closely related to PKMζ, persistently increases in LTP maintenance in PKMζ-null mice. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find PKMζ-antisense in hippocampus blocks late-LTP and spatial long-term memory in wild-type mice, but not in PKMζ-null mice without the target mRNA. Conversely, a PKCι/λ-antagonist disrupts late-LTP and spatial memory in PKMζ-null mice but not in wild-type mice. Thus, whereas PKMζ is essential for wild-type LTP and long-term memory, persistent PKCι/λ activation compensates for PKMζ loss in PKMζ-null mice. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14846.001 PMID:27187150

  3. Private Long-Term Care Insurance: Value to Claimants and Implications for Long-Term Care Financing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Pamela; Cohen, Marc A.; Miller, Jessica; Shi, Xiaomei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain a profile of individuals with private long-term care (LTC) insurance as they begin using paid LTC services and track their patterns of service use, satisfaction with services and insurance, claims denial rates, and transitions over a 28-month period. Design and Methods: Ten LTC insurance companies…

  4. Compensation for PKMζ in long-term potentiation and spatial long-term memory in mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Tsokas, Panayiotis; Hsieh, Changchi; Yao, Yudong; Lesburguères, Edith; Wallace, Emma Jane Claire; Tcherepanov, Andrew; Jothianandan, Desingarao; Hartley, Benjamin Rush; Pan, Ling; Rivard, Bruno; Farese, Robert V; Sajan, Mini P; Bergold, Peter John; Hernández, Alejandro Iván; Cottrell, James E; Shouval, Harel Z; Fenton, André Antonio; Sacktor, Todd Charlton

    2016-01-01

    PKMζ is a persistently active PKC isoform proposed to maintain late-LTP and long-term memory. But late-LTP and memory are maintained without PKMζ in PKMζ-null mice. Two hypotheses can account for these findings. First, PKMζ is unimportant for LTP or memory. Second, PKMζ is essential for late-LTP and long-term memory in wild-type mice, and PKMζ-null mice recruit compensatory mechanisms. We find that whereas PKMζ persistently increases in LTP maintenance in wild-type mice, PKCι/λ, a gene-product closely related to PKMζ, persistently increases in LTP maintenance in PKMζ-null mice. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find PKMζ-antisense in hippocampus blocks late-LTP and spatial long-term memory in wild-type mice, but not in PKMζ-null mice without the target mRNA. Conversely, a PKCι/λ-antagonist disrupts late-LTP and spatial memory in PKMζ-null mice but not in wild-type mice. Thus, whereas PKMζ is essential for wild-type LTP and long-term memory, persistent PKCι/λ activation compensates for PKMζ loss in PKMζ-null mice. PMID:27187150

  5. Long-Term Monitoring Research Needs: A DOE Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, B.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is responsible for dealing with the nation's legacy of Cold War radioactive and hazardous waste and contamination. Major efforts are underway to deal with this legacy; these are expected to last up to decades and cost up to billions of dollars at some sites. At all sites, however, active remediation must eventually cease; if hazards then remain, the site must enter into a long-term stewardship mode. In this talk we discuss aspects of long-term monitoring pertinent to DOE sites, focusing on challenges to be faced, specific goals or targets to be met, and research needs to be addressed in order to enable DOE to meet its long-term stewardship obligations. DOE LTM research needs fall into three major categories: doing what we can do now much more efficiently; doing things we cannot do now; and proving the validity of our monitoring programs. Given the enormity of the DOE obligations, it will be highly desirable to develop much more efficient monitoring paradigms. Doing so will demand developing autonomous, remote monitoring networks of in situ sensors capable of replacing (or at least supplementing to a large extent) conventional groundwater and soil gas sampling and analysis programs. The challenges involved range from basic science (e.g., inventing in situ sensors for TCE that do not demand routine maintenance) to engineering (attaining superior reliability in data reporting in remote networks) to ergonomics (developing decent ways of selecting and presenting the "right" information from the monitoring network) to regulatory affairs (presenting convincing evidence that the more efficient systems actually provide superior monitoring). We explore these challenges in some detail, focusing on the "long" in long-term monitoring as it applies to DOE sites. Monitoring system performance validation and, ultimately, regulator and stakeholder acceptance of site closure and long-term stewardship plans depend

  6. Long-Term Environmental Research Programs - Evolving Capacity for Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term forestry, watershed, and ecological research sites have become critical, productive nodes for environmental science research and in some cases for work in the social sciences and humanities. The Forest Service's century-old Experimental Forests and Ranges and the National Science Foundation's 28- year-old Long-Term Ecological Research program have been remarkably productive in both basic and applied sciences, including characterization of acid rain and old-growth ecosystems and development of forest, watershed, and range management systems for commercial and other land use objectives. A review of recent developments suggests steps to enhance the function of collections of long-term research sites as interactive science networks. The programs at these sites have evolved greatly, especially over the past few decades, as the questions addressed, disciplines engaged, and degree of science integration have grown. This is well displayed by small, experimental watershed studies, which first were used for applied hydrology studies then more fundamental biogeochemical studies and now examination of complex ecosystem processes; all capitalizing on the legacy of intensive studies and environmental monitoring spanning decades. In very modest ways these collections of initially independent sites have functioned increasingly as integrated research networks addressing inter-site questions by using common experimental designs, being part of a single experiment, and examining long-term data in a common analytical framework. The network aspects include data sharing via publicly-accessible data-harvester systems for climate and streamflow data. The layering of one research or environmental monitoring network upon another facilitates synergies. Changing climate and atmospheric chemistry highlight a need to use these networks as continental-scale observatory systems for assessing the impacts of environmental change on ecological services. To better capitalize on long-term

  7. An automated microfluidic platform for C. elegans embryo arraying, phenotyping, and long-term live imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cornaglia, Matteo; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Marette, Alexis; Narasimhan, Shreya; Lehnert, Thomas; Jovaisaite, Virginija; Auwerx, Johan; Gijs, Martin A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the real-time dynamics of embryonic development require a gentle embryo handling method, the possibility of long-term live imaging during the complete embryogenesis, as well as of parallelization providing a population’s statistics, while keeping single embryo resolution. We describe an automated approach that fully accomplishes these requirements for embryos of Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the most employed model organisms in biomedical research. We developed a microfluidic platform which makes use of pure passive hydrodynamics to run on-chip worm cultures, from which we obtain synchronized embryo populations, and to immobilize these embryos in incubator microarrays for long-term high-resolution optical imaging. We successfully employ our platform to investigate morphogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis during the full embryonic development and elucidate the role of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) within C. elegans embryogenesis. Our method can be generally used for protein expression and developmental studies at the embryonic level, but can also provide clues to understand the aging process and age-related diseases in particular. PMID:25950235

  8. National long-term high-level waste-technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, P. L.

    The national program for long-term management of high level waste (HLW) from nuclear fuels reprocessing is discussed. This covers only DOE defense wastes. Current emphasis is on solidification of waste into a form that, along with additional barriers, may be permanently stored in a repository. An integrated national plan incorporates all the elements of such an overall HLW disposal system. Interim storage is in near-surface tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. At the Idaho site, waste is stored in bins after being calcined. Some Idaho waste is liquid and is also stored in tanks before calcination. Retrieval and immobilization of HLW into a solid, low-release form represent the major elements for which our long-term program has responsibility. Once solidified, the waste will temporarily remain onsite until the final disposal site is prepared for receipt of waste. Currently, a geologic repository is favored for ultimate disposal, although other possibilities such as seabed, icecap, space, and near-surface disposal are also being considered.

  9. An automated microfluidic platform for C. elegans embryo arraying, phenotyping, and long-term live imaging.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, Matteo; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Marette, Alexis; Narasimhan, Shreya; Lehnert, Thomas; Jovaisaite, Virginija; Auwerx, Johan; Gijs, Martin A M

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the real-time dynamics of embryonic development require a gentle embryo handling method, the possibility of long-term live imaging during the complete embryogenesis, as well as of parallelization providing a population's statistics, while keeping single embryo resolution. We describe an automated approach that fully accomplishes these requirements for embryos of Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the most employed model organisms in biomedical research. We developed a microfluidic platform which makes use of pure passive hydrodynamics to run on-chip worm cultures, from which we obtain synchronized embryo populations, and to immobilize these embryos in incubator microarrays for long-term high-resolution optical imaging. We successfully employ our platform to investigate morphogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis during the full embryonic development and elucidate the role of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) within C. elegans embryogenesis. Our method can be generally used for protein expression and developmental studies at the embryonic level, but can also provide clues to understand the aging process and age-related diseases in particular. PMID:25950235

  10. Long-term stimulation of mouse hippocampal slice culture on microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, A; Papanikolaou, T; Schuker, A; Möller, A; Schlosshauer, B

    2003-05-01

    To understand mechanisms of information processing, development and degeneration of the central nervous system, simultaneous multisite recording and stimulation have become extremely helpful. We have further developed the innovative approach to record from intact neural networks using planar microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with 60 substrate-integrated nano-columnar electrodes. To allow for long-term stimulation, mouse hippocampal tissue slices were immobilized onto MEAs and permanently moved between the gas and medium phase in a specifically designed tilting incubator that made it possible to electrically contact up to 90 MEAs with 5400 electrodes. After 2-3 weeks in vitro, histochemical staining, the intracellular microinjection of the fluorescent dye Alexa and the recording of spontaneous activity revealed in vivo-like characteristics of the organotypically cultured tissue. The feasibility of long-term stimulation during culturing was demonstrated with a low frequency paradigm. 0.003 Hz stimulation over a 16 h period resulted in a significant decline of field potentials and population spikes in two identified hippocampal subregions. Control experiments revealed that this effect was not due to tissue detachment or to induced cell death. In summary, the novel technology promises to open a new avenue for analyzing regulatory interactions of neuronal activity, cell differentiation and gene expression during development and in diseases. PMID:12738008

  11. An automated microfluidic platform for C. elegans embryo arraying, phenotyping, and long-term live imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Matteo; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Marette, Alexis; Narasimhan, Shreya; Lehnert, Thomas; Jovaisaite, Virginija; Auwerx, Johan; Gijs, Martin A. M.

    2015-05-01

    Studies of the real-time dynamics of embryonic development require a gentle embryo handling method, the possibility of long-term live imaging during the complete embryogenesis, as well as of parallelization providing a population’s statistics, while keeping single embryo resolution. We describe an automated approach that fully accomplishes these requirements for embryos of Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the most employed model organisms in biomedical research. We developed a microfluidic platform which makes use of pure passive hydrodynamics to run on-chip worm cultures, from which we obtain synchronized embryo populations, and to immobilize these embryos in incubator microarrays for long-term high-resolution optical imaging. We successfully employ our platform to investigate morphogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis during the full embryonic development and elucidate the role of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) within C. elegans embryogenesis. Our method can be generally used for protein expression and developmental studies at the embryonic level, but can also provide clues to understand the aging process and age-related diseases in particular.

  12. Technetium Incorporation in Glass for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Kim, Dong Sang

    2015-01-14

    . Long-term corrosion of glass waste forms is an area of current interest to the DOE, but attention to the release of Tc from glass has been little explored. It is expected that the release of Tc from glass should be highly dependent on the local glass structure as well as the chemistry of the surrounding environment, including groundwater pH. Though the speciation of Tc in glass has been previously studied, and the Tc species present in waste glass have been previously reported, environmental Tc release mechanisms are poorly understood. The recent advances in Tc chemistry that have given rise to an understanding of incorporation in the glass giving rise to significantly higher single-pass retention during vitrification are presented. Additionally, possible changes to the baseline flowsheet that allow for relatively minor volumes of Tc reporting to secondary waste treatment will be discussed.

  13. The Long-Term Public Health Benefits of Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Binns, Colin; Lee, MiKyung; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding has many health benefits, both in the short term and the longer term, to infants and their mothers. There is an increasing number of studies that report on associations between breastfeeding and long-term protection against chronic disease. Recent research evidence is reviewed in this study, building on previous authoritative reviews. The recent World Health Organization reviews of the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding concluded that there was strong evidence for many public health benefits of breastfeeding. Cognitive development is improved by breastfeeding, and infants who are breastfed and mothers who breastfeed have lower rates of obesity. Other chronic diseases that are reduced by breastfeeding include diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, and some types of cancer. PMID:26792873

  14. GEWEX Contributions to Long Term Global Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oevelen, P.; Kummerow, C.; Schulz, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) as part of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) has a long history in the support and development of long term global data sets for energy and water cycle research based upon primarily earth observation data. The main panel under GEWEX responsible for these data sets is the GEWEX Data and Assessments Panel (GDAP) formally well known as the GEWEX Radiation Panel (GRP). GDAP has as its primary goal to guide production and evaluation of long term, globally complete atmospheric and surface water and energy budget products, including radiation, clouds, aerosols, precipitation and surface turbulent fluxes. In this presentation an overview of the history and future of the various data sets produced under GDAP is given along with an outlook on the individual data sets as well as the Integrated Data set.

  15. Solar activity index for long-term ionospheric forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deminov, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the comparison of solar activity indices (annual average values of the relative number of sunspots Rz 12 and solar radio emission flux at a wavelength of 10.7 cm F 12) with the ionospheric index of solar activity IG 12 for 1954-2013, we have found that the index F 12 is a more accurate (than Rz 12) indicator of solar activity for the long-term forecast of foF2 (the critical frequency of the F2-layer). This advantage of the F 12 index becomes especially significant after 2000 if the specific features of extreme ultraviolet radiation of the Sun are additionally taken into account in the minima of solar cycles, using an appropriate correction to F 12. Qualitative arguments are given in favor of the use of F 12 for the long-term forecast of both foF2 and other ionospheric parameters.

  16. Space station experiment definition: Long term cryogenic fluid storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riemer, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary design of an experiment to demonstrate and evaluate long-term cryogenic fluid storage and transfer technologies has been performed. This Long-Term Cryogenic Fluid Storage (LTCFS) experiment is a Technology Development Mission (TDM) experiment proposed by the NASA Lewis Research Center to be deployed on the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) space station. Technologies required by future orbital cryogenic systems such as Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV's) were defined, and critical technologies requiring demonstration were chosen to be included in the experiment. A three-phase test program was defined to test the following types of technologies: (1) Passive Thermal Technologies; (2) Fluid Transfer Technologies; and (3) Active Refrigeration Technologies. The development status of advanced technologies required for the LTCFS experiment is summarized, including current, past and future programs.

  17. Long term exposure of metals to hydrazine nitrate blend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Clifford M.; Blue, Gary D.

    1986-01-01

    A long term testing program is being conducted to determine the effects of materials in contact with a hydrazine nitrate blend for the purpose of designing chemical propulsion systems which can be used for current as well as future planetary spacecraft. Analysis of this data indicates that some aluminum alloys are acceptable for use with the particular blend of fuel used. Titanium alloy was identified as being acceptable for 10-year applications. Corrosion resistant steels, however, were found to have excessive corrosion rates and are therefore considered unacceptable for long-term use. There is also some evidence that the propellant decomposed at a rate far in excess of the acceptable rate of 0.1 percent per year when in contact with stainless steel.

  18. [Long-term realistically life-threatening disease].

    PubMed

    Berent, Jarosław; Jurczyk, Agnieszka P; Markuszewski, Leszek; Szram, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the authors discuss a legal code description of a wrongly included (as a result of a legislative error) "long-term really life-threatening disease" (dlugotrwala choroba realnie zagrazajaca zyciu) in the Criminal Code. This category of disease impossible to apply in practice since its terms "long-term" and "realistically life-threatening" are mutually exclusive--is nonetheless applicable to crimes committed from Sept. 1, 1998 to Dec. 8, 2003. In effect this causes a change in the qualification of certain acts in Art. 156 of the Criminal Code, to include those in Art. 157, Paragraph 1, and in some cases, even extending to acts named in Art. 157, Paragraph 2 of the Criminal Code. PMID:15782782

  19. Long term investigations of silver cathodes for alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, N.; Schulze, M.; Gülzow, E.

    Alkaline fuel cells (AFC) are an interesting alternative to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). In AFC no expensive platinum metal is necessary; silver can be used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) (cathode catalyst). For technical use of AFC the long term behavior of AFC components is important, especially that of the electrodes. The investigated cathodes for AFC consist of a mixture of silver catalyst and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) as organic binder rolled onto a metal web. The electrodes were electrochemically investigated through measuring V- i curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical characterization and the long term tests were performed in half-cells at 70 °C using pure oxygen (1 bar) under galvanostatic conditions. The cathodes were electrochemically investigated in half-cells using reference electrodes (Hg/HgO) by periodically recording V- i curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the cathodes were physically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  20. Pyrophoricity of uranium in long-term storage environments

    SciTech Connect

    Solbrig, C W; Krsul, J R; Olsen, D N

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion cycle for uranium is postulated which can be used to assess whether a given storage situation might produce fire hazards and/or continual uranium corrosion. A significant reaction rate of uranium and moisture occurs at room temperature which produces uranium oxide and hydrogen. If the hydrogen cannot escape, it will react slowly with uranium to form uranium hydride. The hydride is pyrophoric at room temperature when exposed to air. Either the hydrogen or the hydride can produce a dangerous situation as demonstrated by two different incidents described here. Long-term corrosion will occur even if the normal precautions are taken as is demonstrated by the long-term storage of stainless steel clad uranium fuel plates. The major initiator of these problems is attributed to any moisture condensed on the metal or any brought in by the cover gas. The postulated corrosion cycle is used to suggest ways to circumvent these problems.

  1. Related Studies in Long Term Lithium Battery Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, R. J.; Chua, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The continuing growth of the use of lithium electrochemical systems in a wide variety of both military and industrial applications is primarily a result of the significant benefits associated with the technology such as high energy density, wide temperature operation and long term stability. The stability or long term storage capability of a battery is a function of several factors, each important to the overall storage life and, therefore, each potentially a problem area if not addressed during the design, development and evaluation phases of the product cycle. Design (e.g., reserve vs active), inherent material thermal stability, material compatibility and self-discharge characteristics are examples of factors key to the storability of a power source.

