Science.gov

Sample records for longitudinal practical measurement

  1. Improving Clinical Practice Using a Novel Engagement Approach: Measurement, Benchmarking and Feedback, A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Peabody, John W.; Paculdo, David R.; Tamondong-Lachica, Diana; Florentino, Jhiedon; Ouenes, Othman; Shimkhada, Riti; DeMaria, Lisa; Burgon, Trever B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor clinical outcomes are caused by multiple factors such as disease progression, patient behavior, and structural elements of care. One other important factor that affects outcome is the quality of care delivered by a provider at the bedside. Guidelines and pathways have been developed with the promise of advancing evidence-based practice. Yet, these alone have shown mixed results or fallen short in increasing adherence to quality of care. Thus, effective, novel tools are required for sustainable practice change and raising the quality of care. Methods The study focused on benchmarking and measuring variation and improving care quality for common types of breast cancer at four sites across the United States, using a set of 12 Clinical Performance and Value® (CPV®) vignettes per site. The vignettes simulated online cases that replicate a typical visit by a patient as the tool to engage breast cancer providers and to identify and assess variation in adherence to evidence-based practice guidelines and pathways. Results Following multiple rounds of CPV measurement, benchmarking and feedback, we found that scores had increased significantly between the baseline round and the final round (P < 0.001) overall and for all domains. By round 4 of the study, the overall score increased by 14% (P < 0.001), and the diagnosis with treatment plan domain had an increase of 12% (P < 0.001) versus baseline. Conclusion We found that serially engaging breast cancer providers with a validated clinical practice engagement and measurement tool, the CPVs, markedly increased quality scores and adherence to clinical guidelines in the simulated patients. CPVs were able to measure differences in clinical skill improvement and detect how fast improvements were made. PMID:27540436

  2. Optical dissector for longitudinal beam profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinin, E. I.; Meshkov, O. I.

    2015-10-01

    Experimental study of beam profile dynamics at circular accelerator was carried out due to creation of the sources of synchrotron radiation and colliders, at which the beam consists of several tens or hundreds of bunches distributed over the separatrices. Dynamics of a longitudinal profile of separate bunches was studied by means of streak cameras, however, they are not applied for regular, permanent diagnostics unlike beam position monitors or CCD cameras Streak cameras are very good for study of single processes, not for routine accelerator performance. BINP SB RAS has developed the optical analyzer on the basis of LI-602 dissector which was used for studying the beam dynamics at VEPP-2, VEPP-3, VEPP-4, electron-positron colliders and other electron circular accelerators: Siberia-2, ESRF, etc The dissector provides permanent measurements of the longitudinal beam profile. Nevertheless, the ultimate temporal resolution of the device is about 20 picoseconds Now it is not enough for application at modern accelerators. In this paper we describe the first experimental results obtained with the dissector of the next generation. The measured technical resolution of this device is about 2 picoseconds, but we believe that this value can be improved.

  3. Measurement Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and Career Readiness and Success Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This discussion guide is part of a larger practice guide designed to help state education agencies (SEAs) define measurement goals, select college and career readiness measures and indicators designed to support those goals, and use the data gathered with those measures and indicators to make informed decisions about college and career readiness…

  4. 29. HAWSER DEVICE, DEVELOPED AT WES FOR MEASURING LONGITUDINAL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. HAWSER DEVICE, DEVELOPED AT WES FOR MEASURING LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSE STRESS OF BARGES IN CANAL LOCKS. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  5. Task analysis revisited: refining the phlebotomy technician scope of practice and assessing longitudinal change in competencies.

    PubMed

    Fidler, James R

    2007-06-01

    A random sample of 500 phlebotomy technicians certified by a national organization was queried regarding perceptions of importance of 53 specific practice-related tasks representative of various departmental areas. The sample was surveyed via a mail questionnaire. Role centrality was assessed by considering mean importance ratings and by applying the Rasch measurement model to assigned importance ratings. Approximately 36% of the questionnaires received by respondents were returned. The results revealed which tasks were fundamental to the phlebotomy technician scope of practice. To assess longitudinal change in core duties, task saliency was considered with respect to similar data collected a decade earlier. Task importance may be considered by agencies that educate, credential, or employ phlebotomy technicians in providing current job function descriptions. The longitudinal methodology employed may be applicable to other job roles for which the assessment of change is of interest. PMID:17476028

  6. Longitudinal emittance measurements in the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Bhat; John P. Marriner

    2003-06-10

    The Recycler Ring (RR) is a new 8Gev antiproton storage ring at Fermilab. Presently, this machine is being commissioned using protons from the Booster. It uses barrier buckets for stacking, un-stacking and storing the beam. At any given time, the RR is capable of storing proton or antiproton beams in multiple segments azimuthally. These segments of the beam may have widely differing longitudinal emittance and beam intensities and bunch lengths. It is highly essential to be able to measure the longitudinal emittance and keep track of the longitudinal dynamics at various stages of the operation of the RR. In this paper, the authors discuss a few methods of longitudinal emittance measurements in barrier buckets and discuss their merits and demerits

  7. Exploring Intensive Longitudinal Measures of Student Engagement in Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrie, Curtis R.; Bodily, Robert; Manwaring, Kristine C.; Graham, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory study we used an intensive longitudinal approach to measure student engagement in a blended educational technology course, collecting both self-report and observational data. The self-report measure included a simple survey of Likert-scale and open-ended questions given repeatedly during the semester. Observational data were…

  8. The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ-28): A parsimonious version validated for longitudinal use from 2 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Elena; Williams, Kate E; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nicholson, Jan M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-05-01

    Prospective studies and intervention evaluations that examine change over time assume that measurement tools measure the same construct at each occasion. In the area of parent-child feeding practices, longitudinal measurement properties of the questionnaires used are rarely verified. To ascertain that measured change in feeding practices reflects true change rather than change in the assessment, structure, or conceptualisation of the constructs over time, this study examined longitudinal measurement invariance of the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) subscales (9 constructs; 40 items) across 3 time points. Mothers participating in the NOURISH trial reported their feeding practices when children were aged 2, 3.7, and 5 years (N = 404). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) within a structural equation modelling framework was used. Comparisons of initial cross-sectional models followed by longitudinal modelling of subscales, resulted in the removal of 12 items, including two redundant or poorly performing subscales. The resulting 28-item FPSQ-28 comprised 7 multi-item subscales: Reward for Behaviour, Reward for Eating, Persuasive Feeding, Overt Restriction, Covert Restriction, Structured Meal Setting and Structured Meal Timing. All subscales showed good fit over 3 time points and each displayed at least partial scalar (thresholds equal) longitudinal measurement invariance. We recommend the use of a separate single item indicator to assess the family meal setting. This is the first study to examine longitudinal measurement invariance in a feeding practices questionnaire. Invariance was established, indicating that the subscales of the shortened FPSQ-28 can be used with mothers to validly assess change in 7 feeding constructs in samples of children aged 2-5 years of age. PMID:26911263

  9. Does a quality management system improve quality in primary care practices in Switzerland? A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Katja; Hess, Sigrid; Jossen, Marianne; Huber, Felix; Rosemann, Thomas; Brodowski, Marc; Künzi, Beat; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effectiveness of the quality management programme—European Practice Assessment—in primary care in Switzerland. Design Longitudinal study with three points of measurement. Setting Primary care practices in Switzerland. Participants In total, 45 of 91 primary care practices completed European Practice Assessment three times. Outcomes The interval between each assessment was around 36 months. A variance analyses for repeated measurements were performed for all 129 quality indicators from the domains: ‘infrastructure’, ‘information’, ‘finance’, and ‘quality and safety’ to examine changes over time. Results Significant improvements were found in three of four domains: ‘quality and safety’ (F=22.81, p<0.01), ‘information’ (F=27.901, p<0.01) and ‘finance’ (F=4.073, p<0.02). The 129 quality indicators showed a significant improvement within the three points of measurement (F=33.864, p<0.01). Conclusions The European Practice Assessment for primary care practices thus provides a functioning quality management programme, focusing on the sustainable improvement of structural and organisational aspects to promote high quality of primary care. The implementation of a quality management system which also includes a continuous improvement process would give added value to provide good care. PMID:25900466

  10. Longitudinal bunch profile measurements with striplines

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    Striplines beam position monitors are normally considered low frequency devices with at best an octave bandwidth. Some attempts to make them very high frequency and broadband have led to long and complicated tapered construction. However, conventional uniform coupling striplines can provide very high frequency and broadband response, if the downstream induced signal is gated out electronically. In this case, the leading edge beam signal can provide bunch length and even current profile information for bunch lengths shorter than the length of the stripline. Recent improvement in transient digitizers have made these measurements possible for accelerator operations. Measurements of bunch lengths down to 50 psec are results are presented. Improvements to striplines and measurement systems are discussed, that could lead to bunch length resolutions {approx} 10 psec.

  11. Longitudinal bunch profile measurements with striplines

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.L.

    1992-05-01

    Striplines beam position monitors are normally considered low frequency devices with at best an octave bandwidth. Some attempts to make them very high frequency and broadband have led to long and complicated tapered construction. However, conventional uniform coupling striplines can provide very high frequency and broadband response, if the downstream induced signal is gated out electronically. In this case, the leading edge beam signal can provide bunch length and even current profile information for bunch lengths shorter than the length of the stripline. Recent improvement in transient digitizers have made these measurements possible for accelerator operations. Measurements of bunch lengths down to 50 psec are results are presented. Improvements to striplines and measurement systems are discussed, that could lead to bunch length resolutions {approx} 10 psec.

  12. Measurement of longitudinal electron diffusion in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yichen; Tsang, Thomas; Thorn, Craig; Qian, Xin; Diwan, Milind; Joshi, Jyoti; Kettell, Steve; Morse, William; Rao, Triveni; Stewart, James; Tang, Wei; Viren, Brett

    2016-04-01

    We report the measurement of longitudinal electron diffusion coefficients in liquid argon for electric fields between 100 and 2000 V/cm with a gold photocathode as a bright electron source. The measurement principle, apparatus, and data analysis are described. In the region between 100 and 350 V/cm, our results show a discrepancy with the previous measurement [1]. In the region between 350 and 2000 V/cm, our results represent the world's best measurement. Over the entire measured electric field range, our results are systematically higher than the calculation of Atrazhev-Timoshkin [2]. The quantum efficiency of the gold photocathode, the drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion coefficients in gas argon are also presented.

  13. [The problem of repeated measurements. Longitudinal analysis in epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Sáez, M

    2001-01-01

    In longitudinal analyses subjects are repeatedly measured along time. They are mixed designs, characterised for their simultaneous consideration of two or more dimensions of analysis, in which time is one of the dimensions.Longitudinal analyses have important advantages with respect other designs. The most important is that they are more efficient, since they allow to distinguish between-individual and within-individual variation.Longitudinal analyses can be approached marginal and conditionally. Whereas the former allows to draw poblational, or average, inferences, the latter permits to draw individual inferences.The statistical models to use depend on the type of response variable. If the dependent variable is normally distributed one will use linear mixed models. When the response is a count one will use mixed Poisson regressions. Mixed binomial or multinomial logistic regressions should be used when the response would be categorical. PMID:11578565

  14. Measurement and simulation of the RHIC abort kicker longitudinal impedence

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu,N.P.; Hahn,H.; Choi, E.

    2009-09-01

    In face of the new upgrades for RHIC the longitudinal impedance of the machine plays an important role in setting the threshold for instabilities and the efficacy of some systems. In this paper we describe the measurement of the longitudinal impedance of the abort kicker for RHIC as well as computer simulations of the structure. The impedance measurement was done by the S{sub 21} wire method covering the frequency range from 9 kHz to 2.5 GHz. We observed a sharp resonance peak around 10 MHz and a broader peak around 20 MHz in both, the real and imaginary part, of the Z/n. These two peaks account for a maximum imaginary longitudinal impedance of j15 {Omega}, a value an order of magnitude larger than the estimated value of j0.2 {Omega}, which indicates that the kicker is one of the main sources of longitudinal impedance in the machine. A computer model was constructed for simulations in the CST MWS program. Results for the magnet input and the also the beam impedance are compared to the measurements. A more detail study of the system properties and possible changes to reduce the coupling impedance are presented.

  15. Integrative data analysis through coordination of measurement and analysis protocol across independent longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Scott M; Piccinin, Andrea M

    2009-06-01

    Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and the sophistication of analyses, and practical limits on full reporting of results. In many cases, cross-study differences in sample composition and measurements impede or lessen the utility of pooled data analysis. A collaborative, coordinated analysis approach can provide a broad foundation for cumulating scientific knowledge by facilitating efficient analysis of multiple studies in ways that maximize comparability of results and permit evaluation of study differences. The goal of such an approach is to maximize opportunities for replication and extension of findings across longitudinal studies through open access to analysis scripts and output for published results, permitting modification, evaluation, and extension of alternative statistical models and application to additional data sets. Drawing on the cognitive aging literature as an example, the authors articulate some of the challenges of meta-analytic and pooled-data approaches and introduce a coordinated analysis approach as an important avenue for maximizing the comparability, replication, and extension of results from longitudinal studies. PMID:19485626

  16. Integrative Data Analysis through Coordination of Measurement and Analysis Protocol across Independent Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Scott M.; Piccinin, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and sophistication of analyses, and practical limits on full reporting of results. In many cases, cross-study differences in sample composition and measurements impede or lessen the utility of pooled data analysis. A collaborative, coordinated analysis approach can provide a broad foundation for cumulating scientific knowledge by facilitating efficient analysis of multiple studies in ways that maximize comparability of results and permit evaluation of study differences. The goal of such an approach is to maximize opportunities for replication and extension of findings across longitudinal studies through open access to analysis scripts and output for published results, permitting modification, evaluation, and extension of alternative statistical models, and application to additional data sets. Drawing on the cognitive aging literature as an example, we articulate some of the challenges of meta-analytic and pooled-data approaches and introduce a coordinated analysis approach as an important avenue for maximizing the comparability, replication, and extension of results from longitudinal studies. PMID:19485626

  17. Recommended Practices in Thrust Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Pancotti, Anthony; Haag, Thomas; King, Scott; Walker, Mitchell; Blakely, Joseph; Ziemer, John

    2013-01-01

    Accurate, direct measurement of thrust or impulse is one of the most critical elements of electric thruster characterization, and one of the most difficult measurements to make. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has started an initiative to develop standards for many important measurement processes in electric propulsion, including thrust measurements. This paper summarizes recommended practices for the design, calibration, and operation of pendulum thrust stands, which are widely recognized as the best approach for measuring micro N- to mN-level thrust and micro Ns-level impulse bits. The fundamentals of pendulum thrust stand operation are reviewed, along with its implementation in hanging pendulum, inverted pendulum, and torsional balance configurations. Methods of calibration and recommendations for calibration processes are presented. Sources of error are identified and methods for data processing and uncertainty analysis are discussed. This review is intended to be the first step toward a recommended practices document to help the community produce high quality thrust measurements.

  18. Objective Measures for Longitudinal Assessment of Robotic Surgery Training

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Jog, Amod; Vagvolgyi, Balazs; Nguyen, Hiep; Hager, Gregory; Chen, Chi Chiung Grace; Yuh, David

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Current robotic training approaches lack criteria for automatically assessing and tracking (over time) technical skills separately from clinical proficiency. We describe the development and validation of a novel automated and objective framework for assessment of training. Methods We are able to record all system variables (stereo instrument video, hand and instrument motion, buttons and pedal events) from the da Vinci surgical systems using a portable archival system integrated with the robotic surgical system. Data can be collected unsupervised, and the archival system does not change system operation in any way. Our open-ended multi-center protocol is collecting surgical skill benchmarking data from 24 trainees to surgical proficiency, subject only to their continued availability. Two independent experts performed structured (OSATS) assessments on longitudinal data from 8 novice and 4 expert surgeons to generate ground truth for training and to validate our computerized statistical analysis methods in identifying ranges of operational and clinical skill measures. Results Objective differences in operational and technical skill between known experts and other subjects were quantified. Longitudinal learning curves and statistical analysis for trainee performance measures are reported. Graphical representations of skills developed for feedback to the trainees are also included. Conclusions We describe an open-ended longitudinal study and automated motion recognition system capable of objectively differentiating between clinical and technical operational skills in robotic surgery. Our results demonstrate a convergence of trainee skill parameters towards those derived from expert robotic surgeons over the course of our training protocol. PMID:22172215

  19. Teachers' Changing Practices with Information and Communication Technologies: An Up-Close, Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    While digital technology has become a significant resource for contemporary schooling, we still have little understanding of how these resources shape teachers' scholarly practices and what support is needed to improve and move forward. This paper reports on a 5-year qualitative, longitudinal study on the scholarly practices of a small number…

  20. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  1. Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Siders, C.W.; Le Blanc, S.P.; Fisher, D.; Tajima, T.; Downer, M.C.; Babine, A.; Stepanov, A.; Sergeev, A.

    1996-04-01

    Plasma density oscillations (Langmuir waves) in the wake of an intense (I{sub peak} {approximately} 3 {times} 10{sup 17}W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulse (100 fs) are measured with ultrafast time resolution using a longitudinal interferometric technique. Phase shifts consistent with large amplitude ({delta}n{sub e}/n{sub e} {approximately} 1) density waves at the electron plasma frequency were observed in a fully tunnel-ionized He plasma, corresponding to longitudinal electric fields of {approximately} 10 GV/m. Strong radial ponderomotive forces enhance the density oscillations. As this technique utilizes a necessary component of any laser-based plasma accelerator, it promises to be a powerful tool for on-line monitoring and control of future plasma-based particle accelerators.

  2. First measurement of laser Wakefield oscillations by longitudinal interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Siders, C.W.; Le Blanc, S.P.; Rau, B.; Fisher, D.; Tajima, T.; Downer, M.C.; Babine, A.; Stepanov, A.; Sergeev, A.

    1996-12-31

    Because the electrostatic fields present in plasma waves can exceed those achievable in conventional accelerators and approach atomic scale values (E{sub a} {approximately} 500 GV/m), plasma based accelerators have received considerable attention as compact sources of high-energy electron pulses. Although stimulated Raman scattering or terahertz radiation at {ital w{sub p}} provided spatially averaged optical signatures of the plasma wave`s existence, new diagnostic techniques are required to map the the temporal and spatial structure of the plasma wave directly since such information is vital for addressing fundamental issues of wakefield generation and propagation. In this paper, we report femtosecond time resolved measurements of the longitudinal and radial structure of laser wakefield oscillations using an all optical technique known as interferometric ``photon acceleration`` or Longitudinal Interferometry.

  3. Correlating Function and Imaging Measures of the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus

    PubMed Central

    Sakaie, Ken; Takahashi, Masaya; Remington, Gina; Wang, Xiaofeng; Conger, Amy; Conger, Darrel; Dimitrov, Ivan; Jones, Stephen; Frohman, Ashley; Frohman, Teresa; Sagiyama, Koji; Togao, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the validity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of tissue injury by examining such measures in a white matter structure with well-defined function, the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF). Injury to the MLF underlies internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO). Methods 40 MS patients with chronic INO and 15 healthy controls were examined under an IRB-approved protocol. Tissue integrity of the MLF was characterized by DTI parameters: longitudinal diffusivity (LD), transverse diffusivity (TD), mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA). Severity of INO was quantified by infrared oculography to measure versional disconjugacy index (VDI). Results LD was significantly lower in patients than in controls in the medulla-pons region of the MLF (p < 0.03). FA was also lower in patients in the same region (p < 0.0004). LD of the medulla-pons region correlated with VDI (R = -0.28, p < 0.05) as did FA in the midbrain section (R = 0.31, p < 0.02). Conclusions This study demonstrates that DTI measures of brain tissue injury can detect injury to a functionally relevant white matter pathway, and that such measures correlate with clinically accepted evaluation indices for INO. The results validate DTI as a useful imaging measure of tissue integrity. PMID:26800522

  4. Measured longitudinal beam impedance of a Tevatron separator

    SciTech Connect

    James L Crisp; Brian J Fellenz

    2002-12-09

    Twenty two separators are currently installed in the Tevatron. The longitudinal impedance of one of these devices was recently measured with a stretched wire. The stretched wire technique can only measure impedance below the cutoff frequency (500MHz). The geometry of a separator is similar to an un-terminated stripline beam position detector. The separator plates occupy a 13.5'' ID vacuum tank, are 101'' long, 7.8'' wide, and have a 2'' gap between them. The differential characteristic impedance between the plates is estimated to be 81 {Gamma} and the common mode impedance plate to ground is about 42 {Gamma}.

  5. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  6. The Role of Practice in Chess: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campitelli, Guillermo; Gobet, Fernand

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of practice in the acquisition of chess expertise by submitting a questionnaire to 104 players of different skill levels. Players had to report their chess rating, the number of hours of individual and group practice, their use of different learning resources and activities, and whether they had been trained by a coach.…

  7. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout. PMID:20432598

  8. Teachers developing exemplary inquiry practices: Three longitudinal case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, Sara Berry

    If students are to be successful in the ever-changing scientific world they need to be taught how to think critically, to manipulate materials, and to gather evidence to build knowledge. Most teachers fall short in providing students the inquiry instruction described in the Next Generation Science Frameworks (National Research Council, 2011). This study examined three elementary science teachers' processes as they developed inquiry practices over time. The Electronic Quality of Inquiry Protocol (EQUIP) was used to gather quantitative and qualitative evidence of the teachers' inquiry practices in terms of four factors, Curriculum, Instruction, Discourse, and Assessment. A chronological analysis was used to examine the teachers' professional development and curriculum experiences in relation to their teaching practices. The results showed that all three teachers did change their practice, although the changes varied among cases. For each case, multiple factors influenced the teacher's development. There was a strong positive correlation between the quality of the teachers' inquiry practices and the time spent in curriculum-contextualized professional development. This research indicates that when teachers are supported with curriculum and professional development over extended periods, they develop exemplary inquiry practices. Three recommendations are provided for those interested in implementing science education reform.

  9. Measured longitudinal beam impedance of booster gradient magnets

    SciTech Connect

    James L Crisp and Brian J. Fellenz

    2001-08-24

    The Booster gradient magnets have no vacuum pipe which forces the beam image current to flow along the laminated pole tips. Both D and F style magnets were measured with a stretched wire to determine the longitudinal beam impedance caused by these laminations. Results are compared to calculations done 30 years ago. The inductive part of the magnet impedance is interesting because it partially compensates for the negative inductance effects of space charge on the beam. An R/L circuit consisting of 37K{center_dot} in parallel with between 40 and 100uH is a reasonable approximation to the total impedance of Booster magnet laminations.

  10. Evaluation of thermal gradients in longitudinal spin Seebeck effect measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sola, A.; Kuepferling, M.; Basso, V.; Pasquale, M.; Kikkawa, T.; Uchida, K.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), we developed an experimental setup for the characterization of LSSE devices. This class of device consists in a layered structure formed by a substrate, a ferrimagnetic insulator (YIG) where the spin current is thermally generated, and a paramagnetic metal (Pt) for the detection of the spin current via the inverse spin-Hall effect. In this kind of experiments, the evaluation of a thermal gradient through the thin YIG layer is a crucial point. In this work, we perform an indirect determination of the thermal gradient through the measurement of the heat flux. We developed an experimental setup using Peltier cells that allow us to measure the heat flux through a given sample. In order to test the technique, a standard LSSE device produced at Tohoku University was measured. We find a spin Seebeck SSSE coefficient of 2.8 × 10 - 7 V K-1.

  11. Understanding Changes in Teachers' ICT Practices: A Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) into schools came the expectation that teachers would adopt ICT and change their practices in particular ways. Research indicates that teachers have not changed in the ways expected. Suggested in this paper is that limitations in current research methodologies documenting…

  12. Practice and drop-out effects during a 17-year longitudinal study of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Rabbitt, Patrick; Diggle, Peter; Holland, Fiona; McInnes, Lynn

    2004-03-01

    Interpretations of longitudinal studies of cognitive aging are misleading unless effects of practice and selective drop-out are considered. A random effects model taking practice and drop-out into account analyzed data from four successive presentations of each of two intelligence tests, two vocabulary tests, and two verbal memory tests during a 17-year longitudinal study of 5,899 community residents whose ages ranged from 49 to 92 years. On intelligence tests, substantial practice effects counteracted true declines observed over 3 to 5 years of aging and remained significant even with intervals of 7 years between successive assessments. Adjustment for practice and drop-out revealed accelerating declines in fluid intelligence and cumulative learning, linear declines in verbal free recall, and no substantial change in vocabulary. Socioeconomic status and basal levels of general fluid ability did not affect rates of decline. After further adjustment for demographics, variability between individuals was seen to increase as the sample aged. PMID:15014091

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Marketing Practices at Private Christian Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a longitudinal study investigating current marketing practices at selected church-related, private, four-year compared to those in place in 1997. The role that institutional selectivity plays in the use of marketing activities was also investigated. The researcher surveyed the admissions directors or enrollment…

  14. Making Meaning of Constructivism: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of historical content knowledge and classroom control were major barriers for the…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of the Relation between Depressive Symptomatology and Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arellano, Paula A. Errazuriz; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether mothers' depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6…

  16. Building a Constructivist Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of classroom control were major barriers for the implementation of constructivist-oriented…

  17. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  18. Maternal Cultural Values and Parenting Practices: Longitudinal Associations with Chinese Adolescents' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Michael M.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi

    2012-01-01

    Interrelations among cultural values, parenting practices, and adolescent aggression were examined using longitudinal data collected from Chinese adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents' overt and relational aggression were assessed using peer nominations at Time 1 (7th grade) and Time 2 (9th grade). Mothers reported endorsement of cultural…

  19. Preschool Home Literacy Practices and Children's Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Michelle; Conlon, Elizabeth; Andrews, Glenda

    2008-01-01

    In this 3-year longitudinal study, the authors tested and extended M. Senechal and J. Le Fevre's (2002) model of the relationships between preschool home literacy practices and children's literacy and language development. Parent-child reading (Home Literacy Environment Questionnaire plus a children's Title Recognition Test) and parental teaching…

  20. Kindergarten Teachers' Use of Developmentally Appropriate Practices: Results from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbun, Amy H.; Walston, Jill T.; Hausken, Elvira Germino

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which developmentally appropriate practices of teaching and evaluation are accepted and implemented in primary schools and the relationship of teacher educational background and experience with the use of these practices. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study kindergarten…

  1. Practical steps for implementing quality measurement in practice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David; Cheng, Eric M.; Sanders, Amy E.; Dubinsky, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary All neurologists must begin incorporating quality measurement and quality improvement into their practice. Efforts to pay physicians based on the quality of their care and patient outcomes moves quality measurement beyond reporting to satisfy regulatory requirements and pushes physicians to select and use quality measures to improve patient outcomes and patient experience. This article provides practical steps and proposes considerations for neurologic practices advancing quality measurement and improvement. PMID:25317379

  2. Evaluation of thermal gradients in longitudinal spin Seebeck effect measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sola, A. Kuepferling, M.; Basso, V.; Pasquale, M.; Kikkawa, T.; Uchida, K.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-05-07

    In the framework of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), we developed an experimental setup for the characterization of LSSE devices. This class of device consists in a layered structure formed by a substrate, a ferrimagnetic insulator (YIG) where the spin current is thermally generated, and a paramagnetic metal (Pt) for the detection of the spin current via the inverse spin-Hall effect. In this kind of experiments, the evaluation of a thermal gradient through the thin YIG layer is a crucial point. In this work, we perform an indirect determination of the thermal gradient through the measurement of the heat flux. We developed an experimental setup using Peltier cells that allow us to measure the heat flux through a given sample. In order to test the technique, a standard LSSE device produced at Tohoku University was measured. We find a spin Seebeck S{sub SSE} coefficient of 2.8×10{sup −7} V K{sup −1}.