  2. Samish Indian Nation Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Christine Woodward; B. Beckley; K. Hagen

    2005-06-30

    The Tribes strategic energy planning effort is divided into three phases: (1) Completing an Energy Resource Assessment; (2) Developing a Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan; and (3) Preparing a Strategic Energy Implementation Plan for the Samish Homelands. The Samish Indian Nation developed a comprehensive Strategic Energy plan to set policy for future development on tribal land that consists of a long-term, integrated, systems approach to providing a framework under which the Samish Community can use resources efficiently, create energy-efficient infrastructures, and protect and enhance quality of life. Development of the Strategic Energy plan will help the Samish Nation create a healthy community that will sustain current and future generations by addressing economic, environmental, and social issues while respecting the Samish Indian Nation culture and traditions.

  3. Archiving Primary Data: Solutions for Long-Term Studies.

    PubMed

    Mills, James A; Teplitsky, Céline; Arroyo, Beatriz; Charmantier, Anne; Becker, Peter H; Birkhead, Tim R; Bize, Pierre; Blumstein, Daniel T; Bonenfant, Christophe; Boutin, Stan; Bushuev, Andrey; Cam, Emmanuelle; Cockburn, Andrew; Côté, Steeve D; Coulson, John C; Daunt, Francis; Dingemanse, Niels J; Doligez, Blandine; Drummond, Hugh; Espie, Richard H M; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Frentiu, Francesca; Fitzpatrick, John W; Furness, Robert W; Garant, Dany; Gauthier, Gilles; Grant, Peter R; Griesser, Michael; Gustafsson, Lars; Hansson, Bengt; Harris, Michael P; Jiguet, Frédéric; Kjellander, Petter; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krebs, Charles J; Lens, Luc; Linnell, John D C; Low, Matthew; McAdam, Andrew; Margalida, Antoni; Merilä, Juha; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nisbet, Ian C T; van Noordwijk, Arie J; Oro, Daniel; Pärt, Tomas; Pelletier, Fanie; Potti, Jaime; Pujol, Benoit; Réale, Denis; Rockwell, Robert F; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Roulin, Alexandre; Sedinger, James S; Swenson, Jon E; Thébaud, Christophe; Visser, Marcel E; Wanless, Sarah; Westneat, David F; Wilson, Alastair J; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (Pls) with long-term studies revealed positive attitudes towards sharing data with the agreement or involvement of the PI, and 93% of PIs have historically shared data. Only 8% were in favor of uncontrolled, open access to primary data while 63% expressed serious concern. We present here their viewpoint on an issue that can have non-trivial scientific consequences. We discuss potential costs of public data archiving and provide possible solutions to meet the needs of journals and researchers. PMID:26411615

  4. [Stabilization and long-term effect of chromium contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Luo, Qi-Shi; Zhang, Chang-Bo; Tan, Liang; Li, Xu

    2013-10-01

    Short-term (3 d and 28 d) and long-term (1 a) stabilization effects of Cr contaminated soil were investigated through nature curing, using four amendments including ferrous sulfide, ferrous sulfate, zero-valent iron and sodium dithionite. The results indicated that ferrous sulfide and zero-valent iron were not helpful for the stabilization of Cr(VI) when directly used because of their poor solubility and immobility. Ferrous sulfate could effectively and rapidly decrease total leaching Cr and Cr(VI) content. The stabilization effect was further promoted by the generation of iron hydroxides after long-term curing. Sodium dithionite also had positive effect on soil stabilization. Appropriate addition ratio of the two chemicals could help maintain the soil pH in range of 6-8. PMID:24364328

  5. Long-term memory of atmospheric aerosols over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B, A.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term memory of atmospheric variables is a least understood facet in atmospheric science. The temporal and spatial distribution of atmospheric aerosols depends largely on the atmospheric parameters. Time series analysis using a stochastic model reveals that atmospheric aerosols over India exhibit a long-term memory. Our analysis confirms that by using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model we can parsimoniously model the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Indian region with a reasonably good accuracy. This major advantage of this method is that by using past observations we were able to generate forecasts for next 3 years. The forecasts thus generate shows a good fit with the observations. This persistence is due to the presence of temporal dependence between successive observations.

  6. Long-term Synaptic Plasticity: Circuit Perturbation and Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung-Cherl; Eun, Su-Yong

    2014-01-01

    At central synapses, activity-dependent synaptic plasticity has a crucial role in information processing, storage, learning, and memory under both physiological and pathological conditions. One widely accepted model of learning mechanism and information processing in the brain is Hebbian Plasticity: long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). LTP and LTD are respectively activity-dependent enhancement and reduction in the efficacy of the synapses, which are rapid and synapse-specific processes. A number of recent studies have a strong focal point on the critical importance of another distinct form of synaptic plasticity, non-Hebbian plasticity. Non-Hebbian plasticity dynamically adjusts synaptic strength to maintain stability. This process may be very slow and occur cell-widely. By putting them all together, this mini review defines an important conceptual difference between Hebbian and non-Hebbian plasticity. PMID:25598658

  7. Long-term variability of dMe stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. J.; Hartmann, L.

    1978-01-01

    Photographic B magnitudes of the four spot stars BY Dra (dM0e), CC Eri (K7 Ve), AU Mic (dM2.5e), and YZ CMi (dM4.5e) are reported which considerably extend the time baseline of the photoelectric data on these stars. The long-term variation of the stars in yearly mean light is investigated. It is found that both BY Dra and CC Eri exhibit long-term B-magnitude variations with amplitudes of about 0.3 to 0.4 magnitude and times between maximum and minimum light near 30 yr. No apparent variability is observed for AU Mic and YZ CMi. The possibility is discussed that the variability of BY Dra and CC Eri is connected with a starspot cycle, for which the period would be around 60 yr.

  8. Long-term Effectiveness of Online Anaphylaxis Education for Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Sandra; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Loh, Richard; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of an Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA) anaphylaxis e-learning program compared to lectures or no training. Design. A controlled interrupted-time-series study of Australian pharmacists and pharmacy students who completed ASCIA anaphylaxis e-learning or lecture programs was conducted during 2011-2013. Effectiveness was measured using a validated test administered pretraining, posttraining, and 3 and 7 months after training. Assessment. All learning groups performed significantly better on all posttests compared to the pretest, and compared to a control group (p<0.001). The proportion of e-learners achieving the minimum standard for anaphylaxis knowledge improved from 45% at pretest to 87% at 7 months. Conclusion. The ASCIA e-learning program significantly increased anaphylaxis knowledge. The high proportion of participants achieving the minimum standard at 7 months indicates long-term knowledge change. PMID:25258441

  9. Noncontact ECG system for unobtrusive long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Neil J; Anumula, Harini A; Duff, Eric; Soussou, Walid

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes measurements made using an ECG system with QUASAR's capacitive bioelectrodes integrated into a pad system that is placed over a chair. QUASAR's capacitive bioelectrode has the property of measuring bioelectric potentials at a small separation from the body. This enables the measurement of ECG signals through fabric, without the removal of clothing or preparation of skin. The ECG was measured through the subject's clothing while the subject sat in the chair without any supporting action from the subject. The ECG pad system is an example of a high compliance system that places minimal requirements upon the subject and, consequently, can be used to generate a long-term record from ECG segments collected on a daily basis, providing valuable information on long-term trends in cardiac health. PMID:23366215

  10. Is Current Hydrogeologic Research Addressing Long-TermPredictions?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2004-09-10

    Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and, in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods, but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physico-chemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

  11. Long Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y.; Genta, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors profoundly affect the stomach and have been associated with carcinoid tumors in female rats. There is now sufficient experience with this class of drugs to allow reasonable estimation of their safety in terms of cancer development. Long term proton pump inhibitor use is associated with an increase in gastric inflammation and development of atrophy among those with active Helicobacter pylori infections. The actual risk is unknown but is clearly low. However, it can be markedly reduced or eliminated by H. pylori eradication leading to the recommendation that patients considered for long term proton pump inhibitor therapy be tested for H. pylori infection and if present, it should be eradicated. Oxyntic cell hyperplasia, glandular dilatations, and fundic gland polyps may develop in H. pylori-uninfected patients, but these changes are believed to be reversible and without significant cancer risk. PMID:19006608

  12. On long-term ozone trends at Hohenpeissenberg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claude, H.; Vandersee, W.; Wege, K.

    1994-01-01

    More than 2000 ozone soundings and a large number of Dobson observations have been performed since 1967 in a unique procedure. The achieved very homogeneous data sets were used to evaluate significant long-term trends both in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The trend amounts to about plus 2 percent per year in the troposphere and to about minus 0.5 percent per year in the stratosphere. Extremely low ozone records obtained during winter 1991/92 are discussed in the light of the long term series. The winter mean of the ozone column is the lowest one of the series. The ozone deficit occurred mainly in the lower stratosphere. One cause may be the Pinatubo cloud. Even compared with the extreme winter mean following the El Chichon eruption the ozone content was lower. Additionally ozone was reduced by dynamical effects due to unusual weather situations.

  13. Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gary D; Chen, Jun; Hoffmann, Christian; Bittinger, Kyle; Chen, Ying-Yu; Keilbaugh, Sue A; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Knights, Dan; Walters, William A; Knight, Rob; Sinha, Rohini; Gilroy, Erin; Gupta, Kernika; Baldassano, Robert; Nessel, Lisa; Li, Hongzhe; Bushman, Frederic D; Lewis, James D

    2011-10-01

    Diet strongly affects human health, partly by modulating gut microbiome composition. We used diet inventories and 16S rDNA sequencing to characterize fecal samples from 98 individuals. Fecal communities clustered into enterotypes distinguished primarily by levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Enterotypes were strongly associated with long-term diets, particularly protein and animal fat (Bacteroides) versus carbohydrates (Prevotella). A controlled-feeding study of 10 subjects showed that microbiome composition changed detectably within 24 hours of initiating a high-fat/low-fiber or low-fat/high-fiber diet, but that enterotype identity remained stable during the 10-day study. Thus, alternative enterotype states are associated with long-term diet. PMID:21885731

  14. Nonlinearities in patterns of long-term ocean warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugenstein, Maria A. A.; Sedláček, Jan; Knutti, Reto

    2016-04-01

    The ocean dominates the planetary heat budget and takes thousands of years to equilibrate to perturbed surface conditions, yet those long time scales are poorly understood. Here we analyze the ocean response over a range of forcing levels and time scales in a climate model of intermediate complexity and in the CMIP5 model suite. We show that on century to millennia time scales the response time scales, regions of anomalous ocean heat storage, and global thermal expansion depend nonlinearly on the forcing level and surface warming. As a consequence, it is problematic to deduce long-term from short-term heat uptake or scale the heat uptake patterns between scenarios. These results also question simple methods to estimate long-term sea level rise from surface temperatures, and the use of deep sea proxies to represent surface temperature changes in past climate.

  15. Fusion energy in context: its fitness for the long term.

    PubMed

    Holdren, J P

    1978-04-14

    Long-term limits to growth in energy will be imposed not by inability to expand supply, but by the rising environmental and social costs of doing so. These costs will therefore be central issues in choosing long-term options. Fusion, like solar energy, is not one possibility but many, some with very attractive environmental characteristics and others perhaps little better in these regards than fission. None of the fusion options will be cheap, and none is likely to be widely available before the year 2010. The most attractive forms of fusion may require greater investments of time and money to achieve, but they are the real reason for wanting fusion at all. PMID:17818794

  16. RNA transport and long-term memory storage

    PubMed Central

    Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that synthesis of new proteins at the synapse is a prerequisite for the storage of long-term memories. Relatively little is known about the availability of distinct mRNA populations for translation at specific synapses, the process that determines mRNA localization, and the temporal designations of localized mRNA translation during memory storage. Techniques such as synaptosome preparation and microdissection of distal neuronal processes of cultured neurons and dendritic layers in brain slices are general approaches used to identify localized RNAs. Exploration of the association of RNA-binding proteins to the axonal transport machinery has led to the development of a strategy to identify RNAs that are transported from the cell body to synapses by molecular motor kinesin. In this article, RNA localization at the synapse, as well as its mechanisms and significance in understanding long-term memory storage, are discussed. PMID:24356491

  17. Prenatal alcohol exposure and long-term developmental consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Spohr, H.L.; Willms, J. . Dept. of Pediatrics); Steinhausen, H.C. . Dept. of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)

    1993-04-10

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a leading cause of congenital mental retardation but little is known about the long-term development and adolescent outcome of children with FAS. In a 10-year follow-up study of 60 patients diagnosed as having FAS in infancy and childhood, the authors investigated the long-term sequelae of intrauterine alcohol exposure. The authors found that the characteristic craniofacial malformations of FAS diminish with time, but microcephaly and, to a lesser degree, short stature and underweight (in boys) persist; in female adolescents body weight normalizes. Persistent mental retardation is the major sequela of intrauterine alcohol exposure in many cases, and environmental and educational factors do not have strong compensatory effects on the intellectual development of affected children.

  18. Long-Term Observations of Her X-1 with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. B.; Scott, D. M.; Finger, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    Pulsed emission from Her X-1 has been observed by BATSE during each Main High state throughout the CGRO (Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory) mission . This long observation set by a single instrument provides new information on long-term behavior of the Her X-1 system. The luminosity varies by more than a factor of 3 between different 35d cycles. Frequency and flux histories do not show a simple relationship between the source intensity and spin behavior, but do show that only spindown occurs when the source is in its lowest intensity state. Orbital analyses will be presented, including tests for consistency of the observed orbital epoch with the long-term ephemeris reported by (Deeter 1991). The intensity profile and onset times of cycles observed by both BATSE and the RXTE ASM (All Sky Monitor) will be compared. Behavior of the cycle start times versus source Main High peak intensity will be presented.

  19. Long-Term Underground Corrosion of Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    M. K. Adler Flitton; T. S. Yoder

    2007-03-01

    In 1970, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) implemented the most ambitious and comprehensive long-term corrosion behavior test to date for stainless steels in soil environments. Over thirty years later, one of the six test sites was targeted to research subsurface contamination and transport processes in the vadose and saturated zones. This research directly applies to environmental management operational corrosion issues and long term stewardship scientific needs for understanding the behavior of waste forms and their near-field contaminant transport of chemical and radiological contaminants at nuclear disposal sites. This paper briefly describes the ongoing research and the corrosion analysis results of the stainless steel plate specimens recovered from the partial recovery of the first test site.

  20. Long-term remote monitoring of salt marsh biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.; Hardisky, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Methods developed for monitoring salt-marsh biomass remotedly are considered in the framework of NASA's Biospheric Research Program. Satellite-derived estimates of the aboveground biomass is considered, and it is noted that a long-term program for long-term remote monitoring is only practical if the relationship between biomass and spectral data remains essentially constant from year to year. Emphasis is placed on ground-based sampling, satellite measurements of mean marsh live aboveground biomass, the spatial distribution of biomass within the marsh, and changes in marsh hydrography as seen from a satellite. Linking aboveground and belowground biomass is discussed, as well as the problem with obtaining cloud-free images and measuring dead biomass.

  1. Long term consistency of handwriting grip kinetics in adults.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Bassma; Mamun, Khondaker A; Chau, Tom

    2014-04-01

    While there is growing interest in clinical applications of handwriting grip kinetics, the consistency of these forces over time is not well-understood at present. In this study, we investigated the short- and long-term intra-participant consistency and inter-participant differences in grip kinetics associated with adult signature writing. Grip data were collected from 20 adult participants using a digitizing tablet and an instrumented pen. The first phase of data collection occurred over 10 separate days within a three week period. To ascertain long-term consistency, a second phase of data collection followed, one day per month over several months. In both phases, data were collected three times a day. After pre-processing and feature extraction, nonparametric statistical tests were used to compare the within-participant grip force variation between the two phases. Participant classification based on grip force features was used to determine the relative magnitude of inter-participant versus intra-participant differences. The misclassification rate for the longitudinal data were used as an indication of long term kinetic consistency. Intra-participant analysis revealed significant changes in grip kinetic features between the two phases for many participants. However, the misclassification rate, on average, remained stable, despite different demarcations of training, and testing data. This finding suggests that while signature writing grip forces may evolve over time, inter-participant kinetic differences consistently exceeds within-participant force changes in the long-term. These results bear implications on the collection, modeling and interpretation of grip kinetics in clinical applications. PMID:24510237

  2. [Long-term sequelae after chemoradiation in head neck tumors].

    PubMed

    Schoch, Manuel; Broglie Däppen, Martina; Henke, Guido; Stöckli, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    The most common type of head and neck tumors are squamous cell cancer of the pharynx, the oral cavity and the larynx. These tumors can be treated by primary radio(chemo)therapy or surgery as well as a combination of both modalities depending on the site and extent of disease. This article will outline the recent developments in radiation therapy and give an overview of the potential long-term sequelae and their influencing factors. PMID:27132643

  3. Long-term trends and a sustainability transition

    PubMed Central

    Kates, Robert W.; Parris, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    How do long-term global trends affect a transition to sustainability? We emphasize the “multitrend” nature of 10 classes of trends, which makes them complex, contradictory, and often poorly understood. Each class includes trends that make a sustainability transition more feasible as well as trends that make it more difficult. Taken in their entirety, they serve as a checklist for the consideration of global trends that impact place-based sustainability studies. PMID:12829798

  4. Health reform: setting the agenda for long term care.

    PubMed

    Hatch, O G; Wofford, H; Willging, P R; Pomeroy, E

    1993-06-01

    The White House Task Force on National Health Care Reform, headed by First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, is expected to release its prescription for health care reform this month. From the outset, Clinton's mandate was clear: to provide universal coverage while reining in costs for delivering quality health care. Before President Clinton was even sworn into office, he had outlined the major principles that would shape the health reform debate. Global budgeting would establish limits on all health care expenditures, thereby containing health costs. Under a system of managed competition, employers would form health alliances for consumers to negotiate for cost-effective health care at the community level. So far, a basic approach to health care reform has emerged. A key element is universal coverage--with an emphasis on acute, preventive, and mental health care. Other likely pieces are employer-employee contributions to health care plans, laws that guarantee continued coverage if an individual changes jobs or becomes ill, and health insurance alliances that would help assure individual access to low-cost health care. What still is not clear is the extent to which long term care will be included in the basic benefits package. A confidential report circulated by the task force last month includes four options for long term care: incremental Medicaid reform; a new federal/state program to replace Medicaid; a social insurance program for home and community-based services; or full social insurance for long term care. Some work group members have identified an additional option: prefunded long term care insurance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10126659

  5. Target for LOFAR Long Term Archive: Architecture and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, A.; Boxhoorn, D.; Dijkstra, F.; Holties, H. A.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2012-09-01

    The LOFAR Long-Term Archive (LTA) is a multi-Petabyte scale data storage for the processed data of LOFAR telescope. We describe the adaptation of the WISE concept implemented by Target consortium for the LOFAR LTA and changes we introduced to it to accommodate LOFAR data. This paper describes an example of a new information system created on the basis of Astro-WISE for a wider range and scale of data.

  6. Shift work and long-term injury among police officers

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Hartley, Tara A; Vila, Bryan; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our previous work has suggested that the incidence of any occurrence of injury leave among police officers is higher on night shifts. In this study, we extended our inquiry to determine whether the incidence of long-term injury leave varies across shifts. Methods Police officers (N=419) from an urban department were included in the analysis. Daily payroll work history data from 1994–2010 was collected. Injury leave duration was examined ranging from ≥1–≥90 days. Poisson regression models were used to compute incidence rates (IR) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) of long-term injury. Results Cumulative incidence of injury for different durations of leave defined as ≥1, ≥5, ≥10, ≥15, ≥30, and ≥90 days were 61.3%, 45.4%, 39.9%, 33.9%, 26.5%, and 9.6% respectively. Age-and gender adjusted IRR of long-term injury (≥90 days) for night versus day shifts was IRR 3.12, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.35–7.21 and IRR 2.21, 95% CI 1.04–4.68, for night versus afternoon shifts. Among all durations examined, the largest IRR was for injury ≥90 days, night versus day shifts (IRR 3.12, 95% CI 1.35–7.21). Conclusions Night shift work was significantly associated with long-term injury among police officers after adjustment for age and gender. Although type of injury was not available, it is possible that variation in injury type across shifts might account for some of this association. PMID:23503596

  7. Long-term complications associated with permanent dermal fillers.

    PubMed

    Kunjur, Jayanth; Witherow, Helen

    2013-12-01

    We report a case series of patients with serious long-term complications associated with the injection of permanent dermal fillers. Although such complications are relatively rare, the consequences are potentially life-long, and the psychological and medical effects can often have a profound impact on the patient. The continued routine offering of these treatments will require doctors to communicate effectively with patients about the nature of the complications and the probability of risk compared with alternative treatments. PMID:23962591

  8. A long-term carrier of cholera: Cholera Dolores

    PubMed Central

    Azurin, J. C.; Kobari, Kazumine; Barua, D.; Alvero, M.; Gomez, C. Z.; Dizon, J. J.; Nakano, Ei-Ichi; Suplido, R.; Ledesma, L.

    1967-01-01

    The first known long-term carrier of cholera, found in the Philippines, is described. The carrier, Dolores M., who had suffered from El Tor cholera in August 1962, continued intermittently to excrete vibrios of the same characteristics as the original isolates until the date of reporting (1966). Duodenal intubation proved that the vibrios are lodged in her biliary tract. Her serum antibody titre continued to remain high in the absence of vaccination against cholera. PMID:5300877

  9. Early nutrition and health: short- and long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Socha, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Maternal diet, nutritional status during pregnancy, and the early diet of the offspring play an important role in later health. The short- and long-term outcomes of early nutrition have been extensively studied in recent decades. One of the most commonly investigated nutritional interventions is breastfeeding, which is associated with a number of positive short- and long-term outcomes. A short-term effect of breastfeeding is reduced morbidity and mortality in children from poor living conditions and in preterm infants. Breastfeeding is associated with better cognitive development and also has a long-term protective effect on obesity risk, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and a lowering effect on blood pressure. Selected nutrients have undergone extensive investigation to show their role in disease prevention or improved development, e.g. protein intake in infancy seems to be associated with a later risk of obesity or docosahexaenoic acid supplementation has a positive impact on cognitive function. Another consideration is the fast catch-up growth in small for gestational age infants as an important factor associated with adult risk of cardiovascular problems. On the other hand, high protein and energy intake seems to be positively associated with some indicators of cognitive development. Most of the evidence comes from observational studies that cannot exclude potential confounders. Animal studies demonstrate causality but should not be directly extrapolated to humans. The number of randomized controlled studies is increasing but long-term follow-ups are necessary to obtain convincing results. The majority of these trials compare different infant formula compositions and macro- or micronutrient supplementation. One of the major questions is to define a critical (or opportunity) window and a mechanism of nutritional influence on several health outcomes. PMID:24029784

  10. Genomic fossils calibrate the long-term evolution of hepadnaviruses.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Clément; Feschotte, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    Because most extant viruses mutate rapidly and lack a true fossil record, their deep evolution and long-term substitution rates remain poorly understood. In addition to retroviruses, which rely on chromosomal integration for their replication, many other viruses replicate in the nucleus of their host's cells and are therefore prone to endogenization, a process that involves integration of viral DNA into the host's germline genome followed by long-term vertical inheritance. Such endogenous viruses are highly valuable as they provide a molecular fossil record of past viral invasions, which may be used to decipher the origins and long-term evolutionary characteristics of modern pathogenic viruses. Hepadnaviruses (Hepadnaviridae) are a family of small, partially double-stranded DNA viruses that include hepatitis B viruses. Here we report the discovery of endogenous hepadnaviruses in the genome of the zebra finch. We used a combination of cross-species analysis of orthologous insertions, molecular dating, and phylogenetic analyses to demonstrate that hepadnaviruses infiltrated repeatedly the germline genome of passerine birds. We provide evidence that some of the avian hepadnavirus integration events are at least 19 My old, which reveals a much deeper ancestry of Hepadnaviridae than could be inferred based on the coalescence times of modern hepadnaviruses. Furthermore, the remarkable sequence similarity between endogenous and extant avian hepadnaviruses (up to 75% identity) suggests that long-term substitution rates for these viruses are on the order of 10(-8) substitutions per site per year, which is a 1,000-fold slower than short-term rates estimated based on the sequences of circulating hepadnaviruses. Together, these results imply a drastic shift in our understanding of the time scale of hepadnavirus evolution, and suggest that the rapid evolutionary dynamics characterizing modern avian hepadnaviruses do not reflect their mode of evolution on a deep time scale. PMID

  11. Photodocumentation of long-term lunar surface exposure experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.

    1974-01-01

    Preflight photographs of selected Apollo 17 equipment taken for use in determining the effects on various surfaces of long-term exposure to the lunar environment are presented. Photographs of the articles deployed on the lunar surface also are included. The photographic procedure and the coding system used for the photodocumentation are explained. Other documentation measures planned to obtain items for use as controls in projected analyses are discussed.

  12. Science communication. Comment on "Quantifying long-term scientific impact".

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Mei, Yajun; Hicks, Diana

    2014-07-11

    Wang et al. (Reports, 4 October 2013, p. 127) claimed high prediction power for their model of citation dynamics. We replicate their analysis but find discouraging results: 14.75% papers are estimated with unreasonably large μ (>5) and λ (>10) and correspondingly enormous prediction errors. The prediction power is even worse than simply using short-term citations to approximate long-term citations. PMID:25013055

  13. The costs of long-term care: distribution and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Wallack, S S; Cohen, M A

    1988-01-01

    Long-term care costs will result in financial hardship for millions of elderly Americans and their families. The growing number of elderly people has focused public attention on the catastrophic problem of coverage for long-term care. Social insurance is unlikely to emerge as a solution in the USA. One reason is that the expected total cost is viewed as an unmanageable burden by both Federal and State governments. To others, it is the uncertainty surrounding the projected costs. This paper reports on the results of a double-decrement life-table analysis, based on a national survey of the elderly taken in early 1977 and one year later, that estimated the distribution and total lifetime nursing-home costs of the elderly. Combining the probability of nursing-home entry and length of stay, a 65-year-old faces a 43% chance of entering a nursing home and spending about +11,000 (1980 dollars). The distribution of lifetime costs is however very skewed with 13% of the elderly consuming 90% of the resources. Thus, while the costs of nursing-home care can be catastrophic for an individual, spread across a group they are not unmanageable. Given the distribution of income and assets among the elderly, a sizeable proportion could readily afford the necessary premiums of different emerging insurance and delivery programmes. Alternative private and public models of long-term care must be evaluated in terms of the goals of a finance and delivery system for long-term care. PMID:3129256

  14. Long-term predictive capability of erosion models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadra, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    A brief overview of long-term cavitation and liquid impingement erosion and modeling methods proposed by different investigators, including the curve-fit approach is presented. A table was prepared to highlight the number of variables necessary for each model in order to compute the erosion-versus-time curves. A power law relation based on the average erosion rate is suggested which may solve several modeling problems.

  15. Health status in long-term survivors of pediatric craniopharyngiomas.

    PubMed

    Crom, Deborah B; Smith, Daniel; Xiong, Zang; Onar, Arzu; Hudson, Melissa M; Merchant, Thomas E; Morris, E Brannon

    2010-12-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are the third most common pediatric brain tumor and most common pediatric suprasellar tumor. Contemporary treatment of craniopharyngiomas uses limited surgery and radiation in an effort to minimize morbidity, but the long-term health status of patients treated in this fashion has not been well described. The purpose of this study was to analyze the health status of long-term survivors of pediatric craniopharyngioma treated primarily with radiation and conservative surgical resection. Medical records of all long-term survivors of craniopharyngioma treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and then transferred to the long-term follow-up clinic were reviewed. The initial cohort comprised 55 patients. Of these, 51 (93%) were alive at the time of this analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 7.1 years (range, 1.2-17.6 years), and 29 (57%) were male. At the time of analysis, the median survival was 7.6 years (range, 5.0-21.3 years). Diagnosis and treatment included surgical biopsy, resection (n = 50), and radiation therapy (n=48). Only 1 patient received chemotherapy. Polyendocrinopathy was the most common morbidity, with hypothyroidism (96%), adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (84%), and diabetes insipidus (53%) occurring most frequently. Half of the patients were hypogonadal, and 33 (65%) were overweight or obese. The most common neurologic problems included shunt dependence (37%), seizures (28%), and headaches (39%). Psychological and educational deficits were also identified in a significant number of these individuals. Despite efforts to reduce morbidity in these patients, many survivors remain burdened with significant medical complications. In a small percentage of patients, complications may result in death even during extended remission of craniopharyngioma. Because of the broad spectrum or morbidities experienced, survivors of craniopharyngioma continue to benefit from multidisciplinary care. PMID:21207770

  16. Long-term care as part of the continuum.

    PubMed

    McGrail, Kimberlyn

    2011-01-01

    Long-term care (LTC) is but one piece of a continuum of care that stretches from living at home completely independently to the 24-hour supervision and care provided in LTC facilities. People want to stay at home as long as possible and to retain as much independence as they can, and they are often aided in doing so with informal care provided by family and friends. These realities should inform the debates around the construction of the continuum of care. Canada's spending on facility-based long-term care puts us in the middle of the pack among OECD countries; if we consider the whole of continuing care, combining LTC, supportive housing/assisted living and home-based healthcare, Canada stands out as spending the highest proportion (among the 15 countries compared) on facility-based care. Predicting the number of new long-term care beds needed in the future is difficult because of shifting needs and changes in service delivery - new stops on the continuum of care. It is quite possible to organize a system of care that includes a continuum from home-based care to supportive housing and assisted living to LTC that de-emphasizes this last step. The increasing elderly population in Canada will not bring an apocalypse to the healthcare system, but caring for this population will require a redistribution of resources to increase the emphasis on home and community-based services. Our planning for just how many (if any) new long-term care beds are needed and our assessment of reasonable access to those beds need to rest on a vision for the full spectrum of care and attention to the desires of the population we are trying to serve. PMID:21593615

  17. Long-term-consequence analysis of no action alternative 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Staven, L.H.; Serne, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Disposal-Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Data and information is described which pertains to estimated impacts from postulated long-term release of radionuclides and hazardous constituents from alpha-bearing wastes stored at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control (no action alternative 2). Under this alternative, wastes would remain at the generator sites and not be emplaced at WIPP.

  18. Long-term parenteral nutrition: problems with venous access.

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, A S; Gertner, D J; Wood, S; Phillips, R K; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1990-01-01

    Long-term parenteral nutrition requires central venous access, often difficult in patients who have had several central venous catheterizations. Therapy may be complicated by thrombosis and sepsis which may further compromise central access. We report five cases illustrating such difficulties and suggest that these patients be referred early to specialist centres where experienced catheter insertion and management results in a greatly reduced incidence of complications. PMID:2116522

  19. Association Between Long-term Alcohol Consumption and Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin.

    PubMed

    Teraoka, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has focused on enhancing knowldge about the association between alcohol consumption and health, such as early detection of alcohol abuse, the appropriate actions to be taken after detection, and prevention of teenage drinking. They believe that it is necessary to develop and improve the methods for early detection of alcohol-related problems in an easy and effective way. Given this context, we hypothsized that simultaneous determination of osteocalcin (OC) and undercarboxylated osteocalcin ucOC), bone metabolic markers, would facilitate research on the effects of alcohol drinking. We divided volunteers into a group of long-term drinkers (heavy drinking for 20 years or more) and a group of social drinkers (moderate and controlled drinkers), and determined blood DC, ucOC, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRACP-5b) levels, as bone metabolic markers, and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), mitochondrial GOT (m-GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) levels, as biochemical markers. In addition, we determined the levels of free and bound ethanol and methanol in urine as markers of alcohol abuse and dependence. The group of long-term drinkers showed significantly higher levels of OC and ucOC than the group of social drinkers (p < 0.01). Long-term drinkers also showed a significantly higher level of m-GOT than the social drinkers in the biochemical examinations (p < 0.01). Long-term drinkers showed a tendency to have increased free/bound ethanol and methanol levels in urine compared to social drinkers, but the differences were not statistically significant. The above results suggest that determination of the levels of OC and ucOC can provide useful information for the early detection of heavy drinkers, indicating that OC and ucOC may be used as markers for preventing alcohol dependence. PMID:26946781

  20. Health Status in Long-Term Survivors of Pediatric Craniopharyngiomas

    PubMed Central

    Crom, Deborah B.; Smith, Daniel; Xiong, Zang; Onar, Arzu; Hudson, Melissa M.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Morris, E. Brannon

    2016-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are the third most common pediatric brain tumor and most common pediatric suprasellar tumor. Contemporary treatment of craniopharyngiomas utilizes limited surgery and radiation in an effort to minimize morbidity, but the long-term health status of patients treated in this fashion has not been well described. The purpose of this study was to analyze the health status of long-term survivors of pediatric craniopharyngioma treated primarily with radiation and conservative surgical resection. Medical records of all long-term survivors of craniopharyngioma treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and then transferred to the long-term follow-up clinic were reviewed. The initial cohort comprised 55 patients. Of these, 51 (93%) were alive at the time of this analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 7.1 years (range, 1.2–17.6 years), and 29 (57%) were male. At the time of analysis, the median survival was 7.6 years (range, 5.0–21.3 years). Diagnosis and treatment included surgical biopsy, resection (n=50), and radiation therapy (n=48). Only one patient received chemotherapy. Polyendocrinopathy was the most common morbidity, with hypothyroidism (96%), adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (84%), and diabetes insipidus (53%) occurring most frequently. Half were hypogonadal, and 33 (65%) were overweight or obese. The most common neurologic problems included shunt dependence (37%), seizures (28%), and headaches (39%). Psychological and educational deficits were also identified in a significant number of these individuals. Despite efforts to reduce morbidity in these patients, many survivors remain burdened with significant medical complications. In a small percentage of patients, these may result in death even during extended remission of craniopharyngioma. Due to the broad spectrum or morbidities experienced, survivors of craniopharyngioma continue to benefit from multidisciplinary care. PMID:21207770

  1. Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients Nursed at Home or in Long-Term Care Residential Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Arpaia, Guido; Ambrogi, Federico; Penza, Maristella; Ianes, Aladar Bruno; Serras, Alessandra; Boracchi, Patrizia; Cimminiello, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Background. This study investigated the prevalence of and impact of risk factors for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients with chronic diseases, bedridden or with greatly limited mobility, cared for at home or in long-term residential facilities. Methods. We enrolled 221 chronically ill patients, all over 18 years old, markedly or totally immobile, at home or in long-term care facilities. They were screened at the bedside by simplified compression ultrasound. Results. The prevalence of asymptomatic proximal DVT was 18% (95% CI 13–24%); there were no cases of symptomatic DVT or pulmonary embolism. The best model with at most four risk factors included: previous VTE, time of onset of reduced mobility, long-term residential care as opposed to home care and causes of reduced mobility. The risk of DVT for patients with reduced mobility due to cognitive impairment was about half that of patients with cognitive impairment/dementia. Conclusions. This is a first estimate of the prevalence of DVT among bedridden or low-mobility patients. Some of the risk factors that came to light, such as home care as opposed to long-term residential care and cognitive deficit as causes of reduced mobility, are not among those usually observed in acutely ill patients. PMID:21748017

  2. Incidental biasing of attention from visual long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Fan, Judith E; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-06-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past but is no longer present or relevant to the task also guides attention. We examined this by associating multiple unique features with novel shapes in visual long-term memory (VLTM), and subsequently testing how memories for these objects biased the deployment of attention. In Experiment 1, VLTM for associated features guided visual search for the shapes, even when these features had never been task-relevant. In Experiment 2, associated features captured attention when presented in isolation during a secondary task that was completely unrelated to the shapes. These findings suggest that long-term memory enables a durable and automatic type of memory-based attentional control. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26618914

  3. Long-Term Photometric Monitoring of Two Redback Pulsar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Rodrigo Alberto; Roberts, Mallory; Russell, Dave

    2016-06-01

    Redback systems consist of an eclipsing millisecond pulsar in a short period orbit (< 1 day) around a non-degenerate companion. These systems can potentially transition from their current state where they are ablating their companion to an accreting state. How such a transition can take place is poorly understood. Long-term monitoring of their optical orbital light-curves are important to answer questions about their evolution as well as to catch transitions between states. The orbital light curves can be used to infer the systems’ inclination angle, necessary to measure component masses, the effects of the pulsar heating on the atmosphere of the companion, and long term trends in the light curve may give some clue to the mechanism by which they transition. In this poster we present preliminary photometric light-curves of two binary, redback pulsar systems: PSR J2215+5135 and PSR J1628-3205. These data were taken in 2015 and 2016 with the 1m telescopes of the LCOGT observatory in several standard SDSS filter bands. We will compare the resulting light-curves with previous work on these systems to refine models of the light curves and to look for any long term trends in the optical emission such has been seen in the redback system PSR J2129-0429.