  3. Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: A Longitudinal Study Using Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin; Lubienski, Sarah T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines growth in teacher knowledge as measured by two popular assessments--Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) and Diagnostic Teacher Assessments in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS). Using data collected from 24 teachers, we compare the extent to which each assessment captured teacher learning during a K-8 mathematics…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of the Relation Between Depressive Symptomatology and Parenting Practices

    PubMed Central

    Errázuriz, Paula A.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether mothers’ depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6 years old. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were also related to increases in overreactivity across the preschool years. Moreover, depression and parenting practices (overreactivity and laxness) covaried over time within mothers. These results provide evidence of a strong link between maternal depression and parenting during the preschool years. PMID:22611298

  5. Measuring longitudinal myelin water fraction in new multiple sclerosis lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Wendy S.; Monohan, Elizabeth; Pandya, Sneha; Raj, Ashish; Vartanian, Timothy; Nguyen, Thanh D.; Hurtado Rúa, Sandra M.; Gauthier, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Investigating the potential of myelin repair strategies in multiple sclerosis (MS) requires an understanding of myelin dynamics during lesion evolution. The objective of this study is to longitudinally measure myelin water fraction (MWF), an MRI biomarker of myelin, in new MS lesions and to identify factors that influence their subsequent myelin content. Methods Twenty-three MS patients were scanned with whole-brain Fast Acquisition with Spiral Trajectory and T2prep (FAST-T2) MWF mapping at baseline and median follow-up of 6 months. Eleven healthy controls (HC) confirmed the reproducibility of FAST-T2 in white matter regions of interests (ROIs) similar to a lesion size. A random-effect-model was implemented to determine the association between baseline clinical and lesion variables and the subsequent MWF. Results ROI-based measurements in HCs were highly correlated between scans [mean r = 0.893 (.764–.967)]. In MS patients, 38 gadolinium enhancing (Gd+) and 25 new non-enhancing (Gd−) T2 hyperintense lesions (5.7 months, ±3.8) were identified. Significant improvement in MWF was seen in Gd+ lesions (0.035 ± 0.029, p < 0.001) as compared to Gd− lesions (0.006 ± 0.017, p = 0.065). In the model, a higher baseline MWF (p < 0.001) and the presence of Gd (p < 0.001) were associated with higher subsequent MWF. Conclusions FAST T2 provides a clinically feasible method to quantify MWF in new MS lesions. The observed influence of baseline MWF, which represents a combined effect of both resolving edema and myelin change within acute lesions, suggests that the extent of initial inflammation impacts final myelin recovery. PMID:26594620

  6. Reactivity in Rapidly Collected Hygiene and Toilet Spot Check Measurements: A Cautionary Note for Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Benjamin F.; Khush, Ranjiv S.; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Durairaj, Natesan; Ramaprabha, Prabhakar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Colford Jr., John M.

    2015-01-01

    Discreet collection of spot check observations to measure household hygiene conditions is a common measurement technique in epidemiologic studies of hygiene in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine whether the collection of spot check observations in longitudinal studies could itself induce reactivity (i.e., change participant behavior). We analyzed data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in rural Tamil Nadu, India that was conducted in the absence of any hygiene or toilet promotion activities. Our data included hygiene and toilet spot checks from 10,427 household visits. We found substantial evidence of participant reactivity to spot check observations of hygiene practices that were easy to modify on short notice. For example, soap observed at the household's primary handwashing location increased from 49% at enrollment to 81% by the fourth visit and remained at or above 77% for the remainder of the study. PMID:25385856

  7. Measuring adolescents' exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen L; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C Y; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents multilevel findings on adolescents' victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization, we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severity of victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, Internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was revictimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  8. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  9. Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David, Ed.; Hricko, Mary, Ed.; Howell, Scott, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices" provides a view of the possibilities and challenges facing online educators and evaluators in the 21st Century. As technology evolves and online measurement and assessment follow, "Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation: Emerging Practices" uses established evaluation…

  10. On Fitting Nonlinear Latent Curve Models to Multiple Variables Measured Longitudinally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blozis, Shelley A.

    2007-01-01

    This article shows how nonlinear latent curve models may be fitted for simultaneous analysis of multiple variables measured longitudinally using Mx statistical software. Longitudinal studies often involve observation of several variables across time with interest in the associations between change characteristics of different variables measured…

  11. Executive Function in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Measurement Invariance and Developmental Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal measurement invariance and developmental changes of a newly developed battery of executive function (EF) tasks for use in early childhood. The battery was administered in the Family Life Project--a prospective longitudinal study (N = 1,292) of families who were oversampled from low-income and African American…

  12. Vibration Measurement on Reticular Lamina and Basilar Membrane at Multiple Longitudinal Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fangyi; Zha, Dingjun; Choudhury, Niloy; Fridberger, Anders; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2011-11-01

    The longitudinal distribution of the organ of Corti vibration is important for both understanding the energy delivery and the timing of the cochlear amplification. Recent development on low coherence interferomtry technique allows measuring vibration inside the cochlea. The reticular lamina (RL) vibration spectrum demonstrates that RL vibration leads the basilar membrane (BM). This phase lead is consistent with the idea that the active process may lead the BM vibration. In this study, measurements on multiple longitudinal locations demonstrated similar phase lead. Results on this study suggests that there may be another longitudinal coupling mechanism inside the cochlea other than the traveling wave on BM.

  13. The predictive validity of selection for entry into postgraduate training in general practice: evidence from three longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Fiona; Lievens, Filip; Kerrin, Máire; Munro, Neil; Irish, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Background The selection methodology for UK general practice is designed to accommodate several thousand applicants per year and targets six core attributes identified in a multi-method job-analysis study Aim To evaluate the predictive validity of selection methods for entry into postgraduate training, comprising a clinical problem-solving test, a situational judgement test, and a selection centre. Design and setting A three-part longitudinal predictive validity study of selection into training for UK general practice. Method In sample 1, participants were junior doctors applying for training in general practice (n = 6824). In sample 2, participants were GP registrars 1 year into training (n = 196). In sample 3, participants were GP registrars sitting the licensing examination after 3 years, at the end of training (n = 2292). The outcome measures include: assessor ratings of performance in a selection centre comprising job simulation exercises (sample 1); supervisor ratings of trainee job performance 1 year into training (sample 2); and licensing examination results, including an applied knowledge examination and a 12-station clinical skills objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; sample 3). Results Performance ratings at selection predicted subsequent supervisor ratings of job performance 1 year later. Selection results also significantly predicted performance on both the clinical skills OSCE and applied knowledge examination for licensing at the end of training. Conclusion In combination, these longitudinal findings provide good evidence of the predictive validity of the selection methods, and are the first reported for entry into postgraduate training. Results show that the best predictor of work performance and training outcomes is a combination of a clinical problem-solving test, a situational judgement test, and a selection centre. Implications for selection methods for all postgraduate specialties are considered. PMID:24267856

  14. Cultural measures associated with risky sexual behaviors among Latino youth in Southern California: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Thing, James P.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J.; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Context Cultural variables have been associated with sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth, but findings across studies are inconsistent. Methods We analyzed data from a longitudinal study of Latino youth in Southern California followed from 2005–2012 to test whether cultural variables measured in high school were associated with sexual risk behaviors in emerging adulthood, and whether gender moderated these associations. We conducted logistic and ordinal regression analyses. Participants were 995 Latino youth. Results The cultural value of respect for parents was negatively associated with an earlier age at sexual debut (odds ratio, 0.8) and not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse (0.8). U.S. cultural practices (a measure of acculturation) was positively associated with being sexually active (1.2), having concurrent sexual partners (1.5), and among males only, with a higher number of sexual partners (1.3). Second- and third- generation immigrant youth had lower odds of not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse when compared to first-generation youth (0.6 and 0.5, respectively). Among females, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with lower odds of more sexual partners (0.8). By contrast, among males, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with higher odds of more sexual partners (1.4). Conclusions The cultural measures associated with Latino youth’s sexual behaviors differed across outcomes and by gender. Understanding how culture is related to the sexual behaviors of Latino youth may help inform the development of culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions. PMID:24786352

  15. Halitosis: measurement in daily practice.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jana; Krause, Felix; Haak, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Bad breath is a widespread but still largely taboo problem. The dentist is often the first point of contact for affected patients. Initially, the diagnosis and quantification of halitosis provides objective evidence and helps to find the underlying causes, but it is equally important for monitoring the treatment progress. Most often, halitosis is caused intraorally, thus the dentist will also be responsible for initiating an appropriate treatment. Apart from the simple organoleptic examination without the need for additional instruments, several devices for the measurement of halitosis are available which provide a differentiated analysis of the exhaled air by determining and quantifying the detected volatile sulfur compounds. PMID:26046112

  16. Practice based, longitudinal, qualitative interview study of computerised evidence based guidelines in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Nikki; McColl, Elaine; Newton, John; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Eccles, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Objective To understand the factors influencing the adoption of a computerised clinical decision support system for two chronic diseases in general practice. Design Practice based, longitudinal, qualitative interview study. Setting Five general practices in north east England. Participants 13 respondents (two practice managers, three nurses, and eight general practitioners) gave a total of 19 semistructured interviews. 40 people in practices included in the randomised controlled trial (34 doctors, three nurses) and interview study (three doctors, one previously interviewed) gave feedback. Results Negative comments about the decision support system significantly outweighed the positive or neutral comments. Three main areas of concern among clinicians emerged: timing of the guideline trigger, ease of use of the system, and helpfulness of the content. Respondents did not feel that the system fitted well within the general practice context. Experience of “on-demand” information sources, which were generally more positively viewed, informed the comments about the system. Some general practitioners suggested that nurses might find the guideline content more clinically useful and might be more prepared to use a computerised decision support system, but lack of feedback from nurses who had experienced the system limited the ability to assess this. Conclusions Significant barriers exist to the use of complex clinical decision support systems for chronic disease by general practitioners. Key issues include the relevance and accuracy of messages and the flexibility to respond to other factors influencing decision making in primary care. What is already known on this topicRandomised controlled trials of complex computerised decision support systems have found low rates of use and no effects on process and outcomes of careWhat this study addsClinicians found a computerised decision support system for chronic disease in general practice to be difficult to use and unhelpful

  17. A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF PARENTING PRACTICES, COUPLE SATISFACTION, AND CHILD BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS

    PubMed Central

    Linville, Deanna; Chronister, Krista; Dishion, Tom; Todahl, Jeff; Miller, John; Shaw, Daniel; Gardner, Francis; Wilson, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship between couple relationship satisfaction, parenting practices, parent depression, and child problem behaviors. The study participants (n = 148) were part of a larger experimental study that examined the effectiveness of a brief family-centered intervention, the Family Check-Up model. Regression analysis results indicated that our proposed model accounted for 38% of the variance in child problem behavior at Time 2, with child problem behavior and couple relationship satisfaction at child age 2 years each accounting for a significant portion of the variance in child problem behavior at age 3. Couple relationship satisfaction directly predicted child behavior problems over time. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:20433599

  18. Application of longitudinal and transversal bioimpedance measurements in peritoneal dialysis at 50 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nescolarde, L.; Doñate, T.; Casañas, R.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2010-04-01

    More relevant information of the fluid changes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) might be obtained with segmental bioimpedance measurements rather than whole-body measurement, who hidden information of body composition. Whole-body and segmental bioimpedance measurements were obtained using 5 configurations (whole-body or right-side (RS), longitudinal-leg (L-LEG), longitudinal-abdomen (L-AB), transversal-abdomen (T-AB), and transversal-leg (T-LEG)) in 20 patients: 15 males (56.5 ± 9.4 yr, 24.2 ± 4.2 kg/m2) and 5 females (58.4 ± 7.1 yr, 28.2 ± 5.9 kg/m2) in peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between whole-body, longitudinal-segmental (L-LEG and L-AB) and transversal-segmental (TAB and TLEG) bioimpedance measurement at 50 kHz, with clinical parameters of cardiovascular risk, dyslipidemia, nutrition and hydration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for the normality test of all variables. Longitudinal bioimpedance parameters were normalized by the height of the patients. The Spearman correlation was used to analyze the correlation between bioimpedance and clinical parameters. The statistical significance was considered with P < 0.05. Transversal bioimpedance measurements have higher correlation with clinical parameters than longitudinal measurements.

  19. Longitudinal evaluation of patient-reported outcomes measurement information systems measures in pediatric chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Carle, Adam; Barnett, Kimberly; Goldschneider, Kenneth R; Sherry, David D; Mara, Constance A; Cunningham, Natoshia; Farrell, Jennifer; Tress, Jenna; DeWitt, Esi Morgan

    2016-02-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative is a comprehensive strategy by the National Institutes of Health to support the development and validation of precise instruments to assess self-reported health domains across healthy and disease-specific populations. Much progress has been made in instrument development, but there remains a gap in the validation of PROMIS measures for pediatric chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity and responsiveness to change of 7 PROMIS domains for the assessment of children (ages: 8-18) with chronic pain--Pain Interference, Fatigue, Anxiety, Depression, Mobility, Upper Extremity Function, and Peer Relationships. The PROMIS measures were administered at the initial visit and 2 follow-up visits at an outpatient chronic pain clinic (CPC; N = 82) and at an intensive amplified musculoskeletal pain day-treatment program (N = 63). Aim 1 examined construct validity of PROMIS measures by comparing them with corresponding "legacy" measures administered as part of usual care in the CPC sample. Aim 2 examined sensitivity to change in both CPC and amplified musculoskeletal pain samples. Longitudinal growth models showed that PROMIS' Pain Interference, Anxiety, Depression, Mobility, Upper Extremity, and Peer Relationship measures and legacy instruments generally performed similarly with slightly steeper slopes of improvement in legacy measures. All 7 PROMIS domains showed responsiveness to change. Results offered initial support for the validity of PROMIS measures in pediatric chronic pain. Further validation with larger and more diverse pediatric pain samples and additional legacy measures would broaden the scope of use of PROMIS in clinical research. PMID:26447704

  20. Measurement of the Density Matrix of a Longitudinally Modulated Atomic Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubenstein, Richard A.; Kokorowski, David A.; Dhirani, Al-Amin; Roberts, Tony D.; Gupta, Subhadeep; Lehner, Jana; Smith, Winthrop W.; Smith, Edward T.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Pritchard, David E.

    1999-09-01

    We present the first measurement of the longitudinal density matrix of a matter-wave beam. Using a unique interferometric scheme, both the amplitude and phase of off-diagonal density matrix elements were determined directly, without the use of traditional tomographic techniques. The measured density matrix of a doubly amplitude modulated atomic sodium beam compares well with theoretical predictions.

  1. Prescribed opioids in primary care: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of influence of patient and practice characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Robbie; Leaman, Ben; McCrorie, Carolyn; Petty, Duncan; House, Allan; Bennett, Michael; Carder, Paul; Faulkner, Simon; Glidewell, Liz; West, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine trends in opioid prescribing in primary care, identify patient and general practice characteristics associated with long-term and stronger opioid prescribing, and identify associations with changes in opioid prescribing. Design Trend, cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of routinely recorded patient data. Setting 111 primary care practices in Leeds and Bradford, UK. Participants We observed 471 828 patient-years in which all patients represented had at least 1 opioid prescription between April 2005 and March 2012. A cross-sectional analysis included 99 847 patients prescribed opioids between April 2011 and March 2012. A longitudinal analysis included 49 065 patient-years between April 2008 and March 2012. We excluded patients with cancer or treated for substance misuse. Main outcome measures Long-term opioid prescribing (4 or more prescriptions within 12 months), stronger opioid prescribing and stepping up to or down from stronger opioids. Results Opioid prescribing in the adult population almost doubled for weaker opioids over 2005–2012 and rose over sixfold for stronger opioids. There was marked variation among general practices in the odds of patients stepping up to stronger opioids compared with those not stepping up (range 0.31–3.36), unexplained by practice-level variables. Stepping up to stronger opioids was most strongly associated with being underweight (adjusted OR 3.26, 1.49 to 7.17), increasing polypharmacy (4.15, 3.26 to 5.29 for 10 or more repeat prescriptions), increasing numbers of primary care appointments (3.04, 2.48 to 3.73 for over 12 appointments in the year) and referrals to specialist pain services (5.17, 4.37 to 6.12). Compared with women under 50 years, men under 50 were less likely to step down once prescribed stronger opioids (0.53, 0.37 to 0.75). Conclusions While clinicians should be alert to patients at risk of escalated opioid prescribing, much prescribing variation may be attributable to

  2. Measurement of longitudinal emittance growth using a laser-induced neutralization method

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, V.W.; Garcia, R.; Johnson, K.F.; Saadatmand, K.; Sander, O.R.; Sandoval, D.; Shinas, M.

    1991-01-01

    A laser-induced neutralization technique, LINDA, has been used to study the longitudinal emittance of the 5-MeV H{sup {minus}} beam exiting the drift-tube Linac (DTL) of the Los Alamos Accelerator Test Stand (ATS). By using multiple laser intersection points, longitudinal emittance growths over drift distances of 23.6 and 30.6 cm were measured. Subsequently, a beam transport line, which consisted of one arm of a beam funnel, was substituted for the drift space. Measurements show that the elements of the funnel constrain emittance growth while the H{sup {minus}} beam is contained within these transport elements.

  3. Longitudinal-to-Transverse Mapping for Femtosecond Electron Bunch Length Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A longitudinal-to-transverse mapping technique is proposed to measure the length and temporal profile of ultrashort electron bunches. In this scheme a special chicane and a radio-frequency deflecting cavity are used to transform the beam's longitudinal distribution into angular distribution which is further converted to transverse distribution after a parallel-to-point imaging beam line. With this technique, the temporal profile of the electron beam is exactly mapped to the transverse profile. This makes it possible to measure ultrashort electron bunch length with a resolution well beyond 1 femtosecond.

  4. Bayesian regression analysis of data with random effects covariates from nonlinear longitudinal measurements

    PubMed Central

    De la Cruz, Rolando; Meza, Cristian; Arribas-Gil, Ana; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Joint models for a wide class of response variables and longitudinal measurements consist on a mixed-effects model to fit longitudinal trajectories whose random effects enter as covariates in a generalized linear model for the primary response. They provide a useful way to assess association between these two kinds of data, which in clinical studies are often collected jointly on a series of individuals and may help understanding, for instance, the mechanisms of recovery of a certain disease or the efficacy of a given therapy. When a nonlinear mixed-effects model is used to fit the longitudinal trajectories, the existing estimation strategies based on likelihood approximations have been shown to exhibit some computational efficiency problems (De la Cruz et al., 2011). In this article we consider a Bayesian estimation procedure for the joint model with a nonlinear mixed-effects model for the longitudinal data and a generalized linear model for the primary response. The proposed prior structure allows for the implementation of an MCMC sampler. Moreover, we consider that the errors in the longitudinal model may be correlated. We apply our method to the analysis of hormone levels measured at the early stages of pregnancy that can be used to predict normal versus abnormal pregnancy outcomes. We also conduct a simulation study to assess the importance of modelling correlated errors and quantify the consequences of model misspecification. PMID:27274601

  5. Measured Effects of a Longitudinal Solenoidal Field on an Iron Quadrupole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecklund, S.; Seeman, J. T.; Wolf, Z.

    1997-05-01

    We have measured the effects of a longitudinal solenoidal field on the field harmonics of an iron dominated quadrupole. These measurements are useful when designing a colliding beam interaction region where the first quadrupole is very near the solenoidal field of the physics detector. The effects of mirror plates, quadrupole excition, skew quadrupole windings, dipole windings, and solenoidal fields that enter at an angle have been measured. Conclusions and interpretations are given.

  6. Are Measured School Effects Just Sorting? Causality and Correlation in the National Education Longitudinal Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David I.; Painter, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Youth who share a school and neighborhood often show similar levels of academic achievement, but some studies find all or most of this correlation is due to sorting (not causation). We analyze the National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS) in three ways to decompose sorting versus causality: We first control for much richer measures of family…

  7. Longitudinal emittance measurements in the Booster and AGS during the 2014 RHIC gold run

    SciTech Connect

    Zeno, K.

    2014-08-18

    This note describes longitudinal emittance measurements that were made in the Booster and AGS during the 2014 RHIC Gold run. It also contains an overview of the longitudinal aspects of their setup during this run. Each bunch intended for RHIC is composed of beam from 4 Booster cycles, and there are two of them per AGS cycle. For each of the 8 Booster cycles required to produce the 2 bunches in the AGS, a beam pulse from EVIS is injected into the Booster and captured in four h=4 buckets. Then those bunches are accelerated to a porch where they are merged into 2 bunches and then into 1 bunch.

  8. Using growth curve analysis to examine challenges in instrumentation in longitudinal measurement in home visiting.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Heather Honoré; Mena, Kristin Cotter; Swank, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Home visitation programs aim to decrease child maltreatment, yet limited longitudinal data exists concerning their screening and assessment instruments. "At risk" families (N = 2,054) were screened using the Family Stress Checklist and referred to Healthy Families Indiana. The Home Observation Measurement of the Environment Scale (HOME) and Community Life Skills Scale (CLS) were administered at multiple intervals. Growth curve analyses indicate families with lower HOME and CLS scores received more home visits and visits between assessments. However, these instruments may have "ceiling effects" and may be unsuitable for longitudinal assessment and program evaluation. Programmatic changes were made based on evaluation results. PMID:24405137

  9. Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…

  10. An Overview of Longitudinal Spin Structure Measurements from JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Sulkosky, Vincent A.

    2013-08-01

    Jefferson Lab is currently one of the facilities leading the investigation of the spin structure of the nucleon. Over the past 15 years, several high precision measurements have been completed, extending our knowledge of the polarized structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} down to Q{sup 2} = 0.02 GeV{sup 2}. In particular, the low-Q{sup 2} range ({<=} 0.1 GeV{sup 2}) from these data allows us to make a benchmark-check of Chiral Perturbation theory ({chi}PT). Previous results for the moments of the spin structure functions in this region have shown mixed agreement. For {Gamma}{sub 1}, the first moment of g{sub 1}, we find good consistency between data and theory. However, we have seen a surprisingly large discrepancy with {chi}PT calculations for the {delta}{sub LT} spin polarizability on the neutron, which is significantly less sensitive to the {Delta}-resonance contribution. These proceedings will discuss the recent experimental effort at low Q{sup 2} from Jefferson Lab, including a discussion of preliminary results on the neutron. The new results on the neutron still show a sizeable discrepancy between data and theory. However, new calculations show improved agreement with data for some observables. In addition, new proton data for g{sub 2} is also expected to help resolve the disagreement for {delta}{sub LT}.

  11. Longitudinal coherence measurements of an extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Schlotter, W F; Sorgenfrei, F; Beeck, T; Beye, M; Gieschen, S; Meyer, H; Nagasono, M; Föhlisch, A; Wurth, W

    2010-02-01

    We have measured the average single-pulse longitudinal coherence characteristics of FLASH, a self amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser, at extreme UV wavelengths. Electric field autocorrelation measurements in the time domain were enabled by a wavefront division beam splitter applied to a tunable delay Mach-Zehnder interferometer. These data agree with the spectral bandwidth measurements made in the frequency domain. They exhibit two correlation time scales and the measured coherence curves have relevant implications for single-shot measurements. PMID:20125725

  12. A Quest for Measuring Ion Bunch Longitudinal Profiles with One Picosecond Accuracy in the SNS Linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Dickson, Richard W

    2012-01-01

    The SNS linac utilizes several accelerating structures operating at different frequencies and with different transverse focusing structures. Low-loss beam transport requires a careful matching at the transition points in both the transverse and longitudinal axes. Longitudinal beam parameters are measured using four Bunch Shape Monitors (used at many ion accelerator facilities, aka Feschenko devices). These devices, as initially delivered to the SNS, provided an estimated accuracy of about 5 picoseconds, which was sufficient for the initial beam commissioning. New challenges of improving beam transport for higher power operation will require measuring bunch profiles with 1-2 picoseconds accuracy. We have successfully implemented a number of improvements to maximize the performance characteristics of the delivered devices. We will discuss the current status of this instrument, its ultimate theoretical limit of accuracy, and how we measure its accuracy and resolution with real beam conditions.

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Related to Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Communities of Amhara State: A Longitudinal Study in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    López-Perea, Noemí; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Cruz, Israel; Hailu, Tsegaye; Moreno, Javier; Aseffa, Abraham; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefanía

    2014-01-01

    Background In the northwest of Ethiopia, at the South Gondar region, there was a visceral leishmaniasis (VL) outbreak in 2005, making the disease a public health concern for the regional health authorities ever since. The knowledge on how the population perceives the disease is essential in order to propose successful control strategies. Methodology/Principal findings Two surveys on VL knowledge, attitudes and practices were conducted at the beginning (May 2009) and at the end (February 2011) of a VL longitudinal study carried out in rural communities of Libo Kemkem and Fogera, two districts of the Amhara Regional State. Results showed that VL global knowledge was very low in the area, and that it improved substantially in the period studied. Specifically, from 2009 to 2011, the frequency of proper knowledge regarding VL signs and symptoms increased from 47% to 71% (p<0.0001), knowledge of VL causes increased from 8% to 25% (p<0.0001), and knowledge on VL protection measures from 16% to 55% (p<0.0001). Moreover, the improvement observed in VL knowledge was more marked among the families with no previous history of VL case. Finally, in 2011 more than 90% of the households owned at least an impregnated bed net and had been sprayed, and attitudes towards these and other protective measures were very positive (over 94% acceptance for all of them). Conclusions/Significance In 2009 the level of knowledge regarding VL was very low among the rural population of this area, although it improved substantially in the study period, probably due to the contribution of many actors in the area. VL patients and relatives should be appropriately informed and trained as they may act as successful health community agents. VL risk behavioural patterns are subject to change as attitudes towards protective measures were very positive overall. PMID:24743328

  14. Local T2 measurement employing longitudinal Hadamard encoding and adiabatic inversion pulses in porous media.

    PubMed

    Vashaee, S; Newling, B; Balcom, B J

    2015-12-01

    Band selective adiabatic inversion radio frequency pulses were employed for multi-slice T2 distribution measurements in porous media samples. Multi-slice T2 measurement employing longitudinal Hadamard encoding has an inherent sensitivity advantage over slice-by-slice local T2 measurements. The slice selection process is rendered largely immune to B1 variation by employing hyperbolic secant adiabatic inversion pulses, which simultaneously invert spins in several well-defined slices. While Hadamard encoding is well established for local spectroscopy, the current work is the first use of Hadamard encoding for local T2 measurement. PMID:26580063

  15. Local T2 measurement employing longitudinal Hadamard encoding and adiabatic inversion pulses in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashaee, S.; Newling, B.; Balcom, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Band selective adiabatic inversion radio frequency pulses were employed for multi-slice T2 distribution measurements in porous media samples. Multi-slice T2 measurement employing longitudinal Hadamard encoding has an inherent sensitivity advantage over slice-by-slice local T2 measurements. The slice selection process is rendered largely immune to B1 variation by employing hyperbolic secant adiabatic inversion pulses, which simultaneously invert spins in several well-defined slices. While Hadamard encoding is well established for local spectroscopy, the current work is the first use of Hadamard encoding for local T2 measurement.

  16. Longitudinal Association between Parenting Practices and Early Sexual Risk Behaviors among Urban African American Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapungu, Chisina T.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 274 African American families, living in impoverished neighborhoods with high HIV rates, participated in a longitudinal study of adolescent sexual development when children were in the 4th or 5th grade. Self-report and observational measures of parental warmth and parental behavioral control were collected from adolescents and parents…

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Practical Density Measurement and Hydrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S. V.

    2003-01-01

    Density determinations are very important not only for science and production but also in everyday life, since very often a product is sold by mass but the content of the package is measured by volume (or vice versa) so that the density is needed to convert the values. In production processes the density serves as a measure of mixing ratios and other properties. In science, the determination of Avogadro's constant using silicon single crystals and the potential replacement of the kilogram prototype boost density determination to an extremely low relative uncertainty of 10-7 or less. The book by S V Gupta explains in detail the foundations of any density measurement, namely the volume determination of solid artefacts in terms of the SI base unit of length and the density of water and mercury. Both the history and the actual state of science are reported. For practical density measurements, these chapters contain very useful formulae and tables. Water is treated in detail since it is most widely used as a standard not only for density determination but also to gravimetrically calibrate the capacity of volumetric glassware. Two thirds of the book are devoted to the practical density measurement of solids and liquids, mainly using classical instruments like pycnometers and hydrometers. Methods using free flotation of samples in a liquid without suspension are especially useful for small samples. Also, density determinations of powders and granular or porous samples are explained. Unfortunately, modern density meters of the oscillation type are dealt with in only a few pages. The book is clearly written and easy to understand. It contains a lot of evaluations of formulae that for practical measurements are represented in detailed tables. Methods and measurement procedures are described in detail, including also the calculation of uncertainty. Listings of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are very helpful. S V Gupta has written a book that will be

  18. Longitudinal impedance measurement of an RK-TBA induction accelerating gap

    SciTech Connect

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, J.-S.; Houck, T.L.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1997-05-01

    Induction accelerating gap designs are being studied for Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) applications. The accelerating gap has to satisfy the following major requirements: hold-off of the applied accelerating voltage pulse, low transverse impedance to limit beam breakup, low longitudinal impedance at the beam-modulation frequency to minimize power loss. Various gap geometries, materials and novel insulating techniques were explored to optimize the gap design. We report on the experimental effort to evaluate the rf properties of the accelerating gaps in a simple pillbox cavity structure. The experimental cavity setup was designed using the AMOS, MAFIA and URMEL numerical codes. Longitudinal impedance measurements above beam-tube cut-off frequency using a single-wire measuring system are presented.

  19. Drift tube measurements of mobilities and longitudinal diffusion coefficients of ions in gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chelf, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    The zero-field mobilities of Br/sup -/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ in O/sub 2/ were determined as a function of gas temperature in a high pressure drift tube mass spectrometer. The mobilities and longitudinal diffusion coefficients of the ion-gas combinations Br/sup -/ in Ne and Kr, Li/sup +/ in Xe, and Tl//sup +/ in Kr and Xe were determined as a function of E/N, where E is the electric field strength and N is the gas number density in a low pressure drift tube mass spectrometer. The measured longitudinal diffusion coefficients were used for a test and comparison of the generalized Einstein relations of Viehland-Mason and Waldman-Mason theories. The measured mobilities of Br/sup -/ in Kr and Tl//sup +/ in Kr were used in an iterative-inversion scheme from which the ion-neutral interaction potentials were determined.

  20. Measurement of the beam longitudinal profile in a storage ring bynon-linear laser mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-05-03

    We report on the development of a new technique for the measurement of the longitudinal beam profile in storage rings. This technique, which has been successfully demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source, mixes the synchrotron radiation with the light from a mode-locked solid state laser oscillator in a non-linear crystal. The up-converted radiation is then detected with a photomultiplier and processed to extract, store, and display the required information. The available choices of laser repetition frequency, pulse width, and phase modulation give a wide range of options for matching the bunch configuration of a particular storage ring. Besides the dynamic measurement of the longitudinal profile of each bunch, the instrument can monitor the evolution of the bunch tails, the presence of untrapped particles and their diffusion into nominally empty RF buckets (''ghostbunches'').

  1. Microwave measurements of energy lost to longitudinal modes by single electron bunches traversing periodic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.W.; Loew, G.A.; Weaver, J.N.; Wilson, P.B.

    1981-10-01

    In the design of future linear colliders, it will be important to minimize the loss of beam energy due to the excitation of higher-order modes in the accelerator structure by single bunches of electrons or positrons. This loss is not only detrimental in itself but also gives rise to energy spectrum widening and transverse emittance growth. Microwave measurements made on disk-loaded and alternating-spoke structures to determine the loss to the longitudinal modes are described. In these measurements the Gaussian bunch is simulated by a current pulse of the same shape transmitted through the structure on an axial center conductor. Results to date are presented for the total longitudinal loss parameter per period K in volts per picocoulomb.

  2. Clinicians’ Perceptions of Implementation Extensiveness of 100% Tobacco Free Practices: A Longitudinal Study of New York State1

    PubMed Central

    de Tormes Eby, Lillian Turner; Laschober, Tanja C.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, New York State required substance use disorder treatment organizations to be 100% tobacco-free. This longitudinal study examined clinicians’ perceptions of the implementation extensiveness of the tobacco-free practices approximately 10–12 months (Time 1) and 20–24 months (Time 2) post regulation and investigated whether clinicians’ commitment to change and use of provided resources at Time 1 predicts perceptions of implementation extensiveness at Time 2. Clinicians (N = 287) noted a mean implementation of 5.60 patient practices (0–10 scale), 2.33 visitor practices (0–8 scale), and 6.66 employee practices (0–12 scale) at Time 1. At Time 2, clinicians perceived a mean implementation of 5.95 patient practices (no increase from Time 1), 2.89 visitor practices (increase from Time 1), and 7.12 employee practices (no increase from Time 1). Commitment to change and use of resources positively predicted perceived implementation extensiveness of visitor and employee practices. The use of resources positively predicted implementation for patient practices. PMID:23430285

  3. Longitudinal effects of change in body mass on measurements of ventilatory capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, D. J.; Cotes, J. E.; Reed, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In several longitudinal studies changes in body mass and in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) have been found to be negatively correlated. This paper tests the hypothesis that failure to allow for the association can lead to error in the interpretation of longitudinal measurements of ventilatory capacity. METHODS: Male shipyard workers (n = 1005) were assessed on two occasions with an average interval between measurements of 6.9 years. A respiratory symptoms questionnaire, detailed anthropometric measurements, and dynamic spirometric tests were undertaken. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify variables which contributed to the changes in lung function. RESULTS: After allowing for age and growth in stature, a change in body mass of 1 kg was, on average, associated with a mean (SE) converse change in FEV1 of 17.6 (2.0) ml, and in forced vital capacity (FVC) of 21.1 (2.5) ml. Neglect of changes in body mass (which in this context reflected changes in body fat) led to underestimation of the longitudinal decline in FEV1 with age and failure to detect significant improvements in FEV1, both in smokers following discontinuation of smoking and in shipyard welders and caulker/burners as a consequence of leaving their employment. The estimated peak ages and associated peak levels of the indices were found to differ, depending on whether or not they were expressed at constant body mass. CONCLUSIONS: Neglect of changes in body mass can lead to erroneous conclusions being drawn from longitudinal measurements of FEV1. PMID:8882076

  4. Cognitive performance in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal study in daily practice using a brief computerized cognitive battery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is need for a cognitive test battery that can be easily used in clinical practice to detect or monitor cognitive performance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to conduct, in this patient group, a preliminary investigation of the validity and utility of a brief computerized battery, the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) battery, we longitudinally assessed cognition in patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS. Methods Forty-three mildly disabled, clinically active RRMS patients were repeatedly assessed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and five composite scores derived from the CDR computerized cognitive test system (CDR System): Power of Attention, Continuity of Attention, Quality of Working Memory, Quality of Episodic Memory and Speed of Memory. The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) measured disability. Results The composite scores from the CDR battery generally showed excellent test-retest reliability over the repeated assessments, though was low on occasions for the Quality of Working Memory and Quality of Episodic Memory measures. The CDR measures tended to be highly correlated with other measures of cognition (DSST and PASAT) and were also strongly related to disability (EDSS and MSFC). Baseline scores indicated large impairments to visual information processing speed and attention (DSST, Cohen's d 1.1; Power of Attention d 1.4 [reaction time on tasks of focussed and sustained attention]), and a moderate impairment both to sustained attention (Continuity of Attention d 0.6) and complex information processing speed (Speed of memory d 0.7 [reaction time on tasks of working and episodic Memory]), when compared to normative data derived from healthy volunteers enrolled in a series of separate, prior clinical trials. Working memory (Quality of Working Memory) and episodic memory (Quality of Episodic Memory) were unimpaired

  5. Measurement Practices for Reliability and Power Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, JD

    2005-05-06

    This report provides a distribution reliability measurement ''toolkit'' that is intended to be an asset to regulators, utilities and power users. The metrics and standards discussed range from simple reliability, to power quality, to the new blend of reliability and power quality analysis that is now developing. This report was sponsored by the Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Inconsistencies presently exist in commonly agreed-upon practices for measuring the reliability of the distribution systems. However, efforts are being made by a number of organizations to develop solutions. In addition, there is growing interest in methods or standards for measuring power quality, and in defining power quality levels that are acceptable to various industries or user groups. The problems and solutions vary widely among geographic areas and among large investor-owned utilities, rural cooperatives, and municipal utilities; but there is still a great degree of commonality. Industry organizations such as the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) have made tremendous strides in preparing self-assessment templates, optimization guides, diagnostic techniques, and better definitions of reliability and power quality measures. In addition, public utility commissions have developed codes and methods for assessing performance that consider local needs. There is considerable overlap among these various organizations, and we see real opportunity and value in sharing these methods, guides, and standards in this report. This report provides a ''toolkit'' containing synopses of noteworthy reliability measurement practices. The toolkit has been developed to address the interests of three groups: electric power users, utilities, and regulators. The report will also serve

  6. Studies of longitudinal profile of electron bunches and impedance measurements at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Akash Deep; Yadav, S.; Kumar, Mukesh; Shrivastava, B. B.; Karnewar, A. K.; Ojha, A.; Puntambekar, T. A.

    2016-04-01

    Indus-2 is a 3rd generation synchrotron radiation source at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We study the longitudinal profile of electrons in Indus-2 by using dual sweep synchroscan streak camera at visible diagnostic beamline. In this paper, the longitudinal profiles of electron bunch are analyzed by filling beam current in a single bunch mode. These studies are carried at injection energy (550 MeV) and at ramped beam energy (2.5 GeV). The effects of the wakefield generated interactions between the circulating electrons and the surrounding vacuum chamber are analyzed in terms of measured effects on longitudinal beam distribution. The impedance of the storage ring is obtained by fitting the solutions of Haissinski equation to the measured bunch lengthening with different impedance models. The impedance of storage ring obtained by a series R+L impedance model indicates a resistance (R) of 1350±125 Ω, an inductance (L) of 180±25 nH and broadband impedance of 2.69 Ω. These results are also compared with the values obtained from measured synchronous phase advancing and scaling laws. These studies are very useful in better understanding and control of the electromagnetic interactions.

  7. Discharge rate measurements for Micromegas detectors in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    B. Moreno, S. Aune, J. Ball, G. Charles, A. Giganon, P. Konczykowski, C. Lahonde-Hamdoun, H. Moutarde, S. Procureur, F. Sabatie

    2011-10-01

    We present first discharge rate measurements for Micromegas detectors in the presence of a high longitudinal magnetic field in the GeV kinematical region. Measurements were performed by using two Micromegas detectors and a photon beam impinging a CH{sub 2} target in the Hall B of the Jefferson Laboratory. One detector was equipped with an additional GEM foil, and a reduction of the discharge probability by two orders of magnitude compared to the stand-alone Micromegas was observed. The detectors were p laced in the FROST solenoid providing a longitudinal magnetic field up to 5T. It allowed for precise measurements of the discharge probability dependence with a diffusion-reducing magnetic field. Between 0 and 5T, the discharge probability increased by a factor of 10 for polar angles between 19{degrees} and 34{degrees}. A GEANT4-based simulation developed for sparking rate calculation was calibrated against these data in order to predict the sparking rate in a high longitudinal magnetic field environment. This simulati on is then used to investigate the possible use of Micromegas in the Forward Vertex Tracker (FVT) of the future CLAS12 spectrometer. In the case of the FVT a sparking rate of 1Hz per detector was obtained at the anticipated CLAS12 luminosity.

  8. Experimental study of coupling impedance: Part I longitudinal impedance measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.J.

    1991-10-22

    Beam coupling impedances for the 7-GeV APS storage ring have been numerically estimated. In order to confirm these calculations, measurements of the coupling impedance of various vacuum components around the main storage ring were done with a coaxial wire method. In this paper, the procedure of the longitudinal impedance measurement techniques will be described. As an example, sections of the Cu beam chamber, the Cu beam + antechambers, and the Al beam + antechambers were used as a device under test (DUT) to obtain the results. The transverse impedance measurements will be described in a separate paper.

  9. Measurements of Direct Photon Double Longitudinal Spin Asymmetry at Large Rapidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, Paul

    2008-10-01

    Direct photon production in polarized p-p collisions is expected to be the cleanest measurement of the gluon polarization. Current measurements using inclusive pion production, in the PHENIX central arms, suggest a small contribution from the gluons to the proton spin in the presently accessible Bjorken x range xBj>10-2. The addition of the Nose Cone Calorimeter (NCC) in the large rapidity 1<η<3 will allow PHENIX to access xBj˜10-3. In this talk I will present the prospects of measuring direct photon double longitudinal spin asymmetry ALL employing the NCC.

  10. Comparison of left ventricular manual versus automated derived longitudinal strain: implications for clinical practice and research.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukari; Ariyama, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Yuhei; Giraldeau, Genevieve; Fleischman, Dominik; Kozelj, Mirta; Vrtovec, Bojan; Ashley, Euan; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Schnittger, Ingela; Liang, David; Haddad, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Systolic global longitudinal strain (GLS) is emerging as a useful metric of ventricular function in heart failure and usually assessed using post-processing software. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether longitudinal strain (LS) derived using manual-tracings of ventricular lengths (manual-LS) can be reliable and time efficient when compared to LS obtained by post-processing software (software-LS). Apical 4-chamber view images were retrospectively examined in 50 healthy controls, 100 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and 100 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We measured endocardial and mid-wall manual-LS and software-LS, using peak of average regional curve [software-LS(a)] and global ventricular lengths [software-LS(l)] according to definition of Lagragian strain. We compared manual-LS and software-LS by using Bland-Altman plot and coefficient of variation (COV). In addition, test-retest was also performed for further assessment of variability in measurements. While manual-LS was obtained in all subjects, software-LS could be obtained in 238 subjects (95 %). The time spent for obtaining manual-LS was significantly shorter than for the software-LS (94 ± 39 s vs. 141 ± 79 s, P < 0.001). Overall, manual-LS had an excellent correlation with both software-LS (a) (R(2) = 0.93, P < 0.001) and software-LS(l) (R(2) = 0.84, P < 0.001). The bias (95 %CI) between endocardial manual-LS and software-LS(a) was 0.4 % [-2.8, 3.6 %] in absolute and 3.5 % [-17.0, 24.0 %] in relative difference while it was 0.4 % [-2.5, 3.3 %] and 3.4 % [-16.2, 23.1 %], respectively with software-LS(l). Mid-wall manual-LS and mid-wall software-LS(a) also had good agreement [a bias (95 % CI) for absolute value of 0.1 % [-2.1, 2.5 %] in HCM, and 0.2 % [-2.2, 2.6 %] in controls]. The COV for manual and software derived LS were below 6 %. Test-retest showed good variability for both methods (COVs were 5.8 and 4.7 for endocardial and mid

  11. Measurement of the longitudinal parameters of an electron beam in a storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Krinsky, S.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss the determination of the longitudinal parameters of a bunched beam of electrons or positrons circulating in a storage ring. From the analysis of the beam current observed at a fixed azimuthal location, one can learn much about the longitudinal behavior. We present an elementary analysis of the time-dependence of the current. In particular, we discuss the determination of the average current, bunch length, synchrotron oscillation frequency, and the coherent synchrotron oscillation modes associated with longitudinal instabilities. A brief discussion is also given of the incoherent synchrotron oscillations, or Schottky noise. We review the electromagnetic field traveling with a charge in uniform motion, and introduce some of the most common devices used to detect this field: capacitive pick-up, stripline monitor, and DC beam current transformer. Our paper is organized as follows: We discuss the analysis of the time-dependence of the beam current. Then, the measurement of the current is considered. Finally, we describe some measurements of energy spread and bunch lengthening made recently at SLAC on the SLC damping ring. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Measurements of fuselage skin strains and displacements near a longitudinal lap joint in a pressurized aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edward P.; Britt, Vicki O.

    1991-01-01

    Strains and displacements in a small area near a longitudinal lap joint in the fuselage skin of a B737 aircraft were measured during a pressurization cycle to a differential pressure of 6.2 psi while the aircraft was on the ground. It was found that hoop strains were higher than longitudinal strains at each location; membrane strains in the unreinforced skin were higher than in the joint; membrane strains in the hoop direction, as well as radial displacements, tended to be highest at the mid-bay location between skin reinforcements; significant bending in the hoop direction occurred in the joint and in the skin near the joint, and the bending was unsymmetrically distributed about the stringer at the middle of the joint; and radial displacements were unsymmetrically distributed across the lap joint. The interpretation of the strain gage data for locations on the bonded and riveted lap joint assumed that the joint did not contain disbonded areas.

  13. A Bayesian approach to joint analysis of longitudinal measurements and competing risks failure time data.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenhua; Li, Gang; Li, Ning

    2009-05-15

    In this paper, we develop a Bayesian method for joint analysis of longitudinal measurements and competing risks failure time data. The model allows one to analyze the longitudinal outcome with nonignorable missing data induced by multiple types of events, to analyze survival data with dependent censoring for the key event, and to draw inferences on multiple endpoints simultaneously. Compared with the likelihood approach, the Bayesian method has several advantages. It is computationally more tractable for high-dimensional random effects. It is also convenient to draw inference. Moreover, it provides a means to incorporate prior information that may help to improve estimation accuracy. An illustration is given using a clinical trial data of scleroderma lung disease. The performance of our method is evaluated by simulation studies. PMID:19308919

  14. Measuring Knowledge Integration Learning of Energy Topics: A two-year longitudinal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Ryoo, Kihyun; Linn, Marcia C.; Sato, Elissa; Svihla, Vanessa

    2015-05-01

    Although researchers call for inquiry learning in science, science assessments rarely capture the impact of inquiry instruction. This paper reports on the development and validation of assessments designed to measure middle-school students' progress in gaining integrated understanding of energy while studying an inquiry-oriented curriculum. The assessment development was guided by the knowledge integration framework. Over 2 years of implementation, more than 4,000 students from 4 schools participated in the study, including a cross-sectional and a longitudinal cohort. Results from item response modeling analyses revealed that: (a) the assessments demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties in terms of reliability and validity; (b) both the cross-sectional and longitudinal cohorts made progress on integrating their understanding energy concepts; and (c) among many factors (e.g. gender, grade, school, and home language) associated with students' science performance, unit implementation was the strongest predictor.

  15. Stress Measurements in Shock-Loaded PBX 9501 with Embedded Longitudinal and Lateral Piezoresistive Ytterbium Gauges

    SciTech Connect

    D.E. Hooks

    2004-12-15

    A series of light gas gun impact experiments were performed with piezoresistive ytterbium (Yb) gauges in longitudinal and lateral orientations embedded in the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9501. These experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of using this method to measure lateral stresses and shear strength dynamically in PBX 9501. Ytterbium was chosen as a gauge material based on its high piezoresistance changes at low stress levels. Experiments were performed at longitudinal impact stresses of approximately 0.6 GPa, which is above the yield point of Yb, near the dynamic yield point of PBX 9501, at a level that is comparable with other impact data, and relevant to several multidimensional safety tests. Results show that PBX 9501 does maintain strength throughout compression. Because of poor reproducibility observed in the experiments presented, it appears unlikely that stress extraction from these gauge results would yield an estimate of shear strength at this impact stress with acceptable error.

  16. A mixture of hierarchical joint models for longitudinal data with heterogeneity, non-normality, missingness, and covariate measurement error.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yangxin; Yan, Chunning; Yin, Ping; Lu, Meixia

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data arise frequently in medical studies and it is a common practice to analyze such complex data with nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) models. However, the following four issues may be critical in longitudinal data analysis. (i) A homogeneous population assumption for models may be unrealistically obscuring important features of between-subject and within-subject variations; (ii) normality assumption for model errors may not always give robust and reliable results, in particular, if the data exhibit skewness; (iii) the responses may be missing and the missingness may be nonignorable; and (iv) some covariates of interest may often be measured with substantial errors. When carrying out statistical inference in such settings, it is important to account for the effects of these data features; otherwise, erroneous or even misleading results may be produced. Inferential procedures can be complicated dramatically when these four data features arise. In this article, the Bayesian joint modeling approach based on a finite mixture of NLME joint models with skew distributions is developed to study simultaneous impact of these four data features, allowing estimates of both model parameters and class membership probabilities at population and individual levels. A real data example is analyzed to demonstrate the proposed methodologies, and to compare various scenarios-based potential models with different specifications of distributions. PMID:25629642

  17. Linking Perceived Discrimination to Longitudinal Changes in African American Mothers' Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Murry, Velma McBride; Logan, Patricia; Luo, Zupei

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to test hypotheses, derived from a stress proliferation framework, regarding the association between perceived racial discrimination and changes in parenting among African American mothers in the rural South. A sample of 139 mothers and their children were interviewed 3 times at 1-year intervals. Mothers…

  18. Basics of Longitudinal Cohort Analysis. Principles and Practices of Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Rick; Lee, John

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal cohort analysis is a powerful tool for helping colleges understand student performance. It involves tracking students as a group or cohort over a specified period of time. The results allow administrators, faculty, and staff to identify groups of students who are succeeding or falling behind and the points in the educational pipeline…

  19. Practical guide for validated memristance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Nan; Shuai, Yao; Luo, Wenbo; Mayr, Christian; Schüffny, René; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2013-02-01

    Chua [IEEE Trans. Circuit Theory 18, 507-519 (1971), 10.1109/TCT.1971.1083337] predicted rather simple charge-flux curves for active and passive memristors (short for memory resistors) and presented active memristor circuit realizations already in the 1970 s. The first passive memristor has been presented in 2008 [D. B. Strukov, G. S. Snider, and D. R. Williams, Nature (London) 453, 80-83 (2008), 10.1038/nature06932]. Typically, memristors are traced in complicated hysteretic current-voltage curves. Therefore, the true essence of many new memristive devices has not been discovered so far. Here, we give a practical guide on how to use normalized charge-flux curves for the prediction of hysteretic current-voltage characteristics of memristors. In the case of memristive BiFeO3 thin film capacitor structures, the normalized charge-flux curves superimpose for different numbers of measurement points Ns and a different measurement time per measurement point Ts. Such normalized charge-flux curves can be used for the prediction of current-voltage characteristics for input signals with arbitrarily chosen Ns and Ts.

  20. The impact of breathing on HRV measurements: implications for the longitudinal follow-up of athletes.

    PubMed

    Saboul, Damien; Pialoux, Vincent; Hautier, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to compare daily variations of heart rate variability (HRV) parameters between controlled breathing (CB) and spontaneous breathing (SB) sessions during a longitudinal follow-up of athletes. HRV measurements were performed daily on 10 healthy male runners for 21 consecutive days. The signals were recorded during two successive randomised 5-minutes sessions. One session was performed in CB and the other in SB. The results showed significant differences between the two respiration methods in the temporal, nonlinear and frequency domains. However, significant correlations were observed between CB and SB (higher than 0.70 for RMSSD and SD1), demonstrating that during a longitudinal follow-up, these markers provide the same HRV variations regardless of breathing pattern. By contrast, independent day-to-day variations were observed with HF and LF/HF frequency markers, indicating no significant relationship between SB and CB data over time. Therefore, we consider that SB and CB may be used for HRV longitudinal follow-ups only for temporal and nonlinear markers. Indeed, the same daily increases and decreases were observed whatever the breathing method employed. Conversely, frequency markers did not provide the same variations between SB and CB and we propose that these indicators are not reliable enough to be used for day-to-day HRV monitoring. PMID:24050471

  1. Optical measurement of the longitudinal ion distribution of bunched ion beams in the ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, W. Q.; Lochmann, M.; Ma, X.; Bussmann, M.; Winters, D. F. A.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Botermann, B.; Geppert, C.; Frömmgen, N.; Hammen, M.; Hannen, V.; Jöhren, R.; Kühl, Th.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Sánchez, R.; Stöhlker, Th.; Vollbrecht, J.; Weinheimer, C.; Dimopoulou, C.; Nolden, F.; Steck, M.

    2013-05-01

    An optical technique to study the longitudinal distribution of ions in a bunched ion beam circulating in a storage ring is presented. It is based on the arrival-time analysis of photons emitted after collisional excitation of residual gas molecules. The beam-induced fluorescence was investigated in the ultraviolet regime with a channeltron and in the visible region using a photomultiplier tube. Both were applied to investigate the longitudinal shape of bunched and electron-cooled 209Bi80+ ion beams at about 400 MeV/u in the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. Bunch lengths were determined with an uncertainty of about 0.5 m using the UV-sensitive channeltron and with slightly lower accuracy from the photomultiplier data due to the slower transitions in the red region of the spectrum. The Gaussian shape of the longitudinal distribution of ions inside the bunch was confirmed. With the information of the transverse beam size that can be measured simultaneously by a newly installed ionization profile monitor (IPM) at the ESR, an accurate determination of the ion density in the bunched beam will be allowed.