  4. The coevolution of long-term pair bonds and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Song, Z; Feldman, M W

    2013-05-01

    The evolution of social traits may not only depend on but also change the social structure of the population. In particular, the evolution of pairwise cooperation, such as biparental care, depends on the pair-matching distribution of the population, and the latter often emerges as a collective outcome of individual pair-bonding traits, which are also under selection. Here, we develop an analytical model and individual-based simulations to study the coevolution of long-term pair bonds and cooperation in parental care, where partners play a Snowdrift game in each breeding season. We illustrate that long-term pair bonds may coevolve with cooperation when bonding cost is below a threshold. As long-term pair bonds lead to assortative interactions through pair-matching dynamics, they may promote the prevalence of cooperation. In addition to the pay-off matrix of a single game, the evolutionarily stable equilibrium also depends on bonding cost and accidental divorce rate, and it is determined by a form of balancing selection because the benefit from pair-bond maintenance diminishes as the frequency of cooperators increases. Our findings highlight the importance of ecological factors affecting social bonding cost and stability in understanding the coevolution of social behaviour and social structures, which may lead to the diversity of biological social systems. PMID:23496797

  5. Long-term Studies of Marine Halogen Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschritter, J.; Holla, R.; Frieß, U.; Platt, U.

    2009-04-01

    Institute of Enviromental Physics, Heidelberg, Germany. Long term measurements of atmospheric trace gases using multi-axis DOAS instruments are pursued at the new SOLAS observatory on the island of Sao Vicente, (Cape Verde). This research is part of the SOPRAN (Surface Ocean Processes in the ANthropocene) project (Fördernummer:03F0462F). Reactive halogen species (RHS) such as bromine- and iodine- containing species play major roles in the chemistry of ozone in both the troposphere and lower stratosphere and thus possibly influence the ozone budget on a global scale. In addition iodine-species emitted from the ocean surface have been shown to be responsible for the production of new atmospheric particles in the marine boundary layer. This may have an effect on cloud formation and radiation transfer on local and global scales. Long term measurements of RHS abundances will help to identify their key regions and processes for formation. A new long term Multi-MAX-DOAS instrument has been installed at the SOLAS observatory on the island of Sao Vicente, (Cape Verde). The main focus of these unique measurements is the investigation of reactive halogen chemistry in the subtropical marine boundary layer based on measurements of BrO, IO, and possibly OIO. Because of its wide spectral range also the use for O4-retrievals to gain aerosol profiles is possible. IO has been detected with mixing ratios up to 1.3 ppt. For BrO an upper limit of 2 ppt could be determined.

  6. An optimized lead system for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Niederhauser, T; Haeberlin, A; Marisa, T; Mattle, D; Abächerli, R; Goette, J; Jacomet, M; Vogel, R

    2014-04-01

    Long-term electrocardiography (ECG) featuring adequate atrial and ventricular signal quality is highly desirable. Routinely used surface leads are limited in atrial signal sensitivity and recording capability impeding complete ECG delineation, i.e. in the presence of supraventricular arrhythmias. Long-term esophageal ECG might overcome these limitations but requires a dedicated lead system and recorder design. To this end, we analysed multiple-lead esophageal ECGs with respect to signal quality by describing the ECG waves as a function of the insertion level, interelectrode distance, electrode shape and amplifier's input range. The results derived from clinical data show that two bipolar esophageal leads, an atrial lead with short (15 mm) interelectrode distance and a ventricular lead with long (80 mm) interelectrode distance provide non-inferior ventricular signal strength and superior atrial signal strength compared to standard surface lead II. High atrial signal slope in particular is observed with the atrial esophageal lead. The proposed esophageal lead system in combination with an increased recorder input range of ±20 mV minimizes signal loss due to excessive electrode motion typically observed in esophageal ECGs. The design proposal might help to standardize long-term esophageal ECG registrations and facilitate novel ECG classification systems based on the independent detection of ventricular and atrial electrical activity. PMID:24577330

  7. Long term complications following 54 consecutive lung transplants

    PubMed Central

    Tabarelli, Walther; Bonatti, Hugo; Tabarelli, Dominique; Eller, Miriam; Müller, Ludwig; Ruttmann, Elfriede; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Larcher, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the complex therapy and the required high level of immunosuppression, lung recipients are at high risk to develop many different long term complications. Methods From 1993–2000, a total of 54 lung transplantation (LuTx) were performed at our center. Complications, graft and patient survival of this cohort was retrospectively analyzed. Results One/five and ten-year patient survival was 71.4%, 41.2% and 25.4%; at last follow up (4/2010), twelve patients were alive. Of the 39 deceased patients, 26 died from infectious complications. Other causes of death were myocardial infarction (n=1), progressive graft failure (n=1), intracerebral bleeding (n=2), basilary vein thrombosis (n=1), pulmonary emboli (n=1), others (n=7). Surgical complication rate was 27.7% during the first year and 25% for the 12 long term survivors. Perioperative rejection rate was 35%, and 91.6% for the 12 patients currently alive. Infection incidence during first hospitalization was 79.6% (1.3 episodes per transplant) and 100% for long term survivors. Commonly isolated pathogens were cytomegalovirus (56.8%), Aspergillus (29.4%), RSV (13.7%). Other common complications were renal failure (56.8%), osteoporosis (54.9%), hypertension (45%), diabetes mellitus (19.6%). Conclusions Infection and rejection remain the most common complications following LuTx with many other events to be considered. PMID:27293842

  8. Long-term views on hydro O M

    SciTech Connect

    Hocker, C. )

    1991-06-01

    Like the proverbial iceberg, at least 90 percent of the effort, costs, and headaches of owning a hydroelectric plant is usually hidden from view in the unglamorous, but essential, category of operations and maintenance (O M). While the processing of planning, designing, and constructing a plant may command more attention and excitement, and the economic benefits of ownership may be more satisfying, the day-in, day-out work of O M is a key component in the long-term success of a hydro plant. With project lives of between 50 and 100 years, running a hydro plant can be an extremely long-lived venture requiring an equally long-term approach to O M. Hydro O M experts in the US and Canada generally agree that successful O M requires a long-term view. Representatives of government agencies, investor-owned utilities, and private non-utility hydro owners contacted for this article all share similar perspectives, experiences, and methods for dealing with O M problems.

  9. Disrupted Bone Metabolism in Long-Term Bedridden Patients

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Naoto; Uchiyama, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kei

    2016-01-01

    Background Bedridden patients are at risk of osteoporosis and fractures, although the long-term bone metabolic processes in these patients are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine how long-term bed confinement affects bone metabolism. Methods This study included 36 patients who had been bedridden from birth due to severe immobility. Bone mineral density and bone metabolism markers were compared to the bedridden period in all study patients. Changes in the bone metabolism markers during a follow-up of 12 years were studied in 17 patients aged <30 years at baseline. Results The bone mineral density was reduced (0.58±0.19 g/cm3), and the osteocalcin (13.9±12.4 ng/mL) and urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) levels (146.9±134.0 mM BCE/mM creatinine) were greater than the cutoff value for predicting fracture. Among the bone metabolism markers studied, osteocalcin and NTX were negatively associated with the bedridden period. During the follow-up, osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone were decreased, and the 25(OH) vitamin D was increased. NTX at baseline was negatively associated with bone mineral density after 12 years. Conclusions Unique bone metabolic abnormalities were found in patients who had been bedridden for long periods, and these metabolic abnormalities were altered by further bed confinement. Appropriate treatment based on the unique bone metabolic changes may be important in long-term bedridden patients. PMID:27275738

  10. Advancing nursing leadership in long-term care.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer; Ringland, Margaret; Wilson, Susan

    2010-05-01

    Nurses working in the long-term care (LTC) sector face unique workplace stresses, demands and circumstances. Designing approaches to leadership training and other supportive human-resource strategies that reflect the demands of the LTC setting fosters a positive work life for nurses by providing them with the skills and knowledge necessary to lead the care team and to address resident and family issues. Through the St. Joseph's Health Centre Guelph demonstration site project, funded by the Nursing Secretariat of Ontario's Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, the Excelling as a Nurse Leader in Long Term Care training program and the Mentor Team program were developed to address these needs. Evaluation results show that not only have individual nurses benefitted from taking part in these programs, but also that the positive effects were felt in other parts of the LTC home (as reported by Directors of Care). By creating a generally healthier work environment, it is anticipated that these programs will also have a positive effect on recruitment and retention. PMID:20463447

  11. Long-term results of choledochoduodenostomy in benign biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ajaz A; Rather, Shiraz A; Bari, Shams UL; Wani, Khursheed Alam

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the long-term results of choledochodudenostomy in patients with benign billiary obstruction. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences Srinagar Kashmir, India over a period of 10 years from January 1997 to December 2007. The total number of patients who underwent choledochoduodenostomy during this period was 270. On the basis of etiology of biliary tract obstruction, patients were divided into a calculus group, an oriental cholangiohepatitis group, a benign biliary stricture group and others. Patients were followed for a variable period of 13 mo to 15 years. RESULTS: Choledochoduodenostomy (CDD) with duo-denotomy was performend in four patients. CDD with removal of T- tube, CDD with left hepatic lobectomy and CDD with removal of intra biliary ruptured hydatid was performed in three patients each. In the remaining patients only CDD was performed. Immediate post operative complications were seen in 63 (23%) patients, while long-term complications were seen in 28 (11%) patients, which were statistically significant. Three patients died during hospitalization while four patients died in the late post-operative period. CONCLUSION: Our conclusion is that CDD is safe and produces good long term results when a permanent biliary drainage procedure is required. PMID:22408717

  12. Long-term variability of solar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd Hoeksema, J.; Scherrer, P. H.

    The solar magnetic field varies on all time scales. Recent analysis of 600 million year-old Australian varves shows terrestrial evidence for not only the familiar 22-year magnetic cycle, but variations with periods of 300-400 years as well. The Maunder minimum is but one of several long intervals showing atypical levels of solar activity. Recently a 151-day periodicity in flare activity has been found. Active regions, sunspots, ephemeral regions, and flares cover a broad range of shorter time scale variations in the solar magnetic field. Long-term variations can be interpreted in at least two ways. One outlook regards the large-scale and long-term variations of the photospheric field as more-or-less direct guides to the organization of the solar field as it evolves through a solar cycle. The slowly varying field reveals the fundamental interior structure of the Sun. An alternative view interprets the surface manifestation of the magnetic field primarily as the result of the convective motions in the solar atmosphere. The evolving distribution of photospheric flux depends upon the locations of emerging flux and the subsequent motions and interactions of the fields in the moving plasma. Information about the interior field comes largely from analysis of emerging flux. We discuss interpretation of the phenomenology of the long-term variability in the context of these contrasting views.

  13. Esophageal replacement in children: Challenges and long-term outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Soccorso, Giampiero; Parikh, Dakshesh H.

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of a nonexistent or damaged esophagus continues to pose a significant challenge to pediatric surgeons. Various esophageal replacement grafts and techniques have not produced consistently good outcomes to emulate normal esophagus. Therefore, many techniques are still being practiced and recommended with no clear consensus. We present a concise literature review of the currently used techniques and with discussions on the advantages and anticipated morbidity. There are no randomized controlled pediatric studies to compare different types of esophageal replacements. Management and graft choice are based on geographical and personal predilections rather than on any discernible objective data. The biggest series with long-term outcome are reported for gastric transposition and colonic replacement. Comparison of different studies shows no significant difference in early (graft necrosis and anastomotic leaks) or late complications (strictures, poor feeding, gastro-esophageal reflux, tortuosity of the graft, and Barrett's esophagus). The biggest series seem to have lower complications than small series reflecting the decennials experience in their respective centers. Long-term follow-up is recommended following esophageal replacement for the development of late strictures, excessive tortuosity, and Barrett's changes within the graft. Once child overcomes initial morbidity and establishes oral feeding, long-term consequences and complications of pediatric esophageal replacement should be monitored and managed in adult life. PMID:27365900

  14. Results of a Survey of Long-Term Archiving Implementations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurman, Joseph B.; Spencer, Jennifer L.

    2015-04-01

    NASA’s Heliophysics Data Management Policy calls for discipline-specific “final archives,” which will be responsible for the long-term archiving and service of Heliophysics mission data. Long-term archival functions, such as periodic revalidation of the data and migration to newer storage media when appropriate, have never been part of the Solar Data Analysis Center core capabilities. We also recognize that the largest space solar physics data set, the SDO AIA and HMI data at the Stanford Joint Science and Operations Center (JSOC), will eventually need preservation and long-term access, as will the potentially much larger data archive of DKIST observations. We have carried out a study of data archiving best practices in other disciplines and organizations, including NASA’s Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and private industry, and report on the lessons learned and possible cost models. We seek input from the broader solar physics community on the relative value of various levels of preservation effort.

  15. Radical surgery for gallbladder carcinoma. Long-term results.

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Y; Yoshida, K; Tsukada, K; Muto, T; Watanabe, H

    1992-01-01

    The authors' objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of radical surgery with lymph node dissection for gallbladder carcinoma. Long-term results were analyzed in 40 patients in a 5-year study. The authors divided the 40 cases into two groups: 20 without positive nodes and 20 with positive nodes. In the group without positive nodes, one patient who underwent R1 resection died of a recurrence at 1 year 7 months. Seventeen of the 19 patients treated with R0 resection survived more than 5 years. The 5-year survival rate was 85% (17/20). In the group with positive nodes, 9 of the 13 patients treated with R0 resection survived more than 5 years, whereas the seven patients treated with R1 or R2 resection died within 5 years. The 5-year survival rate was 45% (9/20). Patients treated by R0 resection showed a 5-year survival rate of 69% (9/13). Thus we documented the favorable long-term results of radical surgery. R0 resection is a prerequisite for long-term survival. The results justify radical surgery with lymph node dissection. PMID:1359844

  16. The international migration of nurses in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Redfoot, Donald L; Houser, Ari N

    2008-01-01

    This article describes five major factors that are affecting patterns of international migration among nurses who work in long-term care settings: DEMOGRAPHIC DRIVERS: The aging of the populations in developed countries and the low to negative growth in the working-age population will increase the demand for international workers to provide long-term care services. GENDER AND RACE: A dual labor market of long-term care workers, increasingly made up of women of color, is becoming internationalized by the employment of migrating nurses from developing countries. CREDENTIALING: The process of credentialing skilled workers creates barriers to entry for migrating nurses and leads to "decredentialing" where registered nurses work as licensed practical nurses or aides. COLONIAL HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY: The colonial histories of many European countries and the United States have increased migration from former colonies in developing countries to former colonial powers. WORKER RECRUITMENT: Efforts to limit the recruitment of health care workers from some developing countries have had little effect on migration, in part because much of the recruitment comes through informal channels of family and friends. PMID:18788368

  17. Economic evaluation in long-term clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hlatky, Mark A; Boothroyd, Derek B; Johnstone, Iain M

    2002-10-15

    Economic endpoints have been increasingly included in long-term clinical trials, but they pose several methodologic challenges, including how best to collect, describe, analyse and interpret medical cost data. Cost of care can be measured by converting billed charges, performing detailed micro-costing studies, or by measuring use of key resources and assigning cost weights to each resource. The latter method is most commonly used, with cost weights based either on empirical regression models or administratively determined reimbursement rates. In long-term studies, monetary units should be adjusted to reflect cost inflation and discounting. The temporal pattern of accumulating costs can be described using a modification of the Kaplan-Meier curve. Regression analyses to evaluate factors associated with cost are best performed on the log of costs due to their typically skewed distribution.Cost-effectiveness analysis attempts to measure the value of a new therapy by calculating the difference in cost between the new therapy and the standard therapy, divided by the difference in benefit between the new therapy and the standard therapy. The cost-effectiveness ratio based on the results of a randomized trial may change substantially with longer follow-up intervals, particularly for therapies that are initially expensive but eventually improve survival. A model that projects long-term patterns of cost and survival expected beyond the end of completed follow-up can provide an important perspective in the setting of limited trial duration. PMID:12325104

  18. Long-term forecasting of internet backbone traffic.

    PubMed

    Papagiannaki, Konstantina; Taft, Nina; Zhang, Zhi-Li; Diot, Christophe

    2005-09-01

    We introduce a methodology to predict when and where link additions/upgrades have to take place in an Internet protocol (IP) backbone network. Using simple network management protocol (SNMP) statistics, collected continuously since 1999, we compute aggregate demand between any two adjacent points of presence (PoPs) and look at its evolution at time scales larger than 1 h. We show that IP backbone traffic exhibits visible long term trends, strong periodicities, and variability at multiple time scales. Our methodology relies on the wavelet multiresolution analysis (MRA) and linear time series models. Using wavelet MRA, we smooth the collected measurements until we identify the overall long-term trend. The fluctuations around the obtained trend are further analyzed at multiple time scales. We show that the largest amount of variability in the original signal is due to its fluctuations at the 12-h time scale. We model inter-PoP aggregate demand as a multiple linear regression model, consisting of the two identified components. We show that this model accounts for 98% of the total energy in the original signal, while explaining 90% of its variance. Weekly approximations of those components can be accurately modeled with low-order autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. We show that forecasting the long term trend and the fluctuations of the traffic at the 12-h time scale yields accurate estimates for at least 6 months in the future. PMID:16252820

  19. Relational sustainability: environments for long-term critical care patients.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Jens; Laude, Cum; Costello, Brenna

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing bone marrow transplant, using spinal cord services, and with traumatic brain injury represent a relatively new patient type, requiring both intense care and long-term care in the same facility. As medical advances allow these patients the opportunity to recover from their critical illnesses or injuries, designers and caregivers must give increased attention to the long-term critical care environment. Designing for this type of care requires an understanding of new technologies and the potential for the built environment to address the wide range of physical, sensory, and psychological issues long-term inpatients face. Recent work by SmithGroupJJR has provided valuable insights into the ways in which lighting, patient room and unit layouts, spatial volumes, and other design elements can contribute to the recovery of patients who must spend weeks or months in a critical care environment. This knowledge was gained through an approach that allows design professionals to immerse themselves in a health care institution's values, culture, and work processes. By mapping both operational flow and patients' experiences, project teams can develop design solutions that sustain the well-being of higher-acuity patients and their family members and caregivers. PMID:24309460

  20. Long-Term Materials Test Program: materials exposure test plan

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    The Long Term Materials Test Program is designed to identify promising corrosion resistant materials for coal-fired gas turbine applications. Resistance of materials to long term accelerated corrosion will be determined through realistic PFB environmental exposure of candidate turbine materials for up to 14,000 hours. Selected materials also will be evaluated for their ability to withstand the combined erosive and corrosive aspects of the PFB effluent. A pressurized fluidized bed combustor facility has been constructed at the General Electric Coal Utilization Research Laboratory at Malta, New York. The 12-inch diameter combustor will burn high sulfur coal with moderate-to-high chlorine and alkali levels and utilize dolomite as the sulfur sorbent. Hot gas cleanup is achieved using three stages of cyclone separators. Downstream of the cylone separators, a low velocity test section (approx. 30 ft/s) capable of housing 180 pin specimens 1/4'' diameter has been installed to assess the corrosion resistance of the various materials at three different temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1600/sup 0/F. Following the low velocity test section is a high velocity test section consisting of four cascades of airfoil shaped specimens, six specimens per cascade. This high velocity test section is being used to evaluate the combined effects of erosion and corrosion on the degradation of gas turbine materials at gas velocities of 800 to 1400 ft/s. This report summarizes the materials selection and materials exposure test plan for the Long Term Materials Test.