  2. Measuring flow-mediated dilation through transverse and longitudinal imaging: comparison and validation of methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroz, Marianne J.; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-11-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound images (3DUS), having two spatial and one temporal dimension, were taken of the brachial artery during baseline conditions, in the transverse and longitudinal planes. The transverse images were analyzed by three different techniques used to quantify flow-mediated dilation (FMD): (1) measuring vessel area manually (TIMA), (2) measuring vessel area semi-automatically (TISA) and (3) measuring vessel diameter (TID). The inter- and intra-observer variability and transducer repositioning variability of each method were compared to each other and to the variability of measurements taken using the traditional method of measuring vessel FMD through measuring vessel diameter on longitudinal images (LID). The percent coefficient-of-variation describing the inter-observer variability (COVinter) was similar for the methods, indicating that each method was equally reproducible by the different observers. The percent coefficient-of-variation describing the intra-observer variability (COVintra) and the smallest detectable percent change in diameter (Δdintra) for each method indicated that TID was the most precise at measuring vessel diameter, and could measure the smallest changes in diameter between successive measurements (COVintra = 0.31%, Δdintra = 0.87%). LID performed the poorest (COVintra = 0.57%, Δdintra = 1.59%). The percent coefficient-of-variation describing transducer repositioning (COVrep) and the smallest detectable percent change in FMD over time (ΔFMD) for each method indicated that TIMA was the most reproducible method (COVrep = 2.35%, ΔFMD = 6.52%) closely followed by TISA. TID performed the poorest (COVrep = 5.37%, ΔFMD = 14.89%). TIMA and TISA were found not to be statistically different so we suggest TISA as the method of choice to maximize reproducibility between measurements over time, as it is faster and simpler to perform. In each experiment it was clear that transverse imaging introduced equal or less variability into

  3. Measuring the impact of clinically relevant interprofessional education on undergraduate medical and nursing student competencies: A longitudinal mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Brashers, Valentina; Erickson, Jeanne M; Blackhall, Leslie; Owen, John A; Thomas, Shannon M; Conaway, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) to improve collaborative competencies is essential for delivering high-quality care. Yet creating clinically relevant IPE and linking it to improvements in behaviours remains challenging, and few objective measurement instruments are available. We developed a process for creating IPE and objective observational tools through collaborative care best practice models (CCBPMs). These models describe the professional and interprofessional behaviours needed for specific patient populations, illnesses, and care settings. Four IPE workshops based on CCBPMs were implemented for all medical and nursing students during their clinical/clerkships years. Students in Cohort 1 completed two IPE workshops: rapid response and end-of-life. For Cohort 2, students completed four IPE workshops, adding chronic paediatric illness and transitions for the cognitively impaired. Valid and reliable collaborative behaviors observational assessment tools (CBOATs) derived from CCBPMs for the rapid response and end-of-life workshops were developed. CBOATs were used in the longitudinal assessment of student learning for both cohorts during two Interprofessional Teamwork Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (ITOSCEs) conducted before and after the students completed the IPE workshops. Over a 2-year period, 457 students completed the IPE simulations and ITOSCEs. Both medical and nursing students demonstrated significant improvement in CBOAT scores. Comparisons between the cohorts showed that participation in four versus two IPE experiences did not significantly improve most CBOAT scores. We conclude that undergraduate IPE simulation experiences based on CCBPMs result in measurable improvements in learner behaviours necessary for effective collaborative and team-based practice in specific care areas. PMID:27269441

  4. Quantitative muscle strength assessment in duchenne muscular dystrophy: longitudinal study and correlation with functional measures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment using Quantitative Muscle Testing (QMT) in a cohort of ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and to correlate the results of QMT with functional measures. This study is to date the most thorough long-term evaluation of QMT in a cohort of DMD patients correlated with other measures, such as the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) or thee 6-min walk test (6MWT). Methods This is a single centre, prospective, non-randomised, study assessing QMT using the Kin Com® 125 machine in a study cohort of 28 ambulant DMD boys, aged 5 to 12 years. This cohort was assessed longitudinally over a 12 months period of time with 3 monthly assessments for QMT and with assessment of functional abilities, using the NSAA and the 6MWT at baseline and at 12 months only. QMT was also used in a control group of 13 healthy age-matched boys examined at baseline and at 12 months. Results There was an increase in QMT over 12 months in boys below the age of 7.5 years while in boys above the age of 7.5 years, QMT showed a significant decrease. All the average one-year changes were significantly different than those experienced by healthy controls. We also found a good correlation between quantitative tests and the other measures that was more obvious in the stronger children. Conclusion Our longitudinal data using QMT in a cohort of DMD patients suggest that this could be used as an additional tool to monitor changes, providing additional information on segmental strength. PMID:22974002

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Teaching Practice and Early Career Decisions: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; McQuillan, Patrick; Mitchell, Kara; Terrell, Dianna Gahlsdorf; Barnatt, Joan; D'Souza, Lisa; Jong, Cindy; Shakman, Karen; Lam, Karen; Gleeson, Ann Marie

    2012-01-01

    Although the turnover rate among beginning teachers has been a major concern for some time, most studies do not link teacher retention with teaching practice. In contrast, this study looks specifically at career decisions coupled with practice. Guided by a view of teaching as social and cultural practice, the study used multiple qualitative data…

  6. Longitudinal rotating frame relaxation time measurements in infarcted mouse myocardium in vivo.

    PubMed

    Musthafa, Haja-Sherief N; Dragneva, Galina; Lottonen, Line; Merentie, Mari; Petrov, Lyubomir; Heikura, Tommi; Ylä-Herttuala, Elias; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Gröhn, Olli; Liimatainen, Timo

    2013-05-01

    Longitudinal relaxation time in the rotating frame (T1ρ) was measured using continuous wave irradiation in normal and infarcted mouse myocardium in vivo. Significant increase in T1ρ was found after 7 days of infarction when compared with reference myocardium or in myocardium before infarction. Cine MRI and histology were performed to verify the severity of infarction. The time course of T1ρ in the infarct fits better with granulation and scar tissue formation than necrosis and edema. The results of the study show that T1ρ could potentially be a noninvasive quantitative marker for tissue remodeling after ischemic damage. PMID:22736543

  7. Measuring Personality in Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Young, J. Kenneth; Beaujean, and A. Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The researchers sought to develop a personality measure from items in Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The study found 13 items from three dimensions of personality (neuroticism, extroversion, and conscientiousness), and then examined the factor structure and internal consistency of each of the three dimensions. Within each personality dimension, the items showed a unidimensional factor structure and internal consistency estimates of the summed similar to scores from NEO Personality Inventories. The results can be used to further examine how child/adolescent personality is related to multiple mental and physical health outcomes in the Add Health database. PMID:21808628

  8. Repeatability and Minimal Detectable Change in Longitudinal Median Nerve Excursion Measures During Upper Limb Neurodynamic Techniques in a Mixed Population: A Pilot Study Using Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Philippe; Lamontagne, Martin; Higgins, Johanne; Gagnon, Dany H

    2015-07-01

    This study determined test-retest reliability and minimum detectable change in longitudinal median nerve excursion during upper limb neurodynamic tests (ULNTs). Seven participants with unilateral or bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 healthy participants were randomly tested with two ULNTs (i.e., tensioner and slider). Each ULNT was performed three times each at 45° and 90° of shoulder abduction on two separate visits. Video sequences of median nerve excursion, recorded by a physical therapist using ultrasound imaging, were quantified using computer software. The generalizability theory, encompassing a G-Study and a D-study, measured the dependability coefficient (Φ) along with standard error of measurement (SEM) accuracy and allowed various testing protocols to be proposed. The highest reliability (Φ = 0.84) and lowest minimal measurement error (SEM = 0.58 mm) of the longitudinal median nerve excursion were reached during the ULNT-slider performed with 45° of shoulder abduction and when measures obtained from three different image sequences recorded during a single visit were averaged. It is recommended that longitudinal median nerve excursion measures computed from three separate image sequences recorded during a single visit be averaged in clinical practice. Ideally, adding a second visit (six image sequences) is also suggested in research protocols. PMID:25868536

  9. Executive Function in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Measurement Invariance and Developmental Change

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R.J.; Blair, Clancy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal measurement invariance and developmental changes of a newly developed battery of executive function (EF) tasks for use in early childhood. The battery was administered in the Family Life Project—a prospective longitudinal study (N = 1292) of families who were over-sampled from low income and African American families at the birth of a new child—at age 3, 4, and 5 year assessments. All six individual EF tasks exhibited strong measurement invariance over time. The EF battery, which was derived from the six individual tasks, exhibited partial strong invariance over time. Second-order latent growth curve models revealed individual differences in the levels but not rates of change in latent EF ability. The functional form of change was nonlinear; 60% of the total change in EF ability that was observed between the 3-5 year assessments occurred between the year 3 and 4 assessments. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of establishing scalable measures of EF ability prior to investigating experiences that predict and/or are predicted by changes in EF during early childhood. PMID:22023561

  10. Longitudinal and transversal bioimpedance measurements in addition to diagnosis of heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, N.; Nescolarde, L.; Domingo, M.; Gastelurrutia, P.; Bayés-Genis, A.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2010-04-01

    Heart Failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome characterised by signs of systemic and pulmonary fluid retention, shortness of breath and/or fatigue. There is a lack of reliable indicators of disease state. Benefits and applicability of non-invasive bioimpedance measurement in the hydration state of soft tissues have been validated, fundamentally, in dialysis patients. Four impedance configurations (2 longitudinal and 2 transversal) were analyzed in 48 HF patients (M=28, F=20) classified according to a clinical disease severity score (CDSS) derived from the Framingham criteria: CDSS<=2 (G1: M = 23, F = 14) and CDSS>2 (G2: M = 5, F = 6). The aim of this study is to analyze longitudinal and transversal bioimpedance measurement at 50 kHz, in addition to clinical diagnosis parameters of heart failure, including: clinical disease severity score (CDSS) and a biomarker concentrations (NT-proBNP). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for the normality test of all variables. The CDSS, NTproBNP and impedance parameters between groups (G1 and G2) were compared by mean of Mann Withney U-test. The statistical significance was considered with P < 0.05. Whole-body impedance measured was analyzed using RXc graph.

  11. Does counterterrorist legislation hurt human rights practices? A longitudinal cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Shor, Eran; Filkobski, Ina; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit; Alkilabi, Hayder; Su, William

    2016-07-01

    In the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, many countries have passed new counterterrorist legislation. One of the common assumptions about such legislation is that it comes with a price: a compromise to practices of human rights. Previous research, looking at a wide range of case studies, suggested that this is indeed the case and that counterterrorist legislation often leads to subsequent repression. However, no large-scale cross-national study has yet assessed this relationship. Relying on a newly assembled database on nation-level counterterrorist legislation for the years 1981-2009, we conduct a cross-national time series analysis of legislation and repression. Our analyses find little evidence for a significant relationships between national counterterrorist legislation and various measures of core human rights in most countries. However, while legislation does not affect repression of physical integrity rights in countries with low and high levels of repression, it is associated with greater state repression in countries with intermediate scores of repression. PMID:27194654

  12. Longitudinal leak point pressure measurements in rats using a modified port à cath system.

    PubMed

    van Asselt, Els; van Mastrigt, Ron

    2013-12-01

    Stress urinary incontinence, defined as involuntary loss of urine secondary to an increase in abdominal pressure, represents one of the most significant urological problems. Several animal models to simulate stress urinary incontinence have been presented, including methods to quantify leak point pressure. We have modified an existing leak point pressure procedure to longitudinally quantify stress urinary incontinence in rats by introducing the port à cath system. Reproducible leak point pressure measurements were carried out over a period of more than 40 days at different bladder volumes. Leak point pressure neither showed a significant relationship with the number of times anesthesia was applied nor a significant change over time. The port à cath system provided a reliable, sensitive device for longitudinal urinary bladder pressure measurements in animals with an implanted bladder catheter. This set-up therefore enables the evaluation of bladder pressure in different models for stress urinary incontinence, such as vaginal distention or pudendal transection over long periods of time within the same animal. PMID:23587018

  13. Longitudinal force measurement in continuous welded rail with bi-directional FBG strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Xie, Kaize; Shao, Liyang; Yan, Lianshan; Xu, Jingmang; Chen, Rong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new method has been proposed to accurately determine longitudinal force measurement in continuous welded rail (CWR) with bi-directional fiber Bragg grating (B-FBGs) strain sensors (vertically and longitudinally installed according to the axis of rail). The response of B-FBGs has been theoretically analyzed by binding on CWR under different restrained conditions, where the coefficient of strain sensitivity of FBG is calibrated by its temperature sensitivity. Then the proposed sensor structure has been installed at two elaborately selected points on the subgrade on a Chinese high-speed railway in field. The experiment lasts for about 23 h. During the experiment, the rail temperature varied by about 7.8 °C and the differentials of relative value of wavelength change of B-FBGs of two points were 1.7850 × 10-5 and 1.4969 × 10-5. The maximum difference between the experimental and theoretical results is 13.8 kN. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analysis very well. To guarantee the measurement accuracy of over 95%, the ratio of strain sensitivity coefficients of two FBG sensors of B-FBGs structure at one test point shall be within 0.78 ˜ 1.22.

  14. 38 CFR 21.7674 - Measurement of practical training courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) Courses for the objective of registered nurse or registered professional nurse will be measured...) Courses offered by institutions of higher learning which lead to the objective of practical nurse, practical trained nurse, or licensed practical nurse will be measured on credit hours or clock hours...

  15. Longitudinal assessment of trait emotional intelligence: measurement invariance and construct continuity from late childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Kateryna V; Holden, Ronald R; Parker, James D A

    2013-12-01

    Amid the growing efforts to promote positive youth development, trait emotional intelligence (TEI) has emerged as an important protective factor in the processes of resilience and adaptation. The inclusion of a brief form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Youth Version (EQi:YV-Brief) in the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) presents a unique opportunity to study the developmental dynamics of TEI during the transition from childhood to adolescence. However, before drawing any inferences about construct continuity and change, researchers must establish that the EQi:YV-Brief functions equivalently over time. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and residual measurement invariance of the EQi:YV-Brief over a 6-year period from late childhood (age 10-11) to adolescence (age 16-17). Longitudinal mean and covariance structures models were fitted to the data from 773 NLSCY participants (51% girls) who completed the EQi:YV-Brief at 4 biennial cycles. Three of the 4 EQi:YV-Brief subscales were found to be fully invariant at ages 12-13 through 17-18 and partially invariant at age 10-11. Controlling for partial noninvariance, we also investigated patterns of rank-order stability and mean-level change in TEI. These exploratory analyses showed that individual differences in TEI became increasingly more stable with age and that changes in mean TEI levels followed a complex nonlinear pattern over time. The results supported the longitudinal utility of 3 of the 4 EQi:YV-Brief subscales used in the NLSCY, supporting their further use in research on the developmental dynamics of TEI. PMID:23914954

  16. Integrative Data Analysis through Coordination of Measurement and Analysis Protocol across Independent Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Scott M.; Piccinin, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and the sophistication of analyses, and…

  17. Measurement of the Longitudinal Dynamic Modulus in Macroscopically Ordered Triblock Copolymers using Brillouin Light Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, S. Y.; McNeil, L. E.; Albalak, Ramon; Grimsditch, M.

    1996-11-01

    Triblock copolymers, under certain preparation conditions, organize themselves into macroscopically-ordered, though microscopically-disordered films. We studied films of styrene-butadiene-styrene of varying molecular weight ratios, organized either in lamellae or in cylinders of styrene hexagonally packed in a matrix of butadiene. The polymer chains are tethered at the styrene-butadiene interface, constraining their motion. These films have possible applications including optical waveguides and quantum wire arrays. We have studied the longitudinal acoustic modes in the temperature range 20-475 K in the hypersonic frequency regime using Brillouin light scattering. In addition to measuring the storage modulus M' from the Brillouin frequency shift, we also obtain the loss modulus M" by measuring the FWHM of the Brillouin peaks. Using M" to determine the relaxation times of the polymer strands, we then study the effects of chain tethering on the polymer chain dynamics.

  18. Reliability of neuroanatomical measurements in a multisite longitudinal study of youth at risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Tyrone D; Sun, Frank; McEwen, Sarah Jacobson; Papademetris, Xenophon; He, George; van Erp, Theo G M; Jacobson, Aron; Bearden, Carrie E; Walker, Elaine; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhou, Lei; Seidman, Larry J; Thermenos, Heidi W; Cornblatt, Barbara; Olvet, Doreen M; Perkins, Diana; Belger, Aysenil; Cadenhead, Kristin; Tsuang, Ming; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Addington, Jean; Frayne, Richard; Woods, Scott W; McGlashan, Thomas H; Constable, R Todd; Qiu, Maolin; Mathalon, Daniel H; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W

    2014-05-01

    Multisite longitudinal neuroimaging designs are used to identify differential brain structural change associated with onset or progression of disease. The reliability of neuroanatomical measurements over time and across sites is a crucial aspect of power in such studies. Prior work has found that while within-site reliabilities of neuroanatomical measurements are excellent, between-site reliability is generally more modest. Factors that may increase between-site reliability include standardization of scanner platform and sequence parameters and correction for between-scanner variations in gradient nonlinearities. Factors that may improve both between- and within-site reliability include use of registration algorithms that account for individual differences in cortical patterning and shape. In this study 8 healthy volunteers were scanned twice on successive days at 8 sites participating in the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). All sites employed 3 Tesla scanners and standardized acquisition parameters. Site accounted for 2 to 30% of the total variance in neuroanatomical measurements. However, site-related variations were trivial (<1%) among sites using the same scanner model and 12-channel coil or when correcting for between-scanner differences in gradient nonlinearity and scaling. Adjusting for individual differences in sulcal-gyral geometries yielded measurements with greater reliabilities than those obtained using an automated approach. Neuroimaging can be performed across multiple sites at the same level of reliability as at a single site, achieving within- and between-site reliabilities of 0.95 or greater for gray matter density in the majority of voxels in the prefrontal and temporal cortical surfaces as well as for the volumes of most subcortical structures. PMID:23982962

  19. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  20. Understanding and measuring parent use of food to soothe infant and toddler distress: A longitudinal study from 6 to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Stifter, Cynthia A; Moding, Kameron J

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the development of parent use of food to soothe infant distress by examining this feeding practice longitudinally when infants were 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Two measures of feeding to soothe were obtained: parent self-report and observations of food to soothe during each laboratory visit. Demographic and maternal predictors of food to soothe were examined as well as the outcome, infant weight gain. The findings showed that the two measures of food to soothe were unrelated but did reveal similar and unique relations with predictor variables such as parent feeding style and maternal self-efficacy. Only observations of the use of food to soothe were related to infant weight gain. The findings indicate that the two measures of food to soothe may be complementary and that observations of this feeding practice may capture certain relations that are not obtained through the use of self-report. PMID:26164121

  1. Longitudinal MR cortical thinning of individuals and its correlation with PET metabolic reduction: a measurement consistency and correctness studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhongmin S.; Avinash, Gopal; McMillan, Kathryn; Yan, Litao; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2014-03-01

    Cortical thinning and metabolic reduction can be possible imaging biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis and monitoring. Many techniques have been developed for the cortical measurement and widely used for the clinical statistical studies. However, the measurement consistency of individuals, an essential requirement for a clinically useful technique, requires proper further investigation. Here we leverage our previously developed BSIM technique 1 to measure cortical thickness and thinning and use it with longitudinal MRI from ADNI to investigate measurement consistency and spatial resolution. 10 normal, 10 MCI, and 10 AD subjects in their 70s were selected for the study. Consistent cortical thinning patterns were observed in all baseline and follow up images. Rapid cortical thinning was shown in some MCI and AD cases. To evaluate the correctness of the cortical measurement, we compared longitudinal cortical thinning with clinical diagnosis and longitudinal PET metabolic reduction measured using 3D-SSP technique2 for the same person. Longitudinal MR cortical thinning and corresponding PET metabolic reduction showed high level pattern similarity revealing certain correlations worthy of further studies. Severe cortical thinning that might link to disease conversion from MCI to AD was observed in two cases. In summary, our results suggest that consistent cortical measurements using our technique may provide means for clinical diagnosis and monitoring at individual patient's level and MR cortical thinning measurement can complement PET metabolic reduction measurement.

  2. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  3. Modeling Life-Span Growth Curves of Cognition Using Longitudinal Data with Multiple Samples and Changing Scales of Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, John J.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Bowles, Ryan P.; Meredith, William

    2009-01-01

    The authors use multiple-sample longitudinal data from different test batteries to examine propositions about changes in constructs over the life span. The data come from 3 classic studies on intellectual abilities in which, in combination, 441 persons were repeatedly measured as many as 16 times over 70 years. They measured cognitive constructs…

  4. The Role of Environment in the Development of Reading Skills: A Longitudinal Study of Preschool and School-Age Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Modglin, Arlene; Molfese, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 113 children (ages 3-10), including 35 with poor reading skills, found both socioeconomic status, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores, and reading achievement scores were related to reading abilities, but preschool environment measures were more strongly and consistently related to and predictive of…

  5. Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problem Scores: Cross-Ethnic and Longitudinal Measurement Invariance of the Behavior Problem Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmannova, Katarina; Szanyi, Jason M.; Cali, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of behavioral functioning is a cornerstone of research on disparities in child development. This study used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) data to test measurement invariance of the Behavior Problem Index (BPI) during middle childhood across three ethnic groups. Using the internalizing and…

  6. Causal Inference in Longitudinal Comparative Effectiveness Studies With Repeated Measures of A Continuous Intermediate Variable

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen-Pin; Jo, Booil; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2014-01-01

    We propose a principal stratification approach to assess causal effects in non-randomized longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with a binary endpoint outcome and repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable. Our method is an extension of the principal stratification approach by Lin et al. [10,11], originally proposed for a longitudinal randomized study to assess the treatment effect of a continuous outcome adjusting for the heterogeneity of a repeatedly measured binary intermediate variable. Our motivation for this work comes from a comparison of the effect of two glucose-lowering medications on a clinical cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. Here we consider a causal inference problem assessing how well the two medications work relative to one another on two binary endpoint outcomes: cardiovascular disease related hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Clinically, these glucose-lowering medications can have differential effects on the intermediate outcome, glucose level over time. Ultimately we want to compare medication effects on the endpoint outcomes among individuals in the same glucose trajectory stratum while accounting for the heterogeneity in baseline covariates (i.e., to obtain “principal effects” on the endpoint outcomes). The proposed method involves a 3-step model estimation procedure. Step 1 identifies principal strata associated with the intermediate variable using hybrid growth mixture modeling analyses [13]. Step 2 obtains the stratum membership using the pseudoclass technique [17,18], and derives propensity scores for treatment assignment. Step 3 obtains the stratum-specific treatment effect on the endpoint outcome weighted by inverse propensity probabilities derived from Step 2. PMID:24577715

  7. Causal inference in longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen-Pin; Jo, Booil; Brown, C Hendricks

    2014-09-10

    We propose a principal stratification approach to assess causal effects in nonrandomized longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with a binary endpoint outcome and repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable. Our method is an extension of the principal stratification approach originally proposed for the longitudinal randomized study "Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial" to assess the treatment effect on the continuous Hamilton depression score adjusting for the heterogeneity of repeatedly measured binary compliance status. Our motivation for this work comes from a comparison of the effect of two glucose-lowering medications on a clinical cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. Here, we consider a causal inference problem assessing how well the two medications work relative to one another on two binary endpoint outcomes: cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Clinically, these glucose-lowering medications can have differential effects on the intermediate outcome, glucose level over time. Ultimately, we want to compare medication effects on the endpoint outcomes among individuals in the same glucose trajectory stratum while accounting for the heterogeneity in baseline covariates (i.e., to obtain 'principal effects' on the endpoint outcomes). The proposed method involves a three-step model estimation procedure. Step 1 identifies principal strata associated with the intermediate variable using hybrid growth mixture modeling analyses. Step 2 obtains the stratum membership using the pseudoclass technique and derives propensity scores for treatment assignment. Step 3 obtains the stratum-specific treatment effect on the endpoint outcome weighted by inverse propensity probabilities derived from Step 2. PMID:24577715

  8. "Collaborative-ready" students: Exploring factors that influence collaboration during a longitudinal interprofessional education practice experience.

    PubMed

    Rotz, Melissa E; Dueñas, Gladys G

    2016-03-01

    A goal of interprofessional education (IPE) is to prepare "collaborative-ready" healthcare professionals to ultimately improve health outcomes. The objective of our study was to explore student-reported factors that influence collaboration within our longitudinal IPE experience. Twenty-five first-year pharmacy students and 50 first-year medical students enrolled in IPE courses were invited to participate in three focus groups. Focus group responses were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and applied to a qualitative thematic analysis. Eighteen students participated with six students in each group. Compared to the medical students, the pharmacy students were younger (22 vs. 26 years), had earned only a high school diploma, and had less healthcare experience. Emergent themes that students reported revealed various factors that can facilitate and inhibit collaboration among student participants. These findings can inform curricular redesign to focus on: clarifying provider roles, requiring ongoing preceptor development, enhancing course orientation, and coordinating student schedules to better prepare "collaborative-ready" students. PMID:26889775

  9. Secondary School Science Curricula Practices: A Ten-Year Longitudinal Study of Schools in Ten States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Hussein Bashir

    This study was designed to identify: (1) status of science teaching and science teachers' and principals' attitudes toward change in science curricula and school practices during the 1979/80 school year in 100 public secondary schools (grades 7-12) that participated in a previous study in 1970/71, and (2) changes that have occurred in science…

  10. The Impact of Residency Training on Physicians' AIDS-Related Treatment Practices: A Longitudinal Panel Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yedidia, Michael J.; Berry, Carolyn A.

    1999-01-01

    Study of 394 physicians graduating in 1989 from six New York medical schools found that certain residency-training factors had sustained effects on physician behavior in caring for AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) patients, but not on the number of patients treated. Determinants of treatment practice included residency environment,…

  11. Longitudinal occupancy of controlled access right-of-way by utilities. A synthesis of highway practice

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    This synthesis will be of interest to transportation agency administrators, design engineers, maintenance engineers and maintenance staff, traffic engineers, and safety officials. It will also provide useful information to the utilities and telecommunications industries. Information is presented on the state transportation agencies` policies, practices, and experience associated with occupancy of the rights-of-way on controlled- (or Limited-) access highways.

  12. Low-Income Mothers' Food Practices with Young Children: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…

  13. Parental feeding practices and child weight status in Mexican American families: A longitudinal analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parental feeding practices are thought to influence children's weight status, through children's eating behavior and nutritional intake. However, because most studies have been cross-sectional, the direction of influence is unclear. Moreover, although obesity rates are high among Latino children, fe...

  14. Longitudinal association between toenail selenium levels and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis: the CARDIA trace element study

    PubMed Central

    Xun, Pengcheng; Liu, Kiang; Morris, J Steven; Daviglus, Martha L; He, Ka

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the longitudinal association between toenail selenium levels and sub-clinical atherosclerosis over an 18-year period. Methods Toenail selenium concentrations were examined among 3112 Americans age 20–32 years in 1987 and measured by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Subclinical atherosclerosis, including common, bulb and internal carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), was measured in 2005 and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in 2000 and 2005. General linear regression was developed examining the relation between toenail selenium levels and CIMTs, and logistic regression for repeated outcomes was employed estimating the risk of having CAC>0. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, no associations were observed between toenail selenium levels and CIMTs as well as CAC score. Comparing participants in the highest with the lowest quintile of selenium, the CIMT was 0.005mm (SE=0.008mm, Ptrend=0.39), 0.018mm (SE=0.019mm, Ptrend=0.49), and 0.017mm (SE=0.014mm, Ptrend=0.21) thicker measured in common, bulb and internal carotid, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of having CAC>0 was 0.95 (95%CI: 0.67–1.35; Ptrend=0.999). Conclusions No associations were observed between toenail selenium and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis among American young adults. This study does not support an atherosclerotic mechanism of selenium for risk reduction of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20138620

  15. The 9-item Bergen Burnout Inventory: factorial validity across organizations and measurements of longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Taru; Rantanen, Johanna; Hyvönen, Katriina; Mäkikangas, Anne; Huhtala, Mari; Pihlajasaari, Pia; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    The present study tested the factorial validity of the 9-item Bergen Burnout Inventory (BBI-9). The BBI-9 is comprised of three core dimensions: (1) exhaustion at work; (2) cynicism toward the meaning of work; and (3) sense of inadequacy at work. The study further investigated whether the three-factor structure of the BBI-9 remains the same across different organizations (group invariance) and measurement time points (time invariance). The factorial group invariance was tested using a cross-sectional design with data pertaining to managers (n=742), and employees working in a bank (n=162), an engineering office (n=236), a public sector organization divided into three service areas: administration (n=102), education and culture (n=581), and social affairs and health (n=1,505). Factorial time invariance was tested using longitudinal data pertaining to managers, with three measurements over a four-year follow-up period. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the three-factor structure of the BBI-9 was invariant across cross-sectional samples. The factorial invariance was also supported across measurement times. To conclude, the factorial structure of the BBI-9 was found to remain the same regardless of the sample properties and measurement times. PMID:24366535

  16. Factor Structure and Longitudinal Measurement Invariance of the Demand Control Support Model: An Evidence from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH)

    PubMed Central

    Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Ingre, Michael; Karasek, Robert; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the factor structure and to evaluate the longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand-control-support questionnaire (DCSQ), using the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Methods A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) models within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM) have been used to examine the factor structure and invariance across time. Results Four factors: psychological demand, skill discretion, decision authority and social support, were confirmed by CFA at baseline, with the best fit obtained by removing the item repetitive work of skill discretion. A measurement error correlation (0.42) between work fast and work intensively for psychological demands was also detected. Acceptable composite reliability measures were obtained except for skill discretion (0.68). The invariance of the same factor structure was established, but caution in comparing mean levels of factors over time is warranted as lack of intercept invariance was evident. However, partial intercept invariance was established for work intensively. Conclusion Our findings indicate that skill discretion and decision authority represent two distinct constructs in the retained model. However removing the item repetitive work along with either work fast or work intensively would improve model fit. Care should also be taken while making comparisons in the constructs across time. Further research should investigate invariance across occupations or socio-economic classes. PMID:23950957

  17. Longitudinal emittance: An introduction to the concept and survey of measurement techniques including design of a wall current monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, R.C.

    1990-03-01

    The properties of charged particle beams associated with the distribution of the particles in energy and in time can be grouped together under the category of longitudinal emittance. This article is intended to provide an intuitive introduction to the concepts longitudinal emittance; to provide an incomplete survey of methods used to measure this emittance and the related properties of bunch length and momentum spread; and to describe the detailed design of a 6 Ghz bandwidth resistive wall current monitor useful for measuring bunch shapes of moderate to high intensity beams. Overall, the article is intended to be broad in scope, in most cases deferring details to cited original papers. 37 refs., 21 figs.

  18. Measurement of Single and Double Spin Asymmetries in Deep Inelastic Pion Electroproduction with a Longitudinally Polarized Target

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, H; Bosted, P; Elouadrhiri, L; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M; Anghinolfi, M; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Crabb, D; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; DeVita, R; DeSanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Dhamija, S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; El Alaoui, A; Eugenio, P; Fegan, S; Fersch, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hassall, N; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Isupov, E L; Jawalkar, S S; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal,; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Konczykowski, P; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McAndrew, J; McCracken, M E; McKInnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niroula, M R; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Anefalos Pereira, S; Perrin, Y; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Protopopescu; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatie, F; Saini, M S; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stapanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

    2010-12-01

    We report the first measurement of the transverse momentum dependence of double spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of pions in deep inelastic scattering off the longitudinally polarized proton. Data have been obtained using a polarized electron beam of 5.7 GeV with the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). A significant non-zero $\\sin2\\phi$ single spin asymmetry was also observed for the first time indicating strong spin-orbit correlations for transversely polarized quarks in the longitudinally polarized proton. The azimuthal modulations of single spin asymmetries have been measured over a wide kinematic range.

  19. Measuring Changes in the Economics of Medical Practice.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Christopher; Rich, Eugene; DesRoches, Catherine; Reschovsky, James; Kogan, Rachel

    2015-08-01

    For the latter third of the twentieth century, researchers have estimated production and cost functions for physician practices. Today, those attempting to measure the inputs and outputs of physician practice must account for many recent changes in models of care delivery. In this paper, we review practice inputs and outputs as typically described in research on the economics of medical practice, and consider the implications of the changing organization of medical practice and nature of physician work. This evolving environment has created conceptual challenges in what are the appropriate measures of output from physician work, as well as what inputs should be measured. Likewise, the increasing complexity of physician practice organizations has introduced challenges to finding the appropriate data sources for measuring these constructs. Both these conceptual and data challenges pose measurement issues that must be overcome to study the economics of modern medical practice. Despite these challenges, there are several promising initiatives involving data sharing at the organizational level that could provide a starting point for developing the needed new data sources and metrics for physician inputs and outputs. However, additional efforts will be required to establish data collection approaches and measurements applicable to smaller and single specialty practices. Overcoming these measurement and data challenges will be key to supporting policy-relevant research on the changing economics of medical practice. PMID:26105674

  20. Longitudinal measurements of postnatal rat brain mechanical properties in-vivo.

    PubMed

    Pong, Alice C; Jugé, Lauriane; Cheng, Shaokoon; Bilston, Lynne E

    2016-06-14

    Information on pediatric brain tissue mechanical properties and, more pertinently, how they change during postnatal development remains scarce despite its importance to investigate mechanisms of neural injury. The aim of this study is to determine whether brain mechanical properties change in-vivo during early postnatal development in a rat model. Rat brain viscoelastic properties were measured longitudinally in ten healthy Sprague Dawley rats at five different time points from postnatal week one to week six using magnetic resonance elastography at 800Hz. Myelination and cell density were assessed histologically at the same time points to understand how the underlying tissue microstructure may be associated with changes in mechanical properties at different brain regions. Longitudinal changes in each variable were assessed using a generalized linear model with pairwise comparisons of means between weeks. The brain shear modulus in the cortical gray matter at postnatal week one was 6.3±0.4kPa, and increased significantly from week one to week two (pairwise comparison, p<0.01), remained stable from week two to week four and decreased significantly by week six (pairwise comparison, p<0.001). In the deep gray matter, brain tissue stiffness at postnatal week one was 6.1±2.0kPa, and increased significantly from one to week four (pairwise comparison, p<0.05) before decreasing significantly by week six (pairwise comparison, p<0.001). Stiffness changes were not directly correlated to histological observations. These data suggest that brain tissue shear modulus initially increases during a period equivalent to early childhood, and then decreases during a period equivalent to adolescence. PMID:27126986

  1. Measurements of longitudinal gamma ray distribution using a multichannel fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, S. H.; Jeon, D.; Kim, J. S.; Jang, J. S.; Jang, K. W.; Yoo, W. J.; Moon, J. H.; Park, B. G.; Kim, S.; Lee, B.

    2014-11-01

    Cerenkov radiation occurs when charged particles are moving faster than the speed of light in a transparent dielectric medium. In optical fibers, Cerenkov radiation can also be generated due to the fiber’s dielectric components. Accordingly, the radiation-induced light signals can be obtained using the optical fibers without any scintillating material. In this study, we fabricated a multichannel, fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor (FOCRS) system using silica optical fibers (SOFs), plastic optical fibers (POFs), an optical spectrometer, multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MA-PMTs) and a scanning system to measure the light intensities of Cerenkov radiation induced by gamma rays. To evaluate the fading effects in optical fibers, the spectra of Cerenkov radiation generated in the SOFs and POFs were measured based on the irradiation time by using an optical spectrometer. In addition, we measured the longitudinal distribution of gamma rays emitted from the cylindrical type Co-60 source by using MA-PMTs. The result was also compared with the distribution of the electron flux calculated by using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNPX).

  2. Measuring Service Quality: From Theory into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Academic library managers need a multimethod, objective, valid tool for measuring service quality. Examines three research studies in the measurement of service quality in Australian and New Zealand academic libraries: the Hernon and Altman Study; Hernon and Calvert Study; and the University of Waikato (Hamilton, New Zealand) Survey, a two-stage…

  3. Impact of College-Administered Quality Practice Assessments: A Longitudinal Evaluation of Repeat Peer Assessments of Continuing Competence in Physiotherapists

    PubMed Central

    O'Donovan, Mary Jane; Campbell, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The College of Physiotherapists of Ontario (CPO) developed its peer practice assessment (PA) process under statutory requirements for quality assurance. Each year, a small percentage of physiotherapists, most selected at random, undergo PA. To shed light on continuing competence, we report outcomes from physiotherapists who have had two PAs. Methods: Records were extracted for physiotherapists with two unrelated PAs. Demographic features, peer assessors' scores, and consequent outcome decisions were examined. Outcomes were examined cross-sectionally (vs. other PAs in the same time period) and longitudinally (within cohort). Results: Between 2004 and 2012, 117 Ontario physiotherapists underwent two unrelated PAs, typically 5–7 years apart. This cohort was representative of Ontario physiotherapists in terms of sex ratios, education, and years in practice. At the first PA (PA1), this cohort's outcomes were similar to those of other physiotherapists; at the second PA (PA2), they were better than others undergoing PA1 in the same period (p=0.02). The cohort's outcomes were better at PA2 than at PA1 (p<0.001). Conclusions: Physiotherapists are likely to meet professional standards in a repeat PA 5–7 years after an initial one. Additional research is required to identify risk factors for not meeting standards. The findings provide empirical evidence to guide ongoing development of the CPO's quality management program. PMID:25931670

  4. Underlying Factors of Family Literacy Practices as Antecedents of Reading Achievement: A Longitudinal, Factorial, Multiple Regression Study Using ECLS-K Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Stacey Jonell

    2011-01-01

    The study had twofold purposes. The first one is to establish the underlying structure of family literacy practices at the different grade levels kindergarten, first, third, fifth, and eighth, for children who were followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K). The second purpose is to investigate the…

  5. National Educational Technology Standards and Technology Beliefs and Practices of Social Studies Faculty: Results from a Seven-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Adam; Bolick, Cheryl; Berson, Michael; Porfeli, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from the third survey administration of a longitudinal study that explores the beliefs, practices, and efficacy of social studies faculty members from across the United States in terms of instructional technology use. The findings of this study demonstrate that familiarity with the "National Educational Technology…

  6. Maternal feeding styles and food parenting practices as predictors of longitudinal changes in weight status in Hispanic preschoolers from low-income families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) an...

  7. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Teresia M.; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored. PMID:27429801

  8. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored. PMID:27429801

  9. TIME-DEPENDENT PHASE SPACE MEASUREMENTS OF THE LONGITUDINALLY COMPRESSING BEAM IN NDCX-I

    SciTech Connect

    LBNL; Lidia, S.M.; Bazouin, G.; Seidl, P.A.

    2011-03-15

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCXI) generates high intensity ion beams to explore Warm Dense Matter physics. A {approx}150 kV, {approx}500 ns modulating voltage pulse is applied to a {approx}300 kV, 5-10 {mu}s, 25 mA K+ ion beam across a single induction gap. The velocity modulated beam compresses longitudinally during ballistic transport along a space charge neutralizing plasma transport line, resulting in {approx}3A peak current with {approx}2-3 ns pulse durations (FWHM) at the target plane. Transverse final focusing is accomplished with a {approx}8 T, 10 cm long pulsed solenoid magnet. Time-dependent electrostatic focusing in the induction gap, and chromatic aberrations in the final focus optics limit the peak fluenceat the target plane for the compressed beam pulse. We report on time-dependent phase space measurements of the compressed pulse in the ballistic transport beamline, and measurement of the time-dependent radial impulses derived from the interaction of the beam and the induction gap voltage. We present results of start-to-end simulations to benchmark the experiments. Fast correction strategies are discussed with application to both NDCX-I and the soon to be commissioned NDCX-II accelerators.

  10. Longitudinal detection of ferromagnetic resonance using x-ray transmission measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Boero, G.; Rusponi, S.; Kavich, J.; Rizzini, A. Lodi; Piamonteze, C.; Nolting, F.; Tieg, C.; Thiele, J.-U.; Gambardella, P.

    2009-12-15

    We describe a setup for the x-ray detection of ferromagnetic resonance in the longitudinal geometry using element-specific transmission measurements. Thin magnetic film samples are placed in a static magnetic field collinear with the propagation direction of a polarized soft x-ray beam and driven to ferromagnetic resonance by a continuous wave microwave magnetic field perpendicular to it. The transmitted photon flux is measured both as a function of the x-ray photon energy and as a function of the applied static magnetic field. We report experiments performed on a 15 nm film of doped Permalloy (Ni{sub 73}Fe{sub 18}Gd{sub 7}Co{sub 2}) at the L{sub 3}/L{sub 2}-edges of Fe, Co, and Ni. The achieved ferromagnetic resonance sensitivity is about 0.1 monolayers/{radical}(Hz). The obtained results are interpreted in the framework of a conductivity tensor based formalism. The factors limiting the sensitivity as well as different approaches for the x-ray detection of ferromagnetic resonance are discussed.

  11. Development and Validation of Army Selection and Classification Measures. Project A: Longitudinal Research Database Plan. Research Report 1356.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Lauress L.; And Others

    This report describes plans for the development of a major longitudinal research database designed to support the development and validation of new predictors of Army performance, and also new measures of Army performance against which the new predictors can be validated. The following aspects of the database are addressed: (1) the anticipated…

  12. Concurrent and Longitudinal Patterns and Trends in Performance on Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures in Kindergarten through Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missall, Kristen N.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Martinez, Rebecca S.; Casebeer, Dian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on the "Tests of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measurement" (TEN-CBM) tools by examining concurrent and predictive relations from kindergarten through third grade. Using a longitudinal sample of 535 students, this study included logistic regression, latent cluster, and latent transition…

  13. Measuring international migration: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, H

    1987-01-01

    This volume is the result of the collaboration between the INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW and 2 of the scientific committees of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. The Committee on International Migration and the Committee on Data Collection and processing in developing countries jointly organized a workshop entitled "International Migration Statistics: Their Problems and Use" that took place in Ottawa, Canada from November 11-13, 1987. Preliminary versions of about 1/2 of the articles contained in this volume were presented at that workshop. A full report of the discussions that took place at the workshop is also included here. The 43 items contained in this report are grouped under the following headings: Concepts, Developments and Policy; Multilateral Efforts for the Measurement of International Migration; Research Notes; National Statistical Systems: Case Studies; Methodological Approaches; Conference Report; and Book reviews. The articles contained in this volume constitute a valuable contribution to the area of migration research concerned with the measurement and quantification of the phenomenon. They reflect the growing interest of the research community on measurement issues inextricably linked to the complex nature of international population movements. In their coverage of a variety of topics, several leitmotifs can be detected. Brief descriptions of a few that deserve to be singled out as challenges that still remain to be met by those interested in improving the data and the methods used to measure migration follow. 1) Flexibility might be enhanced by gathering and coding detailed information on certain items so as to allow their varied exploitation at a later date. Ease of access to the basic data gathered, through samples and computer-readable media, is another important means of increasing flexibility in the exploitation of existing data sources. Flexibility in the use of available statistics should also be pursued

  14. Longitudinal Measurement of Extracellular Matrix Rigidity in 3D Tumor Models Using Particle-tracking Microrheology

    PubMed Central

    El-Hamidi, Hamid; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical microenvironment has been shown to act as a crucial regulator of tumor growth behavior and signaling, which is itself remodeled and modified as part of a set of complex, two-way mechanosensitive interactions. While the development of biologically-relevant 3D tumor models have facilitated mechanistic studies on the impact of matrix rheology on tumor growth, the inverse problem of mapping changes in the mechanical environment induced by tumors remains challenging. Here, we describe the implementation of particle-tracking microrheology (PTM) in conjunction with 3D models of pancreatic cancer as part of a robust and viable approach for longitudinally monitoring physical changes in the tumor microenvironment, in situ. The methodology described here integrates a system of preparing in vitro 3D models embedded in a model extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold of Type I collagen with fluorescently labeled probes uniformly distributed for position- and time-dependent microrheology measurements throughout the specimen. In vitro tumors are plated and probed in parallel conditions using multiwell imaging plates. Drawing on established methods, videos of tracer probe movements are transformed via the Generalized Stokes Einstein Relation (GSER) to report the complex frequency-dependent viscoelastic shear modulus, G*(ω). Because this approach is imaging-based, mechanical characterization is also mapped onto large transmitted-light spatial fields to simultaneously report qualitative changes in 3D tumor size and phenotype. Representative results showing contrasting mechanical response in sub-regions associated with localized invasion-induced matrix degradation as well as system calibration, validation data are presented. Undesirable outcomes from common experimental errors and troubleshooting of these issues are also presented. The 96-well 3D culture plating format implemented in this protocol is conducive to correlation of microrheology measurements with therapeutic

  15. Measures of the Effects of Agricultural Practices on Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Polasky, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture produces more than just crops. Agricultural practices have environmental impacts that affect a wide range of ecosystem services, including water quality, pollination, nutrient cycling, soil retention, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity conservation. In turn, ecosystem services affect agricultural productivity. Understanding the contribution of various agricultural practices to the range of ecosystem services would help inform choices about the most beneficial agricultural practices. To accomplish this, however, we must overcome a big challenge in measuring the impact of alternative agricultural practices on ecosystem services and of ecosystem services on agricultural production.

  16. Monitoring herd incidence of intramammary infection in lactating cows using repeated longitudinal somatic cell count measurements.

    PubMed

    Dufour, S; Dohoo, I R

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of an estimate of the herd intramammary infection (IMI) incidence rate computed using repeated somatic cell count (SCC) measurements (quarter- and composite-SCC; hereafter, the SCC-derived herd IMI incidence, SCCI)to predict the incidence rate computed using repeated quarter-milk bacteriological culture (hereafter, bacteriological culture incidence, BCI) during the lactating period. A cohort of 91 Canadian dairy herds was followed in 2007 and 2008. In each herd and at each of 4 sampling periods, a series of 3 to 7 quarter-milk samples was collected from a sample of 15 cows. Routine milk bacteriological culture was conducted to identify IMI, SCC was measured on the quarter-milk samples, and composite-SCC of the preceding and following dairy herd improvement (DHI) tests were obtained. Mastitis pathogens were grouped in 3 categories: major, minor, and any pathogens. For each herd and for each period, BCI was computed for each group of organisms. Similarly, SCCI were computed using quarter- and DHI composite-SCC and using a threshold of 200,000 cells/mL to define infected quarters or cows. A linear regression model taking into account the structure of the data was used to compare the SCCI to the BCI. A similar model was used to compare fluctuations (i.e., changes from one sampling period to the next) over time of the SCCI and BCI. Measures of correlation between observed and predicted rates were computed and limits of agreement plots sketched to better explore the predictive ability of the SCCI. The quarter-milk SCC measurements that could be obtained-for instance, using on-line milking system measurements-appeared to be particularly valuable. Quarter-SCCI showed a positive and significant association with the BCI. However, limits of agreement plots indicated important disagreement for the small proportion of observations with very high BCI. Quarter-level SCCI and BCI fluctuations were also significantly associated

  17. First Measurements of the Longitudinal Bunch Profile at SLAC Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation at 28GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Blackmore, V.; Doucas, G.; Ottewell, B.; Perry, C.; Kimmitt, M.F.; Arnold, R.; Molloy, S.; Woods, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation has been demonstrated as a technique for measuring the longitudinal profile of charged particles bunches in the low to intermediate energy range. However, with the advent of the International Linear Collider, the need has arisen for a non-invasive method of measuring the bunch profile at extremely high energies. Smith-Purcell radiation has been used for the first time in the multi-GeV regime to measure the longitudinal profile of the 28GeV SLAC beam. The experiment has both successfully determined the bunch length, and has also demonstrated its sensitivity to bunch profile changes. The challenges associated with this technique, and its prospects as a diagnostic tool are reported here.

  18. Response shifts in mental health interventions: an illustration of longitudinal measurement invariance.

    PubMed

    Fokkema, Marjolein; Smits, Niels; Kelderman, Henk; Cuijpers, Pim

    2013-06-01

    The efficacy of treatments for depression is often measured by comparing observed total scores on self-report inventories, in both clinical practice and research. However, the occurrence of response shifts (changes in subjects' values, or their standards for measurement) may limit the validity of such comparisons. As most psychological treatments for depression are aimed at changing patients' values and frame of reference, response shifts are likely to occur over the course of such treatments. In this article, we tested whether response shifts occurred over the course of treatment in an influential randomized clinical trial. Using confirmatory factor analysis, measurement models underlying item scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck & Beamesderfer, 1974) of the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program (Elkin, Parloff, Hadley, & Autry, 1985) were analyzed. Compared with before treatment, after-treatment item scores appeared to overestimate depressive symptomatology, measurement errors were smaller, and correlations between constructs were stronger. These findings indicate a response shift, in the sense that participants seem to get better at assessing their level of depressive symptomatology. Comparing measurement models of patients receiving psychotherapy and medication suggested that the aforementioned effects were more apparent in the psychotherapy groups. Consequently, comparisons of observed total scores on self-report inventories may yield confounded measures of treatment efficacy. PMID:23339313

  19. Measuring student engagement in science classrooms: An investigation of the contextual factors and longitudinal outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, Justina Judy

    This dissertation includes three separate but related studies that examine the different dimensions of student experiences in science using data from two different datasets: the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and a dataset constructed using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). This mixed-dataset approach provides a unique perspective on student engagement and the contexts in which it exists. Engagement is operationalized across the three studies using aspects of flow theory to evaluate how the challenges in science classes are experienced at the student level. The data provides information on a student's skill-level and efficacy during the challenge, as well as their interest level and persistence. The data additionally track how situations contribute to optimal learning moments, along with longitudinal attitudes and behaviors towards science. In the first part of this study, the construct of optimal moments is explored using in the moment data from the ESM dataset. Several different measures of engagement are tested and validated to uncover relationships between various affective states and optimal learning experiences with a focus on science classrooms. Additional analyses include investigating the links between in the moment engagement (situational), and cross-situational (stable) measures of engagement in science. The second part of this dissertation analyzes the ESM data in greater depth by examining how engagement varies across students and their contextual environment. The contextual characteristics associated with higher engagement levels are evaluated to see if these conditions hold across different types of students. Chapter three more thoroughly analyzes what contributes to students persisting through challenging learning moments, and the variation in levels of effort put forth when facing difficulty while learning in science. In chapter four, this dissertation explores additional outcomes associated with student engagement in science

  20. Measurement of single- and double-spin asymmetries in deep inelastic pion electroproduction with a longitudinally polarized target.

    PubMed

    Avakian, H; Bosted, P; Burkert, V D; Elouadrhiri, L; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M; Anghinolfi, M; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Crabb, D; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Dhamija, S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; El Alaoui, A; Eugenio, P; Fegan, S; Fersch, R; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gavalian, G; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Gohn, W; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hassall, N; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Isupov, E L; Jawalkar, S S; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Konczykowski, P; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; Markov, N; Mayer, M; Martinez, D; McAndrew, J; McCracken, M E; McKinnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niroula, M R; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Pereira, S Anefalos; Perrin, Y; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Saini, M S; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

    2010-12-31

    We report the first measurement of the transverse momentum dependence of double-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of pions in deep-inelastic scattering off the longitudinally polarized proton. Data have been obtained using a polarized electron beam of 5.7 GeV with the CLAS detector at the Jefferson Lab (JLab). Modulations of single spin asymmetries over the azimuthal angle between lepton scattering and hadron production planes ϕ have been measured over a wide kinematic range in Bjorken x and virtual photon squared four-momentum Q2. A significant nonzero sin2ϕ single spin asymmetry was observed for the first time indicating strong spin-orbit correlations for transversely polarized quarks in the longitudinally polarized proton. PMID:21231647

  1. Measurement of Single- and Double-Spin Asymmetries in Deep Inelastic Pion Electroproduction with a Longitudinally Polarized Target

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, H.; Bosted, P.; Burkert, V. D.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Brooks, W.; Carman, D. S.; Deur, A.; Guo, L.; Kubarovsky, V.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Weygand, D. P.; Adhikari, K. P.; Amaryan, M.; Dodge, G.; Gavalian, G.; Guler, N.; Klein, A.; Kuhn, S. E.; Niroula, M. R.; Seraydaryan, H.

    2010-12-31

    We report the first measurement of the transverse momentum dependence of double-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of pions in deep-inelastic scattering off the longitudinally polarized proton. Data have been obtained using a polarized electron beam of 5.7 GeV with the CLAS detector at the Jefferson Lab (JLab). Modulations of single spin asymmetries over the azimuthal angle between lepton scattering and hadron production planes {phi} have been measured over a wide kinematic range in Bjorken x and virtual photon squared four-momentum Q{sup 2}. A significant nonzero sin2{phi} single spin asymmetry was observed for the first time indicating strong spin-orbit correlations for transversely polarized quarks in the longitudinally polarized proton.

  2. Atmospheric lateral and longitudinal turbulent length scales (measured at 600 to 800 meters above grade level)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, W. C.; Skarda, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Airborne Doppler Lidar System has been used to obtain a detailed 'instantaneous' mapping of horizontal spatial wind fields at 600-800 m elevations on the east side of the San Gorgonio Pass in California, in the form of checkerboard-fashion horizontal wind vectors spaced at 300 m intervals along and normal to the flight path. Spatial autocorrelations for the lateral and longitudinal components are ensemble-averaged, and integral turbulent length scales are computed for the wind fields' longitudinal and lateral directions. The flow in the region studied does not appear to be isotropic.