  1. Long-term demographic consequences of a seed dispersal disruption

    PubMed Central

    Traveset, Anna; González-Varo, Juan P.; Valido, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    The loss or decline of vertebrate frugivores can limit the regeneration of plants that depend on them. However, empirical evidence is showing that this is still very scarce, as functionally equivalent species may contribute to maintain the mutualistic interaction. Here, we investigated the long-term consequences of the extinction of frugivorous lizards on the population persistence of a Mediterranean relict shrub Cneorum tricoccon (Cneoraceae). We examined the demographic parameters among 26 insular and mainland populations, which encompass the entire plant distributional range, comparing populations with lizards with those in which these are extinct, but in which alien mammals currently act as seed dispersers. Plant recruitment was found to be higher on island populations with lizards than on those with mammals, and the long-term effects of the native disperser's loss were found in all vital phases of plant regeneration. The study thus gives evidence of the cascading effects of human-induced changes in ecosystems, showing how the disruption of native ecological processes can lead to species regression and, in the long term, even to local extinctions. PMID:22628466

  2. Infants long-term memory for complex music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examined infants' long-term memory for two complex pieces of music. A group of thirty 7.5 month-old infants was exposed daily to one short piano piece (i.e., either the Prelude or the Forlane by Maurice Ravel) for ten consecutive days. Following the 10-day exposure period there was a two-week retention period in which no exposure to the piece occurred. After the retention period, infants were tested on the Headturn Preference Procedure. At test, 8 different excerpts of the familiar piece were mixed with 8 different foil excerpts of the unfamiliar one. Infants showed a significant preference for the familiar piece of music. A control group of fifteen nonexposed infants was also tested and showed no preferences for either piece of music. These results suggest that infants in the exposure group retained the familiar music in their long-term memory. This was demonstrated by their ability to discriminate between the different excerpts of both the familiar and the unfamiliar pieces of music, and by their preference for the familiar piece. Confirming previous findings (Jusczyk and Hohne, 1993; Saffran et al., 2000), in this study we suggest that infants can retain complex pieces of music in their long-term memory for two weeks.

  3. Long Term Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Airway Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Facchini, Marcella; De Fino, Ida; Riva, Camilla; Bragonzi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    A mouse model of chronic airway infection is a key asset in cystic fibrosis (CF) research, although there are a number of concerns regarding the model itself. Early phases of inflammation and infection have been widely studied by using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa agar-beads mouse model, while only few reports have focused on the long-term chronic infection in vivo. The main challenge for long term chronic infection remains the low bacterial burden by P. aeruginosa and the low percentage of infected mice weeks after challenge, indicating that bacterial cells are progressively cleared by the host. This paper presents a method for obtaining efficient long-term chronic infection in mice. This method is based on the embedding of the P. aeruginosa clinical strains in the agar-beads in vitro, followed by intratracheal instillation in C57Bl/6NCrl mice. Bilateral lung infection is associated with several measurable read-outs including weight loss, mortality, chronic infection, and inflammatory response. The P. aeruginosa RP73 clinical strain was preferred over the PAO1 reference laboratory strain since it resulted in a comparatively lower mortality, more severe lesions, and higher chronic infection. P. aeruginosa colonization may persist in the lung for over three months. Murine lung pathology resembles that of CF patients with advanced chronic pulmonary disease. This murine model most closely mimics the course of the human disease and can be used both for studies on the pathogenesis and for the evaluation of novel therapies. PMID:24686327

  4. Prokaryotic community structure and respiration during long-term incubations

    PubMed Central

    Baltar, Federico; Lindh, Markus V; Parparov, Arkadi; Berman, Tom; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of incubation assays for studies in microbial ecology that frequently require long confinement times, few reports are available in which changes in the assemblage structure of aquatic prokaryotes were monitored during long-term incubations. We measured rates of dissolved organic carbon degradation and microbial respiration by consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO) in four experiments with Lake Kinneret near-surface water and, concomitantly, we analyzed the variability in prokaryotic community structure during long-term dark bottle incubations. During the first 24 h, there were only minor changes in bacterial community composition. Thereafter there were marked changes in the prokaryotic community structure during the incubations. In contrast, oxygen consumption rates (a proxy for both respiration and dissolved organic carbon degradation rates) remained stable for up to 10–23 days. This study is one of the first to examine closely the phylo-genetic changes that occur in the microbial community of untreated freshwater during long-term (days) incubations in dark, sealed containers. Novel information on the diversity of the main bacterial phylotypes that may be involved in dissolved organic matter degradation in lake Kinneret is also provided. Our results suggest that, under certain ecological settings, constant community metabolic rates can be maintained as a result of shifts in community composition. PMID:22950026

  5. Clinical issues in long-term treatment with antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Zajecka, J M

    2000-01-01

    Historically, the emphasis in treating depression has been focused on the acute phase of treatment, with few published data on the continuation and maintenance phases of treatment. Yet the risk of depression increases with each episode, with a 50% to 90% chance of developing another episode after 1 or 2 prior episodes of depression. Moreover, subsequent episodes of depression are often of longer duration, more severe, and less responsive to treatment. Most patients with major depression require some form of long-term antidepressant treatment, and many need lifelong treatment. Optimizing efficacy and minimizing side effects are essential during both the acute and long-term phases of antidepressant treatment. Antidepressant side effects, including insomnia or somnolence, weight gain, asthenia, and sexual dysfunction, can significantly decrease patient compliance with long-term treatment for depression. Identification and management of side effects, combined with early and ongoing educational messages to the patient about treatment issues and the importance of sustaining illness remission, help improve compliance and reduce the potential for premature discontinuation of an otherwise optimal antidepressant. PMID:10714620

  6. Long-Term Adherence to Health Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Kathryn R.; Anton, Stephen D.; Perri, Michal G.

    2016-01-01

    The utility of lifestyle-based health promotion interventions is directly impacted by participant adherence to prescribed behavior changes. Unfortunately, poor adherence to behaviors recommended in lifestyle interventions is widespread, particularly over the long-term; thus, the “adherence problem” represents a significant challenge to the effectiveness of these interventions. The current review provides an overview of the adherence problem and describes a theoretical framework through which the factors that impact adherence can be understood. To further understand the difficulties individuals face when adhering to health behavior changes, we focus our discussion on challenges associated with adherence to lifestyle behaviors recommended for weight loss and healthy weight management (i.e., reductions in dietary intake and increases in physical activity). We describe strategies that improve long-term adherence to health behaviors related to healthy weight management, including the provision of extended care, skills training, improving social support, and strategies specific to maintaining changes in dietary intake and physical activity. Finally, we discuss difficulties involved in implementing long-term weight management programs and suggest practical solutions for providers.

  7. Long-term effects of synthetic fibers on concrete pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhi Gozarchi, Sasan

    The studies undertaken by this research were to evaluate the long-term performance and durability of synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete pipes. The target long-term performance is for 9000 hours. Two sets of pipes 8 ft. (2400 mm) long with inside diameters of 24 in. (600 mm) and 36 in. (1200 mm) were manufactured, with a wall thickness of 3 and 4 in., respectively. The pipes were produced based on ASTM C76, for a Class III type with a Wall B. The two set of pipes included RCP's (as control) and SYN-FRCP's. The SYN-FRCP's had several fiber dosages ranging from 6 lb/yd3 (3.5 kg/m 3) to 12 lb/yd3 (7.0 kg/m3) in order to evaluate the long-term performance of synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete pipes. The pipes were pre-cracked until the first visible crack was observed in the three-edge bearing test. As a result, the sustained load simulated, was calculated from the Peak D-load observed; and also the appropriate fiber dosages required for the 24. in (600 mm) and 36 in. (900 mm) pipes were obtained. Three of the 24 in. and three of the 36 in. pipes were installed in 7 ft. (2100 mm) and 8 ft. (2400 mm) wide trenches with 16 ft. (4800 mm) and 18 ft. (5500 mm) of cover respectively. The pipe was initially backfilled with native soil up to 2 ft. (600 mm) and 4 ft. (1200 mm) over the top of the pipe then backfilled again with pea-gravel weighing 100 lb/ft3, to a height of 14ft. to simulate the sustained loading. A type two installation was used during the development of the test setup. Once the long-term test set up was complete, the data was immediately recorded, and vertical deflections were observed from the time-dependent behavior of the pipes. It was observed from results obtained from the three-edge bearing test, that synthetic fibers improve the mechanical properties of concrete pipes, in dry-cast manufacturing. Also, it was observed from the time-dependent deformation, that there was no significant deformation of SYN-FRCP, while the shear capacity was enhanced. Based

  8. Long-term efficacy and safety of human papillomavirus vaccination

    PubMed Central

    De Vincenzo, Rosa; Conte, Carmine; Ricci, Caterina; Scambia, Giovanni; Capelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the published evidence about the long-term efficacy of the available human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and their safety profile. Two prophylactic HPV vaccines – bivalent (bHPV) and quadrivalent (qHPV) – are now available, and vaccination programs are being widely implemented, primarily targeting adolescent girls. Efficacy has been widely demonstrated for both vaccines. Since the risk of HPV exposure potentially persists throughout a woman’s sexual life, vaccine duration of protection is critical to overall effectiveness. Interpreting the results of long-term efficacy studies for the two HPV vaccines can be puzzling, due to the heterogeneity of studies, different methods used in the assessment of immunogenicity, histopathological and virological end points, and statistical power issues. Moreover, an immunologic correlate of protection has not yet been established, and it is unknown whether higher antibody levels will really result in a longer duration of protection. Disease prevention remains the most important measure of long-term duration of vaccine efficacy. To date, the longest follow-up of an HPV vaccine has been 9.4 years for the bHPV vaccine. Long-term follow-up for qHPV vaccine goes up to 8 years. The vaccine continues to be immunogenic and well tolerated up to 9 years following vaccination. All randomized controlled clinical trials of the bHPV and the qHPV vaccines provide evidence of an excellent safety profile. The most common complaint reported is pain in the injection site, which is self-limiting and spontaneously resolved. The incidence of systemic adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and discontinuations due to a serious AE reported in clinical studies are similar between the two vaccines and their control groups. In particular, no increased risk of autoimmune disease has been shown among HPV-vaccinated subjects in long-term observation studies. As these are crucial topics in HPV vaccination, it is important to establish

  9. Long-term weather predictability: Ural case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubyshen, Alexander; Shopin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of the state-of-the-art long-term meteorological forecast (at the seasonal level) is still low. Here it is presented approach (RAMES method) realizing different forecasting methodology. It provides prediction horizon of up to 19-22 years under equal probabilities of determination of parameters in every analyzed period [1]. Basic statements of the method are the following. 1. Long-term forecast on the basis of numerical modeling of the global meteorological process is principally impossible. Extension of long-term prediction horizon could be obtained only by the revealing and using a periodicity of meteorological situations at one point of observation. 2. Conventional calendar is unsuitable for generalization of meteorological data and revealing of cyclicity of meteorological processes. RAMES method uses natural time intervals: one day, synodic month and one year. It was developed a set of special calendars using these natural periods and the Metonic cycle. 3. Long-term time series of meteorological data is not a uniform universal set, it is a sequence of 28 universal sets appropriately superseding each other in time. The specifics of the method are: 1. Usage of the original research toolkit consisting of - a set of calendars based on the Metonic cycle; - a set of charts (coordinate systems) for the construction of sequence diagrams (of daily variability of a meteorological parameter during the analyzed year; of daily variability of a meteorological parameter using long-term dynamical time series of periods-analogues; of monthly and yearly variability of accumulated value of meteorological parameter). 2. Identification and usage of new virtual meteorological objects having several degrees of generalization appropriately located in the used coordinate systems. 3. All calculations are integrated into the single technological scheme providing comparison and mutual verification of calculation results. During the prolonged testing in the Ural region, it was

  10. Postsynaptic density-95 mimics and occludes hippocampal long-term potentiation and enhances long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Stein, Valentin; House, David R C; Bredt, David S; Nicoll, Roger A

    2003-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that overexpression of the protein PSD-95 (postsynaptic density-95) selectively enhances AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic responses in hippocampal pyramidal cells. To determine whether this effect is related to synaptic plasticity at these synapses, we examined whether PSD-95 expression mimics long-term potentiation (LTP), and also whether it influences LTP and long-term depression (LTD) in hippocampal slice cultures. Using simultaneous recording from transfected or infected cells and control pyramidal cells, we found that PSD-95, similar to LTP, increases the amplitude and frequency of miniature EPSCs. It also converts silent synapses to functional synapses, as does LTP. In addition, LTP is completely occluded in cells expressing PSD-95, whereas LTD is greatly enhanced. These results suggest that common mechanisms are involved in controlling synaptic AMPA receptors by PSD-95 and synaptic plasticity. PMID:12843250

  11. Long-term care needs of the elderly in Korea and elderly long-term care insurance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk-Hee; Kim, Deok Hwan; Kim, Woong Soo

    2010-03-01

    Korea is one of the fastest-aging societies in the world. According to the Korea National Statistical Office, the number of those aged 65 years and older will dramatically increase from 9.1% in 2005 to 37.3% in 2050. It is very evident that Korea must urgently prepare itself for new times. The government insurance policy for elderly people, now called long-term care insurance, is ultimately designed for providing home- and facility-based supports to seniors with geriatric diseases and dementia, as well as for reducing the support burden on other family members. This article is to introduce the long-term care insurance of Korea and thereby to advocates the necessity of international discussion of the prospects for developing health care for aging populations; its aim is to encourage the sharing of differing national experiences concerning care for the elderly. PMID:20391260

  12. Agarose Microchambers for Long-term Calcium Imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Turek, Michal; Besseling, Judith; Bringmann, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Behavior is controlled by the nervous system. Calcium imaging is a straightforward method in the transparent nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to measure the activity of neurons during various behaviors. To correlate neural activity with behavior, the animal should not be immobilized but should be able to move. Many behavioral changes occur during long time scales and require recording over many hours of behavior. This also makes it necessary to culture the worms in the presence of food. How can worms be cultured and their neural activity imaged over long time scales? Agarose Microchamber Imaging (AMI) was previously developed to culture and observe small larvae and has now been adapted to study all life stages from early L1 until the adult stage of C. elegans. AMI can be performed on various life stages of C. elegans. Long-term calcium imaging is achieved without immobilizing the animals by using short externally triggered exposures combined with an electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera recording. Zooming out or scanning can scale up this method to image up to 40 worms in parallel. Thus, a method is described to image behavior and neural activity over long time scales in all life stages of C. elegans. PMID:26132740

  13. Agarose Microchambers for Long-term Calcium Imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Michal; Besseling, Judith; Bringmann, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Behavior is controlled by the nervous system. Calcium imaging is a straightforward method in the transparent nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to measure the activity of neurons during various behaviors. To correlate neural activity with behavior, the animal should not be immobilized but should be able to move. Many behavioral changes occur during long time scales and require recording over many hours of behavior. This also makes it necessary to culture the worms in the presence of food. How can worms be cultured and their neural activity imaged over long time scales? Agarose Microchamber Imaging (AMI) was previously developed to culture and observe small larvae and has now been adapted to study all life stages from early L1 until the adult stage of C. elegans. AMI can be performed on various life stages of C. elegans. Long-term calcium imaging is achieved without immobilizing the animals by using short externally triggered exposures combined with an electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera recording. Zooming out or scanning can scale up this method to image up to 40 worms in parallel. Thus, a method is described to image behavior and neural activity over long time scales in all life stages of C. elegans. PMID:26132740

  14. An accurate and efficient method for prediction of the long-term evolution of space debris in the geosynchronous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Roger P.; Eagle, C. D.

    1992-08-01

    Planetary Observer High Accuracy Orbit Prediction Program (POHOP), an existing numerical integrator, was modified with the solar and lunar formulae developed by T.C. Van Flandern and K.F. Pulkkinen to provide the accuracy required to evaluate long-term orbit characteristics of objects on the geosynchronous region. The orbit of a 1000 kg class spacecraft is numerically integrated over 50 years using both the original and the more accurate solar and lunar ephemerides methods. Results of this study demonstrate that, over the long term, for an object located in the geosynchronous region, the more accurate solar and lunar ephemerides effects on the objects's position are significantly different than using the current POHOP ephemeris.