  3. Parenting Practices and Perceived Social Support: Longitudinal Relations with the Social Competence of Mexican-origin Children

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2015-01-01

    Social bonds and supportive relationships are widely recognized as being indispensable to healthy psychological functioning and well-being. Social support is a psychological resource that is expected to also contribute positively to parenting practices. The present study longitudinally examined the relations between mothers’ (N = 674) and fathers’ (N = 430) perceived social support and parenting behaviors, and their relations with children’s social competence during early adolescence in Mexican-origin single and two-parent families. Our constructs of interest (warm parenting, monitoring, perceived social support, and children’s social competence) were significantly correlated at T1, and demonstrated significant stability across time for both parental models. Parental warmth (as reported by the child, and opposite parent) and parental monitoring (self-reported by mothers and fathers) were correlated and also showed bidirectional associations across time. Parental monitoring at T2 positively predicted change in children’s social competence at T3 (controlling for T1 social competence) for mothers. Parental warmth at T2 positively predicted change in children’s social competence at T3 (controlling for T1 social competence) for fathers. For mothers, the indirect effect of social support at T1 on children’s social competence at T3 via parental monitoring at T2 (and controlling for prior levels) was significant. Findings suggest that maternal perceived social support contributes to children’s social competence due to its positive relation to maternal monitoring. Results may also suggest that mothers’ and fathers’ parenting behaviors differentially relate to children’s social competence in Latino families, although additional work focused on comparing parenting behaviors in two-parent families is needed. PMID:26751039

  4. Alternative Measures of Teacher Performance. Policy-to-Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potemski, Amy; Baral, Mahua; Meyer, Cassandra

    2011-01-01

    This Policy-to-Practice Brief introduces five current examples of measures of teacher performance. The goal is to assist regional comprehensive centers and state education agencies in building local capacity to incorporate the use of alternative measures of teacher performance into the overhaul of state evaluation systems--especially in states…

  5. Implementing Innovative Counseling Practices: Are School Counselors MEASUREing Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly Nicole Tripp

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine school counselors' perception of how innovative counseling practices are or are not lived in a local school district. The eastern North Carolina school district was selected because MEASURE was being introduced in the district as a new way for program evaluation. The acronym MEASURE stands for Mission,…

  6. A method for noninvasive longitudinal measurements of [Ca2+] in arterioles of hypertensive optical biosensor mice

    PubMed Central

    Mauban, Joseph R. H.; Fairfax, Seth T.; Rizzo, Mark A.; Zhang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    We used two-photon (2-p) Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy to provide serial, noninvasive measurements of [Ca2+] in arterioles of living “biosensor” mice. These express a genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator (GECI), either FRET-based exMLCK or intensity-based GCaMP2. The FRET ratios, Rmin and Rmax, required for in vivo Ca2+ calibration of exMLCK were obtained in isolated arteries. For in vivo experiments, mice were anesthetized (1.5% isoflurane), and arterioles within a depilated ear were visualized through the intact skin (i.e., noninvasively), by 2-p excitation of exMLCK (at 820 nm) or GCaMP2 (at 920 nm). Spontaneous or agonist-evoked [Ca2+] transients in arteriolar smooth muscle cells were imaged (at 2 Hz) with both exMLCK and GCaMP2. To examine changes in arteriolar [Ca2+] that might accompany hypertension, five exMLCK mice were implanted with telemetric blood pressure transducers and osmotic minipumps containing ANG II (350 ng·kg−1·min−1) and fed a high (6%)-salt diet for 9 days. [Ca2+] was measured every other day in five smooth muscle cells of two to three arterioles in each animal. Prior to ANG II/salt, [Ca2+] was 246 ± 42 nM. [Ca2+] increased transiently to 599 nM on day 2 after beginning ANG II/salt, then remained elevated at 331 ± 42 nM for 4 more days, before returning to 265 ± 47 nM 6 days after removal of ANG II/salt. In summary, two-photon excitation of exMLCK and GCaMP2 provides a method for noninvasive, longitudinal quantification of [Ca2+] dynamics and vascular structure in individual arterioles of a particular animal over an extended period of time, a capability that should enhance future studies of hypertension and vascular function. PMID:24858846

  7. Measurement of Longitudinal Spin Asymmetries for Weak Boson Production in Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    We report measurements of single- and double-spin asymmetries for W± and Z/γ* boson production in longitudinally polarized p+p collisions at √s =510 GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The asymmetries for W± were measured as a function of the decay lepton pseudorapidity, which provides a theoretically clean probe of the proton's polarized quark distributions at the scale of the W mass. The results are compared to theoretical predictions, constrained by polarized deep inelastic scattering measurements, and show a preference for a sizable, positive up antiquark polarization in the range 0.05

  8. Emotional Intelligence throughout Portuguese Secondary School: A Longitudinal Study Comparing Performance and Self-Report Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Ana; Faria, Luísa

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the developmental trajectories of ability and trait emotional intelligence (EI) in the Portuguese secondary school. Within a three-wave longitudinal design, 395 students (M[subscript age] = 15.4; SD = 0.74) completed both the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ) and the Vocabulary of Emotions Test (VET). Results…

  9. Constructing a Measure for Longitudinal Medical Achievement Studies by the Rasch Model One-Step Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    As part of a longitudinal study of the growth of general medical knowledge among osteopathic medical students, a simple, convenient, and accurate vertical equating method was developed for constructing a scale for medical achievement. It was believed that Parts 1, 2, and 3 of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners' (NBOME) examination…

  10. Measuring Growth in a Longitudinal Large-Scale Assessment with a General Latent Variable Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Davier, Matthias; Xu, Xueli; Carstensen, Claus H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research presented here is the use of extensions of longitudinal item response theory (IRT) models in the analysis and comparison of group-specific growth in large-scale assessments of educational outcomes. A general discrete latent variable model was used to specify and compare two types of multidimensional item-response-theory…

  11. Measuring Puberty and Understanding Its Impact: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Danielle M.; Rose, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2001-01-01

    Established normative data on the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) (A. Petersen and others, 1988) of two population-based birth cohorts of Finnish twin boys and girls assessed at ages 11-12 and 14 years (complete data for 664 boys and 681 girls). Also reports longitudinal analyses of the associations between pubertal development and substance use.…

  12. Nonresponse bias in a longitudinal measurement design examining substance use across the transition out of high school

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Jamie; Patrick, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive longitudinal methods are used to study the daily-level, within-person associations between substance use and its predictors and consequences. By definition, these designs require greater respondent effort than more traditional longitudinal designs, the result of which may be increased unit nonresponse and, more importantly, nonresponse bias. The present study contrasts the nonresponse properties of a measurement burst design with those of a single one-year follow-up (“control”) design, with a particular emphasis on the retention of young adults who did not plan to graduate from college. Methods High school seniors (N=318) from three Midwestern schools completed an in-school baseline survey in spring 2012. Respondents were then randomized into a measurement burst or control group. Four, eight, and twelve months after baseline, young adults in the measurement burst group received a 30-minute follow-up web survey, followed by 14 days of web-based daily surveys. Young adults in the control group received only a 30-minute follow-up web survey twelve months after baseline. Response rates, predictors of nonresponse, and relative nonresponse biases for measures of sociodemographics, college plans, and substance use were compared between the two measurement groups. Results Compared to the control design, the measurement burst design had greater relative nonresponse bias for statistics measuring substance use, but lower relative nonresponse bias for the statistic measuring college plans. Conclusion Intensive longitudinal methods have the potential to retain non-college attending young adults during the transition to adulthood. Nonresponse adjustment weights should be used to correct for any detected bias. PMID:25156225

  13. Longitudinal NMR parameter measurements of Japanese pear fruit during the growing process using a mobile magnetic resonance imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geya, Yuto; Kimura, Takeshi; Fujisaki, Hirotaka; Terada, Yasuhiko; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Gemma, Hiroshi; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameter measurements of Japanese pear fruit (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai, Kosui) were performed using an electrically mobile magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system with a 0.2 T and 16 cm gap permanent magnet. To measure the relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficients of the pear fruit in relation to their weight, seven pear fruits were harvested almost every week during the cell enlargement period and measured in a research orchard. To evaluate the in situ relaxation times, six pear fruits were longitudinally measured for about two months during the same period. The measurements for the harvested samples showed good agreement with the in situ measurements. From the measurements of the harvested samples, it is clear that the relaxation rates of the pear fruits linearly change with the inverse of the linear dimension of the fruits, demonstrating that the relaxation mechanism is a surface relaxation. We therefore conclude that the mobile MRI system is a useful device for measuring the NMR parameters of outdoor living plants.

  14. Joint multiple imputation for longitudinal outcomes and clinical events that truncate longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Li, Liang; Greene, Tom

    2016-07-30

    Longitudinal cohort studies often collect both repeated measurements of longitudinal outcomes and times to clinical events whose occurrence precludes further longitudinal measurements. Although joint modeling of the clinical events and the longitudinal data can be used to provide valid statistical inference for target estimands in certain contexts, the application of joint models in medical literature is currently rather restricted because of the complexity of the joint models and the intensive computation involved. We propose a multiple imputation approach to jointly impute missing data of both the longitudinal and clinical event outcomes. With complete imputed datasets, analysts are then able to use simple and transparent statistical methods and standard statistical software to perform various analyses without dealing with the complications of missing data and joint modeling. We show that the proposed multiple imputation approach is flexible and easy to implement in practice. Numerical results are also provided to demonstrate its performance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26179943

  15. Longitudinal design for sonographic measurement of median nerve swelling with controlled exposure to physical work using an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Roll, Shawn C.; Evans, Kevin D.; Volz, Kevin R.; Sommerich, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of a longitudinal design to sonographically measure swelling of the median nerve due to controlled exposure to a work task and to evaluate the relationship of changes in morphology to diagnostic standards. Fifteen macaca fascicularis pinched a lever in various wrist positions at a self-regulated pace (8 hours/day, 5 days/week, 18–20 weeks). Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and cross-sectional area (CSA) were obtained every two weeks from baseline through working and a 6-week recovery. Trending across all subjects showed that NCV slowed and CSA at the carpal tunnel increased in the working arm, while no changes were observed in CSA either at the forearm or for any measure in the non-working arm. There was a small negative correlation between NCV and CSA in the working arm. This study provides validation that swelling can be observed using a longitudinal design. Longitudinal human studies are needed to describe the trajectory of nerve swelling for early identification of median nerve pathology. PMID:24139197

  16. Charting patients' course: a comparison of statistics used to summarize patient course in longitudinal and repeated measures studies.

    PubMed

    Arndt, S; Turvey, C; Coryell, W H; Dawson, J D; Leon, A C; Akiskal, H S

    2000-01-01

    Investigators conducting longitudinal studies of psychiatric illnesses often analyze data based on psychiatric symptom scales that were administered at multiple time points. This study examines the statistical properties of seven indices that summarize patient long-term course. These indices can be used to compare differences between two or more groups or to test for changes in symptoms over time. They may also be treated as outcome measures and correlated with other clinical variables.The performance of each of the seven indices was assessed using data from two large ongoing studies of psychiatric patients: a longitudinal study of affective disorders and a longitudinal study of first-episode psychosis. These two datasets were subjected to bootstrapping techniques in order to calculate both type I error rates and statistical power for each summary statistic. Of the seven indices, Kendall's tau performed the best as a measure of patients' symptom course. Kendall's tau appears to offer more statistical power to detect change in course, yet its average type I error rate was comparable to the other indices. PMID:10758251

  17. Practical Measures of Integrated Information for Time-Series Data

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Adam B.; Seth, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    A recent measure of ‘integrated information’, ΦDM, quantifies the extent to which a system generates more information than the sum of its parts as it transitions between states, possibly reflecting levels of consciousness generated by neural systems. However, ΦDM is defined only for discrete Markov systems, which are unusual in biology; as a result, ΦDM can rarely be measured in practice. Here, we describe two new measures, ΦE and ΦAR, that overcome these limitations and are easy to apply to time-series data. We use simulations to demonstrate the in-practice applicability of our measures, and to explore their properties. Our results provide new opportunities for examining information integration in real and model systems and carry implications for relations between integrated information, consciousness, and other neurocognitive processes. However, our findings pose challenges for theories that ascribe physical meaning to the measured quantities. PMID:21283779

  18. Cross-national and longitudinal investigation of a short measure of workaholism.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Johanna; Feldt, Taru; Hakanen, Jari J; Kokko, Katja; Huhtala, Mari; Pulkkinen, Lea; Schaufeli, Wilmar

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the factor structure of the 10-item version of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS). The DUWAS-10 is intended to measure workaholism with two correlated factors: working excessively (WE) and working compulsively (WC). The factor structure of the DUWAS-10 was examined among multi-occupational samples from the Netherlands (n=9,010) and Finland (n=4,567) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). CFAs revealed that the expected correlated two-factor solution showed satisfactory fit to the data. However, a second-order factor solution, where WE comprised the first-order factors "working frantically" and "working long hours", and WC the first-order factors "obsessive work drive" and "unease if not working", showed significantly better fit to the data. The expectation of factorial group invariance of the second-order factor structure between the Dutch and Finnish samples was also supported. Moreover, factorial time invariance was observed across a two-year time lag in a sub-sample of Finnish managers (n=459). In conclusion, the DUWAS-10 was found to be a comprehensive measure of workaholism, meeting the criteria of factorial validity in multiple settings, and can thus be recommended for use in both research and practice. PMID:25382382

  19. Cross-national and longitudinal investigation of a short measure of workaholism

    PubMed Central

    RANTANEN, Johanna; FELDT, Taru; HAKANEN, Jari J; KOKKO, Katja; HUHTALA, Mari; PULKKINEN, Lea; SCHAUFELI, Wilmar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The present study investigated the factor structure of the 10-item version of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS). The DUWAS-10 is intended to measure workaholism with two correlated factors: working excessively (WE) and working compulsively (WC). The factor structure of the DUWAS-10 was examined among multi-occupational samples from the Netherlands (n=9,010) and Finland (n=4,567) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). CFAs revealed that the expected correlated two-factor solution showed satisfactory fit to the data. However, a second-order factor solution, where WE comprised the first-order factors “working frantically” and “working long hours”, and WC the first-order factors “obsessive work drive” and “unease if not working”, showed significantly better fit to the data. The expectation of factorial group invariance of the second-order factor structure between the Dutch and Finnish samples was also supported. Moreover, factorial time invariance was observed across a two-year time lag in a sub-sample of Finnish managers (n=459). In conclusion, the DUWAS-10 was found to be a comprehensive measure of workaholism, meeting the criteria of factorial validity in multiple settings, and can thus be recommended for use in both research and practice. PMID:25382382

  20. 38 CFR 21.7674 - Measurement of practical training courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurement of practical training courses. 21.7674 Section 21.7674 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Educational Assistance for Members of the Selected Reserve Course Assessment...

  1. Measuring Attitudes toward Acceptable and Unacceptable Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karen S.; Behling, Steven; Li, Yan; Parikshak, Sangeeta; Gershenson, Rachel A.; Feuer, Rachel; Danko, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the properties of a new rating instrument, the Parenting Questionnaire (PQ), designed to measure attitudes about acceptable and unacceptable parenting practices. In Study 1, subject matter experts representing culturally diverse psychologists, parents, and college students were consulted to identify 110 items receiving high…

  2. Procedural Fidelity: An Analysis of Measurement and Reporting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Wolery, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A systematic analysis was conducted of measurement and reporting practices related to procedural fidelity in single-case research for the past 30 years. Previous reviews of fidelity primarily reported whether fidelity data were collected by authors; these reviews reported that collection was variable, but low across journals and over time. Results…

  3. Measurement Practices: Methods for Developing Content-Valid Student Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Patrick D.; Musial, Joseph; Frank, Robert; Roe, Thomas; Sawilowsky, Shlomo

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the fundamental principles associated with achieving a high level of content validity when developing tests for students. Suggests that the short-term efforts necessary to develop and integrate measurement theory into practice will lead to long-term gains for students, faculty, and academic institutions. (Includes 21 references.)…

  4. Panel: Practical Issues in Implementing Software Reliability Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, A.; Everett, B.; Munson, J.; Musa, J.; Schneidewind, N.; Vouk, M.

    1999-01-01

    Many ways of estimating software systems' reliability, or reliability-related quantities, have been developed over the past several years. In this panel, we discuss practical issues to be addressed in implementing software reliabilty measurement techniques in a production development environment.

  5. Assessing the Practical Equivalence of Conversions when Measurement Conditions Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Dorans, Neil J.

    2012-01-01

    At times, the same set of test questions is administered under different measurement conditions that might affect the psychometric properties of the test scores enough to warrant different score conversions for the different conditions. We propose a procedure for assessing the practical equivalence of conversions developed for the same set of test…

  6. The role of environment in the development of reading skills: a longitudinal study of preschool and school-age measures.

    PubMed

    Molfese, Victoria J; Modglin, Arlene; Molfese, Dennis L

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend previous studies on the influence of environmental measures on intelligence scores by examining how proximal and distal measures of children's environments in the preschool period and in the primary-grade period are related to their performance on reading achievement tests. Reading performance was explored using two approaches. The first approach involved the identification of children within a longitudinal sample who had poor reading skills at 8 years of age. The second approach used the full range of reading scores to explore whether factors influencing poor reading were different from those influencing good reading. Participants were 113 children, including 35 children with poor reading skills, who were part of a longitudinal study of cognitive development. Socioeconomic status (SES), Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores at 3 and 10 years of age, and school-administered and individually administered reading achievement scores were obtained. Both SES and HOME scores were found to be related to reading abilities, but preschool environment measures were more strongly and consistently related to and predictive of reading scores. Differences in the patterns of correlations and the results of the predictive models were found between the full sample and the poor readers. Variables other than proximal and distal measures of the environment are involved in the development of reading skills. PMID:15490892

  7. Measurements of the Neutron Longitudinal Spin Asymmetry A1n and Flavor Decomposition in the Valence Quark Region

    SciTech Connect

    Flay, David J.

    2014-08-01

    The current data for the nucleon-virtual photon longitudinal spin asymmetry A1 on the proton and neutron have shown that the ratio of the polarized-to-unpolarized down-quarkparton distribution functions,Dd=d, tends towards -1/2 at large x, in disagreement with the perturbative QCD prediction that Dd/d approaches 1 but more in line with constituent quark models. As a part of experiment E06-014 in Hall A of Jefferson Lab, double-spin asymmetries were measured in the scattering of a longitudinally polarized electron beam of energies 4.74 and 5.89 GeV from a longitudinally and transversely polarized 3He target in the deep inelastic scattering and resonance region, allowing for the extraction of the neutron asymmetry An1 and the ratios Dd/d and Du/u. We will discuss our analysis of the data and present results for A1 and g1/F1 on both 3He and the neutron, and the resulting quark ratios for the up and down quarks in the kinematic range of 0.2

  8. Measuring Physician Quality and Efficiency in an Era of Practice Transformation: PCMH as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandy, Lewis G.; Haltson, Heidi; Metfessel, Brent A.; Reese, Conway

    2015-01-01

    Practicing physicians face myriad challenges as health care undergoes considerable transformation, including advancing efforts to measure and report on physician quality and efficiency, as well as the growth of new care models such as Accountable Care Organizations and patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs). How do these transformational forces relate to one another? How should practicing physicians focus and prioritize their improvement efforts? This Special Report examines how physicians’ performance on quality and efficiency measures may interact with delivery reforms, focusing on the PCMH. We note that although the PCMH is a promising model, published evidence is mixed. Using data and experience from a large commercial insurer’s performance transparency and PCMH programs, we further report that longitudinal analysis of UnitedHealthcare’s PCMH program experience has shown favorable changes; however, cross-sectional analysis indicates that National Committee for Quality Assurance’s PCMH designation is positively associated with achieving program Quality benchmarks, but negatively associated with program Efficiency benchmarks. This example illustrates some key issues for physicians in the current environment, and we provide suggestions for physicians and other stakeholders on understanding and acting on information from physician performance measurement programs. PMID:25964406

  9. Predicting future weight status from measurements made in early childhood: a novel longitudinal approach applied to Millennium Cohort Study data

    PubMed Central

    Mead, E; Batterham, A M; Atkinson, G; Ells, L J

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: There are reports that childhood obesity tracks into later life. Nevertheless, some tracking statistics such as correlations do not quantify individual agreement, whereas others such as diagnostic test statistics can be difficult to translate into practice. We aimed to employ a novel analytic approach, based on ordinal logistic regression, to predict weight status of 11-year-old children from measurements at age 5 years. Subjects/Methods: The UK 1990 growth references were used to generate clinical weight status categories of 12 076 children enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study. Using ordinal regression, we derived the predicted probability (percent chances) of 11-year-old children becoming underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese and severely obese from their weight status category at age 5 years. Results: The chances of becoming obese (including severely obese) at age 11 years were 5.7% (95% confidence interval: 5.2 to 6.2%) for a normal-weight 5-year-old child and 32.3% (29.8 to 34.8%) for an overweight 5-year-old child. An obese 5-year-old child had a 68.1% (63.8 to 72.5%) chance of remaining obese at 11 years. Severely obese 5-year-old children had a 50.3% (43.1 to 57.4%) chance of remaining severely obese. There were no substantial differences between sexes. Nondeprived obese 5-year-old boys had a lower probability of remaining obese than deprived obese boys: −21.8% (−40.4 to −3.2%). This association was not observed in obese 5-year-old girls, in whom the nondeprived group had a probability of remaining obese 7% higher (−15.2 to 29.2%). The sex difference in this interaction of deprivation and baseline weight status was therefore −28.8% (−59.3 to 1.6%). Conclusions: We have demonstrated that ordinal logistic regression can be an informative approach to predict the chances of a child changing to, or from, an unhealthy weight status. This approach is easy to interpret and could be applied to any longitudinal data set

  10. Integral T-Shaped Phantom-Dosimeter System to Measure Transverse and Longitudinal Dose Distributions Simultaneously for Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Moon, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyoung Won; Han, Ki-Tek; Shin, Sang Hun; Jeon, Dayeong; Park, Jang-Yeon; Park, Byung Gi; Lee, Bongsoo

    2012-01-01

    A T-shaped fiber-optic phantom-dosimeter system was developed using square scintillating optical fibers, a lens system, and a CMOS image camera. Images of scintillating light were used to simultaneously measure the transverse and longitudinal distributions of absorbed dose of a 6 MV photon beam with field sizes of 1 × 1 and 3 × 3 cm2. Each optical fiber has a very small sensitive volume and the sensitive material is water equivalent. This allows the measurements of cross-beam profile as well as the percentage depth dose of small field sizes. In the case of transverse dose distribution, the measured beam profiles were gradually become uneven and the beam edge had a gentle slope with increasing depth of the PMMA phantom. In addition, the maximum dose values of longitudinal dose distribution for 6 MV photon beam with field sizes of 1 × 1 and 3 × 3 cm2 were found to be at a depth of approximately 15 mm and the percentage depth dose of both field sizes were nearly in agreement at the skin dose level. Based on the results of this study, it is anticipated that an all-in-one phantom-dosimeter can be developed to accurately measure beam profiles and dose distribution in a small irradiation fields prior to carrying out stereotactic radiosurgery. PMID:22778649

  11. Longitudinal measurements of MRI-T2 in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Effects of age and disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Willcocks, RJ; Arpan, IA; Forbes, SC; Lott, DJ; Senesac, CS; Senesac, E; Deol, J; Triplett, W; Baligand, C; Daniels, MJ; Sweeney, HL; Walter, GA; Vandenborne, K

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by in increased muscle damage and progressive replacement of muscle by noncontractile tissue. Both of these pathological changes can lengthen the MRI transverse proton relaxation time (T2). The current study measured longitudinal changes in T2 and its distribution in the lower leg of 16 boys with DMD (5–13 years, 15 ambulatory), 15 healthy controls (5–13 years). These muscles were chosen to allow extended longitudinal monitoring, due to their slow progression compared with proximal muscles in DMD. In the soleus muscle of boys with DMD, T2 and the percentage of pixels with an elevated T2 (≥2 SD above control mean T2) increased significantly over one year and two years, while the width of the T2 histogram increased over two years. Changes in soleus T2 variables were significantly greater in 9–13 year old compared with 5–8 year old boys with DMD. Significant correlations between the change in all soleus T2 variables over two years and the change in functional measures over two years were found. MRI measurement of muscle T2 in boys with DMD is sensitive to disease progression and shows promise as a clinical outcome measure. PMID:24491484

  12. Salvadoran Campesinos/as' Literacy Practices and Perceptions of the Benefits of Literacy: A Longitudinal Study with Former Literacy Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data from longitudinal, ethnographic research to examine how, six years after attending literacy classes, 12 adults in rural El Salvador used literacy, their perceptions of the temporary and longer-term psychosocial and economic benefits of literacy education, and their memories of literacy classes. The findings support prior…

  13. Middle-Class African American Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority and Parenting Practices: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.

    2000-01-01

    Examined longitudinally conceptions of parental authority and ratings of parental rules and decision-making among middle- class African American adolescents and their parents. Found that nearly all subjects affirmed parents' legitimate authority to regulate and children's obligation to comply regarding oral, conventional, prudential, friendship,…

  14. Utilizing Longitudinal Measures of Fetal Growth to Create a Standard Method to Assess the Impacts of Maternal Disease and Environmental Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cantonwine, David E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Chen, Yin-Hsiu; Smith, Nicole A.; Robinson, Julian N.; Doubilet, Peter M.; Meeker, John D.; McElrath, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired or suboptimal fetal growth is associated with an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. By utilizing readily available clinical data on the relative size of the fetus at multiple points in pregnancy, including delivery, future epidemiological research can improve our understanding of the impacts of maternal, fetal, and environmental factors on fetal growth at different windows during pregnancy. This study presents mean and standard deviation ultrasound measurements from a clinically representative US population that can be utilized for creating Z-scores to this end. Between 2006 and 2012, 18, 904 non-anomalous pregnancies that received prenatal care, first and second trimester ultrasound evaluations, and ultimately delivered singleton newborns at Brigham and Women’s hospital in Boston were used to create the standard population. To illustrate the utility of this standard, we created Z-scores for ultrasound and delivery measurements for a cohort study population and examined associations with factors known to be associated with fetal growth. In addition to cross-sectional regression models, we created linear mixed models and generalized additive mixed models to illustrate how these scores can be utilized longitudinally and for the identification of windows of susceptibility. After adjustment for a priori confounders, maternal BMI was positively associated with increased fetal size beginning in the second trimester in cross-sectional models. Female infants and maternal smoking were associated with consistently reduced fetal size in the longitudinal models. Maternal age had a non-significant association with increased size in the first trimester that was attenuated as gestation progressed. As the growth measurements examined here are widely available in contemporary obstetrical practice, these data may be abstracted from medical records by investigators and standardized with the population means presented here. This will enable easy extension

  15. Best Practices for Measuring Students’ Attitudes toward Learning Science

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Matthew; Brickman, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Science educators often characterize the degree to which tests measure different facets of college students’ learning, such as knowing, applying, and problem solving. A casual survey of scholarship of teaching and learning research studies reveals that many educators also measure how students’ attitudes influence their learning. Students’ science attitudes refer to their positive or negative feelings and predispositions to learn science. Science educators use attitude measures, in conjunction with learning measures, to inform the conclusions they draw about the efficacy of their instructional interventions. The measurement of students’ attitudes poses similar but distinct challenges as compared with measurement of learning, such as determining validity and reliability of instruments and selecting appropriate methods for conducting statistical analyses. In this review, we will describe techniques commonly used to quantify students’ attitudes toward science. We will also discuss best practices for the analysis and interpretation of attitude data. PMID:24297288

  16. The interference of the model support mast with measurements of the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandekreeke, C.; Verriere, J.; Quemard, G.

    1987-01-01

    The effects the single-bottom support masts used in the ONERA S1 and S4 wind tunnels have on aerodynamic data collected with scale model aircraft were examined experimentally and analytically. Systematic studies were performed on the flow characteristics around different diameters for the mounts. Scaling methods used to make data from one wind tunnel correspond to data from the other are described. Airbus 320 models were introduced into the tests and mast-body flow interactions were observed. A summary is presented of restrictions on the mast diameters, relative to cylindrical model diameters, which will minimize the effects the masts have on longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic stability data.

  17. Factorial Validity of the Decisional Involvement Scale as a Measure of Content and Context of Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Yurek, Leo A; Havens, Donna S; Hays, Spencer; Hughes, Linda C

    2015-10-01

    Decisional involvement is widely recognized as an essential component of a professional nursing practice environment. In recent years, researchers have added to the conceptualization of nurses' role in decision-making to differentiate between the content and context of nursing practice. Yet, instruments that clearly distinguish between these two dimensions of practice are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity of the Decisional Involvement Scale (DIS) as a measure of both the content and context of nursing practice. This secondary analysis was conducted using data from a longitudinal action research project to improve the quality of nursing practice and patient care in six hospitals (N = 1,034) in medically underserved counties of Pennsylvania. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the parent study was used to compare the factor structure of two models (one nested within the other) using confirmatory factor analysis. Although a comparison of the two models indicated that the addition of second-order factors for the content and context of nursing practice improved model fit, neither model provided optimal fit to the data. Additional model-generating research is needed to develop the DIS as a valid measure of decisional involvement for both the content and context of nursing practice. PMID:26074447

  18. Measured and predicted velocity and longitudinal dispersion at steady and unsteady flow, Colorado River, Glen Canyon Dam to lake mead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graf, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of unsteadiness or dam releases on velocity and longitudinal dispersion of flow was evaluated by injecting a fluorescent dye into the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam and sampling for dye concentration at selected sites downstream. In Glen Canyon, average flow velocity through the study reach increased directly with discharge, but dispersion was greatest at the lowest of the three flows measured. In Grand Canyon, average flow velocity varied slightly from subreach to subreach at both steady and unsteady flow over the entire study reach. Also, longitudinal dispersion was not significantly different during steady and unsteady flow. Absence of tails on the curves shows that, at the measured flows, the eddies that are characteristic of the Grand Canyon reach do not trap water for a significant length of time. Data from the measurements were used to calibrate a one-dimensional now modeland a solute-transport model. The combined set of calibrated flow and solute-transport models was then used to predict velocity and dispersion at potential dam-release patterns.