  15. Reuse Requirements for Generating Long Term Climate Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleig, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Creating long term climate data sets from remotely sensed data requires a specialized form of code reuse. To detect long term trends in a geophysical parameter, such as global ozone amount or mean sea surface temperature, it is essential to be able to differentiate between real changes in the measurement and artifacts related to changes in processing algorithms or instrument characteristics. The ability to rerun the exact algorithm used to produce a given data set many years after the data was originally made is essential to create consistent long term data sets. It is possible to quickly develop a basic algorithm that will convert a perfect instrument measurement into a geophysical parameter value for a well specified set of conditions. However the devil is in the details and it takes a massive effort to develop and verify a processing system to generate high quality global climate data over all necessary conditions. As an example, from 1976 until now, over a hundred man years and eight complete reprocessings have been spent on deriving thirty years of total ozone data from multiple backscattered ultraviolet instruments. To obtain a global data set it is necessary to make numerous assumptions and to handle many special conditions (e.g. "What happens at high solar zenith angles with scattered clouds for snow covered terrain at high altitudes"?) It is easier to determine the precision of a remotely sensed data set than to determine its absolute accuracy. Fortunately if the entire data set is made with a single instrument and a constant algorithm the ability to detect long term trends is primarily determined by the precision of the measurement system rather than its absolute accuracy. However no instrument runs forever and new processing algorithms are developed over time. Introducing the resulting changes can impact the estimate of product precision and reduce the ability to estimate long term trends.Given an extended period of time when both the initial measurement

  16. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future

  17. Texture-Independent Long-Term Tracking Using Virtual Corners.

    PubMed

    Lebeda, Karel; Hadfield, Simon; Matas, Jiri; Bowden, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Long-term tracking of an object, given only a single instance in an initial frame, remains an open problem. We propose a visual tracking algorithm, robust to many of the difficulties that often occur in real-world scenes. Correspondences of edge-based features are used, to overcome the reliance on the texture of the tracked object and improve invariance to lighting. Furthermore, we address long-term stability, enabling the tracker to recover from drift and to provide redetection following object disappearance or occlusion. The two-module principle is similar to the successful state-of-the-art long-term TLD tracker; however, our approach offers better performance in benchmarks and extends to cases of low-textured objects. This becomes obvious in cases of plain objects with no texture at all, where the edge-based approach proves the most beneficial. We perform several different experiments to validate the proposed method. First, results on short-term sequences show the performance of tracking challenging (low textured and/or transparent) objects that represent failure cases for competing the state-of-the-art approaches. Second, long sequences are tracked, including one of almost 30 000 frames, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the longest tracking sequence reported to date. This tests the redetection and drift resistance properties of the tracker. Finally, we report the results of the proposed tracker on the VOT Challenge 2013 and 2014 data sets as well as on the VTB1.0 benchmark, and we show relative performance of the tracker compared with its competitors. All the results are comparable with the state of the art on sequences with textured objects and superior on non-textured objects. The new annotated sequences are made publicly available. PMID:26552087

  18. Automated long-term scheduling for the SOFIA airborne observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the “ Early Science” program as well as a deployment to Germany. The next observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in late fall 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA's long-term schedules. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  19. Long-term movement patterns of a coral reef predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heupel, M. R.; Simpfendorfer, C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Long-term monitoring is required to fully define periodicity and patterns in animal movement. This is particularly relevant for defining what factors are driving the presence, location, and movements of individuals. The long-term movement and space use patterns of grey reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, were examined on a whole of reef scale in the southern Great Barrier Reef to define whether movement and activity space varied through time. Twenty-nine C. amblyrhynchos were tracked for over 2 years to define movement patterns. All individuals showed high residency within the study site, but also had high roaming indices. This indicated that individuals remained in the region and used all of the monitored habitat (i.e., the entire reef perimeter). Use of space was consistent through time with high reuse of areas most of the year. Therefore, individuals maintained discrete home ranges, but undertook broader movements around the reef at times. Mature males showed greatest variation in movement with larger activity spaces and movement into new regions during the mating season (August-September). Depth use patterns also differed, suggesting behaviour or resource requirements varied between sexes. Examination of the long-term, reef-scale movements of C. amblyrhynchos has revealed that reproductive activity may play a key role in space use and activity patterns. It was unclear whether mating behaviour or an increased need for food to sustain reproductive activity and development played a greater role in these patterns. Reef shark movement patterns are becoming more clearly defined, but research is still required to fully understand the biological drivers for the observed patterns.

  20. Merging of long-term memories in an insect.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kathryn L; Chittka, Lars

    2015-03-16

    Research on comparative cognition has largely focused on successes and failures of animals to solve certain cognitive tasks, but in humans, memory errors can be more complex than simple failures to retrieve information [1, 2]. The existence of various types of "false memories," in which individuals remember events that they have never actually encountered, are now well established in humans [3, 4]. We hypothesize that such systematic memory errors may be widespread in animals whose natural lifestyle involves the processing and recollection of memories for multiple stimuli [5]. We predict that memory traces for various stimuli may "merge," such that features acquired in distinct bouts of training are combined in an animal's mind, so that stimuli that have never been viewed before, but are a combination of the features presented in training, may be chosen during recall. We tested this using bumblebees, Bombus terrestris. When individuals were first trained to a solid single-colored stimulus followed by a black and white (b/w)-patterned stimulus, a subsequent preference for the last entrained stimulus was found in both short-term- and long-term-memory tests. However, when bees were first trained to b/w-patterned stimuli followed by solid single-colored stimuli and were tested in long-term-memory tests 1 or 3 days later, they only initially preferred the most recently rewarded stimulus, and then switched their preference to stimuli that combined features from the previous color and pattern stimuli. The observed merging of long-term memories is thus similar to the memory conjunction error found in humans [6]. PMID:25728692

  1. What Factors Influence Long-term Survivorship After Hip Arthroscopy?

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Bryan T.; Ojeifo, Olumide; Lee, Jo Ann; Bragdon, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hip arthroscopy is an evolving procedure. One small study suggested that a low modified Harris hip score and arthritis at the time of surgery were predictors of poor prognosis. Questions/purposes We therefore intended to confirm those findings with a large patient cohort to (1) determine the long-term nonarthritic hip score; (2) determine survivorship; (3) identify risk factors that increase the likelihood of THA; and (4) use those factors to create a usable risk assessment algorithm. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 324 patients (340 hips) who underwent arthroscopy for pain and/or catching. Of these, 106 patients (111 hips or 33%) had a minimum followup of 10 years (mean, 13 years; range, 10–20 years). The average age was 39 years (± 13) with 47 men and 59 women. We recorded patient age, gender, acetabular and femoral Outerbridge grade at surgery, and the presence of a labral tear. Followup consisted of a nonarthritic hip score or the date of a subsequent THA. We determined survivorship with the end point of THA for the acetabular and femoral Outerbridge grades. Results Overall survivorship among the 111 hips was 63% at 10 years. The average nonarthritic hip score for non-THA patients was 87.3 (± 12.1). Survivorship was greater for acetabular and femoral Outerbridge grades normal through II. Age at arthroscopy and Outerbridge grades independently predicted eventual THA. Gender and the presence of a labral tear did not influence long-term survivorship. Conclusions The long-term survivorship of labral tears with low-grade cartilage damage indicates hip arthroscopy is reasonable for treating labral tears. Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:20872105

  2. Observer aging and long-term avian survey data quality.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Robert G; Leonard, Marty L; Mills Flemming, Joanna E; Anderson, Sean C

    2014-06-01

    Long-term wildlife monitoring involves collecting time series data, often using the same observers over multiple years. Aging-related changes to these observers may be an important, under-recognized source of error that can bias management decisions. In this study, we used data from two large, independent bird surveys, the Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario ("OBBA") and the North American Breeding Bird Survey ("BBS"), to test for age-related observer effects in long-term time series of avian presence and abundance. We then considered the effect of such aging phenomena on current population trend estimates. We found significantly fewer detections among older versus younger observers for 13 of 43 OBBA species, and declines in detection as an observer ages for 4 of 6 vocalization groups comprising 59 of 64 BBS species. Consistent with hearing loss influencing this pattern, we also found evidence for increasingly severe detection declines with increasing call frequency among nine high-pitched bird species (OBBA); however, there were also detection declines at other frequencies, suggesting important additional effects of aging, independent of hearing loss. We lastly found subtle, significant relationships between some species' published population trend estimates and (1) their corresponding vocalization frequency (n ≥ 22 species) and (2) their estimated declines in detectability among older observers (n = 9 high-frequency, monotone species), suggesting that observer aging can negatively bias long-term monitoring data for some species in part through hearing loss effects. We recommend that survey designers and modelers account for observer age where possible. PMID:25360286

  3. Observer aging and long-term avian survey data quality

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Robert G; Leonard, Marty L; Mills Flemming, Joanna E; Anderson, Sean C

    2014-01-01

    Long-term wildlife monitoring involves collecting time series data, often using the same observers over multiple years. Aging-related changes to these observers may be an important, under-recognized source of error that can bias management decisions. In this study, we used data from two large, independent bird surveys, the Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario (“OBBA”) and the North American Breeding Bird Survey (“BBS”), to test for age-related observer effects in long-term time series of avian presence and abundance. We then considered the effect of such aging phenomena on current population trend estimates. We found significantly fewer detections among older versus younger observers for 13 of 43 OBBA species, and declines in detection as an observer ages for 4 of 6 vocalization groups comprising 59 of 64 BBS species. Consistent with hearing loss influencing this pattern, we also found evidence for increasingly severe detection declines with increasing call frequency among nine high-pitched bird species (OBBA); however, there were also detection declines at other frequencies, suggesting important additional effects of aging, independent of hearing loss. We lastly found subtle, significant relationships between some species' published population trend estimates and (1) their corresponding vocalization frequency (n ≥ 22 species) and (2) their estimated declines in detectability among older observers (n = 9 high-frequency, monotone species), suggesting that observer aging can negatively bias long-term monitoring data for some species in part through hearing loss effects. We recommend that survey designers and modelers account for observer age where possible. PMID:25360286

  4. Long-Term Variability in a Coupled Atmosphere Biosphere Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delire, Christine; Foley, Jonathan A.; Thompson, Starley

    2004-10-01

    A fully coupled atmosphere biosphere model, version 3 of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3) and the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), is used to illustrate how vegetation dynamics may be capable of producing long-term variability in the climate system, particularly through the hydrologic cycle and precipitation. Two simulations of the global climate are conducted with fixed climatological sea surface temperatures: one including vegetation as a dynamic boundary condition, and the other keeping vegetation cover fixed. A comparison of the precipitation power spectra over land from these two simulations shows that dynamic interactions between the atmosphere and vegetation enhance precipitation variability at time scales from a decade to a century, while damping variability at shorter time scales.In these simulations, the two-way coupling between the atmosphere and the dynamic vegetation cover introduces persistent precipitation anomalies in several ecological transition zones: between forest and grasslands in the North American midwest, in southern Africa, and at the southern limit of the tropical forest in the Amazon basin, and between savanna and desert in the Sahel, Australia, and portions of the Arabian Peninsula. These regions contribute most to the long-term variability of the atmosphere vegetation system.Slow changes in the vegetation cover, resulting from a “red noise” integration of high-frequency atmospheric variability, are responsible for generating this long-term variability. Lead and lag correlation between precipitation and vegetation leaf area index (LAI) shows that LAI influences precipitation in the following years, and vice versa. A mechanism involving changes in LAI resulting in albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration changes is proposed.


  5. Automated patient-specific classification of long-term Electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Kiranyaz, Serkan; Ince, Turker; Zabihi, Morteza; Ince, Dilek

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a novel systematic approach for patient-specific classification of long-term Electroencephalography (EEG). The goal is to extract the seizure sections with a high accuracy to ease the Neurologist's burden of inspecting such long-term EEG data. We aim to achieve this using the minimum feedback from the Neurologist. To accomplish this, we use the majority of the state-of-the-art features proposed in this domain for evolving a collective network of binary classifiers (CNBC) using multi-dimensional particle swarm optimization (MD PSO). Multiple CNBCs are then used to form a CNBC ensemble (CNBC-E), which aggregates epileptic seizure frames from the classification map of each CNBC in order to maximize the sensitivity rate. Finally, a morphological filter forms the final epileptic segments while filtering out the outliers in the form of classification noise. The proposed system is fully generic, which does not require any a priori information about the patient such as the list of relevant EEG channels. The results of the classification experiments, which are performed over the benchmark CHB-MIT scalp long-term EEG database show that the proposed system can achieve all the aforementioned objectives and exhibits a significantly superior performance compared to several other state-of-the-art methods. Using a limited training dataset that is formed by less than 2 min of seizure and 24 min of non-seizure data on the average taken from the early 25% section of the EEG record of each patient, the proposed system establishes an average sensitivity rate above 89% along with an average specificity rate above 93% over the test set. PMID:24566194

  6. Managing Osteoporosis Patients after Long-Term Bisphosphonate Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Robert A.; Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj; Bauer, Douglas C.; Camacho, Pauline M.; Clarke, Bart L.; Clines, Gregory A.; Compston, Juliet E.; Drake, Matthew T.; Edwards, Beatrice J.; Favus, Murray J.; Greenspan, Susan L.; McKinney, Ross; Pignolo, Robert J.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most commonly used medications for osteoporosis, but optimal duration of therapy is unknown. This ASBMR report provides guidance on BP therapy duration with a risk benefit perspective. Two trials provided evidence for long-term BP use. In the Fracture Intervention Trial Long-term Extension (FLEX), postmenopausal women receiving alendronate for 10 years had fewer clinical vertebral fractures than those switched to placebo after 5 years. In the HORIZON extension, women who received 6 annual infusions of zoledronic acid had fewer morphometric vertebral fractures compared with those switched to placebo after 3 years. Low hip T-score between −2 and −2.5 in FLEX and below −2.5 in HORIZON extension predicted a beneficial response to continued therapy. Hence, the Task Force suggests that after 5 years of oral BP or 3 years of intravenous BP, women should be reassessed. Women with previous major osteoporotic fracture, those who fracture on therapy, or others at high risk should generally continue therapy for up to 10 years (oral) or 6 years (intravenous), with periodic risk-benefit evaluation. Older women, those with a low hip T-score or high fracture risk score are considered high risk. The risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femoral fracture increases with BP therapy duration, but such rare events are far outweighed by fracture risk reduction with BPs in high risk patients. For women not at high fracture risk after 3–5 years of BP treatment, a drug holiday of 2–3 years can be considered, with periodic reassessment. The algorithm provided for long term BP use is based on limited evidence in mostly Caucasian postmenopausal women and only for vertebral fracture reduction. It is probably applicable to men and patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, with some adaptations. It is unlikely that future osteoporosis trials will provide data for formulating definitive recommendations. PMID:26350171

  7. Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  8. The long-term performance of DXA bone densitometers.

    PubMed

    Wells, J; Ryan, P J

    2000-07-01

    Long-term performance of a bone mass measuring device is an important criterion when considering the purchase of such equipment and has been regarded as an important feature of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The performance of a 6-year-old bone densitometer, the Lunar DPX alpha, which has undertaken 1500 scans annually over this period, was assessed. The short-term coefficient of variation calculated from 15 measurements with repositioning on a single day, using the Lunar aluminium phantom, was 0.242%. Long-term precision, also calculated by the coefficient of variation, was 0.548%. The manufacturer's quality control (QC) procedure was performed daily and allowed the machine to be used except on 15 occasions when bone density measurements could be acquired after rebooting. However, a 2.2% shift in phantom values occurred in July 1996 owing to a photomultiplier tube failure, but this did not produce a failure in the Lunar QC. The optical disc drive was replaced in July 1997. The machine failed to back up on six occasions over the last 2 years owing to software corruption and the acquired femur data were not saved on seven occasions owing to overloading of the memory buffer. In conclusion, expected hardware failure and minor software problems have occurred. We were concerned that the manufacturer's QC failed to detect a 2% shift in the phantom bone mineral density values and recommend regular measurements of the Lunar aluminum phantom in addition to the daily QC measurement of the tissue-equivalent block. We were nevertheless impressed by the long-term stability and reproducibility of the Lunar DPX alpha. PMID:11089465

  9. Simulations suggest pharmacological methods for rescuing long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Paul; Baxter, Douglas A; Byrne, John H

    2014-11-01

    Congenital cognitive dysfunctions are frequently due to deficits in molecular pathways that underlie the induction or maintenance of synaptic plasticity. For example, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is due to a mutation in cbp, encoding the histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CBP). CBP is a transcriptional co-activator for CREB, and induction of CREB-dependent transcription plays a key role in long-term memory (LTM). In animal models of RTS, mutations of cbp impair LTM and late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP). As a step toward exploring plausible intervention strategies to rescue the deficits in LTP, we extended our previous model of LTP induction to describe histone acetylation and simulated LTP impairment due to cbp mutation. Plausible drug effects were simulated by model parameter changes, and many increased LTP. However no parameter variation consistent with a effect of a known drug class fully restored LTP. Thus we examined paired parameter variations consistent with effects of known drugs. A pair that simulated the effects of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (slowing cAMP degradation) concurrent with a deacetylase inhibitor (prolonging histone acetylation) restored normal LTP. Importantly these paired parameter changes did not alter basal synaptic weight. A pair that simulated the effects of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and an acetyltransferase activator was similarly effective. For both pairs strong additive synergism was present. The effect of the combination was greater than the summed effect of the separate parameter changes. These results suggest that promoting histone acetylation while simultaneously slowing the degradation of cAMP may constitute a promising strategy for restoring deficits in LTP that may be associated with learning deficits in RTS. More generally these results illustrate how the strategy of combining modeling and empirical studies may provide insights into the design of effective therapies for improving long-term synaptic

  10. Long-term functional outcomes of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Karen A; Gudmudsson, Larus S; Lew, Henry L

    2015-01-01

    We review the literature on two long-term functional outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) important to patients, family members, and rehabilitation treatment teams: work for pay and driving outcomes. Estimates on the percentages working after TBI have ranged widely, and few consistent prognostic indicators of long-term outcomes have been identified. The few large randomized controlled treatment trials of these long-term productive outcomes have been negative, but have identified promising subgroup results that bear further investigation. Salazar et al. (2000) identified patients with loss of consciousness of 1 hour or longer as a subgroup that benefited from intensive in-hospital treatment. Vanderploeg et al. (2008) found that the cognitive treatment arm resulted in improved cognitive performance, and that younger patients benefited more from the cognitive treatment; whereas older patients (31 plus) benefited from a more functional approach to treatment. The research evidence on driving post TBI is sparse - relying upon small studies, and lacking follow-up data. This review included only published research studies of 100 or more subjects, with control groups, and outcomes 6 months or longer after injury. The inclusion of more reliable studies narrowed return to work estimates and provided evidence that type of control group affects findings about return to work after mild TBI (mTBI). Prognostic indicators remain inconsistently measured among these more reliable studies. Heeding the frequent recommendation that research in this area be more stringently conducted, well powered, and use shared measures of critical variables would improve evidence. Adequately powered treatment trials of existing and innovative treatment modalities remain a priority. PMID:25701912