  19. Longitudinal Effects of MRI-Measured Hepatic Steatosis on Biomarkers of Glucose Homeostasis and Hepatic Apoptosis in Obese Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace; Giannini, Cosimo; Pierpont, Bridget; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Santoro, Nicola; Kursawe, Romy; Shaw, Melissa; Duran, Elvira; Goldberg, Rachel; Dziura, James; Caprio, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We used fast-gradient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the longitudinal associations between the hepatic fat content (HFF), glucose homeostasis, and a biomarker of hepatocellular apoptosis in obese youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Baseline and longitudinal liver and abdominal MRI were performed with an oral glucose tolerance test in 76 obese youth followed for an average of 1.9 years. Cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) was measured at baseline and follow-up as a biomarker of hepatic apoptosis. The relationship between baseline HFF and metabolic parameters and circulating levels of CK-18 at follow-up were assessed using a bivariate correlation. RESULTS At baseline, 38% had hepatic steatosis based on %HFF ≥5.5% with alterations in indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion. At follow-up, BMI increased in both groups and baseline %HFF correlated strongly with the follow-up %HFF (r = 0.81, P < 0.001). Over time, markers of insulin sensitivity and 2-h glucose improved significantly in the group without fatty liver, in contrast with the persistence of the insulin resistance and associated correlates in the fatty liver group. Baseline HFF correlated with 2-h glucose (r = 0.38, P = 0.001), whole-body insulin sensitivity (r = −0.405, P = 0.001), adiponectin (r = −0.44, P < 0.001), CK-18 levels, (r = 0.63, P < 0.001), and disposition index (r = −0.272, P = 0.021) at follow-up. In a multivariate analysis, we showed that baseline HFF is an independent predictor of 2-h glucose and whole-body insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS In obese youth, the phenotype of MRI-measured hepatic steatosis is persistent. Baseline HFF strongly modulates longitudinally 2-h blood glucose, biomarkers of insulin resistance, and hepatocellular apoptosis. PMID:22933439

  20. Measurement of longitudinal spin asymmetries for weak boson production in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-15

    We report measurements of single- and double-spin asymmetries for W^{±} and Z/γ^{*} boson production in longitudinally polarized p+p collisions at sqrt[s]=510  GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The asymmetries for W^{±} were measured as a function of the decay lepton pseudorapidity, which provides a theoretically clean probe of the proton's polarized quark distributions at the scale of the W mass. The results are compared to theoretical predictions, constrained by polarized deep inelastic scattering measurements, and show a preference for a sizable, positive up antiquark polarization in the range 0.05

  1. Daily Associations Between Drinking and Sex Among College Students: A Longitudinal Measurement Burst Design

    PubMed Central

    Maggs, Jennifer L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2015-01-01

    Daily links between alcohol use and sexual behaviors were examined in a longitudinal study of college students. Hierarchical linear models predicted sexual behaviors by characteristics of persons (N=731; Level 3), semesters (N=4,345, Level 2), and days (N=56,372, Level 1). On a given day, consuming more drinks and binge drinking were associated with greater odds of kissing, touching, oral sex, and penetrative sex. Consistent with alcohol myopia and expectancy theories, associations between binge drinking and sexual behaviors were stronger for students not in romantic relationships, for students with stronger alcohol-sex expectancies, and for oral and penetrative sex. Findings suggest that within-day links between alcohol use and sexual behaviors are evident across college, with variations based on individual and relationship factors. PMID:26052189

  2. Longitudinal impedance of RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Mernick, K.

    2015-05-03

    The longitudinal impedance of the two RHIC rings has been measured using the effect of potential well distortion on longitudinal Schottky measurements. For the blue RHIC ring Im(Z/n) = 1.5±0.2Ω. For the yellow ring Im(Z/n) = 5.4±1Ω.

  3. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sawiak, Stephen J.; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R.; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L.; McLaughlan, Clive J.; Bawden, C. Simon; Palmer, David N.; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A. Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26161747

  4. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L; McLaughlan, Clive J; Bawden, C Simon; Palmer, David N; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26161747

  5. Insightful practice: a reliable measure for medical revalidation

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Bruce; Sullivan, Frank M; Mercer, Stewart W; Russell, Andrew; Bruce, David A

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical revalidation decisions need to be reliable if they are to reassure on the quality and safety of professional practice. This study tested an innovative method in which general practitioners (GPs) were assessed on their reflection and response to a set of externally specified feedback. Setting and participants 60 GPs and 12 GP appraisers in the Tayside region of Scotland, UK. Methods A feedback dataset was specified as (1) GP-specific data collected by GPs themselves (patient and colleague opinion; open book self-evaluated knowledge test; complaints) and (2) Externally collected practice-level data provided to GPs (clinical quality and prescribing safety). GPs' perceptions of whether the feedback covered UK General Medical Council specified attributes of a ‘good doctor’ were examined using a mapping exercise. GPs' professionalism was examined in terms of appraiser assessment of GPs' level of insightful practice, defined as: engagement with, insight into and appropriate action on feedback data. The reliability of assessment of insightful practice and subsequent recommendations on GPs' revalidation by face-to-face and anonymous assessors were investigated using Generalisability G-theory. Main outcome measures Coverage of General Medical Council attributes by specified feedback and reliability of assessor recommendations on doctors' suitability for revalidation. Results Face-to-face assessment proved unreliable. Anonymous global assessment by three appraisers of insightful practice was highly reliable (G=0.85), as were revalidation decisions using four anonymous assessors (G=0.83). Conclusions Unlike face-to-face appraisal, anonymous assessment of insightful practice offers a valid and reliable method to decide GP revalidation. Further validity studies are needed. PMID:22653078

  6. Predicting Progression of ABCA4-Associated Retinal Degenerations Based on Longitudinal Measurements of the Leading Disease Front

    PubMed Central

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Swider, Malgorzata; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Stone, Edwin M.; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the progression of the earliest stage of disease in ABCA4-associated retinal degenerations (RDs). Methods Near-infrared excited reduced-illuminance autofluorescence imaging was acquired across the retina up to 80 degrees eccentricity in 44 patients with two ABCA4 alleles. The eccentricity of the leading disease front (LDF) corresponding to the earliest stage of disease was measured along the four meridians. A mathematical model describing the expansion of the LDF was developed based on 6 years of longitudinal follow-up. Results The extent of LDF along the superior, inferior, and temporal meridians showed a wide spectrum from 3.5 to 70 degrees. In patients with longitudinal data, the average centrifugal expansion rate was 2 degrees per year. The nasal extent of LDF between the fovea and ONH ranged from 4.3 to 16.5 degrees and expanded at 0.35 degrees per year. The extent of LDF beyond ONH ranged from 19 to 75 degrees and expanded on average at 2 degrees per year. A mathematical model fit well to the longitudinal data describing the expansion of the LDF. Conclusions The eccentricity of the LDF in ABCA4-RD shows a continuum from parafovea to far periphery along all four meridians consistent with a wide spectrum of severity observed clinically. The model of progression may provide a quantitative prediction of the LDF expansion based on the age and eccentricity of the LDF at a baseline visit, and thus contribute significantly to the enrollment of candidates appropriate for clinical trials planning specific interventions, efficacy outcomes, and durations. PMID:26377081

  7. Assessing Quality of Diabetes Care by Measuring Longitudinal Changes in Hemoglobin A1c in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Wes; Wang, Hongwei; Xie, Minge; Kolassa, John; Rajan, Mangala; Tseng, Chin-Lin; Crystal, Stephen; Zhang, Quanwu; Vardi, Yehuda; Pogach, Leonard; Safford, Monika M

    2005-01-01

    Context A1c levels are widely used to assess quality of diabetes care provided by health care systems. Currently, cross-sectional measures are commonly used for such assessments. Objective To study within-patient longitudinal changes in A1c levels at Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities as an alternative to cross-sectional measures of quality of diabetes care. Design Longitudinal study using institutional data on individual patient A1c level over time (October 1, 1998–September 30, 2000) with time variant and invariant covariates. Setting One hundred and twenty-five VHA facilities nationwide, October 1, 1998–September 30, 2000. Patients Diabetic veteran users with A1c measurement performed using National Glycosylated Hemoglobin Standardization Project certified A1c lab assay methods. Exposures Characteristics unlikely to reflect quality of care, but known to influence A1c levels, demographics, and baseline illness severity. Main Outcome Measure Monthly change in A1c for average patient cared for at each facility. Results The preponderance of facilities showed monthly declines in within-patient A1c over the study period (mean change of −0.0148 A1c units per month, range −0.074 to 0.042). Individual facilities varied in their monthly change, with 105 facilities showing monthly declines (70 significant at .05 level) and 20 showing monthly increases (5 significant at .05 level). Case-mix adjustment resulted in modest changes (mean change of −0.0131 case-mix adjusted A1c units per month, range −0.079 to 0.043). Facilities were ranked from worst to best, with attached 90 percent confidence intervals. Among the bottom 10 ranked facilities, four remained within the bottom decile with 90 percent confidence. Conclusions There is substantial variation in facility-level longitudinal changes in A1c levels. We propose that evaluation of change in A1c levels over time can be used as a new measure to reflect quality of care provided to populations of

  8. Single and double spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering measured with CLAS and a longitudinally polarized proton target

    SciTech Connect

    Pisano, S.; Biselli, A.; Niccolai, S.; Seder, E.; Guidal, M.; Mirazita, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, B.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D. G.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacCormick, M.; MacGregor, Ian J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Meyer, C. A.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatie, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Turisini, M.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2015-03-19

    Single-beam, single-target, and double-spin asymmetries for hard exclusive photon production on the proton e→p→e'p'γ are presented. The data were taken at Jefferson Lab using the CLAS detector and a longitudinally polarized 14NH3 target. The three asymmetries were measured in 165 4-dimensional kinematic bins, covering the widest kinematic range ever explored simultaneously for beam and target-polarization observables in the valence quark region. The kinematic dependences of the obtained asymmetries are discussed and compared to the predictions of models of Generalized Parton Distributions. As a result, the measurement of three DVCS spin observables at the same kinematic points allows a quasi-model-independent extraction of the imaginary parts of the H and H~ Compton Form Factors, which give insight into the electric and axial charge distributions of valence quarks in the proton.

  9. Practical Experience of Discharge Measurement in Flood Conditions with ADP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, A.; Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate discharge estimation is important for an efficient river basin management and especially for flood forecasting. The traditional way of estimating the discharge in hydrological practice is to measure the water stage and to convert the recorded water stage values into discharge by using the single-valued rating curve .Relationship between the stage and discharge values of the rating curve for the extreme events are usually extrapolated by using different mathematical methods and are not directly measured. Our practice shows that by using the Accoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP) instrument we can record the actual relation between the water stage and the flow velocity at the occurrence of flood waves very successfully. Measurement in flood conditions it is not easy task, because of high water surface velocity and large amounts of sediments in the water and floating objects on the surface like branches, bushes, trees, piles and others which can also easily damage ADP instrument. We made several measurements in such extreme events on the Sava River down to the nuclear power plant Kr\\vsko where we have install fixed cable way. During the several measurement with traditional "moving-boat" measurement technique a mowing bed phenomenon was clearly seen. Measuring flow accurately using ADP that uses the "moving-boat" technique, the system needs a reference against which to relate water velocities to. This reference is river bed and must not move. During flood events we detected difficulty finding a static bed surface to which to relate water velocities. This is caused by motion of the surface layer of bed material or also sediments suspended in the water near bed very densely. So these traditional »moving-boat« measurement techniques that we normally use completely fail. Using stationary measurement method to making individual velocity profile measurements, using an Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP), at certain time at fixed locations across the width of a stream gave

  10. Reference intervals, longitudinal analyses, and index of individuality of commonly measured laboratory variables in captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reference intervals, perform longitudinal analyses, and determine the index of individuality (IoI) of 8 hematologic, and 13 biochemical and electrophoretic variables for a group of captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Reference intervals were determined from blood samples collected during annual wellness examinations for 41 eagles (23 male and 18 female) with ages ranging between 6 and 43 years (18.7 +/- 7.4, mean +/- SD) at the time of sample collection. Longitudinal analyses and IoI were determined for measured hematologic, biochemical, and protein electrophoretic variables, both individually and as a group, for a subset of 16 eagles (10 male and 6 female) during a 12-year period. This smaller group of eagles ranged in age between 2 and 20 years at the start of the study period, and between 14 and 32 years (21.9 +/- 5.0, mean +/- SD) at the end of the study period. Significant increases with age within the group of 16 eagles were observed only for red blood cells, percent heterophils, total protein, and beta-globulin protein fraction, while albumin:globulin decreased significantly with age. A low IoI (> or = 1.4) was determined for all hematologic and biochemical variables except gamma globulins, which had high IoI (< or = 0.6) for 3 individuals within the subset of 16. PMID:25115040

  11. Who are the young children for whom best practices in reading are ineffective? An experimental and longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fuchs, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify student characteristics that reliably predict responsiveness and nonresponsiveness to generally effective early literacy interventions. Participants were 104 children, including 7 with special needs and Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), who were tested in kindergarten and first grade. Responsiveness/nonresponsiveness status was determined after 2 years during which children participated in best practice instruction (a) in kindergarten and first grade, (b) in kindergarten only, (c) in first grade only, or (d) in neither year. This facilitated the study of three groups. Always responsive students met responsiveness criteria in both years. Sometimes responsive students met the criteria in only one year. Nonresponsive students did not meet the criteria in either year. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant function analysis indicated that the three groups were reliably different from one another on measures of problem behavior, verbal memory, sentence imitation, syntactic awareness, vocabulary, naming speed, and segmentation. A combination of naming speed, vocabulary, sentence imitation, problem behavior, and amount of intervention correctly predicted 82.1% of nonresponsive students, 30.0% of sometimes responsive students, and 84.1% of always responsive students. Fifty students from kindergarten and first grade were tested again at the end of what should have been their third-grade year. All but 1 of the nonresponsive students who received intervention had been identified as requiring special education and had an IEP with reading goals. PMID:17004674

  12. Practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in normal aging vs. incident mild cognitive impairment and dementia in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Machulda, Mary M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Christianson, Teresa J.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in a population based cohort classified as clinically normal at their initial evaluation. We examined 1390 individuals with a median age of 78.1 years and re-evaluated them up to four times at approximate 15 month intervals, with an average follow-up time of five years. Of the 1390 participants, 947 (69%) individuals remained cognitively normal, 397 (29%) progressed to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 46 (3%) to dementia. The stable normal group showed an initial practice effect in all domains which was sustained in memory and visuospatial reasoning. There was only a slight decline in attention and language after visit 3. We combined individuals with incident MCI and dementia to form one group representing those who declined. The incident MCI/dementia group showed an unexpected practice effect in memory from baseline to visit 2, with a significant decline thereafter. This group did not demonstrate practice effects in any other domain and showed a downward trajectory in all domains at each evaluation. Modeling cognitive change in an epidemiologic sample may serve as a useful benchmark for evaluating cognitive change in future intervention studies. PMID:24041121

  13. Techniques for the measurement of body composition: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Jebb, S A; Elia, M

    1993-11-01

    This paper discusses some of the practical aspects of both reference body composition methods (densitometry, isotope dilution methods, in vivo neutron activation analysis, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance imaging) and bedsides or field techniques (weight and height indices, skinfold thicknesses impedance/resistance, near infra-red interactance and 24 hour creatinine excretion). Some techniques measure gross composition, in terms of fat and fat-free mass, or the components of fat-free tissue, such as water, mineral and protein, while other methods measure the mass of individual tissues, organs or body segments. The choice of a specific method for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost, radiation exposure, and the need for observer training. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind. PMID:8281219

  14. Measurement of parity-violating spin asymmetries in W± production at midrapidity in longitudinally polarized p +p collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Connors, M.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danley, T. W.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Diss, P. B.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; D'Orazio, L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; Hashimoto, K.; Hayano, R.; Hayashi, S.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isinhue, A.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimelman, B.; Kinney, E.; Kistenev, E.; Kitamura, R.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kofarago, M.; Komkov, B.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Krizek, F.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liu, M. X.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Maruyama, T.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Midori, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Miller, A. J.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohapatra, S.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagashima, K.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nishimura, S.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nukariya, A.; Nyanin, A. S.; Obayashi, H.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oide, H.; Okada, K.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ramson, B. J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Rinn, T.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Slunečka, M.; Snowball, M.; Solano, S.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tennant, E.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Voas, B.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Whitaker, S.; White, A. S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Woody, C. L.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Younus, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhou, S.; Zou, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We present midrapidity measurements from the PHENIX experiment of large parity-violating single-spin asymmetries of high transverse momentum electrons and positrons from W±/Z decays, produced in longitudinally polarized p +p collisions at center of mass energies of √{s }=500 and 510 GeV. These asymmetries allow direct access to the antiquark polarized parton distribution functions due to the parity-violating nature of the W -boson coupling to quarks and antiquarks. The results presented are based on data collected in 2011, 2012, and 2013 with an integrated luminosity of 240 pb-1 , which exceeds previous PHENIX published results by a factor of more than 27. These high Q2 data probe the parton structure of the proton at W mass scale and provide an important addition to our understanding of the antiquark parton helicity distribution functions at an intermediate Bjorken x value of roughly MW/√{s }=0.16 .

  15. Design and RF measurements of an X-band accelerating structure for linearizing the longitudinal emittance at SPARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesini, D.; Falone, A.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palpini, F.; Palumbo, L.; Spataro, B.

    2005-12-01

    The paper presents the design of an X-band accelerating section for linearizing the longitudinal phase space in the Frascati Linac Coherent Light Source (SPARC). The nine cells structure, operating on the π standing wave mode, is fed by a central coupler and has been designed to obtain a 42 MV/m accelerating gradient. The two-dimensional (2D) profile has been obtained using the electromagnetic codes Superfish and Oscar-2D while the coupler has been designed using HFSS. Bead-pull measurements made on a copper prototype have been performed and the results are illustrated and compared with the numerical predictions. Mechanical details of the realized prototype and RF properties of the structure as a function of the assembly characteristics are also discussed.

  16. Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of a 10-Item Decisional Balance Scale: Longitudinal and Subgroup Examination within an Adult Diabetic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Michael A.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the longitudinal and subgroup measurement properties of a 10-item, physical activity decisional balance scale, previously published by Plotnikoff, Blanchard, Hotz, and Rhodes (2001), within a diabetic sample of Canadian adults. Results indicated that a three-factor measurement model consistently improved model fit compared to…

  17. Codifference as a practical tool to measure interdependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Chechkin, Aleksei; Gajda, Janusz; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2015-03-01

    Correlation and spectral analysis represent the standard tools to study interdependence in statistical data. However, for the stochastic processes with heavy-tailed distributions such that the variance diverges, these tools are inadequate. The heavy-tailed processes are ubiquitous in nature and finance. We here discuss codifference as a convenient measure to study statistical interdependence, and we aim to give a short introductory review of its properties. By taking different known stochastic processes as generic examples, we present explicit formulas for their codifferences. We show that for the Gaussian processes codifference is equivalent to covariance. For processes with finite variance these two measures behave similarly with time. For the processes with infinite variance the covariance does not exist, however, the codifference is relevant. We demonstrate the practical importance of the codifference by extracting this function from simulated as well as real data taken from turbulent plasma of fusion device and financial market. We conclude that the codifference serves as a convenient practical tool to study interdependence for stochastic processes with both infinite and finite variances as well.

  18. The Role of Sleep Disturbances in the Longitudinal Relationship Between Psychosocial Working Conditions, Measured by Work Demands and Support, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Because work demands and lack of social support seem to be prospectively linked to sleep problems, and sleep problems are linked to depression, sleep problems may play a role in the relationship between these work characteristics and depressive symptoms. In order to shed more light on this relationship, the current study investigated whether disturbed sleep is a mediator in the longitudinal relationships between work demands, social support, and depression. Design: Longitudinal cohort study with repeated survey measures on four occasions. Setting: Swedish workforce. Participants: 2,017 working participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. Measurements and results: Work demands (four items) and social support (six items) were assessed with the Demand Control Questionnaire, disturbed sleep (four items) with the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire, and depressive symptoms with a brief subscale (six items) from the Symptom Checklist. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were tested. The work characteristics, and disturbed sleep, were found to be separately associated with depressive symptoms in subsequent waves. However, only demands were found to be longitudinally related to subsequent disturbed sleep. The longitudinal autoregressive models supported a weak mediating role of disturbed sleep in the relationship between demands and depressive symptoms (standardized beta 0.008, P < 0.001), but not between support and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: These results indicate that higher demands at work might cause an increase in depressive symptoms, in part, by increasing disturbed sleep, although the mediated effect was relatively small compared to the total effect. Citation: Magnusson Hanson LL, Chungkham HS, Åkerstedt T, Westerlund H. The role of sleep disturbances in the longitudinal relationship between psychosocial working conditions, measured by work

  19. Fiber Longitudinal Measurements for Predicting White Speck Contents of Dyed Cotton Fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber Image Analysis System (FIAS) was developed to provide an automatic method for measuring cotton maturity from fiber snippets or cross-sections . An uncombed cotton bundle is chopped and sprayed on a microscopic slide. The snippets are imaged sequentially on an microscope and measured with custo...

  20. Establishing Measurement Equivalence and Invariance in Longitudinal Data With Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Adam W.; Lautenschlager, Gary J.; Hecht, Janet E.

    2005-01-01

    If measurement invariance does not hold over 2 or more measurement occasions, differences in observed scores are not directly interpretable. Golembiewski, Billingsley, and Yeager (1976) identified 2 types of psychometric differences over time as beta change and gamma change. Gamma change is a fundamental change in thinking about the nature of a…

  1. A Measure for the Reliability of a Rating Scale Based on Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laenen, Annouschka; Alonso, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A new measure for reliability of a rating scale is introduced, based on the classical definition of reliability, as the ratio of the true score variance and the total variance. Clinical trial data can be employed to estimate the reliability of the scale in use, whenever repeated measurements are taken. The reliability is estimated from the…

  2. The Impact of Social Media on Dissemination and Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Gronseth, Gary; Dubinsky, Richard; Penfold-Murray, Rebecca; Cox, Julie; Bever Jr, Christopher; Martins, Yolanda; Rheaume, Carol; Shouse, Denise; Getchius, Thomas SD

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are statements that provide recommendations to optimize patient care for a specific clinical problem or question. Merely reading a guideline rarely leads to implementation of recommendations. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has a formal process of guideline development and dissemination. The last few years have seen a burgeoning of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn, and newer methods of dissemination such as podcasts and webinars. The role of these media in guideline dissemination has not been studied. Systematic evaluation of dissemination methods and comparison of the effectiveness of newer methods with traditional methods is not available. It is also not known whether specific dissemination methods may be more effectively targeted to specific audiences. Objective Our aim was to (1) develop an innovative dissemination strategy by adding social media-based dissemination methods to traditional methods for the AAN clinical practice guidelines “Complementary and alternative medicine in multiple sclerosis” (“CAM in MS”) and (2) evaluate whether the addition of social media outreach improves awareness of the CPG and knowledge of CPG recommendations, and affects implementation of those recommendations. Methods Outcomes were measured by four surveys in each of the two target populations: patients and physicians/clinicians (“physicians”). The primary outcome was the difference in participants’ intent to discuss use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with their physicians or patients, respectively, after novel dissemination, as compared with that after traditional dissemination. Secondary outcomes were changes in awareness of the CPG, knowledge of CPG content, and behavior regarding CAM use in multiple sclerosis (MS). Results Response rates were 25.08% (622/2480) for physicians and 43.5% (348/800) for patients. Awareness of the CPG increased after traditional

  3. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  4. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, R.; Vigo, A.; Fedeli, L.M.G.; Chambless, L.E.; Bensenor, I.; Schmidt, M.I.; Vidigal, P.G.; Castilhos, C.D.; Duncan, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008–2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31–0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60–0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  5. Longitudinal Association of Preference-Weighted Health-Related Quality of Life Measures and Substance Use Disorder Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Tripathi, Shanti; French, Michael; McCollister, Kathryn; Rapp, Richard C.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim Examine the construct validity of generic preference-weighted health-related quality of life measures in a sample of patients with a substance use disorder (SUD). Design Longitudinal (baseline and six-month follow-up) data from a research study that evaluated interventions to improve linkage and engagement with SUD treatment. Setting A central intake unit that referred patients to seven SUD treatment centers in a Midwestern US metropolitan area. Participants 495 persons with a SUD. Measurements Participants completed two preference-weighted measures: self-administered Quality of Well-Being scale (QWB-SA) and standard gamble weighted Medical Outcomes Study SF-12 (SF-6D). They were also administered two clinical assessments: all seven domains of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and a symptom checklist based on the DSM-IV. Construct validity was determined via the relationships between disease-specific SUD and generic measures. Findings In unadjusted analyses, the QWB-SA and SF-6D change scores were significantly correlated with six ASI subscale change scores, but not with employment status. In adjusted repeated measures analyses, 3/7 ASI subscale scores were significant predictors of QWB-SA and 5/7 ASI subscale scores were significant predictors of SF-6D. Abstinence and problematic use at follow-up were significant predictors of QWB-SA and SF-6D. Effect sizes ranged from 0.352 to 0.400 for abstinence and −0.484 to −0.585 for problematic use. Conclusions Generic preference-weighted health-related quality of life measures show moderate to good associations with substance-use specific measures and in certain circumstances can be used in their stead. This study provides further support for the use of the QWB-SA and SF-6D in clinical and economic evaluations of SUD interventions. PMID:21205046

  6. Increasing the sensitivity of NMR diffusion measurements by paramagnetic longitudinal relaxation enhancement, with application to ribosome–nascent chain complexes

    PubMed Central

    Cassaignau, Anaïs M. E.; Cabrita, Lisa D.