  11. Long-term Results After Ankle Syndesmosis Injuries.

    PubMed

    van Vlijmen, Nicole; Denk, Katharina; van Kampen, Albert; Jaarsma, Ruurd L

    2015-11-01

    Syndesmotic disruption occurs in more than 10% of ankle fractures. Operative treatment with syndesmosis screw fixation has been successfully performed for decades and is considered the gold standard of treatment. Few studies have reported the long-term outcomes of syndesmosis injuries. This study investigated long-term patient-reported, radiographic, and functional outcomes of syndesmosis injuries treated with screw fixation and subsequent timed screw removal. A retrospective cohort study was carried out at a Level I trauma center. The study group included 43 patients who were treated for ankle fractures with associated syndesmotic disruptions between December 2001 and May 2011. The study included case file reviews, self-reported questionnaires, radiologic reviews, and clinical assessments. At 5.1 (±1.76) years after injury, 60% of participants had pain, 26% had degenerative changes, 51% had loss of tibiofibular overlap, and 33% showed medial clear space widening. Retained syndesmotic positions on radiographs were linked to better self-reported outcomes. There is an inversely proportional relation between age at the time of injury and satisfaction with the outcome of the ankle fracture as well as a directly proportional relation between age at the time of injury and pain compared with the preinjury state. Optimal restoration and preservation of the syndesmosis is crucial. Syndesmotic disruption is associated with poor long-term outcomes after ankle fracture. Greater age is a risk factor for chronic pain and dissatisfaction with the outcome of ankle fracture and syndesmosis injury. Therefore, patient education to facilitate realistic expectations about recovery is vital, especially in older patients. PMID:26558664

  12. NICE guidance on long-term sickness and incapacity.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, Mark; Taylor, Lorraine; Sheppard, Linda; Hillage, Jim; Bambra, Clare; Ford, Fiona; Preece, Richard; Taske, Nichole; Kelly, Michael P

    2011-03-01

    Long-term sickness absence and incapacity benefits (disability pension) rates have increased across industrialised countries. Effective measures are needed to support return to work. The recommendations of this guidance were informed by the most appropriate available evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Public health evidence was provided by research using a variety of study designs that attempted to determine the outcome of a particular intervention by evaluating status before and after the intervention had been effected, and was not limited to randomised control trials. Where the evidence base was depleted or underdeveloped, expert witnesses were called to give their opinion on the best available evidence and emerging interventions. The process enabled challenge and contestability from stakeholder groups at different points as the guidance was developed. Forty-five heterogeneous studies were included in the review of interventions to reduce long-term sickness absence and transitions from short-term to long-term absence (mainly covering the former and also mainly examining musculoskeletal conditions). The analysis of evidence was restricted to descriptive synthesis. Three general themes emerged from an analysis of the studies that were more likely to report positive results: early interventions; multidisciplinary approaches; and interventions with a workplace component. Two further reviews were undertaken, one on interventions to reduce the re-occurrence of sickness absence, which identified seven studies on lower back pain, and concluded that early intervention and direct workplace input are important factors. The final evidence review focused on six studies of interventions for those in receipt of incapacity benefit. The evidence was that work-focused interviews coupled with access to tailored support are effective and cost-effective interventions. Practitioners should consider the impact of interventions and management options on work ability for

  13. NICE guidance on long-term sickness and incapacity

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Mark; Taylor, Lorraine; Sheppard, Linda; Hillage, Jim; Bambra, Clare; Ford, Fiona; Preece, Richard; Taske, Nichole; Kelly, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Long-term sickness absence and incapacity benefits (disability pension) rates have increased across industrialised countries. Effective measures are needed to support return to work. The recommendations of this guidance were informed by the most appropriate available evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Public health evidence was provided by research using a variety of study designs that attempted to determine the outcome of a particular intervention by evaluating status before and after the intervention had been effected, and was not limited to randomised control trials. Where the evidence base was depleted or underdeveloped, expert witnesses were called to give their opinion on the best available evidence and emerging interventions. The process enabled challenge and contestability from stakeholder groups at different points as the guidance was developed. Forty-five heterogeneous studies were included in the review of interventions to reduce long-term sickness absence and transitions from short-term to long-term absence (mainly covering the former and also mainly examining musculoskeletal conditions). The analysis of evidence was restricted to descriptive synthesis. Three general themes emerged from an analysis of the studies that were more likely to report positive results: early interventions; multidisciplinary approaches; and interventions with a workplace component. Two further reviews were undertaken, one on interventions to reduce the re-occurrence of sickness absence, which identified seven studies on lower back pain, and concluded that early intervention and direct workplace input are important factors. The final evidence review focused on six studies of interventions for those in receipt of incapacity benefit. The evidence was that work-focused interviews coupled with access to tailored support are effective and cost-effective interventions. Practitioners should consider the impact of interventions and management options on work ability for

  14. The long-term health of vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Vegetarians, who do not eat any meat, poultry or fish, constitute a significant minority of the world's population. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume dairy products and/or eggs, whereas vegans do not eat any foods derived wholly or partly from animals. Concerns over the health, environmental and economic consequences of a diet rich in meat and other animal products have focussed attention on those who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. There has been extensive research into the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets, but less is known about the long-term health of vegetarians and vegans. We summarise the main findings from large cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies in western countries with a high proportion of vegetarian participants. Vegetarians have a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity and a lower risk of IHD compared with non-vegetarians from a similar background, whereas the data are equivocal for stroke. For cancer, there is some evidence that the risk for all cancer sites combined is slightly lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, but findings for individual cancer sites are inconclusive. Vegetarians have also been found to have lower risks for diabetes, diverticular disease and eye cataract. Overall mortality is similar for vegetarians and comparable non-vegetarians, but vegetarian groups compare favourably with the general population. The long-term health of vegetarians appears to be generally good, and for some diseases and medical conditions it may be better than that of comparable omnivores. Much more research is needed, particularly on the long-term health of vegans. PMID:26707634

  15. Technology base studies of long-term MCFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, J.R.; Yazici, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This project aims to identify the long-term endurance problems of the MCFC by investigating corrosion of stainless steel (310, 316L). This presentation focuses on results from SEM and cross-section analysis. Significant differences between immersed and film-wetted electrodes are summarized. Results suggest that pre-oxidation can be a solution to obtaining a compact oxide layer. Adding Al to alloy leads to a very stable oxide layer, but increases resistivity. Alloy behavior must be investigated under continuously polarized conditions. 4 figs.

  16. Long Term Stability of Laser Joined Plastic Metal Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesner, A.; Olowinsky, A.; Gillner, A.

    To join plastic to metal a laser based two-step laser process is described. The first process step is the laser micro structuring of the metal surface to create microstructures with undercut grooves. The subsequent transmission joining process allows a selective heating of arbitrary component geometries and the local control of the joining temperature. Both parts are brought into direct contact prior to welding. The plastic part is melted and expands into the microstructures through the external clamping pressure. The joining results due to micro cramping after setting. The long term stability of the joining is described.

  17. Carpal arthrodesis in cats. Long-term functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Calvo, I; Farrell, M; Chase, D; Aisa, J; Rayward, R; Carmichael, S

    2009-01-01

    Pancarpal and partial carpal arthrodesis were performed in 22 carpi (20 cats) using various surgical methods. Short and long-term outcomes were assessed using a retrospective review of the case notes and via owner questionnaires. Carpal arthrodesis was associated with complications that did not affect the functional outcome, and in most cases, did not necessitate major revision surgery. Following arthrodesis, the cats did not jump as high, and showed a reduction in their willingness to jump and climb. Based on our results, carpal arthrodesis is a suitable salvage surgery to treat severe carpal injuries in the cat. PMID:19876518

  18. The Photographic Effect Of Long Term Persistency Of Radiographic Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollen, Romain

    1983-12-01

    Occurrence of ghost images on radiographs is a generally feared phenomenon. A method is presented how to evaluate in a quantitative way the photographic effect of long term persistency of radiographic screens. It is shown that the effect not only depends on the radiation intensities present in the preceding exposure(s) but also on the radiation intensities present in the actual exposure. By the method an objective forecast of possible ghost imaging can be made. Results obtained with Curix MR400-screens are presented.

  19. Long-term skin damage due to chemical weapon exposure.

    PubMed

    Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Davoudi, Seyed M; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Panahi, Yunes; Dowlati, Yahya

    2011-03-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2-dichlorodiethyl sulfide: SM), the protagonist of vesicant chemical weapons, was first used in July 1917. Despite prohibition of its production and use by international conventions, it has been used in several conflicts. More than 100,000 soldiers and civilians were injured due to SM exposure during Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). The acute skin lesions consist of erythema, edema, and blisters. Skin xerosis and pruritus, pigmentation disorders, scars, and cherry angiomas are among the most common long-term skin lesions after contact with SM. Although SM is a well-known carcinogenic substance, skin cancers are rarely reported. PMID:21047269

  20. Long-term management of gout: nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies.

    PubMed

    Chaichian, Yashaar; Chohan, Saima; Becker, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Gout is a common disorder with clinical signs and symptoms resulting from inflammatory responses to monosodium urate crystals deposited in tissues from extracellular fluids saturated for urate. Long-term management of gout focuses on nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic means to achieve and maintain serum urate levels in a subsaturating range. Despite a firm understanding of gout pathophysiology, means to achieve certain diagnosis, and a variety of effective therapies, treatment outcomes remain suboptimal. In this review, available nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies for chronic gout are discussed and a framework is provided for successful achievement and maintenance of goal-range serum urate levels. PMID:24703352

  1. Reframing frailty as a long-term condition.

    PubMed

    Lyndon, Helen

    2015-10-01

    Frailty is a clinical syndrome that focuses on loss of reserve, energy and wellbeing. Older people with frailty tend to present late and often in crisis to health and care services so their care may be hospital-based, episodic and unplanned. Frailty should be reframed as a long-term condition that can be managed proactively in primary and community settings by supported self-management and person-centred care. Nurses play a vital role as key workers, care co-ordinators and supporters to patients and their carers at all stages of the frailty trajectory. PMID:26402213

  2. Quantitative study of long-term solar and climatic changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Long term variations in the diameter and the shape of the Sun were studied. Daily observations of the Sun's diameter made at the Greenwich Observatory between 1836 and 1953 were analysed and interpreted. The data was converted into digital form and then screened and processed. It was found that the horizontal diameter of the Sun measured at Greenwich appears to have decreased systematically between 1880 and 1953 at a rate of 1.2 plus or minus 0.6 minutes of arc per century.

  3. LONG-TERM EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gori, P.L.; Greene, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Charleston, South Carolina, area offers a unique opportunity to conduct studies that give insight into the implementation of policy for long-term earthquake preparedness at the local level. Research by Greene and Gori documented the low state of preparedness in 1981. Recent studies show that earthquake preparedness activities are now occurring in Charleston. Since 1981, increased national attention has been used by local citizens in Charleston to overcome political, informational, social, organizational, and economic barriers which tend to retard the adoption and implementation of earthquake mitigation policies.

  4. Long term decontamination at the Hanford Site: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Geuther, W.J.; Hansen, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes an engineering study that evaluates decontamination requirements at Hanford and the potential reutilization of the first plutonium processing production facility as a decontamination facility. The logic used to develop the study, the options available for a long-term decontamination mission, and the resultant strategy recommended in the study are presented. The paper provides a starting point for other similar study efforts. The process flowsheets, regulatory restrictions, and preconceptual designs developed in this study are common throughout the nuclear waste industry.

  5. Home health, long-term care, and other compliance activities.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T D; Sadoff, J W

    1999-04-01

    The Federal government continues to crack down on fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry with such initiatives and tools as Operation Restore Trust and intermediate tax sanctions. Home health and long-term care organizations are the latest entities under study by the Office of Inspector General, and the result of these studies likely will be more antifraud and abuse measures being taken against these entities. All healthcare organizations should pay particular attention to their tax risk exposure. Healthcare organizations that put effective compliance programs in place should be able to reduce the overall risk of challenges to their financial practices. PMID:10557979

  6. Long-term stability of orbits in storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Warnock, R.L.; Ruth, R.D.

    1990-06-01

    We describe a numerical method to establish long-term bounds on nonlinear Hamiltonian motion. By bounding the change in a nearly constant action variable, uniformly in initial condition, one can predict stability for N turns by tracking many orbits for a member of turns of N{sub 0} much less than N. In a first application to a model sextupole lattice in a region of strong nonlinearity, we predict stability of betatron motion in two degrees of freedom for 10{sup 8} turns. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Long-term laser frequency stabilization using fiber interferometers.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jia; Lucivero, Vito Giovanni; Jiménez-Martínez, Ricardo; Mitchell, Morgan W

    2015-07-01

    We report long-term laser frequency stabilization using only the target laser and a pair of 5 m fiber interferometers, one as a frequency reference and the second as a sensitive thermometer to stabilize the frequency reference. When used to stabilize a distributed feedback laser at 795 nm, the frequency Allan deviation at 1000 s drops from 5.6 × 10(-8) to 6.9 × 10(-10). The performance equals that of an offset lock employing a second, atom-stabilized laser in the temperature control. PMID:26233353

  8. Long-Term Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Allampati, Sanath; Mullen, Kevin D

    2016-08-01

    The key to management of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is early recognition by the patient and physician. Excessive alcohol consumption, ranging from drinking more than recommended amounts to abuse, is one of the most preventable causes of death and disability. The US Preventive Services Task Force guidelines recommend screening for alcoholism in the primary care setting. Abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy and it decreases mortality and morbidity significantly. Alcoholic cirrhosis can cause varices that need to be followed closely with upper endoscopy to prevent or treat hemorrhage. In this review, we describe an approach to long-term management of ALD. PMID:27373616

  9. Transitions of elders between long-term care and hospitals.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Mary D; Kurtzman, Ellen T; Pauly, Mark V

    2009-08-01

    Elderly long-term care recipients who require acute hospitalizations must navigate a fragmented system with poor "handoffs," often resulting in negative outcomes. This article makes the case that reducing preventable hospitalizations and improving transitions to and from hospitals will enhance health care quality and outcomes among these elders. Immediate action targeting diffusion of evidence-based care is recommended to decrease avoidable rehospitalizations and achieve cost savings. Policy changes are needed to address barriers to high-quality transitional care, including deficits in health professionals' and caregivers' knowledge and resources, regulatory obstacles, and inadequate financial incentives and clinical information systems. PMID:20026453

  10. Spent filter packaging for long term storage and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Duberville, T.M.; Miller, C.

    2007-07-01

    This paper will discuss filter packaging experience using spent filter transfer casks, a filter shear and the NUKEM macro-encapsulation process. Marco-encapsulation of spent filters in cement has provided sufficient shielding to enable filter containers to be shipped in less expensive IP-2 casks. The lower dose rate and higher density also off-sets disposal rates at Barnwell based on mass. No re-dewatering of encapsulated filter containers is required after a period of long term storage and encapsulation eliminates the possibility of gas generation from filters during storage. Encapsulation can be performed on filters loaded into poly HICs or carbon steel liners. (authors)

  11. Environmental effects on long term behavior of composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, S. N.; Chamis, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    Model equations are presented for approximate methods simulating the long-term behavior of composite materials and structures in hot/humid service environments. These equations allow laminate property upgradings with time, and can account for the effects of service environments on creep response. These methodologies are illustrated for various individual and coupled temperature/moisture, longitudinal/transverse, and composite material type cases. Creep deformation is noted to rise dramatically for cases of matrix-borne, but not of fiber-borne, loading in hot, humid environments; the coupled influence of temperature and moisture is greater than a mere combination of their individual influences.

  12. Providing long term care for sex offenders: liabilities and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Corson, Tyler Rogers; Nadash, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    The high risk for recidivism among sex offenders who need long term care (LTC) raises serious issues when they are cared for alongside frail, vulnerable adults. LTC providers must balance offenders' right to access care with other residents' right to be free from abuse and must assess and manage the risks associated with admitting offenders. This article identifies sources of legal liability that derive from sex offender management and discusses the need for the LTC community to develop reasonable, balanced guidance on how best to mitigate the risks associated with sex offenders, protect the rights of all residents, and reduce provider liabilities. PMID:24094899

  13. Long-term solar irradiance variability: knowns and unknowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.; Dasi Espuig, Maria; Leng Yeo, Kok; Wu, Chi-Ju

    2016-07-01

    Long-term reconstructions of solar irradiance variability are crucial to our understanding of solar influence on climate. They are only possible with the help of suitable models, which in turn require a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of this variability. With the advance of such models, also the past reconstructions are becoming more reliable. Nevertheless, the remaining uncertainties spread out when extrapolating back over long periods of time, amplified by the increasingly poorer quality and reliability of the available data that bear information on past solar activity. We will discuss the progress and the reliability of irradiance reconstructions on time scales of decades to millennia.

  14. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney C. Ewing

    2004-10-07

    Spent nuclear fuel, essentially U{sub 2}, accounts for over 95% of the total radioactivity of all of the radioactive wastes in the United States that require disposal, disposition or remediation. The UO{sub 2} in SNF is not stable under oxiding conditions and may also be altered under reducing conditions. The alteration of SNF results in the formation of new uranium phases that can cause the release or retardation of actinide and fission product radionuclides. Over the long term, and depending on the extent to which the secondary uranium phases incorporate fission products and actinides, these alteration phases become the near-field source term.

  15. Drivers of long-term ocean salinity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durack, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Previous work has highlighted near-surface salinity pattern amplification (PA) and depth-integrated halosteric (salinity-driven) sea-level changes in long-term change estimates from observations and climate model simulations. These suggest that fresh ocean regions are becoming fresher, and salty regions saltier in part to a response to evaporation minus precipitation (E-P; water cycle) changes driven by a warming Earth. While near-surface salinity changes relate to the climatological mean (fresh becoming fresher, salty becoming saltier), subsurface salinity changes have also been recorded. Similar to the near-surface, these changes represent a complex three-dimensional structure that is different in each ocean basin. Like near-surface changes, subsurface salinity changes also share a strong correspondence with the subsurface climatological mean. When integrated through the depth of observed data coverage (0-2000 m), these show a clear basin halosteric contrast - a freshening Pacific and an enhancing Atlantic salinity a fingerprint of change that has been successfully attributed to anthropogenic climate change in previous studies. As long-term observational insights are limited, model simulations provide a novel method to assess and validate observed change estimates, and attribute the drivers of long-term change. Using the CMIP (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 & 5) 20C3M/historical (20th century), SRES/RCP (future 21st century) and pre-industrial (piControl; unforced) simulations, these basin salinity change contrasts are investigated and their relationship to simulated E-P (water cycle) changes is diagnosed. The intrinsic variability of both modelled salinity and E-P change fields is investigated to ascertain an envelope of unforced (piControl) climate variability, an estimate currently unavailable for long-term observational estimates due to poor measurement coverage. These unforced distributions are compared to those of weakly- (20C3M

  16. Symptoms Experienced by Long Term Users of Mobil Phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucer, Nermin

    2007-04-01

    In this study was investigated the possible effects of long term usage of mobile phone. The studied symptoms are headache, dizziness, extreme irritation, forgetfulness, neuropsychological discomfort, decrease of the reflex, clicking sound in the ears, and increase in carelessness. This survey study, using questionnaire, was conducted among randomly selected 146 university students in Kocaeli, Turkey. There is no effect on neuropsychological discomfort, increase in carelessness, headache, and clicking sound in the ears, but some statistical evidences are found that mobile phone may cause extreme irritation, decrease of the reflex, dizziness, and forgetfulness.