    2016-01-01

    The translational diffusion of macromolecules can be examined non-invasively by stimulated echo (STE) NMR experiments to accurately determine their molecular sizes. These measurements can be important probes of intermolecular interactions and protein folding and unfolding, and are crucial in monitoring the integrity of large macromolecular assemblies such as ribosome–nascent chain complexes (RNCs). However, NMR studies of these complexes can be severely constrained by their slow tumbling, low solubility (with maximum concentrations of up to 10 μM), and short lifetimes resulting in weak signal, and therefore continuing improvements in experimental sensitivity are essential. Here we explore the use of the paramagnetic longitudinal relaxation enhancement (PLRE) agent NiDO2A on the sensitivity of 15N XSTE and SORDID heteronuclear STE experiments, which can be used to monitor the integrity of these unstable complexes. We exploit the dependence of the PLRE effect on the gyromagnetic ratio and electronic relaxation time to accelerate recovery of 1H magnetization without adversely affecting storage on Nz during diffusion delays or introducing significant transverse relaxation line broadening. By applying the longitudinal relaxation-optimized SORDID pulse sequence together with NiDO2A to 70S Escherichia coli ribosomes and RNCs, NMR diffusion sensitivity enhancements of up to 4.5-fold relative to XSTE are achieved, alongside ~1.9-fold improvements in two-dimensional NMR sensitivity, without compromising the sample integrity. We anticipate these results will significantly advance the use of NMR to probe dynamic regions of ribosomes and other large, unstable macromolecular assemblies. PMID:26253948

  7. Longitudinal Transient Elastography Measurements Used in Follow-up for Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Verdievel, Hugo; Vande Velde, Saskia; De Bruyne, Ruth; De Looze, Danny; Verhelst, Xavier; Geerts, Anja; Robberecht, Eddy; Van Vlierberghe, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD) is diagnosed using a combination of criteria. Transient elastography (TE), an ultrasonographic method to evaluate liver stiffness, can differentiate patients with and without liver disease. This retrospective study (2007-2013) aimed to detect developing CFLD using consequent TE measurements. All cystic fibrosis patients with TE measurements between 2007 and 2013 (n = 150, median age 17 (9-24) y) were included, of which 118 had a median of three (range, 2-4) measurements with an interval of 1 (1-2) y. Twenty (14%) had CFLD at the first TE measurement; five (3%) developed CFLD during follow-up. The median TE value in CFLD was 14 kPa (8.7-32.2) compared with 5.3 (4.9-5.7) in cystic fibrosis patients without liver disease (CFnoLD; p = 0.0001). In CFnoLD, TE was correlated with age (p = 0.031). A TE result >6.8 kPa had a sensitivity of 91.5% and a specificity of 91.7% in predicting CFLD, according to the receiver operating characteristics analysis. It also has a positive predictive value of 88.6% and a negative predictive value of 86.9%, increasing to 91.7% and 98%, respectively, in patients at risk (<14 y) for developing CFLD. Patients with developing CFLD had progressively increasing consecutive TE measurements. PMID:26806442

  8. Measurement of impulsivity: construct coherence, longitudinal stability, and relationship with externalizing problems in middle childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Olson, S L; Schilling, E M; Bates, J E

    1999-04-01

    This study focused on the assessment of impulsivity in nonreferred school-aged children. Children had been participants since infancy in the Bloomington Longitudinal Study. Individual differences in impulsivity were assessed in the laboratory when children were 6 (44 boys, 36 girls) and 8 (50 boys, 39 girls) years of age. Impulsivity constructs derived from these assessments were related to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing problems across the school-age period (ages 7-10) and to parent and self-ratings of these outcomes across adolescence (ages 14-17). Consistent with prior research, individual measures of impulsivity factor-analyzed into subdimensions reflecting children's executive control capabilities, delay of gratification, and ability or willingness to sustain attention and compliance during work tasks. Children's performance on the main interactive task index, inhibitory control, showed a signficant level of stability between ages 6 and 8. During the school-age years, children who performed impulsively on the laboratory measures were perceived by mothers and by teachers as more impulsive, inattentive, and overactive than others, affirming the external validity of the impulsivity constructs. Finally, impulsive behavior in the laboratory at ages 6 and 8 predicted maternal and self-ratings of externalizing problem behavior across adolescence, supporting the long-term predictive value of the laboratory-derived impulsivity measures. PMID:10400061

  9. Why use automated office blood pressure measurements in clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Andreadis, Emmanuel A; Angelopoulos, Epameinondas T; Agaliotis, Gerasimos D; Tsakanikas, Athanasios P; Mousoulis, George P

    2011-09-01

    Automated office blood pressure (AOBP) measurement with the patient resting alone in a quiet examining room can eliminate the white-coat effect associated with conventional readings taken by manual sphygmomanometer. The key to reducing the white-coat response appears to be multiple blood pressure (BP) readings taken in a non-observer office setting, thus eliminating any interaction that could provoke an office-induced increase in BP. Furthermore, AOBP readings have shown a higher correlation with the mean awake ambulatory BP compared with BP readings recorded in routine clinical practice. Although there is a paucity of studies connecting AOBP with organ damage, AOBP values were recently found to be equally associated with left ventricular mass index as those of ambulatory BP. This concludes that in contrast to routine manual office BP, AOBP readings compare favourably with 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements in the appraisal of cardiac remodelling and, as such, could be complementary to ambulatory readings in a way similar to home BP measurements. PMID:21950780

  10. Frailty measurement in research and clinical practice: A review.

    PubMed

    Dent, Elsa; Kowal, Paul; Hoogendijk, Emiel O

    2016-06-01

    One of the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in older people is frailty. Frailty occurs when multiple physiological systems decline, to the extent that an individual's cellular repair mechanisms cannot maintain system homeostasis. This review gives an overview of the definitions and measurement of frailty in research and clinical practice, including: Fried's frailty phenotype; Rockwood and Mitnitski's Frailty Index (FI); the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) Index; Edmonton Frailty Scale (EFS); the Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illness and Loss of weight (FRAIL) Index; Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS); the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI); Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI); PRISMA-7; Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI), Sherbrooke Postal Questionnaire (SPQ); the Gérontopôle Frailty Screening Tool (GFST) and the Kihon Checklist (KCL), among others. We summarise the main strengths and limitations of existing frailty measurements, and examine how well these measurements operationalise frailty according to Clegg's guidelines for frailty classification - that is: their accuracy in identifying frailty; their basis on biological causative theory; and their ability to reliably predict patient outcomes and response to potential therapies. PMID:27039014

  11. The mathematical tale of two teachers: A longitudinal study relating mathematics instructional practices to level of intellectual development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, Joann; Meier, Sherry L.; Lubinski, Cheryl A.

    2006-05-01

    In this article the development of two teachers as they make the transition from pre-service teachers to experienced teachers is examined. While these teachers participated in the same mathematics methods course and similar collaborative environments in their practicum experiences, their mathematics classroom instructional practices revealed stark differences by the time they were experienced teachers. In an effort to investigate these differences, the teachers' beliefs were explored in relation to those promoted in their pre-service course and in relation to their implementation of current mathematics education reform practices.

  12. Longitudinal Prediction of Child Outcomes from Differing Measures of Parenting in a Low-Income Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha J.; Weinfield, Nancy S.; Gallagher, Megan; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Ogawa, John R.; Egeland, Byron; Tabors, Patton O.; De Temple, Jeanne M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined predictions from preschool parenting measures to middle childhood cognitive and socioemotional child outcomes to explore whether parenting assessment methodologies that require more time, training, and expense yield better predictions of child outcomes than less intensive methodologies. Mother-child dyads (N=278) in low-income…

  13. Measuring Knowledge Integration Learning of Energy Topics: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Ryoo, Kihyun; Linn, Marcia C.; Sato, Elissa; Svihla, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers call for inquiry learning in science, science assessments rarely capture the impact of inquiry instruction. This paper reports on the development and validation of assessments designed to measure middle-school students' progress in gaining integrated understanding of energy while studying an inquiry-oriented curriculum. The…

  14. Longitudinal Approaches to Stages of Change Measurement: Effects on Cognitive and Behavioral Physical Activity Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Martinez, Carissa; Marsh, Herbert W.; Jackson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The transition from school to further education and work is one of immense change that impacts physical activity attitudes and engagement in adulthood. The Stages of Change (SOC) model, which resides under the transtheoretical framework, has been proposed as one way to measure and evaluate physical activity uptake and maintenance. The current…

  15. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry teaching laboratory is an essential component to developing evidence-based laboratory curricula. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was developed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences for learning in the chemistry…

  16. Longitudinal measurements of syrinx size in a rat model of posttraumatic syringomyelia.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Elmira; Bilston, Lynne E; Song, Xin; Bongers, Andre; Stoodley, Marcus A; Cheng, Shaokoon; Hemley, Sarah J

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Syringomyelia pathophysiology is commonly studied using rodent models. However, in vivo studies of posttraumatic syringomyelia have been limited by the size of animals and lack of reliable noninvasive evaluation techniques. Imaging the rat spinal cord is particularly challenging because the spinal cord diameter is approximately 1-3 mm, and pathological lesions within the spinal cord parenchyma are even smaller. The standard technique has been histological evaluation, but this has its limitations. The aim of the present study was to determine whether syrinx size could be reliably measured using a preclinical high-field MRI animal system in a rat model of posttraumatic syringomyelia. METHODS The authors used an existing rat model of posttraumatic syringomyelia, which was created using a controlled pneumatic compression device to produce the initial spinal cord injury, followed by a subarachnoid injection of kaolin to produce arachnoiditis. T2-weighted MRI was performed on each animal using a 9.4-T scanner at 7, 10, and 13 weeks after injury. Animals were killed and syrinx sizes were calculated from in vivo MRI and histological studies. RESULTS MRI measurements of syrinx volume and length were closely correlated to histological measurements across all time points (Pearson product moment correlation coefficient r = ± 0.93 and 0.79, respectively). CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that high-field T2-weighted MRI can be used to measure syrinx size, and data correlate well with syrinx size measured using histological methods. Preclinical MRI may be a valuable noninvasive technique for tracking syrinx formation and enlargement in animal models of syringomyelia. PMID:26918577

  17. How Does Longitudinally Measured Maternal Expressed Emotion Affect Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms of Adolescents from the General Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; Keijsers, Loes; Klimstra, Theo A.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Hawk, Skyler; Branje, Susan J. T.; Frijns, Tom; Wijsbroek, Saskia A. M.; van Lier, Pol; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In previous studies, maternal expressed emotion (EE) has been found to be a good predictor of the course of adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. However, these studies have been cross-section as opposed to longitudinal. The goal of this study is to examine longitudinal data of perceived maternal EE and adolescent…

  18. Accuracy and repeatability of Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) for measuring knee laxity in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Fleming, B C; Peura, G D; Abate, J A; Beynnon, B D

    2001-10-01

    Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) can be used to assess temporal changes in anterior-posterior (A-P) knee laxity. However, the accuracy and precision of RSA is dependent on many factors and should be independently evaluated for a particular application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of RSA for measuring A-P knee laxity. The specific aims were to assess the variation or "noise" inherent to RSA, to determine the reproducibility of RSA for repeated A-P laxity testing, and to assess the accuracy of these measurements. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment utilized three rigid models of the tibiofemoral joint to assess the noise and to compare digitization errors of two independent examiners. No differences were found in the kinematic outputs of the RSA due to examiner, repeated trials, or the model used. In a second experiment, A-P laxity values between the A-P shear load limits of +/-60 N of five cadaver goat knees were measured to assess the error associated with repeated testing. The RSA laxity values were also compared to those obtained from a custom designed linkage system. The mean A-P laxity values with the knee 30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees of flexion for the ACL-intact goat knee (+/-95% confidence interval) were 0.8 (+/-0.25), 0.9 (+/-0.29), and 0.4 (+/-0.22) mm, respectively. In the ACL-deficient knee, the A-P laxity values increased by an order of magnitude to 8.8 (+/-1.39), 7.6 (+/-1.32), and 3.1 (+/-1.20)mm, respectively. No significant differences were found between the A-P laxity values measured by RSA and the independent measurement technique. A highly significant linear relationship (r(2)=0.83) was also found between these techniques. This study suggests that the RSA method is an accurate and precise means to measure A-P knee laxity for repeated testing over time. PMID:11522316

  19. Healthcare improvement as planned system change or complex responsive processes? a longitudinal case study in general practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in how to implement evidence-based practices into routine health care has never been greater. Primary care faces challenges in managing the increasing burden of chronic disease in an ageing population. Reliable prescriptions for translating knowledge into practice, however, remain elusive, despite intense research and publication activity. This study seeks to explore this dilemma in general practice by challenging the current way of thinking about healthcare improvement and asking what can be learned by looking at change through a complexity lens. Methods This paper reports the local level of an embedded case study of organisational change for better chronic illness care over more than a decade. We used interviews, document review and direct observation to explore how improved chronic illness care developed in one practice. This formed a critical case to compare, using pattern matching logic, to the common prescription for local implementation of best evidence and a rival explanation drawn from complexity sciences interpreted through modern sociology and psychology. Results The practice changed continuously over more than a decade to deliver better chronic illness care in line with research findings and policy initiatives – re-designing care processes, developing community linkages, supporting patient self-management, using guidelines and clinical information systems, and integrating nurses into the practice team. None of these improvements was designed and implemented according to an explicit plan in response to a documented gap in chronic disease care. The process that led to high quality chronic illness care exhibited clear complexity elements of co-evolution, non-linearity, self-organisation, emergence and edge of chaos dynamics in a network of agents and relationships where a stable yet evolving way of organizing emerged from local level communicative interaction, power relating and values based choices. Conclusions The current discourse

  20. A method for eliminating Faraday rotation in cryostat windows in longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Polewko-Klim, A. Uba, S.; Uba, L.

    2014-07-15

    A solution to the problem of disturbing effect of the background Faraday rotation in the cryostat windows on longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect (LMOKE) measured under vacuum conditions and/or at low temperatures is proposed. The method for eliminating the influence of Faraday rotation in cryostat windows is based on special arrangement of additional mirrors placed on sample holder. In this arrangement, the orientation of the cryostat window is perpendicular to the light beam direction and parallel to an external magnetic field generated by the H-frame electromagnet. The operation of the LMOKE magnetometer with the special sample holder based on polarization modulation technique with a photo-elastic modulator is theoretically analyzed with the use of Jones matrices, and formulas for evaluating of the actual Kerr rotation and ellipticity of the sample are derived. The feasibility of the method and good performance of the magnetometer is experimentally demonstrated for the LMOKE effect measured in Fe/Au multilayer structures. The influence of imperfect alignment of the magnetometer setup on the Kerr angles, as derived theoretically through the analytic model and verified experimentally, is examined and discussed.

  1. A method for eliminating Faraday rotation in cryostat windows in longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements.

    PubMed

    Polewko-Klim, A; Uba, S; Uba, L

    2014-07-01

    A solution to the problem of disturbing effect of the background Faraday rotation in the cryostat windows on longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect (LMOKE) measured under vacuum conditions and/or at low temperatures is proposed. The method for eliminating the influence of Faraday rotation in cryostat windows is based on special arrangement of additional mirrors placed on sample holder. In this arrangement, the orientation of the cryostat window is perpendicular to the light beam direction and parallel to an external magnetic field generated by the H-frame electromagnet. The operation of the LMOKE magnetometer with the special sample holder based on polarization modulation technique with a photo-elastic modulator is theoretically analyzed with the use of Jones matrices, and formulas for evaluating of the actual Kerr rotation and ellipticity of the sample are derived. The feasibility of the method and good performance of the magnetometer is experimentally demonstrated for the LMOKE effect measured in Fe/Au multilayer structures. The influence of imperfect alignment of the magnetometer setup on the Kerr angles, as derived theoretically through the analytic model and verified experimentally, is examined and discussed. PMID:25085126

  2. Quality control technique to reduce the variability of longitudinal measurement of hemoglobin mass.

    PubMed

    Gough, C E; Sharpe, K; Ashenden, M J; Anson, J M; Saunders, P U; Garvican, L A; Bonetti, D L; Gore, C J; Prommer, N

    2011-12-01

    The sensitivity of the athlete blood passport to detect blood doping may be improved by the inclusion of total hemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)), but the comparability of Hb(mass) from different laboratories is unknown. To optimize detection sensitivity, the analytical variability associated with Hb(mass) measurement must be minimized. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of using quality controls to minimize the variation in Hb(mass) between laboratories. Three simulated laboratories were set up in one location. Nine participants completed three carbon monoxide (CO) re-breathing tests in each laboratory. One participant completed two CO re-breathing tests in each laboratory. Simultaneously, quality controls containing Low (1-3%) and High (8-11%) concentrations of percent carboxyhemoglobin (%HbCO) were measured to compare hemoximeters in each laboratory. Linear mixed modeling was used to estimate the within-subject variation in Hb(mass), expressed as the coefficient of variation, and to estimate the effect of different laboratories. The analytic variation of Hb(mass) was 2.4% when tests were conducted in different laboratories, which reduced to 1.6% when the model accounted for between-laboratory differences. Adjustment of Hb(mass) values using quality controls achieved a comparable analytic variation of 1.7%. The majority of between-laboratory variation in Hb(mass) originated from the difference between hemoximeters, which could be eliminated using appropriate quality controls. PMID:21535184

  3. Maternal feeding practices predict fruit and vegetable consumption in young children. Results of a 12-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jane E; Paxton, Susan J; Brozovic, Anna M

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the prospective relationship between maternal feeding practices and young children's frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and sweets, and also child weight-for-height z-scores. Participants were 60 mothers who completed questionnaires when their children were 1 year old and again when their children were 2 years old. Regression analyses were performed. After controlling for availability and prior child consumption of the target food, maternal use of pressure to eat at 1 year predicted lower child frequency of fruit consumption at 2 years and approached significance for lower vegetable consumption. Maternal modelling of healthy eating at 1 year predicted higher child frequency of vegetable consumption at 2 years. Restriction did not significantly predict child frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables or sweets over time. Child weight-for-height scores at 2 years were predicted by weight-for-height at 1 year but not by feeding practices. The findings suggest that maternal feeding practices can influence child eating at a very young age. Interventions should focus on encouraging parents to model healthy eating to promote healthy eating in children. PMID:21569809

  4. Measurement of R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T} and the Separated Longitudinal and Transverse Structure Functions in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    Yongguang Liang; Michael Christy; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Christopher Armstrong; John Arrington; Arshak Asaturyan; Steven Avery; O. Baker; Douglas Beck; Henk Blok; C.W. Bochna; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Maurice Bouwhuis; Herbert Breuer; Daniel Brown; Antje Bruell; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cochran; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; B. Fox; Liping Gan; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Garrow; David Gaskell; Ashot Gasparian; Don Geesaman; Ronald Gilman; Paul Gueye; Mark Harvey; Roy Holt; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Allison Lung; David Mack; Pete Markowitz; J.W. Martin; Kevin McIlhany; Daniella Mckee; David Meekins; M.A. Miller; Richard Milner; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Robert Mueller; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Thomas O'neill; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Rodney Piercey; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Joerg Reinhold; E. Rollinde; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Philip Roos; Adam Sarty; Reyad Sawafta; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; C. Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Steffen Strauch; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Raphael Tieulent; Vladas Tvaskis; Alicia Uzzle; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Feng Xiong; Lulin Yuan; Markus Zeier; Benedikt Zihlmann; Vitaliy Ziskin

    2004-10-01

    We report on a detailed study of longitudinal strength in the nucleon resonance region, presenting new results from inclusive electron-proton cross sections measured at Jefferson Lab Hall C in the four-momentum transfer range 0.2 < Q{sup 2} < 5.5 GeV{sup 2}. The data have been used to accurately perform over 170 Rosenbluth-type longitudinal/transverse separations. The precision R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T} data are presented here, along with the first separate values of the inelastic structure functions F{sub 1} and F{sub L} in this regime. The resonance longitudinal component is found to be significant. With the new data, quark-hadron duality is observed above Q{sup 2} = 1 GeV{sup 2} in the separated structure functions independently.

  5. Impact of uncertainty in longitudinal T1 measurements on quantification of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Madhava P; Chenevert, Thomas L; Cao, Yue

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the uncertainty in T1 measurement, by estimating the repeatability coefficient (RC) from two repeated scans, in normal appearing brain tissues employing two different T1 mapping methods. All brain MRI scans were performed on a 3 T MR scanner in 10 patients who had low grade/benign tumors and partial brain radiation therapy (RT) without chemotherapy, at pre-RT, 3 weeks into RT, end RT (6 weeks) and 11, 33, and 85 weeks after RT. T1-weighted images were acquired using (1) a spoiled gradient echo sequence with two flip angles (2FA: 5° and 15°) and (2) a progressive saturation recovery sequence (pSR) with five different TR values (100-2000 ms). Manually drawn volumes of interest (VOIs) included left and right normal putamen and thalamus in gray matter, and frontal and parietal white matter, which were distant from tumors and received a total of accumulated radiation doses less than 5 Gy at 3 weeks. No significant changes or even trends in mean T1 from pre-RT to 3 weeks into RT in these VOIs (p ≥ 0.11, Wilcoxon sign test) allowed us to calculate the repeatability statistics of between-subject means of squares, within-subject means of squares, F-score, and RC. The 2FA method produced RCs in the range of (9.7-11.7)% in gray matter and (12.2-14.5)% in white matter; while the pSR method led to RCs ranging from 10.9 to 17.9% in gray matter and 7.5 to 10.3% in white matter. The overall mean (±SD) RCs produced by the two methods, 12.0 (±1.6)% for 2FA and 12.0 (±3.8)% for pSR, were not significantly different (p = 0.97). A similar repeatability in T1 measurement produced by the time efficient 2FA method compared with the time consuming pSR method demonstrates that the 2FA method is desirable to integrate into dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for rapid acquisition. PMID:27358934

  6. Measurement of the longitudinal deuteron spin-structure function in deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    Experiment E143 at SLAC performed deep-inelastic scattering measurements with polarized electrons incident on polarized protons and deuterons. The data for the beam energy of 29 GeV cover the kinematical range of x{sub Bj} > 0.03 and 1 < Q{sup 2} < 12 GeV{sup 2}. From these data, the spin-dependent structure functions g{sub 1} were determined. This dissertation describes the experiment and its analysis and discusses the results. The measured integral of g{sub 1}{sup d} over x from x = 0 to x = 1 is {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup d} = 0.046 {+-} 0.003 (stat){+-}0.004 (syst) at Q{sup 2} = 3 GeV{sup 2} and disagrees by more than three standard deviations with the prediction of the Ellis-Jaffe, sum rule. The data suggest that the quark contribution to the nucleon helicity is 0.35 {+-} 0.05. From the proton data of the same experiment, the integral over the proton spin-structure functional g{sub 1}{sup d} was determined to be {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup p} = 0.127 {+-} 0.003(stat){+-}0.008(syst). By Combining the deuteron data with the proton data, the integral {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup n} was extracted as {minus}0.027 {+-} 0.008 (stat){+-}0.010 (syst). The integral {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup p} {minus} {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup n} is 0.154{+-}0.010(stat) {+-}0.016 (syst) according to the E143 analysis. This result agrees with the important Bjorken sum rule of 0.171 {+-} 0.009 at Q{sup 2} = 3 GeV{sup 2} within less than one standard deviation. Furthermore, results of a separate analysis involving GLAP evolution equations are shown. Data were also collected for beam energies of 16.2 and 9.7 GeV, Results for g{sub 1} at these energies are presented.

  7. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Measurement in Renal Transplantation: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study With Protocol Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juhan; Oh, Young Taik; Joo, Dong Jin; Ma, Bo Gyoung; Lee, A-lan; Lee, Jae Geun; Song, Seung Hwan; Kim, Seung Up; Jung, Dae Chul; Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Yu Seun

    2015-09-01

    Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) is a common cause of kidney allograft loss. Several noninvasive techniques developed to assess tissue fibrosis are widely used to examine the liver. However, relatively few studies have investigated the use of elastographic methods to assess transplanted kidneys. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical implications of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technique in renal transplant patients. A total of 91 patients who underwent living donor renal transplantation between September 2010 and January 2013 were included in this prospective study. Shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI at baseline and predetermined time points (1 week and 6 and 12 months after transplantation). Protocol biopsies were performed at 12 months. Instead of reflecting IF/TA, SWVs were found to be related to time elapsed after transplantation. Mean SWV increased continuously during the first postoperative year (P < 0.001). In addition, mixed model analysis showed no correlation existed between SWV and serum creatinine (r = -0.2426, P = 0.0771). There was also no evidence of a relationship between IF/TA and serum creatinine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.220, P = 0.7648). Furthermore, SWV temporal patterns were dependent on the kidney weight to body weight ratio (KW/BW). In patients with a KW/BW < 3.5 g/kg, mean SWV continuously increased for 12 months, whereas it decreased after 6 months in those with a KW/BW ≥ 3.5 g/kg.No significant correlation was observed between SWV and IF/TA or renal dysfunction. However, SWV was found to be related to the time after transplantation. Renal hemodynamics influenced by KW/BW might impact SWV values. PMID:26426636

  8. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour and ankle brachial index: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in older men

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Tessa J.; Sartini, Claudio; Ellins, Elizabeth A.; Halcox, Julian P.J.; Smith, Kirsten E.; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H.; Jefferis, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Associations between bouts of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and cardiovascular disease, and their mutual independence are not well defined. A low ankle brachial index (ABI ≤0.9) indicates peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is predictive of cardiovascular events and functional impairment. We investigated the independence of PA and SB and the importance of bout duration in relation to ABI using objective measures. Methods 945 men from the British Regional Heart Study, mean age 78.4 y, had concurrent measurements of ABI (Vicorder) and physical activity (Actigraph GT3X accelerometer); 427 men also had accelerometer measurements one year previously and contributed data to longitudinal analyses. Results and conclusion In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for covariates each extra 10 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day was associated with an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.72, 0.91) for a low ABI, a stronger association than for light PA (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75, 0.98). Each extra 30 min of SB was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.07, 1.33) for a low ABI. Associations between moderate and vigorous PA and ABI persisted after adjustment for light PA or SB. Bout lengths for PA and SB were not associated with a low ABI. One year changes in PA or SB were not associated with low ABI. All physical activity and lower levels of SB, regardless of bout duration were inversely associated with ABI; more intense PA showed a stronger association. No associations between changes in PA and ABI were observed, but power may have been limited. PMID:26854973

  9. A Robust System for Longitudinal Knee Joint Edema and Blood Flow Assessment Based on Vector Bioimpedance Measurements.

    PubMed

    Hersek, Sinan; Töreyin, Hakan; Inan, Omer T

    2016-06-01

    We present a robust vector bioimpedance measurement system for longitudinal knee joint health assessment, capable of acquiring high resolution static (slowly varying over the course of hours to days) and dynamic (rapidly varying on the order of milli-seconds) bioresistance and bioreactance signals. Occupying an area of 78×90 mm(2) and consuming 0.25 W when supplied with ±5 V, the front-end achieves a dynamic range of 345 Ω and noise floor of 0.018 mΩrms (resistive) and 0.055 mΩrms (reactive) within a bandwidth of 0.1-20 Hz. A microcontroller allows real-time calibration to minimize errors due to environmental variability (e.g., temperature) that can be experienced outside of lab environments, and enables data storage on a micro secure digital card. The acquired signals are then processed using customized physiology-driven algorithms to extract musculoskeletal (edema) and cardiovascular (local blood volume pulse) features from the knee joint. In a feasibility study, we found statistically significant differences between the injured and contralateral static knee impedance measures for two subjects with recent unilateral knee injury compared to seven controls. Specifically, the impedance was lower for the injured knees, supporting the physiological expectations for increased edema and damaged cell membranes. In a second feasibility study, we demonstrate the sensitivity of the dynamic impedance measures with a cold-pressor test, with a 20 mΩ decrease in the pulsatile resistance associated with increased downstream peripheral vascular resistance. The proposed system will serve as a foundation for future efforts aimed at quantifying joint health status continuously during normal daily life. PMID:26841413

  10. Measurement of the impact of atopic dermatitis on patients' quality of life: a cross-sectional and longitudinal questionnaire study using the Japanese version of Skindex-16.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Yuko; Kawamoto, Kyoko; Kamo, Toshiko; Ueda, Shu; Arikawa, Junko; Kawashima, Makoto

    2004-12-01

    The impact of atopic dermatitis on patients' quality of life was measured using the Japanese version of Skindex-16 in a cross-sectional and longitudinal questionnaire study. One hundred sixty-two adult patients completed Skindex-16 and were followed-up with a standard medical therapy. Three to six months after the initial testing, 135 (83.3%) of the patients again completed Skindex-16 and also answered a general question about whether their skin condition had improved, remained the same, or become worse. The scores of Skindex-16 of 162 patients with atopic dermatitis were significantly higher than those of patients with isolated lesions, particularly in the Symptoms and Emotions scales. Patients with severe atopic dermatitis showed significantly higher scores in the three scales (Symptoms, Emotions, and Functioning), and there was a significant positive correlation between the severity and the 3-scale scores. After the follow-up period, 78 of 135 patients (57.8%) reported that their skin condition had improved. Forty-six patients (34.1%) reported that their skin condition had remained the same, and 11 (8.1%) became worse. Among the patients who said their dermatitis had improved, the scores of Skindex-16 significantly decreased. On the other hand, patients who reported their dermatitis worse showed an increase in the scores. These findings suggest that Skindex-16 responsively measures the disease severity and clinical change in the estimation of the effects of atopic dermatitis on patients' quality of life. This practical and sensitive, skin-disease specific, quality-of-life instrument is valuable for assessing patients' outcomes, especially their response to therapy, and is useful to understanding and improving the quality of life of patients suffering with atopic dermatitis. PMID:15801261