  17. [Long-term outcome of surgically treated teratology of Fallot].

    PubMed

    Ben Khalfallah, Ali; Annabi, N; Ousji, Monia

    2004-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease. The surgical treatment that is palliative or complete repair has allowed to transform the preview of this heart disorder. We suggests to study the long term outcome in patients undergoing surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot, by emphasizing the quality of their lives, the complications, as well as the mortality. Ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death after repair of tetralogy of Fallot are devastating complications in adults survivors and their prediction remains difficult. PMID:15127696

  18. Long-term assessment of residential radon-mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, I.A.; Clarkin, M.E. ); Rizzuto, J.E. ); Brennan, T. ); Osborne, M. )

    1988-01-01

    In New York State a survey in 1982-83 discovered fourteen houses with moderately high natural radon levels, and in early 1984 low-cost radon mitigation systems were installed in these houses. The radon reduction techniques included sealing cracks, sealing and sub-slab depressurization, isolating and venting unpaved crawl-spaces, and installing heat-recovery ventilators. These mitigation systems represent some of the earliest systems installed in the United States using low-cost common residential construction materials and methods. In this report, the authors discuss how they returned to these installations, inspected the longevity of the various components of the systems and assessed their long-term effectiveness.

  19. Applying activity-based costing in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Wodchis, W P

    1998-01-01

    As greater numbers of the elderly use health services, and as health care costs climb, effective financial tracking is essential. Cost management in health care can benefit if costs are linked to the care activities where they are incurred. Activity-based costing (ABC) provides a useful approach. The framework aligns costs (inputs), through activities (process), to outputs and outcomes. It allocates costs based on client care needs rather than management structure. The ABC framework was tested in a residential care facility and in supportive housing apartments. The results demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of ABC for long term care agencies, including community-based care. PMID:10339203

  20. Long-term laser frequency stabilization using fiber interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Jia; Lucivero, Vito Giovanni; Jiménez-Martínez, Ricardo; Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2015-07-15

    We report long-term laser frequency stabilization using only the target laser and a pair of 5 m fiber interferometers, one as a frequency reference and the second as a sensitive thermometer to stabilize the frequency reference. When used to stabilize a distributed feedback laser at 795 nm, the frequency Allan deviation at 1000 s drops from 5.6 × 10{sup −8} to 6.9 × 10{sup −10}. The performance equals that of an offset lock employing a second, atom-stabilized laser in the temperature control.

  1. Long-term treatment of persistent disseminated Nocardia cyriacigeorgica infection.

    PubMed

    Ozgenç, Onur; Avcı, Meltem; Arı, Alpay; Celebi, Ismail Yunus; Coşkuner, Seher Ayten

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a disseminated persistent Nocardia cyriacigeorgica infection in an immunocompetent patient is described. The patient's long-term treatment, as well as its implications for managing similar cases in the future, is emphasized. Presenting with high fever, multiple nodules, and ulcerative cutaneous lesions of body sites, the patient was treated with various antimicrobials. Under combined therapy, empyema and arthritis, leading to disseminated nocardiosis, were seen. The overall treatment course was 28 months. It can be concluded that the choice of the antibiotics and optimal duration of treatment are uncertain; therefore the treatment of nocardiosis requires expertise. PMID:24833199

  2. Long-term motor cortex stimulation for phantom limb pain.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Moore, Tom; Moir, Liz; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2015-04-01

    We present the long-term course of motor cortex stimulation to relieve a case of severe burning phantom arm pain after brachial plexus injury and amputation. During 16-year follow-up the device continued to provide efficacious analgesia. However, several adjustments of stimulation parameters were required, as were multiple pulse generator changes, antibiotics for infection and one electrode revision due to lead migration. Steady increases in stimulation parameters over time were required. One of the longest follow-ups of motor cortex stimulation is described; the case illustrates challenges and pitfalls in neuromodulation for chronic pain, demonstrating strategies for maintaining analgesia and overcoming tolerance. PMID:25340991

  3. Long-term operating experience for the ATLAS superconducting resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.; Zinkann, G.

    1999-12-21

    Portions of the ATLAS accelerator have been operating now for over 21 years. The facility has accumulated several million resonator-hours of operation at this point and has demonstrated the long-term reliability of RF superconductivity. The overall operating performance of the ATLAS facility has established a level of beam quality, flexibility, and reliability not previously achieved with heavy-ion accelerator facilities. The actual operating experience and maintenance history of ATLAS are presented for ATLAS resonators and associated electronics systems. Solutions to problems that appeared in early operation as well as current problems needing further development are discussed.

  4. Cyclic and Long-Term Variation of Sunspot Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Bertello, Luca; Tlatov, Andrey G.; Kilcik, Ali; Nagovitsyn, Yury A.; Cliver, Edward W.

    2014-02-01

    Measurements from the Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) were used to study the long-term variations of sunspot field strengths from 1920 to 1958. Following a modified approach similar to that presented in Pevtsov et al. ( Astrophys. J. Lett. 742, L36, 2011), we selected the sunspot with the strongest measured field strength for each observing week and computed monthly averages of these weekly maximum field strengths. The data show the solar cycle variation of the peak field strengths with an amplitude of about 500 - 700 gauss (G), but no statistically significant long-term trends. Next, we used the sunspot observations from the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) to establish a relationship between the sunspot areas and the sunspot field strengths for cycles 15 - 19. This relationship was used to create a proxy of the peak magnetic field strength based on sunspot areas from the RGO and the USAF/NOAA network for the period from 1874 to early 2012. Over this interval, the magnetic field proxy shows a clear solar cycle variation with an amplitude of 500 - 700 G and a weaker long-term trend. From 1874 to around 1920, the mean value of magnetic field proxy increases by about 300 - 350 G, and, following a broad maximum in 1920 - 1960, it decreases by about 300 G. Using the proxy for the magnetic field strength as the reference, we scaled the MWO field measurements to the measurements of the magnetic fields in Pevtsov et al. (2011) to construct a combined data set of maximum sunspot field strengths extending from 1920 to early 2012. This combined data set shows strong solar cycle variations and no significant long-term trend (the linear fit to the data yields a slope of - 0.2±0.8 G year-1). On the other hand, the peak sunspot field strengths observed at the minimum of the solar cycle show a gradual decline over the last three minima (corresponding to cycles 21 - 23) with a mean downward trend of ≈ 15 G year-1.

  5. Acute and long term respiratory damage following inhalation of ammonia.

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, D; Gris, P; Lheureux, P; Gevenois, P A; De Vuyst, P; Yernault, J C

    1992-01-01

    A lifelong non-smoker who was the victim of a massive accidental exposure to anhydrous ammonia gas was followed up for 10 years. In the acute phase the patient presented with severe tracheobronchitis and respiratory failure, caused by very severe burns of the respiratory mucosa. After some improvement he was left with severe and fixed airways obstruction. Isotope studies of mucociliary clearance, computed tomography, and bronchography showed mild bronchiectasis. It is concluded that acute exposure to high concentrations of ammonia may lead to acute respiratory injury but also to long term impairment of respiratory function. Images PMID:1440475

  6. Long-Term Changes in the Equatorial Pacific Trade Winds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Allan J.; Lebedev, Anna

    1996-05-01

    Past work has shown that surface zonal equatorial wind stress, zonally integrated from one side of the Pacific to the other, is the key variable for estimating long-term El Niño behavior in the eastern Pacific. The long-term behavior of this key variable is difficult to determine directly because of the paucity of the equatorial wind observations and because of false trends in the wind data introduced by gradual changes in the methods of wind measurement. However, surface pressure data generally does not suffer from these false trends and theory suggests that this key wind variable is linearly related to the difference (p) of surface atmospheric pressure between the eastern and western equatorial Pacific. Detrended COADS pressure in the eastern and western equatorial Pacific and post 1960 detrended equatorial wind stress zonally averaged across the Pacific were used to verify this relationship. Pressure difference and zonally averaged equatorial zonal windstress () were highly correlated (r = 0.90) and the regression also showed that advection of zonal momentum contributes substantially to the momentum balance in the equatorial atmospheric boundary layer. Further, hindcasts of eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature and sea level indicated that from p was more accurate than from winds even since 1960 when wind data were more plentiful. This suggests that the simple pressure difference p is an effective way to monitor both in the past and in the future.Using the p time series as a proxy for zonally integrated wind stress suggests that the equatorial trades strengthened during the early and mid-1930s, weakened from the late 1930s to late 1950s, strengthened during the 1960s, and weakened rapidly since. This pattern is qualitatively consistent with the long record of sea surface temperature measurements at Puerto Chicama (Peru). The more recent rapid weakening is consistent with trends in several physical variables reported previously by others. The long-term

  7. The long-term prediction of artificial satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cefola, P. J.; Long, A. C.; Holloway, G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Survey of averaging and multirevolution methods for long-term orbit prediction. A technical approach with the following features is recommended: (1) averaged variation-of-parameter equations, (2) analytical expressions for oblateness and third-body effects, (3) definite integrals for atmospheric drag and lunar effects (for long-period orbits), (4) nonsingular equinoctial element formulation, (5) multistep numerical integration processes, and (6) precise osculating-to-mean element transformation. Several orbital predictions illustrate the contribution of this technical approach to overall accuracy and efficiency. Future development of the analytical averaging method in nonsingular coordinates by automated manipulation of literal series is discussed.

  8. Long term prediction and the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Talman, R.

    1990-09-01

    Successful operation of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) will depend on the stable circulation of particles for tens of millions of turns around the rings, in the presence of small nonlinear deflecting fields. One design challenge is to set specifications for the maximum allowable field imperfections of this sort, consistent with the required. stability. Another challenge is to plan for the inclusion of field compensating elements that will ameliorate the effects of errors. The tools'' available for projecting the long term stability are theoretical, both analytic and numerical, and experimental. These aspects are reviewed. 19 refs.

  9. Electronic dura mater for long-term multimodal neural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minev, Ivan R.; Musienko, Pavel; Hirsch, Arthur; Barraud, Quentin; Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Gandar, Jérôme; Capogrosso, Marco; Milekovic, Tomislav; Asboth, Léonie; Torres, Rafael Fajardo; Vachicouras, Nicolas; Liu, Qihan; Pavlova, Natalia; Duis, Simone; Larmagnac, Alexandre; Vörös, Janos; Micera, Silvestro; Suo, Zhigang; Courtine, Grégoire; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical mismatch between soft neural tissues and stiff neural implants hinders the long-term performance of implantable neuroprostheses. Here, we designed and fabricated soft neural implants with the shape and elasticity of dura mater, the protective membrane of the brain and spinal cord. The electronic dura mater, which we call e-dura, embeds interconnects, electrodes, and chemotrodes that sustain millions of mechanical stretch cycles, electrical stimulation pulses, and chemical injections. These integrated modalities enable multiple neuroprosthetic applications. The soft implants extracted cortical states in freely behaving animals for brain-machine interface and delivered electrochemical spinal neuromodulation that restored locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury.

  10. Sensors for environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Russell; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Davis, Mary Jo

    2004-09-01

    This report surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. Regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  11. 12 CFR 1266.3 - Purpose of long-term advances; Proxy test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose of long-term advances; Proxy test. 1266... Advances to Members § 1266.3 Purpose of long-term advances; Proxy test. (a) A Bank shall make long-term... housing finance assets. (b)(1) Prior to approving an application for a long-term advance, a Bank...

  12. 12 CFR 1266.3 - Purpose of long-term advances; Proxy test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose of long-term advances; Proxy test. 1266... Advances to Members § 1266.3 Purpose of long-term advances; Proxy test. (a) A Bank shall make long-term... housing finance assets. (b)(1) Prior to approving an application for a long-term advance, a Bank...

  13. 18 CFR 367.4270 - Account 427, Interest on long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on long-term debt. 367.4270 Section 367.4270 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., Interest on long-term debt. (a) This account must include the amount of interest on outstanding long-term..., Other long-term debt (§ 367.2240). (b) This account must be kept or supported so as to show the...

  14. 18 CFR 367.4270 - Account 427, Interest on long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... on long-term debt. 367.4270 Section 367.4270 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., Interest on long-term debt. (a) This account must include the amount of interest on outstanding long-term..., Other long-term debt (§ 367.2240). (b) This account must be kept or supported so as to show the...

  15. 18 CFR 367.4270 - Account 427, Interest on long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... on long-term debt. 367.4270 Section 367.4270 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., Interest on long-term debt. (a) This account must include the amount of interest on outstanding long-term..., Other long-term debt (§ 367.2240). (b) This account must be kept or supported so as to show the...

  16. 18 CFR 367.4270 - Account 427, Interest on long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... on long-term debt. 367.4270 Section 367.4270 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., Interest on long-term debt. (a) This account must include the amount of interest on outstanding long-term..., Other long-term debt (§ 367.2240). (b) This account must be kept or supported so as to show the...

  17. Bioreduction of Fe-bearing clay minerals and their reactivity toward pertechnetate (Tc-99)

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Michael E.; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Liu, Chongxuan; Edelmann, Richard E.

    2011-07-01

    extent and initial rate of bioreduction were positively correlated with the percent smectite in the S-I series (i.e., layer expandability). Fe(II) in the bioreduced clay minerals subsequently was used to reduce Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) in PIPES buffer. Similar to the trend of bioreduction, in the S-I series, reduced smectite showed the highest reactivity toward Tc(VII), and reduced illite exhibited the least. The initial rate of Tc(VII) reduction, after normalization to clay and Fe(II) concentrations, was positively correlated with the percent smectite in the S-I series. Fe(II) in chlorite and palygorskite was also reactive toward Tc(VII) reduction. These data demonstrate that crystal chemical parameters (layer expandability, Fe and Fe(II) contents, and surface area etc.) play important roles in controlling the extent and rate of bioreduction and the reactivity toward Tc(VII) reduction. Reduced Tc(IV) resides within clay mineral matrix, and this association could minimize any potential of reoxidation over long term.

  18. Bioreduction of Fe-bearing clay minerals and their reactivity toward pertechnetate (Tc-99)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Michael E.; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Liu, Chongxuan; Edelmann, Richard E.

    2011-09-01

    without and with AQDS). The extent and initial rate of bioreduction were positively correlated with the percent smectite in the S-I series (i.e., layer expandability). Fe(II) in the bioreduced clay minerals subsequently was used to reduce Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) in PIPES buffer. Similar to the trend of bioreduction, in the S-I series, reduced NAu-2 showed the highest reactivity toward Tc(VII), and reduced illite exhibited the least. The initial rate of Tc(VII) reduction, after normalization to clay and Fe(II) concentrations, was positively correlated with the percent smectite in the S-I series. Fe(II) in chlorite and palygorskite was also reactive toward Tc(VII) reduction. These data demonstrate that crystal chemical parameters (layer expandability, Fe and Fe(II) contents, and surface area, etc.) play important roles in controlling the extent and rate of bioreduction and the reactivity toward Tc(VII) reduction. Reduced Tc(IV) resides within clay mineral matrix, and this association could minimize any potential of reoxidation over long term.

  19. Long-term chlorhexidine effect on bond strength to Er:YAG laser irradiated-dentin.

    PubMed

    Galafassi, Daniel; Scatena, Camila; Colucci, Vivian; Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Campos Serra, Mônica; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the bond strength of dentin prepared with Er:YAG laser or bur, after rewetting with chlorhexidine on long-term artificial saliva storage and thermocycling. One hundred and twenty human third molars were sectioned in order to expose the dentin surface (n = 10). The specimens were randomly divided in 12 groups according to treatment and aging: Er:YAG laser rewetting with deionized water (LW) and 24 h storage in artificial saliva (WC); LW and 6 months of artificial saliva storage + 12.000 thermocycling (6M), LW and 12 months of artificial saliva storage + 24.000 thermocycling (12M), Er:YAG laser rewetting with 2% chlorhexidine (LC) and WC, LC and 6M, LC and 12M, bur on high-speed turbine rewetting with deionized water (TW) and WC, TW6M, TW12M, bur on high-speed turbine + 2% chlorhexidine (TC) and WC, TC and 6M, TC and 12M. The specimens were etched with 35% phosphoric acid, washed, and dried with air. Single Bond 2 adhesive was applied and the samples were restored with a composite. Each tooth was sectioned in order to obtain 4 sticks, which were submitted to microtensile bond strength test (µTBS). The two-way ANOVA, showed no significant differences for the interaction between the factors and for the aging factor. Tukey 5% showed that the LC group had the lowest µTBS. The rewetting with chlorhexidine negatively influenced the bond strength of the preparation with the Er:YAG laser. The artificial saliva aging and thermocycling did not interfere with dentin bond strength. PMID:24185754

  20. Long-term activity of the Rapid Burster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimon, Vojtech

    The recurrence time TC of outbursts of the remarkable and unique system, the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335), observed by ASM/RXTE, is analyzed by the method of the O-C residuals. The variations of TC are large and occur all the time, but generally they are not chaotic; the mean value of TC is 160 days between the years 1996-2005 but a large shortening of TC, accompanied by a large decrease of the maximum intensity Imax and the relative energy RE (energy output) of most outbursts, occurred in this interval. The outbursts are found to display a correlation between RE and Imax, but no correlation with the outburst duration. The observed behaviour is discussed in terms of the thermal instability of the accretion disk. A comparison of this prototype with other neutron star soft X-ray transients, like Aql X-1 and 4U 1608-52, helps us find the common links in the disk behaviour in such systems.